Intracystic fluid was aseptically collected from 11 patients with postoperative maxillary cyst (POMC), and DNA was extracted from the POMC fluid. Bacterial species were identified by sequencing after cloning of approximately 580?bp of the 16S rRNA gene. Identification of pathogenic bacteria was also performed by culture methods. The phylogenetic identity was determined by sequencing 517–596?bp in each of the 1139 16S rRNA gene clones. A total of 1114 clones were classified while the remaining 25 clones were unclassified. A total of 103 bacterial species belonging to 42 genera were identified in POMC fluid samples by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Species of Prevotella (91%), Neisseria (73%), Fusobacterium (73%), Porphyromonas (73%), and Propionibacterium (73%) were found to be highly prevalent in all patients. Streptococcus mitis (64%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (55%), Propionibacterium acnes (55%), Staphylococcus capitis (55%), and Streptococcus salivarius (55%) were detected in more than 6 of the 11 patients. The results obtained by the culture method were different from those obtained by 16S rRNA gene analysis, but both approaches may be necessary for the identification of pathogens, especially of bacteria that are difficult to detect by culture methods, and the development of rational treatments for patients with POMC.
Sano, Naoto; Yamashita, Yoshio; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Goto, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Hiroshi
Bacterial communities are important catalysts in the production of composts. Here, it was analysed whether the diversity of bacteria in finished composts is stable and specific for the production process. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) based on polymerase chain reaction amplified partial 16S rRNA genes was used to profile and analyse bacterial communities found in total DNA extracted from finished composts.
Letizia Fracchia; Anja B. Dohrmann; Maria Giovanna Martinotti; Christoph C. Tebbe
The majority of antibiotics used in the clinic target bacterial protein synthesis. However, the widespread emergence of bacterial resistance to existing drugs creates a need to discover or develop new therapeutic agents. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) has been a target for numerous antibiotics that bind to functional rRNA regions such as the peptidyl transferase center, polypeptide exit tunnel, and tRNA binding sites. Even though the atomic resolution structures of many ribosome-antibiotic complexes have been solved, improving the ribosome-acting drugs is difficult because the large rRNA has a complicated 3D architecture and is surrounded by numerous proteins. Computational approaches, such as structure-based design, often fail when applied to rRNA binders because electrostatics dominate the interactions and the effect of ions and bridging waters is difficult to account for in the scoring functions. Improving the classical anti-ribosomal agents has not proven particularly successful and has not kept pace with acquired resistance. So one needs to look for other ways to combat the ribosomes, finding either new rRNA targets or totally different compounds. There have been some efforts to design translation inhibitors that act on the basis of the sequence-specific hybridization properties of nucleic acid bases. Indeed oligonucleotides hybridizing with functional regions of rRNA have been shown to inhibit translation. Also, some peptides have been shown to be reasonable inhibitors. In this review we describe these nonconventional approaches to screening for ribosome inhibition and function of particular rRNA regions. We discuss inhibitors against rRNA that may be designed according to nucleotide sequence and higher order structure. PMID:23631412
Trylska, Joanna; Thoduka, Sapna G; D?browska, Zofia
The bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from DNA extracts of 12 samples and compared to clone libraries previously generated using RNA extracts from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis of 761 DNA-based ...
Microgram quantities of rRNA were recovered from natural microbial communities in sediment, soil, and water with a lysozyme-hot phenol direct extraction method. Gel filtration with Sephadex G-75 spun columns readily removed humic-like contaminants without any measurable loss of rRNA and rendered RNA extracts of sufficient quality for molecular procedures. Images
Moran, M A; Torsvik, V L; Torsvik, T; Hodson, R E
We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...
We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...
Three tropical lucinid clams (Codakia orbiculata, Codakia pectinella and Lucina nassula) from a shallow coastal environment have been studied regarding to their thioautotrophic bacterial endosymbionts. The 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) from these three endosymbionts were amplified using PCR. Phylogenetic analysis by distance matrix and parsimony methods always placed the newly examined symbionts within the monophyletic group composed of symbionts of the bivalve superfamily Lucinacea. A same single 16S rRNA sequence was found in C. orbiculata and C. pectinella and was identical to that found in C. orbicularis and Linga pensylvanica, two other lucinids living in the same type of environment. These data indicate that a same symbiont species may be associated with different host species. Lucina nassula host a symbiont with a distinct 16S rDNA sequence, but very closely related to the former. PMID:8764482
Durand, P; Gros, O
The microbiota of the Amazon River basin has been little studied. We compared the structure of bacterial communities of the Solimões and Negro Rivers, the main Amazon River tributaries, based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Water was sampled with a 3-L Van Dorn collection bottle; samples were collected at nine different points/depths totaling 27 L of water from each river. Total DNA was extracted from biomass retained by a 0.22-?m filter after sequential filtration of the water through 0.8- and 0.22-?m filters. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed with the PHYLIP and DOTUR programs to obtain the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and to calculate the diversity and richness indices using the SPADE program. Taxonomic affiliation was determined using the naive Bayesian rRNA Classifier of the RDP II (Ribosomal Database Project). We recovered 158 sequences from the Solimões River grouped into 103 OTUs, and 197 sequences from the Negro River library grouped into 90 OTUs by the DOTUR program. The Solimões River was found to have a greater diversity of bacterial genera, and greater estimated richness of 446 OTUs, compared with 242 OTUs from the Negro River, as calculated by ACE estimator. The Negro River has less bacterial diversity, but more 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the bacterial genus Polynucleobacter were detected; 56 sequences from this genus were found (about 30% of the total sequences). We suggest that a more in-depth investigation be made to elucidate the role played by these bacteria in the river environment. These differences in bacterial diversity between Solimões and Negro Rivers could be explained by differences in organic matter content and pH of the rivers. PMID:22183948
Peixoto, J C C; Leomil, L; Souza, J V; Peixoto, F B S; Astolfi-Filho, S
The main bacteria in peaty, acid grassland soils in the Netherlands were investigated by ribosome isolation, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, hybridization, cloning, and sequencing. Instead of using only 16S rDNA to determine the sequences present, we focused on rRNA to classify and quantify the most active bacteria. After direct ribosome isolation from soil, a partial amplicon of bacterial 16S rRNA
ANDREAS FELSKE; ARTHUR WOLTERINK; ROBERT VAN LIS; ANTOON D. L. AKKERMANS; Hesselink van Suchtelenweg
Clinical microorganisms isolated during a 5-year study in our hospital that could not be identified by conventional criteria were studied by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Each isolate yielded a ?1,400-bp sequence containing <5 ambiguities which was compared with the GenBank 16S rRNA gene library; 1,404 such isolates were tested, and 120 were considered unique (27 isolates) or rare (?10 cases reported in the literature) human pathogens. Eleven new species, “Actinobaculum massiliae,” “Candidatus Actinobaculum timonae,” Paenibacillus sanguinis, “Candidatus Bacteroides massiliae,” Chryseobacterium massiliae, “Candidatus Chryseobacterium timonae,” Paenibacillus massiliensis, “Candidatus Peptostreptococcus massiliae,” “Candidatus Prevotella massiliensis,” Rhodobacter massiliensis, and “Candidatus Veillonella atypica” were identified. Sixteen species were obtained from humans for the first time. Our results show the important role that 16S rRNA gene sequence-based bacterial identification currently plays in recognizing unusual and emerging bacterial diseases.
Drancourt, M.; Berger, P.; Raoult, D.
Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences generated from Xerocomus pruinatus and Scleroderma citrinum ectomycorrhizospheres revealed that similar bacterial communities inhabited the two ectomycorrhizospheres in terms of phyla and genera, with an enrichment of the Burkholderia genus. Compared to the bulk soil habitat, ectomycorrhizospheres hosted significantly more Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria.
Oger, P.; Morin, E.; Frey-Klett, P.
The 16S rRNAs from the bacterial endosymbionts of six marine invertebrates from diverse environments were isolated and partially sequenced. These symbionts included the trophosome symbiont of Riftia pachyptila, the gill symbionts of Calyptogena magnifica and Bathymodiolus thermophilus (from deep-sea hydrothermal vents), and the gill symbionts of Lucinoma annulata, Lucinoma aequizonata, and Codakia orbicularis (from relatively shallow coastal environments). Only one type of bacterial 16S rRNA was detected in each symbiosis. Using nucleotide sequence comparisons, we showed that each of the bacterial symbionts is distinct from the others and that all fall within a limited domain of the gamma subdivision of the purple bacteria (one of the major eubacterial divisions previously defined by 16S rRNA analysis [C. R. Woese, Microbiol. Rev. 51: 221-271, 1987]). Two host specimens were analyzed in five of the symbioses; in each case, identical bacterial rRNA sequences were obtained from conspecific host specimens. These data indicate that the symbioses examined are species specific and that the symbiont species are unique to and invariant within their respective host species. PMID:3286609
Distel, D L; Lane, D J; Olsen, G J; Giovannoni, S J; Pace, B; Pace, N R; Stahl, D A; Felbeck, H
The 16S rRNAs from the bacterial endosymbionts of six marine invertebrates from diverse environments were isolated and partially sequenced. These symbionts included the trophosome symbiont of Riftia pachyptila, the gill symbionts of Calyptogena magnifica and Bathymodiolus thermophilus (from deep-sea hydrothermal vents), and the gill symbionts of Lucinoma annulata, Lucinoma aequizonata, and Codakia orbicularis (from relatively shallow coastal environments). Only one type of bacterial 16S rRNA was detected in each symbiosis. Using nucleotide sequence comparisons, we showed that each of the bacterial symbionts is distinct from the others and that all fall within a limited domain of the gamma subdivision of the purple bacteria (one of the major eubacterial divisions previously defined by 16S rRNA analysis [C. R. Woese, Microbiol. Rev. 51: 221-271, 1987]). Two host specimens were analyzed in five of the symbioses; in each case, identical bacterial rRNA sequences were obtained from conspecific host specimens. These data indicate that the symbioses examined are species specific and that the symbiont species are unique to and invariant within their respective host species.
Distel, D L; Lane, D J; Olsen, G J; Giovannoni, S J; Pace, B; Pace, N R; Stahl, D A; Felbeck, H
The goal of this study was to identify bacteria involved in soil suppressiveness against the plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. Since H. schachtii cysts isolated from the suppressive soil can transfer this beneficial property to nonsuppressive soils, analysis of the cyst-associated microorganisms should lead to the identification of the causal organisms. Our experimental approach was to identify bacterial rRNA genes (rDNA)
Bei Yin; Lea Valinsky; Xuebiao Gao; J. Ole Becker; James Borneman
Spiroplasma spp. have been proposed to be the etiological agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In a blind study, a panel of 20 DNA samples was prepared from the brains of uninfected hamsters or hamsters infected with the 263K strain of scrapie. The brains of the infected hamsters contained ?1010 infectious doses/g. The coded panel was searched for bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, using primers selective for spiroplasma sequences, primers selective for mollicutes in general, and universal bacterial primers. After 35 PCR cycles, no samples were positive for spiroplasma or any other bacterial DNA, while control Spiroplasma mirum genomic DNA, spiked at 1% of the concentration required to account for the scrapie infectivity present, was readily detected. After 70 PCR cycles, nearly all samples yielded amplified products which were homologous to various bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, including those of frequent environmental contaminants. These sequences were seen in uninfected as well as infected samples. Because the concentration of scrapie infectivity was at a known high level, it is very unlikely that a bacterial infection at the same concentration could have escaped detection. We conclude that the infectious agent responsible for TSE disease cannot be a spiroplasma or any other eubacterial species.
Alexeeva, Irina; Elliott, Ellen J.; Rollins, Sandra; Gasparich, Gail E.; Lazar, Jozef; Rohwer, Robert G.
Spiroplasma spp. have been proposed to be the etiological agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In a blind study, a panel of 20 DNA samples was prepared from the brains of uninfected hamsters or hamsters infected with the 263K strain of scrapie. The brains of the infected hamsters contained > or =10(10) infectious doses/g. The coded panel was searched for bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, using primers selective for spiroplasma sequences, primers selective for mollicutes in general, and universal bacterial primers. After 35 PCR cycles, no samples were positive for spiroplasma or any other bacterial DNA, while control Spiroplasma mirum genomic DNA, spiked at 1% of the concentration required to account for the scrapie infectivity present, was readily detected. After 70 PCR cycles, nearly all samples yielded amplified products which were homologous to various bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, including those of frequent environmental contaminants. These sequences were seen in uninfected as well as infected samples. Because the concentration of scrapie infectivity was at a known high level, it is very unlikely that a bacterial infection at the same concentration could have escaped detection. We conclude that the infectious agent responsible for TSE disease cannot be a spiroplasma or any other eubacterial species. PMID:16390954
Alexeeva, Irina; Elliott, Ellen J; Rollins, Sandra; Gasparich, Gail E; Lazar, Jozef; Rohwer, Robert G
The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) activity of the sludge was about 9.84 x 10(-4) mg x (mg x h)(-1) by measuring the simultaneous consumption of ammonium and nitrite under anoxic conditions in the batch tests. The consumption of NO2(-) -N and NH4+ -N was 1.311 for ANAMMOX bacteria. The partial 16S rDNA sequence was obtained by using molecule biology methods. Crude DNA of the total bacteria in granular sludge from EGSB reactor was extracted and purified. Then, PCR amplification by using specific primer, clone and sequence determination was performed. ANAMMOX bacterial species(anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing Planctomycete cquenviron-1) which was enrichment cultivated from EGSB reactor were the same genera with Candidatus "Anammoxoglobus propionicus" and Candidatus "Jettenia asiatica" by analyzing phylogenetic tree. The maximum identities of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing Planctomycete cquenviron-1 with other ANAMMOX bacterial species was about 93%. The results showed that a new ANAMMOX bacterial species which was enrichment cultivated from EGSB reactor was found and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing Planctomycete cquenviron-1 was denominated. PMID:18613522
Zu, Bo; Zhang, Dai-jun; Yan, Qing
As an approach to the study of rRNA synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria, we characterized the regulation of the Bacillus subtilis rrnB and rrnO rRNA promoters. We conclude that B. subtilis and Escherichia coli use different strategies to control rRNA synthesis. In contrast to E. coli, it appears that the initiating NTP for transcription from B. subtilis rRNA promoters is GTP, promoter strength is determined primarily by the core promoter (?10/?35 region), and changes in promoter activity always correlate with changes in the intracellular GTP concentration. rRNA promoters in B. subtilis appear to be regulated by changes in the initiating NTP pools, but in some growth transitions, changes in rRNA promoter activity are also dependent on relA, which codes for ppGpp synthetase. In contrast to the situation for E. coli where ppGpp decreases rRNA promoter activity by directly inhibiting RNA polymerase, it appears that ppGpp may not inhibit B. subtilis RNA polymerase directly. Rather, increases in the ppGpp concentration might reduce the available GTP pools, thereby modulating rRNA promoter activity indirectly.
Krasny, Libor; Gourse, Richard L
Carolina bays are naturally occurring shallow elliptical depressions largely fed by rain and shallow ground water. To identify members of the domain Bacteria which inhibit such an environment, we used PCR to construct a library of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) cloned from DNA extracted from the sediments of Rainbow bay, located on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, S.C. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions of 16S rDNA were used as primers for PCR, and gel-purified PCR products were cloned into vector pGEM-T. Partial sequencing of the cloned 16S rDNAs revealed an extensive amount of phylogenetic diversity within this system. Of the 35 clones sequenced, 32 were affiliated with five bacterial groups: 11 clustered with the Proteobacteria division (including members of the alpha, beta, and delta subdivisions), 8 clustered with the Acidobacterium subdivision of the Fibrobacter division (as categorized by the Ribosomal Database Project's taxonomic scheme, version 5.0), 7 clustered with the Verrucomicrobium subdivision of the Planctomyces division, 3 clustered with the gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium and relatives subdivision), and 3 clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria. One sequence branched very deeply from the Bacteria and was found not to be associated with any of the major divisions when phylogenetic trees were constructed. Two clones did not consistently cluster with specific groups and may be chimeric sequences. None of the clones exhibited an exact match to any of the 16S rDNA sequences deposited in the databases, suggesting that most of the bacteria in Rainbow Bay are novel species. In particular, the clones related to the Acidobacterium subdivision and the Verrucomicrobium subdivision confirm the presence of novel taxa discovered previously in other molecular surveys of this type.
Wise, M G; McArthur, J V; Shimkets, L J
Carolina bays are naturally occurring shallow elliptical depressions largely fed by rain and shallow ground water. To identify members of the domain Bacteria which inhabit such an environment, we used PCR to construct a library of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) cloned from DNA extracted from the sediments of Rainbow Bay, located on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, S.C. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions of 16S rDNA were used as primers for PCR, and gel-purified PCR products were cloned into vector pGEM-T. Partial sequencing of the cloned 16S rDNAs revealed an extensive amount of phylogenetic diversity within this system. Of the 35 clones sequenced, 32 were affiliated with five bacterial groups: 11 clustered with the Proteobacteria division (including members of the alpha, beta, and delta subdivisions), 8 clustered with the Acidobacterium subdivision of the Fibrobacter division (as categorized by the Ribosomal Database Project`s taxonomic scheme, version 5.0), 7 clustered with the Verrucomicrobium subdivision of the Planctomyces division, 3 clustered with the gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium and relatives subdivision), and 3 clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria. One sequence branched very deeply from the Bacteria and was found not to be associated with any of the major divisions when phylogenetic trees were constructed. Two clones did not consistently cluster with specific groups and may be chimeric sequences. None of the clones exhibited an exact match to any of the 16S rDNA sequences deposited in the databases, suggesting that most of the bacteria in Rainbow Bay are novel species. In particular, the clones related to the Acidobacterium subdivision and the Verrucomicrobium subdivision confirm the presence of novel taxa discovered previously in other molecular surveys of this type. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Wise, M.G.; Shimkets, L.J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); McArthur, J.V. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)
Onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is widely believed to be preceded by exposure to some environmental trigger such as bacterial infectious agents. The influence of bacteria on RA disease onset or pathology has to date been controversial, due to inconsistencies between groups in the report of bacterial species isolated from RA disease tissue. Using a modified technique of reverse transcriptase-PCR amplification, we have detected bacterial rRNA in the synovial tissue of late-stage RA and non-RA arthritis controls. This may be suggestive of the presence of live bacteria. Sequencing of cloned complementary rDNA (crDNA) products revealed a number of bacterial sequences in joint tissue from each patient, and from these analyses a comprehensive profile of the organisms present was compiled. This revealed a number of different organisms in each patient, some of which are common to both RA and non-RA controls and are probably opportunistic colonizers of previously diseased tissue and others which are unique species. These latter organisms may be candidates for a specific role in disease pathology and require further investigation to exclude them as causative agents in the complex bacterial millieu. In addition, many of the detected bacterial species have not been identified previously from synovial tissue or fluid from arthritis patients. These may not be easily cultivable, since they were not revealed in previous studies using conventional in vitro bacterial culture methods. In situ hybridization analyses have revealed the joint-associated bacterial rRNA to be both intra- and extracellular. The role of viable bacteria or their nucleic acids as triggers in disease onset or pathology in either RA or non-RA arthritis controls is unclear and requires further investigation.
Kempsell, Karen E.; Cox, Charles J.; Hurle, Michael; Wong, Anthony; Wilkie, Scott; Zanders, Edward D.; Gaston, J. S. Hill; Crowe, J. Scott
Carolina bays are naturally occurring shallow elliptical depressions largely fed by rain and shallow ground water. To identify members of the domain Bacteria which inhabit such an environment, we used PCR to construct a library of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) cloned from DNA extracted from the sediments of Rainbow Bay, located on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, S.C.
MARK G. WISE; L. J. Shimkets; J. V. McArthur
The microbial population in a laboratory activated sludge reactor was monitored for 245 d at 75 time points by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA. Synthetic wastewater was used as the influent, and the reactor was operated under the same conditions throughout the experiment. The behaviors of different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed. Multiple OTUs showed periodic propagation and recession. One of the OTUs showed sharp recession, which suggests that cells in the OTU were selectively killed. The behaviors of different phylogenetic lineages of Candidatus ‘Accumulibacter phosphatis’ were also visualized. It was clearly demonstrated that pyrosequencing with barcoded primers is a very effective tool to clarify the dynamics of the bacterial population in activated sludge.
Satoh, Hiroyasu; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Ranasinghe, Purnika; Li, Ning; Gunawardana, Egodaha Gedara Wasana; Hattori, Masahira; Mino, Takashi
The bacterial diversity assessed from clone libraries prepared from rRNA (two libraries) and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (one library) from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-polluted soil has been analyzed. A good correspondence of the community composition found in the two types of library was observed. Nearly 29% of the cloned sequences in the rDNA library were identical to sequences in the rRNA libraries.
BALBINA NOGALES; EDWARD R. B. MOORE; ENRIQUE LLOBET-BROSSA; RAMON ROSSELLO-MORA; RUDOLF AMANN; KENNETH N. TIMMIS
The core ribosomal protein S8 binds to the central domain of 16S rRNA independently of other ribosomal proteins and is required for assembling the 30S subunit. It has been shown with E. coli ribosomes that a short rRNA fragment restricted by nucleotides 588-602 and 636-651 is sufficient for strong and specific protein S8 binding. In this work, we studied the complexes formed by ribosomal protein S8 from Thermus thermophilus and Methanococcus jannaschii with short rRNA fragments isolated from the same organisms. The dissociation constants of the complexes of protein S8 with rRNA fragments were determined. Based on the results of binding experiments, rRNA fragments of different length were designed and synthesized in preparative amounts in vitro using T7 RNA-polymerase. Stable S8-RNA complexes were crystallized. Crystals were obtained both for homologous bacterial and archaeal complexes and for hybrid complexes of archaeal protein with bacterial rRNA. Crystals of the complex of protein S8 from M. jannaschii with the 37-nucleotide rRNA fragment from the same organism suitable for X-ray analysis were obtained. PMID:11703173
Tishchenko, S V; Vassilieva, J M; Platonova, O B; Serganov, A A; Fomenkova, N P; Mudrik, E S; Piendl, W; Ehresmann, C; Ehresmann, B; Garber, M B
The novel multi-million read generating sequencing technologies are very promising for resolving the immense soil 16S rRNA gene bacterial diversity. Yet they have a limited maximum sequence length screening ability, restricting studies in screening DNA stretches of single 16S rRNA gene hypervariable (V) regions. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of properties of four consecutive V regions (V3-6) on commonly applied analytical methodologies in bacterial ecology studies. Using an in silico approach, the performance of each V region was compared with the complete 16S rRNA gene stretch. We assessed related properties of the soil derived bacterial sequence collection of the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database and concomitantly performed simulations based on published datasets. Results indicate that overall the most prominent V region for soil bacterial diversity studies was V3, even though it was outperformed in some of the tests. Despite its high performance during most tests, V4 was less conserved along flanking sites, thus reducing its ability for bacterial diversity coverage. V5 performed well in the non-redundant RDP database based analysis. However V5 did not resemble the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence results as well as V3 and V4 did when the natural sequence frequency and occurrence approximation was considered in the virtual experiment. Although, the highly conserved flanking sequence regions of V6 provide the ability to amplify partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from very diverse owners, it was demonstrated that V6 was the least informative compared to the rest examined V regions. Our results indicate that environment specific database exploration and theoretical assessment of the experimental approach are strongly suggested in 16S rRNA gene based bacterial diversity studies.
Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Puglisi, Edoardo; Arena, Maria; Cappa, Fabrizio; Cocconcelli, Pier S.; Trevisan, Marco
We demonstrate how a long structurally constrained RNA can be analyzed in homogeneous solution at ambient temperatures with high specificity using a sophisticated biosensor. The sensor consists of a molecular beacon probe as a signal reporter and two DNA adaptor strands, which have fragments complementary to the reporter and to the analyzed RNA. One adaptor strand uses its long RNA-binding arm to unwind the RNA secondary structure. Second adaptor strand with a short RNA-binding arm hybridizes only to a completely complementary site, thus providing high recognition specificity. Overall the three-component sensor and the target RNA form a four-stranded DNA crossover (X) structure. Using this sensor, Escherichia coli16S rRNA was detected in real time with the detection limit of ~0.17 nM. The high specificity of the analysis was proven by differentiating Bacillus subtilis from E. coli 16S rRNA sequences. The sensor responds to the presence of the analyte within seconds. PMID:23021850
Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M
We investigated the correlation between fecal bacteria composition in early infancy and the prevalence of allergic diseases in late infancy. The fecal microbiota in the first 2 months was profiled using the 16S rRNA V6 short-tag sequences in the community and statistically compared between two groups of subjects who did and did not show allergic symptoms in the first 2 years (n = 11 vs. 11). In the allergic group, genus Bacteroides at 1 month and genera Propionibacterium and Klebsiella at 2 months were more abundant, and genera Acinetobacter and Clostridium at 1 month were less abundant than in the nonallergic group. Allergic infants who showed high colonization of Bacteroides and/or Klebsiella showed less colonization of Clostridium perfringens/butyricum, suggesting antagonism between these bacterial groups in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also remarkable that the relative abundance of total Proteobacteria, excluding genus Klebsiella, was significantly lower in the allergic than in the nonallergic group at the age of 1 month. These results indicate that pyrosequence-based 16S rRNA gene profiling is valid to find the intestinal microbiotal disorder that correlates with allergy development in later life. PMID:22029688
Nakayama, Jiro; Kobayashi, Takako; Tanaka, Shigemitsu; Korenori, Yuki; Tateyama, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Naoshige; Kiyohara, Chikako; Shirakawa, Taro; Sonomoto, Kenji
Within the paradigm of clinical infectious disease research, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa represent the four most clinically relevant, and hence most extensively studied bacteria. Current culture-based methods for identifying these organisms are slow and cumbersome, and there is increasing need for more rapid and accurate molecular detection methods. Using bioinformatic tools, 962,279 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were aligned, and regions of homology were selected to generate a set of real-time PCR primers that target 93.6% of all bacterial 16S rRNA sequences published to date. A set of four species-specific real-time PCR primer pairs were also designed, capable of detecting less than 100 genome copies of A. baumannii, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa. All primers were tested for specificity in vitro against 50 species of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Additionally, the species-specific primers were tested against a panel of 200 clinical isolates of each species, randomly selected from a large repository of clinical isolates from diverse areas and sources. A comparison of culture and real-time PCR demonstrated 100% concordance. The primers were incorporated into a rapid assay capable of positive identification from plate or broth cultures in less than 90 minutes. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that current targets, such as the uidA gene in E.coli, are not suitable as species-specific genes due to sequence variation. The assay described herein is rapid, cost-effective and accurate, and can be easily incorporated into any research laboratory capable of real-time PCR. PMID:23139793
Clifford, Robert J; Milillo, Michael; Prestwood, Jackson; Quintero, Reyes; Zurawski, Daniel V; Kwak, Yoon I; Waterman, Paige E; Lesho, Emil P; Mc Gann, Patrick
Within the paradigm of clinical infectious disease research, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa represent the four most clinically relevant, and hence most extensively studied bacteria. Current culture-based methods for identifying these organisms are slow and cumbersome, and there is increasing need for more rapid and accurate molecular detection methods. Using bioinformatic tools, 962,279 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were aligned, and regions of homology were selected to generate a set of real-time PCR primers that target 93.6% of all bacterial 16S rRNA sequences published to date. A set of four species-specific real-time PCR primer pairs were also designed, capable of detecting less than 100 genome copies of A. baumannii, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa. All primers were tested for specificity in vitro against 50 species of Gram-positive and –negative bacteria. Additionally, the species-specific primers were tested against a panel of 200 clinical isolates of each species, randomly selected from a large repository of clinical isolates from diverse areas and sources. A comparison of culture and real-time PCR demonstrated 100% concordance. The primers were incorporated into a rapid assay capable of positive identification from plate or broth cultures in less than 90 minutes. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that current targets, such as the uidA gene in E.coli, are not suitable as species-specific genes due to sequence variation. The assay described herein is rapid, cost-effective and accurate, and can be easily incorporated into any research laboratory capable of real-time PCR.
Clifford, Robert J.; Milillo, Michael; Prestwood, Jackson; Quintero, Reyes; Zurawski, Daniel V.; Kwak, Yoon I.; Waterman, Paige E.; Lesho, Emil P.; Mc Gann, Patrick
Benthic macroalgae can be abundant on present-day coral reefs, especially where rates of herbivory are low and/or dissolved nutrients are high. This study investigated the impact of macroalgal extracts on both coral-associated bacterial assemblages and sublethal stress response of corals. Crude extracts and live algal thalli from common Caribbean macroalgae were applied onto the surface of Montastraea faveolata and Porites astreoides corals on reefs in both Florida and Belize. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to examine changes in the surface mucus layer (SML) bacteria in both coral species. Some of the extracts and live algae induced detectable shifts in coral-associated bacterial assemblages. However, one aqueous extract caused the bacterial assemblages to shift to an entirely new state (Lobophora variegata), whereas other organic extracts had little to no impact (e.g. Dictyota sp.). Macroalgal extracts more frequently induced sublethal stress responses in M. faveolata than in P. astreoides corals, suggesting that cellular integrity can be negatively impacted in selected corals when comparing co-occurring species. As modern reefs experience phase-shifts to a higher abundance of macroalgae with potent chemical defenses, these macroalgae are likely impacting the composition of microbial assemblages associated with corals and affecting overall reef health in unpredicted and unprecedented ways. PMID:23028648
Morrow, Kathleen M; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Ross, Cliff; Liles, Mark R; Paul, Valerie J
Bacterial communities of seven lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State were characterized by amplification and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. Analysis of over 100 partial sequences revealed a diverse collection of lineages, largely of the class Proteobacteria (19% alpha subdivision, 31% beta subdivision, and 9% gamma subdivision), the phylum Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (15%), and the order Actinomycetales (18%). Additionally,
WILLIAM D. HIORNS; BARBARA A. METHE; SANDRA A. NIERZWICKI-BAUER; JONATHAN P. ZEHR; Darrin Fresh
The composition of predominant soil bacteria during grassland succession was investigated in the Dutch Drentse A area. Five meadows, taken out of agricultural production at different time points, and one currently fertilized plot represented different stages of grassland succession. Since fertilization and agricultural production were stopped, the six plots showed a constant decline in the levels of nutrients and vegetation changes. The activity of the predominant bacteria was monitored by direct ribosome isolation from soil and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis of reverse transcription (RT)-PCR products generated from bacterial 16S rRNA. The amounts of 16S rRNA of 20 predominant ribosome types per gram of soil were monitored via multiple competitive RT-PCR in six plots at different succession stages. These ribosome types mainly represented Bacillus and members of the Acidobacterium cluster and the ? subclass of the class Proteobacteria. The 20 16S rRNA molecules monitored represented approximately half of all bacterial soil rRNA which was estimated by dot blot hybridizations of soil rRNA with the Bacteria probe EUB338. The grasslands showed highly reproducible and specific shifts of bacterial ribosome type composition. The total bacterial ribosome level increased during the first years after agricultural production and fertilization stopped. This correlated with the collapse of the dominant Lolium perenne population and an increased rate of mineralization of organic matter. The results indicate that there is a true correlation between the total activity of the bacterial community in soil and the amount of bacterial ribosomes.
Felske, Andreas; Wolterink, Arthur; Van Lis, Robert; De Vos, Willem M.; Akkermans, Antoon D. L.
This was the first molecular study of the bacterial flora of the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis). A sequence analysis of genes coding for 16S rRNA revealed that Serratia marcescens and bacteria closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius or Staphylococcus chromogens and Alloiococcus otitidis were present. These bacteria were associated with skin lesions, dermatitis, and otitis media caused by P. ovis.
Hogg, J. C.; Lehane, M. J.
