Note: This page contains sample records for the topic bacterial growth curve from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Bacterial growth in space flight: logistic growth curve parameters for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigations have reported that bacterial suspension cultures grow to higher stationary concentrations in space\\u000a flight than on Earth; however, none of these investigations included extensive ground controls under varied inertial conditions.\\u000a This study includes extensive controls and cell-growth data taken at several times during lag phase, log phase, and stationary\\u000a phase of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The Marquardt-Levenberg,

M. A. Kacena; G. A. Merrell; B. Manfredi; E. E. Smith; D. M. Klaus; P. Todd

1999-01-01

2

Growth of Bacterial Colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On hard agar gel, there is insufficient surface hydration for bacteria to swim or swarm. Instead, growth occurs in colonies of close-packed cells, which expand purely due to repulsive interactions: individual bacteria push each other out of the way through the force of their growth. In this way, bacterial colonies represent a new type of ``active'' granular matter. In this study, we investigate the physical, biochemical, and genetic elements that determine the static and dynamic aspects of this mode of bacterial growth for E. coli. We characterize the process of colony expansion empirically, and use discrete and continuum models to examine the extent to which our observations can be explained by the growth characteristics of non-communicating cells, coupled together by physical forces, nutrients, and waste products. Our results challenge the commonly accepted modes of bacterial colony growth and provide insight into sources of growth limitation in crowded bacterial communities.

Warren, Mya; Hwa, Terence

2013-03-01

3

Solubilization and Bio-conjugation of Quantum Dots and Bacterial Toxicity Assays by Growth Curve and Plate Count  

PubMed Central

Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles with size-dependent emission spectra that can be excited by a broad choice of wavelengths. QDs have attracted a lot of interest for imaging, diagnostics, and therapy due to their bright, stable fluorescence1,2 3,4,5. QDs can be conjugated to a variety of bio-active molecules for binding to bacteria and mammalian cells6. QDs are also being widely investigated as cytotoxic agents for targeted killing of bacteria. The emergence of multiply-resistant bacterial strains is rapidly becoming a public health crisis, particularly in the case of Gram negative pathogens 7. Because of the well-known antimicrobial effect of certain nanomaterials, especially Ag, there are hundreds of studies examining the toxicity of nanoparticles to bacteria 8. Bacterial studies have been performed with other types of semiconductor nanoparticles as well, especially TiO29,10-11, but also ZnO12 and others including CuO 13. Some comparisons of bacterial strains have been performed in these studies, usually comparing a Gram negative strain with a Gram positive. With all of these particles, mechanisms of toxicity are attributed to oxidation: either the photogeneration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the particles or the direct release of metal ions that can cause oxidative toxicity. Even with these materials, results of different studies vary greatly. In some studies the Gram positive test strain is reportedly more sensitive than the Gram negative 10; in others it is the opposite 14. These studies have been well reviewed 15. In all nanoparticle studies, particle composition, size, surface chemistry, sample aging/breakdown, and wavelength, power, and duration of light exposure can all dramatically affect the results. In addition, synthesis byproducts and solvents must be considered16 17. High-throughput screening techniques are needed to be able to develop effective new nanomedicine agents. CdTe QDs have anti-microbial effects alone18 or in combination with antibiotics. In a previous study, we showed that coupling of antibiotics to CdTe can increase toxicity to bacteria but decrease toxicity to mammalian cells, due to decreased production of reactive oxygen species from the conjugates19. Although it is unlikely that cadmium-containing compounds will be approved for use in humans, such preparations could be used for disinfection of surfaces or sterilization of water. In this protocol, we give a straightforward approach to solubilizing CdTe QDs with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The QDs are ready to use within an hour. We then demonstrate coupling to an antimicrobial agent. The second part of the protocol demonstrates a 96-well bacterial inhibition assay using the conjugated and unconjugated QDs. The optical density is read over many hours, permitting the effects of QD addition and light exposure to be evaluated immediately as well as after a recovery period. We also illustrate a colony count for quantifying bacterial survival.

Park, Soonhyang; Chibli, Hicham; Nadeau, Jay

2012-01-01

4

Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

2011-10-01

5

Nonlinear Growth Curves in Developmental Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmentalists are often interested in understanding change processes, and growth models are the most common analytic tool for examining such processes. Nonlinear growth curves are especially valuable to developmentalists because the defining characteristics of the growth process such as initial levels, rates of change during growth spurts, and…

Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Hamagami, Fumiaki

2011-01-01

6

Growth Curves for Girls with Turner Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to review the growth curves for Turner syndrome, evaluate the methodological and statistical quality, and suggest potential growth curves for clinical practice guidelines. The search was carried out in the databases Medline and Embase. Of 1006 references identified, 15 were included. Studies constructed curves for weight, height, weight/height, body mass index, head circumference, height velocity, leg length, and sitting height. The sample ranged between 47 and 1,565 (total?=?6,273) girls aged 0 to 24?y, born between 1950 and 2006. The number of measures ranged from 580 to 9,011 (total?=?28,915). Most studies showed strengths such as sample size, exclusion of the use of growth hormone and androgen, and analysis of confounding variables. However, the growth curves were restricted to height, lack of information about selection bias, limited distributional properties, and smoothing aspects. In conclusion, we observe the need to construct an international growth reference for girls with Turner syndrome, in order to provide support for clinical practice guidelines.

Bertapelli, Fabio; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Antonio, Maria Angela Reis de Goes Monteiro; Barbeta, Camila Justino de Oliveira; de Lemos-Marini, Sofia Helena Valente

2014-01-01

7

A random effect multiplicative heteroscedastic model for bacterial growth  

PubMed Central

Background Predictive microbiology develops mathematical models that can predict the growth rate of a microorganism population under a set of environmental conditions. Many primary growth models have been proposed. However, when primary models are applied to bacterial growth curves, the biological variability is reduced to a single curve defined by some kinetic parameters (lag time and growth rate), and sometimes the models give poor fits in some regions of the curve. The development of a prediction band (from a set of bacterial growth curves) using non-parametric and bootstrap methods permits to overcome that problem and include the biological variability of the microorganism into the modelling process. Results Absorbance data from Listeria monocytogenes cultured at 22, 26, 38, and 42°C were selected under different environmental conditions of pH (4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.4) and percentage of NaCl (2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5). Transformation of absorbance data to viable count data was carried out. A random effect multiplicative heteroscedastic model was considered to explain the dynamics of bacterial growth. The concept of a prediction band for microbial growth is proposed. The bootstrap method was used to obtain resamples from this model. An iterative procedure is proposed to overcome the computer intensive task of calculating simultaneous prediction intervals, along time, for bacterial growth. The bands were narrower below the inflection point (0-8 h at 22°C, and 0-5.5 h at 42°C), and wider to the right of it (from 9 h onwards at 22°C, and from 7 h onwards at 42°C). A wider band was observed at 42°C than at 22°C when the curves reach their upper asymptote. Similar bands have been obtained for 26 and 38°C. Conclusions The combination of nonparametric models and bootstrap techniques results in a good procedure to obtain reliable prediction bands in this context. Moreover, the new iterative algorithm proposed in this paper allows one to achieve exactly the prefixed coverage probability for the prediction band. The microbial growth bands reflect the influence of the different environmental conditions on the microorganism behaviour, helping in the interpretation of the biological meaning of the growth curves obtained experimentally.

2010-01-01

8

Bacterial Colonization of Particles: Growth and Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine particles in the ocean are exposed to diverse bacterial communities, and colonization and growth of attached bacteria are important processes in the degradation and transformation of the particles. In an earlier study, we showed that the initial colonization of model particles by individual bacterial strains isolated from marine aggregates was a function of attachment and detachment. In the present

Hans-Peter Grossart; T. Kiorboe; Kam Tang; Helle Ploug

2003-01-01

9

Curved tails in polymerization-based bacterial motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The curved actin ``comet-tail'' of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a visually striking signature of actin polymerization-based motility. Similar actin tails are associated with Shigella flexneri, spotted-fever Rickettsiae, the Vaccinia virus, and vesicles and microspheres in related in vitro systems. We show that the torque required to produce the curvature in the tail can arise from randomly placed actin filaments pushing the bacterium or particle. We find that the curvature magnitude determines the number of actively pushing filaments, independent of viscosity and of the molecular details of force generation. The variation of the curvature with time can be used to infer the dynamics of actin filaments at the bacterial surface.

Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Grant, Martin

2001-08-01

10

Bacterial Growth in Human Vitreous Humor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of human vitreous to support bacterial growth and to show differences in the growth kinetics of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Vitreous gel of 70 keratoplasty donor eyes was sampled under sterile conditions, screened microscopically for cellular components and tested for sterility and levels of antibiotic drugs by bio-assay. The samples

S. F EGGER; A BUXBAUM; M GEORGOPOULOS; C SCHOLDA; V. P VECSEI; V HUBER-SPITZY; A GEORGOPOULOS

1997-01-01

11

A quantitative measure of nitrifying bacterial growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonia (NH3) to nitrate (NO3?) in a nitrification reaction. Methods to quantitatively separate the growth rate of these important bacterial populations from that of the dominant heterotrophic bacteria are important to our understanding of the nitrification process. The changing concentration of ammonia is often used as an indirect measure of nitrification but ammonification processes generate ammonia and

Peter C. Pollard

2006-01-01

12

Bacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition.  

PubMed

Bacteria cooperate to form multicellular communities and compete against one another for environmental resources. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of bacterial competition mediated by contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems. Different CDI+ bacteria deploy a variety of toxins to inhibit neighboring cells and protect themselves from autoinhibition by producing specific immunity proteins. The genes encoding CDI toxin-immunity protein pairs appear to be exchanged between cdi loci and are often associated with other toxin-delivery systems in diverse bacterial species. CDI also appears to facilitate cooperative behavior between kin, suggesting that these systems may have other roles beyond competition. PMID:23473845

Ruhe, Zachary C; Low, David A; Hayes, Christopher S

2013-05-01

13

The last generation of bacterial growth in limiting nutrient  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial growth as a function of nutrients has been studied for decades, but is still not fully understood. In particular, the growth laws under dynamically changing environments have been difficult to explore, because of the rapidly changing conditions. Here, we address this challenge by means of a robotic assay and measure bacterial growth rate, promoter activity and substrate level at high temporal resolution across the entire growth curve in batch culture. As a model system, we study E. coli growing under nitrogen or carbon limitation, and explore the dynamics in the last generation of growth where nutrient levels can drop rapidly. Results We find that growth stops abruptly under limiting nitrogen or carbon, but slows gradually when nutrients are not limiting. By measuring growth rate at a 3 min time resolution, and inferring the instantaneous substrate level, s, we find that the reduction in growth rate ? under nutrient limitation follows Monod’s law, ?=?0sks+s. By following promoter activity of different genes we found that the abrupt stop of growth under nitrogen or carbon limitation is accompanied by a pulse-like up-regulation of the expression of genes in the relevant nutrient assimilation pathways. We further find that sharp stop of growth is conditional on the presence of regulatory proteins in the assimilation pathway. Conclusions The observed sharp stop of growth accompanied by a pulsed expression of assimilation genes allows bacteria to compensate for the drop in nutrients, suggesting a strategy used by the cells to prolong exponential growth under limiting substrate.

2013-01-01

14

Large sample estimation and prediction for explosive growth curve models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymptotic distributions of maximum likelihood estimators for the parameters in explosive growth curve models are derived. Limit distributions of prediction errors when the parameters are estimated are also obtained. The growth curve models are viewed as multivariate time-series models, and the usual time-series methods are used for prediction. Estimation constrained by a hypothesis of homogeneity of growth rates is also

Pandurang M. Kulkarni

1987-01-01

15

Descriptive and Predictive Growth Curves in Energy System Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviews a variety of growth curve models and the theoretical frameworks that lay behind them. In many systems,\\u000a growth patterns are, or must, ultimately be subjected to some form of limitation. A number of curve models have been developed\\u000a to describe and predict such behaviours. Symmetric growth curves have frequently been used for forecasting fossil fuel production,\\u000a but

Mikael Höök; Junchen Li; Noriaki Oba; Simon Snowden

2011-01-01

16

Bacterial growth on dissolved organic carbon from a blackwater river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different nominal molecular weight (nMW) fractions of DOC from a southeastern blackwater river were concentrated by ultrafiltration and added to sieved river water to assess each fraction's ability to stimulate bacterial growth. Bacterial growth was measured using change in bacterial biomass from direct counts and using3H-thymidine incorporated into DNA. Bacterial growth and amount of DOC used was greatest in the

Judy L. Meyer; Richard T. Edwards; Rebecca Risley

1987-01-01

17

Regime Switching in the Latent Growth Curve Mixture Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A linear latent growth curve mixture model is presented which includes switching between growth curves. Switching is accommodated by means of a Markov transition model. The model is formulated with switching as a highly constrained multivariate mixture model and is fitted using the freely available Mx program. The model is illustrated by analyzing…

Dolan, Conor V.; Schmittmann, Verena D.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Neale, Michael C.

2005-01-01

18

Hypothesis Generation in Latent Growth Curve Modeling Using Principal Components  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While confirmatory latent growth curve analyses provide procedures for testing hypotheses about latent growth curves underlying data, one must first derive hypotheses to be tested. It is argued that such hypotheses should be generated from a combination of theory and exploratory data analyses. An exploratory components analysis is described and…

Davison, Mark L.

2008-01-01

19

Evaluating Latent Growth Curve Models Using Individual Fit Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The usefulness of assessing individual fit in latent growth curve models was examined. The study used simulated data based on an unconditional and a conditional latent growth curve model with a linear component and a small quadratic component and a linear model was fit to the data. Then the overall fit of linear and quadratic models to these data…

Coffman, Donna L.; Millsap, Roger E.

2006-01-01

20

Bacterial growth response to photoactive quinones.  

PubMed

Quinones are known producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may be toxic in natural aquatic environments. In this study, the effects of parent quinones and their photodegradation products on bacterial growth were determined, and photochemical ROS formation rates were measured. Using (3)H-leucine incorporation to measure growth of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and natural seawater bacterioplankton, growth inhibition was observed when samples were exposed to dichlone, chloranil and sodium anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQ2S). For seawater, compared with other quinones tested, dichlone showed the greatest toxicity in the dark, and AQ2S toxicity was greatest during simultaneous exposure to sunlight. Photodegraded chloranil and dichlone showed decreased toxicity compared with nonirradiated samples. For P. aeruginosa, AQ2S and its photodegradation products showed the greatest toxicity during simultaneous exposure to sunlight. Chloranil photodegradation products showed reduced toxicity compared with the parent compound during simultaneous exposure to sunlight. Dichlone was the only compound to show any toxicity to P. aeruginosa in the dark, and its photodegradation products were more toxic than the parent compound. Based on the results of dark and light controlled experiments measuring bacterial growth and estimated ROS production rates, ROS alone does not account for relative differences in toxicity between these quinones. PMID:20923439

Vaughan, Pamela P; Novotny, Paul; Haubrich, Nicole; McDonald, Luther; Cochran, Michael; Serdula, Julia; Amin, Raid W; Jeffrey, Wade H

2010-01-01

21

Discriminant analysis of microcalorimetric data of bacterial growth.  

PubMed

In this work a bacterial classification method based on the discriminant analysis of the microcalorimetric data provided by the growth power-time (p-t) curves is developed. This method is applied to classify several species of Enterobacteria of different origins, and the results are compared with those obtained by conventional techniques. The proposed analysis allows us to classify bacteria into species and discriminate among strains of the same species. The classification is carried out using one run of each isolate after standardization of inocula and growth conditions. The discrimination power of available microcalorimetric data is also discussed, and the most discriminant set of data is proposed as the input variables of the analysis. Finally, the advantages of microcalorimetry as a taxonomical technique are discussed. PMID:3214810

Bermúdez, J; López, D; Sanahuja, A; Viñas, M; Lorén, J G

1988-09-01

22

Bacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI)  

PubMed Central

Bacteria cooperate to form multicellular communities and compete against one another for environmental resources. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of bacterial competition mediated by contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems. Different CDI+ bacteria deploy a variety of toxins to inhibit neighboring cells and protect themselves from autoinhibition by producing specific immunity proteins. The genes encoding CDI toxin–immunity pairs appear to be exchanged between cdi loci and are often associated with other toxin-delivery systems in diverse bacteria. CDI also appears to facilitate cooperative behavior between kin, suggesting that these systems may have other roles beyond competition.

Ruhe, Zachary C.; Low, David A.; Hayes, Christopher S.

2013-01-01

23

Bacterial Ammonia Causes Significant Plant Growth Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Many and complex plant-bacteria inter-relationships are found in the rhizosphere, since plants release a variety of photosynthetic exudates from their roots and rhizobacteria produce multifaceted specialized compounds including rich mixtures of volatiles, e.g., the bouquet of Serratia odorifera 4Rx13 is composed of up to 100 volatile organic and inorganic compounds. Here we show that when growing on peptone-rich nutrient medium S. odorifera 4Rx13 and six other rhizobacteria emit high levels of ammonia, which during co-cultivation in compartmented Petri dishes caused alkalization of the neighboring plant medium and subsequently reduced the growth of A. thaliana. It is argued that in nature high-protein resource degradations (carcasses, whey, manure and compost) are also accompanied by bacterial ammonia emission which alters the pH of the rhizosphere and thereby influences organismal diversity and plant-microbe interactions. Consequently, bacterial ammonia emission may be more relevant for plant colonization and growth development than previously thought.

Weise, Teresa; Kai, Marco; Piechulla, Birgit

2013-01-01

24

Bacterial ammonia causes significant plant growth inhibition.  

PubMed

Many and complex plant-bacteria inter-relationships are found in the rhizosphere, since plants release a variety of photosynthetic exudates from their roots and rhizobacteria produce multifaceted specialized compounds including rich mixtures of volatiles, e.g., the bouquet of Serratia odorifera 4Rx13 is composed of up to 100 volatile organic and inorganic compounds. Here we show that when growing on peptone-rich nutrient medium S. odorifera 4Rx13 and six other rhizobacteria emit high levels of ammonia, which during co-cultivation in compartmented Petri dishes caused alkalization of the neighboring plant medium and subsequently reduced the growth of A. thaliana. It is argued that in nature high-protein resource degradations (carcasses, whey, manure and compost) are also accompanied by bacterial ammonia emission which alters the pH of the rhizosphere and thereby influences organismal diversity and plant-microbe interactions. Consequently, bacterial ammonia emission may be more relevant for plant colonization and growth development than previously thought. PMID:23691060

Weise, Teresa; Kai, Marco; Piechulla, Birgit

2013-01-01

25

Developmental Growth Curves of Preschool Children with Vision Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used growth curve analysis to describe the development of 186 preschoolers with vision impairments. Found that mental retardation and developmental delay were associated with lower developmental ages and slower growth rates. Visual function of 20/800 or worse was associated with lower developmental ages and slower growth rates in personal-social…

Hatton, Deborah D.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Ferrell, Kay Alicyn

1997-01-01

26

Menaquinone analogs inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

Gram-positive bacteria cause serious human illnesses through combinations of cell surface and secreted virulence factors. We initiated studies with four of these organisms to develop novel topical antibacterial agents that interfere with growth and exotoxin production, focusing on menaquinone analogs. Menadione, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and coenzymes Q1 to Q3 but not menaquinone, phylloquinone, or coenzyme Q10 inhibited the growth and to a greater extent exotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae at concentrations of 10 to 200 ?g/ml. Coenzyme Q1 reduced the ability of S. aureus to cause toxic shock syndrome in a rabbit model, inhibited the growth of four Gram-negative bacteria, and synergized with another antimicrobial agent, glycerol monolaurate, to inhibit S. aureus growth. The staphylococcal two-component system SrrA/B was shown to be an antibacterial target of coenzyme Q1. We hypothesize that menaquinone analogs both induce toxic reactive oxygen species and affect bacterial plasma membranes and biosynthetic machinery to interfere with two-component systems, respiration, and macromolecular synthesis. These compounds represent a novel class of potential topical therapeutic agents. PMID:23959313

Schlievert, Patrick M; Merriman, Joseph A; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Mueller, Elizabeth A; Spaulding, Adam R; Vu, Bao G; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N; Kohler, Petra L; Kirby, John R

2013-11-01

27

Menaquinone Analogs Inhibit Growth of Bacterial Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Gram-positive bacteria cause serious human illnesses through combinations of cell surface and secreted virulence factors. We initiated studies with four of these organisms to develop novel topical antibacterial agents that interfere with growth and exotoxin production, focusing on menaquinone analogs. Menadione, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and coenzymes Q1 to Q3 but not menaquinone, phylloquinone, or coenzyme Q10 inhibited the growth and to a greater extent exotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae at concentrations of 10 to 200 ?g/ml. Coenzyme Q1 reduced the ability of S. aureus to cause toxic shock syndrome in a rabbit model, inhibited the growth of four Gram-negative bacteria, and synergized with another antimicrobial agent, glycerol monolaurate, to inhibit S. aureus growth. The staphylococcal two-component system SrrA/B was shown to be an antibacterial target of coenzyme Q1. We hypothesize that menaquinone analogs both induce toxic reactive oxygen species and affect bacterial plasma membranes and biosynthetic machinery to interfere with two-component systems, respiration, and macromolecular synthesis. These compounds represent a novel class of potential topical therapeutic agents.

Merriman, Joseph A.; Salgado-Pabon, Wilmara; Mueller, Elizabeth A.; Spaulding, Adam R.; Vu, Bao G.; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N.; Kohler, Petra L.; Kirby, John R.

2013-01-01

28

[Growth curves of abdominal aortic aneurysms].  

PubMed

79 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were repeatedly examined by ultrasound to gain information about growth rate and prognosis. 67 small asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms showed an average growth rate of 0.22 cm per year. 12 big aneurysms had a growth rate of 0.59 cm per year. The individual plots were highly variable. Only 5% of the patients died of rupture of the aneurysms, while 15% died of heart failure, myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident. Thus, the prognosis of small asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms is better than in the medical literature of older date. PMID:3334331

Kremer, H; Haschka, C; Weigold, B; Zoller, W; Spengel, F; Zöllner, N

29

BGFit: management and automated fitting of biological growth curves  

PubMed Central

Background Existing tools to model cell growth curves do not offer a flexible integrative approach to manage large datasets and automatically estimate parameters. Due to the increase of experimental time-series from microbiology and oncology, the need for a software that allows researchers to easily organize experimental data and simultaneously extract relevant parameters in an efficient way is crucial. Results BGFit provides a web-based unified platform, where a rich set of dynamic models can be fitted to experimental time-series data, further allowing to efficiently manage the results in a structured and hierarchical way. The data managing system allows to organize projects, experiments and measurements data and also to define teams with different editing and viewing permission. Several dynamic and algebraic models are already implemented, such as polynomial regression, Gompertz, Baranyi, Logistic and Live Cell Fraction models and the user can add easily new models thus expanding current ones. Conclusions BGFit allows users to easily manage their data and models in an integrated way, even if they are not familiar with databases or existing computational tools for parameter estimation. BGFit is designed with a flexible architecture that focus on extensibility and leverages free software with existing tools and methods, allowing to compare and evaluate different data modeling techniques. The application is described in the context of bacterial and tumor cells growth data fitting, but it is also applicable to any type of two-dimensional data, e.g. physical chemistry and macroeconomic time series, being fully scalable to high number of projects, data and model complexity.

2013-01-01

30

Curves of growth for van der Waals broadened spectral lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curves of growth are evaluated for a spectral line broadened by the van der Waals interactions during collisions. The growth of the equivalent widths of such lines is shown to be dependent on the product of the perturber density and the 6\\/10 power of the van der Waals potential coefficient. When the parameter is small, the widths grow as the

1980-01-01

31

Theory of hydrokinetic clearance of bacteria from the urinary bladder. I. Effect of variations in bacterial growth rate.  

PubMed

If the bladder is regularly emptied in appropriate circumstances the concentration of bacteria in successively voided samples progressively falls. By making a number of assumptions about conditions of bacterial growth in the bladder the way in which this washout of bacteria will occur can be predicted. Such predictions give a form of washout curve which differs significantly from that commonly encountered in patients. The shape of the predicted washout curve is affected by the form of the bacterial growth curve but this influence is not sufficient to account for the observed difference between patients and predictions. PMID:1120639

Mackintosh, I P; Hammond, B J; Watson, B W; O'Grady, F

1975-05-01

32

Effect of bacterial satellites on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii growth in an algo-bacterial community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth characteristics of an algo-bacterial community (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and bacterial satellites) were studied, as well as the mechanism and patterns of bacterial effect on algae. Four strains\\u000a of predominant bacteria were isolated and partially characterized. They were assigned to the following taxa: Rhodococcus terrea, Micrococcus roseus, and Bacillus spp. A pure culture of the alga under study was obtained

Yu. A. Nikolaev; V. K. Plakunov; N. A. Voronina; N. V. Nemtseva; A. O. Plotnikov; O. A. Gogoleva; M. E. Murav’eva; G. V. Ovechkina

2008-01-01

33

Sensitivity of Fit Indices to Misspecification in Growth Curve Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the sensitivity of fit indices to model misspecification in within-individual covariance structure, between-individual covariance structure, and marginal mean structure in growth curve models. Five commonly used fit indices were examined, including the likelihood ratio test statistic, root mean square error of…

Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.

2010-01-01

34

Longitudinal satisfaction measurement using latent growth curve models and extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) is used to describe changing latent aspects over time manifested in observed indicators. A case study of satisfaction indicators of cinema visitors observed over 12 months is used to detect such transitions from excitement factors to performance factors to basic factors, as mentioned in the Kano-model. The sample is split up into groups depending on

Christian Weismayer

2010-01-01

35

A SAS Macro for Estimating and Visualizing Individual Growth Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal data analyses can be usefully supplemented by the plotting of individual growth curves. Unfortunately, such graphics can be challenging and tedious to produce. This article presents and demonstrates a SAS macro designed to automate this task. The OLStraj macro graphically depicts ordinary least squares (OLS)-estimated individual…

Carrig, Madeline M.; Wirth, R. J.; Curran, Patrick J.

2004-01-01

36

Methodological issues in growth-curve analyses with married couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because longitudinal data are increasingly being used to test predictions regarding close relationships, researchers are also increasingly being confronted with methodological issues unique to the analysis of longitudinal data. In this paper, four issues in conducting growth-curve analyses with married couples are examined: assessing statistical assumptions about homoscedastic and independent errors, handling information about missing data, dealing with couples with

Lawrence A. Kurdek

2003-01-01

37

Twelve Frequently Asked Questions about Growth Curve Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal data analysis has long played a significant role in empirical research within the developmental sciences. The past decade has given rise to a host of new and exciting analytic methods for studying between-person differences in within-person change. These methods are broadly organized under the term "growth curve models." The…

Curran, Patrick J.; Obeidat, Khawla; Losardo, Diane

2010-01-01

38

Bayesian Inference and Application of Robust Growth Curve Models Using Student's "t" Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the widespread popularity of growth curve analysis, few studies have investigated robust growth curve models. In this article, the "t" distribution is applied to model heavy-tailed data and contaminated normal data with outliers for growth curve analysis. The derived robust growth curve models are estimated through Bayesian…

Zhang, Zhiyong; Lai, Keke; Lu, Zhenqiu; Tong, Xin

2013-01-01

39

Lubricating bacteria model for branching growth of bacterial colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various bacterial strains (e.g., strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Serratia, and Salmonella) exhibit colonial branching patterns during growth on poor semisolid substrates. These patterns reflect the bacterial cooperative self-organization. A central part of the cooperation is the collective formation of a lubricant on top of the agar which enables the bacteria to swim. Hence it provides the colony

Yonathan Kozlovsky; Inon Cohen; Ido Golding; Eshel Ben-Jacob

1999-01-01

40

Empirical Percentile Growth Curves with Z-scores Considering Seasonal Compensatory Growths for Japanese Thoroughbred Horses  

PubMed Central

Percentile growth curves are often used as a clinical indicator to evaluate variations of children’s growth status. In this study, we propose empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores adapted for Japanese Thoroughbred horses, with considerations of the seasonal compensatory growth that is a typical characteristic of seasonal breeding animals. We previously developed new growth curve equations for Japanese Thoroughbreds adjusting for compensatory growth. Individual horses and residual effects were included as random effects in the growth curve equation model and their variance components were estimated. Based on the Z-scores of the estimated variance components, empirical percentile growth curves were constructed. A total of 5,594 and 5,680 body weight and age measurements of male and female Thoroughbreds, respectively, and 3,770 withers height and age measurements were used in the analyses. The developed empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores are computationally feasible and useful for monitoring individual growth parameters of body weight and withers height of young Thoroughbred horses, especially during compensatory growth periods.

ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro

2013-01-01

41

Generic modelling of cooperative growth patterns in bacterial colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACTERIAL colonies must often cope with unfavourable environmental conditions1,2. To do so, they have developed sophisticated modes of cooperative behaviour3-10. It has been found that such behaviour can cause bacterial colonies to exhibit complex growth patterns similar to those observed during non-equilibrium growth processes in non-living systems11; some of the qualitative features of the latter may be invoked to account

Eshel Ben-Jacob; Ofer Schochet; Adam Tenenbaum; Inon Cohen; Andras Czirók; Tamas Vicsek

1994-01-01

42

Catecholamines and in vitro growth of pathogenic bacteria: enhancement of growth varies greatly among bacterial species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of catecholamines on in vitro growth of a range of bacterial species, including anaerobes. Bacteria tested included: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteriodes fragilis, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnie, Enterobacter Sp, and Salmonella choleraesuis. The results of the current study indicated that supplementation of bacterial cultures in minimal medium with norepinephrine or epinephrine did not result in increased growth of bacteria. Positive controls involving treatment of Escherichia coli with catecholamines did result in increased growth of that bacterial species. The results of the present study extend previous observations that showed differential capability of catecholamines to enhance bacterial growth in vitro.

Belay, Tesfaye; Aviles, Hernan; Vance, Monique; Fountain, Kimberly; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

2003-01-01

43

A radiometric assay for bacterial growth detection and quantitative antibiotic testing  

SciTech Connect

Buddemeyer's two-compartment radiometric assay for bacterial growth using respired C-14 carbon dioxide promised major advantages over other available methods, but limitations of the technique have restricted its application. Through a systemic study of relevant physical and chemical factors the authors sought to improve the assay for earlier detection of bacterial growth and to extend its use to measurement of antibiotic drug susceptibility and potency. A 35-fold improvement in count rate response was achieved by a) reversing growth and detector chambers to permit rigorous agitation, b) increasing NaOH quantity and using a supersaturated PPO solution, and c) adding detergent to stabilize NaOH-PPO contact. Bacterial growth may be detected as early as 1/2 hour after inoculation. For rapidly growing bacteria the growth rate constant is defined as the slope of the growth curve (log count rate vs. time). The validity of the growth behavior was verified by measuring growth at several inoculum sizes over 3 orders of magnitude using standard strains of S. aureus and E. coli. The growth rate constant proved to be independent of inoculum size. To test the merit of the system as an antibiotic assay, E. coli were exposed to doses of spectinomycin hydrochloride in the range which yielded a nonlinear dose-response relation by a turbidity assay. The test, however, showed a linear relation between growth rate constant and antibiotic dose. The results clearly indicate the radiometric growth rate assay to be a rapid, valid and objective assay for bacterial growth and antibiotic sensitivity.

Boonkitticharoen, V.; Kirchner, P.T.; Ehrhardt, J.C.

1984-01-01

44

Paenibacillus dendritiformis Bacterial Colony Growth Depends on Surfactant but Not on Bacterial Motion? †  

PubMed Central

Most research on growing bacterial colonies on agar plates has concerned the effect of genetic or morphotype variation. Some studies have indicated that there is a correlation between microscopic bacterial motion and macroscopic colonial expansion, especially for swarming strains, but no measurements have been obtained for a single strain to relate the microscopic scale to the macroscopic scale. We examined here a single strain (Paenibacillus dendritiformis type T; tip splitting) to determine both the macroscopic growth of colonies and the microscopic bacterial motion within the colonies. Our multiscale measurements for a variety of growth conditions revealed that motion on the microscopic scale and colonial growth are largely independent. Instead, the growth of the colony is strongly affected by the availability of a surfactant that reduces surface tension.

Be'er, Avraham; Smith, Rachel S.; Zhang, H. P.; Florin, E.-L.; Payne, Shelley M.; Swinney, Harry L.

2009-01-01

45

Application of LASCA technique for monitoring of bacterial colonies growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of s-LASCA and t-LASCA have been adopted to problem of monitoring growth of colonies of bacteria E. coli culture B6. Set-up of LASCA-microscope is developed. Results of experimental investigations of influence of speckled biospeckles on results of monitoring of growth of bacterial colonies have been obtained.

Ulianova, Onega; Rebeza, Olga; Rebeza, Nadezhda; Ulyanov, Sergey

2013-02-01

46

[Effect of bacterial satellites on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii growth in an algo-bacterial community].  

PubMed

The growth characteristics of an algo-bacterial community (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and bacterial satellites) were studied, as well as the mechanism and patterns of bacterial effect on algae. Four strains of predominant bacteria were isolated and partially characterized. They were assigned to the following taxa: Rhodococcus terrea, Micrococcus roseus, and Bacillus spp. A pure culture of the alga under study was obtained by plating serial dilutions on agarized media with ampicillin. Within the algo-bacterial association, the alga had a higher growth rate (0.76 day(-1)) and yield (60 microg chlorophyll/ml culture) than in pure cultures (0.4 day(-1) and 10 microg chlorophyll/ml culture, respectively). The viability of the algal cells within the association was retained longer than in pure culture. Among the isolated bacterial satellites, strains B1 and Y1, assigned to the species Rhodococcus terrae, had the highest stimulatory effect on algal growth. The culture liquid of bacteria incubated under the conditions not permitting growth stimulated algal growth; the culture liquid of actively growing bacteria had an opposite effect. PMID:18365726

Nikolaev, Iu A; Plakunov, V K; Voronina, N A; Nemtseva, N V; Plotnikov, A O; Gogoleva, O A; Murav'eva, M E; Ovechkina, G V

2008-01-01

47

Growth curves for ostriches (Struthio camelus) in a Brazilian population.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to fit growth curves using nonlinear and linear functions to describe the growth of ostriches in a Brazilian population. The data set consisted of 112 animals with BW measurements from hatching to 383 d of age. Two nonlinear growth functions (Gompertz and logistic) and a third-order polynomial function were applied. The parameters for the models were estimated using the least-squares method and Gauss-Newton algorithm. The goodness-of-fit of the models was assessed using R(2) and the Akaike information criterion. The R(2) calculated for the logistic growth model was 0.945 for hens and 0.928 for cockerels and for the Gompertz growth model, 0.938 for hens and 0.924 for cockerels. The third-order polynomial fit gave R(2) of 0.938 for hens and 0.924 for cockerels. Among the Akaike information criterion calculations, the logistic growth model presented the lowest values in this study, both for hens and for cockerels. Nonlinear models are more appropriate for describing the sigmoid nature of ostrich growth. PMID:23243259

Ramos, S B; Caetano, S L; Savegnago, R P; Nunes, B N; Ramos, A A; Munari, D P

2013-01-01

48

Analysis of infant growth curves using multivariate adaptive splines.  

PubMed

In this paper, we study the effect of cocaine use by a pregnant woman on the growth of her infant after birth. Using a data set from a retrospective study, we found that cocaine use was a marginally significant contributor to the infant growth as measured by bodyweight. From a statistical point of view, the data represent a common, though complex, structure that has received little attention in the statistical literature. To analyze these data, we adopt and further enhance an approach developed recently called MASAL (multivariate adaptive splines for the analysis of longitudinal data). In addition to the fitting of growth curves, we demonstrate particularly how to explore and estimate the underlying covariance structures for the longitudinal data that were collected from a rather irregular schedule. PMID:11318199

Zhang, H

1999-06-01

49

The modulating effect of bacterial volatiles on plant growth  

PubMed Central

Bacteria interact with plants in many different ways. In recent years, bacterial production of volatiles has emerged as a novel process by which bacteria modulate plant growth. Exposure to the volatiles produced by certain bacterial strains has been shown to lead to up to 5-fold increased plant biomass or to plant death. Despite these drastic growth alterations, the elucidation of the molecules responsible, of the mechanisms of perception by the plant and of the specific metabolic changes induced in planta is still in its infancy. This review summarizes the current knowledge and highlights future lines of research that should increase our knowledge of the volatile-mediated dialog between bacteria and plants.

Bailly, Aurelien; Weisskopf, Laure

2012-01-01

50

Bacterial Growth in Tray Pack Acidified Rice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acidification of white rice was shown to be ineffective in preventing growth of sporeforming bacillus species. Moreover, there was nonuniform distribution of the acidulant, which resulted in portions of the acidified rice that were less acidic. It was con...

E. M. Powers C. Hernandez

1987-01-01

51

Curved faces in polymer crystals with asymmetrically spreading growth patches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer crystals often have curved faces. Understanding such morphology is of major interest since it allows distinction between fundamentally different theories of polymer crystallization. E.g. Sadler's ``roughness-pinning'' theory assumes that the curvature is a result of roughening transition on lateral faces. It has since been shown by Mansfield that the curvature can be explained quantitatively, essentially within the Lauritzen-Hoffman nucleation theory. However, the step propagation rates v implied in their treatment are substantially lower than predicted by the LH theory. The retardation appears to be due to the ``self-poisoning'' or ``pinning'' effect of incorrect chain attachment, effectively demonstrated by the extreme cases of growth rate minima in long-chain monodisperse n-alkanes. Recently crystals of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and alkanes C162H326 and C198H398 have been found with habits that can be best described as bounded by curved 110 faces. The interesting feature is the asymmetry of the curvature: while the faces are curved at one end, they are straight at the other. We carried out mathematical analysis of the curvature, generalizing the Mansfield model. We suggest that such asymmetric curvature arises from the propagation rates to the left, vl, and to the right, vr, being different because of the lack of mirror bisecting planes such as (110). By solving appropriate equations with moving boundaries, we obtained the shape of the growth front y(x,t). Calculated crystal habits gave excellent fits to the observed growth shapes of a-axis lenticular crystals of long alkanes and PVDF, as well as of single crystals of PEO. This explains some hitherto poorly understood morphologies and, in principle, allows independent measurements of step initiation and propagation rates in all polymers.

Ungar, Goran

2006-03-01

52

Discrepancy between growth of Coccidioides immitis in bacterial blood culture media and a radiometric growth index  

SciTech Connect

Spherules of Coccidioides immitis grew readily after inoculation in vented trypticase soy broth, biphasic brain heart infusion media, and aerobic tryptic soy broth bottles used in a radiometric system (BACTEC). However, visible growth was not accompanied by a significant radiometric growth index. Growth of C. immitis can be visually detected in routine bacterial blood culture media while the radiometric growth index remains negative.

Ampel, N.M.; Wieden, M.A.

1988-01-01

53

Unbiased invariant minimum norm estimation in generalized growth curve model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the generalized growth curve model Y=?i=1mXiBiZi?+UE subject to R(Xm)?R(Xm-1)???R(X1), where Bi are the matrices of unknown regression coefficients, Xi,Zi and U are known covariate matrices, i=1,2,…,m, and E splits into a number of independently and identically distributed subvectors with mean zero and unknown covariance matrix ?. An unbiased invariant minimum norm quadratic estimator (MINQE(U,I)) of tr(C?) is

Xiaoyong Wu; Guohua Zou; Jianwei Chen

2006-01-01

54

Rapid Method of Determining Factors Limiting Bacterial Growth in Soil  

PubMed Central

A technique to determine which nutrients limit bacterial growth in soil was developed. The method was based on measuring the thymidine incorporation rate of bacteria after the addition of C, N, and P in different combinations to soil samples. First, the thymidine incorporation method was tested in two different soils: an agricultural soil and a forest humus soil. Carbon (as glucose) was found to be the limiting substance for bacterial growth in both of these soils. The effect of adding different amounts of nutrients was studied, and tests were performed to determine whether the additions affected the soil pH and subsequent bacterial activity. The incubation time required to detect bacterial growth after adding substrate to the soil was also evaluated. Second, the method was used in experiments in which three different size fractions of straw (1 to 2, 0.25 to 1, and <0.25 mm) were mixed into the agricultural soil in order to induce N limitation for bacterial growth. When the straw fraction was small enough (<0.25 mm), N became the limiting nutrient for bacterial growth after about 3 weeks. After the addition of the larger straw fractions (1 to 2 and 0.25 to 1 mm), the soil bacteria were C limited throughout the incubation period (10 weeks), although an increase in the thymidine incorporation rate after the addition of C and N together compared with adding them separately was seen in the sample containing the size fraction from 0.25 to 1 mm. Third, soils from high-pH, limestone-rich areas were examined. P limitation was observed in one of these soils, while tendencies toward P limitation were seen in some of the other soils.

Alden, L.; Demoling, F.; Baath, E.

2001-01-01

55

Quantification of antibiotic drug potency by a two-compartment radioassay of bacterial growth  

SciTech Connect

The two-compartment radioassay for microbial kinetics based on continuous measurement of the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} released by bacterial metabolism of 14C-labeled substrate offers a valuable approach to testing the potency of antimicrobial drugs. By using a previously validated radioassay with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, a group of protein synthesis inhibitors was evaluated for their effect on microbial growth kinetics. All tested drugs induced changes in both the slopes and intercepts of the growth curves. An exponential growth model was applied to quantify the drug effect on the processes of bacterial {sup 14}CO{sub 2} liberation and cell generation. The response was measured in terms of a generation rate constant. A linear dependence of the generation rate constant on the dose of spectinomycin was observed with Escherichia coli. Sigmoidal-shaped curves were found in the assays of chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The implications of dose-response curves are discussed on the basis of the receptor site concept for drug action. The assay sensitivities for chloramphenicol and tetracycline were similar to those obtained by the cell counting method, but the sensitivity of the radioassay was at least 10 times greater for spectinomycin.

Boonkitticharoen, V.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Kirchner, P.T. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

1990-06-01

56

Bayesian multivariate growth curve latent class models for mixed outcomes  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In many clinical studies, the disease of interest is multi-faceted, and multiple outcomes are needed to adequately capture information about the characteristics of the disease or its severity. In analysis of such diseases, it is often difficult to determine what constitutes improvement due to the multivariate nature of the outcome. Furthermore, when the disease of interest has an unknown etiology and/or is primarily a symptom-defined syndrome, there is potential for the disease population to have distinct subgroups. Identification of population subgroups is of interest as it may assist clinicians in providing appropriate treatment or in developing accurate prognoses. We propose multivariate growth curve latent class models that group subjects based on multiple symptoms measured repeatedly over time. These groups or latent classes are defined by distinctive longitudinal profiles of a latent variable which is used to summarize the multivariate outcomes at each point in time. The mean growth curve for the latent variable in each class defines the features of the class. We develop this model for any combination of continuous, binary, ordinal or count outcomes within a Bayesian hierarchical framework. Simulation studies are used to validate the estimation procedures. We apply our model to data from a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin in treating symptoms of Interstitial Cystitis where we are able to identify a class of subjects for whom treatment is effective.

Leiby, Benjamin E.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Sammel, Mary D.

2012-01-01

57

Cooperative Formation of Chiral Patterns during Growth of Bacterial Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial colonies can develop chiral morphology in which the colony consists of twisted branches, all with the same handedness. Microscopic observations of the chiral growth are presented. We propose that the observed (macroscopic) chirality results from the microscopic chirality of the flagella (via handedness in tumbling) together with orientation interaction between the bacteria. The above assumptions are tested using a

Eshel Ben-Jacob; Inon Cohen; Ofer Shochet; Adam Tenenbaum; András Czirók; Tamás Vicsek

1995-01-01

58

Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

Johnson, Ursula Yvette

59

ULTRASOUND INCREASES THE RATE OF BACTERIAL CELL GROWTH  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound was employed to increase the growth rate of bacterial cells attached to surfaces. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli cells adhered to and grew on a polyethylene surface in the presence of ultrasound. It was found that low frequency ultrasound (70 kHz) of low acoustic intensity (<2 W/cm2) increased the growth rate of the cells compared to growth without ultrasound. However, at high intensity levels, cells were partially removed from the surface. Ultrasound also enhanced planktonic growth of S. epidermidis and other planktonic bacteria. It is hypothesized that ultrasound increases the rate of transport of oxygen and nutrients to the cells and increases the rate of transport of waste products away from the cells, thus enhancing their growth.

Pitt, William G.; Ross, S. Aaron

2006-01-01

60

Effect of surgical hand scrub time on subsequent bacterial growth.  

PubMed

In this experimental study, the researchers evaluated the effect of surgical hand scrub time on subsequent bacterial growth and assessed the effectiveness of the glove juice technique in a clinical setting. In a randomized crossover design, 25 perioperative staff members scrubbed for two or three minutes in the first trial and vice versa in the second trial, after which the wore sterile surgical gloves for one hour under clinical conditions. The researchers then sampled the subjects' nondominant hands for bacterial growth, cultured aliquots from the sampling solution, and counted microorganisms. Scrubbing for three minutes produced lower mean log bacterial counts than scrubbing for two minutes. Although the mean bacterial count differed significantly (P = .02) between the two-minute and three-minute surgical hand scrub times, it fell below 0.5 log, which is the threshold for practical and clinical significance. This finding suggests that a two-minute surgical hand scrub is clinically as effective as a three-minute surgical had scrub. The glove juice technique demonstrated sensitivity and reliability in enumerating bacteria on the hands of perioperative staff members in a clinical setting. PMID:9187454

Wheelock, S M; Lookinland, S

1997-06-01

61

Metal Chelation and Inhibition of Bacterial Growth in Tissue Abscesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial infection often results in the formation of tissue abscesses, which represent the primary site of interaction between invading bacteria and the innate immune system. We identify the host protein calprotectin as a neutrophil-dependent factor expressed inside Staphylococcus aureus abscesses. Neutrophil-derived calprotectin inhibited S. aureus growth through chelation of nutrient Mn2+ and Zn2+: an activity that results in reprogramming of

Brian D. Corbin; Erin H. Seeley; Andrea Raab; Joerg Feldmann; Michael R. Miller; Victor J. Torres; Kelsi L. Anderson; Brian M. Dattilo; Paul M. Dunman; Russell Gerads; Richard M. Caprioli; Wolfgang Nacken; Walter J. Chazin; Eric P. Skaar

2008-01-01

62

Hydrogen peroxide for prevention of bacterial growth on polymer biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Despite widespread use of potent antibiotics, infections of artificial implants and catheters are of increasing concern. We tested whether local treatment with 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), long known as an inexpensive wound disinfectant, could prevent or reduce bacterial growth on polymer biomaterials.Methods. Two-centimeter-long pieces of polyurethane and silicone tubing were contaminated with a standardized solution of Staphylococcus epidermidis (105\\/mL)

Eckhard Alt; Francesca Leipold; Danica Milatovic; Günter Lehmann; Sybille Heinz; Albert Schömig

1999-01-01

63

Microcoupon Assay Of Adhesion And Growth Of Bacterial Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbiological assay technique facilitates determination of some characteristics of sessile bacteria like those that attach to and coat interior walls of water-purification systems. Biofilms cause sickness and interfere with purification process. Technique enables direct measurement of rate of attachment of bacterial cells, their metabolism, and effects of chemicals on them. Used to quantify effects of both bactericides and growth-stimulating agents and in place of older standard plate-count and tube-dilution techniques.

Pierson, Duane L.; Koenig, David W.

1994-01-01

64

Beyond growth: novel functions for bacterial cell wall hydrolases  

PubMed Central

The peptidoglycan cell wall maintains turgor pressure and cell shape of most bacteria. Cell wall hydrolases are essential, along with synthases, for growth and daughter cell separation. Recent work in diverse organisms has uncovered new cell wall hydrolases that act autonomously or on neighboring cells to modulate invasion of prey cells, cell shape, innate immune detection, intercellular communication, and competitor lysis. The hydrolases involved in these processes catalyze the cleavage of bonds throughout the sugar and peptide moities of peptidoglycan. Phenotypes associated with these diverse hydrolases reveal new functions of the bacterial cell wall beyond growth and division.

Wyckoff, Timna J.; Taylor, Jennifer A.; Salama, Nina R.

2012-01-01

65

Leuconostoc mesenteroides growth kinetics with application to bacterial profile modification  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial profile modification (BPM) is being developed as an oil recovery technique that uses bacteria to selectively plug oil depleted zones within a reservoir to divert displacing fluids into oil-rich zones. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, which produces dextran when supplied with sucrose, is a bacterium that is technically feasible for use in profile modification. However, the technique requires controlled bacterial growth to produce selective plugging. A kinetic model for the production of cells and polysaccharides has been developed for L. mesenteroides bacteria. This model, based on data from batch growth experiments, predicts saccharide utilization, cell generation, and dextran production. The underlying mechanism is the extracellular breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose and the subsequent production of polysaccharide. The monosaccharides are then available for growth. Accompanying sucrose consumption is the utilization of yeast extract. The cell requires a complex media that is provided by yeast extract as a source of vitamins and amino acids. Varying the concentration ratio of yeast extract to sucrose in the growth media provides a means of controlling the amount of polymer produced per cell. Consequently, in situ bacteria growth can be controlled by the manipulation of nutrient media composition, thereby providing the ability to create an overall strategy for the use of L. mesenteroides bacteria for profile modification.

Lappan, R.E.; Fogler, H.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-04-15

66

Leuconostoc mesenteroides growth kinetics with application to bacterial profile modification.  

PubMed

Bacterial profile modification (BPM) is being developed as an oil recovery technique that uses bacteria to selectively plug oil depleted zones within a reservoir to divert displacing fluids (typically water) into oil-rich zones. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, which produces dextran when supplied with sucrose, is a bacterium that is technically feasible for use in profile modification. However, the technique requires controlled bacterial growth to produce selective plugging.A kinetic model for the production of cells and polysaccharides has been developed for L. mesenteroides bacteria. This model, based on data from batch growth experiments, predicts saccharide utilization, cell generation, and dextran production. The underlying mechanism is the extracellular breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose and the subsequent production of polysaccharide (dextran). The monosaccharides are then available for growth. Accompanying sucrose consumption is the utilization of yeast extract. The cell requires a complex media that is provided by yeast extract as a source of vitamins and amino acids. Varying the concentration ratio of yeast extract to sucrose in the growth media provides a means of controlling the amount of polymer produced per cell. Consequently, in situ bacteria growth can be controlled by the manipulation of nutrient media composition, thereby providing the ability to create an overall strategy for the use of L. mesenteroides bacteria for profile modification. PMID:18615879

Lappan, R E; Fogler, H S

1994-04-15

67

Effect of glycerol monolaurate on bacterial growth and toxin production.  

PubMed Central

Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a naturally occurring surfactant that has potential use as an additive to tampons and wound dressings to reduce the incidence of certain bacterial toxin-mediated illnesses. In vitro studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of GML on the growth of and toxin production by potentially pathogenic bacteria. GML inhibited the growth of clinical isolates of group A, B, F, and G streptococci at concentrations of 10 to 20 micrograms/ml. Exotoxin production, including that of pyrogenic exotoxins and hemolysins, was reduced by concentrations of GML that were below those inhibitory for growth as well as growth inhibitory. The growth of Staphylococcus aureus strains from patients with toxic shock syndrome and scalded skin syndrome was inhibited or delayed in the presence of 100 to 300 micrograms of GML per ml. Growth inhibition by GML could be overcome by the production of lipase. S. aureus elaboration of hemolysin, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and exfoliative toxin A was inhibited at GML concentrations below those necessary to inhibit growth. Results similar to those for S. aureus were obtained in tests of S. hominis. Escherichia coli growth and Salmonella minnesota growth were unaffected by GML, but an S. minnesota Re mutant was susceptible to growth-inhibitory activity. Endotoxin release into the medium from E. coli cells was also unaffected by GML, but the release or activity of E. coli hemolysin was increased by GML. Streptococcal pyrogenic endotoxin A production by an E. coli clone was not affectd by GML. These studies indicate that GML is effective in blocking or delaying the production of exotoxins by pathogenic gram-positive bacteria.

Schlievert, P M; Deringer, J R; Kim, M H; Projan, S J; Novick, R P

1992-01-01

68

Slow Protein Fluctuations Explain the Emergence of Growth Phenotypes and Persistence in Clonal Bacterial Populations  

PubMed Central

One of the most challenging problems in microbiology is to understand how a small fraction of microbes that resists killing by antibiotics can emerge in a population of genetically identical cells, the phenomenon known as persistence or drug tolerance. Its characteristic signature is the biphasic kill curve, whereby microbes exposed to a bactericidal agent are initially killed very rapidly but then much more slowly. Here we relate this problem to the more general problem of understanding the emergence of distinct growth phenotypes in clonal populations. We address the problem mathematically by adopting the framework of the phenomenon of so-called weak ergodicity breaking, well known in dynamical physical systems, which we extend to the biological context. We show analytically and by direct stochastic simulations that distinct growth phenotypes can emerge as a consequence of slow-down of stochastic fluctuations in the expression of a gene controlling growth rate. In the regime of fast gene transcription, the system is ergodic, the growth rate distribution is unimodal, and accounts for one phenotype only. In contrast, at slow transcription and fast translation, weakly non-ergodic components emerge, the population distribution of growth rates becomes bimodal, and two distinct growth phenotypes are identified. When coupled to the well-established growth rate dependence of antibiotic killing, this model describes the observed fast and slow killing phases, and reproduces much of the phenomenology of bacterial persistence. The model has major implications for efforts to develop control strategies for persistent infections.

Rocco, Andrea; Kierzek, Andrzej M.; McFadden, Johnjoe

2013-01-01

69

Comparisons of Two Statistical Approaches to Study Growth Curves: The Multilevel Model and the Latent Curve Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares two statistical approaches to modeling growth across time: the multilevel model and latent curve analysis. A longitudinal data set from a school-based substance-use-prevention model for adolescents (2,779 students) illustrates differences and similarities between the approaches and shows very compatible results for both. (SLD)

Chou, Chih-Ping; Bentler, Peter M.; Pentz, Mary Ann

1998-01-01

70

Modeling Pacing Behavior and Test Speededness Using Latent Growth Curve Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explores the usefulness of latent growth curve modeling in the study of pacing behavior and test speededness. Examinee response times from a high-stakes, computerized examination, collected before and after the examination was subjected to a timing change, were analyzed using a series of latent growth curve models to detect…

Kahraman, Nilufer; Cuddy, Monica M.; Clauser, Brian E.

2013-01-01

71

Growth Curve Models for Zero-Inflated Count Data: An Application to Smoking Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article applies growth curve models to longitudinal count data characterized by an excess of zero counts. We discuss a zero-inflated Poisson regression model for longitudinal data in which the impact of covariates on the initial counts and the rate of change in counts over time is the focus of inference. Basic growth curve models using a…

Liu, Hui; Powers, Daniel A.

2007-01-01

72

The Effects of Autocorrelation on the Curve-of-Factors Growth Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This simulation study examined the performance of the curve-of-factors model (COFM) when autocorrelation and growth processes were present in the first-level factor structure. In addition to the standard curve-of factors growth model, 2 new models were examined: one COFM that included a first-order autoregressive autocorrelation parameter, and a…

Murphy, Daniel L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Pituch, Keenan A.

2011-01-01

73

Evaluating the Power of Latent Growth Curve Models to Detect Individual Differences in Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the statistical power of single-indicator latent growth curve models to detect individual differences in change (variances of latent slopes) as a function of sample size, number of longitudinal measurement occasions, and growth curve reliability. We recommend the 2 degree-of-freedom generalized test assessing loss of fit when both…

Hertzog, Christopher; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman

2008-01-01

74

A Growth Curve Model of Learning Acquisition among Cognitively Normal Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to model recall and learning on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test using latent growth curve techniques. Participants were older adults recruited for the ACTIVE cognitive intervention pilot. A series of nested models revealed that an approximately logarithmic growth curve model provided optimal fit to the data. Although recall and learning factors were statistically uncorrelated,

Richard N. Jones; Adrienne L. Rosenberg; John N. Morris; Jason C. Allaire; Karin J. M. McCoy; Michael Marsiske; Ken P. Kleinman; George W. Rebok; Paul F. Malloy

2005-01-01

75

Latent growth curve modeling as an integrative approach to the analysis of change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent Growth Curve Models (LGCM) are discussed as a general data-analytic approach to the analysis of change. Conventional, but popular, methods of analyzing change over time, such as the paired t-test, repeated measures ANOVA, or MANOVA, have a tradition, which is quite different from the more recently developed latent growth curve models. While the former originated from the idea of

MANUEL C. VOELKLE

2007-01-01

76

Lubricating bacteria model for branching growth of bacterial colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various bacterial strains (e.g., strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Serratia, and Salmonella) exhibit colonial branching patterns during growth on poor semisolid substrates. These patterns reflect the bacterial cooperative self-organization. A central part of the cooperation is the collective formation of a lubricant on top of the agar which enables the bacteria to swim. Hence it provides the colony means to advance towards the food. One method of modeling the colonial development is via coupled reaction-diffusion equations which describe the time evolution of the bacterial density and the concentrations of the relevant chemical fields. This idea has been pursued by a number of groups. Here we present an additional model which specifically includes an evolution equation for the lubricant excreted by the bacteria. We show that when the diffusion of the fluid is governed by a nonlinear diffusion coefficient, branching patterns evolve. We study the effect of the rates of emission and decomposition of the lubricant fluid on the observed patterns. The results are compared with experimental observations. We also include fields of chemotactic agents and food chemotaxis and conclude that these features are needed in order to explain the observations.

Kozlovsky, Yonathan; Cohen, Inon; Golding, Ido; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

1999-06-01

77

Dislocation-mediated growth of bacterial cell walls  

PubMed Central

Recent experiments have illuminated a remarkable growth mechanism of rod-shaped bacteria: proteins associated with cell wall extension move at constant velocity in circles oriented approximately along the cell circumference [Garner EC, et al., (2011) Science 333:222–225], [Domínguez-Escobar J, et al. (2011) Science 333:225–228], [van Teeffelen S, et al. (2011) PNAS 108:15822–15827]. We view these as dislocations in the partially ordered peptidoglycan structure, activated by glycan strand extension machinery, and study theoretically the dynamics of these interacting defects on the surface of a cylinder. Generation and motion of these interacting defects lead to surprising effects arising from the cylindrical geometry, with important implications for growth. We also discuss how long range elastic interactions and turgor pressure affect the dynamics of the fraction of actively moving dislocations in the bacterial cell wall.

Amir, Ariel; Nelson, David R.

2012-01-01

78

The role of hydrolases in bacterial cell-wall growth.  

PubMed

Although hydrolysis is known to be as important as synthesis in the growth and development of the bacterial cell wall, the coupling between these processes is not well understood. Bond cleavage can generate deleterious pores, but may also be required for the incorporation of new material and for the expansion of the wall, highlighting the importance of mechanical forces in interpreting the consequences of hydrolysis in models of growth. Critically, minimal essential subsets of hydrolases have now been identified in several model organisms, enabling the reduction of genetic complexity. Recent studies in Bacillus subtilis have provided evidence for both the presence and absence of coupling between synthesis and hydrolysis during sporulation and elongation, respectively. In this review, we discuss strategies for dissecting the relationship between synthesis and hydrolysis using time-lapse imaging, biophysical measurements of cell-wall architecture, and computational modeling. PMID:24035761

Lee, Timothy K; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

2013-12-01

79

Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

2009-04-01

80

Productivity Growth and the Phillips Curve: A Reassessment of the US Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyse a new Phillips curve (NPC) model and demonstrate that (i) frictional growth, i.e. the interplay of wage-staggering and money growth, generates a nonvertical NPC in the long-run, and (ii) the Phillips curve (PC) shifts with productivity growth. On this basis we estimate a dynamic system of macrolabour equations to evaluate the slope of the PC

Marika Karanassou; Hector Sala

2009-01-01

81

Development of normalized curves for the international growth reference: historical and technical considerations?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACF The World Health Organization recommended in 1978 that the National Center for Health Statistics\\/Centers for Disease Control growth reference curves be used as an inter- national growth reference. To permit the expression ofgrowth in terms of standard deviations, CDC developed growth curves from the observed data that approximate normal distributions. Because of significant skewness, standard deviations for weight-for-age and

Michael J Dibley; James B Goldsby; Norman W Staehling; Frederick L Trowbridge

82

Growth kinetics of bacterial pili from pairwise pilin association rates.  

PubMed

Bacterial pilogenesis is a remarkable example of biological non-templated self-assembly where a small number of different building blocks are arranged in a specific order resulting in a macroscopic hair-like fiber containing up to thousands copies of protein subunits. A number of advanced experimental techniques have been used to understand pilus growth. While details such as the conformation of the protein building blocks before and after the elementary polymerization step have enhanced our understanding of this mechanism, such information does not explain the high efficiency of this growth process. In this study, we focused on the growth of the Escherichia coli P-pilus, which is formed by the assembly of six subunits, structurally similar incomplete Ig-like domains. These subunits undergo polymerization through fold complementation by the donation of a ?-sheet strand in a specific conserved order. All pairwise rates of association of the individual subunits with the corresponding ?-sheet donor strand peptides have been previously determined through non-covalent mass-spectrometry. Here we use computational simulations to determine donor-strand exchange rates and subunit concentrations necessary to warrant the growth of pili showing similar lengths and subunit orders to those observed in vivo. Our findings confirm that additional factors must be involved in the modulation of the donor-strand exchange rate and/or pilin subunit concentration at the usher must be important for the precise ordering and rapid polymerization rates observed in vivo. PMID:23667575

Monteiro, Diana C F; Kamdoum, Wilfride V Petnga; Paci, Emanuele

2013-01-01

83

Changes in urine composition after trauma facilitate bacterial growth  

PubMed Central

Background Critically ill patients including trauma patients are at high risk of urinary tract infection (UTI). The composition of urine in trauma patients may be modified due to inflammation, systemic stress, rhabdomyolysis, life support treatment and/or urinary catheter insertion. Methods Prospective, single-centre, observational study conducted in patients with severe trauma and without a history of UTIs or recent antibiotic treatment. The 24-hour urine samples were collected on the first and the fifth days and the growth of Escherichia coli in urine from patients and healthy volunteers was compared. Biochemical and hormonal modifications in urine that could potentially influence bacterial growth were explored. Results Growth of E. coli in urine from trauma patients was significantly higher on days 1 and 5 than in urine of healthy volunteers. Several significant modifications of urine composition could explain these findings. On days 1 and 5, trauma patients had an increase in glycosuria, in urine iron concentration, and in the concentrations of several amino acids compared to healthy volunteers. On day 1, the urinary osmotic pressure was significantly lower than for healthy volunteers. Conclusion We showed that urine of trauma patients facilitated growth of E. coli when compared to urine from healthy volunteers. This effect was present in the first 24 hours and until at least the fifth day after trauma. This phenomenon may be involved in the pathophysiology of UTIs in trauma patients. Further studies are required to define the exact causes of such modifications.

2012-01-01

84

A Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Approach to Predicting Student Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Value-added models and growth-based accountability aim to evaluate school's performance based on student growth in learning. The current focus is on linking the results from value-added models to the ones from growth-based accountability systems including Adequate Yearly Progress decisions mandated by No Child Left Behind. We present a new…

Choi, Kilchan; Goldschmidt, Pete

2012-01-01

85

Studies of bacterial branching growth using reaction–diffusion models for colonial development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various bacterial strains exhibit colonial branching patterns during growth on poor substrates. These patterns reflect bacterial cooperative self-organization and cybernetic processes of communication, regulation and control employed during colonial development. One method of modeling is the continuous, or coupled reaction–diffusion approach, in which continuous time evolution equations describe the bacterial density and the concentration of the relevant chemical fields. In

Ido Golding; Yonathan Kozlovsky; Inon Cohen; Eshel Ben-Jacob

1998-01-01

86

An Approach of Estimating Individual Growth Curves for Young Thoroughbred Horses Based on Their Birthdays  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We propose an approach of estimating individual growth curves based on the birthday information of Japanese Thoroughbred horses, with considerations of the seasonal compensatory growth that is a typical characteristic of seasonal breeding animals. The compensatory growth patterns appear during only the winter and spring seasons in the life of growing horses, and the meeting point between winter and spring depends on the birthday of each horse. We previously developed new growth curve equations for Japanese Thoroughbreds adjusting for compensatory growth. Based on the equations, a parameter denoting the birthday information was added for the modeling of the individual growth curves for each horse by shifting the meeting points in the compensatory growth periods. A total of 5,594 and 5,680 body weight and age measurements of Thoroughbred colts and fillies, respectively, and 3,770 withers height and age measurements of both sexes were used in the analyses. The results of predicted error difference and Akaike Information Criterion showed that the individual growth curves using birthday information better fit to the body weight and withers height data than not using them. The individual growth curve for each horse would be a useful tool for the feeding managements of young Japanese Thoroughbreds in compensatory growth periods.

ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro

2014-01-01

87

Bacterial growth and killing in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluids.  

PubMed Central

We determined the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli to survive and grow in peritoneal dialysis fluids from patients undergoing chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Staphylococci did not survive in commercially available dialysis solutions but grew readily in peritoneal effluents obtained from patients after the dialysis dwell time. The number of CFU doubled 6 and 13 times in 24 h for S. epidermidis and S. aureus, respectively. E. coli grew well in both the pre- and postdialysis peritoneal fluid. Peritoneal macrophages as well as peripheral blood leukocytes inhibited bacterial growth in peritoneal dialysis fluid. However, 10(6) phagocytes per ml were minimally required to obtain a bacteriostatic effect. The addition of serum to peritoneal dialysis fluid increased the antibacterial activity of macrophages and blood leukocytes. The capacity of the aminoglycoside antibiotic tobramycin to reduce bacterial CFU in peritoneal dialysis fluid was only 10% of its bactericidal capacity in standard Mueller-Hinton brush. Peritoneal dialysis fluid had no effect on the antibacterial activity of imipenem.

Verbrugh, H A; Keane, W F; Conroy, W E; Peterson, P K

1984-01-01

88

Effects of Low-Level Deuterium Enrichment on Bacterial Growth  

PubMed Central

Using very precise (±0.05%) measurements of the growth parameters for bacteria E. coli grown on minimal media, we aimed to determine the lowest deuterium concentration at which the adverse effects that are prominent at higher enrichments start to become noticeable. Such a threshold was found at 0.5% D, a surprisingly high value, while the ultralow deuterium concentrations (?0.25% D) showed signs of the opposite trend. Bacterial adaptation for 400 generations in isotopically different environment confirmed preference for ultralow (?0.25% D) enrichment. This effect appears to be similar to those described in sporadic but multiple earlier reports. Possible explanations include hormesis and isotopic resonance phenomena, with the latter explanation being favored.

Xie, Xueshu; Zubarev, Roman A.

2014-01-01

89

Silver Nanoparticles Part 2: BDo Silver Nanoparticles Inhibit Bacterial Growth?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NACK Center is an organization committed to supporting two âÂÂyear degree programs in micro and nanotechnology. The center offers online educational material for curriculum enhancement in this subject field. One of these resources is a lab documentation focusing on the topic of silver nanoparticles. The lab "may be used with a middle school through high school biology class.â The lesson includes objectives, sample solution preparations, and sample data and calculations. Overall, the objectives of this lesson are to practice aseptic techniques to inoculate/grow bacteria and describe the impact of silver nanoparticles on bacterial growth. The site requires a free log-in for access to the material.

2010-03-31

90

A new growth curve model for biological growth: Some inferential studies on the growth of Cirrhinus mrigala.  

PubMed

Growth of living organisms is a fundamental biological process. It depicts the physiological development of the species related to the environment. Mathematical development of growth curve models has a long history since its birth. We propose a mathematical model to describe the evolution of relative growth rate as a function of time based on a real life experiment on a major Indian Carp Cirrhinus mrigala. We establish that the proposed model is able to describe the fish growth dynamics more accurately for our experimental data than some existing models e.g. logistic, Gompertz, exponential. Approximate expressions of the points of inflection and the time of achieving the maximum relative growth rate are derived. We study, in detail, the existence of a nonlinear least squares estimator of the model parameters and their consistency properties. Test-statistics is developed to study the equality of points of inflection and equality of the amount of time necessary to achieve the maximum relative growth rate for a species at two different locations. Using the theory of variance stabilizing transformations, we propose a new test statistic to test the effect of the decay parameter for the proposed growth law. The testing procedure is found to be more sensitive in comparison with the test based on nonlinear least squares estimates. Our proposed model provides a general framework to model growth in other disciplines as well. PMID:24933474

Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi

2014-08-01

91

A Rhizocarpon geographicum growth curve for the Cascade Range of Washington and northern Oregon, usa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lichen thallus measurements from 22 surfaces of known age on Mount Baker, Mount Hood, and Mount Rainier are used to construct a regional Rhizocarpon geographicum growth curve for the Cascade Range of Washington and northern Oregon. Growth rates determined by measuring the largest thallus diameters on the same surfaces at Mount Rainier in 1976 and 2002 are used for comparison with lichenometric data from Mount Baker and Mount Hood. Similar lichen thallus diameter vs age relationships identified in the data from the three mountains suggest the presence of uniform growth rates over the 400-km range. A regional growth curve developed during our study shows three growth phases of successively slower growth: a rapid phase from 8 to 20 yr, a linear phase from 20 to 145 yr, and a slow phase of unknown duration beyond ca. 145 yr. Uncertainty in lichen growth rates beyond 145 yr limits projection of the curve beyond that age; however, the age range of the constrained growth curve covers an important period of recent climate variability. When applied in appropriate settings, our growth curve can be used to determine numeric ages to ±10 yr for surfaces between 20 and 145 years old in areas where other techniques are not applicable or do not provide unique or well-constrained ages.

O'Neal, Michael A.; Schoenenberger, Katherine R.

2003-09-01

92

Application of Growth Curve Analysis to the Ammunition Stockpile Deterioration Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ammunition deterioration during storage has considerable economic consequences. A reliable prediction model for the ammunition deterioration rate is necessary for long-term procurement and maintenance planning. A random effect growth curve analysis is emp...

S. Y. So

1992-01-01

93

Impact of pH on bacterial growth and activity of recent fluoroquinolones in pooled urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidification of urine is widely recommended for prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections. We set out to describe the effect of modification of pH on bacterial growth of relevant bacteria as well as on activity of modern fluoroquinolones in urine in vitro. Bacterial growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 700324 was determined in pooled human

Zeynep Erdogan-Yildirim; Angela Burian; Mohammad Manafi; Markus Zeitlinger

2011-01-01

94

Growth of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts on bacterial cellulose film.  

PubMed

Thin films of bacterial cellulose (BC) from a nata de coco culture system were developed, characterized, and investigated for the growth of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The average pore diameter and total surface area of the dried BC films estimated by BET were 224 A and 12.62 m(2)/g, respectively. With an film thickness of 0.12 mm, the average tensile strength and break strain of the dried films were 5.21 MPa and 3.75%, whereas those of the wet films were 1.56 MPa and 8.00%, respectively. The water absorption capacity of air-dried film was 5.09 g water/g dried films. For uses in the therapy of skin wounds, the potential biological mechanism of action of BC film was evaluated by using human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Our results were the first direct demonstration that BC film supported the growth, spreading, and migration of human keratinocytes but not those of human fibroblasts. Expressions of E-cadherin and the alpha-3 chain of laminin confirmed the phenotype of human keratinocytes on BC film. PMID:16889398

Sanchavanakit, Neeracha; Sangrungraungroj, Wunwisa; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Banaprasert, Tanom; Pavasant, Prasit; Phisalaphong, Muenduen

2006-01-01

95

Empirical growth curve estimation considering multiple seasonal compensatory growths of body weights in Japanese Thoroughbred colts and fillies.  

PubMed

Thoroughbred horses are seasonal mating animals, and their foals are born yearly in spring seasons. In northern regions or countries, the foals generally show a typical seasonal compensatory growth pattern, where their growth rate declines in winter and increases in the next spring. In this study, a new empirical approach is proposed to adjust for this compensatory growth when growth curve equations are estimated, by using BW of Japanese Thoroughbred colts and fillies raised in Hidaka, Hokkaido. Based on the traditional Richards growth curve equation, new growth curve equations were developed and fit to the weight-age data. The foals generally experience 2 major winter seasons before their debut in horseracing. The new equations had sigmoid subfunctions that can empirically adjust the first and second year compensatory growths, combined with the Richards biological parameter responsible for the maturity of animals. The unknown parameters included in the equations were estimated by SAS NLMIXED procedure. The goodness-of-fit was examined by using several indices of goodness-of-fit (i.e., Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, -2 log likelihood, and residual sum of squares) for the multiple applications of the subfunctions. The indices indicated the best fit of the new equations including both subfunctions for the first and second compensatory growths to the weight-age data. The shapes of the growth curves were improved during the periods of compensatory growth. The proposed method is one of the useful approaches for adjusting multiple seasonal compensatory growths in growth curve estimations of Thoroughbreds and for the management of young horses during the compensatory periods. PMID:24085406

Onoda, T; Yamamoto, R; Sawamura, K; Inoue, Y; Murase, H; Nambo, Y; Tozaki, T; Matsui, A; Miyake, T; Hirai, N

2013-12-01

96

What does the yield curve tell us about GDP growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot, including a few things you may not expect. Previous studies find that the term spread forecasts GDP but these regressions are unconstrained and do not model regressor endogeneity. We build a dynamic model for GDP growth and yields that completely characterizes expectations of GDP. The model does not permit arbitrage. Contrary to previous findings, we predict that the

Andrew Ang; Monika Piazzesi; Min Wei

2006-01-01

97

Including Time-Invariant Covariates in the Latent Growth Curve Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the latent growth curve model, time-invariant covariates are generally modeled on the subject level, thereby estimating the effect of the covariate on the latent growth parameters. Incorporating the time-invariant covariate in this manner may have some advantages regarding the interpretation of the effect but may also be incorrect in…

Stoel, Reinoud D.; van den Wittenboer, Godfried; Hox, Joop

2004-01-01

98

Development of Oral Reading Fluency in Children with Speech or Language Impairments: A Growth Curve Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study used piece-wise growth curve analyses to examine growth patterns in oral reading fluency for 1,991 students with speech impairments (SI) or language impairments (LI) from first through third grade. The main finding of this study was that a diagnosis of SI or LI can have a detrimental and persistent effect on early reading…

Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Catts, Hugh W.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

2008-01-01

99

Bacterial Growth on Chitosan-Coated Polypropylene Textile  

PubMed Central

Biofouling is a problem common in all systems where microorganisms and aqueous environment meet. Prevention of biofouling is therefore important in many industrial processes. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the ability of material coating to inhibit biofilm formation. Chitosan-coated polypropylene nonwoven textile was prepared using dielectric barrier discharge plasma activation. Resistance of the textile to biofouling was then tested. First, the textile was submerged into a growth medium inoculated with green fluorescein protein labelled Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After overnight incubation at 33°C, the textile was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy for bacterial enumeration and biofilm structure characterisation. In the second stage, the textile was used as a filter medium for prefiltered river water, and the pressure development on the in-flow side was measured to quantify the overall level of biofouling. In both cases, nontreated textile samples were used as a control. The results indicate that the chitosan coating exhibits antibacterial properties. The developed method is applicable for the evaluation of the ability to inhibit biofilm formation.

Erben, D.; Hola, V.; Jaros, J.; Rahel, J.

2012-01-01

100

Bacterial growth on chitosan-coated polypropylene textile.  

PubMed

Biofouling is a problem common in all systems where microorganisms and aqueous environment meet. Prevention of biofouling is therefore important in many industrial processes. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the ability of material coating to inhibit biofilm formation. Chitosan-coated polypropylene nonwoven textile was prepared using dielectric barrier discharge plasma activation. Resistance of the textile to biofouling was then tested. First, the textile was submerged into a growth medium inoculated with green fluorescein protein labelled Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After overnight incubation at 33°C, the textile was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy for bacterial enumeration and biofilm structure characterisation. In the second stage, the textile was used as a filter medium for prefiltered river water, and the pressure development on the in-flow side was measured to quantify the overall level of biofouling. In both cases, nontreated textile samples were used as a control. The results indicate that the chitosan coating exhibits antibacterial properties. The developed method is applicable for the evaluation of the ability to inhibit biofilm formation. PMID:23724330

Erben, D; Hola, V; Jaros, J; Rahel, J

2012-01-01

101

Localization and Extinction of Bacterial Populations under Inhomogeneous Growth Conditions  

PubMed Central

The transition from localized to systemic spreading of bacteria, viruses, and other agents is a fundamental problem that spans medicine, ecology, biology, and agriculture science. We have conducted experiments and simulations in a simple one-dimensional system to determine the spreading of bacterial populations that occurs for an inhomogeneous environment under the influence of external convection. Our system consists of a long channel with growth inhibited by uniform ultraviolet (UV) illumination except in a small “oasis”, which is shielded from the UV light. To mimic blood flow or other flow past a localized infection, the oasis is moved with a constant velocity through the UV-illuminated “desert”. The experiments are modeled with a convective reaction-diffusion equation. In both the experiment and model, localized or extinct populations are found to develop, depending on conditions, from an initially localized population. The model also yields states where the population grows everywhere. Further, the model reveals that the transitions between localized, extended, and extinct states are continuous and nonhysteretic. However, it does not capture the oscillations of the localized population that are observed in the experiment.

Lin, Anna L.; Mann, Bernward A.; Torres-Oviedo, Gelsy; Lincoln, Bryan; Kas, Josef; Swinney, Harry L.

2004-01-01

102

Growth curve trajectories of distress in burn patients.  

PubMed

Psychological adjustment after a major burn injury is a significant concern to providers and patients alike. Although efforts have been made to identify associated risk factors, little is known about heterogeneity in the levels or trajectories of adjustment in this population. This study used a novel application of Growth Mixture Modeling to identify subgroups of patients based on their longitudinal self-reported distress using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Data were drawn from the database of the Burn Model Systems project, a prospective, multisite, cohort study of major burn injury survivors. The BSI was used to assess symptoms in-hospital and at 6, 12, and 24 months postburn. Participants' T scores on the BSIs Global Severity Index provided a continuous measure of psychological distress. Analyses were conducted using participants' Global Severity Index T scores to discern distinct classes of respondents with similar trajectories across the 2-year follow-up. Results from the Growth Mixture Modeling analysis produced an ordered four-class model of psychological recovery from a major burn. Groups represented the equivalent of high, subthreshold, mild, and minimal symptom severity. Covariates significantly affected the intercept and slope of each class, as well as prediction of group assignment. These analyses demonstrate differences between individual recoveries after a major burn. Psychological distress symptoms remain largely stable over time and highlight the psychological vulnerability of this patient population. PMID:20061839

Mason, Shawn T; Corry, Nida; Gould, Neda F; Amoyal, Nicole; Gabriel, Vincent; Wiechman-Askay, Shelly; Holavanahalli, Radha; Banks, Sean; Arceneaux, Lisa; Fauerbach, James A

2010-01-01

103

Body Temperatures in Dinosaurs: What Can Growth Curves Tell Us?  

PubMed Central

To estimate the body temperature (BT) of seven dinosaurs Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) used an equation that predicts BT from the body mass and maximum growth rate (MGR) with the latter preserved in ontogenetic growth trajectories (BT-equation). The results of these authors evidence inertial homeothermy in Dinosauria and suggest that, due to overheating, the maximum body size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. In this paper, I revisit this hypothesis of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006). I first studied whether BTs derived from the BT-equation of today’s crocodiles, birds and mammals are consistent with core temperatures of animals. Second, I applied the BT-equation to a larger number of dinosaurs than Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) did. In particular, I estimated BT of Archaeopteryx (from two MGRs), ornithischians (two), theropods (three), prosauropods (three), and sauropods (nine). For extant species, the BT value estimated from the BT-equation was a poor estimate of an animal’s core temperature. For birds, BT was always strongly overestimated and for crocodiles underestimated; for mammals the accuracy of BT was moderate. I argue that taxon-specific differences in the scaling of MGR (intercept and exponent of the regression line, log-log-transformed) and in the parameterization of the Arrhenius model both used in the BT-equation as well as ecological and evolutionary adaptations of species cause these inaccuracies. Irrespective of the found inaccuracy of BTs estimated from the BT-equation and contrary to the results of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) I found no increase in BT with increasing body mass across all dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Sauropoda) studied. This observation questions that, due to overheating, the maximum size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. However, the general high inaccuracy of dinosaurian BTs derived from the BT-equation makes a reliable test of whether body size in dinosaurs was ultimately limited by overheating impossible.

Griebeler, Eva Maria

2013-01-01

104

Body temperatures in dinosaurs: what can growth curves tell us?  

PubMed

To estimate the body temperature (BT) of seven dinosaurs Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) used an equation that predicts BT from the body mass and maximum growth rate (MGR) with the latter preserved in ontogenetic growth trajectories (BT-equation). The results of these authors evidence inertial homeothermy in Dinosauria and suggest that, due to overheating, the maximum body size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. In this paper, I revisit this hypothesis of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006). I first studied whether BTs derived from the BT-equation of today's crocodiles, birds and mammals are consistent with core temperatures of animals. Second, I applied the BT-equation to a larger number of dinosaurs than Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) did. In particular, I estimated BT of Archaeopteryx (from two MGRs), ornithischians (two), theropods (three), prosauropods (three), and sauropods (nine). For extant species, the BT value estimated from the BT-equation was a poor estimate of an animal's core temperature. For birds, BT was always strongly overestimated and for crocodiles underestimated; for mammals the accuracy of BT was moderate. I argue that taxon-specific differences in the scaling of MGR (intercept and exponent of the regression line, log-log-transformed) and in the parameterization of the Arrhenius model both used in the BT-equation as well as ecological and evolutionary adaptations of species cause these inaccuracies. Irrespective of the found inaccuracy of BTs estimated from the BT-equation and contrary to the results of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) I found no increase in BT with increasing body mass across all dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Sauropoda) studied. This observation questions that, due to overheating, the maximum size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. However, the general high inaccuracy of dinosaurian BTs derived from the BT-equation makes a reliable test of whether body size in dinosaurs was ultimately limited by overheating impossible. PMID:24204568

Griebeler, Eva Maria

2013-01-01

105

Automation of a Technique for Determining Bacterial Sensitivity to Antibiotics, Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several hundred bacterial growth curves were generated by the Lindberg-Reese automated instrument for testing sensitivity to antibiotics. The instrument monitors 24-hour growth in liquid media in the presence of graded levels of antibiotics. The curves, c...

L. T. Carleton C. M. Miller G. Reese

1967-01-01

106

Polymer film deposition on agar using a dielectric barrier discharge jet and its bacterial growth inhibition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer film deposition on agar in ambient air was achieved using the helium dielectric barrier discharge jet (DBD jet) fed with polymer precursors, and the bacterial growth inhibition due to the deposited film was observed. The DBD jet with precursor addition was more efficient at sterilization than a helium-only DBD jet. On the areas where polymer films cover the agar the bacterial growth was significantly inhibited. The inhibition efficacy showed dependence on the film thickness. The DBD jet without precursor also created a modified agar layer, which may slow the growth of some bacterial strains.

Tsai, T.-C.; Cho, J.; Mcintyre, K.; Jo, Y.-K.; Staack, D.

2012-08-01

107

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase promotes gut bacterial growth by reducing the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in maintaining human health and well-being. Previously, we have shown that mice deficient in the brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) suffer from dysbiosis and that oral IAP supplementation normalizes the gut flora. Here we aimed to decipher the molecular mechanism by which IAP promotes bacterial growth. We used an isolated mouse intestinal loop model to directly examine the effect of exogenous IAP on the growth of specific intestinal bacterial species. We studied the effects of various IAP targets on the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as on a few specific gut organisms. We determined the effects of ATP and other nucleotides on bacterial growth. Furthermore, we examined the effects of IAP on reversing the inhibitory effects of nucleotides on bacterial growth. We have confirmed that local IAP bioactivity creates a luminal environment that promotes the growth of a wide range of commensal organisms. IAP promotes the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and appears to exert its growth promoting effects by inactivating (dephosphorylating) luminal ATP and other luminal nucleotide triphosphates. We observed that compared with wild-type mice, IAP-knockout mice have more ATP in their luminal contents, and exogenous IAP can reverse the ATP-mediated inhibition of bacterial growth in the isolated intestinal loop. In conclusion, IAP appears to promote the growth of intestinal commensal bacteria by inhibiting the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates. PMID:24722905

Malo, Madhu S; Moaven, Omeed; Muhammad, Nur; Biswas, Brishti; Alam, Sayeda N; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Gul, Sarah Shireen; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Malo, Nondita S; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Tao, Qingsong; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth L; Warren, H Shaw; Robson, Simon C; Hodin, Richard A

2014-05-15

108

Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth.  

PubMed Central

The effects of low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on actively dividing cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, and Bacillus cereus were studied. Fresh cultures of each organism were incubated for 24 h at 25 degrees C on both nutrient agar and mineral salts glucose agar plates under atmospheres containing various low concentrations of NO in air (0 to 1.9 ppm [0 to 2.0 micrograms/g of air]), NO2 in air (0 to 5.5 ppm [0 to 8.8 micrograms/g of air]), or NO and NO2 in air. Bacteria grown under air only were used as controls. After incubation, the colonies that developed on the plates were counted. None of the bacteria tested was affected by NO or NO2 at the indicated concentrations while growing on nutrient agar. Serratia marcescens, B. circulans, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, and B. cereus grown on mineral salts glucose agar were not significantly affected by NO or NO2. Low concentrations (0 to 1.9 ppm) of NO were bacteriostatic to log-phase cultures of M. roseus, M. luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus grown on mineral salts glucose agar. Bacteriostatic activity over a 24-h interval was maximal at an initial NO concentration of 1 ppm. Appreciable amounts of NO2 were produced in 24 h at initial NO concentrations greater than 1 ppm. These results suggest that NO2 may reduce the bacteriostatic activity of NO. Low concentrations (0 to 5.5 ppm) of NO2 in air did not affect any of the bacteria tested. At these low concentrations, NO affected bacterial growth, although NO2, NO2-, and NO3- did not. In addition, it was determined that the bacteriostatic activity observed in this study was not due to an increase in the acidity of the medium.

Mancinelli, R L; McKay, C P

1983-01-01

109

Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth.  

PubMed

The effects of low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on actively dividing cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, and Bacillus cereus were studied. Fresh cultures of each organism were incubated for 24 h at 25 degrees C on both nutrient agar and mineral salts glucose agar plates under atmospheres containing various low concentrations of NO in air (0 to 1.9 ppm [0 to 2.0 micrograms/g of air]), NO2 in air (0 to 5.5 ppm [0 to 8.8 micrograms/g of air]), or NO and NO2 in air. Bacteria grown under air only were used as controls. After incubation, the colonies that developed on the plates were counted. None of the bacteria tested was affected by NO or NO2 at the indicated concentrations while growing on nutrient agar. Serratia marcescens, B. circulans, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, and B. cereus grown on mineral salts glucose agar were not significantly affected by NO or NO2. Low concentrations (0 to 1.9 ppm) of NO were bacteriostatic to log-phase cultures of M. roseus, M. luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus grown on mineral salts glucose agar. Bacteriostatic activity over a 24-h interval was maximal at an initial NO concentration of 1 ppm. Appreciable amounts of NO2 were produced in 24 h at initial NO concentrations greater than 1 ppm. These results suggest that NO2 may reduce the bacteriostatic activity of NO. Low concentrations (0 to 5.5 ppm) of NO2 in air did not affect any of the bacteria tested. At these low concentrations, NO affected bacterial growth, although NO2, NO2-, and NO3- did not. In addition, it was determined that the bacteriostatic activity observed in this study was not due to an increase in the acidity of the medium. PMID:6351744

Mancinelli, R L; McKay, C P

1983-07-01

110

Regulation of planktonic bacterial growth rates: The effects of temperature and resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the potential limitation of bacterial growth by temperature and nutrients in a eutrophic lake. Dilution cultures from winter and summer were incubated at both high (>20°C) and low (4°C) temperatures and enriched with various combinations of organic carbon (C), inorganic nitrogen (N), and inorganic phosphorus (P). Bacterial abundance, 3H-thymidine incorporation, and 3H-leucine incorporation were measured over the growth

M. Felip; M. L. Pace; J. J. Cole

1996-01-01

111

Regulation of Planktonic Bacterial Growth Rates: The Effects of Temperature and Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the potential limitation of bacterial growth by temperature and nutrients in a eutrophic lake. Dilution cultures from winter and summer were incubated at both high (>20°C) and low (4°C) temperatures and enriched with various combinations of organic carbon (C), inorganic nitrogen (N), and inorganic phosphorus (P). Bacterial abundance, 3H-thymidine incorporation, and 3H-leucine incorporation were measured over the growth

M. Felip; M. L. Pace; J. J. Cole

1996-01-01

112

Bistable Bacterial Growth Rate in Response to Antibiotics with Low Membrane Permeability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that growth rate bistability for bacterial cells growing exponentially at a fixed external antibiotic concentration can emerge when the cell wall permeability for the drug is low and the growth rate sensitivity to the intracellular drug concentration is high. Under such conditions, an initially high growth rate can remain high, due to dilution of the intracellular drug concentration by rapid cell volume increase, while an initially low growth rate can remain low, due to slow cell volume increase and insignificant drug dilution. Our findings have implications for the testing of novel antibiotics on growing bacterial strains.

Elf, Johan; Nilsson, Karin; Tenson, Tanel; Ehrenberg, Måns

2006-12-01

113

What is Growth? Concurrent determination of a bacterial population's many shades of growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most exciting developments in the study of the physics of microbial life is the ability to precisely monitor stochastic variations of gene expression in individual cells. A fundamental question is whether these variations improve the long-term ability of a population to adapt to new environments. While variations in gene expression in bacteria are easily measured through the use of reporter systems such as green fluorescent proteins and its variants, precise determination of a cell's growth rate, and how it is influenced by its immediate environment, remains challenging. Here, we show that many conflicting and ambiguous definitions of bacterial growth can actually be used interchangeably in E. coli. Indeed, by monitoring small populations of E. coli bacteria inside a microfluidic device, we show that seemingly independent measurements of growth (elongation rate and the average division time, for instance) agree very precisely with one another. We combine these definitions with the population's length and age distribution to very precisely quantify the influence of temperature variations on a population's growth rate. We conclude by using coalescence theory to describe the evolution of a population's genetic structure over time.

Lambert, Guillaume; Kussell, Edo

2013-03-01

114

A lichenometric growth curve in the French Alps: Ailefroide and Veneon valleys; Massif des Ecrins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today there is only one lichenometric curve in the French Alps for the Haute Ubaye valley. This study presents a growth curve constructed for Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon of the Ailefroide and Veneon valleys, which are located in the Massif des Ecrins. In order to establish this curve, we used the modal values from tests carried out on the five largest lichens, the mean values of the five largest lichens and each single biggest lichen. The last two methods have been rejected for statistical and theoretical reasons. The 27 dated points on which the curve is based have a shared and homogeneous set-up on the period corresponding to the last 150 years. Fourteen points come from man-made structures and 13 from moraines. According to our results, two separate curves have been drawn corresponding to two climatic mountainous ranges: a low lichen factor (20.7 mm/100 years) for forest ranges and a mean lichen factor (28.47 mm/100 years) for alpine belts (above 2000 m a.s.l.). The differences in lichen growth rates are caused by methodological and environmental differences. In comparison with the two existing curves near the Massif des Ecrins, one in the Haute Ubaye and the other in the Val d'Aosta (Italian Alps), our lichen factors are very low. This may be due to the fine-grained texture of the local granites, low solar radiation and dry conditions during the summer. This variation in the lichen factor confirms the need to establish growth curves for each specific geographic and altitudinal range.

Pech, P.; Jomelli, V.; Baumgart-Kotarba, M.; Bravard, J. P.; Chardon, M.; Jacob, N.; Kedzia, S.; Kotarba, A.; Raczkowska, Z.; Tsao, C.

2003-11-01

115

Demand forecast of the Logistic park based on the Curve of growth theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to current logistics forecast research both at home and abroad, regression analysis and exponential smoothing are of easy computation but unsatisfactory computational accuracy. Gray forecast, grey Markov model and neural network etc. are of high computational accuracy but the course of computation is comparatively complicated. Herein, the author introduce the curve of growth theory, a new quantitative method, to

Fuhua Wang

2009-01-01

116

Evaluating Model Fit for Growth Curve Models: Integration of Fit Indices from SEM and MLM Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluating overall model fit for growth curve models involves 3 challenging issues. (a) Three types of longitudinal data with different implications for model fit may be distinguished: balanced on time with complete data, balanced on time with data missing at random, and unbalanced on time. (b) Traditional work on fit from the structural equation…

Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Taylor, Aaron B.

2009-01-01

117

Gender and Marital Satisfaction Early in Marriage: A Growth Curve Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to assess differences between husbands and wives (N= 526 couples at the first assessment) on (a) growth curves over the first 4 years of marriage for psychological distress, marriage-specific appraisals, spousal interactions, social support, and marital satisfaction; (b) the strength of intraspouse links and…

Kurdek, Lawrence A.

2005-01-01

118

Sample Sizes for Two-Group Second-Order Latent Growth Curve Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second-order latent growth curve models (S. C. Duncan & Duncan, 1996; McArdle, 1988) can be used to study group differences in change in latent constructs. We give exact formulas for the covariance matrix of the parameter estimates and an algebraic expression for the estimation of slope differences. Formulas for calculations of the required sample…

Wanstrom, Linda

2009-01-01

119

Longitudinal Changes in Physical Fitness Performance in Youth: A Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a multilevel latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) approach, this study examined longitudinal change in levels of physical fitness performance over time (i.e. four years) in young adolescents aged from 12-13 years. The sample consisted of 6622 students from 138 secondary schools in Singapore. Initial analyses found between-school variation on…

Wang, Chee Keng John; Pyun, Do Young; Liu, Woon Chia; Lim, Boon San Coral; Li, Fuzhong

2013-01-01

120

Using Growth Curves To Determine the Timing of the Booster Sessions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates an application of a method for using growth curves to determine the timing of booster sessions to reinforce the cognitive messages or behavior changes of interventions. Uses data from a multisite randomized experiment that compared three counseling and testing methods for preventing sexual disease transmission. Presents…

Hennessy, Michael; Bolan, Gail A.; Hoxworth, Tamara; Iatesta, Michael; Rhodes, Fen; Zenilman, Jonathan M.

1999-01-01

121

Investigation of Mediational Processes Using Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Modeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated a method to evaluate mediational processes using latent growth curve modeling and tested it with empirical data from a longitudinal steroid use prevention program focusing on 1,506 high school football players over 4 years. Findings suggest the usefulness of the approach. (SLD)

Cheong, JeeWon; MacKinnon, David P.; Khoo, Siek Toon

2003-01-01

122

Career Maturity Growth Curve and Sex-Role Stereotypes of Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study investigated the career maturity growth curve of Korean Adolescents from 4th grade to 12th grade. The participants consisted of 3,241 male and 3,029 female students from the Korea Youth Panel Survey, a nationwide longitudinal study of South Korean adolescents. The present study explored the shape of the career maturity…

Yon, Kyu Jin; Choi, Wonseok; Goh, Michael

2013-01-01

123

Economic growth and emissions: reconsidering the empirical basis of environmental Kuznets curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent empirical research indicates that certain types of emissions follow an inverted-U or environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) as income grows. This regularity has been interpreted as a possible de-linking of economic growth and patterns of certain pollutants for developed economies. In this paper the empirical basis of this result is investigated by considering some statistical particularities of the various EKC

S. M. de Bruyn; J. B. Opschoor

1998-01-01

124

Plasticity of Size and Growth in Fluctuating Thermal Environments: Comparing Reaction Norms and Performance Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Ectothermic animals exhibit two distinct kinds of plasticity in response to temperature: Thermal performance curves (TPCs), in which an individual's performance (e.g., growth rate) varies in response to current temperature; and developmental reaction norms (DRNs), in which the trait value (e.g., adult body size or development time) of a genotype varies in response to developmental temperatures experienced over some

JOEL G. KINGSOLVER; R IMA IZEM; GREGORY J. RAGLAND

2004-01-01

125

Changes in the Bacterial Community of Soybean Rhizospheres during Growth in the Field  

PubMed Central

Highly diverse communities of bacteria inhabiting soybean rhizospheres play pivotal roles in plant growth and crop production; however, little is known about the changes that occur in these communities during growth. We used both culture-dependent physiological profiling and culture independent DNA-based approaches to characterize the bacterial communities of the soybean rhizosphere during growth in the field. The physiological properties of the bacterial communities were analyzed by a community-level substrate utilization assay with BioLog Eco plates, and the composition of the communities was assessed by gene pyrosequencing. Higher metabolic capabilities were found in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during all stages of the BioLog assay. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that differences between the bacterial communities of rhizosphere and bulk soils at the phylum level; i.e., Proteobacteria were increased, while Acidobacteria and Firmicutes were decreased in rhizosphere soil during growth. Analysis of operational taxonomic units showed that the bacterial communities of the rhizosphere changed significantly during growth, with a higher abundance of potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, including Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium, in a stage-specific manner. These findings demonstrated that rhizosphere bacterial communities were changed during soybean growth in the field.

Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Zushi, Takahiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

2014-01-01

126

Changes in the Bacterial Community of Soybean Rhizospheres during Growth in the Field.  

PubMed

Highly diverse communities of bacteria inhabiting soybean rhizospheres play pivotal roles in plant growth and crop production; however, little is known about the changes that occur in these communities during growth. We used both culture-dependent physiological profiling and culture independent DNA-based approaches to characterize the bacterial communities of the soybean rhizosphere during growth in the field. The physiological properties of the bacterial communities were analyzed by a community-level substrate utilization assay with BioLog Eco plates, and the composition of the communities was assessed by gene pyrosequencing. Higher metabolic capabilities were found in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during all stages of the BioLog assay. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that differences between the bacterial communities of rhizosphere and bulk soils at the phylum level; i.e., Proteobacteria were increased, while Acidobacteria and Firmicutes were decreased in rhizosphere soil during growth. Analysis of operational taxonomic units showed that the bacterial communities of the rhizosphere changed significantly during growth, with a higher abundance of potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, including Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium, in a stage-specific manner. These findings demonstrated that rhizosphere bacterial communities were changed during soybean growth in the field. PMID:24955843

Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Zushi, Takahiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

2014-01-01

127

Variation in detection limits between bacterial growth phases and precision of an ATP bioluminescence system.  

PubMed

To determine the detection limits of the SystemSure Plus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus growth curve samples were taken in lag (1 h), log (6 h), stationary (12 h) and death phases (E. coli 144 h, Staph. aureus 72 h). At each time point, the log10 CFU ml(-1) was determined for the dilution where the SystemSure read 0 relative light units (RLU). Average detection limits were E. coli: lag 6·27, log 5·88, stationary 7·45 and death 6·88; Staph. aureus: lag 4·37, log 5·15, stationary 7·88 and death 7·57. Between-run precision was determined with positive control; within-run precision with positive control, lag and log growth for each bacteria. Within-run precision mean RLU (CV): positive control 274 (12%), E. coli lag 1 (63%), log 2173 RLU (19%), Staph. aureus lag 2 (58%) and log 5535 (18%). Between-run precision was 232 (16%). The precision is adequate with most values within the 95% confidence interval. The detection limit varied by 3·51 log10 for Staph. aureus and 1·47 log10 for E. coli. The lowest detection limits were during E. coli log and Staph. aureus lag phases; the highest was during stationary phase. These results suggest that organism identification and growth phase both impact ATP RLU readings. Significance and impact of the study: Surface hygiene is a critical component of food safety and infection control; increasingly, ATP detection by bioluminescence is used to evaluate surface hygiene and effective cleaning. This is the first study to show that the number of living and potentially infectious bacteria remaining when the device reads zero varies between the different bacterial life cycle phases: lag, log, stationary and death. ATP device users need to be aware of this information to use the devices appropriately. PMID:24330032

Vogel, S J; Tank, M; Goodyear, N

2014-04-01

128

Supplemental oxygen attenuates the increase in wound bacterial growth during simulated aeromedical evacuation in goats  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial growth in soft tissue and open fractures is a known risk factor for tissue loss and complications in contaminated musculoskeletal wounds. Current care for battlefield casualties with soft tissue and musculoskeletal wounds includes tactical and strategic aeromedical evacuation (AE). This exposes patients to a hypobaric, hypoxic environment. In the present study, we sought to determine whether exposure to AE alters bacterial growth in contaminated complex musculoskeletal wounds and whether supplemental oxygen had any effect on wound infections during simulated AE. Methods A caprine model of a contaminated complex musculoskeletal wound was employed. Complex musculoskeletal wounds were created and inoculated with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Goats were divided into three experimental groups: ground control, simulated aeromedical evacuation (AE), and simulated AE with supplemental oxygen (AE+O2). Simulated AE was induced in a hypobaric chamber pressurized to 8800 feet for 7 hours. Bacterial luminescence was measured using a photon counting camera at three timepoints: preflight (20 hours post surgery), postflight (7 hours from preflight and 27 hours post-surgery), and necropsy (24 hours from preflight and 44 hours post surgery). Results There was a significant increase in bacterial growth in the AE group compared to the ground control group measured postflight and at necropsy. Simulated AE induced hypoxia with oxygen saturation less than 93%. Supplemental oxygen corrected the hypoxia and significantly reduced bacterial growth in wounds at necropsy. Conclusions Hypoxia induced during simulated AE enhances bacterial growth in complex musculoskeletal wounds which can be prevented with the application of supplemental oxygen to the host.

Earnest, Ryan E.; Sonnier, Dennis I.; Makley, Amy T.; Campion, Eric M.; Wenke, Joseph C.; Bailey, Stephanie R.; Dorlac, Warren C.; Lentsch, Alex B.; Pritts, Timothy A.

2012-01-01

129

Development of luminescent pH sensor films for monitoring bacterial growth through tissue.  

PubMed

Although implanted medical devices (IMDs) offer many benefits, they are susceptible to bacterial colonization and infections. Such infections are difficult to treat because bacteria could form biofilms on the implant surface, which reduce antibiotics penetration and generate local dormant regions with low pH and low oxygen. In addition, these infections are hard to detect early because biofilms are often localized on the surface. Herein, an optical sensor film is developed to detect local acidosis on an implanted surface. The film contains both upconverting particles (UCPs) that serve as a light source and a pH indicator that alters the luminescence spectrum. When irradiated with 980 nm light, the UCPs produce deeply penetrating red light emission, while generating negligible autofluorescence in the tissue. The basic form of the pH indicator absorbs more of upconversion luminescence at 661 nm than at 671 nm and consequently the spectral ratio indicates pH. Implanting this pH sensor film beneath 6-7 mm of porcine tissue does not substantially affect the calibration curve because the peaks are closely spaced. Furthermore, growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis on the sensor surface causes a local pH decrease that can be detected non-invasively through the tissue. PMID:23832869

Wang, Fenglin; Raval, Yash; Chen, Hongyu; Tzeng, Tzuen-Rong J; DesJardins, John D; Anker, Jeffrey N

2014-02-01

130

Bacterial production and growth efficiencies: Direct measurements on riverine aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterotrophic bacteria transform organic matter by respiration and production of new biomass. Because there are only a limited number of studies on the respiration of bacteria attached to particulate organic matter, their role in the carbon cycle of aquatic systems is not well known. In this study, we combine radiotracer with microsensor techniques to measure bacterial production and respiration rates

Hans-Peter Grossart; Helle Ploug

2000-01-01

131

Genetic analysis of the growth curve of Rous sarcoma virus-induced tumors in chickens.  

PubMed

White Leghorn chicks homozygous for B19 MHC haplotype were selected for 18 generations on tumor regression after inoculation in the wing web with an SR-D strain of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) at 4 wk of age. Each chick was assigned a tumor profile index (TPI) based on age at death and size of the tumor. During 18 generations, 2,010 birds were divergently selected on TPI for either progression or regression of the tumor (P and R lines). A Brody growth curve was fitted for each bird. Brody function parameters included the asymptotic tumor volume (A), the factor for increased growth in progression phase (K1), the factor for decreased growth in regression phase (K2), age at maximum volume (Tmax), and maximum volume of the tumor (Vmax). Tumor growth curves were found to be different according to line, sex, and restriction fragment pattern Y complex Rfp-Y MHC haplotype (Yw*15, Yw*16, and Yw*17). Within the P line, birds from the Yw*16 haplotype reached Vmax at an earlier age than Yw*15 and Yw*17, but with a lower Vmax value. Within the R line, tumor growth curves of birds from Yw*16 and Yw*17 haplotypes were similar. Rank correlations between the different parameters and TPI were low (between -0.26 and 0.36). Heritability estimated by the sire component was high for Vmax (0.73). Heritabilities of Tmax and K2 were moderate (0.20 to 0.23 for Tmax and 0.18 to 0.21 for K2) allowing these traits to be used as selection criteria. Heritabilities of A and K1 were lower than 0.12. Modeling the growth curve should contribute to better distinction between progressors and regressors. PMID:15384897

Praharaj, N; Beaumont, C; Dambrine, G; Soubieux, D; Mérat, L; Bouret, D; Luneau, G; Alletru, J-M; Pinard-Van der Laan, M-H; Thoraval, P; Mignon-Grasteau, S

2004-09-01

132

Growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: a Novel Experimental Design for Batch Growth and Bacterial Leaching Studies  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions change dramatically during the course of the batch experiments usually performed to study the kinetics of the bacterial oxidation of ferrous ions and sulfide minerals. This change in concentration of the iron species during the course of the experiment often makes it difficult to interpret the results of these experiments, as is evidenced by the lack of consensus concerning the mechanism of bacterial leaching. If the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions were constant throughout the course of the batch experiment, then the role of the bacteria could be easily established, because the rate of the chemical leaching should be the same at a given redox potential in the presence and in the absence of bacteria. In this paper we report an experiment designed to obtain kinetic data under these conditions. The redox potential is used as a measure of the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions, and the redox potential of the leaching solution is controlled throughout the experiment by electrolysis. The effects of ferrous, ferric, and arsenite ions on the rate of growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on ferrous ions in this redox-controlled reactor are presented. In addition, the growth of this bacterium on ferrous ions in batch culture was also determined, and it is shown that the parameters obtained from the batch culture and the redox-controlled batch culture are the same. An analysis of the results from the batch culture indicates that the initial number of bacteria that are adapted to the solution depends on the concentrations of ferrous and arsenite ions.

Harvey, P. I.; Crundwell, F. K.

1997-01-01

133

Simultaneous estimation of multiple quantitative trait loci and growth curve parameters through hierarchical Bayesian modeling  

PubMed Central

A novel hierarchical quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping method using a polynomial growth function and a multiple-QTL model (with no dependence in time) in a multitrait framework is presented. The method considers a population-based sample where individuals have been phenotyped (over time) with respect to some dynamic trait and genotyped at a given set of loci. A specific feature of the proposed approach is that, instead of an average functional curve, each individual has its own functional curve. Moreover, each QTL can modify the dynamic characteristics of the trait value of an individual through its influence on one or more growth curve parameters. Apparent advantages of the approach include: (1) assumption of time-independent QTL and environmental effects, (2) alleviating the necessity for an autoregressive covariance structure for residuals and (3) the flexibility to use variable selection methods. As a by-product of the method, heritabilities and genetic correlations can also be estimated for individual growth curve parameters, which are considered as latent traits. For selecting trait-associated loci in the model, we use a modified version of the well-known Bayesian adaptive shrinkage technique. We illustrate our approach by analysing a sub sample of 500 individuals from the simulated QTLMAS 2009 data set, as well as simulation replicates and a real Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) data set, using temporal measurements of height as dynamic trait of interest.

Sillanpaa, M J; Pikkuhookana, P; Abrahamsson, S; Knurr, T; Fries, A; Lerceteau, E; Waldmann, P; Garcia-Gil, M R

2012-01-01

134

INFLUENCE OF PHOSPHATE CORROSION CONTROL COMPOUNDS ON BACTERIAL GROWTH  

EPA Science Inventory

The influence of two phosphate corrosion compounds on the growth and survival of coliform and other heterotrophic bacteria was investigated in laboratory, field, and model system studies. Growth of Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae was not sign...

135

Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: effect of substrate availability on bacterial growth kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is demonstrated that bacterial growth on crystalline or adsorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can result in a linear increase in biomass concentration. A simple mathematical approach is presented, showing that under these circumstances mass transfer from the solid phase to the liquid phase is rate-limiting for growth.

F. Volkering; A. M. Breure; A. Sterkenburg; J. G. van Andel

1992-01-01

136

Growth-rate dependent effects on bacterial gene expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For fast growing bacteria, which can adapt to wildly different growth conditions, changes in gene expression are often accompanied by changes in growth rates. Because the macroscopic composition of bacteria (e.g., cell size, ribosome concentration, gene copy number) is known to vary greatly for bacteria grown at different rates, significant changes in gene expression may arise 'passively' just due to the growth rate change alone. Towards a quantitative understanding of these passive effects, we analyzed quantitatively available data for the growth rate dependence of various macroscopic parameters affecting gene expression in E. coli, and predicted the growth-rate dependence of gene expression for various simple genetic circuits. For a constitutively expressed gene, the expressed protein concentration is decreased at faster growth, while weak growth-rate dependence is obtained for autorepressing genes and genes under negative control by an autorepressor. We also studied the growth-rate dependence of bistable genetic circuits and determined conditions such that bistability is found over a wide range of growth rates. Our results demonstrate that growth-rate dependent effects play an important role and must be taken into account when analyzing gene expression data under different condition. Buffering against these growth rate dependent effects may be an important requirement underlying the robust operation of endogenous genetic circuits in these bacteria, and should be a prime factor to consider in the design of robust, synthetic circuits.

Klumpp, Stefan

2009-03-01

137

Identification of Multivariate Responders/Non-Responders Using Bayesian Growth Curve Latent Class Models  

PubMed Central

Summary In this paper, we propose a multivariate growth curve mixture model that groups subjects based on multiple symptoms measured repeatedly over time. Our model synthesizes features of two models. First, we follow Roy and Lin (2000) in relating the multiple symptoms at each time point to a single latent variable. Second, we use the growth mixture model of Muthén and Shedden (1999) to group subjects based on distinctive longitudinal profiles of this latent variable. The mean growth curve for the latent variable in each class defines that class’s features. For example, a class of “responders” would have a decline in the latent symptom summary variable over time. A Bayesian approach to estimation is employed where the methods of Elliott et al (2005) are extended to simultaneously estimate the posterior distributions of the parameters from the latent variable and growth curve mixture portions of the model. We apply our model to data from a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in treating symptoms of Interstitial Cystitis. In contrast to conventional approaches using a single subjective Global Response Assessment, we use the multivariate symptom data to identify a class of subjects where treatment demonstrates effectiveness. Simulations are used to confirm identifiability results and evaluate the performance of our algorithm. The definitive version of this paper is available at onlinelibrary.wiley.com.

Leiby, Benjamin E.; Sammel, Mary D.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Lynch, Kevin G.

2011-01-01

138

Control of bacterial growth by temperature and organic matter in the Western Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature is thought to have a disproportionate role in controlling bacterial growth in perennially cold waters like the Western Arctic Ocean. One impact of temperature is that bacteria in cold waters may require more dissolved organic material (DOM) in order to approach growth rates observed at higher temperatures (the Wiebe-Pomeroy hypothesis). To explore these issues, this study examined the effect of DOM additions and temperatures shifts on bacterial assemblages during short (2 h) and long (up to 10 days) incubations. We found that the temperature response for bacterial assemblages in the Western Arctic was similar to that observed in temperate waters; the Q10 values for leucine and thymidine incorporation were 3.1±2.6 and 1.9±0.56, respectively, not significantly different from values observed in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. In contrast to what would be predicted from the Wiebe-Pomeroy hypothesis, the impact of DOM additions on leucine incorporation either was the same or greater at higher, not lower temperatures. Increasing the incubation temperature did stimulate leucine incorporation more quickly than did DOM additions, but DOM seems as important as temperature in controlling bacterial growth. Leucine incorporation rates per cell (an index of community growth rates) observed in these experiments varied greatly and approached rates observed in waters warmer by 25 °C. These results suggest that the role of temperature in controlling bacterial growth in the Western Arctic is similar to that in low-latitude ocean.

Kirchman, David L.; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Cottrell, Matthew T.

2005-12-01

139

Bacterial Growth Efficiency in a Tropical Estuary: Seasonal Variability Subsidized by Allochthonous Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) is a key factor in understanding bacterial influence on carbon flow in aquatic ecosystems.\\u000a We report intra-annual variability in BGE, and bacteria-mediated carbon flow in the tropical Mandovi and Zuari estuaries (southwest\\u000a India) and the adjoining coastal waters (Arabian Sea). BGE ranged from 3% to 61% and showed clear temporal variability with\\u000a significantly (ANOVA, p <

A. S. Pradeep Ram; Shanta Nair; D. Chandramohan

2007-01-01

140

Avian Incubation Inhibits Growth and Diversification of Bacterial Assemblages on Eggs  

PubMed Central

Microbial infection is a critical source of mortality for early life stages of oviparous vertebrates, but parental defenses against infection are less well known. Avian incubation has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of trans-shell infection by limiting microbial growth of pathogenic bacteria on eggshells, while enhancing growth of commensal or beneficial bacteria that inhibit or competitively exclude pathogens. We tested this hypothesis by comparing bacterial assemblages on naturally incubated and experimentally unincubated eggs at laying and late incubation using a universal 16S rRNA microarray containing probes for over 8000 bacterial taxa. Before treatment, bacterial assemblages on individual eggs from both treatment groups were dissimilar to one another, as measured by clustering in non-metric dimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination space. After treatment, assemblages of unincubated eggs were similar to one another, but those of incubated eggs were not. Furthermore, assemblages of unincubated eggs were characterized by high abundance of six indicator species while incubated eggs had no indicator species. Bacterial taxon richness remained static on incubated eggs, but increased significantly on unincubated eggs, especially in several families of Gram-negative bacteria. The relative abundance of individual bacterial taxa did not change on incubated eggs, but that of 82 bacterial taxa, including some known to infect the interior of eggs, increased on unincubated eggs. Thus, incubation inhibits all of the relatively few bacteria that grow on eggshells, and does not appear to promote growth of any bacteria.

Shawkey, Matthew D.; Firestone, Mary K.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Beissinger, Steven R.

2009-01-01

141

Hydrological control of organic carbon support for bacterial growth in boreal headwater streams.  

PubMed

Terrestrial organic carbon is exported to freshwater systems where it serves as substrate for bacterial growth. Temporal variations in the terrigenous organic carbon support for aquatic bacteria are not well understood. In this paper, we demonstrate how the combined influence of landscape characteristics and hydrology can shape such variations. Using a 13-day bioassay approach, the production and respiration of bacteria were measured in water samples from six small Swedish streams (64 degrees N, 19 degrees E), draining coniferous forests, peat mires, and mixed catchments with typical boreal proportions between forest and mire coverage. Forest drainage supported higher bacterial production and higher bacterial growth efficiency than drainage from mires. The areal export of organic carbon was several times higher from mire than from forest at low runoff, while there was no difference at high flow. As a consequence, mixed streams (catchments including both mire and forest) were dominated by mire organic carbon with low support of bacterial production at low discharge situations but dominated by forest carbon supporting higher bacterial production at high flow. The stimulation of bacterial growth during high-flow episodes was a result of higher relative export of organic carbon via forest drainage rather than increased drainage of specific "high-quality" carbon pools in mire or forest soils. PMID:18661114

Berggren, Martin; Laudon, Hjalmar; Jansson, Mats

2009-01-01

142

Changes in Nutrient and Carbon Availability and Temperature as Factors Controlling Bacterial Growth in the Northern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of inorganic nutrient (N and P) and glucose C treatments on bacterial growth were followed for 3 days in natural\\u000a surface and deep water bacterial samples during the main post-spring bloom stages of phytoplankton growth in the northern\\u000a Baltic Sea. In addition, the importance of photochemical degradation of dissolved organic matter on bacterial growth was investigated\\u000a vertically (0.1–2.0 m) and

Laura Hoikkala; Hanna Aarnos; Risto Lignell

2009-01-01

143

Fundal height growth curve patterns of pregnant women with term low birth weight infants  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the patterns of fundal height (FH) growth curve in pregnant women with term low birth weight (LBW) infants compared with the standard FH growth curve for Thai women. Subjects and methods A retrospective study was conducted at the four governmental general hospitals in the northern part of Thailand between 2009 and 2011. All data were obtained from antenatal records and labor registry. Serial FH measurements in centimeters of 75 pregnant women with term LBW infants were plotted against the standard FH growth curve for Thai women throughout pregnancy. Results Six patterns of the FH growth curve were summarized: pattern I: FH below or around the tenth percentile throughout pregnancy (n=17, 22.7%); pattern II: FH below normal in early pregnancy, caught up with normal, then decelerated or stagnant (n=19, 25.3%); pattern III: FH normal in early pregnancy, then decelerated or stagnant (n=17, 22.7%); pattern IV: FH normal in early pregnancy, decelerated or stagnant, then caught up to normal (n=6, 8.0%); pattern V: FH normal throughout pregnancy except for the last visit (n=6, 8.0%); and pattern VI: FH normal throughout pregnancy (n=10, 13.3%). Conclusion Patterns I–V may be used to recognize women who are likely to deliver term LBW infants from early pregnancy, during pregnancy, and on the day of admission for labor. Ultrasound evaluation is still recommended in cases with known risk factors that might be undetectable by FH, or in cases where FH measurement may be inaccurate.

Deeluea, Jirawan; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Weerakiet, Sawaek; Khunpradit, Suthit; Patumanond, Jayanton

2014-01-01

144

Retrospective prediction of birth weight by growth velocity curves during neonatal period  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this prospective study, birth weight of 304 babies born at Kamla Nehru Hospital Pune during study period was recorded.\\u000a From these 304 babies, babies with birth weight above 2000 grams were selected (260 babies) to prepare growth velocity curves.\\u000a Daily weight of these 260 babies was recorded for 30 days. The mean birth weight of study population was 2742.5

S. D. Pawar; A. V. Patil; A. K. Pratinidhi

1996-01-01

145

Blue light (470 nm) effectively inhibits bacterial and fungal growth.  

PubMed

Blue light (470 nm) LED antimicrobial properties were studied alone against bacteria and with or without the food grade photosensitizer, erythrosine (ERY) against filamentous fungi. Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LM), Bacillus atrophaeus (BA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) aliquots were exposed on nutrient agar plates to Array 1 (AR1, 0·2 mW cm(-2) ) or Array 2 (AR2, 80 mW cm(-2) ), which emitted impure or pure blue light (0-300 J cm(-2) ), respectively. Inoculated control (room light only) plates were incubated (48 h) and colonies enumerated. The antifungal properties of blue light combined with ERY (11·4 and 22·8 ?mol l(-1) ) on Penicillium digitatum (PD) and Fusarium graminearum (FG) conidia were determined. Conidial controls consisted of: no light, room light-treated conidia and ERY plus room light. Light-treated (ERY + blue light) conidial samples were exposed only to AR2 (0-100 J cm(-2) ), aliquots spread on potato dextrose agar plates, incubated (48 h, 30°C) and colonies counted. Blue light alone significantly reduced bacterial and FG viability. Combined with ERY, it significantly reduced PD viability. Blue light is lethal to bacteria and filamentous fungi although effectiveness is dependent on light purity, energy levels and microbial genus. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Light from two arrays of different blue LEDs significantly reduced bacterial (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus atrophaeus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) viabilities. Significant in vitro viability loss was observed for the filamentous fungi, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium graminearum when exposed to pure blue light only plus a photosensitizer. F.graminearum viability was significantly reduced by blue light alone. Results suggest that (i) the amount of significant loss in bacterial viability observed for blue light that is pure or with traces of other wavelengths is genus dependent and (ii) depending on fungal genera, pure blue light is fungicidal with or without a photosensitizer. PMID:23009190

De Lucca, A J; Carter-Wientjes, C; Williams, K A; Bhatnagar, D

2012-09-25

146

First Versus Second Order Latent Growth Curve Models: Some Insights From Latent State-Trait Theory  

PubMed Central

First order latent growth curve models (FGMs) estimate change based on a single observed variable and are widely used in longitudinal research. Despite significant advantages, second order latent growth curve models (SGMs), which use multiple indicators, are rarely used in practice, and not all aspects of these models are widely understood. In this article, our goal is to contribute to a deeper understanding of theoretical and practical differences between FGMs and SGMs. We define the latent variables in FGMs and SGMs explicitly on the basis of latent state-trait (LST) theory and discuss insights that arise from this approach. We show that FGMs imply a strict trait-like conception of the construct under study, whereas SGMs allow for both trait and state components. Based on a simulation study and empirical applications to the CES-D depression scale (Radloff, 1977) we illustrate that, as an important practical consequence, FGMs yield biased reliability estimates whenever constructs contain state components, whereas reliability estimates based on SGMs were found to be accurate. Implications of the state-trait distinction for the measurement of change via latent growth curve models are discussed.

Geiser, Christian; Keller, Brian; Lockhart, Ginger

2012-01-01

147

Bacterial growth on a superhydrophobic surface containing silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The antibacterial effect of silver can be exploited in the food and beverage industry and medicinal applications to reduce biofouling of surfaces. Very small amount of silver ions are enough to destructively affect the metabolism of bacteria. Moreover, superhydrophobic properties could reduce bacterial adhesion to the surface. In this study we fabricated superhydrophobic surfaces that contained nanosized silver particles. The superhydrophobic surfaces were manufactured onto stainless steel as combination of ceramic nanotopography and hydrophobication by fluorosilane. Silver nanoparticles were precipitated onto the surface by a chemical method. The dissolution of silver from the surface was tested in an aqueous environment under pH values of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. The pH value was adjusted with nitric acid and ammonia. It was found that dissolution rate of silver increased as the pH of the solution altered from the pH of de-ionized water to lower and higher pH values but dissolution occurred also in de-ionized water. The antimicrobial potential of this coating was investigated using bacterial strains isolated from the brewery equipment surfaces. The results showed that the number of bacteria adhering onto steel surface was significantly reduced (88%) on the superhydrophobic silver containing coating.

Heinonen, S.; Nikkanen, J.-P.; Laakso, J.; Raulio, M.; Priha, O.; Levänen, E.

2013-12-01

148

Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea, Cactaceae) age-height relationships and growth: the development of a general growth curve.  

PubMed

Because the growth rate of saguaros varies across different environments, past studies on saguaro population structure required extensive data collection (often over many decades) followed by site-specific analysis to estimate age at the sampled locale. However, when height-growth data from different populations are compared, the overall shape of the growth curves is similar. In this study, a formula was developed to establish saguaro age-height relationships (using stepwise regression) that can be applied to any saguaro population and only requires a site-specific factor to adjust the curve to the local growth rate. This adjustment factor can be established more efficiently and requires less data than the full analyses required for previous studies. Saguaro National Park East (SNP-E) was used as the baseline factor, set to 1.0. Results yielded a factor of 0.743 for SNP West. When the formula was applied to 10-yr interval data from Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (OPCNM) in Arizona, USA, this location had a factor of 0.617 (relative to SNP-E). With this formula and relatively little field sampling, the age of any individual saguaro (whether the individual was sampled or not) in any population can be estimated. PMID:21659186

Drezner, Taly Dawn

2003-06-01

149

Growth-rate-dependent dynamics of a bacterial genetic oscillator.  

PubMed

Gene networks exhibiting oscillatory dynamics are widespread in biology. The minimal regulatory designs giving rise to oscillations have been implemented synthetically and studied by mathematical modeling. However, most of the available analyses generally neglect the coupling of regulatory circuits with the cellular "chassis" in which the circuits are embedded. For example, the intracellular macromolecular composition of fast-growing bacteria changes with growth rate. As a consequence, important parameters of gene expression, such as ribosome concentration or cell volume, are growth-rate dependent, ultimately coupling the dynamics of genetic circuits with cell physiology. This work addresses the effects of growth rate on the dynamics of a paradigmatic example of genetic oscillator, the repressilator. Making use of empirical growth-rate dependencies of parameters in bacteria, we show that the repressilator dynamics can switch between oscillations and convergence to a fixed point depending on the cellular state of growth, and thus on the nutrients it is fed. The physical support of the circuit (type of plasmid or gene positions on the chromosome) also plays an important role in determining the oscillation stability and the growth-rate dependence of period and amplitude. This analysis has potential application in the field of synthetic biology, and suggests that the coupling between endogenous genetic oscillators and cell physiology can have substantial consequences for their functionality. PMID:23410378

Osella, Matteo; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino

2013-01-01

150

Growth-rate-dependent dynamics of a bacterial genetic oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gene networks exhibiting oscillatory dynamics are widespread in biology. The minimal regulatory designs giving rise to oscillations have been implemented synthetically and studied by mathematical modeling. However, most of the available analyses generally neglect the coupling of regulatory circuits with the cellular “chassis” in which the circuits are embedded. For example, the intracellular macromolecular composition of fast-growing bacteria changes with growth rate. As a consequence, important parameters of gene expression, such as ribosome concentration or cell volume, are growth-rate dependent, ultimately coupling the dynamics of genetic circuits with cell physiology. This work addresses the effects of growth rate on the dynamics of a paradigmatic example of genetic oscillator, the repressilator. Making use of empirical growth-rate dependencies of parameters in bacteria, we show that the repressilator dynamics can switch between oscillations and convergence to a fixed point depending on the cellular state of growth, and thus on the nutrients it is fed. The physical support of the circuit (type of plasmid or gene positions on the chromosome) also plays an important role in determining the oscillation stability and the growth-rate dependence of period and amplitude. This analysis has potential application in the field of synthetic biology, and suggests that the coupling between endogenous genetic oscillators and cell physiology can have substantial consequences for their functionality.

Osella, Matteo; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino

2013-01-01

151

Volatile emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mirror bacterial growth and enable distinction of different strains.  

PubMed

Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0), 10(-2), 10(-4) and 10(-6). Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME), thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to diagnose MAP infections in animals and to identify different bacterial strains and origins. PMID:24116177

Trefz, Phillip; Koehler, Heike; Klepik, Klaus; Moebius, Petra; Reinhold, Petra; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

2013-01-01

152

Hepatocyte growth factor levels in cerebrospinal fluid: a comparison between acute bacterial and nonbacterial meningitis.  

PubMed

The organotrophic functions of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) have been the subject of several studies. In the more recent studies, this function has been reported in the brain. In the present study, we have measured the levels of HGF in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sera from 78 patients divided into 6 different groups according to central nervous system (CNS) infection and control. Quantitative measurements of HGF in the CSF and serum were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated values of CSF HGF were found in the patients with acute bacterial/probable bacterial meningitis (P<.001), compared with nonbacterial CNS infections and facial palsy, as well as with a control group without signs of CNS involvement. The values of CSF HGF were not correlated to blood-brain-barrier disruption in the groups. These observations might indicate an intrathecal production of HGF in acute bacterial/probable bacterial meningitis. PMID:10837201

Nayeri, F; Nilsson, I; Hagberg, L; Brudin, L; Roberg, M; Söderström, C; Forsberg, P

2000-06-01

153

Effects of selenium coating of orthopaedic implant surfaces on bacterial adherence and osteoblastic cell growth.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether coating titanium discs with selenium in the form of sodium selenite decreased bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. epidermidis and impeded osteoblastic cell growth. In order to evaluate bacterial adhesion, sterile titanium discs were coated with increasing concentrations of selenium and incubated with bacterial solutions of Staph. aureus (ATCC 29213) and Staph. epidermidis (DSM 3269) and stained with Safranin-O. The effect of selenium on osteoblastic cell growth was also observed. The adherence of MG-63 cells on the coated discs was detected by staining with Safranin-O. The proportion of covered area was calculated with imaging software. The tested Staph. aureus strain showed a significantly reduced attachment on titanium discs with 0.5% (p = 0.011) and 0.2% (p = 0.02) selenium coating. Our test strain from Staph. epidermidis showed a highly significant reduction in bacterial adherence on discs coated with 0.5% (p = 0.0099) and 0.2% (p = 0.002) selenium solution. There was no inhibitory effect of the selenium coating on the osteoblastic cell growth. Selenium coating is a promising method to reduce bacterial attachment on prosthetic material. PMID:23632681

Holinka, J; Pilz, M; Kubista, B; Presterl, E; Windhager, R

2013-05-01

154

Tidally Induced Changes in Bacterial Growth and Viability in the Macrotidal Han River Estuary, Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Han River estuary in the Yellow Sea is a macrotidal (tidal range of 3·5 m at neap tide and 8·0 m at spring tide) eutrophic environment. Changes in bacterial growth and viability at different NaCl concentrations as well as other physico-chemical environmental parameters were investigated at different tidal levels in order to elucidate the major environmental factors controlling the bacterial community. Bacterial growth rates (?) varied with tidal state; maximum (?=0·159 h -1) at high tide, and minimum (?=0·069 h -1) at low tide. Although bacteria play a substantial role in ammonia removal and regeneration, growth was not controlled by the fluctuations of nutrient concentrations in the high nutrient estuary. The low viable cell number recorded with the increased NaCl concentration indicated that the salinity changes with tidal state was a major environmental factor controlling the viability of the freshwater bacterial populations. Portions of freshwater bacterial CFU (colony forming units) during low tide accounted for approximately 30% of the total CFU, and decreased down to 10% during high tide. Overall, the results indicate that the microbial communities in the macrotidal Han River estuary can be divided into two distinct groups according to the variations in salinity and freshwater runoff: (1) autochthonous halotolerant estuarine populations which are nourished by the high nutrient runoff; and (2) allochthonous halophobic freshwater populations which are adversely affected by salinity increase.

Hyun, J.-H.; Choi, J. K.; Chung, K. H.; Yang, E.-J.; Kim, M.-K.

1999-02-01

155

Choice of Bacterial Growth Medium Alters the Transcriptome and Phenotype of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

The type of bacterial culture medium is an important consideration during design of any experimental protocol. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of medium choice on bacterial gene expression and physiology by comparing the transcriptome of Salmonella enterica SL1344 after growth in the widely used LB broth or the rationally designed MOPS minimal medium. Transcriptomics showed that after growth in MOPS minimal media, compared to LB, there was increased expression of 42 genes involved in amino acid synthesis and 23 genes coding for ABC transporters. Seven flagellar genes had decreased expression after growth in MOPS minimal medium and this correlated with a decreased motility. In both MOPS minimal medium and MEM expression of genes from SPI-2 was increased and the adhesion of S. Typhimurium to intestinal epithelial cells was higher compared to the levels after growth in LB. However, SL1344 invasion was not significantly altered by growth in either MOPs minimal media or MEM. Expression of SPI-2 was also measured using chromosomal GFP reporter fusions followed by flow cytometry which showed, for the first time, that the reduction in SPI-2 transcript after growth in different media related to a reduction in the proportion of the bacterial population expressing SPI-2. These data highlight the profound differences in the global transcriptome after in vitro growth in different media and show that choice of medium should be considered carefully during experimental design, particularly when virulence related phenotypes are being measured.

Blair, Jessica M. A.; Richmond, Grace E.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Ivens, Al; Piddock, Laura J. V.

2013-01-01

156

Empirical Growth Curve Estimation Using Sigmoid Sub-functions that Adjust Seasonal Compensatory Growth for Male Body Weight of Thoroughbred Horses  

PubMed Central

Thoroughbred horses are seasonal mating animals, raised in northern regions or countries. Foals born yearly in spring generally show a typical seasonal compensatory growth pattern, in which their growth rate declines in the first winter and increases in the next spring. In this study, a new empirical adjustment approach is proposed to adjust for this compensatory growth when growth curve equations are estimated, by using 1,633 male body weights of Thoroughbreds as an illustrating example. Based on general Richards growth curve equation, a new growth curve equation was developed and fit to the weight-age data. The new growth curve equation had a sigmoid sub-function that can adjust the compensatory growth, combined with the Richards biological parameter responsible for the maturity of animals. The unknown parameters included in the equations were estimated by SAS NLMIXED procedure. The goodness of fit was examined by using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC). The AIC values decreased from 13,053 (general Richards equation) to 12,794 (the newly developed equation), indicating the better fit of the new equation to the weight-age data. The shape of the growth curve was improved during the period of compensatory growth. The proposed method is one of the useful approaches for adjusting seasonal compensatory growth in growth curve estimations for Thoroughbreds, and for their management during the compensatory period. Based on this approach, the optimal growth curve equations can be estimated also for female body weight of Thoroughbreds or other growth traits affected by seasonal compensatory growth.

ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro

2011-01-01

157

Longitudinal Growth Curves of Brain Function Underlying Inhibitory Control through Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies suggest that developmental improvements in inhibitory control are primarily supported by changes in prefrontal executive function. However, studies are contradictory with respect to how activation in prefrontal regions changes with age, and they have yet to analyze longitudinal data using growth curve modeling, which allows characterization of dynamic processes of developmental change, individual differences in growth trajectories, and variables that predict any interindividual variability in trajectories. In this study, we present growth curves modeled from longitudinal fMRI data collected over 302 visits (across ages 9 to 26 years) from 123 human participants. Brain regions within circuits known to support motor response control, executive control, and error processing (i.e., aspects of inhibitory control) were investigated. Findings revealed distinct developmental trajectories for regions within each circuit and indicated that a hierarchical pattern of maturation of brain activation supports the gradual emergence of adult-like inhibitory control. Mean growth curves of activation in motor response control regions revealed no changes with age, although interindividual variability decreased with development, indicating equifinality with maturity. Activation in certain executive control regions decreased with age until adolescence, and variability was stable across development. Error-processing activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex showed continued increases into adulthood and no significant interindividual variability across development, and was uniquely associated with task performance. These findings provide evidence that continued maturation of error-processing abilities supports the protracted development of inhibitory control over adolescence, while motor response control regions provide early-maturing foundational capacities and suggest that some executive control regions may buttress immature networks as error processing continues to mature.

Foran, William; Velanova, Katerina; Luna, Beatriz

2013-01-01

158

Differential Growth Responses of Soil Bacterial Taxa to Carbon Substrates of Varying Chemical Recalcitrance  

PubMed Central

Soils are immensely diverse microbial habitats with thousands of co-existing bacterial, archaeal, and fungal species. Across broad spatial scales, factors such as pH and soil moisture appear to determine the diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities. Within any one site however, bacterial taxon diversity is high and factors maintaining this diversity are poorly resolved. Candidate factors include organic substrate availability and chemical recalcitrance, and given that they appear to structure bacterial communities at the phylum level, we examine whether these factors might structure bacterial communities at finer levels of taxonomic resolution. Analyzing 16S rRNA gene composition of nucleotide analog-labeled DNA by PhyloChip microarrays, we compare relative growth rates on organic substrates of increasing chemical recalcitrance of >2,200 bacterial taxa across 43 divisions/phyla. Taxa that increase in relative abundance with labile organic substrates (i.e., glycine, sucrose) are numerous (>500), phylogenetically clustered, and occur predominantly in two phyla (Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria) including orders Actinomycetales, Enterobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Rhodocyclales, Alteromonadales, and Pseudomonadales. Taxa increasing in relative abundance with more chemically recalcitrant substrates (i.e., cellulose, lignin, or tannin–protein) are fewer (168) but more phylogenetically dispersed, occurring across eight phyla and including Clostridiales, Sphingomonadalaes, Desulfovibrionales. Just over 6% of detected taxa, including many Burkholderiales increase in relative abundance with both labile and chemically recalcitrant substrates. Estimates of median rRNA copy number per genome of responding taxa demonstrate that these patterns are broadly consistent with bacterial growth strategies. Taken together, these data suggest that changes in availability of intrinsically labile substrates may result in predictable shifts in soil bacterial composition.

Goldfarb, Katherine C.; Karaoz, Ulas; Hanson, China A.; Santee, Clark A.; Bradford, Mark A.; Treseder, Kathleen K.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Brodie, Eoin L.

2011-01-01

159

Genetic parameter estimates of growth curve and reproduction traits in Japanese quail.  

PubMed

The goal of selection studies in broilers is to obtain genetically superior chicks in terms of major economic traits, which are mainly growth rate, meat yield, and feed conversion ratio. Multiple selection schedules for growth and reproduction are used in selection programs within commercial broiler dam lines. Modern genetic improvement methods have not been applied in experimental quail lines. The current research was conducted to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for growth and reproduction traits in a Japanese quail flock. The Gompertz equation was used to determine growth curve parameters. The Gibbs sampling under a multi-trait animal model was applied to estimate the heritabilities and genetic correlations for these traits. A total of 948 quail were used with complete pedigree information to estimate the genetic parameters. Heritability estimates of BW, absolute and relative growth rates at 5 wk of age (AGR and RGR), ?0 and ?2 parameters, and age at point of inflection (IPT) of Gompertz growth curve, total egg number (EN) from the day of first lay to 24 wk of age were moderate to high, with values ranging from 0.25 to 0.40. A low heritability (0.07) for fertility (FR) and a strong genetic correlation (0.83) between FR and EN were estimated in our study. Body weight exhibited negative genetic correlation with EN, FR, RGR, and IPT. This genetic antagonism among the mentioned traits may be overcome using modern poultry breeding methods such as selection using multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction and crossbreeding. PMID:24570419

Narinc, Dogan; Karaman, Emre; Aksoy, Tulin; Firat, Mehmet Ziya

2014-01-01

160

Bacterial ecology of an old-growth douglas fir canopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial populations associated with the major substrates of the canopy of a single 70 m old-growth Douglas fir were studied to determine potential activities. Seasonal samples from bark, foliage, epiphytic moss, lichens, and litter accumulations were collected to: (a) obtain population data, (b) isolate the major groups of microorganisms present, (c) measure enzymatic activities associated with cellulose and xylan degradation,

B. A. Caldwell; C. Hagedorn; W. C. Denison

1979-01-01

161

BIOASSAY PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms Is an area of concern for many water utilities. urrently the nutrient status of drinking water is difficult to measure and can only be defined in relative terms. o date, the procedures developed for determining the amo...

162

BIOASSAY PROCEDURES FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms is an area of concern for many water utilities. o date, the procedures developed or determining the amount of biodegradable material present in potable water have utilized heterotrophic non-coliform bacteria as bioassa...

163

A hybrid Bayesian-neural network approach for probabilistic modeling of bacterial growth/no-growth interface.  

PubMed

A hybrid probabilistic modeling approach that integrates artificial neural networks (ANNs) with statistical Bayesian conditional probability estimation is proposed. The suggested approach benefits from the power of ANNs as highly flexible nonlinear mapping paradigms, and the Bayes' theorem for computing probabilities of bacterial growth with the aid of Parzen's probability distribution function estimators derived for growth and no-growth (G/NG) states. The proposed modeling approach produces models that can predict the probability of growth of targeted microorganism as affected by a set of parameters pertaining to extrinsic factors and operating conditions. The models also can be used to define the probabilistic boundary (interface) between growth and no-growth, and as such can define and predict the values of critical parameters required to keep a desired pre-specified bacterial growth risk in check. A modular system incorporating the various computational modules was constructed to illustrate the application of the hybrid approach to the probabilistic modeling of growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli strain as affected by temperature and water activity. The proposed approach was compared to other techniques including the traditional linear and nonlinear logistic regression. Results indicated that the hybrid approach outperforms the other approaches in its accuracy as well as flexibility to extract the implicit interrelationships between the various parameters. Advantages and limitations of the approach were also discussed and compared to those of other techniques. PMID:12593926

Hajmeer, M N; Basheer, I A

2003-05-15

164

Induction of Gram-negative bacterial growth by neurochemical containing banana ( Musa x paradisiaca) extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bananas contain large quantities of neurochemicals. Extracts from the peel and pulp of bananas in increasing stages of ripening were prepared and evaluated for their ability to modulate the growth of non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria. Extracts from the peel, and to a much lesser degree the pulp, increased the growth of Gram-negative bacterial strains Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter

Mark Lyte

1997-01-01

165

Comparison of three plant substrates for enhancing carp growth through bacterial biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three plant substrates, sugarcane bagasse, paddy straw and dried Eichhornea, were compared for enhancing fish growth through bacterial biofilm development. The substrates were suspended in water supplemented with cowdung and urea. For comparison, control cisterns applied with only cowdung and urea were maintained. The cisterns were stocked with common carp (Cyprirrus carpio) and rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings at 10?000 ha?1.

M. R Ramesh; K. M Shankar; C. V Mohan; T. J Varghese

1999-01-01

166

School-based extracurricular activity involvement and adolescent self-esteem: a growth-curve analysis.  

PubMed

Research on adolescent self-esteem indicates that adolescence is a time in which individuals experience important changes in their physical, cognitive, and social identities. Prior research suggests that there is a positive relationship between an adolescent's participation in structured extracurricular activities and well-being in a variety of domains, and some research indicates that these relationships may be dependent on the type of activities in which adolescents participate. Building on previous research, a growth-curve analysis was utilized to examine self-esteem trajectories from adolescence (age 14) to young adulthood (age 26). Using 3 waves of data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 5,399; 47.8% male), the analysis estimated a hierarchical growth-curve model emphasizing the effects of age and type of school-based extracurricular activity portfolio, including sports and school clubs, on self-esteem. The results indicated that age had a linear relationship with self-esteem over time. Changes in both the initial level of self-esteem and the growth of self-esteem over time were significantly influenced by the type of extracurricular activity portfolio. The findings were consistent across race and sex. The results support the utility of examining the longitudinal impact of portfolio type on well-being outcomes. PMID:20495855

Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Hagewen, Kellie J

2011-05-01

167

Metabolism, cell growth and the bacterial cell cycle  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to fluctuations in nutrient availability is a fact of life for single-celled organisms in the ‘wild’. A decade ago our understanding of how bacteria adjust cell cycle parameters to accommodate changes in nutrient availability stemmed almost entirely from elegant physiological studies completed in the 1960s. In this Opinion article we summarize recent groundbreaking work in this area and discuss potential mechanisms by which nutrient availability and metabolic status are coordinated with cell growth, chromosome replication and cell division.

Wang, Jue D.; Levin, Petra A.

2010-01-01

168

Stimulation of Lipase Production During Bacterial Growth on Alkanes  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter lwoffi strain O16, a facultative psychrophile, can grow on crude oil, hexadecane, octadecane, and most alkanes when tested at 20 but not at 30°C. Growth occurred on a few alkanes at 30°C but after a longer lag than at 20°C. Cells grown on alkanes as sole carbon sources had high levels of cell-bound lipase. In contrast, previous work has shown that those grown on complex medium produced cell-free lipase and those grown on defined medium without alkanes produced little or no lipase. Low concentrations of the detergent Triton X-100 caused the liberation of most of the lipase activity of alkane-grown cells and increased total lipase activity. When ethanol and hexadecane were both present in a mineral medium, diauxic growth occurred; until the ethanol was completely used up, hexadecane was not utilized, and the lipase activity was very low. When growth on hexadecane began, lipase activity increased, reaching a level 50- to 100-fold higher than that of cells growing on ethanol. A similar pattern of lipase formation and hexadecane utilization was observed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Whenever A. lwoffi and other bacteria degraded alkanes they exhibited substantial lipase activity. Not all bacteria that produced lipase, however, could attack alkanes. Bacteria that could not produce lipase did not attack alkanes. The results suggest that a correlation may exist between lipase formation and alkane utilization.

Breuil, Colette; Shindler, D. B.; Sijher, J. S.; Kushner, D. J.

1978-01-01

169

Stress corrosion behaviour of high-strength steel: design on the basis of the crack growth kinetics curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with stress corrosion behaviour of high-strenghth steel in aqueous solution. Work is focused on the analysis of the crack growth kinetics curve as a fundamental tool for design against stress corrosion cracking. In the case of hydrogen assisted cracking, a typical stage II (plateau) appears in the curve at the lowest values of stress intensity factor K,

A. M. Lancha

1995-01-01

170

Predicting growth and curve progression in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: design of a prospective longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Scoliosis is present in 3-5% of the children in the adolescent age group, with a higher incidence in females. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is mainly dependent on the progression of the scoliotic curve. There is a close relationship between curve progression and rapid (spinal) growth of the patient during puberty. However, until present time no conclusive method was

Iris Busscher; Frits Hein Wapstra; Albert G Veldhuizen

2010-01-01

171

Using growth curve analysis to examine challenges in instrumentation in longitudinal measurement in home visiting.  