Crop rotation is a practice harmonized with the sustainable rice production. Nevertheless, the implications of this empirical practice are not well characterized, mainly in relation to the bacterial community composition and structure. In this study, the bacterial communities of two adjacent paddy fields in the 3rd and 4th year of the crop rotation cycle and of a nonseeded subplot were characterized before rice seeding and after harvesting, using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Although the phyla Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes predominated in all the samples, there were variations in relative abundance of these groups. Samples from the 3rd and 4th years of the crop rotation differed on the higher abundance of groups of presumable aerobic bacteria and of presumable anaerobic and acidobacterial groups, respectively. Members of the phylum Nitrospira were more abundant after rice harvest than in the previously sampled period. Rice cropping was positively correlated with the abundance of members of the orders Acidobacteriales and 'Solibacterales' and negatively with lineages such as Chloroflexi 'Ellin6529'. Studies like this contribute to understand variations occurring in the microbial communities in soils under sustainable rice production, based on real-world data. PMID:24245591
Lopes, Ana R; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C
Detection of bacterial gene expression in soil emerged in the early 1990s and provided information on bacterial responses in their original soil environments. As a key procedure in the detection, extraction of bacterial RNA from soil has attracted much interest, and many methods of soil RNA extraction have been reported in the past 20 years. In addition to various RT-PCR-based technologies, new technologies for gene expression analysis, such as microarrays and high-throughput sequencing technologies, have recently been applied to examine bacterial gene expression in soil. These technologies are driving improvements in RNA extraction protocols. In this mini-review, progress in the extraction of bacterial RNA from soil is summarized with emphasis on the major difficulties in the development of methodologies and corresponding strategies to overcome them. PMID:22791042
Wang, Yong; Hayatsu, Masahito; Fujii, Takeshi
Detection of bacterial gene expression in soil emerged in the early 1990s and provided information on bacterial responses in their original soil environments. As a key procedure in the detection, extraction of bacterial RNA from soil has attracted much interest, and many methods of soil RNA extraction have been reported in the past 20 years. In addition to various RT-PCR-based technologies, new technologies for gene expression analysis, such as microarrays and high-throughput sequencing technologies, have recently been applied to examine bacterial gene expression in soil. These technologies are driving improvements in RNA extraction protocols. In this mini-review, progress in the extraction of bacterial RNA from soil is summarized with emphasis on the major difficulties in the development of methodologies and corresponding strategies to overcome them.
Wang, Yong; Hayatsu, Masahito; Fujii, Takeshi
Bacterial community dynamics of a whole drinking water supply system (DWSS) were studied from source to tap. Raw water for this DWSS is provided by two reservoirs with different water characteristics in the Harz mountains of Northern Germany. Samples were taken after different steps of treatment of raw water (i.e., flocculation, sand filtration, and chlorination) and at different points along the supply system to the tap. RNA and DNA were extracted from the sampled water. The 16S rRNA or its genes were partially amplified by reverse transcription-PCR or PCR and analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism community fingerprints. The bacterial community structures of the raw water samples from the two reservoirs were very different, but no major changes of these structures occurred after flocculation and sand filtration. Chlorination of the processed raw water strongly affected bacterial community structure, as reflected by the RNA-based fingerprints. This effect was less pronounced for the DNA-based fingerprints. After chlorination, the bacterial community remained rather constant from the storage containers to the tap. Furthermore, the community structure of the tap water did not change substantially for several months. Community composition was assessed by sequencing of abundant bands and phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained. The taxonomic compositions of the bacterial communities from both reservoirs were very different at the species level due to their different limnologies. On the other hand, major taxonomic groups, well known to occur in freshwater, such as Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were found in both reservoirs. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed between DNA-based and RNA-based fingerprints irrespective of the reservoir. Chlorination of the drinking water seemed to promote growth of nitrifying bacteria. Detailed analysis of the community dynamics of the whole DWSS revealed a significant influence of both source waters on the overall composition of the drinking water microflora and demonstrated the relevance of the raw water microflora for the drinking water microflora provided to the end user.
Eichler, Stefan; Christen, Richard; Holtje, Claudia; Westphal, Petra; Botel, Julia; Brettar, Ingrid; Mehling, Arndt; Hofle, Manfred G.
Bacterial endophytes do have several potential applications in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotech industry. The main objective of this study was to understand types of bacterial endophytes associated with dicotyledonous (dicot) and monocotyledonous (monocot) plant species. Isolation of the endophytic bacteria was performed using surface-sterilized various tissue samples, and identification of the endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) was completed using 16S rRNA encoding gene sequence similarity based method. In total, 996 EBIs were isolated and identified from 1055 samples of 31 monocot and 65 dicot plant species from Peninsular Malaysia. The 996 EBIs represented 71 different types of bacterial species. Twelve (12) out of 71 species are reported as endophytes for the first time. We conclude that diverse types of bacterial endophytes are associated with dicot and monocot plants, and could be useful in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotechnology for various potential applications. PMID:24396249
Loh, Chye Ying; Tan, Yin Yin; Rohani, Rahim; Weber, Jean-Frédéric F; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan
Biochar (BC) is a common minor constituent of soils and is usually derived from the burning of wood materials. In the case of Amazonian dark earth (ADE) soils, the increased amount of this material is believed to be due to anthropogenic action by ancient indigenous populations. In this study, we use 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to assess the bacterial diversity observed in the BC found in ADEs as well as in the dark earth itself and the adjacent Acrisol. Samples were taken from two sites, one cultivated with manioc and one with secondary forest cover. Analyses revealed that the community structure found in each sample had unique features. At a coarse phylogenetic resolution, the most abundant phyla in all sequence libraries were Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria that were present in similar relative abundance across all samples. However, the class composition varied between them highlighting the difference between the Acrisol and the remaining samples. This result was also corroborated by the comparison of the OTU composition (at 97 % identity). Also, soil coverage has shown an effect over the community structure observed in all samples. This pattern was found to be significant through unweighted UniFrac as well as P tests. These results indicate that, although the ADEs are found in patches within the Acrisols, the contrasting characteristics found between them led to the development of significantly different communities. PMID:23743632
Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Lima, Amanda Barbosa; da Conceição Jesus, Ederson; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes; Tiedje, James M; Tsai, Siu Mui
Two different transcription termination control mechanisms, the T box and S box systems, are used to regulate transcription of many bacterial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, amino acid biosynthesis, and amino acid transport genes. Both of these regulatory mechanisms involve an untranslated mRNA leader region capable of adopting alternate structural conformations that result in transcription termination or transcription elongation into the downstream region. Comparative analyses revealed a small RNA secondary structural element, designated the GA motif, that is highly conserved in both T box and S box leader sequences. The motif consists of two short helices separated by an asymmetric internal loop, with highly conserved GA dinucleotide sequences on either side of the internal loop. Site-directed mutagenesis of this motif in model T and S box leader sequences indicated that it is essential for transcriptional regulation in both systems. This motif is similar to the binding site of yeast ribosomal protein L30, the Snu13p binding sites found in U4 snRNA and box C/D snoRNAs, and two elements in 23S rRNA.
Winkler, W C; Grundy, F J; Murphy, B A; Henkin, T M
We designed an oligonucleotide microarray using probe sequences based upon a phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes recovered from members of the bacterial division Acidobacteria. A total of 42,194 oligonucleotide probes targeting members of the Acidobacteria division at multiple phylogenetic levels were included on a high-density microarray. Positive control hybridizations revealed a linear relationship between hybridization signal and template concentration,
Mark R. Liles; Ozgur Turkmen; Brian F. Manske; Mingzi Zhang; Jean-Marie Rouillard; Isabelle George; Teri Balser; Nedret Billor; Robert M. Goodman
Waste stabilization ponds are a simple, low-cost extensive process for treating wastewater, and well adapted to low socio-economic\\u000a conditions in developing countries where the microbial populations in these systems are not well characterized. The phylogenetic\\u000a bacterial community structure within a Tunisian wastewater stabilization plant treating domestic wastewater was assessed by\\u000a Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism method targeting 16S rRNA genes
Abdelaziz Belila; Mejdi Snoussi; Abdennaceur Hassan
It has been proposed that a bacterium isolated from the gills of shipworms (teredinid mollusks) is, by virtue of its ability both to degrade cellulose and to fix dinitrogen, the symbiont that enables these mollusks to utilize wood as their principal food source. The phylogenetic affiliation of four of these bacteria isolated from wood-boring bivalve mollusks was determined by 16S rRNA sequence analysis by using the reverse transcriptase method with six oligodeoxynucleotide primers. The four bacterial strains tested had indistinguishable 16S rRNA sequences, supporting the previous conclusion, based on phenotypic characterization, that these isolates represent a single species. Evolutionary distance matrix analysis of the RNA sequence indicated that the bacterial symbiont falls within the gamma-3 subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is distinct from other known bacterial genera. In situ localization of the bacterial symbiont in tissue sections of the shipworm Lyrodus pedicellatus was determined by using a 16S rRNA-directed oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probe specific for the bacterium isolated from shipworm gill tissue. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the specific probe bound to L. pedicellatus tissue at sites coincident with the location of symbiont cells and that it did not bind to other host tissues. This technique provided direct visual evidence that the cellulolytic, nitrogen-fixing bacterial isolates were the symbionts observed within the gill of L. pedicellatus. Images
Distel, D L; DeLong, E F; Waterbury, J B
Periodontitis, one of the most common diseases in the world, is caused by a mixture of pathogenic bacteria and inflammatory host responses and often treated by antimicrobials as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Our study aims to elucidate explorative and descriptive temporal shifts in bacterial communities between patients treated by SRP alone versus SRP plus antibiotics. This is the first metagenomic study using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Eight subgingival plaque samples from four patients with chronic periodontitis, taken before and two months after intervention were analyzed. Amplicons from the V6 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene were generated and sequenced each on a 314 chip. Sequencing reads were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 3% distance), described by community metrics, and taxonomically classified. Reads ranging from 599,933 to 650,416 per sample were clustered into 1,648 to 2,659 non-singleton OTUs, respectively. Increased diversity (Shannon and Simpson) in all samples after therapy was observed regardless of the treatment type whereas richness (ACE) showed no correlation. Taxonomic analysis revealed different microbial shifts between both therapy approaches at all taxonomic levels. Most remarkably, the genera Porphyromonas, Tannerella, Treponema, and Filifactor all harboring periodontal pathogenic species were removed almost only in the group treated with SPR and antibiotics. For the species T. forsythia and P. gingivalis results were corroborated by real-time PCR analysis. In the future, hypothesis free metagenomic analysis could be the key in understanding polymicrobial diseases and be used for therapy monitoring. Therefore, as read length continues to increase and cost to decrease, rapid benchtop sequencers like the PGM might finally be used in routine diagnostic.
Junemann, Sebastian; Prior, Karola; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Harks, Inga; Ehmke, Benjamin; Goesmann, Alexander; Stoye, Jens; Harmsen, Dag
High throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene leads us into a deeper understanding on bacterial diversity for complex environmental samples, but introduces blurring due to the relatively low taxonomic capability of short read. For wastewater treatment plant, only those functional bacterial genera categorized as nutrient remediators, bulk/foaming species, and potential pathogens are significant to biological wastewater treatment and environmental impacts. Precise taxonomic assignment of these bacteria at least at genus level is important for microbial ecological research and routine wastewater treatment monitoring. Therefore, the focus of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic precisions of different ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene hypervariable regions generated from a mix activated sludge sample. In addition, three commonly used classification methods including RDP Classifier, BLAST-based best-hit annotation, and the lowest common ancestor annotation by MEGAN were evaluated by comparing their consistency. Under an unsupervised way, analysis of consistency among different classification methods suggests there are no hypervariable regions with good taxonomic coverage for all genera. Taxonomic assignment based on certain regions of the 16S rRNA genes, e.g. the V1&V2 regions – provide fairly consistent taxonomic assignment for a relatively wide range of genera. Hence, it is recommended to use these regions for studying functional groups in activated sludge. Moreover, the inconsistency among methods also demonstrated that a specific method might not be suitable for identification of some bacterial genera using certain 16S rRNA gene regions. As a general rule, drawing conclusions based only on one sequencing region and one classification method should be avoided due to the potential false negative results.
Guo, Feng; Ju, Feng; Cai, Lin; Zhang, Tong
Background Bacterial community composition in the marine environment differs from one geographical location to another. Reports that delineate the bacterial diversity of different marine samples from geographically similar location are limited. The present study aims to understand whether the bacterial community compositions from different marine samples harbour similar bacterial diversity since these are geographically related to each other. Methods and Principal Findings In the present study, 16S rRNA deep sequencing analysis targeting V3 region was performed using Illumina bar coded sequencing. A total of 22.44 million paired end reads were obtained from the metagenomic DNA of Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater and the epibacterial DNA of Seaweed and Seagrass. Diversity index analysis revealed that Marine sediment has the highest bacterial diversity and the least bacterial diversity was observed in Rhizosphere sediment. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant taxa present in all the marine samples. Nearly 62–71% of rare species were identified in all the samples and most of these rare species were unique to a particular sample. Further taxonomic assignment at the phylum and genus level revealed that the bacterial community compositions differ among the samples. Conclusion This is the first report that supports the fact that, bacterial community composition is specific for specific samples irrespective of its similar geographical location. Existence of specific bacterial community for each sample may drive overall difference in bacterial structural composition of each sample. Further studies like whole metagenomic sequencing will throw more insights to the key stone players and its interconnecting metabolic pathways. In addition, this is one of the very few reports that depicts the unexplored bacterial diversity of marine samples (Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater) and the host associated marine samples (Seaweed and Seagrass) at higher depths from uncharacterised coastal region of Palk Bay, India using next generation sequencing technology.
Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah
The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative 16S rRNA assay for determination of bacterial nucleic acid load in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infection and to compare quantitative 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) findings to those of conventional bacterial culture in patients treated for CSF shunt infection. We developed a quantitative 16S rRNA PCR assay that detected bacterial load across a range of 2.5 × 10(9) down to 2.5 × 10(4) 16S copies/mL CSF under experimental conditions for numerous Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. However, when applied to archived CSF samples from 25 shunt infection episodes, correlations between positive bacterial culture and 16S rRNA levels were seen in only half of infections, and 16S rRNA levels dropped precipitously after an initial peak on the first day of sample collection. Bacterial load measured using 16S rRNA PCR does not provide sufficient information beyond bacterial culture to inform CSF shunt infection treatment. PMID:23953744
Simon, Tamara D; Van Yserloo, Brian; Nelson, Kevin; Gillespie, David; Jensen, Randy; McAllister, James P; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Stockmann, Chris; Daly, Judy A; Blaschke, Anne J
Clinical microorganisms isolated during a 5-year study in our hospital that could not be identified by conventional criteria were studied by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Each isolate yielded a >1,400-bp sequence containing <5 ambiguities which was compared with the GenBank 16S rRNA gene library; 1,404 such isolates were tested, and 120 were considered unique (27 isolates) or rare (<10
M. Drancourt; P. Berger; D. Raoult
Low cost and high throughput capacity are major advantages of using next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques to determine metagenomic 16S rRNA tag sequences. These methods have significantly changed our view of microorganisms in the fields of human health and environmental science. However, DNA extraction using commercial kits has shortcomings of high cost and time constraint. In the present study, we evaluated the determination of fecal microbiomes using a direct boiling method compared with 5 different commercial extraction methods, e.g., Qiagen and MO BIO kits. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) using UniFrac distances and clustering showed that direct boiling of a wide range of feces concentrations gave a similar pattern of bacterial communities as those obtained from most of the commercial kits, with the exception of the MO BIO method. Fecal concentration by boiling method affected the estimation of ?-diversity indices, otherwise results were generally comparable between boiling and commercial methods. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) determined through direct boiling showed highly consistent frequencies with those determined through most of the commercial methods. Even those for the MO BIO kit were also obtained by the direct boiling method with high confidence. The present study suggested that direct boiling could be used to determine the fecal microbiome and using this method would significantly reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of the sample preparation for studying gut microbiome diversity. PMID:23899773
Peng, Xin; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Deng, Guan-Hua; Jiang, Yun-Xia; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Guo-Xia; Zhou, Hong-Wei
Chronic bronchopulmonary bacterial infections remain the most common cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent community sequencing work has now shown that the bacterial community in the CF lung is polymicrobial. Identifying bacteria in the CF lung through sequencing can be costly and is not practical for many laboratories. Molecular techniques such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism or amplicon length heterogeneity-polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) can provide many laboratories with the ability to study CF bacterial communities without costly sequencing. The aim of this study was to determine if the use of LH-PCR with multiple hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene could be used to identify organisms found in sputum DNA. This work also determined if LH-PCR could be used to observe the dynamics of lung infections over a period of time. Nineteen samples were analysed with the V1 and the V1_V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the amplicon size present in the V1_V2 region, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was confirmed to be in all 19 samples obtained from the patients. The V1 region provided a higher power of discrimination between bacterial profiles of patients. Both regions were able to identify trends in the bacterial population over a period of time. LH profiles showed that the CF lung community is dynamic and that changes in the community may in part be driven by the patient's antibiotic treatment. LH-PCR is a tool that is well suited for studying bacterial communities and their dynamics.
We collected surface- and deep-water samples (maximum depth 300 m) during the spring–summer transition in the coastal Arctic along a transect in the Kongsfjorden (Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Norway) to determine the structure of the active versus total marine bacterioplankton community using different approaches. Catalysed reporter deposition– fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography (MICRO–CARD–FISH) was used to determine the abundance and activity of different bacterial groups. The bacterial communities were dominated by members of Alphaproteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes, whereas Gammaproteobacteria were present at low abundance but exhibited a high percentage of active cells taking up leucine. The clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and 16S rRNA from two different depths were used to decipher the bacterial community structure. Independently of the type of clone libraries analysed (16S rDNA- or 16S rRNA-based), four major and four minor taxonomic groups were detected. The bacterioplankton community was mainly dominated at both the DNA and the RNA levels by Alphaproteobacteria followed by Gammaproteobacteria. The Rhodobacteriaceae were the most abundant members of the Alphaproteobacteria in both DNA and RNA clone libraries, followed by the SAR11 clade, which was only detectable at the 16S PMID:23565124
De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J
The bacterial diversity assessed from clone libraries prepared from rRNA (two libraries) and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (one library) from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-polluted soil has been analyzed. A good correspondence of the community composition found in the two types of library was observed. Nearly 29% of the cloned sequences in the rDNA library were identical to sequences in the rRNA libraries. More than 60% of the total cloned sequence types analyzed were grouped in phylogenetic groups (a clone group with sequence similarity higher than 97% [98% for Burkholderia and Pseudomonas-type clones]) represented in both types of libraries. Some of those phylogenetic groups, mostly represented by a single (or pair) of cloned sequence type(s), were observed in only one of the types of library. An important difference between the libraries was the lack of clones representative of the Actinobacteria in the rDNA library. The PCB-polluted soil exhibited a high bacterial diversity which included representatives of two novel lineages. The apparent abundance of bacteria affiliated to the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria, and to the genus Burkholderia in particular, was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The possible influence on apparent diversity of low template concentrations was assessed by dilution of the RNA template prior to amplification by reverse transcription-PCR. Although differences in the composition of the two rRNA libraries obtained from high and low RNA concentrations were observed, the main components of the bacterial community were represented in both libraries, and therefore their detection was not compromised by the lower concentrations of template used in this study.
Nogales, Balbina; Moore, Edward R. B.; Llobet-Brossa, Enrique; Rossello-Mora, Ramon; Amann, Rudolf; Timmis, Kenneth N.
We collected surface- and deep-water samples (maximum depth 300 m) during the spring–summer transition in the coastal Arctic along a transect in the Kongsfjorden (Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Norway) to determine the structure of the active versus total marine bacterioplankton community using different approaches. Catalysed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography (MICRO–CARD–FISH) was used to determine the abundance and activity of different bacterial groups. The bacterial communities were dominated by members of Alphaproteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes, whereas Gammaproteobacteria were present at low abundance but exhibited a high percentage of active cells taking up leucine. The clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and 16S rRNA from two different depths were used to decipher the bacterial community structure. Independently of the type of clone libraries analysed (16S rDNA- or 16S rRNA-based), four major and four minor taxonomic groups were detected. The bacterioplankton community was mainly dominated at both the DNA and the RNA levels by Alphaproteobacteria followed by Gammaproteobacteria. The Rhodobacteriaceae were the most abundant members of the Alphaproteobacteria in both DNA and RNA clone libraries, followed by the SAR11 clade, which was only detectable at the 16S rDNA level. Moreover, there was a general agreement between the results obtained with both techniques, although some specific phylogenetic groups, such as SAR11 and Roseobacter, deviated substantially from this relation. These discrepancies are most likely linked to different physiological states among members of the bacterioplankton community. Combined, MICRO–CARD–FISH and DNA and RNA clone libraries, however, allowed for accurately quantifying different bacterial groups and their activity as well as a detailed phylogenetic insight into the fractions of present versus metabolically active bacterial groups.
De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J
Background The healthy human intestine is represented by the presence of bacterial communities predominantly belonging to obligate anaerobes; however disparity and dysanaerobiosis in intestinal microflora may lead to the progression of ulcerative colitis (UC). The foremost aim of this study is to consider and compare the gut microbiota composition in patients suffering from different stages of UC. Methods This study represents data from the biopsy samples of six individuals suffering from UC. The samples were collected by colonoscopy and were processed immediately for isolation of DNA. Mucosal microbiota was analyzed by means of 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina high throughput sequencing. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to determine total bacterial abundances. Results Analysis of 23,927 OTUs demonstrated a significant reduction of bacterial diversity consistently from phylum to species level (p?0.05) for individuals suffering from severe stage of UC. Significant increase in abundance of unusual aerobes and facultative anaerobes, including members from the phylum Proteobacteria (p-?=?0.031) was also observed. A 10 fold increase in the total bacterial count was detected in patients suffering from severe inflammatory stage (2.98 +/-0.49 E?+?09/ml) when compared with patients with moderate (1.03+/-0.29 E?+?08/ml) and mild (1.76 +/-0.34 E?+?08/ml) stages of inflammation. Conclusion The reduction of bacterial diversity with an increase in the total bacterial count indicates a shift of bacterial communities which signifies dysbiosis and dysanaerobiosis at the mucosal level for patients suffering from UC.
Methyltransferase enzymes that use S-adenosylmethionine as a cofactor to catalyze 5-methyl uridine (m5U) formation in tRNAs and rRNAs are widespread in Bacteria and Eukaryota, but are restricted to the Thermococcales and Nanoarchaeota groups amongst the Archaea. The RNA m5U methyltransferases appear to have arisen in Bacteria and were then dispersed by horizontal transfer of an rlmD-type gene to the Archaea and Eukaryota. The bacterium Escherichia coli has three gene paralogs and these encode the methyltransferases TrmA that targets m5U54 in tRNAs, RlmC (formerly RumB) that modifies m5U747 in 23S rRNA, and RlmD (formerly RumA) the archetypical enzyme that is specific for m5U1939 in 23S rRNA. The thermococcale archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi possesses two m5U methyltransferase paralogs, PAB0719 and PAB0760, with sequences most closely related to the bacterial RlmD. Surprisingly, however, neither of the two P. abyssi enzymes displays RlmD-like activity in vitro. PAB0719 acts in a TrmA-like manner to catalyze m5U54 methylation in P. abyssi tRNAs, and here we show that PAB0760 possesses RlmC-like activity and specifically methylates the nucleotide equivalent to U747 in P. abyssi 23S rRNA. The findings indicate that PAB0719 and PAB0760 originated as RlmD-type m5U methyltransferases and underwent changes in target specificity after their acquisition by a Thermococcales ancestor from a bacterial source.
Auxilien, Sylvie; Rasmussen, Anette; Rose, Simon; Brochier-Armanet, Celine; Husson, Clotilde; Fourmy, Dominique; Grosjean, Henri; Douthwaite, Stephen
The diversity and dynamics of bacterial populations in Saint-Nectaire, a raw-milk, semihard cheese, were investigated using a dual culture-dependent and direct molecular approach combining single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprinting and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The dominant clones, among 125 16S rRNA genes isolated from milk, belonged to members of the Firmicutes (58% of the total clones) affiliated mainly with the orders Clostridiales and the Lactobacillales, followed by the phyla Proteobacteria (21.6%), Actinobacteria (16.8%), and Bacteroidetes (4%). Sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of 126 milk isolates collected from four culture media revealed the presence of 36 different species showing a wider diversity in the Gammaproteobacteria phylum and Staphylococcus genus than that found among clones. In cheese, a total of 21 species were obtained from 170 isolates, with dominant species belonging to the Lactobacillales and subdominant species affiliated with the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes (Chryseobacterium sp.), or Gammaproteobacteria (Stenotrophomonas sp.). Fingerprinting DNA isolated from milk by SSCP analysis yielded complex patterns, whereas analyzing DNA isolated from cheese resulted in patterns composed of a single peak which corresponded to that of lactic acid bacteria. SSCP fingerprinting of mixtures of all colonies harvested from plate count agar supplemented with crystal violet and vancomycin showed good potential for monitoring the subdominant Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteria) organisms in milk and cheese. Likewise, analyzing culturable subcommunities from cheese-ripening bacterial medium permitted assessment of the diversity of halotolerant Actinobacteria and Staphylococcus organisms. Direct and culture-dependent approaches produced complementary information, thus generating a more accurate view of milk and cheese microbial ecology.
Delbes, Celine; Ali-Mandjee, Leila; Montel, Marie-Christine
Conventional methods are sometimes insufficient to identify human bacterial pathogens, and alternative techniques, often molecular, are required. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified with a valid score 45.9% of 410 clinical isolates from 207 different difficult-to-identify species having required 16S rRNA gene sequencing. MALDI-TOF MS might represent an alternative to 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
Bizzini, A.; Jaton, K.; Romo, D.; Bille, J.; Prod'hom, G.; Greub, G.
The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments.
Gao, Fei; Li, Fenghui; Tan, Jie; Yan, Jingping; Sun, Huiling
The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments. PMID:24967593
Gao, Fei; Li, Fenghui; Tan, Jie; Yan, Jingping; Sun, Huiling
Natural remediation of oil spills is catalyzed by complex microbial consortia. Here we took a whole-community approach to investigate bacterial incorporation of petroleum hydrocarbons from a simulated oil spill. We utilized the natural difference in carbon isotopic abundance between a salt marsh ecosystem supported by the 13C-enriched C4 grass Spartina alterniflora and 13C-depleted petroleum to monitor changes in the 13C content of biomass. Magnetic bead capture methods for selective recovery of bacterial RNA were used to monitor the 13C content of bacterial biomass during a 2-week experiment. The data show that by the end of the experiment, up to 26% of bacterial biomass was derived from consumption of the freshly spilled oil. The results contrast with the inertness of a nearby relict spill, which occurred in 1969 in West Falmouth, MA. Sequences of 16S rRNA genes from our experimental samples also were consistent with previous reports suggesting the importance of Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in the remineralization of hydrocarbons. The magnetic bead capture approach makes it possible to quantify uptake of petroleum hydrocarbons by microbes in situ. Although employed here at the domain level, RNA capture procedures can be highly specific. The same strategy could be used with genus-level specificity, something which is not currently possible using the 13C content of biomarker lipids.
Pearson, Ann; Kraunz, Kimberly S.; Sessions, Alex L.; Dekas, Anne E.; Leavitt, William D.; Edwards, Katrina J.
The bacterial population of a graywater treatment system was monitored over the course of 100 days, along with several wastewater biochemical parameters. The graywater treatment system employed an 1,800-liter membrane bioreactor (MBR) to process the waste, with essentially 100% recycling of the biomass. Graywater feed consisting of 10% galley water and 90% laundry water, selected to approximate the graywater composition on board U.S. Navy ships, was collected offsite. Five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)), oils and greases (O/G), nitrogen, and phosphorus were monitored in the feed and were found to vary greatly day to day. Changes in the bacterial population were monitored by PCR amplification of region 332 to 518 (Escherichia coli numbering) of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the resultant PCR products. DGGE analysis indicated a diverse and unstable bacterial population throughout the 100-day period, with spikes in feed strength causing significant changes in community structure. Long-term similarity between the communities was 0 to 25%, depending on the method of analysis. In spite of the unstable bacterial population, the MBR system was able to meet effluent quality parameters approximately 90% of the time. PMID:12571004
Stamper, David M; Walch, Marianne; Jacobs, Rachel N
This study evaluated the fecal microbiota of 12 healthy pet dogs and 12 pet cats using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. A total of 120,406 pyrosequencing reads for bacteria (mean 5017) and 5359 sequences (one pool each for dogs and cats) for fungi were analyzed. Additionally, group-specific 16S rRNA gene clone libraries for Bifidobacterium spp. and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were constructed. The most abundant bacterial phylum was Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes in dogs and Actinobacteria in cats. The most prevalent bacterial class in dogs and cats was Clostridia, dominated by the genera Clostridium (clusters XIVa and XI) and Ruminococcus. At the genus level, 85 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in dogs and 113 OTUs in cats. Seventeen LAB and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were detected in canine feces. Ascomycota was the only fungal phylum detected in cats, while Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Zygomycota were identified in dogs. Nacaseomyces was the most abundant fungal genus in dogs; Saccharomyces and Aspergillus were predominant in cats. At the genus level, 33 different fungal OTUs were observed in dogs and 17 OTUs in cats. In conclusion, this study revealed a highly diverse bacterial and fungal microbiota in canine and feline feces. PMID:21261668
Handl, Stefanie; Dowd, Scot E; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S
The bacterial population of a graywater treatment system was monitored over the course of 100 days, along with several wastewater biochemical parameters. The graywater treatment system employed an 1,800-liter membrane bioreactor (MBR) to process the waste, with essentially 100% recycling of the biomass. Graywater feed consisting of 10% galley water and 90% laundry water, selected to approximate the graywater composition on board U.S. Navy ships, was collected offsite. Five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), oils and greases (O/G), nitrogen, and phosphorus were monitored in the feed and were found to vary greatly day to day. Changes in the bacterial population were monitored by PCR amplification of region 332 to 518 (Escherichia coli numbering) of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the resultant PCR products. DGGE analysis indicated a diverse and unstable bacterial population throughout the 100-day period, with spikes in feed strength causing significant changes in community structure. Long-term similarity between the communities was 0 to 25%, depending on the method of analysis. In spite of the unstable bacterial population, the MBR system was able to meet effluent quality parameters approximately 90% of the time.
Stamper, David M.; Walch, Marianne; Jacobs, Rachel N.
Kimchi is a traditional Korean food fermented from a variety of vegetables. We elucidated the microbial community structure of five commercially produced kimchis made from Chinese cabbage by examining culture-independent 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Most of the clones (347 out of 348) belonged to lactic acid bacteria and included several species of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella. Weissella
Myungjin Kim; Jongsik Chun
The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.
Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal
Jeotgal, which is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement in Korea, is traditional type of preserved seafood that is prepared by salting and fermenting. Here, we report on the bacterial community structure and diversity of jeotgal obtained from the Korean island of Jeju, which has a subtropical climate. Two samples of Jeotgal were collected from Jeju, made from either damselfish (Chromis notata; jari-dom-jeot, J1 and J2) or silver-stripe round herring (Spratelloides gracilis; ggot-myulchi-jeot, K1 and K2). The physical characteristics (pH and salinity) were assessed and the bacterial communities characterized using 16S rRNA gene-clone library analysis and cultural isolation. No difference was found in the community composition between the J and K fermented seafoods. Both fermented seafoods had relatively high salinity (26% to 33%) and high pH values (pH 6.08 to 6.72). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the halophilic lactic-acid bacteria Tetragenococcus halophilus and T. muriaticus were observed to be dominant in the J and K fermented seafoods, accompanied by halophilic bacteria including Halanaerobium spp., Halomonas spp., and Chromohalobacter spp. When compared with 7 other types of fermented seafood from a previous study, the communities of the J and K fermented seafoods were separated by the most influential group, the genus Tetragenococcus. The results suggest that these 2 types of traditional salted fermented seafood from Jeju have distinct communities dominated by Tetragenococcus spp., which are derived from the raw ingredients and are dependent on the physical conditions. This may explain how the seafoods that are made in Jeju may differ from other jeotgals. PMID:24689962
Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Eun-Jin
Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to investigate the reproducibility and stability in the bacterial community structure of laboratory-scale sequencing batch bioreactors (SBR) and to assess the impact of solids retention time (SRT) on bacterial diversity. Two experiments were performed. In each experiment two sets of replicate SBRs were operated for a periods of three times the SRT. One set was operated at an SRT of 2 days and another set was operated at an SRT of 8 days. Samples for T-RFLP analysis were collected from the two sets of replicate reactors. HhaI, MspI, and RsaI T-RFLP profiles were analyzed using cluster analysis and diversity statistics. Cluster analysis with Ward's method using Jaccard distance and Hellinger distance showed that the bacterial community structure in both sets of reactors from both experimental runs was dynamic and that replicate reactors were clustered together and evolved similarly from startup. Richness (S), evenness (E), the Shannon-Weaver index (H), and the reciprocal of Simpson's index (1/D) were calculated, and the values were compared between the two sets of reactors. Evenness values were higher for reactors operated at an SRT of 2 days. Statistically significant differences in diversity (H and D) between the two sets of reactors were tested using a randomization procedure, and the results showed that reactors from both experimental runs that were operated at an SRT of 2 days had higher diversity (H and D) at the 5% level. T-RFLP analysis with diversity indices proved to be a powerful tool to analyze changes in the bacterial community diversity in response to changes in the operational parameters of activated-sludge systems.
Saikaly, Pascal E.; Stroot, Peter G.; Oerther, Daniel B.
Background Subseafloor sediments accumulate large amounts of organic and inorganic materials that contain a highly diverse microbial ecosystem. The aim of this study was to survey the bacterial community of subseafloor sediments from the South China Sea. Methodology/Principal Findings Pyrosequencing of over 265,000 amplicons of the V3 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was performed on 16 sediment samples collected from multiple locations in the northern region of the South China Sea from depths ranging from 35 to 4000 m. A total of 9,726 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; between 695 and 2819 unique OTUs per sample) at 97% sequence similarity level were generated. In total, 40 bacterial phyla including 22 formally described phyla and 18 candidate phyla, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi being most diverse, were identified. The most abundant phylotype, accounting for 42.6% of all sequences, belonged to Gammaproteobacteria, which possessed absolute predominance in the samples analyzed. Among the 18 candidate phyla, 12 were found for the first time in the South China Sea. Conclusions This study provided a novel insight into the composition of bacterial communities of the South China Sea subseafloor. Furthermore, abundances and community similarity analysis showed that the compositions of the bacterial communities are very similar at phylum level at different depths from 35-4000 m.
Zhu, Daochen; Tanabe, Shoko-Hosoi; Yang, Chong; Zhang, Weimin; Sun, Jianzhong
The microbial community plays an essential role in the high productivity in mangrove wetlands. A proper understanding of the spatial variations of microbial communities will provide clues about the underline mechanisms that structure microbial groups and the isolation of bacterial strains of interest. In the present study, the diversity and composition of the bacterial community in sediments collected from four locations, namely mudflat, edge, bulk, and rhizosphere, within the Mai Po Ramsar Wetland in Hong Kong, SAR, China were compared using the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing technique. Rarefaction results showed that the bulk sediment inside the mature mangrove forest had the highest bacterial ?-diversity, while the mudflat sediment without vegetation had the lowest. The comparison of ?-diversity using principal component analysis and principal coordinate analysis with UniFrac metrics both showed that the spatial effects on bacterial communities were significant. All sediment samples could be clustered into two major groups, inner (bulk and rhizosphere sediments collected inside the mangrove forest) and outer mangrove sediments (the sediments collected at the mudflat and the edge of the mangrove forest). With the linear discriminate analysis scores larger than 3, four phyla, namely Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Verrucomicrobia, were enriched in the nutrient-rich inner mangrove sediments, while abundances of Proteobacteria and Deferribacterias were higher in outer mangrove sediments. The rhizosphere effect of mangrove plants was also significant, which had a lower ?-diversity, a higher amount of Nitrospirae, and a lower abundance of Proteobacteria than the bulk sediment nearby. PMID:23649297
Jiang, Xiao-Tao; Peng, Xin; Deng, Guan-Hua; Sheng, Hua-Fang; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee
Small-subunit rRNA genes and in situ hybridization with oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial symbionts in the larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and proposal of "Candidatus endobugula sertula".
Larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina harbor bacterial symbionts. These symbionts were identified as a novel species of gamma-proteobacterium, based on ribosomal small-subunit rRNA gene sequences. In situ hybridization with oligonucleotides specific for the symbiont confirmed the origin of the sequence. The taxonomic status "Candidatus Endobugula sertula" is proposed for the larval symbiont.
Haygood, M G; Davidson, S K
Broad-range amplification and sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene directly from clinical specimens are offered as a diagnostic service in many laboratories. One major pitfall is primer cross-reactivity with human DNA which will result in mixed chromatograms. Mixed chromatograms will complicate subsequent sequence analysis and impede identification. In SYBR green real-time PCR assays, it can also affect crossing threshold values and consequently the status of a specimen as positive or negative. We evaluated two conventional primer pairs in common use and a new primer pair based on the dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) principle. Cross-reactivity was observed when both conventional primer pairs were used, resulting in interpretation difficulties. No cross-reactivity was observed using the DPOs even in specimens with a high ratio of human to bacterial DNA. In addition to reducing cross-reactivity, the DPO principle also offers a high degree of flexibility in the design of primers and should be considered for any PCR assay intended for detection and identification of pathogens directly from human clinical specimens.
Simmon, Keith; Karaca, Dilek; Langeland, Nina; Wiker, Harald G.
A rapid approach to the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA)-based bacterial identification has been developed that combines uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UDG)-mediated base-specific fragmentation of PCR products with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). 16S rDNA signature sequences were PCR-amplified from both cultured and as-yet-uncultured bacteria in the presence of dUTP instead of dTTP. These PCR products then were immobilized onto a streptavidin-coated solid support to selectively generate either sense or antisense templates. Single-stranded amplicons were subsequently treated with uracil-DNA-glycosylase to generate T-specific abasic sites and fragmented by alkaline treatment. The resulting fragment patterns were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Mass signals of 16S rDNA fragments were compared with patterns calculated from published 16S rDNA sequences. MS of base-specific fragments of amplified 16S rDNA allows reliable discrimination of sequences differing by only one nucleotide. This approach is fast and has the potential for high-throughput identification as required in clinical, pharmaceutical, or environmental microbiology. In contrast to identification by MS of intact whole bacterial cells, this technique allows for the characterization of both cultured and as-yet-uncultured bacteria.
von Wintzingerode, Friedrich; Bocker, Sebastian; Schlotelburg, Cord; Chiu, Norman H. L.; Storm, Niels; Jurinke, Christian; Cantor, Charles R.; Gobel, Ulf B.; van den Boom, Dirk
The aim of the investigation was to quantify selected dominant bacterial groups in the chicken intestinal tract. Conventional\\u000a production was used as model and the effect of the supplement with Salinomycin was evaluated. Hybridization conditions were\\u000a optimized for published probes with respect to a panel of reference bacteria. In chicken intestinal samples bacteria were\\u000a quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization
K. N. Olsen; M. Henriksen; M. Bisgaard; O. L. Nielsen; H. Christensen
Classifying individual bacterial species comprising complex, polymicrobial patient specimens remains a challenge for culture-based and molecular microbiology techniques in common clinical use. We therefore adapted practices from metagenomics research to rapidly catalog the bacterial composition of clinical specimens directly from patients, without need for prior culture. We have combined a semiconductor deep sequencing protocol that produces reads spanning 16S ribosomal RNA gene variable regions 1 and 2 (?360 bp) with a de-noising pipeline that significantly improves the fraction of error-free sequences. The resulting sequences can be used to perform accurate genus- or species-level taxonomic assignment. We explore the microbial composition of challenging, heterogeneous clinical specimens by deep sequencing, culture-based strain typing, and Sanger sequencing of bulk PCR product. We report that deep sequencing can catalog bacterial species in mixed specimens from which usable data cannot be obtained by conventional clinical methods. Deep sequencing a collection of sputum samples from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients reveals well-described CF pathogens in specimens where they were not detected by standard clinical culture methods, especially for low-prevalence or fastidious bacteria. We also found that sputa submitted for CF diagnostic workup can be divided into a limited number of groups based on the phylogenetic composition of the airway microbiota, suggesting that metagenomic profiling may prove useful as a clinical diagnostic strategy in the future. The described method is sufficiently rapid (theoretically compatible with same-day turnaround times) and inexpensive for routine clinical use.
Salipante, Stephen J.; Sengupta, Dhruba J.; Rosenthal, Christopher; Costa, Gina; Spangler, Jessica; Sims, Elizabeth H.; Jacobs, Michael A.; Miller, Samuel I.; Hoogestraat, Daniel R.; Cookson, Brad T.; McCoy, Connor; Matsen, Frederick A.; Shendure, Jay; Lee, Clarence C.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Hoffman, Noah G.
We describe here a new approach for analyzing nucleic acid sequences using a structure-specific endonuclease, Cleavase I. We have applied this technique to the detection and localization of mutations associated with isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for differentiating bacterial genera, species and strains. The technique described here is based on the observation that single strands of DNAs can assume defined conformations, which can be detected and cleaved by structure-specific endonucleases such as Cleavase I. The patterns of fragments produced are characteristic of the sequences responsible for the structure, so that each DNA has its own structural fingerprint. Amplicons, containing either a single 5'-fluorescein or 5'-tetramethyl rhodamine label were generated from a 620-bp segment of the katG gene of isoniazid-resistant and -sensitive M. tuberculosis, the 5' 350 bp of the 16S rRNA genes of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella arizonae, Shigella sonnei, Shigella dysenteriae, Campylobacter jejuni, staphylococcus, hominis, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus aureus and an approximately 550-bp DNA segment comprising the intergenic region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella arizonae, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella dysenteriae serotypes 1, 2, and 8. Changes in the structural fingerprints of DNA fragments derived from the katG genes of isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates were clearly identified and could be mapped to the site of the actual mutation relative to the labeled end. Bland patterns which clearly differentiated bacteria to the level of genus and, in some cases, species were generated from the 16S genes. Cleavase I analysis of the intergenic regions of Salmonella and Shigella species differentiated genus, species, and serotypes. Structural fingerprinting by digestion with Cleavase I is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for analyzing nucleic acid sequences and may find wide utility in microbial analysis. PMID:8940459
Brow, M A; Oldenburg, M C; Lyamichev, V; Heisler, L M; Lyamicheva, N; Hall, J G; Eagan, N J; Olive, D M; Smith, L M; Fors, L; Dahlberg, J E
A computer-simulated restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial small-subunit rRNA genes: efficacy of selected tetrameric restriction enzymes for studies of microbial diversity in nature.
An assessment of 10 tetrameric restriction enzymes (TREs) was conducted by using a computer-simulated restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for over 100 proximally and distally related bacterial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences. Screening SSU rDNA clone libraries with TREs has become an effective strategy because of logistic simplicity, commercial availability, and economy. However, the rationale for selecting the type and number of TREs has not been systematically evaluated. Our objective was to identify the optimal combination of TREs for RFLP screening of cloned SSU rRNA genes from undefined bacterial clone libraries. After computer-simulated TRE digestion, the resultant fragments were categorized on the basis of the frequency of different restriction fragment size classes. Three groups of distribution patterns for the TREs were determined and further examined via graphical exploratory data analysis. The RFLP size-frequency distribution data for each group of enzymes were then used to infer phylogenetic relationships via the neighbor-joining method. The resulting bootstrap values and the correct placement of node bifurcations were used as additional criteria to evaluate the efficacy of the selected TREs. These RFLP data were compared with known phylogenetic relationships based on SSU rRNA sequence analysis as defined by the Ribosomal Database Project. A heuristic approach testing random combinations of TREs showed that three or more TRE combinations detected > 99% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within the model data set. OTUs that remained undetected after three TRE treatments had a median sequence similarity of 96.1%. Of the 10 restriction enzymes examined, HhaI, RsaI, and BstUI (group 3) were the most efficacious at detecting and differentiating bacterial SSU rRNA genes on the basis of their ability to correctly classify OTUs. Group 3 TREs are therefore recommended for screening in studies using bacterial SSU rRNA genes as descriptors of in situ microbial diversity.
Moyer, C L; Tiedje, J M; Dobbs, F C; Karl, D M
Different DNA and RNA extraction approaches were evaluated and protocols optimized on in situ corrosion products from carbon steel in marine environments. Protocols adapted from the PowerSoil DNA/RNA Isolation methods resulted in the best nucleic acid (NA) extraction performances (ie combining high NA yield, quality, purity, representativeness of microbial community and processing time efficiency). The PowerSoil RNA Isolation Kit was the only method which resulted in amplifiable RNA of good quality (ie intact 16S/23S rRNA). Sample homogenization and hot chemical (SDS) cell lysis combined with mechanical (bead-beating) lysis in presence of a DNA competitor (skim milk) contributed to improving substantially (around 23 times) the DNA yield of the PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. Apart from presenting NA extraction strategies for optimizing extraction parameters with corrosion samples from carbon steel, this study proposes DNA and RNA extraction procedures suited for comparative molecular analysis of total and active fractions of bacterial communities associated with carbon steel corrosion events, thereby contributing to improved MIC diagnosis and control. PMID:22500778
Marty, Florence; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Païssé, Sandrine; Gueuné, Hervé; Quillet, Laurent; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Muyzer, Gerard
Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319
Shen, Zongzhuan; Wang, Dongsheng; Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong
Cultivation-based assays combined with PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based methods for finding virulence factors are standard methods for detecting bacterial pathogens in stools; however, with emerging molecular technologies, new methods have become available. The aim of this study was to compare four distinct detection technologies for the identification of pathogens in stools from children under 5 years of age in The Gambia, Mali, Kenya, and Bangladesh. The children were identified, using currently accepted clinical protocols, as either controls or cases with moderate to severe diarrhea. A total of 3,610 stool samples were tested by established clinical culture techniques: 3,179 DNA samples by the Universal Biosensor assay (Ibis Biosciences, Inc.), 1,466 DNA samples by the GoldenGate assay (Illumina), and 1,006 DNA samples by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Each method detected different proportions of samples testing positive for each of seven enteric pathogens, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, and Aeromonas spp. The comparisons among detection methods included the frequency of positive stool samples and kappa values for making pairwise comparisons. Overall, the standard culture methods detected Shigella spp., EPEC, ETEC, and EAEC in smaller proportions of the samples than either of the methods based on detection of the virulence genes from DNA in whole stools. The GoldenGate method revealed the greatest agreement with the other methods. The agreement among methods was higher in cases than in controls. The new molecular technologies have a high potential for highly sensitive identification of bacterial diarrheal pathogens. PMID:23884998
Lindsay, Brianna; Pop, Mihai; Antonio, Martin; Walker, Alan W; Mai, Volker; Ahmed, Dilruba; Oundo, Joseph; Tamboura, Boubou; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen; Li, Shan; Magder, Laurence S; Paulson, Joseph N; Liu, Bo; Ikumapayi, Usman; Ebruke, Chinelo; Dione, Michel; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Rance, Richard; Stares, Mark D; Ukhanova, Maria; Barnes, Bret; Lewis, Ian; Ahmed, Firoz; Alam, Meer Taifur; Amin, Ruhul; Siddiqui, Sabbir; Ochieng, John B; Ouma, Emmanuel; Juma, Jane; Mailu, Eunice; Omore, Richard; O'Reilly, Ciara E; Hannis, James; Manalili, Sheri; Deleon, Jonna; Yasuda, Irene; Blyn, Lawrence; Ranken, Raymond; Li, Feng; Housley, Roberta; Ecker, David J; Hossain, M Anowar; Breiman, Robert F; Morris, J Glenn; McDaniel, Timothy K; Parkhill, Julian; Saha, Debasish; Sampath, Rangarajan; Stine, O Colin; Nataro, James P
Cultivation-based assays combined with PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based methods for finding virulence factors are standard methods for detecting bacterial pathogens in stools; however, with emerging molecular technologies, new methods have become available. The aim of this study was to compare four distinct detection technologies for the identification of pathogens in stools from children under 5 years of age in The Gambia, Mali, Kenya, and Bangladesh. The children were identified, using currently accepted clinical protocols, as either controls or cases with moderate to severe diarrhea. A total of 3,610 stool samples were tested by established clinical culture techniques: 3,179 DNA samples by the Universal Biosensor assay (Ibis Biosciences, Inc.), 1,466 DNA samples by the GoldenGate assay (Illumina), and 1,006 DNA samples by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Each method detected different proportions of samples testing positive for each of seven enteric pathogens, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, and Aeromonas spp. The comparisons among detection methods included the frequency of positive stool samples and kappa values for making pairwise comparisons. Overall, the standard culture methods detected Shigella spp., EPEC, ETEC, and EAEC in smaller proportions of the samples than either of the methods based on detection of the virulence genes from DNA in whole stools. The GoldenGate method revealed the greatest agreement with the other methods. The agreement among methods was higher in cases than in controls. The new molecular technologies have a high potential for highly sensitive identification of bacterial diarrheal pathogens.
Pop, Mihai; Antonio, Martin; Walker, Alan W.; Mai, Volker; Ahmed, Dilruba; Oundo, Joseph; Tamboura, Boubou; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen; Li, Shan; Magder, Laurence S.; Paulson, Joseph N.; Liu, Bo; Ikumapayi, Usman; Ebruke, Chinelo; Dione, Michel; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Rance, Richard; Stares, Mark D.; Ukhanova, Maria; Barnes, Bret; Lewis, Ian; Ahmed, Firoz; Alam, Meer Taifur; Amin, Ruhul; Siddiqui, Sabbir; Ochieng, John B.; Ouma, Emmanuel; Juma, Jane; Mailu, Eunice; Omore, Richard; O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Hannis, James; Manalili, Sheri; DeLeon, Jonna; Yasuda, Irene; Blyn, Lawrence; Ranken, Raymond; Li, Feng; Housley, Roberta; Ecker, David J.; Hossain, M. Anowar; Breiman, Robert F.; Morris, J. Glenn; McDaniel, Timothy K.; Parkhill, Julian; Saha, Debasish; Sampath, Rangarajan; Stine, O. Colin; Nataro, James P.
Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas.
Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong
Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach. PMID:10049861
Heuer, H; Hartung, K; Wieland, G; Kramer, I; Smalla, K
Climate warming may induce shifts in soil microbial communities possibly altering the long-term carbon mineralization potential of soils. We assessed the response of the bacterial community in a forest soil to experimental soil warming (+4 °C) in the context of seasonal fluctuations. Three experimental plots were sampled in the fourth year of warming in summer and winter and compared to control plots by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. We sequenced 17 308 amplicons per sample and analysed operational taxonomic units at genetic distances of 0.03, 0.10 and 0.25, with respective Good's coverages of 0.900, 0.977 and 0.998. Diversity indices did not differ between summer, winter, control or warmed samples. Summer and winter samples differed in community structure at a genetic distance of 0.25, corresponding approximately to phylum level. This was mainly because of an increase of Actinobacteria in winter. Abundance patterns of dominant taxa (> 0.06% of all reads) were analysed individually and revealed, that seasonal shifts were coherent among related phylogenetic groups. Seasonal community dynamics were subtle compared to the dynamics of soil respiration. Despite a pronounced respiration response to soil warming, we did not detect warming effects on community structure or composition. Fine-scale shifts may have been concealed by the considerable spatial variation.
Kuffner, Melanie; Hai, Brigitte; Rattei, Thomas; Melodelima, Christelle; Schloter, Michael; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Jandl, Robert; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Sessitsch, Angela
We have developed a novel high-throughput PCR-ligase detection reaction-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-LDR-CE) assay for the multiplexed identification of 20 blood-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Brucella abortus), the last four of which are biothreat agents. The method relies on the amplification of two regions within the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, using universal PCR primers and querying the identity of specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the amplified regions in a subsequent LDR. The ligation products vary in color and size and are separated by CE. Each organism generates a specific pattern of ligation products, which can be used to distinguish the pathogens using an automated software program we developed for that purpose. The assay has been verified on 315 clinical isolates and demonstrated a detection sensitivity of 98%. Additionally, 484 seeded blood cultures were tested, with a detection sensitivity of 97.7%. The ability to identify geographically variant strains of the organisms was determined by testing 132 isolates obtained from across the United States. In summary, the PCR-LDR-CE assay can successfully identify, in a multiplexed fashion, a panel of 20 blood-borne pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity.
Pingle, Maneesh R.; Granger, Kathleen; Feinberg, Philip; Shatsky, Rebecca; Sterling, Bram; Rundell, Mark; Spitzer, Eric; Larone, Davise; Golightly, Linnie; Barany, Francis
The effects of different soil dispersion procedures for enumeration and extraction of indigenous soil bacteria were investigated. Increased counts and extraction efficiency were obtained with pyrophosphate instead of water as dispersion liquid. When physical dispersion was conducted in the Waring blender, the effect of container volume and number of dispersions on extraction efficiency and bacterial counts was shown. An extraction
Soil that is suppressive to disease caused by fungal pathogens is an interesting source to target for novel chitinases that might be contributing towards disease suppression. In this study, we screened for chitinase genes, in a phytopathogen-suppressive soil in three ways: (1) from a metagenomic library constructed from microbial cells extracted from soil, (2) from directly extracted DNA and (3) from bacterial isolates with antifungal and chitinase activities. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of chitinase genes revealed differences in amplified chitinase genes from the metagenomic library and the directly extracted DNA, but approximately 40% of the identified chitinase terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were found in both sources. All of the chitinase TRFs from the isolates were matched to TRFs in the directly extracted DNA and the metagenomic library. The most abundant chitinase TRF in the soil DNA and the metagenomic library corresponded to the TRF(103) of the isolate Streptomyces mutomycini and/or Streptomyces clavifer. There were good matches between T-RFLP profiles of chitinase gene fragments obtained from different sources of DNA. However, there were also differences in both the chitinase and the 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns depending on the source of DNA, emphasizing the lack of complete coverage of the gene diversity by any of the approaches used. PMID:19922433
Hjort, Karin; Bergström, Maria; Adesina, Modupe F; Jansson, Janet K; Smalla, Kornelia; Sjöling, Sara
Soybean is an essential food ingredient that contains a class of organic compounds known as isoflavones. It is also well known that several plant agglutinins interfere with bacterial adherence to smooth surfaces. However, little is known about the effects of soybean extracts or genistein (a purified isoflavone from soybean) on bacterial biofilm formation. We evaluated the effects of soybean (Glycine max) extracts, including fermented soybean and genistein, on streptococcal agglutination and attachment onto stainless steel orthodontic wire. After cultivating streptococci in biofilm medium containing soybean extracts and orthodontic wire, the viable bacteria attached to the wire were counted. Phase-contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to evaluate bacterial agglutination and attachment. Our study showed that soybean extracts induce agglutination between streptococci, which results in bacterial precipitation. Conversely, viable bacterial counting and SEM image analysis of Streptococcus mutans attached to the orthodontic wire show that bacterial attachment decreases significantly when soybean extracts were added. However, there was no significant change in pre-attached S. mutans biofilm in response to soybean. A possible explanation for these results is that increased agglutination of planktonic streptococci by soybean extracts results in inhibition of bacterial attachment onto the orthodontic wire. PMID:24456364
Lee, Heon-Jin; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han; Hong, Su-Hyung
Eukaryotic marine microbes play pivotal roles in biogeochemical nutrient cycling and ecosystem function, but studies that focus on the protistan biogeography and genetic diversity lag-behind studies of other microbes. 18S rRNA PCR amplification and clone library sequencing are commonly used to assess diversity that is culture independent. However, molecular methods are not without potential biases and artifacts. In this study, we compare the community composition of clone libraries generated from the same water sample collected at the San Pedro Ocean Time Series (SPOTs) station in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Community composition was assessed using different cell lysis methods (chemical and mechanical) and the extraction of different nucleic acids (DNA and RNA reverse transcribed to cDNA) to build Sanger ABI clone libraries. We describe specific biases for ecologically important phylogenetic groups resulting from differences in nucleic acid extraction methods that will inform future designs of eukaryotic diversity studies, regardless of the target sequencing platform planned. PMID:22447590
Koid, Amy; Nelson, William C; Mraz, Amy; Heidelberg, Karla B
ThephylogeneticrelationshipsofchemoautotrophicendosymbiontsinthegutlessmarineoligochaeteInanid- rilus leukodermatus to chemoautotrophic ecto- and endosymbionts from other host phyla and to free-living bacteria were determined by comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Fluorescent in situ hybridizations confirmed that the 16S rRNA sequence obtained from these worms originated from the symbionts. The symbiontsequenceisuniquetoI.leukodermatus.Inphylogenetictreesinferredbybothdistanceandparsimony methods, the oligochaete symbiont is peripherally associated with one of two clusters of chemoautotrophic symbionts that
NICOLE DUBILIER; OLAV GIERE; DANIEL L. DISTEL; ANDCOLLEEN M. CAVANAUGH
The global dissemination, potential activity in diverse species and broad resistance spectrum conferred by the aminoglycoside-resistance ribosomal RNA methyltransferases make them a significant potential new threat to the efficacy of aminoglycoside antibiotics in the treatment of serious bacterial infections. The N1 methylation of adenosine 1408 (m(1)A1408) confers resistance to structurally diverse aminoglycosides, including kanamycin, neomycin and apramycin. The limited analyses to date of the enzymes responsible have identified common features but also potential differences in their molecular details of action. Therefore, with the goal of expanding the known 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferase family as a platform for developing a more complete mechanistic understanding, we report here the cloning, expression and functional analyses of four hypothetical aminoglycoside-resistance rRNA methyltransferases from recent genome sequences of diverse bacterial species. Each of the genes produced a soluble, folded protein with a secondary structure, as determined from circular dichroism (CD) spectra, consistent with enzymes for which high-resolution structures are available. For each enzyme, antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays revealed a resistance spectrum characteristic of the known 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferases and the modified nucleotide was confirmed by reverse transcription as A1408. In common with other family members, higher binding affinity for the methylation reaction by-product S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) than the cosubstrate S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) was observed for three methyltransferases, while one unexpectedly showed no measurable affinity for SAH. Collectively, these results confirm that each hypothetical enzyme is a functional 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferase but also point to further potential mechanistic variation within this enzyme family. PMID:24963996
Witek, Marta A; Conn, Graeme L
The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum) were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control. PMID:24294251
Romo, E; Weinacker, D F; Zepeda, A B; Figueroa, C A; Chavez-Crooker, P; Farias, J G
The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum) were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control.
Romo, E.; Weinacker, D.F.; Zepeda, A.B.; Figueroa, C.A.; Chavez-Crooker, P.; Farias, J.G.
Bauxite residue (red mud), generated during the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore is characterized by high pH, high concentrations of soluble ions with low or virtually no organic matter. These extreme conditions along with numerous nutrient deficiencies, limit the microbial growth and vegetation establishment. In the present study, diversity of both cultivable and non-cultivable bacteria present in the red mud was investigated by 16S rDNA sequence analyses. The cultivable bacteria were identified as Agromyces indicus, Bacillus litoralis, B. anthracis, Chungangia koreensis, Kokuria flava, K. polaris, Microbacterium hominis, Planococcus plakortidis, Pseudomonas alcaliphila and Salinococcus roseus based on their 16S rDNA sequence analysis. These isolates were alkali tolerant, positive for one or more of the enzyme activities tested, able to produce organic acids and oxidize wide range of carbon substrates. For non-cultivable diversity of bacteria, DNA was extracted from the bauxite residue samples and 16S rDNA clone library was constructed. The 16S rDNA clones of this study showed affiliation to three major phyla predominant being betaproteobacteria (41.1 %) followed by gammaproteobacteria (37.5 %) and bacteroidetes (21.4 %). We are reporting for the first time about the bacterial diversity of this unique and extreme environment. PMID:24817611
Krishna, Pankaj; Babu, A Giridhar; Reddy, M Sudhakara
Bacteria and archaea in frozen (-20°C) ruminal digesta were analysed by qPCR and cloning/sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Samples frozen with and without glycerol as cryoprotectant indicated a major loss of Bacteroidetes in unprotected samples, resulting in higher proportions of Firmicutes. Archaeal numbers and diversity were unaffected. PMID:24161897
McKain, Nest; Genc, Bu?ra; Snelling, Timothy J; Wallace, R John
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used in the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinone (RQ), bacterial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and archaeal phospholipid ether lipid (PLEL) from anaerobically digested sludge. Bacterial RQ were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Determination of bacterial PLFA and archaeal PLEL was simultaneously performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of pressure, temperature, and modifier concentration on the total amounts of RQ, PLFA, and PLEL were investigated by 23 experiments with five settings chosen for each variable. The optimal extraction conditions that were obtained through a multiple-response optimization included a pressure of 23.6 MPa, temperature of 77.6 °C, and 10.6% (v/v) of methanol as the modifier. Thirty nine components of microbial lipid biomarkers were identified in the anaerobically digested sludge. Overall, the SFE method proved to be more effective, rapid, and quantitative for simultaneously extracting bacterial and archaeal lipid biomarkers, compared to conventional organic solvent extraction. This work shows the potential application of SFE as a routine method for the comprehensive analysis of microbial community structures in environmental assessments using the lipid biomarkers profile.
Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki
Three 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (P1L, P4L and P8L) were constructed using three soil samples (P1S, P4S and P8S) collected\\u000a near Pindari glacier, Himalayas. The three libraries yielded a total of 703 clones. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were common to the three libraries. In addition to the above P1L and P8L shared the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes.
S. Shivaji; M. S. Pratibha; B. Sailaja; K. Hara Kishore; Ashish K. Singh; Z. Begum; Uttam Anarasi; S. R. Prabagaran; G. S. N. Reddy; T. N. R. Srinivas
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis remains largely elusive, although some microorganisms, including Gardnerella vaginalis, are suspected of playing a role in the etiology of this disorder. Recently culture-independent analysis of microbial ecosystems has proven its efficacy in characterizing the diversity of bacterial populations. Here, we report on the results obtained by combining culture and PCR-based methods to characterize the
Rita Verhelst; Hans Verstraelen; Geert Claeys; Gerda Verschraegen; Joris Delanghe; Leen Van Simaey; Catharine De Ganck; Marleen Temmerman; Mario Vaneechoutte
Ticks harbor numerous bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens that can cause serious infections in humans and domestic animals. Active surveillance of the tick vector can provide insight into the frequency and distribution of important pathogens in the environment. Nucleic-acid based detection of tick-borne bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens requires the extraction of both DNA and RNA (total nucleic acids) from ticks. Traditional methods for nucleic acid extraction are limited to extraction of either DNA or the RNA from a sample. Here we present a simple bead-beating based protocol for extraction of DNA and RNA from a single tick and show detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Powassan virus from individual, infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We determined expected yields for total nucleic acids by this protocol for a variety of adult tick species. The method is applicable to a variety of arthropod vectors, including fleas and mosquitoes, and was partially automated on a liquid handling robot.