PubMed

Home visitation programs aim to decrease child maltreatment, yet limited longitudinal data exists concerning their screening and assessment instruments. "At risk" families (N = 2,054) were screened using the Family Stress Checklist and referred to Healthy Families Indiana. The Home Observation Measurement of the Environment Scale (HOME) and Community Life Skills Scale (CLS) were administered at multiple intervals. Growth curve analyses indicate families with lower HOME and CLS scores received more home visits and visits between assessments. However, these instruments may have "ceiling effects" and may be unsuitable for longitudinal assessment and program evaluation. Programmatic changes were made based on evaluation results. PMID:24405137

Goltz, Heather Honoré; Mena, Kristin Cotter; Swank, Paul R

2014-01-01

172

Lubricating bacteria model for the growth of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we study the morphological transition of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation by modifying the bacteria model proposed by Delprato et al. Our model considers four factors: the lubricant fluid generated by bacterial colonies, a chemotaxis initiated by the ultraviolet radiation, the intensity of the ultraviolet radiation, and the bacteria's two-stage destruction rate with given radiation intensities. Using this modified model, we simulate the ringlike pattern formation of the bacterial colony exposed to uniform ultraviolet radiation. The following is shown. (1) Without the UV radiation the colony forms a disklike pattern and reaches a constant front velocity. (2) After the radiation is switched on, the bacterial population migrates to the edge of the colony and forms a ringlike pattern. As the intensity of the UV radiation is increased the ring forms faster and the outer velocity of the colony decreases. (3) For higher radiation intensities the total population decreases, while for lower intensities the total population increases initially at a small rate and then decreases. (4) After the UV radiation is switched off, the bacterial population grows both outward as well as into the inner region, and the colony's outer front velocity recovers to a constant value. All these results agree well with the experimental observations [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 158102 (2001)]. Along with the chemotaxis, we find that lubricant fluid and the two-stage destruction rate are critical to the dynamics of the growth of the bacterial colony when exposed to UV radiation, and these were not previously considered.

Zhang Shengli; Zhang Lei; Liang Run; Zhang Erhu; Liu Yachao; Zhao Shumin [Department of Applied Physics, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2005-11-01

173

Vascular endothelial growth factor in bacterial meningitis: detection in cerebrospinal fluid and localization in postmortem brain.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent vascular permeability factor and a mediator of brain edema. To assess the role of VEGF during bacterial meningitis, VEGF was measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of 37 patients with bacterial meningitis and 51 control patients, including 16 patients with viral meningitis. Circulating VEGF levels were similar in bacterial meningitis patients and control patients. VEGF(CSF) was detected in 11 (30%) of 37 of bacterial meningitis patients (range, <25-633 pg/mL) but in none of the control patients. The median VEGF index was 6.2 (range, 0.6-42), indicating intrathecal production. Median CSF cell counts, protein levels, and CSF: serum albumin ratios were higher for patients with detectable VEGF(CSF), although the difference was not statistically significant. VEGF immunoreactivity in autopsy brain specimens was found in the inflammatory infiltrate of patients with bacterial meningitis. These results indicate that inflammatory cells secrete VEGF during bacterial meningitis and that VEGF may contribute to blood-brain barrier disruption. PMID:11106541

van der Flier, M; Stockhammer, G; Vonk, G J; Nikkels, P G; van Diemen-Steenvoorde, R A; van der Vlist, G J; Rupert, S W; Schmutzhard, E; Gunsilius, E; Gastl, G; Hoepelman, A I; Kimpen, J L; Geelen, S P

2001-01-01

174

Two aspects of the Simplex Model: goodness of Fit to Linear Growth Curve Structures and the Analysis of Mean Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers the analysis of longitudinal data by means of the autogressive or simplex model. The finding by D. Rogosa and J. B. Willett that the quasi-Markov simplex model fits a linear growth curve covariance structure is investigated. Under various circumstances the quasi-Markov simplex model is rejected. The procedure is reversed by fitting the linear growth curve to quasi-Markov simplex covariance

P. C. M. Molenaar; Conor V. Dolan; F. Mandys

1994-01-01

175

Bacterial growth in a simulated Martian subsurface environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of microorganisms to grow under Martian conditions has implications in both the search for life and habitability of Mars as well as the potential contamination of Mars by landing spacecraft. Factors that inhibit the growth of organisms on Mars include UV radiation, low pressure and temperature, CO2 atmosphere, lack of liquid water, and extreme desiccation. Yet a possible biozone capable of supporting microbial life on Mars exists in the shallow subsurface where there is protection from harsh UV rays. In addition, the presence of widespread subsurface ice, confirmed by the Phoenix Lander, offers a water source as the ice sublimates through the upper soil. Here we will determine the ability of the organism Halomonas desiderata strain SP1 to grow in the simulated Martian subsurface environment. Halomonas was chosen as the bacteria of interest due to its tolerance to extreme environments, including carrying salt concentrations and pH. Experiments were carried out in the Mars Simulation Chamber, where temperatures, pressures, and atmospheric composition can be closely monitored to simulate Martian conditions. A series of stress experiments were conducted to observe Halomonas's ability to withstand exposure to a Mars analog soil, freezing temperatures, anoxic conditions, and low pressures. We have determined that Halomonas is able to survive exposures to low temperatures, pressures, and anoxic conditions. We will report on the survival and growth of Halomonas in the simulated Martian permafrost under low (6-10 mbar) atmospheric pressures.

Kronyak, R. E.; Pavlov, A.; House, C. H.

2013-12-01

176

Cell Wall Nonlinear Elasticity and Growth Dynamics: How Do Bacterial Cells Regulate Pressure and Growth?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In my thesis, I study intact and bulging Escherichia coli cells using atomic force microscopy to separate the contributions of the cell wall and turgor pressure to the overall cell stiffness. I find strong evidence of power--law stress--stiffening in the E. coli cell wall, with an exponent of 1.22±0.12, such that the wall is significantly stiffer in intact cells (E = 23±8 MPa and 49±20 MPa in the axial and circumferential directions) than in unpressurized sacculi. These measurements also indicate that the turgor pressure in living cells E. coli is 29±3 kPa. The nonlinearity in cell elasticity serves as a plausible mechanism to balance the mechanical protection and tension measurement sensitivity of the cell envelope. I also study the growth dynamics of the Bacillus subtilis cell wall to help understand the mechanism of the spatiotemporal order of inserting new cell wall material. High density fluorescent markers are used to label the entire cell surface to capture the morphological changes of the cell surface at sub-cellular to diffraction-limited spatial resolution and sub-minute temporal resolution. This approach reveals that rod-shaped chaining B. subtilis cells grow and twist in a highly heterogeneous fashion both spatially and temporally. Regions of high growth and twisting activity have a typical length scale of 5 ?m, and last for 10-40 minutes. Motivated by the quantification of the cell wall growth dynamics, two microscopy and image analysis techniques are developed and applied to broader applications beyond resolving bacterial growth. To resolve densely distributed quantum dots, we present a fast and efficient image analysis algorithm, namely Spatial Covariance Reconstruction (SCORE) microscopy that takes into account the blinking statistics of the fluorescence emitters. We achieve sub-diffraction lateral resolution of 100 nm from 5 to 7 seconds of imaging, which is at least an order of magnitude faster than single-particle localization based methods such as STORM and PALM. SCORE is insensitive to background and can be applied to different types of fluorescence sources, including but not limited to organic dye and quantum dot that are tested experimentally in this thesis. The second development is an extension from tracking single quantum dot to the more general cases of moving objects at high density based on active contour model. I add a repulsive interaction between open contours to the original model and treat the trajectories as extrusions in the temporal dimension. This technique is applicable to a broad range of problems and two specific tracking problems are chosen as illustrations: (i) the quantification of walking and chasing behaviors of Drosophila and (ii) the study of trajectories of gliding bacteria Myxococcus xanthus on flat surface. I demonstrate the capability of this high-through and highly automated analysis method for studying social and group behaviors in interacting organisms.

Deng, Yi

177

Effects of Surface Area and Flow Rate on Marine Bacterial Growth in Activated Carbon Columns  

PubMed Central

The colonization of granular activated carbon columns by bacteria can have both beneficial and potentially detrimental consequences. Bacterial growth on the carbon surface can remove adsorbed organics and thus partially regenerate the carbon bed. However, growth can also increase the levels of bacteria in the column effluents, which can adversely affect downstream uses of the treated water. This study of a sand column and several activated carbon columns demonstrated that considerable marine bacterial growth occurred in both sand and carbon columns and that this growth increased the number of bacteria in column effluents. Activated carbon supported approximately 50% more bacteria than did sand. Bacterial growth on activated carbon was reduced by increasing the flow rate through a carbon column and increasing the carbon particle size. Scanning electron micrographs showed that bacteria preferred to attach in the protected crevices on both the sand and carbon surface. The results of this study indicated that the colonization of activated carbon by marine bacteria was enhanced because of carbon's high surface area, its rough surface texture, and its ability to absorb organic materials. Images

Shimp, Robert J.; Pfaender, Frederic K.

1982-01-01

178

The leucine incorporation method estimates bacterial growth equally well in both oxic and anoxic lake waters.  

PubMed

Bacterial biomass production is often estimated from incorporation of radioactively labeled leucine into protein, in both oxic and anoxic waters and sediments. However, the validity of the method in anoxic environments has so far not been tested. We compared the leucine incorporation of bacterial assemblages growing in oxic and anoxic waters from three lakes differing in nutrient and humic contents. The method was modified to avoid O(2) contamination by performing the incubation in syringes. Isotope saturation levels in oxic and anoxic waters were determined, and leucine incorporation rates were compared to microscopically observed bacterial growth. Finally, we evaluated the effects of O(2) contamination during incubation with leucine, as well as the potential effects of a headspace in the incubation vessel. Isotope saturation occurred at a leucine concentration of above about 50 nM in both oxic and anoxic waters from all three lakes. Leucine incorporation rates were linearly correlated to observed growth, and there was no significant difference between oxic and anoxic conditions. O(2) contamination of anoxic water during 1-h incubations with leucine had no detectable impact on the incorporation rate, while a headspace in the incubation vessel caused leucine incorporation to increase in both anoxic and O(2)-contaminated samples. The results indicate that the leucine incorporation method relates equally to bacterial growth rates under oxic and anoxic conditions and that incubation should be performed without a headspace. PMID:11425702

Bastviken, D; Tranvik, L

2001-07-01

179

Growth yields in bacterial denitrification and nitrate ammonification.  

PubMed

Denitrification and nitrate ammonification are considered the highest-energy-yielding respiration systems in anoxic environments after oxygen has been consumed. The corresponding free energy changes are 7 and 35% lower than that of aerobic respiration, respectively. Growth yield determinations with pure cultures of Paracoccus denitrificans and Pseudomonas stutzeri revealed that far less energy is converted via ATP into cell mass than expected from the above calculations. Denitrification with formate or hydrogen as electron donor yielded about 2.4 to 3.0 g dry matter per mol formate or hydrogen and 15 to 18 g dry matter per mol acetate. Similar yields with acetate were obtained with Pseudomonas stutzeri. Wolinella succinogenes and Sulfurospirillum deleyianum, which reduce nitrate to ammonia, both exhibited similar yield values with formate or H2 plus nitrate. The results indicate that ATP synthesis in denitrification is far lower than expected from the free energy changes and even lower than in nitrate ammonification. The results are discussed against the background of our present understanding of electron flow in denitrification and with respect to the importance of denitrification and nitrate ammonification in the environment. PMID:17209072

Strohm, Tobin O; Griffin, Ben; Zumft, Walter G; Schink, Bernhard

2007-03-01

180

Diamagnetic levitation enhances growth of liquid bacterial cultures by increasing oxygen availability  

PubMed Central

Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to reproduce aspects of weightlessness, on the Earth. We used a superconducting magnet to levitate growing bacterial cultures for up to 18 h, to determine the effect of diamagnetic levitation on all phases of the bacterial growth cycle. We find that diamagnetic levitation increases the rate of population growth in a liquid culture and reduces the sedimentation rate of the cells. Further experiments and microarray gene analysis show that the increase in growth rate is owing to enhanced oxygen availability. We also demonstrate that the magnetic field that levitates the cells also induces convective stirring in the liquid. We present a simple theoretical model, showing how the paramagnetic force on dissolved oxygen can cause convection during the aerobic phases of bacterial growth. We propose that this convection enhances oxygen availability by transporting oxygen around the liquid culture. Since this process results from the strong magnetic field, it is not present in other weightless environments, e.g. in Earth orbit. Hence, these results are of significance and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena.

Dijkstra, Camelia E.; Larkin, Oliver J.; Anthony, Paul; Davey, Michael R.; Eaves, Laurence; Rees, Catherine E. D.; Hill, Richard J. A.

2011-01-01

181

Diamagnetic levitation enhances growth of liquid bacterial cultures by increasing oxygen availability.  

PubMed

Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to reproduce aspects of weightlessness, on the Earth. We used a superconducting magnet to levitate growing bacterial cultures for up to 18 h, to determine the effect of diamagnetic levitation on all phases of the bacterial growth cycle. We find that diamagnetic levitation increases the rate of population growth in a liquid culture and reduces the sedimentation rate of the cells. Further experiments and microarray gene analysis show that the increase in growth rate is owing to enhanced oxygen availability. We also demonstrate that the magnetic field that levitates the cells also induces convective stirring in the liquid. We present a simple theoretical model, showing how the paramagnetic force on dissolved oxygen can cause convection during the aerobic phases of bacterial growth. We propose that this convection enhances oxygen availability by transporting oxygen around the liquid culture. Since this process results from the strong magnetic field, it is not present in other weightless environments, e.g. in Earth orbit. Hence, these results are of significance and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena. PMID:20667843

Dijkstra, Camelia E; Larkin, Oliver J; Anthony, Paul; Davey, Michael R; Eaves, Laurence; Rees, Catherine E D; Hill, Richard J A

2011-03-01

182

Coal Fly Ash Impairs Airway Antimicrobial Peptides and Increases Bacterial Growth  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is a risk factor for respiratory infections, and one of its main components is particulate matter (PM), which is comprised of a number of particles that contain iron, such as coal fly ash (CFA). Since free iron concentrations are extremely low in airway surface liquid (ASL), we hypothesize that CFA impairs antimicrobial peptides (AMP) function and can be a source of iron to bacteria. We tested this hypothesis in vivo by instilling mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) and CFA and determine the percentage of bacterial clearance. In addition, we tested bacterial clearance in cell culture by exposing primary human airway epithelial cells to PA01 and CFA and determining the AMP activity and bacterial growth in vitro. We report that CFA is a bioavailable source of iron for bacteria. We show that CFA interferes with bacterial clearance in vivo and in primary human airway epithelial cultures. Also, we demonstrate that CFA inhibits AMP activity in vitro, which we propose as a mechanism of our cell culture and in vivo results. Furthermore, PA01 uses CFA as an iron source with a direct correlation between CFA iron dissolution and bacterial growth. CFA concentrations used are very relevant to human daily exposures, thus posing a potential public health risk for susceptible subjects. Although CFA provides a source of bioavailable iron for bacteria, not all CFA particles have the same biological effects, and their propensity for iron dissolution is an important factor. CFA impairs lung innate immune mechanisms of bacterial clearance, specifically AMP activity. We expect that identifying the PM mechanisms of respiratory infections will translate into public health policies aimed at controlling, not only concentration of PM exposure, but physicochemical characteristics that will potentially cause respiratory infections in susceptible individuals and populations.

Borcherding, Jennifer A.; Chen, Haihan; Caraballo, Juan C.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Zabner, Joseph; Grassian, Vicki H.; Comellas, Alejandro P.

2013-01-01

183

Coal fly ash impairs airway antimicrobial peptides and increases bacterial growth.  

PubMed

Air pollution is a risk factor for respiratory infections, and one of its main components is particulate matter (PM), which is comprised of a number of particles that contain iron, such as coal fly ash (CFA). Since free iron concentrations are extremely low in airway surface liquid (ASL), we hypothesize that CFA impairs antimicrobial peptides (AMP) function and can be a source of iron to bacteria. We tested this hypothesis in vivo by instilling mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) and CFA and determine the percentage of bacterial clearance. In addition, we tested bacterial clearance in cell culture by exposing primary human airway epithelial cells to PA01 and CFA and determining the AMP activity and bacterial growth in vitro. We report that CFA is a bioavailable source of iron for bacteria. We show that CFA interferes with bacterial clearance in vivo and in primary human airway epithelial cultures. Also, we demonstrate that CFA inhibits AMP activity in vitro, which we propose as a mechanism of our cell culture and in vivo results. Furthermore, PA01 uses CFA as an iron source with a direct correlation between CFA iron dissolution and bacterial growth. CFA concentrations used are very relevant to human daily exposures, thus posing a potential public health risk for susceptible subjects. Although CFA provides a source of bioavailable iron for bacteria, not all CFA particles have the same biological effects, and their propensity for iron dissolution is an important factor. CFA impairs lung innate immune mechanisms of bacterial clearance, specifically AMP activity. We expect that identifying the PM mechanisms of respiratory infections will translate into public health policies aimed at controlling, not only concentration of PM exposure, but physicochemical characteristics that will potentially cause respiratory infections in susceptible individuals and populations. PMID:23469047

Borcherding, Jennifer A; Chen, Haihan; Caraballo, Juan C; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Zabner, Joseph; Grassian, Vicki H; Comellas, Alejandro P

2013-01-01

184

Cyclic stretch of human lung cells induces an acidification and promotes bacterial growth.  

PubMed

The reasons for bacterial proliferation in the lungs of mechanically ventilated patients are poorly understood. We hypothesized that prolonged cyclic stretch of lung cells influenced bacterial growth. Human alveolar type II-like A549 cells were submitted in vitro to prolonged cyclic stretch. Bacteria were cultured in conditioned supernatants from cells submitted to stretch and from control static cells. Escherichia coli had a marked growth advantage in conditioned supernatants from stretched A549 cells, but also from stretched human bronchial BEAS-2B cells, human MRC-5 fibroblasts, and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Stretched cells compared with control static cells acidified the milieu by producing increased amounts of lactic acid. Alkalinization of supernatants from stretched cells blocked E. coli growth. In contrast, acidification of supernatants from control cells stimulated bacterial growth. The effect of various pharmacological inhibitors of metabolic pathways was tested in this system. Treatment of A549 cells and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages with the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump inhibitor ouabain during cyclic stretch blocked both the acidification of the milieu and bacterial growth. Several pathogenic bacteria originating from lungs of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) also grow better in vitro at slightly acidic pH (pH 6-7.2), pH similar to those measured in the airways from ventilated patients. This novel metabolic pathway stimulated by cyclic stretch may represent an important pathogenic mechanism of VAP. Alkalinization of the airways may represent a promising preventive strategy in ventilated critically ill patients. PMID:17921360

Pugin, Jérôme; Dunn-Siegrist, Irène; Dufour, Julien; Tissières, Pierre; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Comte, Rachel

2008-03-01

185

Inhibition of selected bacterial growth by three hydrocarbons: Mathematical evaluation of toxicity using a toxicodynamic equation.  

PubMed

The individual toxicity of different hydrocarbons (naphthalene, cyclododecane and aniline) on the growth of selected bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Phaeobacter sp. and Leuconostoc mesenteroides) was studied by means of a toxicodynamic model combination of two sigmoid equations (logistic and Weibull). All the toxicological effects on growth parameters and kinetic properties were characterized and the global toxicity of such chemicals was evaluated. It was observed that two kinetic parameters (maximum growth and maximum growth rate) were in almost all cases influenced by the hydrocarbons studied. Aniline was less toxic than cyclododecane and naphthalene. The presented approach is a reasonable starting point for understanding and modeling complete and real assessment of chemical toxic effects on bacterial growths. The values of EC50,? could be used for a most efficient comparison of the individual toxicity of chemicals. PMID:25048888

Vázquez, José A; Rial, Diego

2014-10-01

186

VON BERTALANFFY GROWTH CURVES FOR STRIPED MARLIN, TETRAPTURUS AUDAX, AND BLUE MARLIN, MAKAZRA NZGRZCANS, IN THE CENTRAL NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of striped marlin, Tetrapturus audaz, and blue marlin, Makaira nigricans, was described by fitting von Bertalanffy growth curves (an assumed age model and a length-increment model) to the progression of age-groups, by quarters, through the Hawaiian longline fishery from 1960 to 1970. For striped marlin, the sexes grew at about the same rate and had similar predicted asymptotic

ROBERT A. SKILLMAN; MARIAN Y. Y. YONG

187

Chlorhexidine Digluconate Effects on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Some Field Isolates of Animal Bacterial Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background: To study chlorhexidine digluconate disinfectant effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some bacterial field isolates from animals. Objectives: The current study investigated chlorhexidine digluconate effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some field isolates of veterinary bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods: Forty clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus. aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae (10 isolates for each) were examined for chlorhexidine digluconate effects on biofilm formation and planktonic growth using microtiter plates. In all of the examined strains in the presence of chlorhexidine digluconate, biofilm development and planktonic growth were affected at the same concentrations of the disinfectant. Results: Chlorhexidine digluconate inhibited the planktonic growth of different bacterial species at sub-MICs. But they were able to induce biofilm development of the E. coli, Salmonella spp., S. aureus and Str. agalactiae strains. Conclusions: Bacterial resistance against chlorhexidine is increasing. Sub-MIC doses of chlorhexidine digluconate can stimulate the formation of biofilm strains.

Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Hemati, Majid; Habibian Dehkordi, Saeed; Bahadoran, Shahab; Khoshnood, Sheida; Khubani, Shahin; Dokht Faraj, Mahdi; Hakimi Alni, Reza

2014-01-01

188

Essays on the predictability of oil shocks and yield curves for real-time output growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is a collection of three essays that revisits the long-standing puzzle of the apparently disproportionate effect of oil prices in the economy by examining output growth predictability with real-time data. Each study of the predictive content of oil shocks is from a different perspective by using newly developed real-time datasets, which allows for replicating the economic environment faced by policymakers in real time. The first study extends the conventional set of models of output growth determination by investigating predictability of models that incorporate various functional forms of oil prices and real-time data. The results are supportive of the relationship of GDP and oil in the context of Granger causality with real-time data. In the second essay, I use oil shocks to predict the economy is changing direction earlier than would be predicted by solely using initial GDP releases. The model provides compelling evidence of negative GDP growth predictability in response to oil price shocks, which could shorten the "recognition lag" for successful implementation of discretionary counter-cyclical policies. In the third essay, I evaluate short-horizon output growth predictability using real-time data for different sample periods. I find strong evidence of predictability at the one-quarter and four-quarter horizon for the United States. The major result of the paper is that we reject the null hypothesis of no predictability against an alternative hypothesis of predictability with oil shocks that include yield curves in the forecasting regression. This relationship suggests the combination of monetary policy and oil shocks are important for subsequent GDP growth.

Carlton, Amelie B.

189

Estimating Gompertz Growth Curves from Marine Mammal Strandings in the Presence of Missing Data  

PubMed Central

Stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off the coast of South Carolina (SC) provide data essential for population health assessment. Of the 598 bottlenose dolphin strandings in SC from 1993 to 2007, 91 were of sufficient body condition to obtain organ weights. Of these 91 animals, only 52 were brought back to the laboratory for total body weight measurements. Because it is more feasible to transport smaller animals to the laboratory setting for necropsy procedures, a selection bias is present in that data for larger animals are often missing. Regression and propensity score multiple imputation methods are utilized to account for missing data needed to compute growth. Fitted Gompertz growth curves for SC animals with and without adjustment for missing data are compared to those found from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. South Carolina animals display a trend in lower asymptotic mean total body weights and faster growth rates compared to the Gulf of Mexico population. The differences generally increased in magnitude after imputation methods. South Carolina females were originally estimated to reach larger maximum sizes than Gulf of Mexico females, but after imputation this relationship reversed. The findings suggest selection bias should be accounted for in sampling stranded dolphins.

Shotwell, Mary; McFee, Wayne; Slate, Elizabeth H.

2012-01-01

190

Single-cell analysis of bacterial growth, cell size, and community structure in the Delaware estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and size of thymidine and leucine-assimilating bacteria were examined using a combination of microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization (micro-FISH) to explore the relationship between community structure and bacterial growth in the Delaware estuary. Community structure varied along the salinity gradient; ?-proteobacteria and Cytophaga-like bacte- ria dominated in freshwater parts of the estuary and ?-proteobacteria were the most

Matthew T. Cottrell; David L. Kirchman

2004-01-01

191

Amoeba-bacteria relationship: Factors in the bacterial lipids supporting the growth of axenic Entamoeba histolytica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live bacteria in modifiedDiamond’s axenic medium did not support growth ofEntamoeba histolytica. Cysteine hydrochloride, required for the multiplication of amoeba, was broken down by live bacteria and toxic substances\\u000a were produced which were lethal for amoebae. Monoxenic and xenic cultures ofaxenically grownE. histolytica could be established in Boeck and Drbohlav medium with bacteria and rice starch. Bacterial lipids prepared from

G P Rai; S R Das; N K Garq

1978-01-01

192

Escaping the snare of chronological growth and launching a free curve alternative: General deviance as latent growth model  

PubMed Central

Researchers studying longitudinal relationships among multiple problem behaviors sometimes characterize autoregressive relationships across constructs as indicating “protective” or “launch” factors or as “developmental snares.” These terms are used to indicate that initial or intermediary states of one problem behavior subsequently inhibit or promote some other problem behavior. Such models are contrasted with models of “general deviance” over time in which all problem behaviors are viewed as indicators of a common linear trajectory. When fit of the “general deviance” model is poor and fit of one or more autoregressive models is good, this is taken as support for the inhibitory or enhancing effect of one construct on another. In this paper, we argue that researchers consider competing models of growth before comparing deviance and time-bound models. Specifically, we propose use of the free curve slope intercept (FCSI) growth model (Meredith & Tisak, 1990) as a general model to typify change in a construct over time. The FCSI model includes, as nested special cases, several statistical models often used for prospective data, such as linear slope intercept models, repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance, various one-factor models, and hierarchical linear models. When considering models involving multiple constructs, we argue the construct of “general deviance” can be expressed as a single-trait multimethod model, permitting a characterization of the deviance construct over time without requiring restrictive assumptions about the form of growth over time. As an example, prospective assessments of problem behaviors from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (Silva & Stanton, 1996) are considered and contrasted with earlier analyses of Hussong, Curran, Moffitt, and Caspi (2008), which supported launch and snare hypotheses. For antisocial behavior, the FCSI model fit better than other models, including the linear chronometric growth curve model used by Hussong et al. For models including multiple constructs, a general deviance model involving a single trait and multimethod factors (or a corresponding hierarchical factor model) fit the data better than either the “snares” alternatives or the general deviance model previously considered by Hussong et al. Taken together, the analyses support the view that linkages and turning points cannot be contrasted with general deviance models absent additional experimental intervention or control.

WOOD, PHILLIP KARL; JACKSON, KRISTINA M.

2014-01-01

193

In-depth characterization of wastewater bacterial community in response to algal growth using pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Microalgae have been regarded as a natural resource for sustainable materials and fuels, as well as for removal of nutrients and micropollutants from wastewater, and their interaction with bacteria in wastewater is a critical factor to consider because of the microbial diversity and complexity in a variety of wastewater conditions. Despite their importance, very little is known about the ecological interactions between algae and bacteria in a wastewater environment. In this study, we characterized the wastewater bacterial community in response to the growth of a Selenastrum gracile UTEX 325 population in a real municipal wastewater environment. The Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technique was used for indepth analysis of amplicons of 16S rRNA genes from different conditions in each reactor, with and without the algal population. The algal growth reduced the bacterial diversity and affected the bacterial community structure in the wastewater. The following in-depth analysis of the deep-sequenced amplicons showed that the algal growth selectively stimulated Sphingobacteria class members, especially the Sediminibacterium genus population, in the municipal wastewater environment. PMID:23867704

Lee, Jangho; Lee, Juyoun; Lee, Tae Kwon; Woo, Sung-Geun; Baek, Gyu Seok; Park, Joonhong

2013-10-28

194

The curve of growth for the sun as a star in the Milne-Eddington approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, the experimental curve of growth for the Sun as a star has been constructed in the Milne-Eddington approximation, basing on the Fe I lines. The cleanest 280 Fe I lines in the spectral region from ?4000 Å to ?7000 Å have been used. The equivalent widths have been taken from the works of Rutten and van der Zalm who had published a list of 602 clean (unblended) lines in the spectrum of the Sun as a star from Becker et al.'s atlas. Kostyk's system of absolute oscillator strengths was used. The velocity of microturbulent motion (vm = 1±0.3 km/s), excitation temperature (Tex = 5360±70K) and iron abundance (lg NFe = 7.57±0.10) in the photosphere of the Sun as a star were determined.

Kuli-Zade, D. M.; Gusejnov, K. I.

1988-06-01

195

Tropical freshwater ecosystems have lower bacterial growth efficiency than temperate ones  

PubMed Central

Current models and observations indicate that bacterial respiration should increase and growth efficiency (BGE) should decrease with increasing temperatures. However, these models and observations are mostly derived from data collected in temperate regions, and the tropics are under-represented. The aim of this work was to compare bacterial metabolism, namely bacterial production (BP) and respiration (BR), bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) and bacterial carbon demand (BCD) between tropical and temperate ecosystems via a literature review and using unpublished data. We hypothesized that (1) tropical ecosystems have higher metabolism than temperate ones and, (2) that BGE is lower in tropical relative to temperate ecosystems. We collected a total of 498 coupled BP and BR observations (Ntotal = 498; Ntemperate = 301; Ntropical = 197), calculated BGE (BP/(BP+BR)) and BCD (BP+BR) for each case and examined patterns using a model II regression analysis and compared each parameter between the two regions using non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test. We observed a significant positive linear regression between BR and BP for the whole dataset, and also for tropical and temperate data separately. We found that BP, BR and BCD were higher in the tropics, but BGE was lower compared to temperate regions. Also, BR rates per BP unit were at least two fold higher in the tropics than in temperate ecosystems. We argue that higher temperature, nutrient limitation, and light exposure all contribute to lower BGE in the tropics, mediated through effects on thermodynamics, substrate stoichiometry, nutrient availability and interactions with photochemically produced compounds. More efforts are needed in this study area in the tropics, but our work indicates that bottom-up (nutrient availability and resource stoichiometry) and top-down (grazer pressure) processes, coupled with thermodynamic constraints, might contribute to the lower BGE in the tropics relative to temperate regions.

Amado, Andre M.; Meirelles-Pereira, Frederico; Vidal, Luciana O.; Sarmento, Hugo; Suhett, Albert L.; Farjalla, Vinicius F.; Cotner, James B.; Roland, Fabio

2013-01-01

196

Effect of bacterial growth period on the sensitivity of the MTT assay for silver.  

PubMed

Respiratory activity inhibition by toxic compounds in bacteria and yeast has been used to detect toxic compounds in the environment. Often the age of culture contributes towards the sensitivity of detection. In the present work, the effect of growth period on the sensitivity of an inhibitive assay for heavy metals using bacterial respiratory assay system based on the reduction of the water soluble tetrazolium dye MTT is reported. A silver-sensitive isolate was discovered to exhibit different sensitivities towards silver at different growth periods. An exponential decay model adequately described the inhibition due to silver. Analysis using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey's test showed that the IC50 obtained by strain DRYS8 grown at the 12 hr- period in nutrient broth at 28 degrees C gave the lowest value compared to other growth periods. This study highlights the importance of taking into accounts growth conditions and age of culture in developing cellular-based bioassays. PMID:24665761

Halmi, M I E; Ahmad, F; Hashim, A K; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A; Shukor, M Y

2014-03-01

197

Mycobacterial Growth and Bacterial Contamination in the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube and BACTEC 460 Culture Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BACTEC 460 system currently provides the most rapid detection of mycobacterial growth, but the system is radiometric and requires needles to inoculate specimens through the bottle's septum. The Myco- bacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system has a liquid medium, like the BACTEC system, and does not require needles when inoculating specimens. We compared mycobacterial growth from 510 specimens in

DENNIS B. CORNFIELD; KATHLEEN GLEASON BEAVIS; JULIE A. GREENE; MARYANN BOJAK; JAMES BONDI

1997-01-01

198

Spontaneous inhibition of bacterial growth in experimental gram-negative endophthalmitis.  

PubMed

We compared the growth patterns of gram-negative bacilli in the vitreous humor (experimental endophthalmitis in rabbits) and in a subcutaneous site of infection (croton oil pouches in rats). In untreated animals, inoculation of Klebsiella pneumoniae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa into either site was followed by a period of rapid bacterial multiplication. Thereafter, the numbers of bacteria in the vitreous humor fell spontaneously, whereas those in the subcutaneous site remained stable. During treatment with antibiotics, there was a decline in the numbers of bacteria in both sites. However, once the drug had been eliminated, the numbers of bacteria remained low in the vitreous humor but increased in the subcutaneous site. These findings suggest that during the course of infection, there was depletion of an essential bacterial nutrient or accumulation of an antibacterial substance in the vitreous humor but not in the subcutaneous site. To examine some of these possibilities, we made biochemical measurements during the course of untreated infection. In general, the biochemical changes in the two sites were similar except that the pH fell to about 6.6-6.8 in the vitreous humor but remained above 7.0 in the subcutaneous site. None of the biochemical changes that we observed seemed likely to account for the spontaneous decline in bacterial numbers in the vitreous humor. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of the antibacterial effect in the vitreous humor during the course of experimental bacterial endophthalmitis. PMID:3106256

Davey, P; Barza, M; Peckman, C

1987-05-01

199

Control of bacterial biofilm growth on surfaces by nanostructural mechanics and geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-associated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, pervade natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose persistent pathogenic threats. The use of surface chemistry to inhibit biofilm growth has been found to only transiently affect initial attachment. In this work, we investigate the tunable effects of physical surface properties, including high-aspect-ratio (HAR) surface nanostructure arrays recently reported to induce long-range spontaneous spatial patterning of bacteria on the surface. The functional parameters and length scale regimes that control such artificial patterning for the rod-shaped pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa are elucidated through a combinatorial approach. We further report a crossover regime of biofilm growth on a HAR nanostructured surface versus the nanostructure effective stiffness. When the 'softness' of the hair-like nanoarray is increased beyond a threshold value, biofilm growth is inhibited as compared to a flat control surface. This result is consistent with the mechanoselective adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Therefore by combining nanoarray-induced bacterial patterning and modulating the effective stiffness of the nanoarray—thus mimicking an extremely compliant flat surface—bacterial mechanoselective adhesion can be exploited to control and inhibit biofilm growth.

Epstein, A. K.; Hochbaum, A. I.; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, J.

2011-12-01

200

Analysis of bacterial growth by UV/Vis spectroscopy and laser reflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a preliminary study on an experimental analysis of the lactobacillus bacterial growth in liquid medium with and without the presence of silver nanoparticles. The study aims to quantify the bactericidal effect of nanoparticles. Quantification of bacterial growth at different times was analyzed by spectroscopy UV/visible and laser reflectometry near the critical angle. From these two techniques the best results were obtained by spectroscopy, showing that as the concentration of silver nanoparticles increases, it inhibits the growth of bacteria, it only grows 63% of the population. Regarding Laser Reflectometry, the variation of reflectance near the critical angle is measured in real time. The observed results at short times are reasonable, since they indicate a gradual growth of the bacteria and the stabilization stage of the population. But at long time, the observed results show abrupt changes caused by temperature effects. The bacteria were isolated from samples taken from commercial yougurth, and cultured in MRS broth at pH 6.5, and controlled with citric acid and constant temperature of 32 °C. Separately, silver nanoparticles were synthesized at 3 °C from aqueous solutions of 1.0 mM silver nitrate and chemically reduced with sodium borohydride to 2.0 mM, with magnetic stirring.

Peña-Gomar, Mary Carmen; Viramontes-Gamboa, Gonzalo; Peña-Gomar, Grethel; Ortiz Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Hernández Ramírez, Mariano

201

Inhibition of Bacterial Growth and Biofilm Production by Constituents from Hypericum spp  

PubMed Central

Biofilm embedded bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to eradicate and are major sources of bacterial infections. New drugs are needed to combat these pathogens. Hypericum is a plant genus that contains species known to have antimicrobial properties. However, the specific constituents responsible for the antimicrobial properties are not entirely known, nor have most compounds been tested as inhibitors of biofilm development. The investigation presented here tested seven secondary metabolites isolated from the species Hypericum densiflorum, Hypericumellipticum, Hypericum prolificum and Hypericum punctatum as inhibitors of bacterial growth and biofilm production. Assays were conducted against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcusaureus, clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Five of the seven compounds demonstrated growth inhibition against the Gram-positive bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 1.95 ?g/mL to 7.81 ?g/mL. Four of the secondary metabolites inhibited biofilm production by certain Gram-positive strains at sub-MIC concentrations.

Sarkisian, S.A.; Janssen, M.J.; Matta, H.; Henry, G.E.; LaPlante, K.L.; Rowley, D.C.

2011-01-01

202

Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.  

PubMed

Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening the bottle. PMID:24679089

Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

2014-01-01

203

Autotrophic growth of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers in freshwater sediment microcosms incubated at different temperatures.  

PubMed

Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to ammonia oxidation, but their roles in freshwater sediments are still poorly understood. Seasonal differences in the relative activities of these groups might exist, since cultivated archaeal ammonia oxidizers have higher temperature optima than their bacterial counterparts. In this study, sediment collected from eutrophic freshwater Lake Taihu (China) was incubated at different temperatures (4°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 37°C) for up to 8 weeks. We examined the active bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers in these sediment microcosms by using combined stable isotope probing (SIP) and molecular community analysis. The results showed that accumulation of nitrate in microcosms correlated negatively with temperature, although ammonium depletion was the same, which might have been related to enhanced activity of other nitrogen transformation processes. Incubation at different temperatures significantly changed the microbial community composition, as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. After 8 weeks of incubation, [(13)C]bicarbonate labeling of bacterial amoA genes, which encode the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A, and an observed increase in copy numbers indicated the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in all microcosms. Nitrosomonas sp. strain Is79A3 and Nitrosomonas communis lineages dominated the heavy fraction of CsCl gradients at low and high temperatures, respectively, indicating a niche differentiation of active bacterial ammonia oxidizers along the temperature gradient. The (13)C labeling of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in microcosms incubated at 4 to 25°C was minor. In contrast, significant (13)C labeling of Nitrososphaera-like archaea and changes in the abundance and composition of archaeal amoA genes were observed at 37°C, implicating autotrophic growth of ammonia-oxidizing archaea under warmer conditions. PMID:23455342

Wu, Yucheng; Ke, Xiubin; Hernández, Marcela; Wang, Baozhan; Dumont, Marc G; Jia, Zhongjun; Conrad, Ralf

2013-05-01

204

Early detection of bacterial growth in blood culture by impedance monitoring with a Bactometer model 32.  

PubMed Central

A Bactometer model 32 was evaluated for use in early detection of bacterial growth. Experiments with simulated cultures showed that 2 ml of broth introduced into the Bactometer module wells could detect 10(2) and 10(6) CFU/ml in 6 h and 2 h respectively. Both Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Fastidious Anaerobic broths supported good growth. Detection of nine of 10 organisms inoculated at approximately 10(6) CFU/ml in BHI were detected within 8.5 h. A culture of Bacteroides fragilis failed to grow under these conditions. Of 189 blood cultures, tested by incubation of 2 ml of BHI, 18 were positive by both conventional and Bactometer methods. False-positive or false-negative specimens were not observed using the Bactometer. Use of the Bactometer enables growth detection at least 12 h earlier than culture methods.

Buckland, A; Kessock-Philip, S; Bascomb, S

1983-01-01

205

Continuous monitoring of bacterial biofilm growth using uncoated Thickness-Shear Mode resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) were used to nondestructively monitor in real time the microbial growth of the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) in a liquid broth. QCM, sometimes referred to as Thickness-Shear Mode (TSM) resonators, are highly sensitive sensors not only able to measure very small mass, but also non-gravimetric contributions of viscoelastic media. These devices can be used as biosensors for bacterial detection and are employed in many applications including their use in the food industry, water and environment monitoring, pharmaceutical sciences and clinical diagnosis. In this work, three strains of S. epidermidis (which differ in the ability to produce biofilm) have been continuously monitored using an array of piezoelectric TSM resonators, at 37 °C in a selective culturing media. Microbial growth was followed by measuring the changes in the crystal resonant frequency and bandwidth at several harmonics. It was shown that microbial growth can be monitored in real time using multichannel and multiparametric QCM sensors.

Castro, P.; Resa, P.; Durán, C.; Maestre, J. R.; Mateo, M.; Elvira, L.

2012-12-01

206

Simulations of bacterial growth in the shallow subsurface on planets with tenuous atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure is an important unknown parameter, which can affect potential habitability of an earth-like planet. It has been suggested that low pressure by itself can inhibit growth of terrestrial microbes on the surface of Mars however the exact mechanisms for such inhibition was never explained. We performed laboratory simulations of the survival and replication of E. Coli in the Martian simulation chamber. E. Coli was introduced into JSC-Mars-1A soil samples saturated with ~30% of H2O by weight with necessary amounts of nutrients and maintained at soil temperatures of 16-20 C - to ensure that neither water content, nutrients nor temperatures would impede bacterial growth. Several experimental runs were performed with atmospheric pressures as low as 17 mbars. We discovered that E.Coli (a non-extremophilic terrestrial microorganism) could grow within 1 cm from the planetary surface even if the atmospheric pressures are Martian-like. We conclude that low atmospheric pressure by itself is not inhibiting for bacterial growth on earth-like planets with tenuous atmospheres.

Pavlov, A.; Bochnowski, A.; Kronyak, R.

2012-12-01

207

Carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes negatively affect bacterial growth and denitrification activity  

PubMed Central

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been used in a wide range of fields, and the surface modification via carboxyl functionalization can further improve their physicochemical properties. However, whether carboxyl-modified SWNT poses potential risks to microbial denitrification after its release into the environment remains unknown. Here we present the possible effects of carboxyl-modified SWNT on the growth and denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans (a model denitrifying bacterium). It was found that carboxyl-modified SWNT were present both outside and inside the bacteria, and thus induced bacterial growth inhibition at the concentrations of 10 and 50?mg/L. After 24?h of exposure, the final nitrate concentration in the presence of 50?mg/L carboxyl-modified SWNT was 21-fold higher than that in its absence, indicating that nitrate reduction was substantially suppressed by carboxyl-modified SWNT. The transcriptional profiling revealed that carboxyl-modified SWNT led to the transcriptional activation of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in response to DNA damage and also decreased the gene expressions involved in glucose metabolism and energy production, which was an important reason for bacterial growth inhibition. Moreover, carboxyl-modified SWNT caused the significant down-regulation and lower activity of nitrate reductase, which was consistent with the decreased efficiency of nitrate reduction.

Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Wei, Yuanyuan; Huang, Haining

2014-01-01

208

Carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes negatively affect bacterial growth and denitrification activity.  

PubMed

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been used in a wide range of fields, and the surface modification via carboxyl functionalization can further improve their physicochemical properties. However, whether carboxyl-modified SWNT poses potential risks to microbial denitrification after its release into the environment remains unknown. Here we present the possible effects of carboxyl-modified SWNT on the growth and denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans (a model denitrifying bacterium). It was found that carboxyl-modified SWNT were present both outside and inside the bacteria, and thus induced bacterial growth inhibition at the concentrations of 10 and 50?mg/L. After 24?h of exposure, the final nitrate concentration in the presence of 50?mg/L carboxyl-modified SWNT was 21-fold higher than that in its absence, indicating that nitrate reduction was substantially suppressed by carboxyl-modified SWNT. The transcriptional profiling revealed that carboxyl-modified SWNT led to the transcriptional activation of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in response to DNA damage and also decreased the gene expressions involved in glucose metabolism and energy production, which was an important reason for bacterial growth inhibition. Moreover, carboxyl-modified SWNT caused the significant down-regulation and lower activity of nitrate reductase, which was consistent with the decreased efficiency of nitrate reduction. PMID:25008009

Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Wei, Yuanyuan; Huang, Haining

2014-01-01

209

Bayesian analysis for nonlinear regression model under skewed errors, with application in growth curves.  

PubMed

We have considered a Bayesian approach for the nonlinear regression model by replacing the normal distribution on the error term by some skewed distributions, which account for both skewness and heavy tails or skewness alone. The type of data considered in this paper concerns repeated measurements taken in time on a set of individuals. Such multiple observations on the same individual generally produce serially correlated outcomes. Thus, additionally, our model does allow for a correlation between observations made from the same individual. We have illustrated the procedure using a data set to study the growth curves of a clinic measurement of a group of pregnant women from an obstetrics clinic in Santiago, Chile. Parameter estimation and prediction were carried out using appropriate posterior simulation schemes based in Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Besides the deviance information criterion (DIC) and the conditional predictive ordinate (CPO), we suggest the use of proper scoring rules based on the posterior predictive distribution for comparing models. For our data set, all these criteria chose the skew-t model as the best model for the errors. These DIC and CPO criteria are also validated, for the model proposed here, through a simulation study. As a conclusion of this study, the DIC criterion is not trustful for this kind of complex model. PMID:19629998

De la Cruz, Rolando; Branco, Márcia D

2009-08-01

210

Self-Regulation and Recall: Growth Curve Modeling of Intervention Outcomes for Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Memory training has often been supported as a potential means to improve performance for older adults. Less often studied are the characteristics of trainees that benefit most from training. Using a self-regulatory perspective, the current project examined a latent growth curve model to predict training-related gains for middle-aged and older adult trainees from individual differences (e.g., education), information processing skills (strategy use) and self-regulatory factors such as self-efficacy, control, and active engagement in training. For name recall, a model including strategy usage and strategy change as predictors of memory gain, along with self-efficacy and self-efficacy change, showed comparable fit to a more parsimonious model including only self-efficacy variables as predictors. The best fit to the text recall data was a model focusing on self-efficacy change as the main predictor of memory change, and that model showed significantly better fit than a model also including strategy usage variables as predictors. In these models, overall performance was significantly predicted by age and memory self-efficacy, and subsequent training-related gains in performance were best predicted directly by change in self-efficacy (text recall), or indirectly through the impact of active engagement and self-efficacy on gains (name recall). These results underscore the benefits of targeting self-regulatory factors in intervention programs designed to improve memory skills.

West, Robin L.; Hastings, Erin C.

2013-01-01

211

Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

2001-01-01

212

Modeling Latent Growth Curves With Incomplete Data Using Different Types of Structural Equation Modeling and Multilevel Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers different examples of how to fit latent growth curve (LGC) models to longitudinal data using a variety of different software programs (i.e., LISREL, Mx, Mplus, AMOS, SAS). The article shows how the same model can be fitted using both structural equation modeling and multilevel software, with nearly identical results, even in…

Ferrer, Emilio; Hamagami, Fumiaki; McArdle, John J.

2004-01-01

213

Ammonia produced by bacterial colonies promotes growth of ampicillin-sensitive Serratia sp. by means of antibiotic inactivation.  

PubMed

Volatiles produced by bacterial cultures are known to induce regulatory and metabolic alterations in nearby con-specific or heterospecific bacteria, resulting in phenotypic changes including acquisition of antibiotic resistance. We observed unhindered growth of ampicillin-sensitive Serratia rubidaea and S. marcescens on ampicillin-containing media, when exposed to volatiles produced by dense bacterial growth. However, this phenomenon appeared to result from pH increase in the medium caused by bacterial volatiles rather than alterations in the properties of the bacterial cultures, as alkalization of ampicillin-containing culture media to pH 8.5 by ammonia or Tris exhibited the same effects, while pretreatment of bacterial cultures under the same conditions prior to antibiotic exposure did not increase ampicillin resistance. Ampicillin was readily inactivated at pH 8.5, suggesting that observed bacterial growth results from metabolic alteration of the medium, rather than an active change in the target bacterial population (i.e. induction of resistance or tolerance). However, even such seemingly simple mechanism may provide a biologically meaningful basis for protection against antibiotics in microbial communities growing on semi-solid media. PMID:24716667

Cepl, Jaroslav; Blah?šková, Anna; Cvr?ková, Fatima; Markoš, Anton

2014-05-01

214

Bacterial Standing Stock, Activity, and Carbon Production during Formation and Growth of Sea Ice in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica †  

PubMed Central

Bacterial response to formation and growth of sea ice was investigated during autumn in the northeastern Weddell Sea. Changes in standing stock, activity, and carbon production of bacteria were determined in successive stages of ice development. During initial ice formation, concentrations of bacterial cells, in the order of 1 × 108 to 3 × 108 liter-1, were not enhanced within the ice matrix. This suggests that physical enrichment of bacteria by ice crystals is not effective. Due to low concentrations of phytoplankton in the water column during freezing, incorporation of bacteria into newly formed ice via attachment to algal cells or aggregates was not recorded in this study. As soon as the ice had formed, the general metabolic activity of bacterial populations was strongly suppressed. Furthermore, the ratio of [3H]leucine incorporation into proteins to [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA changed during ice growth. In thick pack ice, bacterial activity recovered and growth rates up to 0.6 day-1 indicated actively dividing populations. However, biomass-specific utilization of organic compounds remained lower than in open water. Bacterial concentrations of up to 2.8 × 109 cells liter-1 along with considerably enlarged cell volumes accumulated within thick pack ice, suggesting reduced mortality rates of bacteria within the small brine pores. In the course of ice development, bacterial carbon production increased from about 0.01 to 0.4 ?g of C liter-1 h-1. In thick ice, bacterial secondary production exceeded primary production of microalgae.