Crowder, Chris D.; Rounds, Megan A.; Phillipson, Curtis A.; Picuri, John M.; Matthews, Heather E.; Halverson, Justina; Schutzer, Steven E.; Ecker, David J.; Eshoo, Mark W.
Bananas contain large quantities of neurochemicals. Extracts from the peel and pulp of bananas in increasing stages of ripening were prepared and evaluated for their ability to modulate the growth of non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria. Extracts from the peel, and to a much lesser degree the pulp, increased the growth of Gram-negative bacterial strains Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter
The nearly universal colonization of surfaces in marine waters by bacteria and the formation of biofilms and biofouling communities have important implications for ecological function and industrial processes. However, the dynamics of surface attachment and colonization in situ, particularly during the early stages of biofilm establishment, are not well understood. Experimental surfaces that differed in their degrees of hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity were incubated in a salt marsh estuary tidal creek for 24 or 72 h. The organisms colonizing these surfaces were examined by using a cultivation-independent approach, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. The goals of this study were to assess the diversity of bacterial colonists involved in early succession on a variety of surfaces and to determine the phylogenetic affiliations of the most common early colonists. Substantial differences in the representation of different cloned ribosomal DNA sequences were found when the 24- and 72-h incubations were compared, indicating that some new organisms were recruited and some other organisms were lost. Phylogenetic analyses of the most common sequences recovered showed that the colonists were related to organisms known to inhabit surfaces or particles in marine systems. A total of 22 of the 26 clones sequenced were affiliated with the Roseobacter subgroup of the ? subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (?-Proteobacteria), and most of these clones were recovered at a high frequency from all surfaces after 24 or 72 h of incubation. Two clones were affiliated with the Alteromonas group of the ?-Proteobacteria and appeared to be involved only in the very early stages of colonization (within the first 24 h). A comparison of the colonization patterns on the test surfaces indicated that the early bacterial community succession rate and/or direction may be influenced by surface physicochemical properties. However, organisms belonging to the Roseobacter subgroup are ubiquitous and rapid colonizers of surfaces in coastal environments.
Dang, Hongyue; Lovell, Charles R.
We analyzed the bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity throughout the major components of the drinking water distribution system\\u000a of a ca. 52,000-inhabitants city (Trikala City, Greece) in order to describe the changes of the bacterial assemblages and\\u000a to detect possible bacterial pathogens which are not included in the standard monitoring process. Bacterial DAPI counts and\\u000a DNA extraction was performed in
Konstantinos Ar. Kormas; Christos Neofitou; Maria Pachiadaki; Eulalia Koufostathi
A 16S rRNA genus-specific probe was used to determine whether Streptomyces populations are an indigenous component of marine sediment bacterial communities. Previous debates have suggested that marine Streptomyces isolates are derived not from resident populations but from spores of terrestrial species which have been physically transported to marine ecosystems but remain dormant until isolation. Rigorously controlled hybridization of rRNA extracted from coastal marsh sediments with the genus-specific probe indicated that Streptomyces rRNA accounted for 2 to 5% of the sediment community rRNA and that spores are not the source of the hybridization signal. Streptomyces populations must therefore be at least the 26th most abundant genus-level source of bacterial rRNA. the relative amounts of rRNAs from Streptomyces spp. and members of the Bacteria (69 to 79%) and Archaea (4 to 7%) domains were highly consistent in these marine sediments throughout an annual cycle, indicating that the species composition of sediment bacterial communities may be more stable than recent studies suggest for marine planktonic bacterial communities. Laboratory studies designed to investigate the possible functional roles of Streptomyces populations in coastal sediments demonstrated that population levels of this genus changed relatively rapidly (within a time frame of 6 weeks) in response to manipulation of substrate availability. Amendments of intact sediment cores with two compounds (vanillic acid and succinic acid) consistently resulted in Streptomyces populations contributing an increased percentage of rRNA (6 to 15%) to the total bacterial rRNA pool.
Moran, M A; Rutherford, L T; Hodson, R E
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts derived from the bark-containing sticks (Neem stick) of Azadirachta indica upon bacterial aggregation, growth, adhesion to hydroxyapatite, and production of insoluble glucan, which may affect in vitro plaque formation. Neem stick extracts were screened for minimal bacterial growth inhibition (MIC) against a panel of streptococci by
L. E. Wolinsky; S. Mania; S. Nachnani; S. Ling
Autonomous, field-deployable molecular detection systems require seamless integration of complex biochemical solutions and physical or mechanical processing steps. In an attempt to simplify the fluidic requirements for integrated biodetection systems, we used tunable surface microparticles both as an rRNA affinity purification resin in a renewable microcolumn sample preparation system and as the sensor surface in a flow cytometer detector. The tunable surface detection limits in both low- and high-salt buffers were 1 ng of total RNA (~104 cell equivalents) in 15-min test tube hybridizations and 10 ng of total RNA (~105 cell equivalents) in hybridizations with the automated system (30-s contact time). RNA fragmentation was essential for achieving tunable surface suspension array specificity. Chaperone probes reduced but did not completely eliminate cross-hybridization, even with probes sharing <50% identity to target sequences. Nonpurified environmental extracts did not irreparably affect our ability to classify color-coded microparticles, but residual environmental constituents significantly quenched the Alexa-532 reporter fluor. Modulating surface charge did not influence the interaction of soluble environmental contaminants with conjugated beads. The automated system greatly reduced the effects of fluorescence quenching, especially in the soil background. The automated system was as efficacious as manual methods for simultaneous sample purification, hybridization, and washing prior to flow cytometry detection. The implications of unexpected target cross-hybridization and fluorescence quenching are discussed relative to the design and implementation of an integrated microbial monitoring system.
Chandler, Darrell P.; Jarrell, Ann E.
High activity of taurine:?-ketoglutarate aminotransferase was found exclusively in cell-free extracts of Achromobacter superficialis and A. polymorph. The former was chosen for characterization of the enzymatic reaction. The enzyme activity was enhanced by addition of ?-alanine to the growth medium. The product from ?-ketoglutarate was identified as l-glutamate. Another product has been isolated, purified, and identified as sulfoacetaldehyde (2-oxoethanesulfonate), a deamination product from taurine, by comparison between the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones of the synthetic and enzymatic products on the basis of studies by paper chromatography, by visible, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrophotometries, and by elemental analysis. This enzymatic transamination was found to proceed stoichiometrically and reversibly as follows: NH2·CH2·CH2·SO3H + HOOC·CH2·CH2·CO·COOH ? OHC·CH2·SO3H + HOOC·CH2·CH2·CH(NH2)·COOH.
Toyama, Seizen; Soda, Kenji
The comparison of the bacterial profile of intracellular (iDNA) and extracellular DNA (eDNA) isolated from cow rumen content stored under different conditions was conducted. The influence of rumen fluid treatment (cheesecloth squeezed, centrifuged, filtered), storage temperature (RT, -80 °C) and cryoprotectants (PBS-glycerol, ethanol) on quality and quantity parameters of extracted DNA was evaluated by bacterial DGGE analysis, real-time PCR quantification and metabarcoding approach using high-throughput sequencing. Samples clustered according to the type of extracted DNA due to considerable differences between iDNA and eDNA bacterial profiles, while storage temperature and cryoprotectants additives had little effect on sample clustering. The numbers of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were lower (P < 0.01) in eDNA samples. The qPCR indicated significantly higher amount of Firmicutes in iDNA sample frozen with glycerol (P < 0.01). Deep sequencing analysis of iDNA samples revealed the prevalence of Bacteroidetes and similarity of samples frozen with and without cryoprotectants, which differed from sample stored with ethanol at room temperature. Centrifugation and consequent filtration of rumen fluid subjected to the eDNA isolation procedure considerably changed the ratio of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Intracellular DNA extraction using bead-beating method from cheesecloth sieved rumen content mixed with PBS-glycerol and stored at -80 °C was found as the optimal method to study ruminal bacterial profile. PMID:24125910
Fliegerova, Katerina; Tapio, Ilma; Bonin, Aurelie; Mrazek, Jakub; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Bani, Paolo; Bayat, Alireza; Vilkki, Johanna; Kope?ný, Jan; Shingfield, Kevin J; Boyer, Frederic; Coissac, Eric; Taberlet, Pierre; Wallace, R John
Estimation of diversity and community structure through restriction fragment length polymorphism distribution analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from a microbial mat at an active, hydrothermal vent system, Loihi Seamount, Hawaii.
PCR was used to amplify (eu)bacterial small-subunit (16S) rRNA genes from total-community genomic DNA. The source of total-community genomic DNA used for this culture-independent analysis was the microbial mats from a deep-sea, hydrothermal vent system, Pele's Vents, located at Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions in the 16S rRNA-encoding DNA (rDNA) of bacteria were used to direct the synthesis of PCR products, which were then subcloned by blunt-end ligation into phagemid vector pBluescript II. Restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns, created by using tandem tetrameric restriction endonucleases, revealed the presence of 12 groups of 16S rRNA genes representing discrete operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The rank order abundance of these putative OTUs was measured, and the two most abundant OTUs accounted for 72.9% of all of the 16S rDNA clones. Among the remaining 27.1% of the 16S rDNA clones, none of the 10 OTUs was represented by more than three individual clones. The cumulative OTU distribution for 48 bacterial 16S rDNA clones demonstrated that the majority of taxa represented in the clone library were detected, a result which we assume to be an estimate of the diversity of bacteria in the native hydrothermal vent habitat. 16S rDNA fingerprinting of individual clones belonging to particular OTUs by using an oligonucleotide probe that binds to a universally conserved region of the 16S rDNA fragments was conducted to confirm OTU specificity and 16S rDNA identity. Images
Moyer, C L; Dobbs, F C; Karl, D M
Horizontal and vertical variations in bacterial community composition were examined in samples collected during two Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Arabian Sea cruises in 1995. The cruises, 11 months apart, took place during two consecutive NE Monsoon periods (January and December). Bacteria were harvested by filtration from samples collected in the mixed layer, mid-water, and deep sea at stations
Lasse Riemann; Grieg F. Steward; Laura B. Fandino; Lisa Campbell; Michael R. Landry; Farooq Azam
The bacterial population of a graywater treatment system was monitored over the course of 100 days, along with several wastewater biochemical parameters. The graywater treatment system employed an 1,800-liter membrane bioreactor (MBR) to process the waste, with essentially 100% recycling of the biomass. Graywater feed consisting of 10% galley water and 90% laundry water, selected to approximate the graywater composition
David M. Stamper; Marianne Walch; Rachel N. Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Machine learning techniques have shown to improve bacterial species classification based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. Nonetheless, FAME analysis has a limited resolution for discrimination of bacteria at the species level. In this paper, we approach the species classification problem from a taxonomic point of view. Such a taxonomy or tree is typically obtained by applying clustering
Bram Slabbinck; Willem Waegeman; Peter Dawyndt; Paul De Vos; Bernard De Baets
Received 24 May 2004\\/Returned for modification 21 June 2004\\/Accepted 23 August 2004 Recent studies suggest that the association between a metronidazole-resistant anaerobe, Atopobium vaginae, and bacterial vaginosis (BV) warrants further investigation. In the present study, specific primers enhanced detection of A. vaginae and provided additional evidence that this bacterium is prevalent among patients with BV but absent among patients with
Michael J. Ferris; Alicia Masztal; David H. Martin
Recent studies suggest that the association between a metronidazole-resistant anaerobe, Atopobium vaginae, and bacterial vaginosis (BV) warrants further investigation. In the present study, specific primers enhanced detection of A. vaginae and provided additional evidence that this bacterium is prevalent among patients with BV but absent among patients with normal vaginal flora. PMID:15583334
Ferris, Michael J; Masztal, Alicia; Martin, David H
Bacterial community dynamics of a whole drinking water supply system (DWSS) were studied from source to tap. Raw water for this DWSS is provided by two reservoirs with different water characteristics in the Harz mountains of Northern Germany. Samples were taken after different steps of treatment of raw water (i.e., flocculation, sand filtration, and chlorination) and at different points along
Stefan Eichler; Richard Christen; Claudia Holtje; Petra Westphal; Julia Botel; Ingrid Brettar; Arndt Mehling; Manfred G. Hofle
Summary Bacteria possess an extraordinary repertoire for intercellular communication and social behaviour. This repertoire for bacterial communication, termed as quorum sensing (QS), depends on specific diffusible signal molecules. There are many different kinds of signal molecules in the bacterial community. Among those signal molecules, N?acyl homoserine lactones (HSLs, in other publications also referred to as AHLs, acy?HSLs etc.) are often employed as QS signal molecules for many Gram?negative bacteria. Due to the specific structure and tiny amount of those HSL signal molecules, the characterization of HSLs has been the subject of extensive investigations in the last decades and has become a paradigm for bacteria intercellular signalling. In this article, different methods, including extraction, purification and characterization of HSLs, are reviewed. The review provides an insight into identification and characterization of new HSLs and other signal molecules for bacterial intercellular communication.
Wang, Jianhua; Quan, Chunshan; Wang, Xue; Zhao, Pengchao; Fan, Shengdi
Objective To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Methods Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Results Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. Conclusions The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.
Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari
Sulfur-oxidizing bacterial endosymbionts: analysis of phylogeny and specificity by 16S rRNA sequences. [Calyptogena magnifica; Bathymodiolus thermophilus; Lucinoma annulata; Lucinoma aequizonata; Codakia orbicularis
The 16S rRNAs from the bacterial endosymbionts of six marine invertebrates from diverse environments were isolated and partially sequenced. These symbionts included the trophosome symbiont of Riftia pachyptila, the gill symbionts of Calyptogena magnifica and Bathymodiolus thermophilus (from deep-sea hydrothermal vents), and the gill symbionts of Lucinoma annulata, Lucinoma aequizonata, and Codakia orbicularis (from relatively shallow coastal environments). Only one
D. L. Distel; G. J. Olsen; S. J. Giovannoni; B. Pace; N. R. Pace; D. A. Stahl; H. Felbeck
Variations in chemical parameters and bacterial populations in mangrove rhizosphere samples were noted for different sites.\\u000a The C, N, P and K contents as well as pH, EC and salinity showed variation between sites. Significant differences in soil\\u000a properties were also found in sampling sites. Two types of soil were noted among sites. Guesthouse had significantly higher\\u000a organic matter and
Srinivasan Bharathkumar; N. RameshKumar; Diby Paul; V. R. Prabavathy; Sudha Nair
A polyphasic approach involving cultivation, direct viable counts, rRNA-based phylogenetic classification, and in situ probing was applied for the characterization of the dominant microbial population in a municipal drinking water distribution system. A total of 234 bacterial strains cultivated on R2A medium were screened for bacteria affiliated with the in situ dominating beta subclass of Proteobacteria. The isolates were grouped
SIBYLLE KALMBACH; WERNER MANZ; ULRICH SZEWZYK
The antibacterial activity of Aloe barbadensis was tested on clinically isolated bacterial pathogens i.e. Enterococcus bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,\\u000a Morganella morganii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae causing infection in human being. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were used for the antibacterial effect, which was measured\\u000a by the appearance of zone of inhibition. Relatively higher MIC concentrations
Ruchi Pandey; Avinash Mishra
We compared the relative levels of effectiveness of three commercial identification kits and three nucleic acid amplification tests for the identification of coryneform bacteria by testing 50 diverse isolates, including 12 well-characterized control strains and 38 organisms obtained from pediatric oncology patients at our institution. Between 33.3 and 75.0% of control strains were correctly identified to the species level by phenotypic systems or nucleic acid amplification assays. The most sensitive tests were the API Coryne system and amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene using primers optimized for coryneform bacteria, which correctly identified 9 of 12 control isolates to the species level, and all strains with a high-confidence call were correctly identified. Organisms not correctly identified were species not included in the test kit databases or not producing a pattern of reactions included in kit databases or which could not be differentiated among several genospecies based on reaction patterns. Nucleic acid amplification assays had limited abilities to identify some bacteria to the species level, and comparison of sequence homologies was complicated by the inclusion of allele sequences obtained from uncultivated and uncharacterized strains in databases. The utility of rpoB genotyping was limited by the small number of representative gene sequences that are currently available for comparison. The correlation between identifications produced by different classification systems was poor, particularly for clinical isolates.
Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Boudreaux, Jan W.; Cummings, Jessica R.; Pounds, Stanley; Wilson, Deborah A.; Procop, Gary W.; Hayden, Randall T.
Infection due to multidrug resistance pathogens is difficult to manage due to bacterial virulence factors and because of a relatively limited choice of antimicrobial agents. Thus, it is imperative to discover fresh antimicrobials or new practices that are effective for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant microorganisms. The objective of this experiment is to investigate for synergistic outcomes when crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Afzelia africana and antibiotics were combined against a panel of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains that have been implicated in infections. Standard microbiological protocols were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and antibiotics, as well as to investigate the effect of combinations of the methanolic extract of A. africana stem bark and selected antibiotics using the time-kill assay method. The extract of Afzelia africana exhibited antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria made up of environmental and standard strains at a screening concentration of 5 mg/mL. The MICs of the crude extracts and the antibiotics varied between 1 ?g/mL and 5.0 mg/mL. Overall, synergistic response constituted about 63.79% of all manner of combinations of extract and antibiotics against all test organisms; antagonism was not detected among the 176 tests carried out. The extract from A. africana stem bark showed potentials of synergy in combination with antibiotics against strains of pathogenic bacteria. The detection of synergy between the extract and antibiotics demonstrates the potential of this plant as a source of antibiotic resistance modulating compounds.
Aiyegoro, Olayinka; Adewusi, Adekanmi; Oyedemi, Sunday; Akinpelu, David; Okoh, Anthony
The bacterial flora and biomass in mountain snow from the Tateyama Mountains, Toyama Prefecture, Japan, one of the heaviest snowfall regions in the world, were analyzed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA quantification by real-time PCR. Samples of surface snow collected in various months during the melting season contained a psychrophilic bacterium, Cryobacterium psychrophilum, and two psychrotrophic bacteria, Variovorax paradoxus and Janthinobacterium lividum. Bacterial colonies that developed in an in situ meltwater medium at 4 degrees C were revealed to be V. paradoxus. The biomasses of C. psychrophilum, J. lividum, and V. paradoxus, as estimated by real-time PCR, showed large increases during the melting season from March to October (2.0 x 10(5)-fold, 1.5 x 10(5)-fold, and 1.0 x 10(4)-fold increases, respectively), suggesting their rapid growth in the surface snow. The biomasses of C. psychrophilum and J. lividum increased significantly from March to April, reached a maximum in August, and dropped at the end of the melting season. In contrast, the biomass of V. paradoxus did not increase as rapidly during the early melting season but continued to increase from June until October. The differences in development observed among these bacterial species suggest that their growth was promoted by different nutrients and/or environmental conditions in the snow. Since these three types of bacteria have also been reported to be present in a glacier in Antarctica and a Greenland ice core, they seem to be specialized members of the snow biota that are distributed in snow and ice environments in various parts of the world. PMID:15640179
Segawa, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Koji; Ushida, Kazunari; Agata, Kiyokazu; Okada, Norihiro; Kohshima, Shiro
The bacterial flora and biomass in mountain snow from the Tateyama Mountains, Toyama Prefecture, Japan, one of the heaviest snowfall regions in the world, were analyzed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA quantification by real-time PCR. Samples of surface snow collected in various months during the melting season contained a psychrophilic bacterium, Cryobacterium psychrophilum, and two psychrotrophic bacteria, Variovorax paradoxus and Janthinobacterium lividum. Bacterial colonies that developed in an in situ meltwater medium at 4°C were revealed to be V. paradoxus. The biomasses of C. psychrophilum, J. lividum, and V. paradoxus, as estimated by real-time PCR, showed large increases during the melting season from March to October (2.0 × 105-fold, 1.5 × 105-fold, and 1.0 × 104-fold increases, respectively), suggesting their rapid growth in the surface snow. The biomasses of C. psychrophilum and J. lividum increased significantly from March to April, reached a maximum in August, and dropped at the end of the melting season. In contrast, the biomass of V. paradoxus did not increase as rapidly during the early melting season but continued to increase from June until October. The differences in development observed among these bacterial species suggest that their growth was promoted by different nutrients and/or environmental conditions in the snow. Since these three types of bacteria have also been reported to be present in a glacier in Antarctica and a Greenland ice core, they seem to be specialized members of the snow biota that are distributed in snow and ice environments in various parts of the world.
Segawa, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Koji; Ushida, Kazunari; Agata, Kiyokazu; Okada, Norihiro; Kohshima, Shiro
Assessing the distribution of 16S rRNA gene sequences within a biological sample represents the current state-of-the-art for determination of human gut microbiota composition. Advances in dissecting the microbial biodiversity of this ecosystem have very much been dependent on the development of novel high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, like the Ion Torrent. However, the precise representation of this bacterial community may be affected by the protocols used for DNA extraction as well as by the PCR primers employed in the amplification reaction. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for 16S rRNA gene-based profiling of the fecal microbiota.
Foroni, Elena; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Sanchez, Borja; Martin, Rebeca; Gueimonde, Miguel; van Sinderen, Douwe; Margolles, Abelardo; Ventura, Marco
Assessing the distribution of 16S rRNA gene sequences within a biological sample represents the current state-of-the-art for determination of human gut microbiota composition. Advances in dissecting the microbial biodiversity of this ecosystem have very much been dependent on the development of novel high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, like the Ion Torrent. However, the precise representation of this bacterial community may be affected by the protocols used for DNA extraction as well as by the PCR primers employed in the amplification reaction. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for 16S rRNA gene-based profiling of the fecal microbiota. PMID:23869230
Milani, Christian; Hevia, Arancha; Foroni, Elena; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Sanchez, Borja; Martín, Rebeca; Gueimonde, Miguel; van Sinderen, Douwe; Margolles, Abelardo; Ventura, Marco
The bacterial community composition of activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (Almería, Spain) with the particularity of using seawater was investigated by applying 454-pyrosequencing. The results showed that Deinococcus-Thermus, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant retrieved sequences, while other groups, such as Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Deferribacteres, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes and Verrumicrobia were reported at lower proportions. Rarefaction analysis showed that very likely the diversity is higher than what could be described despite most of the unknown microorganisms probably correspond to rare diversity. Furthermore, the majority of taxa could not be classified at the genus level and likely represent novel members of these groups. Additionally, the nitrifiers in the sludge were characterized by pyrosequencing the amoA gene. In contrast, the nitrifying bacterial community, dominated by the genera Nitrosomonas, showed a low diversity and rarefaction curves exhibited saturation. These results suggest that only a few populations of low abundant but specialized bacteria are responsible for removal of ammonia in these saline wastewater systems. PMID:23574645
Sánchez, Olga; Ferrera, Isabel; González, Jose M; Mas, Jordi
The 454 sequencing method was used to detect bacterial diversity and community structure in the East China Sea. Overall, 149 067 optimized reads with an average length of 454 nucleotides were obtained from 17 seawater samples and five sediment samples sourced in May 2011. A total of 22 phyla, 34 classes, 74 orders, 146 families, and 333 genera were identified in this study. Some of them were detected for the first time from the East China Sea. The estimated richness and diversity indices were both higher in the sediment samples compared with in the seawater samples. All the samples were divided by their diversity indices into four regions. Similarity analysis showed that the seawater samples could be classified into six groups. The groups differed from each other and had unique community structure characteristics. It was found that different water masses in the sampling areas may have had some influence on the bacterial community structure. A canonical correspondence analysis revealed that seawater samples in different areas and at different depths were affected by different environmental parameters. This study will lay the foundation for future research on microbiology in the East China Sea.
Dong, Yi; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Wenyan; Li, Yan; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Chenggang; Wu, Ying; Liu, Sumei; Zhang, Wuchang; Xiao, Tian
Renewed demand for incorporation of natural dyes (bio-colorants) in textile industry could be met through biotechnological production of bacterial pigments. Two new Streptomyces strains (NP2 and NP4) were isolated for the remarkable ability to produce diffusible deep blue and deep red pigment into fermentation medium. Crude mycelial extracts of both strains were used as bio-colorants in conventional textile dyeing procedures avoiding downstream purification procedures. The yields of bio-colorants obtained in this way were 62 and 84 mg per g of mycelia for Streptomyces sp. NP2 and Streptomyces sp. NP4, respectively. Through nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of crude extracts before and after dyeing procedures, it was shown that both extracts contained prodigiosin-like family of compounds that exhibited different dyeing capabilities towards different textile fibers. Polyamide and acrylic fibers were colored to the deepest shade, polyester and triacetate fibers to a noticeable, but much lower shade depth, while cotton and cellulosic fibers stained weakly. These results confirmed that crude bacterial extracts had the characteristics similar to those of ionic and disperse dyes, which was consistent with the identified polypyrrolic prodigiosin-like structures. PMID:24671299
Kramar, Ana; Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Petkovic, Milos; Radulovi?, Niko; Kostic, Mirjana; Jocic, Dragan; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina
Marine zooplanktic organisms, such as copepods, are usually associated with large numbers of bacteria. Some of these bacteria live attached to copepods’ exoskeleton, while others prevail in their intestine and faecal pellets. Until now, general conclusions concerning the identity of these bacteria are problematic since the majority of previous studies focused on cultivable bacteria only. Hence, to date little is known on whether copepod genera or species harbour distinct bacterial populations and about the nature of this association. To shed more light on these copepod/bacteria consortia, the focus of this study was the development and evaluation of a suitable approach to extract bacterial DNA from different North Sea copepod genera. Furthermore, the bacterial DNA was analysed by PCR-DGGE and subsequent sequencing of excised bands. The result of this work was an appropriate extraction method for batches of ten to one copepod specimens and offered first insights as to which bacteria are attached to the copepods Acartia sp . and Temora sp . from Helgoland Roads (German Bight) and a laboratory-grown Acartia tonsa culture. It revealed the prevalence of Alphaproteobacteria.
Brandt, Petra; Gerdts, Gunnar; Boersma, Maarten; Wiltshire, Karen H.; Wichels, Antje
Microbes are thought to have key roles in the development of the special properties of post-fermented pu-erh tea (pu-erh shucha), a well-known traditional Chinese tea; however, little is known about the bacteria during the fermentation. In this work, the structure and dynamics of the bacterial community involved in the production of pu-erh shucha were investigated using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from samples collected on days zero (LD-0), 5 (LD-5), 10 (LD-10), 15 (LD-15) and 20 (LD-20) of the fermentation. A total of 747 sequences with individual clone library containing 115-174 sequences and 4-20 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained. These OTUs were grouped into four phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria) and further identified as members of 10 families, such as Alcaligenaceae, Bacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, etc. The dominant bacteria were Enterobacteriaceae in the raw material (LD-0) and in the initial stages of fermentation (LD-5 and LD-10), which changed to Bacillaceae at the last stages of fermentation (LD-15 and LD-20) at a temperature of 40-60 °C. It is interesting that the dominant OTUs in libraries LD-15 and LD-20 were very closely related to Bacillus coagulans, which is a safe thermoduric probiotic. Together the bacterial diversity and dynamics during a fermentation of pu-erh shucha were demonstrated, and a worthy clue for artificial inoculation of B. coagulans to improve the health benefits of pu-erh shucha or produce probiotic pu-erh tea were provided. PMID:23591759
Zhao, Ming; Xiao, Wei; Ma, Yan; Sun, Tingting; Yuan, Wenxia; Tang, Na; Zhang, Donglian; Wang, Yongxia; Li, Yali; Zhou, Hongjie; Cui, Xiaolong
The intactness of DNA is the keystone of genome-based clinical investigations, where rapid molecular detection of life-threatening bacteria is largely dependent on the isolation of high-quality DNA. Various protocols have been so far developed for genomic DNA isolation from bacteria, most of which have been claimed to be reproducible with relatively good yields of high-quality DNA. Nonetheless, they are not fully applicable to various types of bacteria, their processing cost is relatively high, and some toxic reagents are used. The routine protocols for DNA extraction appear to be sensitive to species diversity, and may fail to produce high-quality DNA from different species. Such protocols remain time-consuming and tedious, thus to resolve some of these impediments, we report development of a very simple, rapid, and high-throughput protocol for extracting of high-quality DNA from different bacterial species. Based upon our protocol, interfering phenolic compounds were removed from extraction using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and RNA contamination was precipitated using LiCI. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8) with high intactness of DNA. Subsequent evaluations were performed using some quality-dependent techniques (e.g., RAPD marker and restriction digestions). The isolated DNA from 9 different bacterial species confirmed the accuracy of this protocol which requires no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low-cost making it an appropriate method f r large-scale DNA isolation fromvarious bacterial species. PMID:21058509
Atashpaz, Sina; Khani, Sajjad; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Barar, Jaleh; Vahed, Sepideh Zununi; Azarbaijani, Reza; Omidi, Yadollah
A new commercially available universal 16S and 18S rRNA gene PCR test, which is followed by sequence analysis of amplicons (SepsiTest), was evaluated for rapid identification of pathogens in the diagnosis of bone and joint infections. Eighty-three orthopedic samples and 21 specimens from other normally sterile body sites collected from 84 patients were analyzed in parallel by culture and PCR for detection of bacteria and fungi. Compared to culture, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 88.5% and 83.5%, respectively. The detection rate of PCR (34.6%) was higher than that of bacterial culture (25.0%) as a consequence of the presence of fastidious and noncultivable species in samples and antibiotic treatment of patients. Thirteen culture-negative infections were identified by PCR, and PCR was able to detect culture-proven polymicrobial infections. On the other hand, three samples were culture positive but PCR negative. SepsiTest was demonstrated to be a valuable supplemental tool in the rapid detection of bacteria, especially for fastidious and noncultivable organisms, allowing earlier initiation of pathogen-adapted therapy in patients with bone and joint infections.
Grif, K.; Heller, I.; Lechleitner, K.; Lass-Florl, C.; Orth, D.
Comparative DNA sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) was undertaken to further our understanding of the make-up of bacterial communities in the rumen fluid of dairy cattle. Total DNA was extracted from the rumen fluid of 10 cattle fed haylage\\/corn silage\\/concentrate rations at two different times. Rumen samples were collected on two separate occasions from five cows each. In
Marc F Whitford; Robert J Forster; Cheryl E Beard; Jianhua Gong; Ronald M Teather
The antibacterial activity of Aloe barbadensis was tested on clinically isolated bacterial pathogens i.e. Enterococcus bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae causing infection in human being. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were used for the antibacterial effect, which was measured by the appearance of zone of inhibition. Relatively higher MIC concentrations were obtained for gram negative bacteria E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with ethanol extract; however, no inhibitory effect was noted for aqueous extract. Ethanolic extract possesses great inhibitory activity for gram positive bacteria, E. bovis followed by S. aureus. Among gram negative bacteria, highest inhibitory effect was observed with P. aeruginosa, followed by M. morganii, P. mirabilis, and P. vulgaris, which was significant (p < 0.01) than E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Antimicrobial activity tests of crude extract of A. barbadensis were carried out to validate the use of traditional medicinal herbal and results of this study tend to give credence to the common use of A. barbadensis gel and leaf. PMID:19263248
Pandey, Ruchi; Mishra, Avinash
Bacterial biofilms are responsible for many persistent infections by many clinically relevant pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biofilms are much more resistant to conventional antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts. Quorum sensing, an intercellular communication system, controls pathogenesis and biofilm formation in most bacterial species. Quorum sensing provides an important pharmacological target since its inhibition does not provide a selective pressure for resistance. In this study, we investigated the quorum sensing and biofilm inhibitory activities of 126 plant extracts from 71 species collected from neotropical rainforests in Costa Rica. Quorum sensing and biofilm interference were assessed using a modified disc diffusion bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12,472 and a spectrophotometric bioassay with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, respectively. Species with significant anti-quorum sensing and/or anti-biofilm activities belonged to the Meliaceae, Melastomataceae, Lepidobotryaceae, Sapindaceae, and Simaroubaceae families. IC50 values ranged from 45 to 266 µg/mL. Extracts of these active species could lead to future development of botanical treatments for biofilm-associated infections. PMID:24488718
Ta, Chieu Anh; Freundorfer, Marie; Mah, Thien-Fah; Otárola-Rojas, Marco; Garcia, Mario; Sanchez-Vindas, Pablo; Poveda, Luis; Maschek, J Alan; Baker, Bill J; Adonizio, Allison L; Downum, Kelsey; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John T
Objectives: The olive leaf extract (OLext) is known to possess many biological properties including a powerful antioxidant. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of postoperative nutrition with OLext and glutamine on bacterial translocation (BT) and liver damage in obstructive jaundice. Materials and methods: Totally, 50 rats were randomly divided into the five groups of 10 each. The common bile duct was ligated in all animals, excepting in the group 1. Postoperative nutrition was given to all groups for ten days. The rats in the Group 1 and 2 were fed a normal diet, Group 3 rats were fed an additional glutamine (1 g/kg/day), and Group 4 and 5 rats were fed an additional OLext (1 ml of 1/2 diluted and pure form/kg/day). Biochemical, microbiological and liver histopathological changes were evaluated. Results: BT in the Groups 3, 4, and 5 was significantly lower than in the Group 2. The values of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), ?-glutamyl transferase (?-GT) and alkalen phosphatase (ALP) in blood were increased in obstructive jaundice, but the levels of these tests were statistically lower in glutamine and OLext groups when compared to the Group 2. Histopathological changes were observed low in the liver in OLext and glutamine groups. Conclusions: The present data has demonstrated that the supplementation of olive leaf extract and glutamine reduce the incidence of BT and liver damage in obstructive jaundiced rats (Tab. 4, Fig. 1, Ref. 23). Keywords: olive leaf extract, obstructive jaundice, bacterial translocation, liver damage. PMID:25023426
Yildirim, M; Amanvermez, R; Polat, C; Karadag, A; Karayigit, M O; Erzurumlu, K
We developed a real-time PCR to quantify 16S rRNA gene levels in plasma from HIV-infected patients as a marker of microbial translocation. The assay uses shrimp nuclease (SNuc) to eliminate DNA contamination, giving high sensitivity and low variability. The 16S rRNA gene levels measured in plasma from HIV patients correlated significantly with lipopolysaccharide levels.
Kramski, M.; Gaeguta, A. J.; Lichtfuss, G. F.; Rajasuriar, R.; Crowe, S. M.; French, M. A.; Lewin, S. R.; Center, R. J.; Purcell, D. F. J.
The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237), phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512), and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260). The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups (P > 0.05). Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections. PMID:24790603
Alasil, Saad Musbah; Omar, Rahmat; Ismail, Salmah; Yusof, Mohd Yasim
The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237), phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512), and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260). The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups (P > 0.05). Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections.
Alasil, Saad Musbah; Omar, Rahmat; Yusof, Mohd Yasim
Microbiological and geochemical surveys were conducted at three hot springs (Obsidian Pool, Sylvan Spring, and 'Bison Pool') in Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA). Microbial community structure was investi- gated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences from DNA extracted from sediments of each hot spring, followed by molecular cloning. Both bacterial and archaeal DNA was retrieved
D. R. MEYER-DOMBARD; E. L. SHOCK; J. P. AMEND
An oxidized lateritic ore which contained 0.8 % (by weight) copper was bioleached in pH- and temperature-controlled stirred reactors under acidic reducing conditions using pure and mixed cultures of the acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Sulfur was provided as the electron donor for the bacteria, and ferric iron present in goethite (the major ferric iron mineral present in the ore) acted as electron acceptor. Significantly more copper was leached by bacterially catalysed reductive dissolution of the laterite than in aerobic cultures or in sterile anoxic reactors, with up to 78 % of the copper present in the ore being extracted. This included copper that was leached from acid-labile minerals (chiefly copper silicates) and that which was associated with ferric iron minerals in the lateritic ore. In the anaerobic bioreactors, soluble iron in the leach liquors was present as iron (II) and copper as copper (I), but both metals were rapidly oxidized (to iron (III) and copper (II)) when the reactors were aerated. The number of bacteria added to the reactors had a critical role in dictating the rate and yield of copper solubilised from the ore. This work has provided further evidence that reductive bioprocessing, a recently described approach for extracting base metals from oxidized deposits, has the potential to greatly extend the range of metal ores that can be biomined. PMID:24687752
Nancucheo, Ivan; Grail, Barry M; Hilario, Felipe; du Plessis, Chris; Johnson, D Barrie
The prevalence of asthma has steadily increased during the last decade, probably as the result of changes in the environment, including reduced microbial exposure during infancy. Accordingly, experimental studies have shown that deliberate infections with live pathogens prevent the development of allergic airway diseases in mice. Bacterial extracts are currently used in children suffering from repeated upper respiratory tract infections.
S Navarro; G Cossalter; C Chiavaroli; A Kanda; S Fleury; A Lazzari; J Cazareth; T Sparwasser; D Dombrowicz; N Glaichenhaus; V Julia
Intragenomic and intraspecific heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene in seven bacterial species from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients assessed by PCR-Temporal Temperature Gel Electrophoresis
16S rRNA gene-based cultivation-independent methods are increasingly used to study the diversity of microbiota during health and disease. One bias of these methods is the variability of 16S rRNA gene that may exist among strains of a same species (intraspecific heterogeneity) or between rrs copies in a genome (intragenomic heterogeneity). We evaluated the level of intraspecific and intragenomic 16S rDNA
A.-L. Michon; E. Jumas-Bilak; A. Imbert; L. Aleyrangues; F. Counil; R. Chiron; H. Marchandin
We developed a real-time PCR to quantify 16S rRNA gene levels in plasma from HIV-infected patients as a marker of microbial translocation. The assay uses shrimp nuclease (SNuc) to eliminate DNA contamination, giving high sensitivity and low variability. The 16S rRNA gene levels measured in plasma from HIV patients correlated significantly with lipopolysaccharide levels. PMID:21813723
Kramski, M; Gaeguta, A J; Lichtfuss, G F; Rajasuriar, R; Crowe, S M; French, M A; Lewin, S R; Center, R J; Purcell, D F J
Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections.
Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Ralstonia solanacearum ??????????????????????????? Efficacy of Medicinal Plant Crude Extracts on Growth Inhibition of Ralstonia solanacearum, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Wilt of Tomato
The efficacy of 89 medicinal plant crude extracts on growth inhibition of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt of tomato, was investigated. The extracts were prepared by extracting plant plants in 95% ethyl alcohol and the solvent was evaporated by a vaccuum rotary evaporator. Then, the inhibiting efficacy of the plant crude extracts of 100,000 ppm were tested
Sasitorn Vudhivanich; Supot Supanuntorn
Microorganisms in the intestinal tracts of termites play a crucial role in the nutritional physiology of termites. The bacterial diversity in the fungus-cultivating Macrotermes michaelseni was examined using both molecular and culture dependent methods. Total DNA was extracted from the gut of the termite and 16S rRNA genes were amplified using bacterial specific primers. Representatives from forty-one (41) RFLP patterns
Lucy Mwende Mackenzie; Anne Thairu Muigai; Ellie Onyango Osir; Wilber Lwande; Martin Keller; Gerardo Toledo; Hamadi Iddi Boga
The fiber-associated rumen bacterial community was phylogenetically examined by analysis of 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) sequences. Hay stems of orchardgrass and alfalfa were incubated for 6 and 20 h, respectively in the rumen of two different sheep, and total DNA was extracted from the incubated stems to clone bacterial 16S rDNAs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 91 such
Satoshi Koike; Sayo Yoshitani; Yasuo Kobayashi; Keiichi Tanaka
We investigated the use of a high-voltage electrostatic system to immobilize bacterial cells or enzyme extract in alginate microcapsules for removing nonylphenol (NP) from wastewater sludge. With applied potential increased from 0 to 12kV, the gel bead diameter decreased from 950 to 250 ?m. The amount of bacterial cells or enzyme extract immobilized in alginate microcapsules was greater than that in suspension, for improved tolerance to environmental loadings. Removal of NP at 2.0-20.0 mg L(-1) was greater with extract- than cell-containing microcapsules. The percentage of toxic chemicals (2.0 mg L(-1)) removed with alginate microcapsules, in descending order of magnitude, was bisphenol-F>bisphenol-A>NP>oxytetracycline>chlortetracycline>tetracycline>dibromodiphenyl ethers>tetrabromobisphenol-A>decabromodiphenyl ether. PMID:23499222
Hsu, Fu-Yin; Wang, Zheng-Yi; Chang, Bea-Ven
A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16–10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11–12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11–6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics.
Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K.; Gupta, V.C.
Bacterial cellulose (BC) films containing an ethanolic extract of mangosteen peel were prepared and their physical, chemical, and anticancer properties were characterized. The cumulative absorption and release profiles of bioactive compounds in the films were determined based on total phenolic and ?-mangostin content. The BC films were filled with total phenolic compounds expressed as gallic acid equivalent varying from 4.72 to 275.91?mg/cm(3) dried film, and ?-mangostin varying from 2.06 to 248.20?mg/cm(3) dried film. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy evaluation showed that there were weak interactions between the functional groups of the extract and the BC. Decreases in the water absorption capacity and water vapor transmission rate of the modified films were detected. Release studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. In a non-transdermal system, the release of bioactive compounds from the films depended on concentration, immersion time, and the pH of the dissolution medium. A transdermal diffusion study showed that 59-62% of total phenolic compounds that were initially loaded were released from the films and more than 95% of bioactive compounds released from the films were adsorbed into pig skin. Only very small amount of the bioactive compounds penetrated through pig skin and into phosphate and acetate buffers. In studies of anticancer abilities, the release of 2.0??g/ml ?-mangostin from the BC films could suppress the growth of B16F10 melanoma (approximately 31% survival). With the release of ?-mangostin at greater than 17.4-18.4??g/ml, less than 15 and 5% survival of B16F10 melanoma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, respectively, was observed. PMID:24802115
Taokaew, Siriporn; Nunkaew, Natthawut; Siripong, Pongpun; Phisalaphong, Muenduen
Traditional first-line treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is administration of empirical antibiotics. However, the efficacy rate is low and long-term antibiotic therapy can result in adverse events and bacterial resistance. For these reasons, a new treatment or preventive modality that can replace traditional antibiotic therapy is required. There are several reports that E. coli extract has a preventive effect on recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Cranberries are also known to have beneficial effects in preventing UTI. To evaluate the preventive effect of E. coli extract and cranberries on CBP, 48 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; control, ciprofloxacin, E. coli extract, and cranberry groups. All drug treatments were conducted for 3 weeks, and then we developed a CBP rat model. After 4 weeks, the results of microbiological culture of prostate and urine samples as well as histological findings for the prostate were analyzed for each group. The infection rate in the ciprofloxacin group was significantly lower than that in the control group. The microbiological cultures of the prostate and urine samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth in all experimental groups compared with the control group. Histopathologic examination showed significantly decreased prostatic inflammation in all groups compared with the control group. These results suggest that E. coli extract has a potential preventive effect on the development of CBP, and cranberry also exhibits promising activity in this context. PMID:21042827
Kim, Sang Hoon; Ha, U-Syn; Lee, Hyun Rim; Sohn, Dong Wan; Lee, Seung-Ju; Kim, Hyun Woo; Han, Chang Hee; Lee, Choong Bum; Cho, Yong-Hyun
Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP), isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100%) with little or no attachment (0-2%). To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI), selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05) in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05) following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that utilized cues, such as crustose coralline algae, biofilms or with GLW-amide neuropeptides that stimulate the entire onset of larval metamorphosis and attachment. PMID:22655067
Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Seneca, Francois; Motti, Cherie A; Andreakis, Nikos; Tebben, Jan; Blackall, Linda L; Harder, Tilmann
Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP), isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100%) with little or no attachment (0–2%). To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI), selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05) in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05) following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that utilized cues, such as crustose coralline algae, biofilms or with GLW-amide neuropeptides that stimulate the entire onset of larval metamorphosis and attachment.
Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Seneca, Francois; Motti, Cherie A.; Andreakis, Nikos; Tebben, Jan; Blackall, Linda L.; Harder, Tilmann
Bacterial extracts are widely used to synthesize recombinant proteins. Vast data volumes have been accumulated in cell-free expression databases, covering a whole range of existing proteins. It makes possible comprehensive bioinformatics analysis and identification of multiple features associated with protein solubility and aggregation. In the present paper, an approach to identify the multiple physicochemical and structural properties of amino acid sequences associated with soluble expression of eukaryotic proteins in cell-free bacterial extracts is presented. The method includes: (1) categorical assessment of expression data; (2) calculation and prediction of multiple properties of expressed sequences; (3) correlation of the individual properties with the expression scores; and (4) evaluation of statistical significance of the observed correlations. Using this method, a number of significant correlations between calculated and predicted properties of amino acid sequences and their propensity for soluble cell-free expression have been revealed.
Tokmakov, Alexander A.
We have used molecular biological methods to study the distribution of microbial small-subunit rRNAs (SSU rRNAs), in relation to chemical profiles, in offshore Lake Michigan sediments. The sampling site is at a depth of 100 m, with temperatures of 2 to 4°C year-round. RNA extracted from sediment was probed with radiolabeled oligonucleotides targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic SSU rRNAs, as well as with a universal probe. The coverage of these probes in relation to the present sequence database is discussed. Because ribosome production is growth rate regulated, rRNA concentrations are an indicator of the microbial populations active in situ. Over a 1-year period, changes in sedimentary SSU rRNA concentrations followed seasonal changes in surface water temperature and SSU rRNA concentration. Sedimentary depth profiles of oxygen, reduced manganese and iron, and sulfate changed relatively little from season to season, but the nitrate concentration was approximately fivefold higher in April and June 1997 than at the other times sampling was done. We propose that sediment microbial SSU rRNA concentrations at our sampling site are influenced by seasonal inputs from the water column, particularly the settling of the spring diatom bloom, and that the timing of this input may be modulated by grazers, such that ammonia becomes available to sediment microbes sooner than fresh organic carbon. Nitrate production from ammonia by autotrophic nitrifying bacteria, combined with low activity of heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria in the absence of readily degradable organic carbon, could account for the cooccurrence of high nitrate and low SSU rRNA concentrations.
MacGregor, Barbara J.; Moser, Duane P.; Baker, Brett J.; Alm, Elizabeth W.; Maurer, Max; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Stahl, David A.
Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root is traditionally used for the topical treatment of contusions, strains and sprains. Besides allantoin and rosmarinic acid, which are discussed as pharmacologically active principles, the drug contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) known for their hepatotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. The topical herbal medicinal products Kytta-Salbe f and Kytta-Plasma f contain a PA-free liquid extract from comfrey root as active substance. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the absence of genotoxic effects of this special extract in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test). Briefly, comfrey root liquid extract was investigated for its ability to induce gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 102, TA 1535 and TA 1537 with and without metabolic activation using the mammalian microsomal fraction S9 mix. Reference mutagens were used to check the validity of the experiments. Comfrey root fluid extract showed no biologically relevant increases in revertant colony numbers of any of the five tester strains, neither in the presence nor in the absence of metabolic activation. In conclusion, the comfrey root fluid extract contained in Kytta-Salbe f and Kytta-Plasma f was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay. PMID:19827020
Benedek, Birgit; Ziegler, Andreas; Ottersbach, Peter
Background In recent years, studies on the human intestinal microbiota have attracted tremendous attention. Application of next generation sequencing for mapping of bacterial phylogeny and function has opened new doors to this field of research. However, little attention has been given to the effects of choice of methodology on the output resulting from such studies. Results In this study we conducted a systematic comparison of the DNA extraction methods used by the two major collaborative efforts: The European MetaHIT and the American Human Microbiome Project (HMP). Additionally, effects of homogenizing the samples before extraction were addressed. We observed significant differences in distribution of bacterial taxa depending on the method. While eukaryotic DNA was most efficiently extracted by the MetaHIT protocol, DNA from bacteria within the Bacteroidetes phylum was most efficiently extracted by the HMP protocol. Conclusions Whereas it is comforting that the inter-individual variation clearly exceeded the variation resulting from choice of extraction method, our data highlight the challenge of comparing data across studies applying different methodologies.
The regional scale variability of the bacterial community inhabiting the rhizosphere was studied with soil collected from maize fields located in the Santo Domingo Valley (SDV; Baja California Sur, Mexico), a semi-arid agricultural ecosystem of approximately 200 km2. The bacterial community structure was visualized by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) profiles of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes of directly extracted rhizosphere soil
Thelma Castellanos; Anja B. Dohrmann; Gwenaël Imfeld; Susanne Baumgarte; Christoph C. Tebbe
Difficulties in efficient DNA extraction from deep-sea volcanic basalt, due to high metal concentration, complex organic matter, or sometimes the low biomass, have hampered the understanding of the significant biosphere both at and below the sea floor. In order to optimize the DNA extraction from basaltic rocks, sterilized basalts with different particle sizes and chemically synthesized goethite were inoculated with
Hongmei Wang; Katrina J. Edwards
In the last few years, regulations for biomolecule production, and especially for extraction and purification of animal molecules such as collagen, have been reinforced to ensure the sanitary safety of the materials. To be authorized to market biomaterials based on collagen, manufacturers now have to prove that at least one step of their process is described in guidelines to inactivate prion, viruses, and bacteria. The present study focuses on the inactivation step performed during the extraction and purification of porcine type I atelocollagen. We chose to determine the reduction factor of a 1 M NaOH step on porcine parvovirus and four bacterial strains inactivation. During the extraction step, we deliberately inoculated the collagen suspension with the different microorganisms tested. Then, 1 M NaOH was added to the suspension for 1 hour at 20 degrees C. We demonstrated that this treatment totally inactivated S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and A. niger which are bacterial strains responsible of severe human pathology. The reduction factors reached more than 4 logs for B. cereus spores and 4 logs for the porcine parvovirus. are encouraging as those two microorganisms are known to be very resistant to inactivation. PMID:17611295
Forest, P; Morfin, F; Bergeron, E; Dore, J; Bensa, S; Wittmann, C; Picot, S; Renaud, F N R; Freney, J; Gagnieu, C
Treculia africana Decne (Fam. Moraceae) is a highly valued economic plant, as well as an important medicinal plant widely used in the traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments of both microbial and non-microbial origins. It was, therefore, investigated for activity in vitro on pathogenic bacterial isolates of gastrointestinal tract. Fresh plant materials were collected from the Forestry
S. O. Ogbonnia; N. V. Enwuru; E. U. Onyemenem; G. A. Oyedele; C. A. Enwuru
Effect of Field Inoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti L33 on the Composition of Bacterial Communities in Rhizospheres of a Target Plant (Medicago sativa) and a Non-Target Plant (Chenopodium album)--Linking of 16S rRNA Gene-Based Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism Community Profiles to the Diversity of Cultivated Bacteria
Fourteen weeks after field release of luciferase gene-tagged Sinorhizobium meliloti L33 in field plots seeded with Medicago sativa, we found that the inoculant also occurred in bulk soil from noninoculated control plots. In rhizospheres of M. sativa plants, S. meliloti L33 could be detected in noninoculated plots 12 weeks after inoculation, indicating that growth in the rhizosphere preceded spread into bulk soil. To determine whether inoculation affected bacterial diversity, 1,119 bacteria were isolated from the rhizospheres of M. sativa and Chenopodium album, which was the dominant weed in the field plots. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) revealed plant-specific fragment size frequencies. Dominant ARDRA groups were identified by 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequencing. Database comparisons indicated that the rhizospheres contained members of the Proteobacteria (?, ?, and ? subgroups), members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group, and gram-positive bacteria with high G+C DNA contents. The levels of many groups were affected by the plant species and, in the case of M. sativa, by inoculation. The most abundant isolates were related to Variovorax sp., Arthrobacter ramosus, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. In the rhizosphere of M. sativa, inoculation reduced the numbers of cells of A. calcoaceticus and members of the genus Pseudomonas and increased the number of rhizobia. Cultivation-independent PCR–single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) profiles of a 16S rRNA gene region confirmed the existence of plant-specific rhizosphere communities and the effect of the inoculant. All dominant ARDRA groups except Variovorax species could be detected. On the other hand, the SSCP profiles revealed products which could not be assigned to the dominant cultured isolates, indicating that the bacterial diversity was greater than the diversity suggested by cultivation.
Schwieger, Frank; Tebbe, Christoph C.
The mutagenic activity of sidestream cigarette smoke particles was estimated by testing sidestream cigarette smoke particles which had been collected under controlled burning conditions in the laboratory. Two different extraction methods (Soxhlet and ultr...
R. S. Morin J. J. Tulis L. D. Claxton
The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods. PMID:16831479
Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U
Legionella spp. are important waterborne pathogens that are normally transmitted through aerosols. The present work was conducted to investigate the presence of Legionella spp. and its common species in hospital water supplies. Considering the limitations of culture method, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed to detect the gene 16S rRNA irrespective of the bacterial serotype. Four well-established DNA extraction protocols (freeze & thaw and phenol-chloroform as two manual protocols and two commercial kits) were tested and evaluated to release DNA from bacterial cells. A total of 45 samples were collected from seven distinct hospitals’ sites during a period of 10 months. The PCR assay was used to amplify a 654-bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Legionella were detected in 13 samples (28.9%) by all of the methods applied for DNA extraction. Significant differences were noted in the yield of extracted nucleic acids. Legionella were not detected in any of the samples when DNA extraction by freeze & thaw was used. Excluding this method and comparing manual protocol with commercial kits, Kappa coefficient was calculated as 0.619 with p?0.05. Although no meaningful differences were found between the kits, DNA extraction with Bioneer kit exhibited a higher sensitivity than classical Qiagen. Showerheads and cold-water taps were the most and least contaminated sources with 55.5 and 9 percent positive samples, respectively. Moreover two positive samples were identified for species by DNA sequencing and submitted to the Gene Bank database with accession Nos. FJ480932 and FJ480933. The results obtained showed that despite the advantages of molecular assays in Legionella tracing in environmental sources, the use of optimised DNA extraction methods is critical.
A method was developed for enriching bacterial cells from soybean stems which was recalcitrant for a culture-independent analysis of bacterial community due to the interference with plant DNA. Stem homogenates were fractionated by a series of differential centrifugations followed by a Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. The efficiency of bacterial cell enrichment was assessed by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). The intensity and the number of bacterial amplicons of RISA were markedly increased in the DNA extracted from the enriched bacterial cells compared to that in the DNA directly extracted from soybean stems. The phylogenetic diversity of the enriched bacterial cells was evaluated by analyzing a clone library of 16S rRNA gene in comparison with those of the culturable fractions of the enriched and non-enriched stem-associated bacteria, endophytic bacteria, and epiphytic bacteria. The results indicated that the method was able to enrich both endophytic and epiphytic bacteria from soybean stems, and was useful to assess the bacterial diversity based on a 16S rRNA gene clone library. When the sequence data from all clones (1,332 sequences) were combined, 72 operational taxonomic units were affiliated with Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, which also provided the most comprehensive set of data on the bacterial diversity in the aerial parts of soybeans. PMID:19662454
Ikeda, Seishi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Okubo, Takashi; Rallos, Lynn E E; Eda, Shima; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu
Analysis of microbial gene expression during host colonization provides valuable information on the nature of interaction, beneficial or pathogenic, and the adaptive processes involved. Isolation of bacterial mRNA for in planta analysis can be challenging where host nucleic acid may dominate the preparation, or inhibitory compounds affect downstream analysis, e.g., quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qPCR), microarray, or RNA-seq. The goal of this work was to optimize the isolation of bacterial mRNA of food-borne pathogens from living plants. Reported methods for recovery of phytopathogen-infected plant material, using hot phenol extraction and high concentration of bacterial inoculation or large amounts of infected tissues, were found to be inappropriate for plant roots inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. The bacterial RNA yields were too low and increased plant material resulted in a dominance of plant RNA in the sample. To improve the yield of bacterial RNA and reduce the number of plants required, an optimized method was developed which combines bead beating with directed bacterial lysis using SDS and lysozyme. Inhibitory plant compounds, such as phenolics and polysaccharides, were counteracted with the addition of high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol and hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. The new method increased the total yield of bacterial mRNA substantially and allowed assessment of gene expression by qPCR. This method can be applied to other bacterial species associated with plant roots, and also in the wider context of food safety.
Holmes, Ashleigh; Birse, Louise; Jackson, Robert W.; Holden, Nicola J.
The mutagenic activity of sidestream cigarette-smoke particles was estimated by testing sidestream cigarette-smoke particles that had been collected under controlled burning conditions in the laboratory. Two different extraction methods (Soxhlet and ultrasonic agitation) and 3 different solvents (dichloromethane, methanol, and acetone) were compared for their efficiencies in the extraction of compounds from sidestream cigarette-smoke particles that are mutagenic in the Ames test. The mutagenic activity of the sidestream smoke particles was estimated to be 15,000-20,000 revertants per cigarette in TA98 with metabolic activation and 12,000-17,000 revertants per cigarette in TA100 without metabolic activation.
Morin, R.S.; Tulis, J.J.; Claxton, L.D.
In this study, two identical copies of a 23S-5S gene cluster, which are separately situated within the Helicobacter pylori UA802 chromosome, were cloned and sequenced. Comparison of the DNA sequence of the H. pylori 23S rRNA gene with known sequences of other bacterial 23S rRNA genes indicated that the H. pylori UA802 23S rRNA genes are closely related to those
DIANE E. TAYLOR; ZHONGMING GE; DALE PURYCH; TONY LO; KOJI HIRATSUKA
Knowledge concerning the microbial characteristics of natural and post-vacuum extracted ombrotrophic peatlands, as well as peatlands under restoration is limited. In one experiment, microbial comparisons of paired neighboring natural and post-vacuum peatlands in eastern Québec (Canada) were studied to assess the effects of peat mining on microbial indicators and nitrogen (N) cycling. Microbial counts, microbial biomass carbon (MB-C) and N
Manon Croft; Line Rochefort; Chantal J. Beauchamp
People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for DNA extraction, in 30 different offices per city (90 offices, 450 total samples). 16S rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified using bar-coded “universal” bacterial primers from 54 of the surfaces (18 per city) and pooled for pyrosequencing. A three-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in viable bacterial abundance between offices inhabited by men or women, among the various surface types, and among cities. Multiplex pyrosequencing identified more than 500 bacterial genera from 20 different bacterial divisions. The most abundant of these genera tended to be common inhabitants of human skin, nasal, oral or intestinal cavities. Other commonly occurring genera appeared to have environmental origins (e.g., soils). There were no significant differences in the bacterial diversity between offices inhabited by men or women or among surfaces, but the bacterial community diversity of the Tucson samples was clearly distinguishable from that of New York and San Francisco, which were indistinguishable. Overall, our comprehensive molecular analysis of office building microbial diversity shows the potential of these methods for studying patterns and origins of indoor bacterial contamination. “[H]umans move through a sea of microbial life that is seldom perceived except in the context of potential disease and decay.” – Feazel et al. (2009).
Hewitt, Krissi M.; Gerba, Charles P.; Maxwell, Sheri L.; Kelley, Scott T.
Sixty-four DNA strands hybridize to 16S rRNA to form 32 deoxyribozyme catalytic cores that produce a fluorescent signal. The approach allows detection of 0.6 pM 16S rRNA, or about 3×10(4) bacterial cells in a PCR-free format. PMID:24038733
Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M
The Polygonum orientale L. extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff) Davis et al., the causal agent of a serious disease called bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the leaf extracts of P. orientale had significantly (p<0.05) greater antibacterial activity against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum than root, stem, flower extracts in vitro. According to the results of single factor experiments and L273(13) orthogonal experiments, optimum extraction conditions were A1B3C1, extraction time 6 h, temperature 80°C, solid to liquid ratio 1?10 (g:mL). The highest (p<0.05) antibacterial activity was observed when pH was 5, excluding the effect of control. The extracts were stable under ultraviolet (UV). In vivo analysis revealed that 50 mg/mL of P. orientale leaf extracts was effective in controlling decay. Under field conditions, 50 mg/mL of P. orientale leaf extracts also improved growth parameters (whole plant length, shoot length, root length, plant fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, dry weight, and number of leaves), in the 2010 and 2011 two growing seasons. Further solvent partition assays showed that the most active compounds were in the petroleum ether fractionation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed drastic ultrastructural changes caused by petroleum ether fractionation, including bacterial deformation, electron-dense particles, formation of vacuoles and lack of cytoplasmic materials. These results indicated that P. orientale extracts have strong antibacterial activity against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum and a promising effect in control of bacterial ring rot of potato disease.
Cai, Jin; Xie, Shulian; Feng, Jia; Wang, Feipeng; Xu, Qiufeng
The Polygonum orientale L. extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff) Davis et al., the causal agent of a serious disease called bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the leaf extracts of P. orientale had significantly (p<0.05) greater antibacterial activity against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum than root, stem, flower extracts in vitro. According to the results of single factor experiments and L(27)3(13) orthogonal experiments, optimum extraction conditions were A1B3C1, extraction time 6 h, temperature 80°C, solid to liquid ratio 1?10 (g:mL). The highest (p<0.05) antibacterial activity was observed when pH was 5, excluding the effect of control. The extracts were stable under ultraviolet (UV). In vivo analysis revealed that 50 mg/mL of P. orientale leaf extracts was effective in controlling decay. Under field conditions, 50 mg/mL of P. orientale leaf extracts also improved growth parameters (whole plant length, shoot length, root length, plant fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, dry weight, and number of leaves), in the 2010 and 2011 two growing seasons. Further solvent partition assays showed that the most active compounds were in the petroleum ether fractionation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed drastic ultrastructural changes caused by petroleum ether fractionation, including bacterial deformation, electron-dense particles, formation of vacuoles and lack of cytoplasmic materials. These results indicated that P. orientale extracts have strong antibacterial activity against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum and a promising effect in control of bacterial ring rot of potato disease. PMID:23861908
Cai, Jin; Xie, Shulian; Feng, Jia; Wang, Feipeng; Xu, Qiufeng
Many antibiotics inhibit the growth of sensitive bacteria by interfering with ribosome function. However, discovery of new protein synthesis inhibitors is curbed by the lack of facile techniques capable of readily identifying antibiotic target sites and modes of action. Furthermore, the frequent rediscovery of known antibiotic scaffolds, especially in natural product extracts, is time-consuming and expensive and diverts resources that could be used toward the isolation of novel lead molecules. In order to avoid these pitfalls and improve the process of dereplication of chemically complex extracts, we designed a two-pronged approach for the characterization of inhibitors of protein synthesis (ChIPS) that is suitable for the rapid identification of the site and mode of action on the bacterial ribosome. First, we engineered antibiotic-hypersensitive Escherichia coli strains that contain only one rRNA operon. These strains are used for the rapid isolation of resistance mutants in which rRNA mutations identify the site of the antibiotic action. Second, we show that patterns of drug-induced ribosome stalling on mRNA, monitored by primer extension, can be used to elucidate the mode of antibiotic action. These analyses can be performed within a few days and provide a rapid and efficient approach for identifying the site and mode of action of translation inhibitors targeting the bacterial ribosome. Both techniques were validated using a bacterial strain whose culture extract, composed of unknown metabolites, exhibited protein synthesis inhibitory activity; we were able to rapidly detect the presence of the antibiotic chloramphenicol.
Orelle, Cedric; Carlson, Skylar; Kaushal, Bindiya; Almutairi, Mashal M.; Liu, Haipeng; Ochabowicz, Anna; Quan, Selwyn; Pham, Van Cuong; Squires, Catherine L.; Murphy, Brian T.