Grossmann, Sonnke; Dieckmann, Gerhard S.

1994-01-01

215

Predicting growth and curve progression in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: design of a prospective longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Scoliosis is present in 3-5% of the children in the adolescent age group, with a higher incidence in females. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is mainly dependent on the progression of the scoliotic curve. There is a close relationship between curve progression and rapid (spinal) growth of the patient during puberty. However, until present time no conclusive method was found for predicting the timing and magnitude of the pubertal growth spurt in total body height, or the curve progression of the idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of this study is to determine the predictive value of several maturity indicators that reflect growth or remaining growth potential, in order to predict timing of the peak growth velocity of total body height in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Furthermore, different parameters are evaluated for their correlation with curve progression in the individual scoliosis patient. Methods/design This prospective, longitudinal cohort study will be incorporated in the usual care of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All new patients between 8 and 17 years with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle >10 degrees) visiting the outpatient clinic of the University Medical Center Groningen are included in this study. Follow up will take place every 6 months. The present study will use a new ultra-low dose X-ray system which can make total body X-rays. Several maturity indicators are evaluated like different body length dimensions, secondary sexual characteristics, skeletal age in hand and wrist, skeletal age in the elbow, the Risser sign, the status of the triradiate cartilage, and EMG ratios of the paraspinal muscle activity. Correlations of all dimensions will be calculated in relationship to the timing of the pubertal growth spurt, and to the progression of the scoliotic curve. An algorithm will be made for the optimal treatment strategy in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Discussion This study will determine the value of many maturity indicators and will be useful as well for other clinicians treating children with disorders of growth. Since not all clinicians have access to the presented new 3D X-ray system or have the time to make EMG's, for example, all indicators will be correlated to the timing of the peak growth velocity of total body height and curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. Therefore each clinician can chose which indicators can be used best in their practice. Trial registration number NTR2048

2010-01-01

216

Application of a Microcomputer-Based System to Control and Monitor Bacterial Growth  

PubMed Central

A modular microcomputer-based system was developed to control and monitor various modes of bacterial growth. The control system was composed of an Apple II Plus microcomputer with 64-kilobyte random-access memory; a Cyborg ISAAC model 91A multichannel analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter; paired MRR-1 pH, pO2, and foam control units; and in-house-designed relay, servo control, and turbidimetry systems. To demonstrate the flexibility of the system, we grew bacteria under various computer-controlled and monitored modes of growth, including batch, turbidostat, and chemostat systems. The Apple-ISAAC system was programmed in Labsoft BASIC (extended Applesoft) with an average control program using ca. 6 to 8 kilobytes of memory and up to 30 kilobytes for datum arrays. This modular microcomputer-based control system was easily coupled to laboratory scale fermentors for a variety of fermentations.

Titus, Jeffrey A.; Luli, Gregory W.; Dekleva, Michael L.; Strohl, William R.

1984-01-01

217

Application of a microcomputer-based system to control and monitor bacterial growth.  

PubMed

A modular microcomputer-based system was developed to control and monitor various modes of bacterial growth. The control system was composed of an Apple II Plus microcomputer with 64-kilobyte random-access memory; a Cyborg ISAAC model 91A multichannel analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter; paired MRR-1 pH, pO(2), and foam control units; and in-house-designed relay, servo control, and turbidimetry systems. To demonstrate the flexibility of the system, we grew bacteria under various computer-controlled and monitored modes of growth, including batch, turbidostat, and chemostat systems. The Apple-ISAAC system was programmed in Labsoft BASIC (extended Applesoft) with an average control program using ca. 6 to 8 kilobytes of memory and up to 30 kilobytes for datum arrays. This modular microcomputer-based control system was easily coupled to laboratory scale fermentors for a variety of fermentations. PMID:16346462

Titus, J A; Luli, G W; Dekleva, M L; Strohl, W R

1984-02-01

218

Bacterial growth and substrate degradation by BTX-oxidizing culture in response to salt stress.  

PubMed

Interactions between microbial growth and substrate degradation are important in determining the performance of trickle-bed bioreactors (TBB), especially when salt is added to reduce biomass formation in order to alleviate media clogging. This study was aimed at quantifying salinity effects on bacterial growth and substrate degradation, and at acquiring kinetic information in order to improve the design and operation of TBB. Experiment works began by cultivating a mixed culture in a chemostat reactor receiving artificial influent containing a mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX), followed by using the enrichment culture to degrade the individual BTX substrates under a particular salinity, which ranged 0-50 g l(-1) in batch mode. Then, the measured concentrations of biomass and residual substrate versus time were analyzed with the microbial kinetics; moreover, the obtained microbial kinetic constants under various salinities were modeled using noncompetitive inhibition kinetics. For the three substrates the observed bacterial yields appeared to be decreased from 0.51-0.74 to 0.20-0.22 mg mg(-1) and the maximum specific rate of substrate utilization, q, declined from 0.25-0.42 to 0.07-0.11 h(-1), as the salinity increased from 0 to 50 NaCl g l(-1). The NaCl acted as noncompetitive inhibitor, where the modeling inhibitions of the coefficients, K ( T(S)), were 22.7-29.7 g l(-1) for substrate degradation and K ( T(mu)), 13.0-19.0 g l(-1), for biomass formation. The calculated ratios for the bacterial maintenance rate, m (S), to q, further indicated that the percentage energy spent on maintenance increased from 19-24 to 86-91% as salinity level increased from 0 to 50 g l(-1). These results revealed that the bacterial growth was more inhibited than substrate degradation by the BTX oxidizers under the tested salinity levels. The findings from this study demonstrate the potential of applying NaCl salt to control excessive biomass formation in biotrickling filters. PMID:16284744

Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Hsing

2006-01-01

219

Measurement of a Dispersion Curve for Linear-Regime Rayleigh-Taylor Growth Rates in Laser-Driven Planar Targets  

SciTech Connect

A dispersion curve for Rayleigh-Taylor growth rates in the linear regime has been measured in planar CH{sub 2} laser-driven foils. The foils were ablatively accelerated with a single, smoothed, frequency-doubled beam of the Nova laser at 7{times}10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2} (giving an acceleration of 60{mu}m/ns{sup 2}). Measured growth rates were about 50{percent} of the classical values. Growth rates simulated with the computer code LASNEX were {approximately}18{percent} higher than measured values. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Glendinning, S.; Dixit, S.; Hammel, B.; Kalantar, D.; Kilkenny, J.; Pennington, D.; Remington, B.; Wallace, R.; Weber, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Key, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom)] [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); Key, M. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom)] [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Knauer, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 E.River Rd., Rochester, New York 14623--1299 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 E.River Rd., Rochester, New York 14623--1299 (United States)

1997-04-01

220

Reference Curve for the First-Year Growth Response to Growth Hormone Treatment in Prepubertal Children with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency: Validation of the KIGS First-Year Growth Response Curve Using the Belgian Register for the Study of Growth and Puberty Problems.  

PubMed

Background: Comparing observed and expected growth after first-year growth hormone (GH) therapy is useful for identifying a poor growth response to GH. Aim: To generate a first-year, age-specific growth response reference curve for prepubertal Belgian children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (iGHD) treated with a standard weight-adjusted GH dose and to compare this national reference with the response references derived from KIGS. Subjects and Methods: First-year height data of 357 prepubertal children (240 males) with iGHD were analyzed. Smooth reference curves of first-year height velocity (HV) in relation to age were created. Differences with the KIGS targets were evaluated after z-score transformation. Results: The observed first-year HVs were log-normal distributed by age and decreased significantly with age (p < 0.001). No GH dose or gender effect was observed (p = 0.5). Distance to target height, severity of GHD and occurrence of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had a positive effect (p < 0.01) on the calculated HV SDS. When applying the KIGS targets for severe iGHD, mean HV SDS was close to zero (-0.09 ± 0.84). Conclusion: The developed age-specific growth response curves enable rapid identification of poor response to first-year GH treatment in prepubertal iGHD children. Our results validate the published growth targets derived from the KIGS database. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24686034

Straetemans, Saartje; Roelants, Mathieu; Thomas, Muriel; Rooman, Raoul; De Schepper, Jean

2014-01-01

221

Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans growth from conidia and mycelial extension by bacterially produced volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

The recently identified causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been implicated in the mortality of an estimated 5.5 million North American bats since its initial documentation in 2006 (Frick et al. in Science 329:679-682, 2010). In an effort to identify potential biological and chemical control options for WNS, 6 previously described bacterially produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were screened for anti-P. destructans activity. The compounds include decanal; 2-ethyl-1-hexanol; nonanal; benzothiazole; benzaldehyde; andN,N-dimethyloctylamine. P. destructans conidia and mycelial plugs were exposed to the VOCs in a closed air space at 15 and 4 °C and then evaluated for growth inhibition. All VOCs inhibited growth from conidia as well as inhibiting radial mycelial extension, with the greatest effect at 4 °C. Studies of the ecology of fungistatic soils and the natural abundance of the fungistatic VOCs present in these environments suggest a synergistic activity of select VOCs may occur. The evaluation of formulations of two or three VOCs at equivalent concentrations was supportive of synergistic activity in several cases. The identification of bacterially produced VOCs with anti-P. destructans activity indicates disease-suppressive and fungistatic soils as a potentially significant reservoir of biological and chemical control options for WNS and provides wildlife management personnel with tools to combat this devastating disease. PMID:24190516

Cornelison, Christopher T; Gabriel, Kyle T; Barlament, Courtney; Crow, Sidney A

2014-02-01

222

Bacterial growth in the cold: Evidence for an enhanced substrate requirement  

SciTech Connect

Growth responses and biovolume changes for four facultatively psychrophilic bacterial isolates from Conception Bay, Newfoundland, and the Arctic Ocean were examined at temperatures from {minus}1.5 to 35C, with substrate concentrations of 0.15, 1.5, and 1,500 mg of proteose peptone-yeast extract per liter. For two cultures, growth in 0.1, 1.0, and 1,000 mg of proline per liter was also examined. At 10 to 15C and above, growth rates showed no marked effect of substrate concentration, while at {minus}1.5 and 0C, there was an increasing requirement for organic nutrients, with generation times in low-nutrient media that were two to three times longer than in high-nutrient media. Biovolume showed a clear dependence on substrate concentration and quality; the largest cells were in the highest-nutrient media. Biovolume was also affected by temperature; the largest cells were found at the lowest temperatures. These data have implications for both food web structure and carbon flow in cold waters and for the effects of global climate change, since the change in growth rate is most dramatic at the lowest temperatures.

Wiebe, W.J.; Sheldon, W.M. Jr.; Pomeroy, L.R. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States))

1992-01-01

223

Assessment of bacterial growth and total organic carbon removal on granular activated carbon contactors.  

PubMed Central

The overall growth rate of bacteria on granular activated carbon (GAC) contactors at the Philadelphia Torresdale Water Treatment Pilot Plant facility was found to decrease until steady state was reached. The growth rate was found to fluctuate between 6.94 X 10(-3) and 8.68 X 10(-4) doublings per h. The microbiological removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was calculated by considering the GAC contactors as semiclosed continuous culture systems and using growth yield factors determined in laboratory experiments. After ozonation, the average TOC entering the contactors was 1,488 micrograms/liter, and the average effluent TOC was 497 micrograms/liter. Microbiological TOC removal was found to average 240 micrograms/liter on GAC contactors, which was not significantly different from microbiological TOC (220 micrograms/liter) removal across a parallel sand contactor where no adsorption took place. Thus, GAC did not appear to enhance biological TOC removal. Bacterial growth and maintenance was responsible for approximately 24% of the TOC removal on GAC under the conditions of this study.

Bancroft, K; Maloney, S W; McElhaney, J; Suffet, I H; Pipes, W O

1983-01-01

224

Changes in bacterial flora of Japanese cabbage during growth and potential source of flora.  

PubMed

Bacterial flora of cabbage were identified and enumerated during various stages of growth, and the potential sources of contamination in the field were determined. Bacterial counts increased from below the level of detection (2.4 log CFU/g) on seeds to 2.5 to 5.7 log CFU/g on seedlings. After transplanting, the counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria on leaves decreased and then increased to 5.7 log CFU/g on outer leaves, 5.0 log CFU/g on middle leaves, and 3.0 log CFU/g on inner leaves at the harvesting stage. Counts of coliforms were below the level of detection during the growing period of the leaves. Bacteria isolated from cabbage seeds, seedlings, and leaves were soilborne organisms such as Bacillus, Curtobacterium, and Delftia and phytopathogenic organisms such as Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Stenotrophomonas. These bacteria were found frequently in seeding machines, potting soil mix, soil, agricultural water, pesticide solutions mixed with the agricultural water, liquid fertilizers, and chemical fertilizers. Contamination from these environmental sites occurred throughout the cabbage growing period rather than only at the harvesting stage. These results indicate that use of clean water for irrigation and for mixing with pesticides and amendments from seeding to the harvesting stage is an important part of a good agricultural practices program for cabbage in Japan. PMID:21477482

Izumi, Hidemi; Sera, Kaori

2011-04-01

225

Label-free interdigitated microelectrode based biosensors for bacterial biofilm growth monitoring using Petri dishes.  

PubMed

Impedance microbiology (IM) is a known technique that has been applied during the last decades to detect the presence of microorganisms in real samples in different fields: food industry, healthcare, environment, etc. Bacterial biofilms however have not been so far studied despite the fact that they are the most common microbiological formation and that they present resistance to antimicrobial agents. In situ early detection of bacterial biofilm is still a challenge nowadays that causes huge impact in many different scenarios. The ability to detect biofilm generation early will allow better and more efficient treatments preventing high costs and important problems. In this work a new performance of this technique with interdigitated microelectrode sensors (IDE) is proposed. A specific culturing setup where the sensors have been integrated in Petri Dishes has been developed. From the results it can be highlighted that low frequencies are more sensitive for detection than higher ones. The results achieved record variations of approximately 40% in the equivalent serial resistance after 10h of culture. Electrical models have been successfully simulated to find the electrical behavior of the development of biofilms. Variations in both the capacitance and resistance were recorded during the growth of the microbes. PMID:24632516

Paredes, Jacobo; Becerro, Sheila; Arana, Sergio

2014-05-01

226

Transformation yielding, plasticity and crack-growth-resistance (R-curve) behaviour of CeO 2 -TZP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation yield and plasticity, transformation zone sizes at crack tips and rising crack-growth-resistance (R-curve) behaviours were studied in a commercial-grade ceria partially stabilized zirconia polycrystalline material (CeO2-TZP). The yield stresses measured in three-point bending decreased from 390 to 176 MPa when the sintering temperature was varied from 1425 to 1525° C. The corresponding total plastic strain to fracture increased with

Cheng-Sheng Yu; D. K. Shetty

1990-01-01

227

Human Capital, Social Support, and Economic Well-being among Rural, Low-income Mothers: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to better understand human capital and social support in the long-term economic well-being of\\u000a rural, low-income mothers in the US. Three waves of data from a multi-state, longitudinal investigation tracking the well-being\\u000a of rural families, known as “Rural Families Speak,” were used to test two latent growth curve models of economic well-being.\\u000a Results indicated

Leigh Ann Simmons; Bonnie Braun; David W. Wright; Scott R. Miller

2007-01-01

228

Hydroxyapatite bioactivated bacterial cellulose promotes osteoblast growth and the formation of bone nodules  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of bacterial cellulose (BC) scaffold to support osteoblast growth and bone formation. BC was produced by culturing Acetobacter xylinum supplemented with hydroxyapatite (HA) to form BC membranes (without HA) and BC/HA membranes. Membranes were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis to determine surface element composition. The membranes were further used to evaluate osteoblast growth, alkaline phosphatase activity and bone nodule formation. BC was free of calcium and phosphate. However, XPS analysis revealed the presence of both calcium (10%) and phosphate (10%) at the surface of the BC/HA membrane. Osteoblast culture showed that BC alone was non-toxic and could sustain osteoblast adhesion. Furthermore, osteoblast adhesion and growth were significantly (p ?0.05) increased on BC/HA membranes as compared to BC alone. Both BC and BC/HA membranes improved osteoconductivity, as confirmed by the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity that increased from 2.5 mM with BC alone to 5.3 mM with BC/HA. BC/HA membranes also showed greater nodule formation and mineralization than the BC membrane alone. This was confirmed by Alizarin red staining (ARS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This work demonstrates that both BC and BC/HA may be useful in bone tissue engineering.

2012-01-01

229

Effect of Bacterial Memory Dependent Growth by Using Fractional Derivatives Reaction-Diffusion Chemotactic Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, numerical solutions of a reaction-diffusion chemotactic model of fractional orders for bacterial growth will be present. A new solution is constructed in power series. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. We compare the experimental result obtained with those obtained by simulation of the chemotactic model without fractional derivatives. The results show that the solution continuously depends on the time-fractional derivative. The resulting solutions spread faster than the classical solutions and may exhibit asymmetry, depending on the fractional derivative used. We present results of numerical simulations to illustrate the method, and investigate properties of numerical solutions. The Adomian's decomposition method (ADM) is used to find the approximate solution of fractional `reaction-diffusion chemotactic model. Numerical results show that the approach is easy to implement and accurate when applied to partial differential equations of fractional order.

Rida, S. Z.; El-Sayed, A. M. A.; Arafa, A. A. M.

2010-08-01

230

Surfactant improves lung function and mitigates bacterial growth in immature ventilated rabbits with experimentally induced neonatal group B streptococcal pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Aims—To study the influence of surfactant on lung function and bacterial proliferation in immature newborn rabbits with experimental group B streptococcal (GBS) pneumonia.?METHODS—Preterm rabbit fetuses (gest-ational age 28 days) underwent tracheotomy and were mechanically ventilated in a warmed body plethysmograph that permitted measurement of lung-thorax compliance. Fifteen minutes after the onset of ventilation the animals received either GBS or saline intratracheally; at 30 minutes, a bolus of saline or 200 mg/kg of a porcine surfactant (Curosurf) was administered via the airway. Bacterial proliferation was evaluated in lung homogenate at the end of the experiments and the results expressed as mean log10 cfu/g lung (SD). Animals receiving only saline (n=20) or saline and surfactant (n=20) served as controls.?RESULTS—The average survival time was about three hours in all groups. Infected animals receiving surfactant (n = 22) had significantly less bacterial growth (9.09 (0.45) vs 9.76 (0.91)) and improved lung function (compliance: 0.61 (0.14) vs 0.34 (0.19) ml/kg . cm H2O) than infected rabbits receiving saline at 30 minutes (n = 22).?CONCLUSION—Surfactant improves lung function and mitigates bacterial growth in preterm rabbits infected with group B streptococci.?? Keywords: surfactant; rabbits; group B streptococci; lung function; bacterial growth.

Herting, E.; Sun, B.; Jarstrand, C.; Curstedt, T.; Robertson, B.

1997-01-01

231

Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for polymyxin B in bacterial growth media.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the optimization of polymyxin B dosing regimens to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. We aimed to develop and validate a liquid chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method to quantify polymyxin B in two growth media commonly used in in vitro pharmacodynamic studies, cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton and tryptone soya broth. Samples were pre-treated with sodium hydroxide (1.0M) and formic acid in acetonitrile (1:100, v/v) before analysis. The summed peak areas of polymyxin B1 and B2 relative to the summed peak areas of colistin A and B (internal standard) were used to quantify polymyxin B. Quality control samples were prepared and analyzed to assess the intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision. The robustness of the assay in the presence of bacteria and commonly co-administered antibiotics (rifampicin, doripenem, imipenem, cefepime and tigecycline) was also examined. Chromatographic separation was achieved with retention times of approximately 9.7min for polymyxin B2 and 10.4min for polymyxin B1. Calibration curves were linear between 0.103 and 6.60mg/L. Accuracy (% relative error) and precision (% coefficient of variation), pooled for all assay days and matrices (n=84), were -6.85% (8.17%) at 0.248mg/L, 1.73% (6.15%) at 2.48mg/L and 1.54% (5.49%) at 4.95mg/L, and within acceptable ranges at all concentrations examined. Further, the presence of high bacterial concentrations or of commonly co-administered antibiotics in the samples did not affect the assay. The accuracy, precision and cost-efficiency of the assay make it ideally suited to quantifying polymyxin B in samples from in vitro pharmacodynamic models. PMID:24530981

Cheah, Soon-Ee; Bulitta, Jurgen B; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L

2014-04-01

232

Amelioration of high salinity stress damage by plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes that contain ACC deaminase.  

PubMed

Plant growth and productivity is negatively affected by soil salinity. However, it is predicted that plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) endophytes that contain 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (E.C. 4.1.99.4) can facilitate plant growth and development in the presence of a number of different stresses. In present study, the ability of ACC deaminase containing PGPB endophytes Pseudomonas fluorescens YsS6, Pseudomonas migulae 8R6, and their ACC deaminase deficient mutants to promote tomato plant growth in the absence of salt and under two different levels of salt stress (165 mM and 185 mM) was assessed. It was evidence that wild-type bacterial endophytes (P. fluorescens YsS6 and P. migulae 8R6) promoted tomato plant growth significantly even in the absence of stress (salinity). Plants pretreated with wild-type ACC deaminase containing endophytic strains were healthier and grew to a much larger size under high salinity stress compared to plants pretreated with the ACC deaminase deficient mutants or no bacterial treatment (control). The plants pretreated with ACC deaminase containing bacterial endophytes exhibit higher fresh and dry biomass, higher chlorophyll contents, and a greater number of flowers and buds than the other treatments. Since the only difference between wild-type and mutant bacterial endophytes was ACC deaminase activity, it is concluded that this enzyme is directly responsible for the different behavior of tomato plants in response to salt stress. The use of PGPB endophytes with ACC deaminase activity has the potential to facilitate plant growth on land that is not normally suitable for the majority of crops due to their high salt contents. PMID:24769617

Ali, Shimaila; Charles, Trevor C; Glick, Bernard R

2014-07-01

233

Secreted Pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila Promotes Bacterial Iron Uptake and Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions  

PubMed Central

Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-limiting conditions. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin.

Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H.; Liles, Mark R.

2013-01-01

234

A computational exploration of bacterial metabolic diversity identifying metabolic interactions and growth-efficient strain communities  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic interactions involve the exchange of metabolic products among microbial species. Most microbes live in communities and usually rely on metabolic interactions to increase their supply for nutrients and better exploit a given environment. Constraint-based models have successfully analyzed cellular metabolism and described genotype-phenotype relations. However, there are only a few studies of genome-scale multi-species interactions. Based on genome-scale approaches, we present a graph-theoretic approach together with a metabolic model in order to explore the metabolic variability among bacterial strains and identify and describe metabolically interacting strain communities in a batch culture consisting of two or more strains. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach to the bacterium E. coli across different single-carbon-source conditions. Results A different diversity graph is constructed for each growth condition. The graph-theoretic properties of the constructed graphs reflect the inherent high metabolic redundancy of the cell to single-gene knockouts, reveal mutant-hubs of unique metabolic capabilities regarding by-production, demonstrate consistent metabolic behaviors across conditions and show an evolutionary difficulty towards the establishment of polymorphism, while suggesting that communities consisting of strains specifically adapted to a given condition are more likely to evolve. We reveal several strain communities of improved growth relative to corresponding monocultures, even though strain communities are not modeled to operate towards a collective goal, such as the community growth and we identify the range of metabolites that are exchanged in these batch co-cultures. Conclusions This study provides a genome-scale description of the metabolic variability regarding by-production among E. coli strains under different conditions and shows how metabolic differences can be used to identify metabolically interacting strain communities. This work also extends the existing stoichiometric models in order to describe batch co-cultures and provides the extent of metabolic interactions in a strain community revealing their importance for growth.

2011-01-01

235

Secreted pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila promotes bacterial iron uptake and growth under iron-limiting conditions.  

PubMed

Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-limiting conditions. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin. PMID:23980114

Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H; Liles, Mark R; Cianciotto, Nicholas P

2013-11-01

236

Investigating the mechanisms for the opposing pH relationships of fungal and bacterial growth in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil pH is one of the most influential variables in soil, and is a powerful factor in influencing the size, activity and community structure of the soil microbial community. It was previously shown in a century old artificial pH gradient in an arable soil (pH 4.0–8.3) that bacterial growth is positively related to pH, while fungal growth increases with decreasing

Johannes Rousk; Philip C. Brookes; Erland Bååth

2010-01-01

237

Influence of introduced potential biocontrol agents on maize seedling growth and bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of Pseudomonas chromosomally tagged with gfp, which had shown antagonistic activity against the tomato pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in a previous study, were assessed for their impact in the rhizosphere of maize. Plant growth characteristics, numbers of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria, changes in the bacterial community structure according to the r\\/K strategy concept, and shifts in MIDI-FAME profiles of culturable

J. Kozdrój; J. T. Trevors; J. D. van Elsas

2004-01-01

238

Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to Endothelial Cells: Influence of Capsular Polysaccharide, Global Regulator agr, and Bacterial Growth Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to human endothelial cells (EC) is probably an important step in the pathogenesis of systemic staphylococcal infections. We examined the influence of type 5 capsular polysaccha- ride (CP5) production, the global regulator agr, and the bacterial growth phase on S. aureus adherence to EC. Whereas S. aureus Newman showed maximal adherence to EC in the

PETRA POHLMANN-DIETZE; MARTINA ULRICH; KEVIN B. KISER; GERD DORING; JEAN C. LEE; JEAN-MICHEL FOURNIER; KONRAD BOTZENHART; CHRISTIANE WOLZ

2000-01-01

239

BIODEGRADATION DURING CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA. 4. IMPACT OF MICROBIAL LAG AND BACTERIAL CELL GROWTH. (R825415)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Miscible-displacement experiments were conducted to examine the impact of microbial lag and bacterial cell growth on the transport of salicylate, a model hydrocarbon compound. The impacts of these processes were examined separately, as well as jointly, to dete...

240

Persistence and growth of faecal culturable bacterial indicators in water column and sediments of Vidy Bay, Lake Geneva, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study was to investigate the persistence and the growth of culturable bacterial indicators (CBI) including total coliforms (TC) and faecal coliforms represented by Escherichia coli, enterococcus (ENT), and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) in the surface sediments and the water column of Vidy Bay (Lake Geneva, City of Lausanne, Switzerland). The study was carried out for 60

John POTE; Laurence HALLER; Régis KOTTELAT; Vincent SASTRE; Philippe ARPAGAUS; Walter WILDI

2009-01-01

241

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening by Online Immunometric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth under Selective Pressure?  

PubMed Central

Rapid, high-throughput screening tools are needed to contain the spread of hospital-acquired methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Most techniques used in current clinical practice still require time-consuming culture for primary isolation of the microbe. We present a new phenotypic assay for MRSA screening. The technique employs a two-photon excited fluorescence (TPX) detection technology with S. aureus-specific antibodies that allows the online monitoring of bacterial growth in a single separation-free process. Different progressions of fluorescence signals are recorded for methicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains when the growth of S. aureus is monitored in the presence of cefoxitin. The performance of the new technique was evaluated with 20 MRSA strains, 6 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains, and 7 coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains and two different monoclonal S. aureus-specific antibodies. When either of these antibodies was used, the sensitivity and the specificity of the TPX assay were 100%. All strains were correctly classified within 8 to 12 h, and up to 70 samples were simultaneously analyzed on a single 96-well microtiter plate. As a phenotypic method, the TPX assay is suited for screening purposes. The final definition of methicillin resistance in any S. aureus strain should be based on the presence of the mecA gene. The main benefit afforded by the initial use of the TPX methodology lies in its low cost and applicability to high-throughput analysis.

Stenholm, Teppo; Hakanen, Antti J.; Vaarno, Jonne; Pihlasalo, Sari; Terho, Perttu; Hanninen, Pekka E.; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Huovinen, Pentti; Kotilainen, Pirkko

2009-01-01

242

Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.

2012-01-01

243

Are leaf glandular trichomes of oregano hospitable habitats for bacterial growth?  

PubMed

Phyllospheric bacteria were isolated from microsites around essential-oil-containing glands of two oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) lines. These bacteria, 20 isolates in total, were subjected to bioassays to examine their growth potential in the presence of essential oils at different concentrations. Although there were qualitative and quantitative differences in the essential oil composition between the two oregano lines, no differences were recorded in their antibacterial activity. In disk diffusion bioassays, four of the isolated strains could grow almost unrestrained in the presence of oregano oil, another five proved very sensitive, and the remaining 11 showed intermediate sensitivity. The strain least inhibited by oregano essential oil was further identified by complete16s rRNA gene sequencing as Pseudomonas putida. It was capable of forming biofilms even in the presence of oregano oil at high concentrations. Resistance of P. putida to oregano oil was further elaborated by microwell dilution bioassays, and its topology on oregano leaves was studied by electron microscopy. When inoculated on intact oregano plants, P. putida was able not only to colonize sites adjacent to essential oil-containing glands, but even to grow intracellularly. This is the first time that such prolific bacterial growth inside the glands has been visually observed. Results of this study further revealed that several bacteria can be established on oregano leaves, suggesting that these bacteria have attributes that allow them to tolerate or benefit from oregano secondary metabolites. PMID:22527057

Karamanoli, K; Thalassinos, G; Karpouzas, D; Bosabalidis, A M; Vokou, D; Constantinidou, H-I

2012-05-01

244

Bacterial Biofertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many bacteria and fungi can enhance plant growth. The present review is limited to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). However, it includes endophytic bacteria that show plant growth enhancing activity as well. Also the best studied bacterial mechanisms of plant growth promotion are discussed, with a special emphasis on biological nitrogen fixation and synthesis of phytohormones, including less understood mechanisms

LUIS E. FUENTES-RAMIREZ; Jesus Caballero-Mellado

245

Examination of Bacterial Characteristics of Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors in Three Pilot-Scale Plants for Treating Low-Strength Wastewater by Application of the Colony-Forming-Curve Analysis Method  

PubMed Central

Characteristic sludge ecosystems arising in anaerobic membrane bioreactors of three pilot-scale plants treating low-strength (less than 1 g of biological oxygen demand per liter) sewage or soybean-processing wastewater were examined by analysis of the colony-forming-curves (CFC) obtained by counting colonies at suitable intervals. The wastewaters, containing high amounts of suspended solids (SS) (SS/chemical oxygen demand ratio, 0.51 to 0.80), were treated by using two types of bioreactors: (i) a hydrolyzation reactor for solubilization and acidification of SS in wastewater and (ii) a methane fermentation reactor for producing methane. The colony counts for the two sewage treatment plants continued to increase even after 3 weeks of incubation, whereas those for soybean-processing wastewater reached an approximately constant level within 3 weeks of incubation. The CFCs were analyzed by correlating the rate of colony appearance on roll tubes with the physiological types of bacteria present in the bioreactors. It was found that there were large numbers of slow-colony-forming anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactors and that the viable populations consisted of a few groups with different growth rates. It is considered that the slow-growing colonies appearing after 10 days of incubation were the dominant microflora in the sewage treated by hydrolyzation reactors. In particular, highly concentrated sludge (30.0 g of mixed-liquor volatile SS per liter) retained by the membrane separation module contained a large number of such bacteria. Slow-growing colonies of these bacteria could be counted by using a sludge extract medium prepared from only the supernatant of autoclaved sludge. In addition, the highest colony counts were almost always obtained with the sludge extract medium, meaning that most of the anaerobic bacteria in these sludges have complex nutrient requirements for growth. This report also indicates the usefulness of application of the CFC analysis method to the study of bacterial populations of anaerobic treatment systems.

Kataoka, Naoaki; Tokiwa, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yasuo; Fujiki, Kiichi; Taroda, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Kiyoshi

1992-01-01

246

Nonlinear estimation of Monod growth kinetic parameters from a single substrate depletion curve.  

PubMed

Monod growth kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting sigmoidal substrate depletion data to the integrated Monod equation, using nonlinear least-squares analysis. When the initial substrate concentration was in the mixed-order region, nonlinear estimation of simulated data sets containing known measurement errors provided accurate estimates of the mu max, Ks, and Y values used to create these data. Nonlinear regression analysis of sigmoidal substrate depletion data was also evaluated for H2-limited batch growth of Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11. The integrated Monod equation can be more convenient for the estimation of growth kinetic parameters, particularly for gaseous substrates, but it must be recognized that the estimates of mu max, Ks, and Y obtained may be influenced by the growth rate history of the inoculum. PMID:6870238

Robinson, J A; Tiedje, J M

1983-05-01

247

The visible bands of ammonia - Band strengths, curves of growth, and the spatial distribution of ammonia on Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report room-temperature laboratory studies of the 5520 Å (6?1) and 6475 Å (5?1) bands of self-broadened ammonia at column densities ranging from 1.7-435.7 meter-amagats (m-am). Detailed equivalent-width measurements at 24 different pressure-pathlength combinations corresponding to four pressures between 44 and 689 torr and pathlengths between 32 and 512 m are used to determine curves of growth and integrated band strengths. The band strengths for the (6?1) and and 5?1 overtones are 5520 Å: S = 0.096 ± 0.005 cm-1 (m-am)-1 and 6475 Å: S = 0.63 ± 0.03 cm-1 (m-am)-1, respectively. Using these band strengths and curves of growth, we analyze new spatially resolved spectra of Jupiter showing a nonhomogeneous distribution of ammonia in the Jovian atmosphere. The observed variations in the CH4/NH3 mixing ratio are interpreted as evidence of altitude-dependent depletion of ammonia in the atmosphere.

Lutz, B. L.; Owen, T.

1980-01-01

248

Discrete cyclic di-GMP-dependent control of bacterial predation versus axenic growth in Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.  

PubMed

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a Delta-proteobacterium that oscillates between free-living growth and predation on Gram-negative bacteria including important pathogens of man, animals and plants. After entering the prey periplasm, killing the prey and replicating inside the prey bdelloplast, several motile B. bacteriovorus progeny cells emerge. The B. bacteriovorus HD100 genome encodes numerous proteins predicted to be involved in signalling via the secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), which is known to affect bacterial lifestyle choices. We investigated the role of c-di-GMP signalling in B. bacteriovorus, focussing on the five GGDEF domain proteins that are predicted to function as diguanylyl cyclases initiating c-di-GMP signalling cascades. Inactivation of individual GGDEF domain genes resulted in remarkably distinct phenotypes. Deletion of dgcB (Bd0742) resulted in a predation impaired, obligately axenic mutant, while deletion of dgcC (Bd1434) resulted in the opposite, obligately predatory mutant. Deletion of dgcA (Bd0367) abolished gliding motility, producing bacteria capable of predatory invasion but unable to leave the exhausted prey. Complementation was achieved with wild type dgc genes, but not with GGAAF versions. Deletion of cdgA (Bd3125) substantially slowed predation; this was restored by wild type complementation. Deletion of dgcD (Bd3766) had no observable phenotype. In vitro assays showed that DgcA, DgcB, and DgcC were diguanylyl cyclases. CdgA lacks enzymatic activity but functions as a c-di-GMP receptor apparently in the DgcB pathway. Activity of DgcD was not detected. Deletion of DgcA strongly decreased the extractable c-di-GMP content of axenic Bdellovibrio cells. We show that c-di-GMP signalling pathways are essential for both the free-living and predatory lifestyles of B. bacteriovorus and that obligately predatory dgcC- can be made lacking a propensity to survive without predation of bacterial pathogens and thus possibly useful in anti-pathogen applications. In contrast to many studies in other bacteria, Bdellovibrio shows specificity and lack of overlap in c-di-GMP signalling pathways. PMID:22319440

Hobley, Laura; Fung, Rowena K Y; Lambert, Carey; Harris, Maximilian A T S; Dabhi, Jayesh M; King, Simon S; Basford, Sarah M; Uchida, Kaoru; Till, Robert; Ahmad, Rashidah; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Gomelsky, Mark; Sockett, R Elizabeth

2012-02-01

249

Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Latent Growth Curve Models of Cognitive Abilities in Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though many cognitive abilities exhibit marked decline over the adult years, individual differences in rates of change have been observed. In the current study, biometrical latent growth models were used to examine sources of variability for ability level (intercept) and change (linear and quadratic effects) for verbal, fluid, memory, and…

Reynolds, Chandra A.; Finkel, Deborah; McArdle, John J.; Gatz, Margaret; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

2005-01-01

250

Dominant height growth and site index curves for Calabrian pine ( Pinus brutia Ten.) in central Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dominant height growth model and a site index model were developed for Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in central Cyprus. Data from 64 stem analysis in 32 temporary plots, where Calabrian pine was the only tree species, were used for modeling. The plots were selected randomly in proportion to two site types. Four difference equations were tested. The evaluation

Kyriaki Kitikidou; Petros Petrou; Elias Milios

2012-01-01

251

Comparison of nonlinear and spline regression models for describing mule duck growth curves.  

PubMed

This study compared models for growth (BW) before overfeeding period for male mule duck data from 7 families of a QTL experimental design. Four nonlinear models (Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Weibull) and a spline linear regression model were used. This study compared fixed and mixed effects models to analyze growth. The Akaike information criterion was used to evaluate these alternative models. Among the nonlinear models, the mixed effects Weibull model had the best overall fit. Two parameters, the asymptotic weight and the inflexion point age, were considered random variables associated with individuals in the mixed models. In our study, asymptotic weight had a greater effect in Akaike's information criterion reduction than inflexion point age. In this data set, the between-ducks variability was mostly explained by asymptotic BW. Comparing fixed with mixed effects models, the residual SD was reduced in about 55% in the latter, pointing out the improvement in the accuracy of estimated parameters. The mixed effects spline regression model was the second best model. Given the piecewise nature of growth, this model is able to capture different growth patterns, even with data collected beyond the asymptotic BW. PMID:20634537

Vitezica, Z G; Marie-Etancelin, C; Bernadet, M D; Fernandez, X; Robert-Granie, C

2010-08-01

252

Growth Curves for Receptive Vocabulary Inventories in Non-speaking Toddlers with Developmental Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Early vocabulary development is predictive of many later language and academic skills in children with developmental disabilities (McCathren, Yoder & Warren, 1998) ? Many milestones of vocabulary development are based on expressive vocabulary, such as the association between 50 word expressive vocabularies and rapid vocabulary growth ? Children with severe developmental disabilities at risk for being non-speaking have limited

Cynthia J. Cress; Melody Herzog

253

Level and Change of Bullying Behavior during High School: A Multilevel Growth Curve Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of bullying behavior was examined across three years in a sample of 515 adolescents (46% females) from 41 classrooms. At time 1, the students were in grades 9 and 10 (mean age = 14.5 years; SD = 0.54). Results of a multilevel growth model showed that both baseline level and change of bullying varied significantly across individuals…

Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Salmivalli, Christina

2013-01-01

254

Convexity of the Photosynthetic Light-Response Curve in Relation to Intensity and Direction of Light during Growth.  

PubMed

Photosynthesis in the intermediate light range is most efficient when the convexity of the photosynthetic light-response curve is high. Factors determining the convexity were examined for intact leaves using Salix sp. and for a plant cell culture using the green microalga Coccomyxa sp. It was found that the leaf had lower convexity than diluted plant cells because the light gradient through the leaf was not fully matched by a corresponding gradient in photosynthetic capacity. The degree to which the leaf gradients were matched was quantified by measuring photosynthesis at both leaf surfaces using modulated fluorescence. Two principal growth conditions were identified as those causing mismatch of leaf gradients and lowering of the convexity relative to cells. The first was growth under low light, where leaves did not develop any noteworthy gradient in photosynthetic capacity. This led to decreased convexity, particularly in old leaves with high chlorophyll content and, hence, steep light gradients. Second and less conspicuous was growth under high light conditions when light was given bilaterally rather than unilaterally, which yielded leaves of high photosynthetic capacity at both surfaces. Two situations were also identified that caused the convexity to decrease at the chloroplast level: (a) increased light during growth, for both leaves and cells, and (b) increased CO2 concentration during measurement of high-light-grown leaves. These changes of the intrinsic convexity were interpreted to indicate that the convexity declines with increased capacity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase relative to the capacity of electron transport. PMID:12231754

Ogren, E.

1993-03-01

255

Convexity of the Photosynthetic Light-Response Curve in Relation to Intensity and Direction of Light during Growth.  

PubMed Central

Photosynthesis in the intermediate light range is most efficient when the convexity of the photosynthetic light-response curve is high. Factors determining the convexity were examined for intact leaves using Salix sp. and for a plant cell culture using the green microalga Coccomyxa sp. It was found that the leaf had lower convexity than diluted plant cells because the light gradient through the leaf was not fully matched by a corresponding gradient in photosynthetic capacity. The degree to which the leaf gradients were matched was quantified by measuring photosynthesis at both leaf surfaces using modulated fluorescence. Two principal growth conditions were identified as those causing mismatch of leaf gradients and lowering of the convexity relative to cells. The first was growth under low light, where leaves did not develop any noteworthy gradient in photosynthetic capacity. This led to decreased convexity, particularly in old leaves with high chlorophyll content and, hence, steep light gradients. Second and less conspicuous was growth under high light conditions when light was given bilaterally rather than unilaterally, which yielded leaves of high photosynthetic capacity at both surfaces. Two situations were also identified that caused the convexity to decrease at the chloroplast level: (a) increased light during growth, for both leaves and cells, and (b) increased CO2 concentration during measurement of high-light-grown leaves. These changes of the intrinsic convexity were interpreted to indicate that the convexity declines with increased capacity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase relative to the capacity of electron transport.

Ogren, E.

1993-01-01

256

Curved Walls: Grain Growth, Settling, and Composition Patterns in T Tauri Disk Dust Sublimation Fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10-8 to 10-10 M ? yr-1, the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ~3 to 0.5 ?m. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 × 10-4 of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 ?m silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system.

McClure, M. K.; D'Alessio, P.; Calvet, N.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Sargent, B.; Watson, D. M.; Ingleby, L.; Hernández, J.

2013-10-01

257

Lubricating bacteria model for the growth of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the morphological transition of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation by modifying the bacteria model proposed by Delprato Our model considers four factors: the lubricant fluid generated by bacterial colonies, a chemotaxis initiated by the ultraviolet radiation, the intensity of the ultraviolet radiation, and the bacteria's two-stage destruction rate with given radiation intensities. Using this

Shengli Zhang; Lei Zhang; Run Liang; Erhu Zhang; Yachao Liu; Shumin Zhao

2005-01-01

258

The Leucine Incorporation Method Estimates Bacterial Growth Equally Well in Both Oxic and Anoxic Lake Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial biomass production is often estimated from incorporation of radioactively labeled leucine into protein, in both oxic and anoxic waters and sediments. However, the validity of the method in anoxic environments has so far not been tested. We compared the leucine incorporation of bacterial assemblages growing in oxic and anoxic waters from three lakes differing in nutrient and humic contents.

DAVID BASTVIKEN; LARS TRANVIK

2001-01-01

259

Bacterial Succession in Glacial Forefield Soils Characterized by Community Structure, Activity and Opportunistic Growth Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The succession of bacterial communities inhabiting the forefield of the Dammaglacier (Switzerland) was investigated in soils ranging in successional age from 0 to 100 years since deglaciation. Overall activity per bacterial cell was estimated by the amount of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolyzed per DAPI-stained cell, and an index of \\

W. V. Sigler; S. Crivii; J. Zeyer

2002-01-01

260

Treatment of "Bacterial Cystitis" in Fully Automatic Mechanical Models Simulating Conditions of Bacterial Growth in the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Two fully automatic models are described in which growing cultures can be continuously diluted and periodically discharged producing conditions of growth resembling those of the infected urinary bladder. Both models generate a continuous record of the opacity of the growing culture and the second model also generates a record of the Eh. The effect of adding ampicillin to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli growing in these conditions is described and the relation of the results to human therapy is discussed. ImagesFig. 1

O'Grady, F.; Mackintosh, I. P.; Greenwood, D.; Watson, B. W.

1973-01-01

261

Generating expected growth curves and Z-scores for premature infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To establish a standard for expected growth of premature infants and generate Z-scores based on the standard.Study Design:Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used to evaluate whether the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of birth weight, head circumference, and length from other studies were statistically different from the percentiles from Riddle. Z-scores were generated from the 10th, 50th, and

W R Riddle; S C DonLevy

2010-01-01

262

Stimulated bacterioplankton growth and selection for certain bacterial taxa in the vicinity of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi  

PubMed Central

Episodic blooms of voracious gelatinous zooplankton, such as the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, affect pools of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon by intensive grazing activities and mucus release. This will potentially influence bacterioplankton activity and community composition, at least at local scales; however, available studies on this are scarce. In the present study we examined effects of M. leidyi on bacterioplankton growth and composition in incubation experiments. Moreover, we examined community composition of bacteria associated with the surface and gut of M. leidyi. High release of ammonium and high bacterial growth was observed in the treatments with M. leidyi relative to controls. Deep 454 pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA genes showed specific bacterial communities in treatments with M. leidyi as well as specific communities associated with M. leidyi tissue and gut. In particular, members of Flavobacteriaceae were associated with M. leidyi. Our study shows that M. leidyi influences bacterioplankton activity and community composition in the vicinity of the jellyfish. In particular during temporary aggregations of jellyfish, these local zones of high bacterial growth may contribute significantly to the spatial heterogeneity of bacterioplankton activity and community composition in the sea.

Dinasquet, Julie; Granhag, Lena; Riemann, Lasse

2012-01-01

263

Biodegradation of soil-applied pesticides by selected strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their effects on bacterial growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the influence of four PGPR strains on the degradation of five soil applied\\u000a pesticides and their effects on bacterial growth. Interactions of Bacillus subtilis GB03, Bacillus subtilis FZB24, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Bacillus pumilus SE34 with two concentrations of acibenzolar-S-methyl, metribuzin, napropamide, propamocarb hydrochloride and thiamethoxam in liquid culture and soil microcosm were

Charalampos K. Myresiotis; Zisis Vryzas; Euphemia Papadopoulou-Mourkidou

264

Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Bacterial Growth on Human Ossicles Explanted from Cholesteatoma Patients  

PubMed Central

Background High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment can eliminate cholesteatoma cells from explanted human ossicles prior to re-insertion. We analyzed the effects of HHP treatment on the microbial flora on ossicles and on the planktonic and biofilm states of selected isolates. Methodology Twenty-six ossicles were explanted from cholesteatoma patients. Five ossicles were directly analyzed for microbial growth without further treatment. Fifteen ossicles were cut into two pieces. One piece was exposed to HHP of 350 MPa for 10 minutes. Both the treated and untreated (control) pieces were then assessed semi-quantitatively. Three ossicles were cut into two pieces and exposed to identical pressure conditions with or without the addition of one of two different combinations of antibiotics to the medium. Differential effects of 10-minute in vitro exposure of planktonic and biofilm bacteria to pressures of 100 MPa, 250 MPa, 400 MPa and 540 MPa in isotonic and hypotonic media were analyzed using two patient isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Neisseria subflava. Bacterial cell inactivation and biofilm destruction were assessed by colony counting and electron microscopy. Principal Findings A variety of microorganisms were isolated from the ossicles. Irrespective of the medium, HHP treatment at 350 MPa for 10 minutes led to satisfying but incomplete inactivation especially of Gram-negative bacteria. The addition of antibiotics increased the efficacy of elimination. A comparison of HHP treatment of planktonic and biofilm cells showed that the effects of HPP were reduced by about one decadic logarithmic unit when HPP was applied to biofilms. High hydrostatic pressure conditions that are suitable to inactivate cholesteatoma cells fail to completely sterilize ossicles even if antibiotics are added. As a result of the reduced microbial load and the viability loss of surviving bacteria, however, there is a lower risk of re-infection after re-insertion.