1. A spectrophotofluorimetric method for the determination of glyoxylic acid in biological materials is described. 2. The method is based on the reaction between glyoxylic acid and resorcinol in acid solution, a fluorescent complex being obtained on the subsequent addition of alkali. 3. The reaction was found to be sensitive and highly specific, the minimum detectable amount of glyoxylic acid being 1·35×10?8 mole. 4. The urinary excretion of glyoxylic acid by ten normal adults ranged from 1·4 to 4·7mg./24hr. Small but measurable amounts of glyoxylic acid were found in cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas oxalaticus OX1 grown on oxalic acid as a source of carbon. No glyoxylic acid was detected in human serum.
Zarembski, P. M.; Hodgkinson, A.
We have identified potent monocyte/macrophage activating bacterial lipoproteins within commonly used immune enhancing botanicals such as Echinacea, American ginseng and alfalfa sprouts. These bacterial lipoproteins, along with lipopolysaccharides, were substantially more potent than other bacterially derived components when tested in in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation systems. In experiments using RAW 264.7 and mouse peritoneal macrophages the majority (85–98%) of the activity within extracts from eight immune enhancing botanicals was eradicated by treatment with agents (lipoprotein lipase and polymyxin B) known to target these two bacterial components. Alfalfa sprouts exhibited the highest activity of those botanicals tested but the appearance of this activity during the germination of surface sterilized seeds was abolished by the presence of antibiotics. These studies indicate that the majority of the in vitro macrophage activating properties in extracts from these botanicals can be attributed to the presence of lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharides derived from bacteria and that bacterial endophytes may be a significant source of these components.
Pugh, Nirmal D.; Tamta, Hemlata; Balachandran, Premalatha; Wu, Xiangmei; Howell, J'Lynn; Dayan, Franck E.; Pasco, David S.
The invention relates to a method of inhibiting protein synthesis comprising contacting 28S rRNA of a protein synthesizing system with a protein synthesis inhibitory amount of an oligonucleotide that hybridizes to the alpha-sarcin recognition domain loop ...
E. J. Ackerman
The antibiotic growth promoter avilamycin inhibits protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes. Here the binding site is further characterized on Escherichia coli ribosomes. The drug interacts with domain V of 23S rRNA, giving a chemical footprint at nucleotides A2482 and A2534. Selection of avilamycin-resistant Halobac- terium halobium cells revealed mutations in helix 89 of 23S rRNA. Furthermore, mutations in
Christine B. Kofoed; Birte Vester
Although natural selection appears to favor the elimination of gene redundancy in prokaryotes, multiple copies of each rRNA-encoding gene are common on bacterial chromosomes. Despite this conspicuous deviation from single-copy genes, no phenotype has been consistently associated with rRNA gene copy number. We found that the number of rRNA genes correlates with the rate at which phylogenetically diverse bacteria respond
JOEL A. KLAPPENBACH; JOHN M. DUNBAR; THOMAS M. SCHMIDT
Microbiologists conducting surveys of bacterial and archaeal diversity often require comparative align- ments of thousands of 16S rRNA genes collected from a sample. The computational resources and bioinformatics expertise required to construct such an alignment has inhibited high-throughput analysis. It was hypothesized that an online tool could be dev- eloped to efficiently align thousands of 16S rRNA genes via the
T. Z. DeSantis Jr.; Philip Hugenholtz; K. Keller; E. L. Brodie; N. Larsen; Y. M. Piceno; R. Phan; G. L. Andersen
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with a prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on broiler performance, bacterial community structure, and phylogenetic populations of cecal contents. Bird performance data were collected, and cecal samples were extracted from randomly caught poults from each treatment group every 7 days from hatching to the age of 42 days. Weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency ratios did not differ significantly between groups. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) of the bacterial communities in birds receiving MOS-supplemented diets indicated that dietary supplementation with MOS at either of 2 levels significantly altered the bacterial community structure from that of the control group on all sample days. The phylogenetic identities of bacteria contained within the cecum were determined by constructing a 16S rRNA gene clone library. A total of 594 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the cecal contents were analyzed and compared for the three dietary treatments. The dominant bacteria of the cecum belonged to three phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria; of these, Firmicutes were the most dominant in all treatment groups. Statistical analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the compositions of the clone libraries from broilers receiving MOS-supplemented diets were, in most cases, significantly different from that of the control group. It can be concluded that in this trial MOS supplementation significantly altered the cecal bacterial community structure.
Corrigan, A.; Horgan, K.; Clipson, N.; Murphy, R. A.
Bioactive compound-rich brown seaweeds are demonstrated to have numerous health benefits including anti-microbial and immunomodulatory bioactivities in the pig intestine. In this study, the immunomodulating effects of extracts of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus) were evaluated on the porcine colon using a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ex vivo model. Approximately 1.5 × 1.5 cm of pig colon (n = 6) was stripped of its overlying muscle layer and incubated in 1 mL Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium containing bacterial LPS (10 ?g) and seaweed extracts (1 mg). Gene expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) were measured using quantitative real time PCR. In contrast to the low level of expression of IL-8, IL-6, and TNFA genes in the colonic tissue at 0 h, LPS treatment increased (P < 0.05) the expression of IL-8, IL-6, and TNFA genes to 2.38 ± 0.86, 1.90 ± 0.66, and 1.90 ± 0.57 fold, respectively. This pro-inflammatory response induced by the LPS was suppressed by the extracts of Ascophyllum. Ascophyllum extract reduced (P < 0.05) the expression of IL-8, IL-6, and TNFA genes to 0.99 ± 0.53, 0.75 ± 0.33, and 1.01 ± 0.17 fold, and Fucus extract reduced (P < 0.05) the expression of the corresponding genes to 0.70 ± 0.32, 0.69 ± 0.38, and 1.15 ± 0.25 fold, respectively. It is concluded that the extracts of Ascophyllum and Fucus seaweeds have potential to suppress the pro-inflammatory response induced by the bacterial LPS in the pig colon. PMID:23365280
Bahar, B; O'Doherty, J V; Hayes, M; Sweeney, T
Crude juices of eight Brassica vegetables as well as juices and extracts of spices and phytopharmaceutical preparations from cruciferous vegetables were tested for induction of point mutations in Salmonella TA98 and TA100, repairable DNA damage in E.coli K-12 cells and clastogenic effects in mammalian cells. In bacterial assays, all juices caused genotoxic effects in the absence of metabolic activation, the
Fekadu Kassie; Wolfram Parzefall; Stephen Musk; Ian Johnson; Günther Lamprecht; Gerhard Sontag; Siegfried Knasmüller
A cultivation-independent technique for genetic profiling of PCR-amplified small-subunit rRNA genes (SSU rDNA) was chosen to characterize the diversity and succession of microbial communities during composting of an organic agricultural substrate. PCR amplifications were performed with DNA directly extracted from compost samples and with primers targeting either (i) the V4-V5 region of eubacterial 16S rRNA genes, (ii) the V3 region in the 16S rRNA genes of actinomycetes, or (iii) the V8-V9 region of fungal 18S rRNA genes. Homologous PCR products were converted to single-stranded DNA molecules by exonuclease digestion and were subsequently electrophoretically separated by their single-strand-conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Genetic profiles obtained by this technique showed a succession and increasing diversity of microbial populations with all primers. A total of 19 single products were isolated from the profiles by PCR reamplification and cloning. DNA sequencing of these molecular isolates showed similarities in the range of 92.3 to 100% to known gram-positive bacteria with a low or high G+C DNA content and to the SSU rDNA of gamma-Proteobacteria. The amplified 18S rRNA gene sequences were related to the respective gene regions of Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. Specific molecular isolates could be attributed to different composting stages. The diversity of cultivated bacteria isolated from samples taken at the end of the composting process was low. A total of 290 isolates were related to only 6 different species. Two or three of these species were also detectable in the SSCP community profiles. Our study indicates that community SSCP profiles can be highly useful for the monitoring of bacterial diversity and community successions in a biotechnologically relevant process. PMID:10698754
Peters, S; Koschinsky, S; Schwieger, F; Tebbe, C C
The changes of taxa within the particle-attached bacterial assemblage during the decomposition of Microcystis blooms were investigated under darkness and anoxic condition in mesocosm experiments. During 14days of darkness incubation, chlorophyll-a (Ch-a) concentration decreased from 2000?g/L to 5?g/L. Samples were collected on days 0, 2 and 14 for bacterial 16S rRNA analysis, based on rapid decreases in the Chl-a concentration of water column. The total bacterial community DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned and sequenced of selected samples. The results showed that the abundance of attached bacteria increased significantly, and the composition of the particle-attached bacterial communities varied temporally during the decomposition of Microcystis blooms. The bacterial assemblage appeared to be dominated by members of Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. Shift of some genera of Alphaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria was also observed. Additionally, we found that the family Sphingomonas, affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria, identified as a microcystin-degrading bacterium, dominated the particle-attached bacterial communities. The results from the present study, together with previously published data highlighted the need for more studies concerning the bacterial degradation process in order to trace the environmental fate of microcystins in field conditions. PMID:24836132
Shao, Keqiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yongping; Yao, Xin; Tang, Xiangming; Qin, Boqiang; Gao, Guang
Three groups of calves (15-18 per group) were injected twice at a 3-week interval with 2 doses of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, CONTROL group), 2 doses of PRESPONSE, a Pasteurella haemolytica A1 bacterial extract vaccine (PRESPONSE-2 group) or 1 dose of PBS followed by a 2nd vaccination with 1 dose of PRESPONSE (PRESPONSE-1 group). Three weeks after the 2nd vaccination, the calves were challenged intratracheally with P. haemolytica A1. Calves were evaluated clinically for 3 days prior to challenge and for 5 days after challenge. Six days postchallenge, calves were either euthanized or sent to slaughter and the lungs were evaluated for percent pneumonic tissue. There was a significant effect of single or double application of vaccine on clinical scores (P = 0.0409). Percent pneumonic tissue at necropsy was significantly affected by vaccine group (P = 0.014). Calves in the CONTROL group had significantly higher percent pneumonic tissue after arcsine transformation (45.30%) than calves in any group receiving PRESPONSE, regardless of vaccination frequency (25.18% and 25.78%, for calves receiving 2 doses or 1 dose of PRESPONSE, respectively). Both serum toxin neutralizing and direct agglutinating titers were negatively correlated with percent pneumonic tissue. Most importantly, 1 dose of PRESPONSE was as efficient as 2 doses at eliciting a protective immune response. It is concluded that the presence of P. haemolytica as a natural commensal in the upper respiratory tract of the calf can effectively prime the animal, and allow the animal to respond in an anamnestic nature to only 1 dose of this vaccine.
Conlon, J A; Gallo, G F; Shewen, P E; Adlam, C
In many of the DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP) studies published to date in which soil communities were investigated, a single DNA extraction was performed on the soil sample, usually using a commercial DNA extraction kit, prior to recovering the 13C-labeled (heavy) DNA by density-gradient ultracentrifugation. Recent evidence suggests, however, that a single extraction of a soil sample may not lead to representative recovery of DNA from all of the organisms in the sample. To determine whether multiple DNA extractions would affect the DNA yield, the eubacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number, or the identification of anthracene-degrading bacteria, we performed seven successive DNA extractions on the same aliquot of contaminated soil either untreated or enriched with [U-13C]anthracene. Multiple extractions were necessary to maximize the DNA yield and 16S rRNA gene copy number from both untreated and anthracene-enriched soil samples. Sequences within the order Sphingomonadales, but unrelated to any previously described genus, dominated the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from 13C-enriched DNA and were designated “anthracene group 1.” Sequences clustering with Variovorax spp., which were also highly represented, and sequences related to the genus Pigmentiphaga were newly associated with anthracene degradation. The bacterial groups collectively identified across all seven extracts were all recovered in the first extract, although quantitative PCR analysis of SIP-identified groups revealed quantitative differences in extraction patterns. These results suggest that performing multiple DNA extractions on soil samples improves the extractable DNA yield and the number of quantifiable eubacterial 16S rRNA gene copies but have little qualitative effect on the identification of the bacterial groups associated with the degradation of a given carbon source by SIP.
Jones, Maiysha D.; Singleton, David R.; Sun, Wei; Aitken, Michael D.
Background Black elderberries (Sambucus nigra L.) are well known as supportive agents against common cold and influenza. It is further known that bacterial super-infection during an influenza virus (IV) infection can lead to severe pneumonia. We have analyzed a standardized elderberry extract (Rubini, BerryPharma AG) for its antimicrobial and antiviral activity using the microtitre broth micro-dilution assay against three Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, as well as cell culture experiments for two different strains of influenza virus. Methods The antimicrobial activity of the elderberry extract was determined by bacterial growth experiments in liquid cultures using the extract at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The inhibitory effects were determined by plating the bacteria on agar plates. In addition, the inhibitory potential of the extract on the propagation of human pathogenic H5N1-type influenza A virus isolated from a patient and an influenza B virus strain was investigated using MTT and focus assays. Results For the first time, it was shown that a standardized elderberry liquid extract possesses antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria of Streptococcus pyogenes and group C and G Streptococci, and the Gram-negative bacterium Branhamella catarrhalis in liquid cultures. The liquid extract also displays an inhibitory effect on the propagation of human pathogenic influenza viruses. Conclusion Rubini elderberry liquid extract is active against human pathogenic bacteria as well as influenza viruses. The activities shown suggest that additional and alternative approaches to combat infections might be provided by this natural product.
In this study, the bacterial communities associated with the rhizospheres of pioneer plants Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis were explored. These plants grow on silver mine tailings with high concentration of heavy metals in Zacatecas, Mexico. Metagenomic DNAs\\u000a from rhizosphere and bulk soil were extracted to perform a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis (DGGE) and to\\u000a construct 16S rRNA gene
Yendi E. Navarro-Noya; Janet Jan-Roblero; Maria del Carmen González-Chávez; Regina Hernández-Gama; César Hernández-Rodríguez
This study characterizes the effects of concentrated pomegranate-peel extract (CPE) addition to the TMR at levels of 1, 2, or 4% on voluntary intake, in vivo digestibility, milk yield and composition, and profile of rumen bacterial and archaeal populations in lactating Holstein cows. Supplementation of CPE significantly affected the abundance of methanogenic archaea and specific ruminal bacterial species related to cellulolytic activities and soluble sugar and lactic acid fermentation, as revealed by real-time PCR quantification. Furthermore, CPE supplementation had a significant dose-dependent effect on the whole ruminal bacterial community, as determined by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber, as well as milk and energy-corrected milk yields in cows fed the 4% CPE supplement. These results suggest that CPE supplementation significantly affects the rumen bacterial communities, which in turn may be related to a beneficial effect on dairy cow performance. PMID:22863105
Jami, E; Shabtay, A; Nikbachat, M; Yosef, E; Miron, J; Mizrahi, I
Analysis of many bacterial genomes is impeded by the inability to separate individual species from complex mixtures of cells or to propagate cells in pure culture. This problem is an obstacle to the study of many bacterial symbionts that live intracellularly in insects and other animals. To recover bacterial DNA from complex samples, we devised a method that facilitates the cloning of DNA fragments of distinctive G+C contents in order to generate shotgun DNA libraries enriched in inserts having a specific base composition. DNA preparations are first treated with a restriction enzyme having a common cleavage site in a particular genome and then shotgun cloned following size-fractionation. This method was applied to whole bacteriomes of the psyllid, Pachypsylla venusta, which harbors the bacterial symbiont Candidatus Carsonella ruddii. The resulting libraries were highly enriched in bacterial sequences. Through the use of alternate enzymes and partial digests, this technique can be adapted to yield virtually pure DNA libraries for individual bacterial species.
Dale, Colin; Dunbar, Helen; Moran, Nancy A.; Ochman, Howard
Background In previous works we have shown that a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction from mushroom (Lentinus edodes) homogenate interferes with binding of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite and Prevotella intermedia to gingival cells. Additionally, inhibition of biofilm formation of both odonto- and periodonto-pathogenic bacteria and detachment from preformed biofilms have been described for this compound. Further purification of mushroom extract has been recently achieved and a sub-fraction (i.e. # 5) has been identified as containing the majority of the mentioned biological activities. The aim of this study was to characterise the bacterial receptors for the purified mushroom sub-fraction #5 in order to better elucidate the mode of action of this compound when interfering with bacterial adhesion to host surfaces or with bacteria-bacteria interactions in the biofilm state. Methods Candidate bacterial molecules to act as target of this compound were bacterial surface molecules involved in cell adhesion and biofilm formation, and, thus, we have considered cell wall associated proteins (CWPs), teichoic acid (TA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of S. mutans, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. intermedia. Results Fifteen S. mutans CWPs and TA were capable of binding sub-fraction #5, while LTA did not. As far as P. intermedia is concerned, we show that five OMPs interact with sub-fraction # 5. Capacity of binding to P. intermedia LPS was also studied but in this case negative results were obtained. Conclusions Binding sub-fraction # 5 to surface molecules of S. mutans or P. intermedia may result in inactivation of their physiological functions. As a whole, these results indicate, at molecular level, the bacterial surface alterations affecting adhesion and biofim formation. For these antimicrobial properties, the compound may find use in daily oral hygiene.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, essential to all forms of life, have been viewed as highly conserved and evolutionarily stable, partly because very little is known about their natural variations. Here, we explored large-scale variations of rRNA genes through bioinformatic analyses of available complete bacterial genomic sequences with an emphasis on formation mechanisms and biological significance. Interestingly, we found bacterial genomes in which no 16S rRNA genes harbor the conserved core of the anti–Shine-Dalgarno sequence (5?-CCTCC-3?). This loss was accompanied by elimination of Shine-Dalgarno–like sequences upstream of their protein-coding genes. Those genomes belong to 1 or 2 of the following categories: primary symbionts, hemotropic Mycoplasma, and Flavobacteria. We also found many rearranged rRNA genes and reconstructed their history. Conjecturing the underlying mechanisms, such as inversion, partial duplication, transposon insertion, deletion, and substitution, we were able to infer their biological significance, such as co-orientation of rRNA transcription and chromosomal replication, lateral transfer of rRNA gene segments, and spread of rRNA genes with an apparent structural defect through gene conversion. These results open the way to understanding dynamic evolutionary changes of rRNA genes and the translational machinery.
Lim, Kyungtaek; Furuta, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Ichizo
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, essential to all forms of life, have been viewed as highly conserved and evolutionarily stable, partly because very little is known about their natural variations. Here, we explored large-scale variations of rRNA genes through bioinformatic analyses of available complete bacterial genomic sequences with an emphasis on formation mechanisms and biological significance. Interestingly, we found bacterial genomes in which no 16S rRNA genes harbor the conserved core of the anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence (5'-CCTCC-3'). This loss was accompanied by elimination of Shine-Dalgarno-like sequences upstream of their protein-coding genes. Those genomes belong to 1 or 2 of the following categories: primary symbionts, hemotropic Mycoplasma, and Flavobacteria. We also found many rearranged rRNA genes and reconstructed their history. Conjecturing the underlying mechanisms, such as inversion, partial duplication, transposon insertion, deletion, and substitution, we were able to infer their biological significance, such as co-orientation of rRNA transcription and chromosomal replication, lateral transfer of rRNA gene segments, and spread of rRNA genes with an apparent structural defect through gene conversion. These results open the way to understanding dynamic evolutionary changes of rRNA genes and the translational machinery. PMID:22446745
Lim, Kyungtaek; Furuta, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Ichizo
Pyrosequence targeting of the 16S rRNA gene has been adopted for microbial communities associated with field-grown plants. To examine phylogenetic drifts according to read length and bioinformatic tools, original and chopped sequences (250–570 bp) covering the V1–V4 regions of 16S rRNA genes were compared using pyrosequence and Sanger reads of rice root microbiomes. The phylogenetic assignment at genus level depended on read length, especially in the genus Bradyrhizobium, which is one of the ecologically important bacterial genera associated with plants. We discuss the methodology of phylogenetic assignments of plant-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA pyrosequence.
Okubo, Takashi; Ikeda, Seishi; Yamashita, Akifumi; Terasawa, Kimihiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu
During the production of grape wine, the formation of thick leathery pellicle/bacterial cellulose (BC) at the airliquid interface was due to the bacterium, which was isolated and identified as Gluconacetobacter hansenii UAC09. Cultural conditions for bacterial cellulose production from G. hansenii UAC09 were optimized by central composite rotatable experimental design. To economize the BC production, coffee cherry husk (CCH) extract and corn steep liquor (CSL) were used as less expensive sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. CCH and CSL are byproducts from the coffee processing and starch processing industry, respectively. The interactions between pH (4.5- 8.5), CSL (2-10%), alcohol (0.5-2%), acetic acid (0.5- 2%), and water dilution rate to CCH ratio (1:1 to 1:5) were studied using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for maximum BC production were pH (6.64), CSL (10%), alcohol (0.5%), acetic acid (1.13%), and water to CCH ratio (1:1). After 2 weeks of fermentation, the amount of BC produced was 6.24 g/l. This yield was comparable to the predicted value of 6.09 g/l. This is the first report on the optimization of the fermentation medium by RSM using CCH extract as the carbon source for BC production by G. hansenii UAC09. PMID:21791961
Rani, Mahadevaswamy Usha; Rastogi, Navin K; Appaiah, K A Anu
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mangrove tea on salivary bacterial flora in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinoma. Tea from mangrove plant Ceriops decandra was administered against DMBA induced buccal pouch carcinoma in hamster rats. The chemical constitutions and quality of mangrove tea is similar with the commercial tea Camellia sinensis. The Hamster rats were painted thrice a week with DMBA in their right buccal pouch, and also administrated orally with 1.25% of Ceriops tea extract, on alternate days of the DMBA treatment. Appropriate control animals were maintained. After 14 weeks of treatment, bacterial species in saliva were enumerated, tumor incidences were analyzed using histopathological section and tumor volume in the animals was quantified using water-displaced method. The decreased counts of beneficial bacteria and increased counts of harmful bacteria were associated with increased volume of tumors. The present study concluded that the tea extract from C. decandra prevents the oral cancer incidences and maintain the good health conditions of the animals. PMID:22754013
Sithranga Boopathy, Natarajan; Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Subramanian, Manivannan; You-Jin, Jeon
Soil that is suppressive to disease caused by fungal pathogens is an interesting source to target for novel chitinases that might be contributing towards disease suppression. In this study we screened for chitinase genes, in a phytopathogen-suppressive soil in three ways: (1) from a metagenomic library constructed from microbial cells extracted from soil, (2) from directly extracted DNA and (3)
K. Hjort; M. Bergstrom; M. F. Adesina; J. K. Jansson; K. Smalla; S. Sjoling
The identification of specific bacterial species influenced by mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation may assist in the formulation of new and improved diets that promote intestinal health and improve bird performance, offering suitable alternatives to antimicrobials in feed for sustainable poultry production. This study has been conducted to evaluate the use of a MOS compound derived from the yeast cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on turkey performance, bacterial community structure and their phylogenetic associations. A 42-day turkey trial was carried out on birds fed control and MOS-supplemented diets. Bird performance data (weight gains, feed consumption and feed efficiency ratios) were collected, and caecal contents were extracted from randomly caught poults on days 28, 35 and 42 posthatch. Bird performance data showed no improvements as a result of dietary supplementation. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) revealed the bacterial community structure to be significantly altered on days 28 and 35 posthatch but not day 42 as a result of dietary supplementation. This technique was coupled with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to elucidate phylogenetic identities of bacteria. The dominant bacteria of the caecum on all days in both treatment groups were members of phylum Firmicutes, followed by the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla, respectively. Statistical analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries showed that the composition of the MOS clone library differed significantly to the control on day 35 posthatch. It can be concluded that MOS alters the bacterial community structure in the turkey caecum. PMID:22538976
Corrigan, A; Horgan, K; Clipson, N; Murphy, R A
At the Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, the impact of 20 years of annual ammonium nitrate application to the mixed hardwood stand on soil bacterial communities was studied using 16S rRNA genes pyrosequencing. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes was done using DNA extracted from 30 soil samples (three treatments × two horizons × five subplots) collected from untreated (control), low N-amended (50 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and high N-amended (150 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) plots. A total of 1.3 million sequences were processed using qiime. Although Acidobacteria represented the most abundant phylum based on the number of sequences, Proteobacteria were the most diverse in terms of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). UniFrac analyses revealed that the bacterial communities differed significantly among soil horizons and treatments. Microsite variability among the five subplots was also evident. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination of normalized OTU data followed by permutational manova further confirmed these observations. Richness indicators and indicator species analyses revealed higher bacterial diversity associated with N amendment. Differences in bacterial diversity and community composition associated with the N treatments were also observed at lower phylogenetic levels. Only 28-35% of the 6 936 total OTUs identified were common to three treatments, while the rest were specific to one treatment or common to two. PMID:22974374
Turlapati, Swathi A; Minocha, Rakesh; Bhiravarasa, Premsai S; Tisa, Louis S; Thomas, William K; Minocha, Subhash C
Sugarcane is an economically important culture in Brazil. Endophytic bacteria live inside plants, and can provide many benefits to the plant host. We analyzed the bacterial diversity of sugarcane cultivar RB-72454 by cultivation-independent techniques. Total DNA from sugarcane stems from a commercial plantation located in Paraná State was extracted. Partial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced for library construction. Of 152 sequences obtained, 52% were similar to 16S rRNA from Pseudomonas sp, and 35.5% to Enterobacter sp. The genera Pantoea, Serratia, Citrobacter, and Klebsiella were also represented. The endophytic communities in these sugarcane samples were dominated by the families Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae (class Gammaproteobacteria). PMID:24222230
Magnani, G S; Cruz, L M; Weber, H; Bespalhok, J C; Daros, E; Baura, V; Yates, M G; Monteiro, R A; Faoro, H; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M
Molecular diagnosis is playing an increasingly important role in the rapid detection and identification of pathogenic organisms in clinical samples. The genetic variation of ribosomal genes in bacteria offers an alternative to culturing for the detection and identification of these organisms. Here 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA spacer region genes were chosen as the amplified targets for single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) capillary electrophoresis analysis and bacterial identification. The multiple fluorescence based SSCP method for the 16S rRNA gene and the RFLP method for the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region gene were developed and applied to the identification of pathogenic bacteria in clinical samples, in which home-made short-chained linear polyacrylamide (LPA) was used as a sieving matrix; a higher sieving capability and shorter analysis time were achieved than with a commercial sieving matrix because of the simplified template preparation procedure. A set of 270 pathogenic bacteria representing 34 species in 14 genera were analyzed, and a total of 34 unique SSCP patterns representing 34 different pathogenic bacterial species were determined. Based on the use of machine code to represent peak patterns developed in this paper, the identification of bacterial species becomes much easier. PMID:15881080
Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Guowang; Gao, Peng; Yang, Jun; Shi, Xianzhe; Tian, Jing
Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial groups, i.e. "Candidatus", which have been associated as the cause of some fish diseases, including rainbow trout summer enteritic syndrome. One immediate benefit is that 16S rRNA gene sequencing has led to increased confidence in the accuracy of names allocated to bacterial pathogens. This is in marked contrast to the previous dominance of phenotyping, and identifications, which have been subsequently challenged in the light of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To date, there has been some fluidity over the names of bacterial fish pathogens, with some, for example Vibrio anguillarum, being divided into two separate entities (V. anguillarum and V. ordalii). Others have been combined, for example V. carchariae, V. harveyi and V. trachuri as V. harveyi. Confusion may result with some organisms recognized by more than one name; V. anguillarum was reclassified as Beneckea and Listonella, with Vibrio and Listonella persisting in the scientific literature. Notwithstanding, modern methods have permitted real progress in the understanding of the taxonomic relationships of many bacterial fish pathogens.
Soil pH is an important determinant of microbial community composition and diversity, yet few studies have characterized the specific effects of pH on individual bacterial taxa within bacterial communities, both abundant and rare. We collected composite soil samples over 2 years from an experimentally maintained pH gradient ranging from 4.5 to 7.5 from the Craibstone Experimental Farm (Craibstone, Scotland). Extracted nucleic acids were characterized by bacterial and group-specific denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Both methods demonstrated comparable and reproducible shifts within higher taxonomic bacterial groups (e.g. Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Gammaproteobacteria) across the pH gradient. In addition, we used non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the first time on 16S rRNA gene data to identify positively interacting (i.e. co-occurring) operational taxonomic unit (OTU) clusters (i.e. 'components'), with abundances that correlated strongly with pH, and sample year to a lesser extent. All OTUs identified by NMF were visualized within principle coordinate analyses of UNIFRAC distances and subjected to taxonomic network analysis (SSUnique), which plotted OTU abundance and similarity against established taxonomies. Most pH-dependent OTUs identified here would not have been identified by previous methodologies for microbial community profiling and were unrelated to known lineages. PMID:24117982
Bartram, Andrea K; Jiang, Xingpeng; Lynch, Michael D J; Masella, Andre P; Nicol, Graeme W; Dushoff, Jonathan; Neufeld, Josh D
This study demonstrates the efficacy of a direct 5S rRNA assay for the characterization of mixed microbial populations by using as an example the bacteria associated with acidic mining environments. The direct 5S rRNA assay described herein represents a nonselective, direct molecular method for monitoring and characterizing the predominant, metabolically active members of a microbial population. The foundation of the assay is high-resolution denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which is used to separate 5S rRNA species extracted from collected biomass. Separation is based on the unique migration behavior of each 5S rRNA species during electrophoresis in denaturing gradient gels. With mixtures of RNA extracted from laboratory cultures, the upper practical limit for detection in the current experimental system has been estimated to be greater than 15 different species. With this method, the resolution was demonstrated to be effective at least to the species level. The strength of this approach was demonstrated by the ability to discriminate between Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 and Thiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 8085, two very closely related species. Migration patterns for the 5S rRNA from members of the genus Thiobacillus were readily distinguishable from those of the genera Acidiphilium and Leptospirillum. In conclusion, the 5S rRNA assay represents a powerful method by which the structure of a microbial population within acidic environments can be assessed.
Stoner, D. L.; Browning, C. K.; Bulmer, D. K.; Ward, T. E.; MacDonell, M. T.
Different DNA and RNA extraction approaches were evaluated and protocols optimized on in situ corrosion products from carbon steel in marine environments. Protocols adapted from the PowerSoil DNA\\/RNA Isolation methods resulted in the best nucleic acid (NA) extraction performances (ie combining high NA yield, quality, purity, representativeness of microbial community and processing time efficiency). The PowerSoil RNA Isolation Kit was
Florence Marty; Jean-François Ghiglione; Sandrine Païssé; Hervé Gueuné; Laurent Quillet; Mark C. M. van Loosdrecht; Gerard Muyzer
We compared the effects of the invasive plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and 2 native plants on soil bacterial communities in a mature mesophytic forest. Soil samples were collected from plant patches containing either Alliaria or the native plants Allium tricoccum (wild leek) and Gallium triflorum (bedstraw). Since Alliaria litter contains secondary compounds that have reported antimicrobial properties, soil was collected outside the root zone of the plants but within the plant patches such that the soil would have been influenced by the litter of the respective plant species but not by plant roots. DNA was extracted from the soil samples and used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene region using bacterial specific primers. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) profiles of each bacterial community were used to examine differences in bacterial communities among the plant species and between August and April sampling. Bacterial richness, evenness, and diversity were not significantly affected by plant species. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) suggested that differences existed between August and April sampling, but that plant species litter exerted a much weaker effect on soil bacterial communities. Soil physiochemical conditions were significantly correlated with soil bacterial communities and may underlie the observed seasonal changes in bacterial communities. PMID:20130698
Burke, David J; Chan, Charlotte R
Plant extracts and antifungal microorganisms were tested singly and in combination for biocontrol of sugarcane red rot disease (Colletotrichum falcatum) using two sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars, CoC671 and CoC92061, in pot and field experiments. Leaf extracts of Abrus precatorius and Bassia latifolia and the rhizome extract of Curcuma longa reduced Colletotrichum falcatum mycelial growth by 80%, 58%, and 57%, respectively. Although sugarcane- planting materials (setts) treated individually with either Pseudomonas fluorescens Md1 or A. precatorius in pot experiments had the lowest incidences of red rot, 20.1% and 24.2%, respectively, none of the plant extracts were effective in the field. In contrast, when the two varieties were tested separately in two field locations, the setts treated with A. precatorius in combination with a spray or soil application of P. fluorescens Md1 had the lowest incidence of red rot in both locations, e.g., 3.1% and 3.4% incidence for CoC92061 in one location, and had a similar response to the chemical control. The results suggest the applicability of plant-based extracts for the suppression of sugarcane red rot disease in the field as an environment-friendly tool in combination with antagonists. PMID:17496967
Jayakumar, V; Bhaskaran, R; Tsushima, S
Ethanolic extracts of eight Thai medicinal plants (representing five families) that are used as traditional remedies for treating diarrhea were examined with a salt aggregation test for their ability to modulate cell surface hydrophobicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains, including E. coli O157:H7. Four of these medicinal plants, Acacia catechu, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Punica granatum, and Quercus infectoria, have high bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities. The ethanolic extract of Q. infectoria was the most effective against all strains of E. coli, with MICs of 0.12 to 0.98 mg/ml and MBCs of 0.98 to 3.91 mg/ml. The ethanolic extract of P. granatum had MICs of 0.49 to 1.95 mg/ml and MBCs of 1.95 to 3.91 mg/ml. Ethanolic extracts of Q. infectoria, P. pterocarpum, and P. granatum were among the most effective extracts against the two strains of E. coli O157:H7. The other four plants, Andrographis paniculata, Pluchia indica, Tamarindus indica, and Walsura robusta, did not have high bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities but were able to affect hydrophobicity characteristics on their outermost surface. All plants except Q. infectoria had some ability to increase cell surface hydrophobicity. There appears to be no correlation between antibacterial activity and cell aggregative properties. PMID:17066910
Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Limsuwan, Surasak
The antibiotic growth promoter avilamycin inhibits protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes. Here the binding site is further characterized on Escherichia coli ribosomes. The drug interacts with domain V of 23S rRNA, giving a chemical footprint at nucleotides A2482 and A2534. Selection of avilamycin-resistant Halobacterium halobium cells revealed mutations in helix 89 of 23S rRNA. Furthermore, mutations in helices 89 and 91, which have previously been shown to confer resistance to evernimicin, give cross-resistance to avilamycin. These data place the binding site of avilamycin on 23S rRNA close to the elbow of A-site tRNA. It is inferred that avilamycin interacts with the ribosomes at the ribosomal A-site interfering with initiation factor IF2 and tRNA binding in a manner similar to evernimicin.
Kofoed, Christine B.; Vester, Birte
Surface and subsurface soil samples analyzed for this investigation were collected from the hyperarid Yungay region in the Atacama Desert, Chile. This report details the bacterial diversity derived from DNA and PLFA extracted directly from these extremely desiccated soils. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and TM7 division bacteria were detected. Ninety-four percent of the 16S rRNA genes cloned from these soils belong to the Actinobacteria phylum, and the majority of these were most closely related to the genus Frankia. A 24-hour water activity (aw) time course showed a diurnal cycle that peaked at 0.52 in the early predawn hours, and ranged from 0.01-0.08 during the day. All measured water activity values were below the levels required for microbial growth or enzyme activity. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were above the limit of detection and below the limit of quantification (i.e., 200 ?g/g < TOC < 1000 ?g/g), and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations ranged from 2 × 105 to 7 × 106 cell equivalents per gram of soil. Soil extracts analyzed for culturable biomass yielded mostly no growth on R2A media; the highest single extract yielded 47 colony forming units (CFU) per gram of soil.
Connon, Stephanie A.; Lester, Elizabeth D.; Shafaat, Hannah S.; Obenhuber, Donald C.; Ponce, Adrian
Analysis of intragenomic variation of 16S rRNA genes is a unique approach to examining the concept of ribosomal constraints on rRNA genes; the degree of variation is an important parameter to consider for estimation of the diversity of a complex microbiome in the recently initiated Human Microbiome Project (http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/hmp). The current GenBank database has a collection of 883 prokaryotic genomes representing 568 unique species, of which 425 species contained 2 to 15 copies of 16S rRNA genes per genome (2.22 ± 0.81). Sequence diversity among the 16S rRNA genes in a genome was found in 235 species (from 0.06% to 20.38%; 0.55% ± 1.46%). Compared with the 16S rRNA-based threshold for operational definition of species (1 to 1.3% diversity), the diversity was borderline (between 1% and 1.3%) in 10 species and >1.3% in 14 species. The diversified 16S rRNA genes in Haloarcula marismortui (diversity, 5.63%) and Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (6.70%) were highly conserved at the 2° structure level, while the diversified gene in B. afzelii (20.38%) appears to be a pseudogene. The diversified genes in the remaining 21 species were also conserved, except for a truncated 16S rRNA gene in “Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila.” Thus, this survey of intragenomic diversity of 16S rRNA genes provides strong evidence supporting the theory of ribosomal constraint. Taxonomic classification using the 16S rRNA-based operational threshold could misclassify a number of species into more than one species, leading to an overestimation of the diversity of a complex microbiome. This phenomenon is especially seen in 7 bacterial species associated with the human microbiome or diseases.
Pei, Anna Y.; Oberdorf, William E.; Nossa, Carlos W.; Agarwal, Ankush; Chokshi, Pooja; Gerz, Erika A.; Jin, Zhida; Lee, Peng; Yang, Liying; Poles, Michael; Brown, Stuart M.; Sotero, Steven; DeSantis, Todd; Brodie, Eoin; Nelson, Karen; Pei, Zhiheng
As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae by pyrosequencing of extracting intestinal metagenomic DNA from larvae that had been fed three different diets. The 16S rRNA sequencing results produced 9737, 9723 and 5985 PCR products from larval samples fed food waste, cooked rice and calf forage, respectively. A BLAST search using the EzTaxon program showed that the bacterial community in the gut of larvae fed three different diets was mainly composed of the four phyla with dissimilar proportions. Although the composition of the bacterial communities depended on the different nutrient sources, the identified bacterial strains in the gut of BSF larvae represented unique bacterial species that were unlike the intestinal microflora of other insects. Thus, our study analysed the structure of the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae after three different feedings and assessed the application of particular bacteria for the efficient degradation of organic compounds. PMID:21267722
Jeon, Hyunbum; Park, Soyoung; Choi, Jiyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Lee, Sang-Beom; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae
16S rRNA molecules in a microbial strain can differ due to nucleotide variation between their genes. This is a typical trait of fast-growing bacteria to cope with different niches. We investigated characteristics of 16S rRNA genes in Vibrio splendidus strain PB1-10, from the normal flora of Atlantic halibut. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene clones detected 35 variable positions in a total of 13 different gene copies. More than two-thirds of the substitutions occurred in regions corresponding to helix H6 and helix H17 of the 16S rRNA molecule. Possible recombination between these helixes in related bacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Colwellia) from similar environments impacts 16S rRNA-based phylogeny of V. splendidus. We argue that these nonrandom modifications are maintained to provide a fine-tuning of the ribosome function to optimize translation machinery performance and ultimately bacterial niche fitness. PMID:19341395
Jensen, Sigmund; Frost, Petter; Torsvik, Vigdis L
We compared several currently discussed methods for the assessment of bacterial numbers and activity in marine waters, using samples from a variety of marine environments, from aged offshore seawater to rich harbor water. Samples were simultaneously tested for binding to afluorescently labeled universal 16S rRNA probe; 3H-labeled amino acid uptake via autoradiography; nucleoid-containing bacterial numbers by modified DAPI (4*,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining;
MARKUS KARNER; ANDJED A. FUHRMAN
The characterization of microbial communities of different depth sediment samples was examined by a culture-independent method and compared with physicochemical parameters, those are organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), pH and redox potential (Eh). Total genomic DNA was extracted from samples derived from different depths. After they were amplified with the GC-341f/907r primer sets of partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes, the products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The profile of DGGE fingerprints of different depth sediment samples revealed that the community structure remained relatively stable along the entire 45 cm sediment core, however, principal-component analysis of DGGE patterns revealed that at greater sediment depths, successional shifts in community structure were evident. The principle coordinates analysis suggested that the bacterial communities along the sediment core could be separated into two groups, which were located 0--20 cm and 21--45 cm, respectively. The sequencing dominant bands demonstrated that the major phylogenetic groups identified by DGGE belonged to Bacillus, Bacterium, Brevibacillus, Exiguobacterium, gamma-Proteobacterium, Acinetobacter sp. and some uncultured or unidentified bacteria. The results indicated the existence of highly diverse bacterial community in the lake sediment core. PMID:18574965
Zhao, Xingqing; Yang, Liuyan; Yu, Zhenyang; Peng, Naiying; Xiao, Lin; Yin, Daqiang; Qin, Boqiang
Investigation of the initial and spoilage microbial diversity of iced stored sea bream was carried out. Culture dependent methods were used for bacterial enumeration and phenotypic identification of bacterial isolates, while culture independent methods, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplification, cloning and sequencing of DNA extracted directly from the flesh were also employed. The culture dependent approach revealed that the initial microbiota was dominated by Acinetobacter, Shewanella, Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium, while at the end of shelf-life determined by sensory analysis (16 days), the predominant microbiota was Pseudomonas and Shewanella. Culture independent approach showed that initially the sea bream flesh was strongly dominated by Acinetobacter, while Pseudomonas, Aeromonas salmonicida and Shewanella were the predominant phylotypes at the end of shelf-life. Initial and spoilage microbiota comprised of phylotypes previously identified by others using traditional or molecular techniques. However, Aeromonas has not been reported as part of the dominant microbiota of sea bream at the time of spoilage. Combination of classical and molecular methodologies better reveals the microbiota during storage by revealing bacteria that escape standard approaches and, thus, provides valuable complementary information regarding microbiological spoilage. PMID:23122505
Parlapani, F F; Meziti, A; Kormas, K Ar; Boziaris, I S
Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance is widespread, with the determinants encoding resistance to antibiotics such as erythromycin being detected in many bacterial pathogens. Resistance is most commonly mediated by the production of an Erm protein, a 23S rRNA methyltransferase. We have undertaken a mutational analysis of the Erm(B) protein from Clostridium perfringens with the objective of developing a greater understanding of the
Kylie A. Farrow; Dena Lyras; Galina Polekhina; Katerina Koutsis; Michael W. Parker; Julian I. Rood
The bacterial core communities of bulk water and corresponding biofilms of a more than 20-year-old drinking water network were compared using 16S rRNA single-strand confirmation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprints based on extracted DNA and RNA. The structure and composition of the bacterial core community in the bulk water was highly similar (>70%) across the city of Braunschweig, Germany, whereas all biofilm samples contained a unique community with no overlapping phylotypes from bulk water. Biofilm samples consisted mainly of Alphaproteobacteria (26% of all phylotypes), Gammaproteobacteria (11%), candidate division TM6 (11%), Chlamydiales (9%), and Betaproteobacteria (9%). The bulk water community consisted primarily of Bacteroidetes (25%), Betaproteobacteria (20%), Actinobacteria (16%), and Alphaproteobacteria (11%). All biofilm communities showed higher relative abundances of single phylotypes and a reduced richness compared to bulk water. Only biofilm communities sampled at nearby sampling points showed similar communities irrespective of support materials. In all of our bulk water studies, the community composition determined from 16S rRNA was completely different from the 16S rRNA gene-based community composition, whereas in biofilms both molecular fractions resulted in community compositions that were similar to each other. We hypothesize that a higher fraction of active bacterial phylotypes and a better protection from oxidative stress in drinking water biofilms are responsible for this higher similarity.
Henne, Karsten; Kahlisch, Leila; Brettar, Ingrid
The inclusivity, exclusivity, and detection limit of six 16S rRNA gene-based Helicobacter genus-specific PCR assays were examined. Five out of six assays were 100% inclusive, but the tests varied considerably in their exclusivity (9.1 to 95.5%). The clinical detection limit varied between 103 and 1 viable bacterial cell per reaction mixture.
Moyaert, H.; Pasmans, F.; Ducatelle, R.; Haesebrouck, F.; Baele, M.
Oligonucleotide probes covering three phylogenetically defined groups of Butyrivibrio spp. were successfully designed and tested. The specificity of each probe was examined by hybridization to rRNAs from an assortment of B. fibrisolvens isolates as well as additional ruminal and nonruminal bacteria. The sensitivity of the hybridization method was determined by using one of the probes (probe 156). When RNA was extracted from a culture of OB156, the probe was able to detect target cells at densities as low as 10(4) cells/ml. When 10(4) or more target cells/ml were added to cattle rumen samples, detectable hybridization signals were obtained with 1,000 ng of total RNA loaded onto the nylon membrane. In contrast, the sensitivity was reduced to 10(6) target cells/ml at 100 ng of RNA per slot. The probes were used to type 19 novel Butyrivibrio isolates. The phylogenetic placement was confirmed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The use of the probes in community-based studies indicated that the Butyrivibrio groups examined in this paper did not represent a significant portion of the bacterial 16S rRNA pool in the rumen of the cattle, sheep, and deer examined. PMID:9097421
Forster, R J; Gong, J; Teather, R M
Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have a central role in biogeochemical cycles and are expanding as a consequence of climate change, yet how deoxygenation will affect the microbial communities that control these cycles is unclear. Here we sample across dissolved oxygen gradients in the oceans’ largest OMZ and show that bacterial richness displays a unimodal pattern with decreasing dissolved oxygen, reaching maximum values on the edge of the OMZ and decreasing within it. Rare groups on the OMZ margin are abundant at lower dissolved oxygen concentrations, including sulphur-cycling Chromatiales, for which 16S rRNA was amplified from extracted RNA. Microbial species distribution models accurately replicate community patterns based on multivariate environmental data, demonstrate likely changes in distributions and diversity in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean, and highlight the sensitivity of key bacterial groups to deoxygenation. Through these mechanisms, OMZ expansion may alter microbial composition, competition, diversity and function, all of which have implications for biogeochemical cycling in OMZs.
Beman, J. Michael; Carolan, Molly T.
Bacterial communities in both aqueous and oil phases of water-flooded petroleum reservoirs were characterized by molecular analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes obtained from Shengli Oil Field using DNA pyrosequencing and gene clone library approaches. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the aqueous and oil phases and subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The analysis by these two methods showed that there was a large difference in bacterial diversity between the aqueous and oil phases of the reservoir fluids, especially in the reservoirs with lower water cut. At a high phylogenetic level, the predominant bacteria detected by these two approaches were identical. However, pyrosequencing allowed the detection of more rare bacterial species than the clone library method. Statistical analysis showed that the diversity of the bacterial community of the aqueous phase was lower than that of the oil phase. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the vast majority of sequences detected in the water phase were from members of the genus Arcobacter within the Epsilonproteobacteria, which is capable of degrading the intermediates of hydrocarbon degradation such as acetate. The oil phase of reservoir fluid samples was dominated by members of the genus Pseudomonas within the Gammaproteobacteria and the genus Sphingomonas within the Alphaproteobacteria, which have the ability to degrade crude oil through adherence to hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions. In addition, many anaerobes that could degrade the component of crude oil were also found in the oil phase of reservoir fluids, mainly in the reservoir with lower water cut. These were represented by Desulfovibrio spp., Thermodesulfovibrio spp., Thermodesulforhabdus spp., Thermotoga spp., and Thermoanaerobacterium spp. This research suggested that simultaneous analysis of DNA extracted from both aqueous and oil phases can facilitate a better understanding of the bacterial communities in water-flooded petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24413919
Wang, Li-Ying; Ke, Wen-Ji; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong
The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial diversity in advanced noma lesions using culture- independent molecular methods. 16S ribosomal DNA bacterial genes from DNA isolated from advanced noma lesions of four Nigerian children were PCR amplified with universally conserved primers and spirochetal selective primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. Partial 16S rRNA sequences of approximately 500 bases
B. J. Paster; W. A. Falkler; C. O. Enwonwu; E. O. Idigbe; K. O. Savage; V. A. Levanos; M. A. Tamer; R. L. Ericson; C. N. Lau; F. E. Dewhirst
The goal of this project is to improve the quantification of indoor fungal pollutants via the specific application of quantitative PCR (qPCR). Improvement will be made in the controls used in current qPCR applications. This work focuses on the use of two separate controls within a standard qPCR reaction. The first control developed was the internal standard control gene, benA. This gene encodes for ?-tubulin and was selected based on its single-copy nature. The second control developed was the standard control plasmid, which contained a fragment of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and produced a specific PCR product. The results confirm the multicopy nature of the rRNA region in several filamentous fungi and show that we can quantify fungi of unknown genome size over a range of spore extractions by inclusion of these two standard controls. Advances in qPCR have led to extremely sensitive and quantitative methods for single-copy genes; however, it has not been well established that the rRNA can be used to quantitate fungal contamination. We report on the use of qPCR, combined with two controls, to identify and quantify indoor fungal contaminants with a greater degree of confidence than has been achieved previously. Advances in indoor environmental health have demonstrated that contamination of the built environment by the filamentous fungi has adverse impacts on the health of building occupants. This study meets the need for more accurate and reliable methods for fungal identification and quantitation in the indoor environment.
Black, Jonathan; Dean, Timothy; Byfield, Grace; Foarde, Karin; Menetrez, Marc
Bacterial keratitis is a serious infectious ocular disease requiring prompt treatment to prevent frequent and severe visual disabilities. Standard treatment of bacterial keratitis includes topical administration of concen- trated antibiotic solutions repeated at frequent intervals in order to reach sufficiently high drug levels in the corneal tissue to inhibit bacterial growth. However, this regimen has been associated with toxicity to
Emilia Ghelardi; Arianna Tavanti; Paola Davini; Francesco Celandroni; Sara Salvetti; Eva Parisio; Enrico Boldrini; Sonia Senesi; Mario Campa
The level of sequence heterogeneity among rrn operons within genomes determines the accuracy of diversity estimation by 16S rRNA-based methods. Furthermore, the occurrence of widespread horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between distantly related rrn operons casts doubt on reconstructions of phylogenetic relationships. For this study, patterns of distribution of rrn copy numbers, interoperonic divergence, and redundancy of 16S rRNA sequences were evaluated. Bacterial genomes display up to 15 operons and operon numbers up to 7 are commonly found, but ?40% of the organisms analyzed have either one or two operons. Among the Archaea, a single operon appears to dominate and the highest number of operons is five. About 40% of sequences among 380 operons in 76 bacterial genomes with multiple operons were identical to at least one other 16S rRNA sequence in the same genome, and in 38% of the genomes all 16S rRNAs were invariant. For Archaea, the number of identical operons was only 25%, but only five genomes with 21 operons are currently available. These considerations suggest an upper bound of roughly threefold overestimation of bacterial diversity resulting from cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from the environment; however, the inclusion of genomes with a single rrn operon may lower this correction factor to ?2.5. Divergence among operons appears to be small overall for both Bacteria and Archaea, with the vast majority of 16S rRNA sequences showing <1% nucleotide differences. Only five genomes with operons with a higher level of nucleotide divergence were detected, and Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis exhibited the highest level of divergence (11.6%) noted to date. Overall, four of the five extreme cases of operon differences occurred among thermophilic bacteria, suggesting a much higher incidence of HGT in these bacteria than in other groups.
Acinas, Silvia G.; Marcelino, Luisa A.; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Polz, Martin F.
Summary Mycobacterium tuberculosis is arguably the world’s most successful infectious agent due to its ability to control its own cell growth within the host. Bacterial growth rate is closely coupled to rRNA transcription, which in E. coli is regulated through DksA and (p)ppGpp. The mechanisms of rRNA transcriptional control in mycobacteria, which lack DksA, are undefined. Here we identify CarD as an essential mycobacterial protein that controls rRNA transcription. Loss of CarD is lethal for mycobacteria in culture and during infection of mice. CarD depletion leads to sensitivity to killing by oxidative stress, starvation, and DNA damage, accompanied by failure to reduce rRNA transcription. CarD can functionally replace DksA for stringent control of rRNA transcription, even though CarD associates with a distinct site on RNA polymerase. These findings highlight a new molecular mechanism for regulating rRNA transcription in mycobacteria that is critical for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis.
Stallings, Christina L.; Stephanou, Nicolas C.; Chu, Linda; Hochschild, Ann; Nickels, Bryce E.; Glickman, Michael S.
In vitro ribosome construction could enable studies of ribosome assembly and function, provide a route toward constructing minimal cells for synthetic biology, and permit the construction of ribosome variants with new functions. Toward these long-term goals, we recently reported on an integrated, one-pot ribosomal RNA synthesis (rRNA), ribosome assembly, and translation technology (termed iSAT) for the construction of Escherichia coli ribosomes in crude ribosome-free S150 extracts. Here, we aimed to improve the activity of iSAT through transcriptional tuning. Specifically, we increased transcriptional efficiency through 3? modifications to the rRNA gene sequences, optimized plasmid and polymerase concentrations, and demonstrated the use of a T7-promoted rRNA operon for stoichiometrically balanced rRNA synthesis and native rRNA processing. Our modifications produced a 45-fold improvement in iSAT protein synthesis activity, enabling synthesis of 429 ± 15 nmol/l green fluorescent protein in 6 h batch reactions. Further, we show that the translational activity of ribosomes purified from iSAT reactions is about 20% the activity of native ribosomes purified directly from E. coli cells. Looking forward, we believe iSAT will enable unique studies to unravel the systems biology of ribosome biogenesis and open the way to new methods for making and studying ribosomal variants.
Fritz, Brian R.; Jewett, Michael C.
In vitro ribosome construction could enable studies of ribosome assembly and function, provide a route toward constructing minimal cells for synthetic biology, and permit the construction of ribosome variants with new functions. Toward these long-term goals, we recently reported on an integrated, one-pot ribosomal RNA synthesis (rRNA), ribosome assembly, and translation technology (termed iSAT) for the construction of Escherichia coli ribosomes in crude ribosome-free S150 extracts. Here, we aimed to improve the activity of iSAT through transcriptional tuning. Specifically, we increased transcriptional efficiency through 3' modifications to the rRNA gene sequences, optimized plasmid and polymerase concentrations, and demonstrated the use of a T7-promoted rRNA operon for stoichiometrically balanced rRNA synthesis and native rRNA processing. Our modifications produced a 45-fold improvement in iSAT protein synthesis activity, enabling synthesis of 429 ± 15 nmol/l green fluorescent protein in 6 h batch reactions. Further, we show that the translational activity of ribosomes purified from iSAT reactions is about 20% the activity of native ribosomes purified directly from E. coli cells. Looking forward, we believe iSAT will enable unique studies to unravel the systems biology of ribosome biogenesis and open the way to new methods for making and studying ribosomal variants. PMID:24792158
Fritz, Brian R; Jewett, Michael C
In the present work we describe a polyphasic study of bacterial community in fresh cut salads packaged under ordinary and modified atmospheres. Samples of fresh cut salads were aseptically collected at 0, 3, and 6 days of storage and analysed both by culture-dependent and -independent methods. DNA extracted from fresh cut salad samples was used as a template for PCR amplification of 16 S rRNA gene; the PCR products were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE); finally, clone libraries of 16 S rRNA gene from the fresh cut salad was constructed. Results of plating count revealed a significant increase of all microbial loads in fresh-cut salad samples packaged in OA and that the microbial growth of the different groups was significantly affected by the conditions applied for MA packaging. A constant presence, throughout storage, of the pathogenic bacteria in all the fresh-cut salads samples was highlighted by PCR-DGGE analysis. Therefore, the polyphasic approach used in the present study allowed us to characterize the main species involved in the fresh cut salad products and to better understand their dynamics throughout storage. PMID:19027975
Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Scifò, Giovanna Ombretta; Tomaselli, Filippo; Caggia, Cinzia
Rice straw is a major substrate for the production of methane, a greenhouse gas, in flooded rice fields. The bacterial community degrading rice straw under anoxic conditions was investigated with molecular methods. Rice straw was incubated in paddy soil anaerobically for 71 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the composition of the bacterial community changed during the first 15 days but then was stable until the end of incubation. Fifteen DGGE bands with different signal intensities were excised, cloned, and sequenced. In addition, DNA was extracted from straw incubated for 1 and 29 days and the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and cloned. From these clone libraries 16 clones with different electrophoretic mobilities on a DGGE gel were sequenced. From a total of 31 clones, 20 belonged to different phylogenetic clusters of the clostridia, i.e., clostridial clusters I (14 clones), III (1 clone), IV (1 clone), and XIVa (4 clones). One clone fell also within the clostridia but could not be affiliated to one of the clostridial clusters. Ten clones grouped closely with the genera Bacillus (3 clones), Nitrosospira (1 clone), Fluoribacter (1 clones), and Acidobacterium (2 clones) and with clone sequences previously obtained from rice field soil (3 clones). The relative abundances of various phylogenetic groups in the rice straw-colonizing community were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Bacteria were detached from the incubated rice straw with an efficiency of about 80 to 90%, as determined by dot blot hybridization of 16S rRNA in extract and residue. The number of active (i.e., a sufficient number of ribosomes) Bacteria detected with a general eubacterial probe (Eub338) after 8 days of incubation was 61% of the total cell counts. This percentage decreased to 17% after 29 days of incubation. Most (55%) of the active cells on day 8 belonged to the genus Clostridium, mainly to clostridial clusters I (24%), III (6%), and XIVa (24%). An additional 5% belonged to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum, 4% belonged to the ?, ?, and ? Proteobacteria, and 1.3% belonged to the Bacillus subbranch of the gram-positive bacteria with a low G+C content. The results show that the bacterial community colonizing and decomposing rice straw developed during the first 15 days of incubation and was dominated by members of different clostridial clusters, especially clusters I, III, and XIVa.
Weber, Sabine; Stubner, Stephan; Conrad, Ralf
Objective To isolate and identify Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) from soil and to characterize and partially purify the bacteriocin. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity against four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens. Methods Genotypic identification was done based on Bergey's manual of systemic bacteriology. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Colonies were identified by colony morphology and biochemical characterization and also compared with MTCC 121 strain. Further identification was done by 16S rRNA sequencing. Inhibitory activities of partially purified bacteriocin on all the DFU isolates were done by agar well diffusion method. The strain was identified to produce bacteriocin by stab overlay assay. Bacteriocin was extracted by organic solvent extraction using chloroform, further purified by HPLC and physical, and chemical characterization was performed. Results The four isolates showed high level of resistance to amoxyclav and sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. HPLC purification revealed that the extracts are bacteriocin. The phylogenetic tree analysis results showed that the isolate was 99% related to B. subtilis BSF01. The results reveled activity to all the four isolates and high level of activity was seen in case of Klebsiella sp. Conclusions Partially purified bacteriocin was found to have antimicrobial activity against the four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens, which can thus be applied as a better drug molecule on further studies. The strain B. subtilis are found to be safe for use and these antimicrobial peptides can be used as an antimicrobial in humans to treat DFU bacterial pathogens.
Joseph, Baby; Dhas, Berlina; Hena, Vimalin; Raj, Justin
In this study, two identical copies of a 23S-5S gene cluster, which are separately situated within the Helicobacter pylori UA802 chromosome, were cloned and sequenced. Comparison of the DNA sequence of the H. pylori 23S rRNA gene with known sequences of other bacterial 23S rRNA genes indicated that the H. pylori UA802 23S rRNA genes are closely related to those of Campylobacter spp. and therefore belong in the proposed Proteobacteria subdivision. The 5'-terminal nucleotide T or A of the 23S rRNA is close to a Pribnow box which could be a -10 region of the transcription promoter for the 23S rRNA gene, suggesting that a posttranscriptional process is likely not involved in the maturation of the H. pylori 23S rRNA. Clinical isolates of H. pylori resistant to clarithromycin were examined by using natural transformation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Cross-resistance to clarithromycin and erythromycin, which was transferred by natural transformation from the Cla(r) Ery(r) donor strain H. pylori E to the Cla(s) Ery(s) recipient strain H. pylori UA802, was associated with an single A-to-G transition mutation at position 2142 of both copies of the 23S rRNA in UA802 Cla(r) Ery(r) mutants. The transformation frequency for Cla(r) and Ery(r) was found to be approximately 2 x 10(-6) transformants per viable cell, and the MICs of both clarithromycin and erythromycin for the Cla(r) Ery(r) mutants were equal to those for the donor isolate. Our results confirmed the previous findings that mutations at positions 2142 and 2143 of the H. pylori 23S rRNA gene are responsible for clarithromycin resistance and suggest that acquisition of clarithromycin resistance in H. pylori could also result from horizontal transfer. PMID:9420030
Taylor, D E; Ge, Z; Purych, D; Lo, T; Hiratsuka, K
In this study, two identical copies of a 23S-5S gene cluster, which are separately situated within the Helicobacter pylori UA802 chromosome, were cloned and sequenced. Comparison of the DNA sequence of the H. pylori 23S rRNA gene with known sequences of other bacterial 23S rRNA genes indicated that the H. pylori UA802 23S rRNA genes are closely related to those of Campylobacter spp. and therefore belong in the proposed Proteobacteria subdivision. The 5'-terminal nucleotide T or A of the 23S rRNA is close to a Pribnow box which could be a -10 region of the transcription promoter for the 23S rRNA gene, suggesting that a posttranscriptional process is likely not involved in the maturation of the H. pylori 23S rRNA. Clinical isolates of H. pylori resistant to clarithromycin were examined by using natural transformation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Cross-resistance to clarithromycin and erythromycin, which was transferred by natural transformation from the Cla(r) Ery(r) donor strain H. pylori E to the Cla(s) Ery(s) recipient strain H. pylori UA802, was associated with an single A-to-G transition mutation at position 2142 of both copies of the 23S rRNA in UA802 Cla(r) Ery(r) mutants. The transformation frequency for Cla(r) and Ery(r) was found to be approximately 2 x 10(-6) transformants per viable cell, and the MICs of both clarithromycin and erythromycin for the Cla(r) Ery(r) mutants were equal to those for the donor isolate. Our results confirmed the previous findings that mutations at positions 2142 and 2143 of the H. pylori 23S rRNA gene are responsible for clarithromycin resistance and suggest that acquisition of clarithromycin resistance in H. pylori could also result from horizontal transfer.
Taylor, D E; Ge, Z; Purych, D; Lo, T; Hiratsuka, K
Using PFG electrophoresis techniques, the authors have examined the organization of rRNA gene in halobacterium species. The results show that the organization of rRNA genes among closely related halobacteria is quite heterogeneous. This contrasts with the high degree of conservation of rRNA sequence. The possible mechanism of such rRNA gene amplification and its evolutionary implications are discussed.
Sanz, J.L.; Marin, I.; Ramirez, L.; Amils, R. (Centro de Biologia Molecular, Madrid (Spain)); Abad, J.P.; Smith, C.L. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))
The ribosome is a large complex containing both protein and RNA which must be assembled in a precise manner to allow proper functioning in the critical role of protein synthesis. 5S rRNA is the smallest of the RNA components of the ribosome, and although it has been studied for decades, we still do not have a clear understanding of its function within the complex ribosome machine. It is the only RNA species that binds ribosomal proteins prior to its assembly into the ribosome. Its transport into the nucleolus requires this interaction. Here we present an overview of some of the key findings concerning the structure and function of 5S rRNA and how its association with specific proteins impacts its localization and function.