Ostwald, Jurgen; Lindner, Tobias; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Arndt, Kathleen; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Podbielski, Andreas

2012-01-01

265

Diversity matters: dynamic simulation of distributed bacterial states in suspended growth biological wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

A MATLAB-based program was developed to simulate the distributions of states and behaviors of microbial storage product-accumulating bacteria in suspended growth systems. Currently available computer simulators of these systems predict dynamic behaviors by numerically solving differential biokinetic equations using average, or "lumped" system states (e.g., average microbial storage products concentrations). However, individual bacterial states are expected to diverge from average values, in part because individuals can have different hydrodynamic histories in terms of their residence times in upstream completely mixed flow reactors. The distributed state simulation program presented in this paper (DisSimulator 1.0) tracks individual bacteria as they move through a completely mixed reactor system. The program was evaluated for competition between polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and non-polyphosphate-accumulating heterotrophs in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system for treatment of domestic wastewater. For identical systems and process conditions, simulations accounting for distributed states predicted larger anaerobic and aerobic solids residence time requirements for successful EBPR than did simulations using the lumped approach. One reason for this was that distributed simulations predicted large numbers of the PAOs were essentially inactive due to depleted or maximized storage product contents, while the lumped simulations predicted homogenous, 100% active PAO populations. Characteristic state profile shapes developed rapidly and were stable as total population numbers changed. Lumped state assumptions were demonstrated to produce large errors in predictions of EBPR system performance, and so consideration of distributed states may improve the accuracy of microbial storage products-based process simulations in systems with completely mixed hydrodynamics. PMID:15880520

Schuler, Andrew J

2005-07-01

266

Bacterial Growth at the High Concentrations of Magnesium Sulfate Found in Martian Soils  

PubMed Central

Abstract The martian surface environment exhibits extremes of salinity, temperature, desiccation, and radiation that would make it difficult for terrestrial microbes to survive. Recent evidence suggests that martian soils contain high concentrations of MgSO4 minerals. Through warming of the soils, meltwater derived from subterranean ice-rich regolith may exist for an extended period of time and thus allow the propagation of terrestrial microbes and create significant bioburden at the near surface of Mars. The current report demonstrates that halotolerant bacteria from the Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma are capable of growing at high concentrations of MgSO4 in the form of 2 M solutions of epsomite. The epsotolerance of isolates in the GSP bacterial collection was determined, with 35% growing at 2 M MgSO4. There was a complex physiological response to mixtures of MgSO4 and NaCl coupled with other environmental stressors. Growth also was measured at 1 M concentrations of other magnesium and sulfate salts. The complex responses may be partially explained by the pattern of chaotropicity observed for high-salt solutions as measured by agar gelation temperature. Select isolates could grow at the high salt concentrations and low temperatures found on Mars. Survival during repetitive freeze-thaw or drying-rewetting cycles was used as other measures of potential success on the martian surface. Our results indicate that terrestrial microbes might survive under the high-salt, low-temperature, anaerobic conditions on Mars and present significant potential for forward contamination. Stringent planetary protection requirements are needed for future life-detection missions to Mars. Key Words: Analogue—Mars—Planetary protection—Salts—Life in extreme environments. Astrobiology 12, 98–106.

Crisler, J.D.; Newville, T.M.; Chen, F.; Clark, B.C.

2012-01-01

267

Bacterial Filament Formation, a Defense Mechanism against Flagellate Grazing, Is Growth Rate Controlled in Bacteria of Different Phyla  

PubMed Central

A facultatively filamentous bacterium was isolated from eutrophic lake water and was identified as Flectobacillus sp. strain MWH38 (a member of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum) by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Filament formation by Flectobacillus sp. strain MWH38 and filament formation by Flectobacillus major, the closest known relative of strain MWH38, were studied in chemostat cultures under grazing pressure by the bacterivorous flagellate Ochromonas sp. strain DS and without predation at several growth rates. The results clearly demonstrated that filament formation by the two flectobacilli is growth rate controlled and thus independent of the presence of a predator. However, flagellate grazing positively influenced bacterial growth rates by decreasing bacterial biomass and thus indirectly stimulated filament formation. The results of investigations of cell elongation and filament formation by Comamonas acidovorans PX54 (a member of the ? subclass of the class Proteobacteria) supported the recent proposal that in this species the mechanism of filament formation is growth rate controlled. The finding that the grazing defense mechanism consisting of filament formation is growth rate controlled in the flectobacilli investigated and C. acidovorans PX54 (i.e., in bacteria belonging to divergent evolutionary phyla) may indicate that this mechanism is a phylogenetically widely distributed defense strategy against grazing.

Hahn, Martin W.; Moore, Edward R. B.; Hofle, Manfred G.

1999-01-01

268

Bacterial filament formation, a defense mechanism against flagellate grazing, is growth rate controlled in bacteria of different phyla.  

PubMed

A facultatively filamentous bacterium was isolated from eutrophic lake water and was identified as Flectobacillus sp. strain MWH38 (a member of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum) by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Filament formation by Flectobacillus sp. strain MWH38 and filament formation by Flectobacillus major, the closest known relative of strain MWH38, were studied in chemostat cultures under grazing pressure by the bacterivorous flagellate Ochromonas sp. strain DS and without predation at several growth rates. The results clearly demonstrated that filament formation by the two flectobacilli is growth rate controlled and thus independent of the presence of a predator. However, flagellate grazing positively influenced bacterial growth rates by decreasing bacterial biomass and thus indirectly stimulated filament formation. The results of investigations of cell elongation and filament formation by Comamonas acidovorans PX54 (a member of the beta subclass of the class Proteobacteria) supported the recent proposal that in this species the mechanism of filament formation is growth rate controlled. The finding that the grazing defense mechanism consisting of filament formation is growth rate controlled in the flectobacilli investigated and C. acidovorans PX54 (i.e., in bacteria belonging to divergent evolutionary phyla) may indicate that this mechanism is a phylogenetically widely distributed defense strategy against grazing. PMID:9872755

Hahn, M W; Moore, E R; Höfle, M G

1999-01-01

269

Effects of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on Growth Performance, Diarrhea and Faecal Bacterial Flora of Weaned Piglets  

PubMed Central

This research focused on the effects of different doses of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, faecal bacterial flora, and the relative number of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in faeces of weaned piglets to determine whether the strain can serve as a candidate antimicrobial growth promoter. A total of 360 piglets (initial body weight 7.14±0.63 kg) weaned at 26±2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 treatment groups (4 pens per treatment with 18 pigs per pen) for a 28-day trial. Dietary treatments were basal diet without any antimicrobial (negative control; NC), basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg feed of neomycin sulfate (positive control; PC) and basal diet supplemented with 2×109 (L), 4×109 (M) and 20×109 (H) CFU/kg feed of B. subtilis KN-42. During the overall period, average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets were higher in groups PC, M, and H than those in group NC (p<0.05), and all probiotics and antibiotics groups had a lower diarrhea index than group NC (p<0.05). The 16S rDNA gene-based methods were used to analyze faecal bacterial flora on day 28 of experiment. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that supplementation of B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet changed the bacterial communities, with a higher bacterial diversity and band number in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the relative number of Lactobacillus were higher in groups PC and H than in group NC (p<0.05), and the supplemented B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet also reduced the relative number of E. coli (p<0.05). These results suggest that dietary addition of B. subtilis KN-42 can improve the growth performance and gastrointestinal health of piglets.

Hu, Yuanliang; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Zhao, Shumiao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang

2014-01-01

270

A Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Early and Increasing Peer Victimization as Predictors of Mental Health Across Elementary School  

PubMed Central

Peer victimization has been implicated as a traumatic stressor that compromises children’s long-term mental health, yet a dearth of prospective research specifically demonstrates lasting effects of early victimization. This research examined whether early (2nd grade) victimization and increasing (2nd – 5th grade) victimization independently predicted depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior (overt and relational) in 5th grade. Participants included 433 children (238 girls, 195 boys). Children reported on peer victimization and depressive symptoms; teachers reported on peer victimization and aggressive behavior. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that both early and increasing victimization made unique contributions to subsequent depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior. Relational aggression was particularly likely to follow victimization in girls.

Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Hessel, Elenda T.; Schmidt, Jennifer D.

2011-01-01

271

The Relevance of Conditional Dispersal for Bacterial Colony Growth and Biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial degradation is an ecosystem service that offers a promising method for the remediation of contaminated soils. To\\u000a assess the dynamics and efficiency of bacterial degradation, reliable microbial simulation models, along with the relevant\\u000a processes, are required. We present an approach aimed at improving reliability by studying the relevance and implications\\u000a of an important concept from theoretical ecology in the

Thomas Banitz; Karin Johst; Lukas Y. Wick; Ingo Fetzer; Hauke Harms; Karin Frank

272

Population Dynamics of a Salmonella Lytic Phage and Its Host: Implications of the Host Bacterial Growth Rate in Modelling  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and impact of bacteriophages in the ecology of bacterial communities coupled with their ability to control pathogens turn essential to understand and predict the dynamics between phage and bacteria populations. To achieve this knowledge it is essential to develop mathematical models able to explain and simulate the population dynamics of phage and bacteria. We have developed an unstructured mathematical model using delay-differential equations to predict the interactions between a broad-host-range Salmonella phage and its pathogenic host. The model takes into consideration the main biological parameters that rule phage-bacteria interactions likewise the adsorption rate, latent period, burst size, bacterial growth rate, and substrate uptake rate, among others. The experimental validation of the model was performed with data from phage-interaction studies in a 5 L bioreactor. The key and innovative aspect of the model was the introduction of variations in the latent period and adsorption rate values that are considered as constants in previous developed models. By modelling the latent period as a normal distribution of values and the adsorption rate as a function of the bacterial growth rate it was possible to accurately predict the behaviour of the phage-bacteria population. The model was shown to predict simulated data with a good agreement with the experimental observations and explains how a lytic phage and its host bacteria are able to coexist.

Santos, Silvio B.; Carvalho, Carla; Azeredo, Joana; Ferreira, Eugenio C.

2014-01-01

273

Population dynamics of a salmonella lytic phage and its host: implications of the host bacterial growth rate in modelling.  

PubMed

The prevalence and impact of bacteriophages in the ecology of bacterial communities coupled with their ability to control pathogens turn essential to understand and predict the dynamics between phage and bacteria populations. To achieve this knowledge it is essential to develop mathematical models able to explain and simulate the population dynamics of phage and bacteria. We have developed an unstructured mathematical model using delay-differential equations to predict the interactions between a broad-host-range Salmonella phage and its pathogenic host. The model takes into consideration the main biological parameters that rule phage-bacteria interactions likewise the adsorption rate, latent period, burst size, bacterial growth rate, and substrate uptake rate, among others. The experimental validation of the model was performed with data from phage-interaction studies in a 5 L bioreactor. The key and innovative aspect of the model was the introduction of variations in the latent period and adsorption rate values that are considered as constants in previous developed models. By modelling the latent period as a normal distribution of values and the adsorption rate as a function of the bacterial growth rate it was possible to accurately predict the behaviour of the phage-bacteria population. The model was shown to predict simulated data with a good agreement with the experimental observations and explains how a lytic phage and its host bacteria are able to coexist. PMID:25051248

Santos, Sílvio B; Carvalho, Carla; Azeredo, Joana; Ferreira, Eugénio C

2014-01-01

274

[Qualitative and quantitative determination of bacterial populations in an aquatic environment. 7. Development of bacterial growth on raw materials exposed to potable water].  

PubMed

Refined steel plates coated with different materials that contained available organic compounds led to a microbial growth on the surface. Even plastics and bitumen which were used in the sphere of drinking water showed after an exposure time of three months up to 192 ml slime per square meter. The number of viable bacteria within the Aufwuchs was in the range of 10(7) cfu/ml. The production of slime increased with time. The relation of carbohydrate and protein content significantly changed from 2 at the beginning to 30 after 12 months of incubation the bitumen coating test plates. This indicates an increase synthesis of carbohydrate containing extracellular polymeric substances during the late phase of growth. The bacteria isolated from the Aufwuchs mainly belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter, Caulobacter, sheated bacteria and other gramnegative physiologically nonreactiv roads. During exposure of the plates the relation changed within the bacterial communities of the main groups. Comparing the bacteria communities of inlet and outflow water it became evident that the later one was influenced by bacteria of the Aufwuchs. PMID:4024773

Dott, W; Schoenen, D

1985-05-01

275

The infrared and radio spectrum of early type stars with mass loss. II - Tables of theoretical curves of growth for IR and radio excess and gaunt factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors present an extensive grid of theoretical curves of growth for the IR and radio excess of early type stars with mass loss. The curve of growth for IR and radio excess is a relation between the measured flux normalized to the expected photospheric flux, and the wavelength, and has been introduced by Lamers and Waters (1984, Paper I). Comparison of observed curves of growth with theoretical ones yields information on the mass loss rate and shape of the velocity law. Also, the authors present an extensive grid of bound-free and bound-free + free-free gaunt factors for a large range of temperatures (8000 - 106K) for a gas consisting of H, He and CNO. Finally, the dependence of excess flux on model parameters is illustrated by means of a difference table.

Waters, L. B. F. M.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.

1984-09-01

276

Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics.  

PubMed

A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. PMID:23698780

Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F; Leaper, David J; Assadian, Ojan

2013-01-01

277

Predicting Response to Intensive Multimodal Inpatient Treatment: A Comparison of Single and Multiple Class Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approaches  

PubMed Central

In a modest body of research, personality functioning assessed via performance-based instruments has been found to validly predict treatment outcome and, to some extent, differential response to treatment. However, state-of-the-science longitudinal and mixture modeling techniques, which are common in many areas of clinical psychology, have rarely been used. In this article, we compare multilevel growth curve modeling (MLM) and latent class growth modeling (LCGM) approaches with the same dataset to illustrate the different research questions that can be addressed by each method. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores collected at six points during the course of a long-term multimodal inpatient treatment of 58 severely and persistently mentally ill adults were used to model the trajectory of treatment outcome. Pretreatment personality functioning and other markers of psychiatric severity were examined as covariates in each modeling approach. The results of both modeling approaches generally indicated that more psychologically impaired clients responded less favorably to treatment. The LCGM approach revealed two unique trajectories of improvement (a persistently low group and a higher starting, improving group). Personality functioning and baseline psychiatric variables significantly predicted group membership and the rate of change within the groups. A side-by-side examination of these two methods was found to be useful in predicting differential treatment response with personality functioning variables.

Smith, Justin D.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Fowler, J. Christopher; Handler, Leonard

2013-01-01

278

Growth promotion and colonization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) cv. Alamo by bacterial endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN  

PubMed Central

Background Switchgrass is one of the most promising bioenergy crop candidates for the US. It gives relatively high biomass yield and can grow on marginal lands. However, its yields vary from year to year and from location to location. Thus it is imperative to develop a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production system. One of the most feasible ways to increase biomass yields is to harness benefits of microbial endophytes. Results We demonstrate that one of the most studied plant growth promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, and greenhouse conditions. In several in vitro experiments, the average fresh weight of PsJN-inoculated plants was approximately 50% higher than non-inoculated plants. When one-month-old seedlings were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days, the PsJN-inoculated Alamo plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass compared to controls. Biomass yield (dry weight) averaged from five experiments was 54.1% higher in the inoculated treatment compared to non-inoculated control. Similar results were obtained in greenhouse experiments with transplants grown in 4-gallon pots for two months. The inoculated plants exhibited more early tillers and persistent growth vigor with 48.6% higher biomass than controls. We also found that PsJN could significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions. However, PsJN-mediated growth promotion in switchgrass is genotype specific. Conclusions Our results show B. phytofirmans strain PsJN significantly promotes growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under different conditions, especially in the early growth stages leading to enhanced production of tillers. This phenomenon may benefit switchgrass establishment in the first year. Moreover, PsJN significantly stimulated growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions, indicating that the use of the beneficial bacterial endophytes may boost switchgrass growth on marginal lands and significantly contribute to the development of a low input and sustainable feedstock production system.

2012-01-01

279

Illustration of year-to-year variation in wheat spectral profile crop growth curves. [Kansas, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data previously compiled on the year to year variability of spectral profile crop growth parameters for spring and winter wheat in Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas were used with a profile model to develop graphs illustrating spectral profile crop growth curves for a number of years and a number of spring and winter wheat segments. These curves show the apparent variability in spectral profiles for wheat from one year to another within the same segment and from one segment to another within the same year.

Gonzalez, P.; Jones, C. (principal investigators)

1980-01-01

280

Bacterial growth state distinguished by single-cell protein profiling: Does chlorination kill coliforms in municipal effluent?  

SciTech Connect

Municipal effluent is the largest reservoir of human enteric bacteria. Its public health significance, however, depends upon the physiological status of the wastewater bacterial community. A novel immunofluorescence assay was developed and used to examine the bacterial growth state during wastewater disinfection. Quantitative levels of three highly conserved cytosolic proteins (DnaK, Dps, and Fis) were determined by using enterobacterium-specific antibody fluorochrome-coupled probes. Enterobacterial Fis homologs were abundant in growing cells and nearly undetectable in stationary-phase cells. In contrast, enterobacterial Dps homologs were abundant in stationary-phase cells but virtually undetectable in growing cells. The range of variation in the abundance of both proteins was at least 100-fold as determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. Enterobacterial DnaK homologs were nearly invariant with growth state, enabling their use as permeabilization controls. The cellular growth states of individual enterobacteria in wastewater samples were determined by measurement of Fis, Dps, and DnaK abundance (protein profiling). Intermediate levels of Fis and Dps were evident and occurred in response to physiological transitions. The results indicate that chlorination failed to kill coliforms but rather elicited nutrient starvation and a reversible nonculturable state. These studies suggest that the current standard procedures for wastewater analysis which rely on detection of culturable cells likely underestimate fecal coliform content.

Rockabrand, D.; Austin, T.; Kaiser, R.; Blum, P.

1999-09-01

281

From snowflake formation to growth of bacterial colonies II: Cooperative formation of complex colonial patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, bacterial colonies must often cope with hostile environmental conditions. To do so they have developed sophisticated cooperative behaviour and intricate communication capabilities, such as direct cell- cell physical interactions via extra-membrane polymers, collective production of extracellular 'wetting' fluid for movement on hard surfaces, longrange chemical signalling such as quorum sensing and chemotactic (bias of movement according to gradient

Eshel Ben-Jacob

1997-01-01

282

Microbial Biogeography along an Estuarine Salinity Gradient: Combined Influences of Bacterial Growth and Residence Time  

PubMed Central

Shifts in bacterioplankton community composition along the salinity gradient of the Parker River estuary and Plum Island Sound, in northeastern Massachusetts, were related to residence time and bacterial community doubling time in spring, summer, and fall seasons. Bacterial community composition was characterized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA. Average community doubling time was calculated from bacterial production ([14C]leucine incorporation) and bacterial abundance (direct counts). Freshwater and marine populations advected into the estuary represented a large fraction of the bacterioplankton community in all seasons. However, a unique estuarine community formed at intermediate salinities in summer and fall, when average doubling time was much shorter than water residence time, but not in spring, when doubling time was similar to residence time. Sequencing of DNA in DGGE bands demonstrated that most bands represented single phylotypes and that matching bands from different samples represented identical phylotypes. Most river and coastal ocean bacterioplankton were members of common freshwater and marine phylogenetic clusters within the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. Estuarine bacterioplankton also belonged to these phyla but were related to clones and isolates from several different environments, including marine water columns, freshwater sediments, and soil.

Crump, Byron C.; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Hobbie, John E.

2004-01-01

283

Plant growth promotion potential is equally represented in diverse grapevine root-associated bacterial communities from different biopedoclimatic environments.  

PubMed

Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P = 0.03) and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23%) presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%), insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%), and ammonia production (70%). The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root. PMID:23878810

Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Fusi, Marco; Cherif, Ameur; Abou-Hadid, Ayman; El-Bahairy, Usama; Borin, Sara; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

2013-01-01

284

Plant Growth Promotion Potential Is Equally Represented in Diverse Grapevine Root-Associated Bacterial Communities from Different Biopedoclimatic Environments  

PubMed Central

Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P = 0.03) and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23%) presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%), insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%), and ammonia production (70%). The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root.

Fusi, Marco; Cherif, Ameur; Abou-Hadid, Ayman; El-Bahairy, Usama; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

2013-01-01

285

CONSEQUENCES OF PROTIST-STIMULATED BACTERIAL PRODUCTION FOR ESTIMATING PROTIST GROWTH EFFICIENCIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The trophic link between bacteria and bacterivorous protists is a complex interaction that involves feedback of inorganic nutrients and growth substrates that are immediately available for prey growth. These interactions were examined in the laboratory and in incubations of conce...

286

Consequences of protist-stimulated bacterial production for estimating protist growth efficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trophic link between bacteria and bacterivorous protists is a complex interaction that involves feedback of inorganic nutrients and growth substrates that are immeadiately available for prey growth. These interactions were examined in the laboratory and in incubations of concentrated natural assemblages of bacterioplankton. Growth dynamics of estuarine and marine bacterivorous protists were determined in laboratory culture using Vibrio natriegens

Richard A. Snyder; Matthew P. Hoch

1996-01-01

287

Integrated antimicrobial and nonfouling hydrogels to inhibit the growth of planktonic bacterial cells and keep the surface clean.  

PubMed

A new strategy integrating antimicrobial and nonfouling/biocompatible properties is presented. A mild antimicrobial agent (salicylate) was incorporated into a carboxybetaine ester hydrogel, poly(N,N-dimethyl-N-(ethylcarbonylmethyl)-N-[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl]ammonium salicylate) (pCBMA-1 C2 SA) hydrogel, as its anionic counterion. This new hydrogel provides a sustained release of antimicrobial agents to inhibit the growth of planktonic bacteria and create a nonfouling surface to prevent protein adsorption or bacterial accumulation upon the hydrolysis of carboxybetaine esters into zwitterionic groups. The pCBMA-1 C2 SA hydrogel inhibited the growth of both gram-negative Escherichia coli K12 and gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis by 99.9%. This hydrogel holds great potential in applications such as wound dressing and surface coatings for medical devices. PMID:20518560

Cheng, Gang; Xue, Hong; Li, Guozhu; Jiang, Shaoyi

2010-07-01

288

Some triple-filament lead isotope ratio measurements and an absolute growth curve for single-stage leads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Triple-filament analyses of three standard lead samples are used to calibrate a mass spectrometer in an absolute sense. The bias we measure is 0.0155 percent per mass unit, and the precision (for 95% confidence limits) is ??0.13% or less for all ratios relative to 204Pb. Although its precision is not quite so good as that of the lead-tetramethyl method in the analysis of large samples, the triple-filament method is less complex and is an attractive alternative for smaller sample sizes down to 500 ??g. Triple-filament data are presented for six possibly single-stage lead ores and one feldspar. These new data for ores are combined with corrected tetramethyl data for stratiform lead deposits to compute absolute parameters for a universal single-stage lead isotope growth curve. Absolute isotopic ratios for primeval lead have been determined by Oversby and because all the previous data for both meteorites and lead ores were similarly fractionated, the absolute value of 238U 204Pb = 9.09 ?? 0.06 for stratiform leads is little different from the value 8.99 ?? 0.05 originally computed by Ostic, Russell and Stanton. Absolute values for lead isotope ratios for all interlaboratory standard samples presently available from the literature are tabulated. ?? 1969.

Stacey, J. S.; Delevaux, M. E.; Ulrych, T. J.

1969-01-01

289

12-step Affiliation and Attendance following Treatment for Comorbid Substance Dependence and Depression: A Latent Growth Curve Mediation Model  

PubMed Central

Among substance-dependent individuals comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with greater severity and poorer treatment outcomes, but little research has examined mediators of post-treatment substance use outcomes within this population. Using latent growth curve models we tested relationships between individual rates of change in 12-step involvement and substance use, utilizing post-treatment follow-up data from a trial of group Twelve-Step Facilitation (TSF) and Integrated Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (ICBT) for veterans with substance dependence and MDD. While TSF patients were higher on 12-step affiliation and meeting attendance at end-of-treatment as compared to ICBT, they also experienced significantly greater reductions in these variables during the year following treatment, ending at similar levels as ICBT. Veterans in TSF also had significantly greater increases in drinking frequency during follow-up, and this group difference was mediated by their greater reductions in 12-step affiliation and meeting attendance. Patients with comorbid depression appear to have difficulty sustaining high levels of 12-step involvement after the conclusion of formal 12-step interventions, which predicts poorer drinking outcomes over time. Modifications to TSF and other formal 12-step protocols or continued therapeutic contact may be necessary to sustain 12-step involvement and reduced drinking for patients with substance dependence and MDD.

Worley, Matthew J.; Tate, Susan R.; McQuaid, John R.; Granholm, Eric L.; Brown, Sandra A.

2012-01-01

290

High-throughput phenotypic profiling of gene-environment interactions by quantitative growth curve analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Cell-based assays are widely used in high-throughput screening to determine the effects of toxicants and drugs on their biological targets. To enable a functional genomics modeling of gene-environment interactions, quantitative assays are required both for gene expression and for the phenotypic responses to environmental challenge. To address this need, we describe an automated high-throughput methodology that provides phenotypic profiling of the cellular responses to environmental stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Standardized assay conditions enable the use of a single metric value to quantify yeast microculture growth curves. This assay format allows precise control of both genetic and environmental determinants of the cellular responses to oxidative stress, a common mechanism of environmental insult. These yeast-cell-based assays are validated with hydrogen peroxide, a simple direct-acting oxidant. Phenotypic profiling of the oxidative stress response of a yap1 mutant strain demonstrates the mechanistic analysis of genetic susceptibility to oxidative stress. As a proof of concept for analysis of more complex gene-environment interactions, we describe a combinatorial assay design for phenotypic profiling of the cellular responses to tert-butyl hydroperoxide, a complex oxidant that is actively metabolized by its target cells. Thus, the yeast microculture assay format supports comprehensive applications in toxicogenomics. PMID:15033507

Weiss, Andrew; Delproposto, James; Giroux, Craig N

2004-04-01

291

Analyzing latent state-trait and multiple-indicator latent growth curve models as multilevel structural equation models  

PubMed Central

Latent state-trait (LST) and latent growth curve (LGC) models are frequently used in the analysis of longitudinal data. Although it is well-known that standard single-indicator LGC models can be analyzed within either the structural equation modeling (SEM) or multilevel (ML; hierarchical linear modeling) frameworks, few researchers realize that LST and multivariate LGC models, which use multiple indicators at each time point, can also be specified as ML models. In the present paper, we demonstrate that using the ML-SEM rather than the SL-SEM framework to estimate the parameters of these models can be practical when the study involves (1) a large number of time points, (2) individually-varying times of observation, (3) unequally spaced time intervals, and/or (4) incomplete data. Despite the practical advantages of the ML-SEM approach under these circumstances, there are also some limitations that researchers should consider. We present an application to an ecological momentary assessment study (N = 158 youths with an average of 23.49 observations of positive mood per person) using the software Mplus (Muthén and Muthén, 1998–2012) and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the ML-SEM approach to estimate the parameters of LST and multiple-indicator LGC models.

Geiser, Christian; Bishop, Jacob; Lockhart, Ginger; Shiffman, Saul; Grenard, Jerry L.

2013-01-01

292

Do children orphaned by AIDS experience distress over time? A latent growth curve analysis of depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study aimed to examine the enduring effects of parental HIV/AIDS on children's psychological well-being in Asia. A sample of 1625 children aged from 6 to 18 years old were assessed annually for their depressive symptoms over three years. Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) was used to examine the trajectories of depressive symptoms among AIDS orphans and vulnerable children in comparison with children from HIV-free families. AIDS orphans demonstrated the highest initial level of depressive symptoms among the three groups. On average, children's depressive symptoms' scores can be expected to realize an approximate 25% decrease for AIDS orphans, 19% decrease for vulnerable children, and 15% decrease for comparison children over a three-year period. Individual differences within the groups showed that children with higher initial level of depressive symptoms can be expected to decrease slower over time. Multiple group LGCM showed that the three groups of children demonstrated significantly different trajectories of depressive symptoms. Among the key demographic factors, only age exerted an effect on the trajectory of depressive symptoms of vulnerable children, indicating that the younger children showed higher level of initial depressive symptoms and lower rate of decrease than the older children. The current study enriched our knowledge on the longitudinal effect of parental HIV/AIDS on children's emotional distress. Future psychological support might take the children's developmental stages and cultural appropriateness into consideration and deliver service for the most vulnerable group of children affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:24090100

Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

2014-08-01

293

The Role of Peer Contacts in the Relationship between Parental Knowledge and Adolescents' Externalizing Behaviors: A Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect effects (through peer contacts) of parental knowledge on adolescents' delinquent and aggressive problem behavior, using latent growth curve modeling. A sample of 457 13- to 14-year old adolescents at first measurement wave (M = 13.27; SD = 0.45 years) filled out questionnaires…

Reitz, Ellen; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.

2007-01-01

294

The potential drop method for monitoring crack growth in real components subjected to combined fatigue and creep conditions: application of FE techniques for deriving calibration curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential drop technique is a robust method to provide continuous in situ crack growth monitoring of real power-plant components. For a correct assessment of the crack depth, accurate calibration curves for the geometry at hand are required. The problem entails determining the electrical potential field in a body usually characterised by a complicated geometry as a function of the

L Gandossi; S. A Summers; N. G Taylor; R. C Hurst; B. J Hulm; J. D Parker

2001-01-01

295

Effects of monofunctional platinum agents on bacterial growth: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

The effect of the novel and potent monofunctional platinum(II) agent phenanthriplatin on Escherichia coli and bacteriophage ? lysogens is reported. E. coli filamentation was observed by light microscopy when cells were grown in the presence of phenanthriplatin, cis-[Pt(NH3)2(Am)Cl](+) where Am is phenanthridine. Treatment of lysogenic bacteria with this compound resulted in lysis and the production of viral particles, as indicated by plaque formation in a bacterial lawn. The results obtained with phenanthriplatin are contextualized by comparison with those obtained using cisplatin as well as other, less active, monofunctional compounds such as [Pt(NH3)3Cl](+) and cis-[Pt(NH3)2(py)Cl](+), where py is pyridine. The ability of phenanthriplatin to induce bacterial filamentation and initiate lysis in lysogenic bacteria corroborates the hypothesis that the biological activity of this complex is mediated by its interaction with DNA. PMID:24364388

Johnstone, Timothy C; Alexander, Sarah M; Lin, Wei; Lippard, Stephen J

2014-01-01

296

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND BIOMASS CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO Cd(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ni(II), AND Pb(II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the growth characterization of consortium culture (CC) comprising an acclimatized mixed bacterial culture in aqueous solution containing heavy metal ions, namely Cd(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II). Microscopy and biochemical tests performed revealed that consortium culture (CC), an environmental mixed bacterial culture to predominantly consist of six Gram negative (Pseudomonas sp, Serratia sp, Flavobacterium sp, Chryseomonas sp,

Bandar Baru Nilai

2009-01-01

297

Marine microbial ecology off East Antarctica (30 - 80°E): Rates of bacterial and phytoplankton growth and grazing by heterotrophic protists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine microbes (<200 ?m) contribute most of the living matter and carbon flow in the Southern Ocean, yet the factors that control the composition and function of these microbial communities are not well understood. To determine the importance of microbial grazers in controlling microbial abundance, we determined microbial standing stocks and rates of herbivory and bacterivory in relation to the physical environment off East Antarctica during the Baseline Research on Oceanography, Krill and the Environment: West (BROKE-West) survey, which covered waters from the Polar Front to the coast between 30 and 80°E. Concentrations of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) (˜2 to 20 ?m), microzooplankton (˜20 to 200 ?m), bacteria, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) were determined and the growth and grazing mortality of phytoplankton and bacteria were estimated using the grazing dilution technique at 22 sites along the survey. Results showed that microzooplankton and HNF consumed on average 52% of bacterial production d -1 and 62% primary production d -1 but consumed >100% d -1 at the western ice-edge sites. Rates of bacterivory ranged from 0.4 - 2.6 d -1 and were correlated with bacterial concentrations, bacterial growth rates and longitude. Rates were highest in the eastern-most part of the survey, which was sampled last, reflecting the transition along the successional continuum toward a respiration-based, senescent, microbial community. Rates of herbivory ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 d -1 and were correlated with concentrations of microzooplankton and HNF combined, rates of phytoplankton growth, and latitude. Rates were highest at southern ice edge sites where concentrations of prey (as represented by Chl a) and microzooplankton were also highest. Cluster analysis of the concentrations of marine microbes and their rates of growth and grazing mortality identified 5 groups of sample sites that conveniently summarised the variability in the composition and function of the microbial community. Cluster groups differentiated between low Chl a (˜0.3 ?g l -1) open ocean Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) communities; and high Chl a (˜2.4 ?g l -1) ice-associated coastal blooms at various stages between bloom formation and senescence. This partitioning of cluster groups can be used to determine spatial and temporal patterns of carbon transfer by the microbial loop within the BROKE-West survey area.

Pearce, Imojen; Davidson, Andrew T.; Thomson, Paul G.; Wright, Simon; van den Enden, Rick

2010-05-01

298

Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol bacterium on rice growth and disease resistance.  

PubMed

Expression of HpaG(Xoo), a bacterial type-III effector, in transgenic plants induces disease resistance. Resistance also can be elicited by biocontrol bacteria. In both cases, plant growth is often promoted. Here we address whether biocontrol bacteria and HpaG(Xoo) can act together to provide better results in crop improvement. We studied effects of Pseudomonas cepacia on the rice variety R109 and the hpaG(Xoo)-expressing rice line HER1. Compared to R109, HER1 showed increased growth, grain yield, and defense responses toward diseases and salinity stress. Colonization of roots by P. cepacia caused 20% and 13% increase, in contrast to controls, in root growth of R109 and HER1. Growth of leaves and stems also increased in R109 but that of HER1 was inhibited. When P. cepacia colonization was subsequent to plant inoculation with Rhizoctonia solani, a pathogen that causes sheath blight, the disease was less severe than controls in both R109 and HER1; HER1, nevertheless, was more resistant, suggesting that P. cepacia and HpaG(Xoo) cooperate in inducing disease resistance. Several genes that critically regulate growth and defense behaved differentially in HER1 and R109 while responding to P. cepacia. In R109 leaves, the OsARF1 gene, which regulates plant growth, was expressed in consistence with growth promotion by P. cepacia. Inversely, OsARF1 expression was coincident with inhibition in growth of HER1 leaves. In both plants, the expression of OsEXP1, which encodes an expansin protein involved in plant growth,was concomitant with growth promotion in leaves instead of roots,in response to P. cepacia . We also studied OsMAPK, a gene that encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase and controls defense responses toward salinity and infection by pathogens in rice. In response to P. cepacia, an early expression of OsMAPK was coincident with R109 resistance to the disease, while HER1 expressed the gene similarly whether P. cepacia was present or not. Evidently, P. cepacia and G(Xoo)-gene mediated resistance may act differently in rice growth and resistance. Whereas combinative effects of P. cepacia and HpaG(Xoo) in disease resistance have a great potential in agricultural use, it is interesting to study mechanisms that underlie interactions involving biocontrol bacteria, type-III effectors and pathogens. PMID:17301500

Ren, Haiying; Gu, Ganyu; Long, Juying; Yin, Qian; Wu, Tingquan; Song, Tao; Zhang, Shujian; Chen, Zhiyi; Dong, Hansong

2006-12-01

299

From snowflake formation to growth of bacterial colonies. Diffusive patterning in azoic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many phenomena display the emergence of patterns during diffusive growth, ranging from the growth of snowflake s to the aggregation of a soot particle, from oil recovery by fluid injection to solidification of metals and from the formation of a coral reef to cell differentiation during embryonic development. Is the diversity of patterns found in Nature a result of different

Eshel Ben-Jacob

1993-01-01

300

Stimulated Bacterial Growth under Elevated p Co2: Results from an Off-Shore Mesocosm Study  

PubMed Central

Marine bacteria are the main consumers of freshly produced organic matter. Many enzymatic processes involved in the bacterial digestion of organic compounds were shown to be pH sensitive in previous studies. Due to the continuous rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration, seawater pH is presently decreasing at a rate unprecedented during the last 300 million years but the consequences for microbial physiology, organic matter cycling and marine biogeochemistry are still unresolved. We studied the effects of elevated seawater pCO2 on a natural plankton community during a large-scale mesocosm study in a Norwegian fjord. Nine Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for Future Ocean Simulations (KOSMOS) were adjusted to different pCO2 levels ranging initially from ca. 280 to 3000 µatm and sampled every second day for 34 days. The first phytoplankton bloom developed around day 5. On day 14, inorganic nutrients were added to the enclosed, nutrient-poor waters to stimulate a second phytoplankton bloom, which occurred around day 20. Our results indicate that marine bacteria benefit directly and indirectly from decreasing seawater pH. During the first phytoplankton bloom, 5–10% more transparent exopolymer particles were formed in the high pCO2 mesocosms. Simultaneously, the efficiency of the protein-degrading enzyme leucine aminopeptidase increased with decreasing pH resulting in up to three times higher values in the highest pCO2/lowest pH mesocosm compared to the controls. In general, total and cell-specific aminopeptidase activities were elevated under low pH conditions. The combination of enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of organic matter and increased availability of gel particles as substrate supported up to 28% higher bacterial abundance in the high pCO2 treatments. We conclude that ocean acidification has the potential to stimulate the bacterial community and facilitate the microbial recycling of freshly produced organic matter, thus strengthening the role of the microbial loop in the surface ocean.

Endres, Sonja; Galgani, Luisa; Riebesell, Ulf; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Engel, Anja

2014-01-01

301

Noninvasive Quantitative Measurement of Bacterial Growth in Porous Media Under Unsaturated-Flow Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Glucose-dependent growth of the luxCDABE reporter bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 was monitored noninvasively in quartz sand under unsaturated-flow conditions within a 45- by 56- by 1-cm two-dimensional light transmission chamber. The spatial and temporal development of growth were mapped daily over 7 days by quantifying salicylate-induced bioluminescence. A nonlinear model relating the rate of increase in light emission after salicylate exposure to microbial density successfully predicted growth over 4 orders of magnitude (r{sup 2}=0.95). Total model-predicted growth agreed with growth calculated from the mass balance of the system by using previously determined growth parameters of HK44 (predicted, 1.2 x 10{sup 12} cells; calculated, 1.7 x 10{sup 12} cells). Colonization expanded in all directions from the inoculation region, including upward migration against the liquid flow. Both the daily rate of expansion of the colonized zone and the population density of the first day's growth in each newly colonized region remained relatively constant throughout the experiment. Nonetheless, substantial growth continued to occur on subsequent days in the older regions of the colonized zone. The proportion of daily potential growth that remained within the chamber declined progressively between days 2 and 7 (from 97 to 13%). A densely populated, anoxic region developed in the interior of the colonized zone even though the sand was unsaturated and fresh growth medium continued to flow through the colonized zone. These data illustrate the potential of a light transmission chamber, bioluminescent bacteria, and sensitive digital camera technology to noninvasively study real-time hydrology-microbiology interactions associated with unsaturated flow in porous media.

Yarwood, Rocky (Oregon State University) [Oregon State University; Rockhold, Mark L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Niemet, Mike (Oregon State University) [Oregon State University; Selker, John S.(VISITORS) [VISITORS; Bottomley, Peter J.(Oregon State University) [Oregon State University

2002-07-01

302

A possible mechanism of action of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain Bacillus pumilus WP8 via regulation of soil bacterial community structure.  

PubMed

According to the traditional view, establishment and maintenance of critical population densities in the rhizosphere was the premise of PGPR to exert growth-promoting effects. In light of the facts that soil bacterial community structures can be changed by some PGPR strains including Bacillus pumilus WP8, we hypothesize that regulation of soil bacterial community structure is one of the plant growth-promoting mechanisms of B. pumilus WP8, rather than depending on high-density cells in soil. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was performed to evaluate the relationship between changes in soil bacterial community structure and growth-promoting effect on the seedling growth of fava beans (Vicia faba L.) during three successive cultivations. We found that B. pumilus WP8 lacks capacity to reproduce in large enough numbers to survive in bulk soil more than 40 days, yet the bacterial community structures were gradually influenced by inoculation of WP8, especially on dominant populations. Despite WP8 being short-lived, it confers the ability of steadily promoting fava bean seedling growth on soil during the whole growing period for at least 90 days. Pseudomonas chlororaphis RA6, another tested PGPR strain, exists in large numbers for at least 60 days but less than 90 days, whilst giving rise to slight influence on bacterial community structure. In addition, along with the extinction of RA6 cells in bulk soils, the effect of growth promotion disappeared simultaneously. Furthermore, the increment of soil catalase activity from WP8 treatment implied the ability to stimulate soil microbial activity, which may be the reason why the dominant population changed and increased as time passed. Our study suggests that regulation of treated soil bacterial community structure may be another possible action mechanism. PMID:24005176

Kang, Yijun; Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

2013-01-01

303

Effects of space flight and mixing on bacterial growth in low volume cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous investigations have shown that liquid suspension bacterial cultures grow to higher cell concentrations in spaceflight than on Earth. None of these studies included ground-control experiments designed to evaluate the fluid effects potentially responsible for the reported increases. Therefore, the emphasis of this research was to both confirm differences in final cell concentration between 1g and microgravity cultures, and to examine the effects of mixing as a partial explanation for this difference. Flight experiments were performed in the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA), aboard Space Shuttle Missions STS-63 and STS-69, with simultaneous 1g static and agitated controls. Additional static 1g, agitated, and clino-rotated controls were performed in 9-ml culture tubes. This research revealed that both E. coli and B. subtilis samples cultured in space flight grew to higher final cell densities (120-345% increase) than simultaneous static 1g controls. The final cell concentration of E. coli cells cultured under agitation was 43% higher than in static 1g cultures and was 102% higher with clino-rotation. However, for B. subtilis cultures grown while being agitated on a shaker or clino-rotated, the final cell concentrations were nearly identical to those of the simultaneous static 1g controls. Therefore, these data suggest that the unique fluid quiescence in the microgravity environment (lack of sedimentation, creating unique transfer of nutrients and waste products), was responsible for the enhanced bacterial proliferation reported in this and other studies.

Kacena, M. A.; Manfredi, B.; Todd, P.

1999-01-01

304

Adequate Th2-Type Response Associates with Restricted Bacterial Growth in Latent Mycobacterial Infection of Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is still a major health problem worldwide. Currently it is not known what kind of immune responses lead to successful control and clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This gap in knowledge is reflected by the inability to develop sufficient diagnostic and therapeutic tools to fight tuberculosis. We have used the Mycobacterium marinum infection model in the adult zebrafish and taken advantage of heterogeneity of zebrafish population to dissect the characteristics of adaptive immune responses, some of which are associated with well-controlled latency or bacterial clearance while others with progressive infection. Differences in T cell responses between subpopulations were measured at the transcriptional level. It was discovered that a high total T cell level was usually associated with lower bacterial loads alongside with a T helper 2 (Th2)-type gene expression signature. At late time points, spontaneous reactivation with apparent symptoms was characterized by a low Th2/Th1 marker ratio and a substantial induction of foxp3 reflecting the level of regulatory T cells. Characteristic gata3/tbx21 has potential as a biomarker for the status of mycobacterial disease.

Hammaren, Milka Marjut; Luukinen, Bruno Vincent; Pesu, Marko; Ramet, Mika; Parikka, Mataleena

2014-01-01

305

Uncoupling in Bacterial Growth: ATP Pool Variation in Zymomonas mobilis Cells in Relation to Different Uncoupling Conditions of Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The ATP pool, chosen as a suitable criterion of the cellular energetic state, has been measured in Zymomonas mobilis in different physiological conditions. ATP accumulates when growth is limited by pantothenic acid or blocked by chloram- phenicol. A constitutive ATPase activity with a low affinity for ATP has been found which could be responsible for the dissipation of the

A. LAZDUNSKI; J. P. BELAICH

1972-01-01

306

Consideration of probability of bacterial growth for Jovian planets and their satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental parameters affecting growth of bacteria are compared with current atmospheric models for Jupiter and Saturn, and with the available physical data for their satellites. Different zones of relative probability of growth are identified for Jupiter and Saturn. Of the more than two dozen satellites, only the largest (Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan) are found to be interesting biologically. Titan's atmosphere may produce a substantial greenhouse effect providing increased surface temperatures. Models predicting a dense atmosphere are compatible with microbial growth for a range of pressures at Titan's surface. For Titan's surface the probability of growth would be enhanced if: (1) the surface is entirely or partially liquid; (2) volcanism is present; or (3) access to internal heat sources is significant.

Taylor, D. M.; Berkman, R. M.; Divine, N.

1974-01-01

307

Noninvasive Quantitative Measurement of Bacterial Growth in Porous Media Under Unsaturated-Flow Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose-dependent growth of the luxCDABE reporter bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 was monitored noninvasively in quartz sand under unsaturated-flow conditions within a 45- by 56- by 1-cm two-dimensional light transmission chamber. The spatial and temporal development of growth were mapped daily over 7 days by quantifying salicylate-induced bioluminescence. A nonlinear model relating the rate of increase in light emission after salicylate

Rocky Yarwood; Mark L. Rockhold; Mike Niemet; John S. Selker; Peter J. Bottomley

2002-01-01

308

Growth kinetics of a diesel-degrading bacterial strain from petroleum-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

A diesel-degrading bacterium was isolated from a diesel-contaminated site in Selangor, Malaysia. The isolate was tentatively identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain DRY12 based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny and Biolog GN microplate panels and Microlog database. Optimum growth occurred from 3 to 5% diesel and the strain was able to tolerate as high as 8% diesel. The optimal pH that supported growth of the bacterium was between pH 7.5 to 8.0. The isolate exhibited optimal growth in between 30 and 35 degrees C. The best nitrogen source was potassium nitrate (between 0.6 and 0.9% (w/v)) followed by ammonium chloride, sodium nitrite and ammonium sulphate in descending order. An almost complete removal of diesel components was seen from the reduction in hydrocarbon peaks observed using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography analysis after 10 days of incubation. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibiting growth with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate- micromax was 0.039 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant Ks and inhibition constant Ki, were 0.387% and 4.46%, respectively. MATH assays showed that 75% of the bacterium was found in the hexadecane phase indicating that the bacterium was hydrophobic. The characteristics of this bacterium make it useful for bioremediation works in the Tropics. PMID:24665769

Dahalan, S F A; Yunus, I; Johari, W L W; Shukor, M Y; Halmi, M I E; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

2014-03-01

309

Inhibition of bacterial and filamentous fungal growth in high moisture, nonsterile corn with intermittent pumping of trans-2-hexenal vapor.  

PubMed

Trans-2-hexenal (T2H), a plant-produced aldehyde, was intermittently pumped over a 7 d period into a small, bench top model of stored corn (nonsterile, moisture content about 23%). Naturally occurring bacteria and fungi, including added Aspergillus flavus, grew rapidly on corn not treated with T2H vapor. However, intermittently pumped T2H (30 min per 2 h or 30 min per 12 h) significantly reduced bacterial and fungal viable populations, with nearly 100% fungal viability loss observed after either (1) one day of pumping at the 30 min per 2 h rate or (2) pumping cycles of 30 min per 12 h period over the initial 48 to 72 h of incubation. Data suggest that short-term intermittent fumigation of stored corn with T2H could prevent growth of bacteria and mycotoxigenic fungi such as A. flavus. PMID:23865451

De Lucca, Anthony J; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Boué, Stephen M; Lovisa, Mary P; Bhatnagar, Deepak

2013-07-01

310

Effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on bacterial growth rate.  

PubMed

A large number of cultures of the bacterium E. coli have been grown in weak alternating magnetic fields of square waveform, at frequencies of 50 Hz and 16.66 Hz. Control cultures were simultaneously grown under ambient conditions identical except for the almost complete absence of any magnetic field. The mean generation time (MGT) for a culture subjected to alternating magnetic fields is significantly reduced by comparison with that for the control cultures. Application of the F-ratio test indicates a probability of less than one in two million that the effects observed are due to chance. A marked threshold effect is observed, along with strong indications of periodicity in the graph of MGT against magnetic field strength. Within the limits of experimental error, these effects correspond to integral changes in the number of magnetic flux quanta linking an individual bacterial cell during the process of division. PMID:7019937

Aarholt, E; Flinn, E A; Smith, C W

1981-07-01

311

General approach to bacterial nutrition: growth factor requirements of Moraxella nonliquefaciens.  

PubMed Central

A general procedure was devised for the determination of growth factor requirements of heterotrophic bacteria based upon identification of individual nutrients as they are successively depleted from a limited quantity of complex medium. By using this approach, it was possible to develop a defined medium for growth of Moraxella nonliquefaciens that contained nine amino acids and three vitamins. Three of the amino acids, proline, serine, and cysteine, were required in unusually high concentrations to obtain optimal growth. Methionine had a sparing action on the requirements for serine and cysteine. Glycine could substitute for serine. Although a required nutrient, cysteine was inhibitory for growth, but this inhibitory action was antagonized by valine or leucine. The requirement for cysteine was satisfied by cystine, glutathione, or sodium sulfide. M. nonliquefaciens could not use ammonia as a nitrogen source but could use glutamate or aspartate for this purpose. With the exception of 1 auxotrophic strain, the growth factor requirements of 23 independently isolated strains of M. nonliquefaciens were essentially the same.

Juni, E; Heym, G A; Bradley, R A

1984-01-01

312

Specimen geometry and extended-crack-growth effects on J/sub I/-R curve characteristics for HY-130 and ASTM A533B steels  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the ductile fracture toughness and J/sub I/-R curve properties of HY-130 and ASTM A533B-HSST-03 steels in response to systematic variations of thickness and crack length in the side grooved compact specimen geometry was carried out. A series of 2T compact specimens were produced to varying thicknesses, and with various fatigue crack lengths. Elastic compliance J/sub I/-R curve test were performed, and analyses of J/sub Ic/, the slope of the J/sub I/-R curve, the accuracy of the Ernst-Paris-Landes approximation for J/sub I/, and an assessment of the criterion for J-controlled crack growth were carried out. Results showed that J/sub Ic/ of both steels was geometry independent when validity criteria were met. Both steels displayed a clear dependence of the slope of the J/sub I/-R curve as related to thickness/ligament ratio and degree of crack extension. A limiting thickness/ligament ratio of 1 is necessary to ensure a conservative J/sub I/-R-curve slope over the full range of crack growth. The Ernst-Paris-Landes expression was shown to accurately describe J/sub I/ to crack extension values of 0.4b/sub 0/ for HY-130 steel. Limited evidence suggests that a minimum value of ..omega.. to guarantee J-controlled crack growth with compact specimens in HY-130 steel is 2. 20 figures, 7 tables.

Davis, D.A.; Vassilaros, M.G.; Gudas, J.P.

1983-05-01

313

Bacterial manganese reduction and growth with manganese oxide as the sole electron acceptor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbes that couple growth to the reduction of manganese could play an important role in the biogeochemistry of certain anaerobic environments. Such a bacterium, Alteromonas putrefaciens MR-1, couples its growth to the reduction of manganese oxides only under anaerobic conditions. The characteristics of this reduction are consistent with a biological, and not an indirect chemical, reduction of manganese, which suggest that this bacterium uses manganic oxide as a terminal electron acceptor. It can also utilize a large number of other compounds as terminal electron acceptors; this versatility could provide a distinct advantage in environments where electron-acceptor concentrations may vary.

Myers, Charles R.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

1988-01-01

314

Ogive Curves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a discussion of ogive curves, logistic regression curves, and architecture. Nice photographs of architectural applications are included. The classic Birthday Problems is included as an example of an ogive curve.

2008-01-01

315

Marine microbial ecology in the sub-Antarctic Zone: Rates of bacterial and phytoplankton growth and grazing by heterotrophic protists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sub-Antarctic zone (SAZ) of the Southern Ocean is considered one of the largest sinks for atmospheric CO 2 and as such is an important region for climate change research. To determine the importance of micro- and nano-heterotrophs in controlling microbial abundance within this region, we determined microbial standing stocks and rates of herbivory and bacterivory in relation to changes in the water masses south of Tasmania. The SAZ-Sense ('Sensitivity of the sub-Antarctic zone to environmental change') cruise traversed the SAZ during mid-late austral summer and focussed on process stations to the southeast (45°S, 153°E) and southwest (46°S, 140°E) of Tasmania and at the Polar Front (54°S, 147°E). Growth and grazing mortality of phytoplankton and bacteria were estimated by the grazing dilution technique using seawater from 10 m depth at 15 sites along the survey, along with concentrations of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF), microzooplankton, bacteria, cyanobacteria and size fractionated (pico-, nano- and micro-sized) chlorophyll a (Chl a). Rates of herbivory ranged from 0.12 to 1.39 d -1 and were highest in the north-eastern SAZ (NE-SAZ) where concentrations of prey (as indicated by Chl a) and microzooplankton were also highest. Rates of herbivory were correlated with total rates of phytoplankton growth, bacterial growth and concentrations of microzooplankton. On average 82%, 67% and 42% primary production d -1 was consumed by microzooplankton and HNF at process stations in the north-western SAZ (NW-SAZ), NE-SAZ and polar frontal zone (PFZ), respectively. In the NW-SAZ, grazing pressure was highest on the pico-sized Chl a fraction, whereas in the NE-SAZ, grazing pressure was more evenly distributed across all three size fractions of Chl a. Bacterivory removed 77%, 93% and 39% of bacterial production d -1 in the NW-SAZ, NE-SAZ and PFZ, respectively, and rates of bacterivory ranged from 0.12 to 1.03 d -1. Rates of bacterivory were highest in the NE-SAZ where concentrations of bacteria were significantly higher than elsewhere in the region and bacterivory was correlated with bacterial growth rates and rates of cyanobacterivory. Cluster analysis of the concentrations of marine microbes and their rates of growth and grazing mortality identified 5 groups of sampling sites that differed in community structure. Analysis distinguished between high nutrient, low Chl a (HNLC) communities in the NW-SAZ that were iron-limited; iron-limited low Chl a PFZ communities; and iron-replete NE-SAZ communities where high rates of remineralisation correlated with higher concentrations of Chl a. Our findings show that much of the carbon sequestered by photosynthesis in the SAZ during summer is reprocessed via the microbial loop rather than contributing to vertical flux, particularly to the southeast of Tasmania. This suggests strong seasonality in carbon export in the region and that future climate-driven changes in oceanography may reduce carbon export from the region in summer.

Pearce, Imojen; Davidson, Andrew T.; Thomson, Paul G.; Wright, Simon; van den Enden, Rick

2011-11-01

316

Molecular characterization of RNA and protein synthesis during a one-step growth curve of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in ovine (SFT-R) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) multiplication and synthesis of BVDV specific RNA and proteins in ovine cells (SFT-R) during a one-step growth curve. The virus titre and RNA level were determined by focus-forming assay and real time RT-PCR. The RNA synthesis was detected by Northern blot while synthesis

N. Mishra; B. S. Mathapati; K. Rajukumar; R. K. Nema; S. P. Behera; S. C. Dubey

2010-01-01

317

Methods for Intense Aeration, Growth, Storage, and Replication of Bacterial Strains in Microtiter Plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miniaturized growth systems for heterogeneous culture collections are not only attractive in reducing demands for incubation space and medium but also in making the parallel handling of large numbers of strains more practicable. We report here on the optimization of oxygen transfer rates in deep-well microtiter plates and the development of a replication system allowing the simultaneous and reproducible sampling

WOUTER A. DUETZ; LORENZ RUEDI; ROBERT HERMANN; K. O'Connor; J. Buchs; B. Witholt

2000-01-01

318

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Ralstonia solanacearum ??????????????????????????? Efficacy of Medicinal Plant Crude Extracts on Growth Inhibition of Ralstonia solanacearum, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Wilt of Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of 89 medicinal plant crude extracts on growth inhibition of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt of tomato, was investigated. The extracts were prepared by extracting plant plants in 95% ethyl alcohol and the solvent was evaporated by a vaccuum rotary evaporator. Then, the inhibiting efficacy of the plant crude extracts of 100,000 ppm were tested

Sasitorn Vudhivanich; Supot Supanuntorn

319

In vitro study of bacterial growth in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluids.  

PubMed Central

We examined the in vitro survival of bacteria in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis effluents of patients with clinical peritonitis and those without peritonitis. Standard strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inoculated into the fluids, and portions were plated for bacterial counts at 0.5, 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Unused dialysate fluid was also inoculated simultaneously. Our results show that CNS increased minimally up to 48 h in the noninfected continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis effluents and decreased by 96 h, whereas survival was only minimal in the infected effluent. S. aureus showed trends similar to those of CNS, but differences in survival in infected and noninfected effluents were less marked. By contrast, E. coli and P. aeruginosa increased by greater than 1,000-fold in all solutions tested. Based on the above findings, it is likely that a proportionate number of culture-negative cases of peritonitis are due to gram-positive cocci, especially CNS, which are not retrievable by standard culture techniques because of poor survival rate.

Sheth, N K; Bartell, C A; Roth, D A

1986-01-01

320

Bacterial Cr(VI) reduction concurrently improves sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) growth.  

PubMed

Four Cr(VI)-reducing bacterial strains (Ochrobactrum intermedium, CrT-2, CrT-3 and CrT-4) previously isolated from chromium-contaminated sites were inoculated on to seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus var SF-187), which were germinated and grown along with non-inoculated controls with chromate salts (300 microg CrCl3 or K2CrO4 ml(-1)). Severe reduction (20%) in seed germination was observed in Cr(VI) stress. Plant height decreased (36%) with Cr(VI) when compared with chromium-free control, while O. intermedium inoculation resulted a 20% increment in this parameter as compared to non-inoculated chromium-free control. CrT-3 inoculation resulted a 69% increment in auxin content as compared to non-inoculated control. O. intermedium caused 30% decrease in chromium uptake in sunflower plant roots under Cr(VI) stress as compared to chromium-free control plants. PMID:16091890

Faisal, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida

2005-07-01

321

Acetylation regulates the stability of a bacterial protein: growth stage-dependent modification of RNase R.  

PubMed

RNase R, an Escherichia coli exoribonuclease important for degradation of structured RNAs, increases 3- to 10-fold under certain stress conditions, due to an increased half-life for this usually unstable protein. Components of the trans-translation machinery, tmRNA, and its associated protein, SmpB, are essential for RNase R instability. However, it is not understood why exponential phase RNase R is unstable or how it becomes stabilized in stationary phase. Here, we show that these phenomena are regulated by acetylation catalyzed by YfiQ protein. One residue, Lys544, is acetylated in exponential phase RNase R, but not in the stationary phase protein, resulting in tighter binding of tmRNA-SmpB to the C-terminal region of exponential phase RNase R and subsequent proteolytic degradation. Removal of the positive charge at Lys544 or a negative charge in the C-terminal region likely disrupts their interaction, facilitating tmRNA-SmpB binding. These findings indicate that acetylation can regulate the stability of a bacterial protein. PMID:21981926

Liang, Wenxing; Malhotra, Arun; Deutscher, Murray P

2011-10-01

322

Plant growth promotion by inoculation with selected bacterial strains versus mineral soil supplements.  

PubMed

In the process of remediation of mine sites, the establishment of a vegetation cover is one of the most important tasks. This study tests two different approaches to manipulate soil properties in order to facilitate plant growth. Mine waste from Ingurtosu, Sardinia, Italy rich in silt, clay, and heavy metals like Cd, Cu, and Zn was used in a series of greenhouse experiments. Bacteria with putative beneficial properties for plant growth were isolated from this substrate, propagated and consortia of ten strains were used to inoculate the substrate. Alternatively, sand and volcanic clay were added. On these treated and untreated soils, seeds of Helianthus annuus, of the native Euphorbia pithyusa, and of the grasses Agrostis capillaris, Deschampsia flexuosa and Festuca rubra were germinated, and the growth of the seedlings was monitored. The added bacteria established well under all experimental conditions and reduced the extractability of most metals. In association with H. annuus, E. pithyusa and D. flexuosa bacteria improved microbial activity and functional diversity of the original soil. Their effect on plant growth, however, was ambiguous and usually negative. The addition of sand and volcanic clay, on the other hand, had a positive effect on all plant species except E. pithyusa. Especially the grasses experienced a significant benefit. The effects of a double treatment with both bacteria and sand and volcanic clay were rather negative. It is concluded that the addition of mechanical support has great potential to boost revegetation of mining sites though it is comparatively expensive. The possibilities offered by the inoculation of bacteria, on the other hand, appear rather limited. PMID:23990253

Wernitznig, S; Adlassnig, W; Sprocati, A R; Turnau, K; Neagoe, A; Alisi, C; Sassmann, S; Nicoara, A; Pinto, V; Cremisini, C; Lichtscheidl, I

2014-06-01

323

Bacterial growth at -15 ?C; molecular insights from the permafrost bacterium Planococcus halocryophilus Or1  

PubMed Central

Planococcus halocryophilus strain Or1, isolated from high Arctic permafrost, grows and divides at ?15?°C, the lowest temperature demonstrated to date, and is metabolically active at ?25?°C in frozen permafrost microcosms. To understand how P. halocryophilus Or1 remains active under the subzero and osmotically dynamic conditions that characterize its native permafrost habitat, we investigated the genome, cell physiology and transcriptomes of growth at ?15?°C and 18% NaCl compared with optimal (25?°C) temperatures. Subzero growth coincides with unusual cell envelope features of encrustations surrounding cells, while the cytoplasmic membrane is significantly remodeled favouring a higher ratio of saturated to branched fatty acids. Analyses of the 3.4?Mbp genome revealed that a suite of cold and osmotic-specific adaptive mechanisms are present as well as an amino acid distribution favouring increased flexibility of proteins. Genomic redundancy within 17% of the genome could enable P. halocryophilus Or1 to exploit isozyme exchange to maintain growth under stress, including multiple copies of osmolyte uptake genes (Opu and Pro genes). Isozyme exchange was observed between the transcriptome data sets, with selective upregulation of multi-copy genes involved in cell division, fatty acid synthesis, solute binding, oxidative stress response and transcriptional regulation. The combination of protein flexibility, resource efficiency, genomic plasticity and synergistic adaptation likely compensate against osmotic and cold stresses. These results suggest that non-spore forming P. halocryophilus Or1 is specifically suited for active growth in its Arctic permafrost habitat (ambient temp. ??16?°C), indicating that such cryoenvironments harbor a more active microbial ecosystem than previously thought.

Mykytczuk, Nadia C S; Foote, Simon J; Omelon, Chris R; Southam, Gordon; Greer, Charles W; Whyte, Lyle G

2013-01-01

324

Spatial and Temporal Variation of the Intestinal Bacterial Community in Commercially Raised Broiler Chickens During Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine whether host, compartment, or environmental specific factors play an important role in the establishment of the intestinal microflora in broiler chickens during growth. This objective was addressed using a 16S rDNA approach. PCR-amplicons from the V6 to V8 regions of the 16S rDNA of intestinal samples were separated by denaturing gradient gel

P. W. J. J. Wielen; D. A. Keuzenkamp; L. J. A. Lipman; F. Knapen; S. Biesterveld

2002-01-01

325

Growth rates made easy.  

PubMed

In the 1960s-1980s, determination of bacterial growth rates was an important tool in microbial genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and microbial physiology. The exciting technical developments of the 1990s and the 2000s eclipsed that tool; as a result, many investigators today lack experience with growth rate measurements. Recently, investigators in a number of areas have started to use measurements of bacterial growth rates for a variety of purposes. Those measurements have been greatly facilitated by the availability of microwell plate readers that permit the simultaneous measurements on up to 384 different cultures. Only the exponential (logarithmic) portions of the resulting growth curves are useful for determining growth rates, and manual determination of that portion and calculation of growth rates can be tedious for high-throughput purposes. Here, we introduce the program GrowthRates that uses plate reader output files to automatically determine the exponential portion of the curve and to automatically calculate the growth rate, the maximum culture density, and the duration of the growth lag phase. GrowthRates is freely available for Macintosh, Windows, and Linux. We discuss the effects of culture volume, the classical bacterial growth curve, and the differences between determinations in rich media and minimal (mineral salts) media. This protocol covers calibration of the plate reader, growth of culture inocula for both rich and minimal media, and experimental setup. As a guide to reliability, we report typical day-to-day variation in growth rates and variation within experiments with respect to position of wells within the plates. PMID:24170494

Hall, Barry G; Acar, Hande; Nandipati, Anna; Barlow, Miriam

2014-01-01

326

40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 ...and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â (a) Purpose. Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests measure DNA...

2009-07-01

327

Bacterial biofilm formation versus mammalian cell growth on titanium-based mono- and bi-functional coating.  

PubMed

Biomaterials-associated-infections (BAI) are serious complications in modern medicine. Although non-adhesive coatings, like polymer-brush coatings, have been shown to prevent bacterial adhesion, they do not support cell growth. Bi-functional coatings are supposed to prevent biofilm formation while supporting tissue integration. Here, bacterial and cellular responses to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush-coatings on titanium oxide presenting the integrin-active peptide RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) (bioactive "PEG-RGD") were compared to mono-functional PEG brush-coatings (biopassive "PEG") and bare titanium oxide (TiO2) surfaces under flow. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35983 was deposited on the surfaces under a shear rate of 11 s-1 for 2 h followed by seeding of U2OS osteoblasts. Subsequently, both S. epidermidis and U2OS cells were grown simultaneously on the surfaces for 48 h under low shear (0.14 s-1). After 2 h, staphylococcal adhesion was reduced to 3.6-/+1.8 x 103 and 6.0-/+3.9 x 103 cm-2 on PEG and PEG-RGD coatings respectively, compared to 1.3-/+0.4 x 105 cm-2 for the TiO2 surface. When allowed to grow for 48 h, biofilms formed on all surfaces. However, biofilms detached from the PEG and PEG-RGD coatings when exposed to an elevated shear (5.6 s-1) U2OS cells neither adhered nor spread on PEG brush-coatings, regardless of the presence of biofilm. In contrast, in the presence of biofilm, U2OS cells adhered and spread on PEG-RGD coatings with a significantly higher surface coverage than on bare TiO2. The detachment of biofilm and the high cell surface coverage revealed the potential significance of PEG-RGD coatings in the context of the "race for the surface" between bacteria and mammalian cells. PMID:20467966

Subbiahdoss, G; Pidhatika, B; Coullerez, G; Charnley, M; Kuijer, R; van der Mei, H C; Textor, M; Busscher, H J

2010-01-01

328

Proteomic Analysis of Growth Phase-Dependent Expression of Legionella pneumophila Proteins Which Involves Regulation of Bacterial Virulence Traits  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila, which is a causative pathogen of Legionnaires' disease, expresses its virulent traits in response to growth conditions. In particular, it is known to become virulent at a post-exponential phase in vitro culture. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the exponential phase and post-exponential phase to identify candidates associated with L. pneumophila virulence using 2-Dimentional Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization–Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Of 68 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two growth phases, 64 were up-regulated at a post-exponential phase. The up-regulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis, ketone body biogenesis and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biogenesis, suggesting that L. pneumophila may utilize sugars and lipids as energy sources, when amino acids become scarce. Proteins related to motility (flagella components and twitching motility-associated proteins) were also up-regulated, predicting that they enhance infectivity of the bacteria in host cells under certain conditions. Furthermore, 9 up-regulated proteins of unknown function were found. Two of them were identified as novel bacterial factors associated with hemolysis of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). Another 2 were found to be translocated into macrophages via the Icm/Dot type IV secretion apparatus as effector candidates in a reporter assay with Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. The study will be helpful for virulent analysis of L. pneumophila from the viewpoint of physiological or metabolic modulation dependent on growth phase.

Naitou, Hirotaka; Ohashi, Norio; Imai, Yasuyuki; Miyake, Masaki

2010-01-01

329

Bacterial structure and characterization of plant growth promoting and oil degrading bacteria from the rhizospheres of mangrove plants.  

PubMed

Most oil from oceanic spills converges on coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove forests, which are threatened with worldwide disappearance. Particular bacteria that inhabit the rhizosphere of local plant species can stimulate plant development through various mechanisms; it would be advantageous if these would also be capable of degrading oil. Such bacteria may be important in the preservation or recuperation of mangrove forests impacted by oil spills. This study aimed to compare the bacterial structure, isolate and evaluate bacteria able to degrade oil and stimulate plant growth, from the rhizospheres of three mangrove plant species. These features are particularly important taking into account recent policies for mangrove bioreme-diation, implying that oil degradation as well as plant maintenance and health are key targets. Fifty-seven morphotypes were isolated from the mangrove rhizospheres on Bushneil-Haas (BH) medium supplemented with oil as the sole carbon source and tested for plant growth promotion. Of this strains, 60% potentially fixed nitrogen, 16% showed antimicrobial activity, 84% produced siderophores, 51% had the capacity to solubilize phosphate, and 33% produced the indole acetic acid hormone. Using gas chromatography, we evaluated the oil-degrading potential of ten selected strains that had different morphologies and showed Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) features. The ten tested strains showed a promising degradation profile for at least one compound present in the oil. Among degrader strains, 46% had promising PGPR potential, having at least three of the above capacities. These strains might be used as a consortium, allowing the concomitant degradation of oil and stimulation of mangrove plant survival and maintenance. PMID:21887634

do Carmo, Flávia Lima; dos Santos, Henrique Fragoso; Martins, Edir Ferreira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

2011-08-01

330

Arabidopsis growth and defense are modulated by bacterial quorum sensing molecules  

PubMed Central

N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) play an important role in the communication within the rhizosphere; they serve as a chemical base for interactions within and between different species of Gram-negative bacteria. Not only bacteria, also plants perceive and react to AHLs with diverse responses. Here we describe a negative correlation between the length of AHLs’ lipid chains and the observed growth promotion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, we speculate on a positive correlation between the reinforcement of defense mechanisms and the length of the lipid moieties. Observation presented here may be of great importance for understanding of the complex interplay between plants and their environment, as well as for agronomic applications.

Schenk, Sebastian T.; Stein, Elke; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

2012-01-01

331

Multilevel Growth Curve Analyses of Treatment Effects of a Web-Based Intervention for Stress Reduction: Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Stress is commonly experienced by many people and it is a contributing factor to many mental and physical health conditions, However, few efforts have been made to develop and test the effects of interventions for stress. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a Web-based stress-reduction intervention on stress, investigate mindfulness and procrastination as potential mediators of any treatment effects, and test whether the intervention is equally effective for females as males, all ages, and all levels of education. Methods We employed a randomized controlled trial in this study. Participants were recruited online via Facebook and randomly assigned to either the stress intervention or a control condition. The Web-based stress intervention was fully automated and consisted of 13 sessions over 1 month. The controls were informed that they would get access to the intervention after the final data collection. Data were collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 6 months after intervention onset by means of online questionnaires. Outcomes were stress, mindfulness, and procrastination, which were all measured at every measurement occasion. Results A total of 259 participants were included and were allocated to either the stress intervention (n=126) or the control condition (n=133). Participants in the intervention and control group were comparable at baseline; however, results revealed that participants in the stress intervention followed a statistically different (ie, cubic) developmental trajectory in stress levels over time compared to the controls. A growth curve analysis showed that participants in the stress intervention (unstandardized beta coefficient [B]=–3.45, P=.008) recovered more quickly compared to the control group (B=–0.81, P=.34) from baseline to 1 month. Although participants in the stress intervention did show increases in stress levels during the study period (B=2.23, P=.008), long-term stress levels did decrease again toward study end at 6 months (B=–0.28, P=.009). Stress levels in the control group, however, remained largely unchanged after 1 month (B=0.29, P=.61) and toward 6 months (B=–0.03, P=.67). Mediation analyses showed nonlinear (ie, cubic) specific indirect effects of mindfulness and a linear specific indirect effect of procrastination on stress. In simple terms, the intervention increased mindfulness and decreased procrastination, which was related to lower stress levels. Finally, the effect of the stress intervention was independent of participants’ gender, age, or education. Conclusions The results from this randomized controlled trial suggest that a Web-based intervention can reduce levels of stress in a normal population and that both mindfulness and procrastination may be important components included in future eHealth interventions for stress. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 25619675; http://controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN25619675 (Archived by Webcite at http://www.webcitation.org/6FxB1gOKY)

Raeder, Sabine; Kraft, Pal; Bj?rkli, Cato Alexander

2013-01-01

332

Improved detection of bacterial growth in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis effluent by use of BacT/Alert FAN bottles.  

PubMed Central

Culture-negative peritonitis is a major complication for patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and precludes organism-specific therapy. The aim of the present study was to compare inoculation of 10 ml of CAPD effluent into BacT/Alert blood culture bottles (FAN [fastidious antimicrobic neutralizing], BacTAlert aerobic [BTA], and BacT/Alert anaerobic [BTAn] bottles) to our conventional method of using 50 ml of concentrated CAPD effluent to inoculate peptone broth bottles (BD bottles) and MacConkey agar and blood agar medium (BA-MAC). The FAN, BTA, and BTAn bottles were monitored automatically in the BacT/Alert blood culture instrument. A total of 207 CAPD effluents were studied, and in 97 bacteria were detected by at least one method. Compared to BTA bottles (79 of 97; 81.4%), BTAn bottles (78 of 97; 80.4%), and BD bottles (88 of 97; 90.7%), the single best broth medium for detecting bacterial growth in CAPD effluents was the FAN bottle (90 of 97 effluents; 92.8%). A total of 125 bacterial species were detected by any method, and the majority (91.8%) of CAPD effluents were infected with a single species. A combination of FAN and BTAn bottles detected 111 of 125 (88.8%) of all organisms, whereas a combination of BD bottles and BA-MAC detected 107 of 125 (85.6%) of all organisms. One or more organisms that would have been completely missed by the conventional method with BD bottles and BA-MAC were detected in 18 CAPD effluents. Of these 18 CAPD effluents, 6 showed no growth by the conventional method with BD bottles and BA-MAC. On the basis of our data, the most sensitive and least labor intensive method was direct inoculation of 10 ml of CAPD effluent into a FAN bottle and a BTAn bottle, which could be automatically monitored by the BacT/Alert blood culture instrument. On the basis of case definitions for peritonitis, the sensitivities and specificities of the methods with FAN and BTAn bottles and with BD bottles and BA-MAC were 81.1 and 98.8% and 74.5 and 96.5%, respectively.

Alfa, M J; Degagne, P; Olson, N; Harding, G K

1997-01-01

333

New protein hydrolysates from collagen wastes used as peptone for bacterial growth.  

PubMed

A simple and low-cost procedure was developed for the effective processing of native calf skin and blood wastes to produce protein hydrolysates. The method includes extraction of high-molecular-weight protein from the raw material, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the extracted residue. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed by inexpensive commercial subtilisin DY, produced by Bacillus subtilis strain DY possessing high specific activity. The contents of protein, nitrogen, ash, and amino acids of the obtained hydrolysates were determined and compared with those of the commonly used commercial casein hydrolysate (Fluka Biochemica, Switzerland). The newly obtained calf skin hydrolysate, called Eladin, was found to be suitable as a low-cost alternative peptone in growth media of different microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus. The method allows utilization of waste materials by converting them into valuable protein products that could find widespread application in microbiologic practice. PMID:17171464

Vasileva-Tonkova, E; Nustorova, M; Gushterova, A

2007-01-01

334

Development of an optimal bacterial medium based on the growth inhibition assay with Vibrio fischeri.  

PubMed

Chronic toxicity level of chemicals to bacteria can depend on composition and concentration of medium ingredients. This was demonstrated by means of a growth rate inhibition test with the marine bacterium V. fischeri. In a minimal medium (following the validity criterion of achieving a least cell multiplication rate) containing only yeast extract as organic nutrient component, V. fischeri was to Cu2+ 11.9 times, to Hg2+ 3 times and to Zn2+ 2.8 times more sensitive than in the complete defined medium. Obviously yeast extract did not interfere greatly in the complexation mechanisms. The detection limits of the toxicity of Cd2+, 3,5-dichorophenol and nitrobenzene were not influenced by the substrate. PMID:10399848

Gellert, G; Stommel, A; Trujillano, A B

1999-08-01

335

Complex quorum-sensing regulatory systems regulate bacterial growth and symbiotic nodulation in Mesorhizobium tianshanense.  

PubMed

LuxR/LuxI-type quorum-sensing systems have been shown to be important for symbiotic interactions between a number of rhizobium species and host legumes. In this study, we found that different isolates of Mesorhizobium tianshanense, a moderately-growing Rhizobium that forms nodules on a number of types of licorice plants, produces several different N-acyl homoserine lactone-like molecules. In M. tianshanense CCBAU060A, we performed a genetic screen and identified a network of regulatory components including a set of LuxI/LuxR-family regulators as well as a MarR-family regulator that is required for quorum-sensing regulation. Furthermore, compared with the wild-type strains, quorum-sensing deficient mutants showed a reduced growth rate and were defective in nodule formation on their host plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis. These data suggest that different M. tianshanense strains may use diverse quorum-sensing systems to regulate symbiotic process. PMID:19115053

Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Menghua; Zheng, Huiming; Zhang, Jiang; Zhong, Zengtao; Zhu, Jun

2009-03-01

336

Inhibition of psychrotrophic bacterial growth in refrigerated milk by addition of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of refrigerated milk with 20 to 30 mM CO/sub 2/ was evaluated as a method for extending storage-life by inhibiting growth of psychrotrophic bacteria. Generation times for each of five psychrotrophic pseudomonads were significantly longer when grown at 7/sup 0/C in sterile milk treated with CO/sub 2/ than when the same bacteria were grown in ungassed sterile milk. When raw milks were stored at 7/sup 0/C and treated with CO/sub 2/, the time required for aerobic plate counts to increase 10-fold was at least 24 h longer than in the same milks left untreated. Numbers of coliforms, psychrotrophs, and anaerobes (facultative and obligate) were significantly lower in raw milks treated with CO/sub 2/ than in untreated milks incubated at 7/sup 0/C for 6 d.

Roberts, R.F.; Torrey, G.S.

1988-01-01

337

Fluorescent assay based on resazurin for detection of activity of disinfectants against bacterial biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, quick method, using the resazurin dye test as a bacterial respiration indicator, has been developed to assay the antibacterial\\u000a activity of various substances used as disinfectants against bacterial biofilm growth on clinical devices. Resazurin was used\\u000a to measure the presence of active biofilm bacteria, after adding disinfectant, in relation to a standard curve generated from\\u000a inocula in suspension

Alberto Mariscal; Rosa M. Lopez-Gigosos; Manuel Carnero-Varo; Joaquin Fernandez-Crehuet

2009-01-01

338

Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on Lettuce Growth and Health under Pathogen Pressure and Its Impact on the Rhizosphere Bacterial Community  

PubMed Central

The soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is responsible for crop losses on a wide range of important crops worldwide. The lack of effective control strategies and the increasing demand for organically grown food has stimulated research on biological control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rhizosphere competence of the commercially available inoculant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on lettuce growth and health together with its impact on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial community in field and pot experiments. Results of both experiments demonstrated that FZB42 is able to effectively colonize the rhizosphere (7.45 to 6.61 Log 10 CFU g?1 root dry mass) within the growth period of lettuce in the field. The disease severity (DS) of bottom rot on lettuce was significantly reduced from severe symptoms with DS category 5 to slight symptom expression with DS category 3 on average through treatment of young plants with FZB42 before and after planting. The 16S rRNA gene based fingerprinting method terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) showed that the treatment with FZB42 did not have a major impact on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial community. However, the bacterial community showed a clear temporal shift. The results also indicated that the pathogen R. solani AG1-IB affects the rhizosphere microbial community after inoculation. Thus, we revealed that the inoculant FZB42 could establish itself successfully in the rhizosphere without showing any durable effect on the rhizosphere bacterial community.

Randler, Manuela; Schmid, Michael; Junge, Helmut; Borriss, Rainer; Hartmann, Anton; Grosch, Rita

2013-01-01

339

RELATIONS BETWEEN BACTERIAL NITROGEN METABOLISM AND GROWTH EFFICIENCY IN AN ESTUARINE AND AN OPEN-WATER ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Bacterial uptake or release of dissolved nitrogen compounds (amino nitrogen, urea, ammonium and nitrate) were examined in 0.8 |m filtered water from an estuary (Santa Rosa Sound [SRS], northwestern Florida) and an open-water location in the Gulf of Mexico [GM]. The bacterial nutr...

340

IN VITRO AND IN VIVO CYTOTOXICITY INDUCED BY AN ATTENUATED SALMONELLA: RELATION TO BACTERIAL CARRIER STATE AND RESISTANCE TO TUMOUR GROWTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo and in vitro parameters of tumour resistance were examined after immunization of mice with the attenuated 11RX strain of S. enteritidis. During the bacterial carrier state produced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intravenous (i.v.) injection of 11RX the mice were resistant to i.p. tumour growth, could destroy i.p. injected 125I- or 131I-labelled tumour cells in vivo and had non-specifically

Michael P Ashley; Ieva Kotlarski

1982-01-01

341

The heat-shock-regulated grpE gene of Escherichia coli is required for bacterial growth at all temperatures but is dispensable in certain mutant backgrounds.  

PubMed Central

Previous work has established that the grpE+ gene product is a heat shock protein that is essential for bacteriophage lambda growth at all temperatures and for Escherichia coli growth at temperatures above 43 degrees C. Here it is shown that the grpE+ gene product is essential for bacterial viability at all temperatures. The strategy required constructing a grpE deletion derivative carrying a selectable chloramphenicol drug resistance marker provided by an omega insertion and showing that this deletion construct can be crossed into the bacterial chromosome if and only if a functional grpE+ gene is present elsewhere in the same cell. As a control, the same omega insertion could be placed immediately downstream of the grpE+ coding sequence without any observable effects on host growth. This result demonstrates that the inability to construct a grpE-deleted E. coli strain is not simply due to a lethal polar effect on neighboring gene expression. Unexpectedly, it was found that the grpE deletion derivative could be crossed into the bacterial chromosome in a strain that was defective in DnaK function. Further analysis showed that it was not the lack of DnaK function per se that allowed E. coli to tolerate a deletion in the grpE+ gene. Rather, it was the presence of unknown extragenic suppressors of a dnaK mutation that somehow compensated for the deficiency in both DnaK and GrpE function. Images

Ang, D; Georgopoulos, C

1989-01-01

342

Inhibition of Bacterial Growth and Intramniotic Infection in a Guinea Pig Model of Chorioamnionitis Using PAMAM Dendrimers  

PubMed Central

Dendrimers have emerged as topical microbicides to treat vaginal infections. This study explores the in-vitro, in-vivo antimicrobial activity of PAMAM dendrimers, and the associated mechanism. Interestingly, topical cervical application of 500 µg of generation-4 neutral dendrimer (G4-PAMAM-OH) showed potential to treat the Escherichia coli induced ascending uterine infection in guinea pig model of chorioamnionitis. Amniotic fluid collected from different gestational sacs of infected guinea pigs post treatment showed absence of E. coli growth in the cultures plated with it. The cytokine level [tumor necrosis factor (TNF?) and interleukin (IL-6 and IL-1?)] in placenta of the G4-PAMAM-OH treated animals were comparable to those in healthy animals while these were notably high in infected animals. Since, antibacterial activity of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers is known, the activity of hydroxyl and carboxylic acid terminated PAMAM dendrimers was compared with it. Though the G4-PAMAM-NH2 shows superior antibacterial activity, it was found to be cytotoxic to human cervical epithelial cell line above 10µg / mL, while the G4-PAMAM-OH was non cytotoxic upto 1mg / mL concentration. Cell integrity, outer (OM) and inner (IM) membrane permeabilization assays showed that G4-PAMAM-OH dendrimer efficiently changed the OM permeability, while G4-PAMAM-NH2 and G3.5-PAMAM-COOH damaged both OM and IM causing the bacterial lysis. The possible antibacterial mechanism are; G4-PAMAM-NH2 acts as polycation binding to the polyanionic lipopolysaccharide in E. coli, the G4-PAMAM-OH forms hydrogen bonds with the hydrophilic O-antigens in E. coli membrane and the G3.5-PAMAM-COOH acts as a polyanion, chelating the divalent ions in outer cell membrane of E. coli. This is the first study which shows that G4-PAMAM-OH dendrimer acts as an antibacterial agent.

Wang, Bing; Navath, Raghavendra S.; Menjoge, Anupa R.; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Bellair, Robert; Dai, Hui; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

2010-01-01

343

Development of tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells favors exponential bacterial growth and survival during early respiratory tularemia  

PubMed Central

Tularemia is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by Ft, a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium. Ft exists in two clinically relevant forms, the European biovar B (holarctica), which produces acute, although mild, self-limiting infections, and the more virulent United States biovar A (tularensis), which is often associated with pneumonic tularemia and more severe disease. In a mouse model of tularemia, respiratory infection with the virulence-attenuated Type B (LVS) or highly virulent Type A (SchuS4) strain engenders peribronchiolar and perivascular inflammation. Paradoxically, despite an intense neutrophilic infiltrate and high bacterial burden, Th1-type proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-12) are absent within the first ?72 h of pulmonary infection. It has been suggested that the bacterium has the capacity to actively suppress or block NF-?B signaling, thus causing an initial delay in up-regulation of inflammatory mediators. However, our previously published findings and those presented herein contradict this paradigm and instead, strongly support an alternative hypothesis. Rather than blocking NF-?B, Ft actually triggers TLR2-dependent NF-?B signaling, resulting in the development and activation of tDCs and the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10 and TGF-?). In turn, these cytokines stimulate development and proliferation of Tregs that may restrain Th1-type proinflammatory cytokine release early during tularemic infection. The highly regulated and overall anti-inflammatory milieu established in the lung is permissive for unfettered growth and survival of Ft. The capacity of Ft to evoke such a response represents an important immune-evasive strategy.

Periasamy, Sivakumar; Singh, Anju; Sahay, Bikash; Rahman, Tabassum; Feustel, Paul J.; Pham, Giang H.; Gosselin, Edmund J.; Sellati, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

344

Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on iceberg lettuce and solid media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut iceberg lettuce under constant temperatures was modelled in order to investigate microbial safety during distribution of this vegetable. We examined the effects of several incubation temperatures, ranging from 5 to 25 °C, on bacterial growth. These data were fitted to the Baranyi model and the curves showed a high correlation coefficient

Shigenobu Koseki; Seiichiro Isobe

2005-01-01

345

Predicting Cognitive-Language and Social Growth Curves From Early Maternal Behaviors in Children at Varying Degrees of Biological Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth modeling was used to examine the relation of early parenting behaviors (averaged across 6 and 12 months) with rates of change in children’s cognitive-language and social response and initiating skills assessed at 6, 12, 24, and 40 months. Groups of full-term (n = 112) and very low birth weight children, divided into medically low (n = 114) and high

Susan H. Landry; Karen E. Smith; Cynthia L. Miller-Loncar; Paul R. Swank

1997-01-01

346

A Growth Curve Analysis of Literacy Performance among Second-Grade, Spanish-Speaking, English-Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literacy growth of 260 second-grade English learners (ELs) with varying degrees of English language proficiency (e.g., Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced and Advanced English language proficiency) was assessed with English literacy skill assessments. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills measures were…

Gutiierrez, Gabriel; Vanderwood, Mike L.

2013-01-01

347

Modeling Life-Span Growth Curves of Cognition using Longitudinal Data with Multiple Samples and Changing Scales of Measurement  

PubMed Central

This research uses multiple-sample longitudinal data from different test batteries to examine propositions about changes in constructs over the lifespan. The data come from three classic studies on intellectual abilities where, in combination, N=441 persons are repeatedly measures as many as 16 times over 70 years. Cognitive constructs of Vocabulary and Memory were measured using eight different age-appropriate intelligence test batteries, and we explore possible linkage of these scales using Item Response Theory (IRT). We simultaneously estimate the parameters of both IRT and Latent Curve Models (LCM) based on a joint model likelihood approach (i.e., NLMIXED and WINBUGS). Group differences are included in the model to examine potential inter-individual differences in levels and change. The resulting Longitudinal IRT (LIRT) analyses leads to a few new methodological suggestions for dealing with repeated constructs based on changing measurements in developmental studies.

McArdle, John J.; Grimm, Kevin; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Bowles, Ryan; Meredith, William

2010-01-01

348

Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur Coupled to Chemical Reduction of Iron or Manganese  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new chemolithotrophic bacterial metabolism was discovered in anaerobic marine enrichment cultures. Cultures in defined medium with elemental sulfur (SO) and amorphous ferric hydroxide (FeOOH) as sole substrates showed intense formation of sulfate. Furthermore, precipitation of ferrous sulfide and pyrite was observed. The transformations were accompanied by growth of slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. The quantification of the products revealed that

BO THAMDRUP; KM FINSTER; JENS WURGLER HANSEN; FRIEDHELM BAK

349

Aging, Maturation and Growth of Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs as Deduced from Growth Curves Using Long Bone Histological Data: An Assessment of Methodological Constraints and Solutions  

PubMed Central

Information on aging, maturation, and growth is important for understanding life histories of organisms. In extinct dinosaurs, such information can be derived from the histological growth record preserved in the mid-shaft cortex of long bones. Here, we construct growth models to estimate ages at death, ages at sexual maturity, ages at which individuals were fully-grown, and maximum growth rates from the growth record preserved in long bones of six sauropod dinosaur individuals (one indeterminate mamenchisaurid, two Apatosaurus sp., two indeterminate diplodocids, and one Camarasaurus sp.) and one basal sauropodomorph dinosaur individual (Plateosaurus engelhardti). Using these estimates, we establish allometries between body mass and each of these traits and compare these to extant taxa. Growth models considered for each dinosaur individual were the von Bertalanffy model, the Gompertz model, and the logistic model (LGM), all of which have inherently fixed inflection points, and the Chapman-Richards model in which the point is not fixed. We use the arithmetic mean of the age at the inflection point and of the age at which 90% of asymptotic mass is reached to assess respectively the age at sexual maturity or the age at onset of reproduction, because unambiguous indicators of maturity in Sauropodomorpha are lacking. According to an AIC-based model selection process, the LGM was the best model for our sauropodomorph sample. Allometries established are consistent with literature data on other Sauropodomorpha. All Sauropodomorpha reached full size within a time span similar to scaled-up modern mammalian megaherbivores and had similar maximum growth rates to scaled-up modern megaherbivores and ratites, but growth rates of Sauropodomorpha were lower than of an average mammal. Sauropodomorph ages at death probably were lower than that of average scaled-up ratites and megaherbivores. Sauropodomorpha were older at maturation than scaled-up ratites and average mammals, but younger than scaled-up megaherbivores.

Griebeler, Eva Maria; Klein, Nicole; Sander, P. Martin

2013-01-01

350

Isolation and Growth Characteristics of Chromium(VI) and Pentachlorophenol Tolerant Bacterial Isolate from Treated Tannery Effluent for its Possible Use in Simultaneous Bioremediation.  

PubMed

The bacterial strains resistant to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were isolated from treated tannery effluent of a common effluent treatment plant. Most of the physico-chemical parameters analyzed were above permissible limits. Thirty-eight and four bacterial isolates, respectively were found resistant to >50 ?g/ml concentration of [Cr(VI)] and the same level of PCP. Out of the above 42 isolates, only one was found simultaneously tolerant to higher levels of both PCP (500 ?g/ml) and Cr(VI) (200 ?g/ml), and hence was selected for further studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which a native bacterial isolate simultaneously tolerant to such a high concentrations of Cr(VI) and PCP has been reported. The culture growth was best at 0.4% (w/v) glucose as an additional carbon source and 0.2% (w/v) ammonium chloride as a nitrogen source. The growth results with cow urine as a nitrogen source were comparable with the best nitrogen source ammonium chloride. The isolate exhibited resistance to multiple heavy metals (Pb, As, Hg, Zn, Co & Ni) and to antibiotics nalidixic acid and polymixin-B. The efficacy of bacterial isolate for growth, PCP degradation (56.5%) and Cr(VI) bioremediation (74.5%) was best at 48 h incubation. The isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. by morphological and biochemical tests. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% homology with Bacillus cereus. However, further molecular analysis is underway to ascertain its likelyhood of a novel species. PMID:22282630

Tripathi, Manikant; Vikram, Surendra; Jain, R K; Garg, Satyendra K

2011-01-01

351

Overcoming the anaerobic hurdle in phenotypic microarrays: Generation and visualization of growth curve data for Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing anaerobic microorganisms in phenotypic microarrays (PM) and 96-well microtiter plates is an emerging technology that allows high throughput survey of the growth and physiology and\\/or phenotype of cultivable microorganisms. For non-model bacteria, a method for phenotypic analysis is invaluable, not only to serve as a starting point for further evaluation, but also to provide a broad understanding of the

Sharon Borglin; Dominique Joyner; Janet Jacobsen; Aindrila Mukhopadhyay; Terry C. Hazen

2009-01-01

352

Immune response and inhibition of bacterial growth by electrotransfer of plasmid DNA containing the antimicrobial peptide, epinecidin-1, into zebrafish muscle.  

PubMed

Bacterial infections represent serious diseases in aquaculture, rapidly leading to fish death by septicemia. We investigated whether the electrotransfer of green fluorescent protein gene fusion epinecidin-1 (CMV-gfp-epi) DNA into zebrafish muscle could regulate the fish immune response and inhibit bacterial growth. Electroporation parameters such as the number of pulses, voltage, and amount of plasmid DNA were analyzed, and results demonstrated the greatest mRNA expression level of gfp-epi relative to beta-actin was obtained with a pulse number of 4, a voltage strength of 100 V/cm, a concentration of DNA of 90 microg/fish, and electroporation for 96 h. In addition, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter exhibited higher activity compared to the mylz promoter in muscle for electrotransfer in zebrafish. GFP fluorescence and gfp-epi mRNA expression in tissues after electroporation were also studied by a polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence microscopy. gfp-epi expression was significantly correlated with decreased bacterial numbers and immune-related gene expression. These data demonstrate that electroporation of epinecidin-1 might have provoked an inflammatory response that accounts for the improvement in bacterial clearance. PMID:19340938

Lin, Shih-Bin; Fan, Tzu-Wen; Wu, Jen-Leih; Hui, Cho-Fat; Chen, Jyh-Yih

2009-03-01

353

Stimulation and inhibition of bacterial growth by caffeine dependent on chloramphenicol and a phenolic uncoupler--a ternary toxicity study using microfluid segment technique.  

PubMed

A droplet-based microfluidic technique for the fast generation of three dimensional concentration spaces within nanoliter segments was introduced. The technique was applied for the evaluation of the effect of two selected antibiotic substances on the toxicity and activation of bacterial growth by caffeine. Therefore a three-dimensional concentration space was completely addressed by generating large sequences with about 1150 well separated microdroplets containing 216 different combinations of concentrations. To evaluate the toxicity of the ternary mixtures a time-resolved miniaturized optical double endpoint detection unit using a microflow-through fluorimeter and a two channel microflow-through photometer was used for the simultaneous analysis of changes on the endogenous cellular fluorescence signal and on the cell density of E. coli cultivated inside 500 nL microfluid segments. Both endpoints supplied similar results for the dose related cellular response. Strong non-linear combination effects, concentration dependent stimulation and the formation of activity summits on bolographic maps were determined. The results reflect a complex response of growing bacterial cultures in dependence on the combined effectors. A strong caffeine induced enhancement of bacterial growth was found at sublethal chloramphenicol and sublethal 2,4-dinitrophenol concentrations. The reliability of the method was proved by a high redundancy of fluidic experiments. The results indicate the importance of multi-parameter investigations for toxicological studies and prove the potential of the microsegmented flow technique for such requirements. PMID:22888747

Cao, Jialan; Kürsten, Dana; Schneider, Steffen; Köhler, J Michael

2012-10-01

354

Interspecific prediction of photosynthetic light response curves using specific leaf mass and leaf nitrogen content: effects of differences in soil fertility and growth irradiance  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Previous work has shown that the entire photosynthetic light response curve, based on both Mitscherlich and Michaelis–Menten functions, could be predicted in an interspecific context through allometric relations linking the parameters of these functions to two static leaf traits: leaf nitrogen (N) content and leaf mass per area (LMA). This paper describes to what extent these allometric relations are robust to changes in soil fertility and the growth irradiance of the plants. Methods Plants of 25 herbaceous species were grown under controlled conditions in factorial combinations of low/high soil fertility and low/high growth irradiance. Net photosynthetic rates per unit dry mass were measured at light intensities ranging from 0 to 700 µmol m?2 s?1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Key Results The differing growth environments induced large changes in N, LMA and in each of the parameter estimates of the Mitscherlich and Michaelis–Menten functions. However, the differing growth environments induced only small (although significant) changes in the allometric relationships linking N and LMA to the parameters of the two functions. As a result, 88 % (Mitcherlich) and 89 % (Michaelis–Menten) of the observed net photosynthetic rates over the full range of light intensities (0–700 µmol m?2 s?1 PAR) and across all four growth environments could be predicted using only N and LMA using the same allometric relations. Conclusions These results suggest the possibility of predicting net photosynthetic rates in nature across species over the full range of light intensities using readily available data.

Lachapelle, Pierre-Philippe; Shipley, Bill

2012-01-01

355

Bacterial growth rates, production and estimates of detrital carbon utilization in deep-sea sediments of the Solomon and Coral Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface (0-5 mm) sediments at 10 bathyal and abyssal (695-4350 m) stations were sampled to determine variations in bacterial densities, productivity (tritiated thymidine incorporation at simulated in situ conditions) and specific growth rates (?) in relation to environmental conditions and phytodetritus in the Solomon and Coral Seas. bacterial direct counts ranged from 2.5 to 60.6 × 10 8 cells g -1 sediment dry wt, but did not decline significantly with ocean depth or correlate with any other variables measured. Bacterial productivity was generally low, ranging from 34 to 7010 ?g C m -2 d -1, but specific growth rates varied widely, ranging from 0.001 to 0.12 d -1. Incubation of samples at in situ temperature and atmospheric pressure at two stations resulted in either no detectable growth or significantly decreased thymidine incorporation, indicating a barophilic response. Quantities of macroalgal detritus were found at stations closest to reefs, whereas vascular plant and wood debris were found at most of the other stations, indicating that some detrital material transported from adjacent reefs and by massive riverine export from Papua New Guinea reaches the deep-sea floor in both seas. Significant quantities of sedimentary chlorophyll ? and phaeo-pigments also were detected, indicating some deposition of phytoplankton-derived detritus. The fluxes of phytoplankton-derived, detrital carbon to the benthos were estimated (using available plankton data and the flux equation of Suess) as on the order of 2-23 mg C m -2 d -1. Assuming a median carbon assimilation efficiency of 50%, utilization of this material by sedimentary bacteria was estimated to vary widely (2-97%), averaging 40% oof total detrital carbon flux. Rates of bacterial productivity declined significantly with water depth and correlated with no other factors, but specific growth rates correlated positively with the standing amounts of macroalgal debris and were comparatively rapid (= turnover times of 6-63 days) only at the sites where this detritus was found. These results suggest that factors traditionally invoked as regulating bacterial activity in the deep sea may not always be applicable, particularly for habitats receiving significant quantities of fresh algal detritus.

Alongi, Daniel M.

1990-05-01

356

Light Curves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a game about light curves that will test your ability to figure out things about an asteroid from just a graph of its brightness. Astronomers use telescopes to collect light curves - measurements of the brightness of distant asteroids over time. It is part of the Killer Asteroids Web Site. The site also features a background overview of the differences between asteroids and comets, information on different types of asteroids (rubble piles vs monoliths), a discussion of how at risk Earth really is to an asteroid or comet impact, and background information on light curves.

357

Bacterial numbers and growth in surficial deep-sea sediments and phytodetritus in the NE Atlantic: Relationships with particulate organic carbon and total nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria in deep-sea sediments constitute the largest global fraction of total benthic bacteria, and play a major role in most biogeochemical cycles. However, as yet the relationship between bacterial production and substrate availability (particulate organic carbon and nitrogen) in deep-sea sediments is not well understood. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore the relationships between bacterial numbers and DNA synthesis (a measure of bacterial growth) and the concentration of bulk POC and total nitrogen in surficial deep-sea sediments and recently deposited phytodetritus, at three sites in the NE Atlantic. We found statistically significant positive exponential relationships between bacterial numbers and [ 3H]-thymidine incorporation rates (DNA synthesis) and sediment and phytodetritus % particulate organic carbon (POC) and % total nitrogen (%TN) from samples collected in the deep NE Atlantic at three different times at 3 contrasting sites. Mean bacterial numbers were in the range 5.6-53.2×10 10 cell l -1 in surficial sediments and 9.2-12.9×10 10 cells l -1 in the phytodetritus; [ 3H]-thymidine incorporation rates were 14.8-593.7 pmol l -1 h -1 in the sediment and 395.8-491.4 pmol l -1 h -1 in the phytodetritus. POC concentrations were 0.22-0.61% in the sediment and 0.92-0.99% in the phytodetritus; TN was 0.04-0.09% in the sediment and 0.13-0.14% in the phytodetritus. The C:N ratio was 6.7-9.0 in sediment and 7.6-7.9 in phytodetritus. In addition, a positive exponential relationship was still evident with the inclusion of other data from the NE Atlantic and Solomon and Coral Sea. The logarithmic regression for this combined relationship was not statistically different from the one derived from the current data alone. However, the relationship failed with the inclusion of data from the highly eutrophic Arabian Sea, which has a mid-water oxygen minimum zone that may inhibit heterotrophic bacterial production. This implies that such a relationship is not generic to all ocean systems, and additional research is required to further test the relationship between bacterial [ 3H]-thymidine incorporation rates and % POC from other oceanic deep-sea surficial sediments.

Turley, C. M.; Dixon, J. L.

2002-05-01

358

Overcoming the anaerobic hurdle in phenotypic microarrays: Generation andvisualization of growth curve data for Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

SciTech Connect

Growing anaerobic microorganisms in phenotypic microarrays (PM) and 96-well microtiter plates is an emerging technology that allows high throughput survey of the growth and physiology and/or phenotype of cultivable microorganisms. For non-model bacteria, a method for phenotypic analysis is invaluable, not only to serve as a starting point for further evaluation, but also to provide a broad understanding of the physiology of an uncharacterized wild-type organism or the physiology/phenotype of a newly created mutant of that organism. Given recent advances in genetic characterization and targeted mutations to elucidate genetic networks and metabolic pathways, high-throughput methods for determining phenotypic differences are essential. Here we outline challenges presented in studying the physiology and phenotype of a sulfate reducing anaerobic delta proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. Modifications of the commercially available OmniLog(TM) system (Hayward, CA) for experimental setup, and configuration, as well as considerations in PM data analysis are presented. Also highlighted here is data viewing software that enables users to view and compare multiple PM data sets. The PM method promises to be a valuable strategy in our systems biology approach to D. vulgaris studies and is readily applicable to other anaerobic and aerobic bacteria.

Borglin, Sharon E; Joyner, Dominique; Jacobsen, Janet; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hazen, Terry C.

2008-10-04

359

Effect of dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on growth performance, survival, lactobacillus bacterial population and hemato-immunological parameters of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) juvenile.  

PubMed

The dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) in stellate sturgeon juvenile, Acipenser stellatus (with mean initial body weight of 30.16 ± 0.14 g) was evaluated for the effect on growth, autochthonous intestinal microbiata and hemato-immunological parameters for 11 weeks. FOS was added at a level of 0, 1% and 2% to the commercial pellet diet (BioMar). At the end of the experiment, growth parameters, survival rate, lactobacillus bacterial population, hematological and immunological parameters were determined. The fish fed on 1% FOS significantly showed higher final weight, WG%, SGR and PER and lower FCR compared to those of the control group (P < 0.05). Survival rate did not significantly differ between the treatments (P > 0.05). However, FOS administration resulted in lower survival. The serum lysozyme activity was significantly affected by dietary 1% FOS (P < 0.05), while respiratory burst activity was not significantly affected by dietary treatments (P > 0.05). In fish fed on the diet with 1% FOS showed a significant increase of total heterotrophic autochthonous bacterial and presumptive LAB levels (P < 0.05) compared with those fed on the diets supplemented with prebiotics. In addition to increase in WBC, RBC, MCV, hematocrit, hemoglobin and lymphocyte levels were observed in this group. These results indicated that dietary supplementation of FOS at a dose of 1% improved growth performance, beneficial intestinal microbiata and stimulate immune response of stellate sturgeon juvenile. PMID:23973846

Akrami, Reza; Iri, Yousef; Rostami, Hosseinali Khoshbavar; Razeghi Mansour, Majid

2013-10-01

360

Alveolar Epithelial Cells Are Critical in Protection of the Respiratory Tract by Secretion of Factors Able To Modulate the Activity of Pulmonary Macrophages and Directly Control Bacterial Growth  

PubMed Central

The respiratory epithelium is a physical and functional barrier actively involved in the clearance of environmental agents. The alveolar compartment is lined with membranous pneumocytes, known as type I alveolar epithelial cells (AEC I), and granular pneumocytes, type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II). AEC II are responsible for epithelial reparation upon injury and ion transport and are very active immunologically, contributing to lung defense by secreting antimicrobial factors. AEC II also secrete a broad variety of factors, such as cytokines and chemokines, involved in activation and differentiation of immune cells and are able to present antigen to specific T cells. Another cell type important in lung defense is the pulmonary macrophage (PuM). Considering the architecture of the alveoli, a good communication between the external and the internal compartments is crucial to mount effective responses. Our hypothesis is that being in the interface, AEC may play an important role in transmitting signals from the external to the internal compartment and in modulating the activity of PuM. For this, we collected supernatants from AEC unstimulated or stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These AEC-conditioned media were used in various setups to test for the effects on a number of macrophage functions: (i) migration, (ii) phagocytosis and intracellular control of bacterial growth, and (iii) phenotypic changes and morphology. Finally, we tested the direct effect of AEC-conditioned media on bacterial growth. We found that AEC-secreted factors had a dual effect, on one hand controlling bacterial growth and on the other hand increasing macrophage activity.

Petursdottir, Dagbjort H.; Periolo, Natalia; Fernandez, Carmen

2013-01-01

361

The effect of pH and chemical preservatives on the growth of bacterial isolates from some Nigerian packaged fruit juices.  

PubMed

Bacterial pathogens were isolated from some Nigerian packaged fruit juices. The isolates were characterized and identified as Bacillus licheniformis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus circulans, Proteus morganii, Pseudomonas cepacia, Bacillus alvei and Pseudomonas chlororaphis. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the seven isolates was determined and it was discovered that 65% of the microorganisms isolated were resistance to the antibiotic used while 35% were sensitive. The effect of pH, benzoic acid and sodium chloride concentration on the growth rate of isolates was investigated. It was found that as the pH of the growth medium increased from 3 to 9, the rate of growth of most isolates also increased except for Pseudomonas cepacia, which had optimum growth at neutral pH 7. As the concentration of sodium chloride increased from 2 to 5%, the rate of growth of all the seven isolates decreased. It was also noted that as concentration of benzoic acid increased from 250 to 1000 mg L(-1) Bacillus licheniformis decreased from 1.330 to 0.167 nm, Aeromonas hydrophila decreased from 1.208 to 0.164 nm Bacillus circulans decreases from 1.158 to 0.299 nm, Proteus morganii decreases from 1.377 to 0.141 nm etc. The higher the concentration of Benzoic acid the lower the rate of growth of the isolates. PMID:20415148

Oladipo, I C; Adeleke, D T; Adebiyi, A O

2010-01-01

362

Muralytic activity of Micrococcus luteus Rpf and its relationship to physiological activity in promoting bacterial growth and resuscitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The culturability of several actinobacteria is con- trolled by resuscitation-promoting factors (Rpfs). These are proteins containing a c . 70-residue domain that adopts a lysozyme-like fold. The invariant cata- lytic glutamate residue found in lysozyme and various bacterial lytic transglycosylases is also conserved in the Rpf proteins. Rpf from Micrococcus luteus , the founder member of this protein family,

Galina V. Mukamolova; Alexey G. Murzin; Elena G. Salina; Galina R. Demina; Douglas B. Kell; Arseny S. Kaprelyants; Michael Young

2005-01-01

363

Two DHH Subfamily 1 Proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae Possess Cyclic Di-AMP Phosphodiesterase Activity and Affect Bacterial Growth and Virulence  

PubMed Central

Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) are signaling molecules that play important roles in bacterial biology and pathogenesis. However, these nucleotides have not been explored in Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important bacterial pathogen. In this study, we characterized the c-di-AMP-associated genes of S. pneumoniae. The results showed that SPD_1392 (DacA) is a diadenylate cyclase that converts ATP to c-di-AMP. Both SPD_2032 (Pde1) and SPD_1153 (Pde2), which belong to the DHH subfamily 1 proteins, displayed c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase activity. Pde1 cleaved c-di-AMP into phosphoadenylyl adenosine (pApA), whereas Pde2 directly hydrolyzed c-di-AMP into AMP. Additionally, Pde2, but not Pde1, degraded pApA into AMP. Our results also demonstrated that both Pde1 and Pde2 played roles in bacterial growth, resistance to UV treatment, and virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. These results indicate that c-di-AMP homeostasis is essential for pneumococcal biology and disease.

Bai, Yinlan; Yang, Jun; Eisele, Leslie E.; Underwood, Adam J.; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Waters, Christopher M.; Metzger, Dennis W.

2013-01-01

364

Two DHH subfamily 1 proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae possess cyclic di-AMP phosphodiesterase activity and affect bacterial growth and virulence.  

PubMed

Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) are signaling molecules that play important roles in bacterial biology and pathogenesis. However, these nucleotides have not been explored in Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important bacterial pathogen. In this study, we characterized the c-di-AMP-associated genes of S. pneumoniae. The results showed that SPD_1392 (DacA) is a diadenylate cyclase that converts ATP to c-di-AMP. Both SPD_2032 (Pde1) and SPD_1153 (Pde2), which belong to the DHH subfamily 1 proteins, displayed c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase activity. Pde1 cleaved c-di-AMP into phosphoadenylyl adenosine (pApA), whereas Pde2 directly hydrolyzed c-di-AMP into AMP. Additionally, Pde2, but not Pde1, degraded pApA into AMP. Our results also demonstrated that both Pde1 and Pde2 played roles in bacterial growth, resistance to UV treatment, and virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. These results indicate that c-di-AMP homeostasis is essential for pneumococcal biology and disease. PMID:24013631

Bai, Yinlan; Yang, Jun; Eisele, Leslie E; Underwood, Adam J; Koestler, Benjamin J; Waters, Christopher M; Metzger, Dennis W; Bai, Guangchun

2013-11-01

365

Suppression of growth of Ralstonia solanacearum, tomato bacterial wilt agent, on\\/in tomato seedlings cultivated in a suppressive soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the sites responsible for the suppressiveness of tomato bacterial wilt in a suppressive soil, population dynamics of {iRalstonia solanacearum} in non-rhizosphere soil, roots and stems of tomato plants was compared between a wilt-conducive soil and a suppressive soil both of which were artificially infested with the pathogenic strain SL8. Rhizobacteria were recovered as two fractions; root fraction-l obtained

Masaya Nishiyama; Yoshitaka Shiomi; Sae Suzuki; Takuya Marumoto

1999-01-01

366

Improved growth and nutrient utilisation in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) fed diets containing a bacterial protein meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diets containing 0, 4.5, 9, 18 or 36% of a bacterial protein meal (BPM) produced with methane as a carbon source, were fed for 48 days to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (initial weight 170 g) in respiration tanks supplied with 12 °C seawater. In addition, a separate 15-day digestibility trial was performed with salmon (initial weight 494 g) fed the 0, 18 and

Turid Synnøve Aas; Barbara Grisdale-Helland; Bendik F. Terjesen; Ståle J. Helland

2006-01-01

367

Antibiotic production in relation to bacterial growth and nematode development in Photorhabdus–Heterorhabditis infected Galleria mellonella larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of Photorhabdus luminescens C9, bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis megidis 90, increased rapidly to 1.2–2.6×109 cells g?1 wet Galleria mellonella larvae within 24 h of nematode infection of the larvae, and maintained a relatively constant level (1.2–2.0×1010 cells g?1) through the entire 14-day period of nematode development. The antibiotic, 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene, was produced by P. luminescens C9

Kaiji Hu; John M Webster

2000-01-01

368

Indoor-biofilter growth and exposure to airborne chemicals drive similar changes in plant root bacterial communities.  

PubMed

Due to the long durations spent inside by many humans, indoor air quality has become a growing concern. Biofiltration has emerged as a potential mechanism to clean indoor air of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are typically found at concentrations higher indoors than outdoors. Root-associated microbes are thought to drive the functioning of plant-based biofilters, or biowalls, converting VOCs into biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide, but little is known about the root microbial communities of such artificially grown plants, how or whether they differ from those of plants grown in soil, and whether any changes in composition are driven by VOCs. In this study, we investigated how bacterial communities on biofilter plant roots change over time and in response to VOC exposure. Through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we compared root bacterial communities from soil-grown plants with those from two biowalls, while also comparing communities from roots exposed to clean versus VOC-laden air in a laboratory biofiltration system. The results showed differences in bacterial communities between soil-grown and biowall-grown plants and between bacterial communities from plant roots exposed to clean air and those from VOC-exposed plant roots. Both biowall-grown and VOC-exposed roots harbored enriched levels of bacteria from the genus Hyphomicrobium. Given their known capacities to break down aromatic and halogenated compounds, we hypothesize that these bacteria are important VOC degraders. While different strains of Hyphomicrobium proliferated in the two studied biowalls and our lab experiment, strains were shared across plant species, suggesting that a wide range of ornamental houseplants harbor similar microbes of potential use in living biofilters. PMID:24878602

Russell, Jacob A; Hu, Yi; Chau, Linh; Pauliushchyk, Margarita; Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Anandan, Shivanthi; Waring, Michael S

2014-08-15

369

Dynamics of curved interfaces  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic growth phenomena on curved interfaces are studied by means of stochastic partial differential equations. These are derived as counterparts of linear planar equations on a curved geometry after a reparametrization invariance principle has been applied. We examine differences and similarities with the classical planar equations. Some characteristic features are the loss of correlation through time and a particular behavior of the average fluctuations. Dependence on the metric is also explored. The diffusive model that propagates correlations ballistically in the planar situation is particularly interesting, as this propagation becomes nonuniversal in the new regime.

Escudero, Carlos [Instituto de Ciencias Matematicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/ Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: cel@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

2009-08-15

370

On the Perils of Curve-of-Growth Analysis: Systematic Abundance Underestimates for the Gas in Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the practice of deriving interstellar medium (ISM) abundances from low-resolution spectroscopy of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. We argue that the multi-ion single-component curve-of-growth analysis technique systematically underestimates the column densities of the metal-line profiles commonly observed for GRBs. This systematic underestimate is accentuated by the fact that many GRB line profiles (e.g., GRB 050730, GRB 050820, GRB 051111) are comprised of ``clouds'' with a bimodal distribution of column density. Such line profiles may be characteristic of a sight line that penetrates both a high-density star-forming region and more distant, ambient ISM material. Our analysis suggests that the majority of abundances reported in the literature are systematically underestimates and that the reported errors are frequently overoptimistic. Further, we demonstrate that one cannot even report relative abundances with confidence. The implications are profound for our current understanding of the metallicity, dust-to-gas ratio, and chemical abundances of the ISM in GRB host galaxies. For example, we argue that all but a few sight lines allow for the gas to have at least solar metallicity. Finally, we suggest new approaches for constraining the abundances.

Prochaska, Jason X.

2006-10-01

371

Effects of a biocontrol bacterium on growth and defence of transgenic rice plants expressing a bacterial type-III effector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of HpaGxoo, a bacterial type-III effector protein, in transgenic plants induces disease resistance. Resistance also can be elicited\\u000a by biocontrol bacteria. We studied effects of the biocontrolBacillus subtilis strain B-916 on the rice variety R109 and the thehpaG\\u000a \\u000a xoo\\u000a -expressing rice line HER1. Colonisation of roots by B-916 caused 12.5±1.3% and 0.5±0.05% increases, in contrast to controls,\\u000a in root

Haiying Ren; Tao Song; TingQuan Wu; Lijun Sun; YuXing Liu; Feifei Yang; ZhiYi Chen; Hansong Dong

2006-01-01

372

Archaeal Abundance across a pH Gradient in an Arable Soil and Its Relationship to Bacterial and Fungal Growth Rates  

PubMed Central

Soil pH is one of the most influential factors for the composition of bacterial and fungal communities, but the influence of soil pH on the distribution and composition of soil archaeal communities has yet to be systematically addressed. The primary aim of this study was to determine how total archaeal abundance (quantitative PCR [qPCR]-based estimates of 16S rRNA gene copy numbers) is related to soil pH across a pH gradient (pH 4.0 to 8.3). Secondarily, we wanted to assess how archaeal abundance related to bacterial and fungal growth rates across the same pH gradient. We identified two distinct and opposite effects of pH on the archaeal abundance. In the lowest pH range (pH 4.0 to 4.7), the abundance of archaea did not seem to correspond to pH. Above this pH range, there was a sharp, almost 4-fold decrease in archaeal abundance, reaching a minimum at pH 5.1 to 5.2. The low abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers at this pH range then sharply increased almost 150-fold with pH, resulting in an increase in the ratio between archaeal and bacterial copy numbers from a minimum of 0.002 to more than 0.07 at pH 8. The nonuniform archaeal response to pH could reflect variation in the archaeal community composition along the gradient, with some archaea adapted to acidic conditions and others to neutral to slightly alkaline conditions. This suggestion is reinforced by observations of contrasting outcomes of the (competitive) interactions between archaea, bacteria, and fungi toward the lower and higher ends of the examined pH gradient.

Sterngren, Anna E.; Rousk, Johannes

2012-01-01

373

Stimulated Bacterial Growth under Elevated p?Co2: Results from an Off-Shore Mesocosm Study.  

PubMed

Marine bacteria are the main consumers of freshly produced organic matter. Many enzymatic processes involved in the bacterial digestion of organic compounds were shown to be pH sensitive in previous studies. Due to the continuous rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration, seawater pH is presently decreasing at a rate unprecedented during the last 300 million years but the consequences for microbial physiology, organic matter cycling and marine biogeochemistry are still unresolved. We studied the effects of elevated seawater pCO2 on a natural plankton community during a large-scale mesocosm study in a Norwegian fjord. Nine Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for Future Ocean Simulations (KOSMOS) were adjusted to different pCO2 levels ranging initially from ca. 280 to 3000 µatm and sampled every second day for 34 days. The first phytoplankton bloom developed around day 5. On day 14, inorganic nutrients were added to the enclosed, nutrient-poor waters to stimulate a second phytoplankton bloom, which occurred around day 20. Our results indicate that marine bacteria benefit directly and indirectly from decreasing seawater pH. During the first phytoplankton bloom, 5-10% more transparent exopolymer particles were formed in the high pCO2 mesocosms. Simultaneously, the efficiency of the protein-degrading enzyme leucine aminopeptidase increased with decreasing pH resulting in up to three times higher values in the highest pCO2/lowest pH mesocosm compared to the controls. In general, total and cell-specific aminopeptidase activities were elevated under low pH conditions. The combination of enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of organic matter and increased availability of gel particles as substrate supported up to 28% higher bacterial abundance in the high pCO2 treatments. We conclude that ocean acidification has the potential to stimulate the bacterial community and facilitate the microbial recycling of freshly produced organic matter, thus strengthening the role of the microbial loop in the surface ocean. PMID:24941307

Endres, Sonja; Galgani, Luisa; Riebesell, Ulf; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Engel, Anja

2014-01-01

374

Bacterial Vaginosis  

MedlinePLUS

... vaginosis can increase your chance of getting an STD. What is bacterial vaginosis? Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is ... contributes to BV. BV is not considered an STD, but having BV can increase your chances of ...

375

Growth curves of crossbred cows sired by Hereford, Angus, Belgian Blue, Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls, and the fraction of mature body weight and height at puberty.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth curves of females to determine if mature size and relative rates of maturation among breeds differed. Body weight and hip height data were fitted to the nonlinear function BW = f(age) = A - Be(k×age), where A is an estimate of mature BW and k determines the rate that BW or height moves from B to A. Cows represented progeny from 28 Hereford, 38 Angus, 25 Belgian Blue, 34 Brahman, 8 Boran, and 9 Tuli sires. Bulls from these breeds were mated by AI to Angus, Hereford, and MARC III composite (1/4 Angus, 1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Red Poll, and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows to produce calves in 1992, 1993, and 1994. These matings resulted in 516 mature cows whose growth curves were subsequently evaluated. Hereford-sired cows tended to have heavier mature BW, as estimated by parameter A, than Angus- (P=0.09) and Brahman-sired cows (P=0.06), and were heavier than the other breeds (P < 0.001). Angus-sired cows were heavier than Boran- (P < 0.001) and Tuli-sired cows (P < 0.001), and tended to be heavier than Belgian Blue-sired cows (P=0.097). Angus-sired cows did not differ from Brahman-sired cows (P=0.94). Brahman-sired cows had a heavier mature BW than Boran- (P < 0.001), Tuli- (P < 0.001), and Belgian Blue-sired cows (P < 0.04). Angus-sired cows matured faster (k) than cows sired by Hereford (P=0.03), Brahman (P < 0.001), Boran (P=0.03), and Tuli (P < 0.001) sires, but did not differ from Belgian Blue-sired (P=0.13) cows. Brahman-sired cows took longer to mature than Boran- (P=0.03) or Belgian Blue-sired cows (P=0.003). Belgian Blue-sired cows were faster maturing than Tuli-sired cows (P=0.02). Brahman-sired cows had reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Hereford- (P < 0.001), Tuli- (P=0.003), and Belgian Blue-sired cows (P=0.001). Boran-sired cows tended to have reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Angus-sired cows (P=0.09), and had reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Hereford- (P < 0.001), Tuli- (P < 0.001), and Belgian Blue-sired cows (P < 0.001). Within species of cattle, the relative range in proportion of mature BW at puberty (Bos taurus 0.56 through 0.58, and Bos indicus 0.60) was highly conserved, suggesting that proportion of mature BW is a more robust predictor of age at puberty across breeds than is absolute weight or age. PMID:21531851

Freetly, H C; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

2011-08-01

376

Deletion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ?-Crystallin-Like hspX Gene Causes Increased Bacterial Growth In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Hypervirulent mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whose growth rates are higher in vivo, have now been reported to have mutations in both regulatory and structural genes, but the basis for this unusual phenotype is not understood. One hypervirulence gene, dosR (devR, Rv2031c), activates transcription of approximately 50 genes in this pathogen in response to hypoxia and nitric oxide stress. The most dramatic activation (?80-fold) is activation of the hspX (acr, Rv2031c) gene, which encodes a 16-kDa ?-crystallin-like protein that is a major antigen. In this study we found that a ?acr mutant exhibited increased growth following infection of BALB/c mice in vivo and in both resting and activated macrophages in vitro (as measured by the number of CFU). The increased growth in macrophages was equal to that of a ?dosR mutant, while introduction of a constitutively expressed hspX gene reduced the ?dosR virulence to wild-type levels. These results suggest that the increased number of CFU of the ?dosR mutant was largely due to loss of hspX expression. We also confirmed that constitutive expression of hspX slows growth in vitro, and we propose that hspX plays an active role in slowing the growth of M. tuberculosis in vivo immediately following infection.

Hu, Yanmin; Movahedzadeh, Farahnaz; Stoker, Neil G.; Coates, Anthony R. M.

2006-01-01

377

Approximate Bézier curves by cubic LN curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to derive the offset curves by using cubic Bézier curves with a linear field of normal vectors (the so-called LN Bézier curves) more efficiently, three methods for approximating degree n Bézier curves by cubic LN Bézier curves are considered, which includes two traditional methods and one new method based on Hausdorff distance. The approximation based on shifting control

Wei-Xian Huang; Cong-Jian Jin; Guo-Jin Wang

2011-01-01

378

Bacterial Sialidase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

2004-01-01

379

Are bacteria more like plants or animals? Growth rate and resource dependence of bacterial C : N : P stoichiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. We examined the relative importance of resource composition (carbon : phosphorus molar ratios which varied between 9 and 933) and growth rate (0·5-1·5 h - 1 ) to biomass carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus stoichiometry and nucleic acid content in Escherichia coli grown in chemostats, and in other heterotrophic prokaryotes using published literature. 2. Escherichia coli RNA content

W. Makino; J. B. Cotner; R. W. Sterner; J. J. Elser

2003-01-01

380

Fungal growth and effects of different wood decomposing fungi on the indigenous bacterial community of polluted and unpolluted soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two different basidiomycete isolates were inoculated separately into contaminated soil and the soil colonization ability was assessed visually. Large differences in the colonization ability and growth patterns were found between the different fungi. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were extracted from the soils of the seven isolates with the best colonizing ability. All PLFAs that were not found in pure cultures

Karin Tornberg; Erland Bååth; Stefan Olsson

2003-01-01

381

Tails of Bacterial Motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cytoplasm of living cells provides a complex fluid environment in which intracellular bacteria live and move. By analyzing the easily visible curved actin ``comet-tail'' of polymerization-based-motility bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, we can learn about sub-micron structure and dynamics of the tail and of the bacterial surface enzyme that catalyzes tail formation. By characterizing the motility, we can transform such motile systems into probes of the cytoplasmic environment.

Rutenberg, Andrew; Grant, Martin

2001-03-01

382

The Francisella pathogenicity island protein IglA localizes to the bacterial cytoplasm and is needed for intracellular growth  

PubMed Central

Background Francisella tularensis is a gram negative, facultative intracellular bacterium that is the etiological agent of tularemia. F. novicida is closely related to F. tularensis but has low virulence for humans while being highly virulent in mice. IglA is a 21 kDa protein encoded by a gene that is part of an iglABCD operon located on the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI). Results Bioinformatics analysis of the FPI suggests that IglA and IglB are components of a newly described type VI secretion system. In this study, we showed that IglA regulation is controlled by the global regulators MglA and MglB. During intracellular growth IglA production reaches a maximum at about 10 hours post infection. Biochemical fractionation showed that IglA is a soluble cytoplasmic protein and immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that it interacts with the downstream-encoded IglB. When the iglB gene was disrupted IglA could not be detected in cell extracts of F. novicida, although IglC could be detected. We further demonstrated that IglA is needed for intracellular growth of F. novicida. A non-polar iglA deletion mutant was defective for growth in mouse macrophage-like cells, and in cis complementation largely restored the wild type macrophage growth phenotype. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that IglA and IglB are interacting cytoplasmic proteins that are required for intramacrophage growth. The significance of the interaction may be to secrete effector molecules that affect host cell processes.

de Bruin, Olle M; Ludu, Jagjit S; Nano, Francis E

2007-01-01

383

Reduction of Bacterial Speck ( Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato ) of Tomato by Combined Treatments of Plant Growth-promoting Bacterium, Azospirillum brasilense , Streptomycin Sulfate, and Chemo-thermal Seed Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of tomato seeds with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, or spraying tomato foliage with A. brasilense, streptomycin sulfate, or commercial copper bactericides, separately, before or after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the casual agent of bacterial speck of tomato, had no lasting effect on disease severity or on plant height and dry weight. Seed inoculation with A.

Yoav Bashan; Luz E. de-Bashan

2002-01-01

384

Bacterial Production and Growth Rate Estimation from [3H]Thymidine Incorporation for Attached and Free-Living Bacteria in Aquatic Systems  

PubMed Central

Production and specific growth rates of attached and free-living bacteria were estimated in an oligotrophic marine system, La Salvaje Beach, Vizcaya, Spain, and in a freshwater system having a higher nutrient concentration, Butron River, Vizcaya, Spain. Production was calculated from [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation by estimating specific conversion factors (cells or micrograms of C produced per mole of thymidine incorporated) for attached and free-living bacteria, respectively, in each system. Conversion factors were not statistically different between attached and free-living bacteria: 6.812 × 1011 and 8.678 × 1011 ?g of C mol?1 for free-living and attached bacteria in the freshwater system, and 1.276 × 1011 and 1.354 × 1011 ?g of C mol?1 for free-living and attached bacteria in the marine system. Therefore, use of a unique conversion factor for the mixed bacterial population is well founded. However, conversion factors were higher in the freshwater system than in the marine system. This could be due to the different trophic conditions of the two systems. Free-living bacteria contributed the most to production in the two systems (85% in the marine system and 67% in the freshwater system) because of their greater contribution to total biomass. Specific growth rates calculated from production data and biomass data were similar for attached and free-living bacteria.

Iriberri, Juan; Unanue, Marian; Ayo, Begona; Barcina, Isabel; Egea, Luis

1990-01-01

385

Elevated atmospheric CO 2 effects on seedling growth, nutrient uptake, and rhizosphere bacterial populations of Liriodendron tulipifera L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) seedlings were planted in unfertilized forest soil in boxes with a removable side panel and grown in atmospheres containing\\u000a either ambient (367 ?l l?1) or elevated (692 ?l l?1) CO2. Numbers of total bacteria, nitrifiers, and phosphate-dissolving bacteria in the rhizosphere and in nonrhizosphere soil were\\u000a measured every 6 weeks for 24 weeks. Seedling growth and

E. G. O'Neill; R. J. Luxmoore

1987-01-01

386

Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by modelling the growth dynamics of algal-bacterial cocultures.  

PubMed

The growth dynamics of populations of interacting species in the aquatic environment is of great importance, both for understanding natural ecosystems and in efforts to cultivate these organisms for industrial purposes. Here we consider a simple two-species system wherein the bacterium Mesorhizobium loti supplies vitamin B12 (cobalamin) to the freshwater green alga Lobomonas rostrata, which requires this organic micronutrient for growth. In return, the bacterium receives photosynthate from the alga. Mathematical models are developed that describe minimally the interdependence between the two organisms, and that fit the experimental observations of the consortium. These models enable us to distinguish between different mechanisms of nutrient exchange between the organisms, and provide strong evidence that, rather than undergoing simple lysis and release of nutrients into the medium, M. loti regulates the levels of cobalamin it produces, resulting in a true mutualism with L. rostrata. Over half of all microalgae are dependent on an exogenous source of cobalamin for growth, and this vitamin is synthesised only by bacteria; it is very likely that similar symbiotic interactions underpin algal productivity more generally. PMID:24522262

Grant, Matthew Aa; Kazamia, Elena; Cicuta, Pietro; Smith, Alison G

2014-07-01

387

Bacterial Overgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human gastrointestinal tract typically contains 300–500 bacterial species. Most bacterial species are acquired during\\u000a the birth process and although some changes to the flora may occur during later stages of life, the composition of the intestinal\\u000a microflora remains relatively constant. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) is defined as an excessive increase in the\\u000a number of bacteria in the upper

Rosemary J. Young; Jon A. Vanderhoof

388

Chemical Modification of Reactive Multilayered Films Fabricated from Poly(2-Alkenyl Azlactone)s: Design of Surfaces that Prevent or Promote Mammalian Cell Adhesion and Bacterial Biofilm Growth  

PubMed Central

We report an approach to the design of reactive polymer films that can be functionalized post-fabrication to either prevent or promote the attachment and growth of cells. Our approach is based on the reactive layer-by-layer assembly of covalently crosslinked thin films using a synthetic polyamine and a polymer containing reactive azlactone functionality. Our results demonstrate (i) that the residual azlactone functionality in these films can be exploited to immobilize amine-functionalized chemical motifs similar to those that promote or prevent cell and protein adhesion when assembled as self-assembled monolayers on gold-coated surfaces, and (ii) that the immobilization of these motifs changes significantly the behaviors and interactions of cells with the surfaces of these polymer films. We demonstrate that films treated with the hydrophobic molecule decylamine support the attachment and growth of mammalian cells in vitro. In contrast, films treated with the hydrophilic carbohydrate D-glucamine prevent cell adhesion and growth almost completely. The results of additional experiments suggest that these large differences in cell behavior can be understood, at least in part, in terms of differences in the abilities of these two different chemical motifs to promote or prevent the adsorption of protein onto film coated surfaces. We demonstrate further that this approach can be used to pattern regions of these reactive films that resist the initial attachment and subsequent invasion of mammalian cells for periods of at least one month in the presence of serum-containing cell culture media. Finally, we report that films that prevent the adhesion and growth of mammalian cells also prevent the initial formation of bacterial biofilms when incubated in the presence of the clinically relevant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of these studies, collectively, suggest the basis of general approaches to the fabrication and functionalization of thin films that prevent, promote, or pattern cell growth or the formation of biofilms on surfaces of interest in the contexts of both fundamental biological studies and a broad range of other practical applications.

Buck, Maren E.; Breitbach, Anthony S.; Belgrade, Sonja K.; Blackwell, Helen E.; Lynn, David M.

2009-01-01

389

On S-curves and tipping points  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his discussion in this journal of Kurzweil's The Singularity is Near, Modis criticizes Kurzweil's loose characterization of the “knee” of a growth curve. Likewise, the “tipping points” described by Gladwell (The Tipping Point) are clearly relevant to forecasting systems, but Gladwell did not mathematically identify such points. Both concepts refer to a point on the curve where growth accelerates

Fred Phillips

2007-01-01

390

Growth Curve Models for Indistinguishable Dyads Using Multilevel Modeling and Structural Equation Modeling: The Case of Adolescent Twins' Conflict with Their Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growth modeling is a useful tool for studying change over time, and it is becoming increasingly popular with developmental researchers. There is a considerable methodological literature surrounding growth modeling for individuals; however, far less attention has been focused on growth models for pairs of related individuals (i.e., dyads). In this…

Kashy, Deborah A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Burt, S. Alexandra; McGue, Matt

2008-01-01

391

Propionibacterium acidipropionici CRL1198 influences the production of acids and the growth of bacterial genera stimulated by inulin in a murine model of cecal slurries.  

PubMed

Different attempts have been made to improve the health status of humans and animals by increasing the intestinal production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) derived from non-digestible carbohydrates fermentation. In this paper we investigate the in vitro production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after addition of inulin, propionibacteria or a combination of both in an experimental model of mice cecal slurries. The development of bacterial genera which are usually stimulated by inulin addition was also investigated. According to our experimental data, acetic acid and butyric acids concentrations increased after incubation in slurries that had no supplements. By contrast, butyric acid concentrations remained in the basal value when supplements were used. Fermentation of only inulin did not increase the concentration of total SCFA. Propionibacterium acidipropionici CRL1198 improved the production of propionic acid in cecal slurries when it was added alone, but the effect was more noticeable in the combination with inulin. A modulation of the global fermentative activity of the cecal microbiota was evidenced by the increase on the ratio propionic acid/SCFA in supplementations with propionibacteria. Statistical analysis of data demonstrated that samples from homogenates with propionibacteria alone or combined with inulin belong to the same cluster. The presence of propionibacteria limited the growth of Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium hystoliticum groups in slurries with and without inulin. The growth of Bifidobacterium was not modified and the stimulating effect of inulin on lactobacilli disappeared in the presence of propionibacteria. In conclusion, dairy propionibacteria are potential candidates to develop new functional foods helpful to ensure the intestinal production of SCFA during inulin supplementation and to control the overgrowth of bacteria belonging to Bacteroides and Clostridium genera. PMID:20451635

Lorenzo-Pisarello, M J; Gultemirian, M L; Nieto-Peñalver, C; Perez Chaia, A

2010-08-01

392

Changes in Bacterial Growth Rate Govern Expression of the Borrelia burgdorferi OspC and Erp Infection-Associated Surface Proteins  

PubMed Central

The Lyme disease spirochete controls production of its OspC and Erp outer surface proteins, repressing protein synthesis during colonization of vector ticks but increasing expression when those ticks feed on vertebrate hosts. Early studies found that the synthesis of OspC and Erps can be stimulated in culture by shifting the temperature from 23°C to 34°C, leading to a hypothesis that Borrelia burgdorferi senses environmental temperature to determine its location in the tick-mammal infectious cycle. However, borreliae cultured at 34°C divide several times faster than do those cultured at 23°C. We developed methods that disassociate bacterial growth rate and temperature, allowing a separate evaluation of each factor's impacts on B. burgdorferi gene and protein expression. Altogether, the data support a new paradigm that B. burgdorferi actually responds to changes in its own replication rate, not temperature per se, as the impetus to increase the expression of the OspC and Erp infection-associated proteins.

Jutras, Brandon L.; Chenail, Alicia M.

2013-01-01

393

Changes in bacterial growth rate govern expression of the Borrelia burgdorferi OspC and Erp infection-associated surface proteins.  

PubMed

The Lyme disease spirochete controls production of its OspC and Erp outer surface proteins, repressing protein synthesis during colonization of vector ticks but increasing expression when those ticks feed on vertebrate hosts. Early studies found that the synthesis of OspC and Erps can be stimulated in culture by shifting the temperature from 23°C to 34°C, leading to a hypothesis that Borrelia burgdorferi senses environmental temperature to determine its location in the tick-mammal infectious cycle. However, borreliae cultured at 34°C divide several times faster than do those cultured at 23°C. We developed methods that disassociate bacterial growth rate and temperature, allowing a separate evaluation of each factor's impacts on B. burgdorferi gene and protein expression. Altogether, the data support a new paradigm that B. burgdorferi actually responds to changes in its own replication rate, not temperature per se, as the impetus to increase the expression of the OspC and Erp infection-associated proteins. PMID:23222718

Jutras, Brandon L; Chenail, Alicia M; Stevenson, Brian

2013-02-01

394

Physics of Bacterial Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary: Bacterial cells utilize three-dimensional (3D) protein assemblies to perform important cellular functions such as growth, division, chemoreception, and motility. These assemblies are composed of mechanoproteins that can mechanically deform and exert force. Sometimes, small-nucleotide hydrolysis is coupled to mechanical deformations. In this review, we describe the general principle for an understanding of the coupling of mechanics with chemistry in mechanochemical systems. We apply this principle to understand bacterial cell shape and morphogenesis and how mechanical forces can influence peptidoglycan cell wall growth. We review a model that can potentially reconcile the growth dynamics of the cell wall with the role of cytoskeletal proteins such as MreB and crescentin. We also review the application of mechanochemical principles to understand the assembly and constriction of the FtsZ ring. A number of potential mechanisms are proposed, and important questions are discussed.

Sun, Sean X.; Jiang, Hongyuan

2011-01-01

395

Protective effect of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone agonist in bacterial toxin-induced pulmonary barrier dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Antibiotic treatment of patients infected with G? or G+ bacteria promotes release of the toxins lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and pneumolysin (PLY) in their lungs. Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) agonist JI-34 protects human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HL-MVEC), expressing splice variant 1 (SV-1) of the receptor, from PLY-induced barrier dysfunction. We investigated whether JI-34 also blunts LPS-induced hyperpermeability. Since GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) signaling can potentially stimulate both cAMP-dependent barrier-protective pathways as well as barrier-disruptive protein kinase C pathways, we studied their interaction in GHRH agonist-treated HL-MVEC, in the presence of PLY, by means of siRNA-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) depletion. Methods: Barrier function measurements were done in HL-MVEC monolayers using Electrical Cell substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) and VE-cadherin expression by Western blotting. Capillary leak was assessed by Evans Blue dye (EBD) incorporation. Cytokine generation in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured by multiplex analysis. PKA and PKC-? activity were assessed by Western blotting. Results: GHRH agonist JI-34 significantly blunts LPS-induced barrier dysfunction, at least in part by preserving VE-cadherin expression, while not affecting inflammation. In addition to activating PKA, GHRH agonist also increases PKC-? activity in PLY-treated HL-MVEC. Treatment with PLY significantly decreases resistance in control siRNA-treated HL-MVEC, but does so even more in PKA-depleted monolayers. Pretreatment with GHRH agonist blunts PLY-induced permeability in control siRNA-treated HL-MVEC, but fails to improve barrier function in PKA-depleted PLY-treated monolayers. Conclusions: GHRH signaling in HL-MVEC protects from both LPS and PLY-mediated endothelial barrier dysfunction and concurrently induces a barrier-protective PKA-mediated and a barrier-disruptive PKC-?-induced pathway in the presence of PLY, the former of which dominates the latter.

Czikora, Istvan; Sridhar, Supriya; Gorshkov, Boris; Alieva, Irina B.; Kasa, Anita; Gonzales, Joyce; Potapenko, Olena; Umapathy, Nagavedi S.; Pillich, Helena; Rick, Ferenc G.; Block, Norman L.; Verin, Alexander D.; Chakraborty, Trinad; Matthay, Michael A.; Schally, Andrew V.; Lucas, Rudolf

2014-01-01

396

Bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

Bacterial infections are frequent complications among patients treated for cancer. The type, severity, and treatment of bacterial infections vary and depend upon the specific malignancy, associated chemotherapies, and transplantation. This chapter discusses commonly encountered bacterial pathogens as well as Nocardia and mycobacteria in patients with cancer and addresses the clinical syndromes and management. Drug-resistant bacteria are becoming an increasingly recognized problem in patients with cancer. Antimicrobial resistance in select gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are discussed along with the mechanisms of resistance and recommended therapies. PMID:24706222

Wilson, John W

2014-01-01

397

Systemic resistance to bacterial leaf speck pathogen in Arabidopsis thaliana induced by the culture filtrate of a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) Phoma sp. GS8-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture filtrate (CF) from the plant growth-promoting fungus Phoma sp. GS8-1 was found to induce systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana against the bacterial leaf speck pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst), and the underlying mechanism was studied. Roots of A. thaliana were treated with CF from GS8-1, and plants expressed a clear resistance to subsequent Pst infection; disease

Farjana Sultana; Mayumi Kubota; Hiroyuki Koyama; Mitsuro Hyakumachi

2008-01-01

398

Human milk oligosaccharides promote the growth of staphylococci.  

PubMed

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), which constitute a major component of human milk, promote the growth of particular bacterial species in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that HMO also interact with the bacterial communities present in human milk. To test this hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. First, milk samples were collected from healthy women (n = 16); culture-independent analysis of the bacterial communities was performed, HMO content was analyzed, and the relation between these factors was investigated. A positive correlation was observed between the relative abundance of Staphylococcus and total HMO content (r = 0.66). In a follow-up study, we conducted a series of in vitro growth curve experiments utilizing Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and HMO isolated from human milk. HMO exhibited stimulatory effects on bacterial growth under various nutritional conditions. Analysis of culture supernatants from these experiments revealed that HMO did not measurably disappear from the culture medium, indicating that the growth-enhancing effects were not a result of bacterial metabolism of the HMO. Instead, stimulation of growth caused greater utilization of amino acids in minimal medium. Collectively, the data provide evidence that HMO may promote the growth of Staphylococcus species in the lactating mammary gland. PMID:22562995

Hunt, K M; Preuss, J; Nissan, C; Davlin, C A; Williams, J E; Shafii, B; Richardson, A D; McGuire, M K; Bode, L; McGuire, M A

2012-07-01

399

High-throughput analysis of growth differences among phage strains.  

PubMed

Although methods such as spectrophotometry are useful for identifying growth differences among bacterial strains, it is currently difficult to similarly determine whether bacteriophage strains differ in growth using high throughput methods. Here we use automated spectrophotometry to develop an in vitro method for indirectly distinguishing fitness (growth) differences among virus strains, based on direct measures of their infected bacterial hosts. We used computer simulations of a mathematical model for phage growth to predict which features of bacterial growth curves were best associated with differences in growth among phage strains. We then tested these predictions using the in vitro method to confirm which of the inferred viral growth traits best reflected known fitness differences among genotypes of the RNA phage phi-6, when infecting a Pseudomonas syringae host. Results showed that the inferred phage trait of time-to-extinction (time required to drive bacterial density below detectable optical density) reliably correlated with genotype rankings based on absolute fitness (phage titer per ml). These data suggested that the high-throughput analysis was valuable for identifying growth differences among virus strains, and that the method may be especially useful for high throughput analyses of fitness differences among phage strains cultured and/or evolved in liquid (unstructured) environments. PMID:22101310

Turner, Paul E; Draghi, Jeremy A; Wilpiszeski, Regina

2012-01-01

400

Expression of bacterial cysteine biosynthesis genes in transgenic mice and sheep: toward a new in vivo amino acid biosynthesis pathway and improved wool growth.  

PubMed

It is possible to improve wool growth through increasing the supply of cysteine available for protein synthesis and cell division in the wool follicle. As mammals can only synthesise cysteine indirectly from methionine via trans-sulphuration, expression of transgenes encoding microbial cysteine biosynthesis enzymes could provide a more efficient pathway to cysteine synthesis in the sheep. If expressed in the rumen epithelium, the abundant sulphide, produced by ruminal microorganisms and normally excreted, could be captured for conversion to cysteine. This paper describes the characterisation of expression of the cysteine biosynthesis genes of Salmonella typhimurium, cysE, cysM and cysK, and linked cysEM, cysME and cysKE genes as transgenes in mice and sheep. The linked transgenes were constructed with each gene driven by a separate promoter, either with the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat (RSVLTR) promoter or the mouse phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (mPgk-1) promoter, and with human growth hormone (hGH) polyadenylation sequences. Transgenesis of mice with the RSVLTR-cysE gene afforded tissue-specific, heritable expression of the gene. Despite high levels of expression in a number of tissues, extremely low levels of expression occurred in the stomach and small intestine. Results of a concurrent sheep transgenesis experiment using the RSVLTR-cysEM and -cysME linked transge