Ciganda, Martin; Williams, Noreen
We have evaluated the use of a broad-range PCR aimed at the 16S rRNA gene in detecting bacterial meningitis in a clinical setting. To achieve a uniform DNA extraction procedure for both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, a combination of physical disruption (bead beating) and a silica-guanidiniumthiocyanate procedure was used for nucleic acid preparation. To diminish the risk of contamination as much as possible, we chose to amplify almost the entire 16S rRNA gene. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was approximately 1 × 102 to 2 × 102 CFU/ml of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. In a prospective study of 227 CSF samples, broad-range PCR proved to be superior to conventional methods in detecting bacterial meningitis when antimicrobial therapy had already started. Overall, our assay showed a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 97%, a positive predictive value of 80%, and a negative predictive value of 98% compared to culture. We are currently adapting the standard procedures in our laboratory for detecting bacterial meningitis; broad-range 16S ribosomal DNA PCR detection is indicated when antimicrobial therapy has already started at time of lumbar puncture or when cultures remain negative, although the suspicion of bacterial meningitis remains.
Schuurman, Tim; de Boer, Richard F.; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M. D.; van Zwet, Anton A.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common syndrome associated with numerous adverse health outcomes in women. Despite its medical importance, the etiology and microbial ecology of BV remain poorly understood. We used broad-range PCR to census the community structure of the healthy and BV-affected vaginal microbial ecosystems and synthesized current publicly available bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data from this environment.
Brian B. Oakley; Tina L. Fiedler; Jeanne M. Marrazzo; David N. Fredricks
Several fastidious bacteria have been associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using broad-range bacterial PCR methods such as consensus sequence 16S rRNA gene PCR, but their role in BV remains poorly defined. We describe changes in vaginal bacterial concentrations following metronidazole therapy for BV. Vaginal swabs were collected from women with BV diagnosed using Amsel clinical criteria, and vaginal fluid was
David N. Fredricks; Tina L. Fiedler; Katherine K. Thomas; Caroline M. Mitchell; Jeanne M. Marrazzo
Two different versions of the 16S rRNA gene, one of which contained an unusual 100-bp insertion in helix 6, were detected in isolate UFO1 acquired from the Oak Ridge Integrated Field-Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Tennessee. rRNA was extracted from UFO1 and analyzed by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR with insert- and non-insert-specific primers; only the noninsert 16S rRNA gene sequence was detected. Similarly, PCR-based screening of a cDNA library (190 clones) constructed from reverse-transcribed rRNA from UFO1 did not detect any clones containing the 100-bp insert. Examination of cDNA with primers specific to the insert-bearing 16S rRNA gene, but downstream of the insert, suggests that the insert was excised from rRNA. Inspection of other 16S rRNA genes in the GenBank database revealed that a homologous insert sequence, also found in helix 6, has been reported in other environmental clones, including those acquired from ORIFRC enrichments. These findings demonstrate the existence of widely divergent copies of the 16S rRNA gene within the same organism, which may confound 16S rRNA gene-based methods of estimating microbial diversity in environmental samples. PMID:20557571
Ray, Allison E; Connon, Stephanie A; Sheridan, Peter P; Gilbreath, Jeremy; Shields, Malcolm; Newby, Deborah T; Fujita, Yoshiko; Magnuson, Timothy S
Background Metagenomics seeks to understand microbial communities and assemblages by DNA sequencing. Technological advances in next generation sequencing technologies are fuelling a rapid growth in the number and scope of projects aiming to analyze complex microbial environments such as marine, soil or the gut. Recent improvements in longer read lengths and paired-sequencing allow better resolution in profiling microbial communities. While both 454 sequencing and Illumina sequencing have been used in numerous metagenomic studies, SOLiD sequencing is not commonly used in this area, as it is believed to be more suitable in the context of reference-guided projects. Results To investigate the performance of SOLiD sequencing in a metagenomic context, we compared taxonomic profiles of SOLiD mate-pair sequencing reads with Sanger paired reads and 454 single reads. All sequences were obtained from the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, which was amplified from microbial DNA extracted from a human fecal sample. Additionally, from the same fecal sample, complete genomic microbial DNA was extracted and shotgun sequenced using SOLiD sequencing to study the composition of the intestinal microbiota and the existing microbial metabolism. We found that the microbiota composition of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained using Sanger, 454 and SOLiD sequencing provide results comparable to the result based on shotgun sequencing. Moreover, with SOLiD sequences we obtained more resolution down to the species level. In addition, the shotgun data allowed us to determine a functional profile using the databases SEED and KEGG. Conclusions This study shows that SOLiD mate-pair sequencing is a viable and cost-efficient option for analyzing a complex microbiome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that SOLiD sequencing has been used in a human sample.
Background Guibi-Tang is a traditional herbal prescription made from 12 different herbs that is used in the treatment of amnesia and poor memory. Methods In the present study, we evaluated the acute oral toxicity and genotoxic potential of Guibi-Tang water extract (GBT) at doses up to 2000 ?g/plate an using a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli strain WP2uvrA. Acute toxicity and genotoxic potential were measured in the presence and absence of an exogenous source of metabolic activation, in an in vitro chromosome aberration assay with Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and in an in vivo micronucleus test using ICR mice bone marrow as recommended by the Korean Food and Drug Administration. An acute oral toxicity test of GBT was performed in Sprague Dawley rats. The Ames test showed that GBT did not induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium or in E. coli in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Results GBT did not significantly increase the number of structural aberrations in CHL cells with or without S9 activation. The oral administration of GBT at a dose of up to 2000 mg/kg caused no significant increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes or in the mean ratio of polychromatic to total erythrocytes. Conclusions However, as we did not identify the components of GBT responsible for these effects, other assays are needed to confirm its genotoxicity.
The influence of the loading rate and the seasonal environmental conditions on the bacterial communities established in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs) treating diluted swine manure was investigated using 16S rRNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and further phylogenetic analysis. Two HRAPs were successfully operated at different loading rates (10 and 20 times diluted swine manure, resulting in average surface
Eva M. Ferrero; Ignacio de Godos; Elisa M. Rodríguez; Pedro A. García-Encina; Raúl Muñoz; Eloy Bécares
Microorganisms are closely associated with eggs and may play a determinant role in embryo survival. Yet, the majority of studies focusing on this association relied on culture-based methodology, eventually leading to a skewed assessment of microbial communities. By targeting the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, we, respectively, described bacterial and fungal communities on eggshells of the homing pigeon Columba livia. We explored their structure, abundance, and composition. Firstly, we showed that sampling technique affected the outcome of the results. While broadly used, the egg swabbing procedure led to a lower DNA extraction efficiency and provided different profiles of bacterial communities than those based on crushed eggshell pieces. Secondly, we observed shifts in bacterial and fungal communities during incubation. At late incubation, bacterial communities showed a reduction in diversity, while their abundance increased, possibly due to the competitive advantage of some species. When compared to their bacterial counterparts, fungal communities also decreased in diversity at late incubation. In that case, however, the decline was associated with a diminution of their overall abundance. Conclusively, our results showed that although incubation might inhibit microbial growth when compared to unincubated eggs, we observed the selective growth of specific bacterial species during incubation. Moreover, we showed that fungi are a substantial component of the microbial communities associated with eggshells and require further investigations in avian ecology. Identifying the functional roles of these microorganisms is likely to provide news insights into the evolutionary strategies that control embryo survival. We aimed to describe the dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities on homing pigeon eggshell surfaces. We investigated these communities at early and late incubation stages.
Grizard, Stephanie; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Tieleman, B Irene; Salles, Joana F
A novel non-culture based 16S rRNA Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method using the restriction enzymes Tsp509I and Hpy166II was developed for the characterization of the nasopharyngeal microbiota and validated using recently published 454 pyrosequencing data. 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP for 153 clinical nasopharyngeal samples from infants with acute otitis media (AOM) revealed 5 Tsp509I and 6 Hpy166II terminal fragments (TFs) with a prevalence of >10%. Cloning and sequencing identified all TFs with a prevalence >6% allowing a sufficient description of bacterial community changes for the most important bacterial taxa. The conjugated 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PCV-7) and prior antibiotic exposure had significant effects on the bacterial composition in an additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI) in concordance with the 16S rRNA 454 pyrosequencing data. In addition, the presented T-RFLP method is able to discriminate S. pneumoniae from other members of the Mitis group of streptococci, which therefore allows the identification of one of the most important human respiratory tract pathogens. This is usually not achieved by current high throughput sequencing protocols. In conclusion, the presented 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP method is a highly robust, easy to handle and a cheap alternative to the computationally demanding next-generation sequencing analysis. In case a lot of nasopharyngeal samples have to be characterized, it is suggested to first perform 16S rRNA T-RFLP and only use next generation sequencing if the T-RFLP nasopharyngeal patterns differ or show unknown TFs.
Brugger, Silvio D.; Frei, Laurence; Frey, Pascal M.; Aebi, Suzanne; Muhlemann, Kathrin; Hilty, Markus
Mycobacterial species are able to control rRNA production through variations in the number and strength of promoters controlling their rrn operons. Mycobacterium chelonae and M. fortuitum are members of the rapidly growing mycobacterial group. They carry a total of five promoters each, encoded, respectively, by one and two rrn operons per genome. Quantification of precursor rrn transcriptional products (pre-rrn) has allowed detection of different promoter usage during cell growth. Bacteria growing in several culture media with different nutrient contents were compared. Balanced to stationary phases were analyzed. Most promoters were found to be used at different levels depending on the stage of bacterial growth and the nutrient content of the culture medium. Some biological implications are discussed. Sequences of the several promoters showed motifs that could be correlated to their particular level of usage. A product corresponding to the first rrnA promoter in both species, namely, rrnA P1, was found to contribute at a low and near-constant level to pre-rRNA synthesis, regardless of the culture medium used and the stage of growth analyzed. This product was used as a standard to quantitate rRNA gene expression by real-time PCR when M. fortuitum infected macrophages. It was shown that this bacterium actively synthesizes rRNA during the course of infection and that one of its rrn operons is preferentially used under such conditions. PMID:15629925
Menéndez, María Del Carmen; Rebollo, María José; Núñez, María Del Carmen; Cox, Robert A; García, María Jesús
Prokaryotic diversity in Alpine salt sediments was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA genes, sequencing of cloned products, and comparisons with culturable strains. DNA was extracted from the residue following filtration of dissolved Permo-Triassic rock salt. Fifty-four haloarchaeal sequences were obtained, which could be grouped into at least five distinct clusters. Similarity values of three clusters
Christian Radax; Claudia Gruber; Helga Stan-Lotter
Observations have been made on the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene units of hybrid progeny produced by experimental crosses of S. haematobium × S. mattheei, S. mattheei × S. bovis and S. haematobium × S. intercalatum. Hybridisation of DNA probe pSM 889 to restriction endonuclease digested DNA extracted from adult worms showed that each\\u000a parental form could be differentiated by differences
D. Rollinson; Tina K. Walker; R. J. Knowles; A. J. G. Simpson
Over evolutionary time RNA sequences which are successfully fixed in a population are selected from among those that satisfy the structural and chemical requirements imposed by the function of the RNA. These sequences together comprise the structure space of the RNA. In principle, a comprehensive understanding of RNA structure and function would make it possible to enumerate which specific RNA sequences belong to a particular structure space and which do not. We are using bacterial 5S rRNA as a model system to attempt to identify principles that can be used to predict which sequences do or do not belong to the 5S rRNA structure space. One promising idea is the very intuitive notion that frequently seen sequence changes in an aligned data set of naturally occurring 5S rRNAs would be widely accepted in many other 5S rRNA sequence contexts. To test this hypothesis, we first developed well-defined operational definitions for a Vibrio region of the 5S rRNA structure space and what is meant by a highly variable position. Fourteen sequence variants (10 point changes and 4 base-pair changes) were identified in this way, which, by the hypothesis, would be expected to incorporate successfully in any of the known sequences in the Vibrio region. All 14 of these changes were constructed and separately introduced into the Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA sequence where they are not normally found. Each variant was evaluated for its ability to function as a valid 5S rRNA in an E. coli cellular context. It was found that 93% (13/14) of the variants tested are likely valid 5S rRNAs in this context. In addition, seven variants were constructed that, although present in the Vibrio region, did not meet the stringent criteria for a highly variable position. In this case, 86% (6/7) are likely valid. As a control we also examined seven variants that are seldom or never seen in the Vibrio region of 5S rRNA sequence space. In this case only two of seven were found to be potentially valid. The results demonstrate that changes that occur multiple times in a local region of RNA sequence space in fact usually will be accepted in any sequence context in that same local region.
Zhang, Zhengdong; D'Souza, Lisa M.; Lee, Youn-Hyung; Fox, George E.
Hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms from natural environments have been isolated and identified using culture-dependent or molecular techniques. However, there has been little research into the occurrence of microorganisms incorporated into crude oil in the initial steps of extraction and handling, which can reduce the quality of stored petroleum. In the present study, a packed-column reactor filled with autoclaved perlite soaked with crude oil was subjected to a continuous flow of sterile medium in order to determine the presence of potential hydrocarbon degraders. Microorganisms developed on the surface of the perlite within a period of 73 days. DNA was extracted from the biofilm and then PCR-amplified using 16S rRNA bacterial and archaeal primers and 18S rRNA eukaryotic primers. No amplification was obtained using archaeal primers. However, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed the presence of unique bands indicating bacterial and eukaryotic amplification. Excision of these bands, sequencing, and subsequent BLAST search showed that they corresponded to Bacillus sp. and Aspergillus versicolor. The fungus was later isolated from intact perlite in agar plates. A bacterial clone library was used to confirm the presence in the biofilm of a unique hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium closely related to Bacillus sp. Analysis of the petroleum components by gas chromatography showed that there n-alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and carbazoles were degraded. PMID:16835842
Sánchez, Olga; Ferrera, Isabel; Vigués, Núria; Garcia de Oteyza, Tirso; Grimalt, Juan O; Mas, Jordi
Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.
Surface soils from Guiyu, China (an intense e-waste processing center) were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs)\\u000a and variations in composition of the resident bacterial communities. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis of bacterial\\u000a 16S rRNA gene showed that e-waste pollution altered the bacterial community structure by promoting changes in species composition\\u000a and species richness. Bacterial diversity was not decreased at
Wen Zhang; Hui Wang; Rui Zhang; Xie-Zhi Yu; Pei-Yuan Qian; M. H. Wong
Members of the haloalkane dechlorinating genus Dehalogenimonas are distantly related to "Dehalococcoides" but share high homology in some variable regions of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. In this study, primers and PCR protocols intended to uniquely target Dehalococcoides were reevaluated, and primers and PCR protocols intended to uniquely target Dehalogenimonas were developed and tested. Use of the genus-specific primers revealed the presence of both bacterial groups in groundwater at a Louisiana Superfund site. PMID:19820163
Yan, Jun; Rash, Brian A; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M
Members of the haloalkane dechlorinating genus Dehalogenimonas are distantly related to “Dehalococcoides” but share high homology in some variable regions of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. In this study, primers and PCR protocols intended to uniquely target Dehalococcoides were reevaluated, and primers and PCR protocols intended to uniquely target Dehalogenimonas were developed and tested. Use of the genus-specific primers revealed the presence of both bacterial groups in groundwater at a Louisiana Superfund site.
Yan, Jun; Rash, Brian A.; Rainey, Fred A.; Moe, William M.
The sequence of four Aspergillus nidulans 5S rRNA genes and of two pseudogenes has been determined. A conserved sequence about 100 by upstream of the 5S rRNA coding sequences has been found in three genes and one pseudogene. The two pseudogenes correspond to the 5' half of the 5S rRNA coding sequence and their 3' flanking sequences which are not
Ewa Bartnik; S?awomir Bartoszewski; Piotr Borsuk; Joanna Empel
Conventional microbiological culture techniques are frequently insufficient to confirm endophthalmitis clinical cases which could require urgent medical attention because it could lead to permanent vision loss. We are proposing PCR-DGGE and 16S rRNA gene libraries as an alternative to improve the detection and identification rate of bacterial species from endophthalmitis cases.
Navarro-Noya, Yendi; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Cesar; Zenteno, Juan C.; Buentello-Volante, Beatriz; Cancino-Diaz, Mario E.; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Cancino-Diaz, Juan C.
Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate for the first time the structure of the microbial community that inhabits salt crystals retrieved from the bottom of a solar saltern, located in the coastal area of the Mediterranean Sea (Sfax, Tunisia). This community lives in an extremely salty environment of 250-310 g/L total dissolved salt. A total of 78 bacterial 16S rRNA clone sequences making up to 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), determined by the DOTUR program to 97% sequence similarity, was analyzed. These OTUs were affiliated to Bacteroidetes (71.4% of OTUs), and gamma-Proteobacteria and alpha-Proteobacteria (equally represented by 14.2% of the OTUs observed). The archaeal community composition appeared more diverse with 68 clones, resulting in 44 OTUs, all affiliated with the Euryarchaeota phylum. Of the bacterial and archaeal clones showing <97% 16S rRNA sequence identity with sequences in public databases, 47.6% and 84.1% respectively were novel clones. Both rarefaction curves and diversity measurements (Simpson, Shannon-Weaver, Chao) showed a more diverse archaeal than bacterial community at the Tunisian solar saltern pond. The analysis of an increasing clone's number may reveal additional local diversity. PMID:20130693
Baati, Houda; Guermazi, Sonda; Gharsallah, Neji; Sghir, Abdelghani; Ammar, Emna
Assessing bacterial viability by molecular markers might help accelerate the measurement of antibiotic-induced killing. This study investigated whether rRNA could be suitable for this purpose. Cultures of penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-tolerant (Tol1 mutant) Streptococcus gordonii were exposed to mechanistically different penicillin and levofloxacin. Bacterial survival was assessed by viable counts and compared to quantitative real-time PCR amplification of either the 16S rRNA genes or the 16S rRNA, following reverse transcription. Penicillin-susceptible S. gordonii lost ?4 log10 CFU/ml of viability over 48 h of penicillin treatment. In comparison, the Tol1 mutant lost ?1 log10 CFU/ml. Amplification of a 427-bp fragment of 16S rRNA genes yielded amplicons that increased proportionally to viable counts during bacterial growth but did not decrease during drug-induced killing. In contrast, the same 427-bp fragment amplified from 16S rRNA paralleled both bacterial growth and drug-induced killing. It also differentiated between penicillin-induced killing of the parent and the Tol1 mutant (?4 log10 CFU/ml and ?1 log10 CFU/ml, respectively) and detected killing by mechanistically unrelated levofloxacin. Since large fragments of polynucleotides might be degraded faster than smaller fragments, the experiments were repeated by amplifying a 119-bp region internal to the original 427-bp fragment. The amount of 119-bp amplicons increased proportionally to viability during growth but remained stable during drug treatment. Thus, 16S rRNA was a marker of antibiotic-induced killing, but the size of the amplified fragment was critical for differentiation between live and dead bacteria.
Aellen, Steve; Que, Yok-Ai; Guignard, Bertrand; Haenni, Marisa; Moreillon, Philippe
We have evaluated the feasibility of using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) pattern of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 16S rRNA sequences to track the changes of the free-living bacterial community for the Pearl River Estuary surface waters. The suitability of specific PCR primers, PCR bias induced by thermal cycles, and field-sampling volumes were critically evaluated in laboratory tests. We established a workable protocol and obtained TRF patterns that reflected the changes in the bacterial population. The temporal dynamics over a 24 h period were examined at one anchored station, as well as the spatial distribution pattern of the bacterial community at several stations, covering the transects along the river discharge direction and across the river plume. The TRF pattern revealed 9 dominant bacterial groups. Changes in their relative abundance reflecting the changes in the bacterial community composition were documented. Many culturable species were isolated from each field sample and a portion of the 16S rRNA gene for each species was sequenced. The species was identified based on sequence data comparison. In this region, the dominant species belong to the ?-subdivision of proteobacteria and the Bacillus/Clostridium group of Firmicutes. We also detected the wide spread distribution of Acinetobacter spp.; many of these species are known nosocomial pathogen for humans.
Wu, Madeline; Song, Liansheng; Ren, Jianping; Kan, Jianjun; Qian, Pei-Yuan
Amplicon sequencing of the hypervariable regions of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene is a widely accepted method for identifying the members of complex bacterial communities. Several rRNA gene sequence reference databases can be used to assign taxonomic names to the sequencing reads using BLAST, USEARCH, GAST or the RDP classifier. Next-generation sequencing methods produce ample reads, but they are short, currently ?100-450?nt (depending on the technology), as compared to the full rRNA gene of ?1550 nt. It is important, therefore, to select the right rRNA gene region for sequencing. The primers should amplify the species of interest and the hypervariable regions should differentiate their taxonomy. Here, we introduce TaxMan: a web-based tool that trims reference sequences based on user-selected primer pairs and returns an assessment of the primer specificity by taxa. It allows interactive plotting of taxa, both amplified and missed in silico by the primers used. Additionally, using the trimmed sequences improves the speed of sequence matching algorithms. The smaller database greatly improves run times (up to 98%) and memory usage, not only of similarity searching (BLAST), but also of chimera checking (UCHIME) and of clustering the reads (UCLUST). TaxMan is available at http://www.ibi.vu.nl/programs/taxmanwww/. PMID:22618877
Brandt, Bernd W; Bonder, Marc J; Huse, Susan M; Zaura, Egija
In this study, bacterial composition of iru produced by natural, uncontrolled fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds was assessed using culture-independent method in combination with culture-based genotypic typing techniques. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed similarity in DNA fragments with the two DNA extraction methods used and confirmed bacterial diversity in the 16 iru samples from different production regions. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE identified species related to Bacillus subtilis as consistent bacterial species in the fermented samples, while other major bands were identified as close relatives of Staphylococcus vitulinus, Morganella morganii, B. thuringiensis, S. saprophyticus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Brevibacillus parabrevis, Salinicoccus jeotgali, Brevibacterium sp. and uncultured bacteria clones. Bacillus species were cultured as potential starter cultures and clonal relationship of different isolates determined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) combined with 16S–23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR amplification, restriction analysis (ITS-PCR-RFLP), and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR). This further discriminated B. subtilis and its variants from food-borne pathogens such as B. cereus and suggested the need for development of controlled fermentation processes and good manufacturing practices (GMP) for iru production to achieve product consistency, safety quality, and improved shelf life.
Adewumi, Gbenga A.; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Keisam, Santosh; Romi, Wahengbam; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy
Background The ribosomal RNA content of a sample collected from a woman with bacterial vaginosis (BV) was analysed to determine the active microbial community, and to identify potential targets for further screening. Methodology/Principal Findings The sample from the BV patient underwent total RNA extraction, followed by physical subtraction of human rRNA and whole transcriptome amplification. The metatranscriptome was sequenced using Roche 454 titanium chemistry. The bioinformatics pipeline MG-RAST and desktop DNA analysis platforms were utilised to analyse results. Bacteria of the genus Prevotella (predominately P. amnii) constituted 36% of the 16S rRNA reads, followed by Megasphaera (19%), Leptotrichia/Sneathia (8%) and Fusobacterium (8%). Comparison of the abundances of several bacteria to quantitative PCR (qPCR) screening of extracted DNA revealed comparable relative abundances. This suggests a correlation between what was present and transcriptionally active in this sample: however distinct differences were seen when compared to the microbiome determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. To assess the presence of P. amnii in a larger pool of samples, 90 sexually active women were screened using qPCR. This bacterium was found to be strongly associated with BV (P<0.001, OR 23.3 (95%CI:2.9–190.7)) among the 90 women. Conclusions/Significance This study highlighted the potential of metatranscriptomics as a tool for characterising metabolically active microbiota and identifying targets for further screening. Prevotella amnii was chosen as an example target, being the most metabolically active species present in the single patient with BV, and was found to be detected at a high concentration by qPCR in 31% of cohort with BV, with an association with both oral and penile-vaginal sex.
Twin, Jimmy; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Fethers, Katherine; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.
Human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of host health by providing energy, nutrients, and immunological protection. Intestinal dysfunction is a frequent complaint in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) patients, and previous reports suggest that dysbiosis, i.e. the overgrowth of abnormal populations of bacteria in the gut, is linked to the pathogenesis of the disease. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the presence of specific alterations in the gut microbiota of ME/CFS patients from Belgium and Norway. 43 ME/CFS patients and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. Bacterial DNA was extracted from stool samples, PCR amplification was performed on 16S rRNA gene regions, and PCR amplicons were sequenced using Roche FLX 454 sequencer. The composition of the gut microbiota was found to differ between Belgian controls and Norwegian controls: Norwegians showed higher percentages of specific Firmicutes populations (Roseburia, Holdemania) and lower proportions of most Bacteroidetes genera. A highly significant separation could be achieved between Norwegian controls and Norwegian patients: patients presented increased proportions of Lactonifactor and Alistipes, as well as a decrease in several Firmicutes populations. In Belgian subjects the patient/control separation was less pronounced, however some abnormalities observed in Norwegian patients were also found in Belgian patients. These results show that intestinal microbiota is altered in ME/CFS. High-throughput sequencing is a useful tool to diagnose dysbiosis in patients and could help designing treatments based on gut microbiota modulation (antibiotics, pre and probiotics supplementation). PMID:23791918
Frémont, Marc; Coomans, Danny; Massart, Sebastien; De Meirleir, Kenny
Background DNA extraction is an essential step in all cultivation-independent approaches to characterize microbial diversity, including that associated with the human body. A fundamental challenge in using these approaches has been to isolate DNA that is representative of the microbial community sampled. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we statistically evaluated six commonly used DNA extraction procedures using eleven human-associated bacterial species and a mock community that contained equal numbers of those eleven species. These methods were compared on the basis of DNA yield, DNA shearing, reproducibility, and most importantly representation of microbial diversity. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from a mock community showed that the observed species abundances were significantly different from the expected species abundances for all six DNA extraction methods used. Conclusions/Significance Protocols that included bead beating and/or mutanolysin produced significantly better bacterial community structure representation than methods without both of them. The reproducibility of all six methods was similar, and results from different experimenters and different times were in good agreement. Based on the evaluations done it appears that DNA extraction procedures for bacterial community analysis of human associated samples should include bead beating and/or mutanolysin to effectively lyse cells.
Yuan, Sanqing; Cohen, Dora B.; Ravel, Jacques; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.
\\u000a The human gastrointestinal tract typically contains 300–500 bacterial species. Most bacterial species are acquired during\\u000a the birth process and although some changes to the flora may occur during later stages of life, the composition of the intestinal\\u000a microflora remains relatively constant. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) is defined as an excessive increase in the\\u000a number of bacteria in the upper
Rosemary J. Young; Jon A. Vanderhoof
Intracellular RNA is rapidly degraded in stressed cells and is more unstable outside of the cell than DNA. As a result, RNA-based methods have been suggested to study the active microbial fraction in environmental matrices. The aim of this study was to identify bacterial populations in drinking water by analyzing 16S rRNA-based clone libraries. Hollow-fiber ultrafiltration was used to concentrate bacterial communities from 40l of tap water collected at 12 different times during three different summer months from a single point-of-use. Total RNA was extracted from the microbial concentrates and used to develop 16S rRNA-based clone libraries. Phylogenetic analyses of 1231 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that difficult-to-classify bacterial sequences were the most predominant clones, representing 57.6% of the sequences analyzed. Within these unclassified clades, most sequences were closely related to sequences retrieved from previous DNA- and RNA-based drinking water studies. Other bacterial groups represented in this study included Proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. Overall, the results suggest that these bacterial groups are amongst potentially active bacteria in drinking water. Diversity analyses of clones generated show that while overall diversity is similar amongst the different months, membership changes with respect to time. The results from this study further improve our understanding of the molecular diversity and bacterial population dynamics of drinking water microbial communities. Moreover, these results provide the sequence foundation for the development of molecular assays that target active drinking water bacteria. PMID:19944442
Revetta, Randy P; Pemberton, Adin; Lamendella, Regina; Iker, Brandon; Santo Domingo, Jorge W
Background Cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection can be recalcitrant. Recurrence is common despite appropriate therapy for the pathogens identified by culture. Improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are required, and culture-independent molecular approaches to cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections have not been described. Objectives To identify the bacteria and fungi present in cerebrospinal fluid from children with cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection using a high-throughput sequencing approach, and to compare those results to those from negative controls and conventional culture. Methods This descriptive study included eight children ?18 years old undergoing treatment for culture-identified cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection. After routine aerobic culture of each cerebrospinal fluid sample, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction was followed by amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the fungal ITS DNA region tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing and microbial phylogenetic analysis. Results The microbiota analyses for the initial cerebrospinal fluid samples from all eight infections identified a variety of bacteria and fungi, many of which did not grow in conventional culture. Detection by conventional culture did not predict the relative abundance of an organism by pyrosequencing, but in all cases, at least one bacterial taxon was detected by both conventional culture and pyrosequencing. Individual bacterial species fluctuated in relative abundance but remained above the limits of detection during infection treatment. Conclusions Numerous bacterial and fungal organisms were detected in these cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections, even during and after treatment, indicating diverse and recalcitrant shunt microbiota. In evaluating cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection, fungal and anaerobic bacterial cultures should be considered in addition to aerobic bacterial cultures, and culture-independent approaches offer a promising alternative diagnostic approach. More effective treatment of cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections is needed to reduce unacceptably high rates of reinfection, and this work suggests that one effective strategy may be reduction of the diverse microbiota present in infection.
Simon, Tamara D.; Pope, Christopher E.; Browd, Samuel R.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Zerr, Danielle M.; Hoffman, Lucas
We used rarefaction curve analysis and diversity ordering-based approaches to rank the 11 most frequently encountered bacterial lineages in soil according to diversity in 5 previously reported 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from agricultural, undisturbed tall grass prairie and forest soils (n=26,140, 28 328, 31 818, 13 001 and 53 533). The Planctomycetes, Firmicutes and the ?-Proteobacteria were consistently
Noha H Youssef; Mostafa S Elshahed; Elshahed
Quantitative and qualitative differences were analyzed between planktonic and anode-biofilm bacterial communities developed in a cassette-electrode microbial fuel cell treating starch, peptone, and fish extract. Quantitative analyses based on protein contents and rRNA-gene copy numbers indicated that planktonic microbes were over eight-times more abundant than anode-biofilm microbes. Clone-library analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed the presence of bacteria affiliated with the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria in these two communities. The most abundant sequence was affiliated with the family Porphyromonadaceae, and accounted for over 50% and 20% of all the sequences in the planktonic- and biofilm-microbe libraries, respectively. PMID:21566373
Shimoyama, Takefumi; Yamazawa, Akira; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Kazuya
The rate of in vivo transcription elongation for Escherichia coli rRNA operons was determined by electron microscopy following addition of rifampin to log-phase cultures. Direct observation of RNA polymerase positions along rRNA operons 30, 40, and 70 s after inhibition of transcription initiation yielded a transcription elongation rate of 42 nucleotides per s. Images FIG. 1
Gotta, S L; Miller, O L; French, S L
The antimicrobial activities of chloroform, acetone and two different concentrations of methanol extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. were studied. These extracts were tested in vitro against 10 bacteria and 4 yeasts strains by the disc diffusion method. The results indicated that the methanol extracts of O. basilucum exhibited the antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms. While the chloroform and acetone extracts had no effect, the methanol extracts showed inhibition zones against strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and two different strains of Escherichia coli. The cells of microorganisms, which were treated and untreated with plant extracts, were observed by using the scanning electron microscope. It was observed that the treated cells were damaged. PMID:20161958
Kaya, Ilhan; Yigit, Nazife; Benli, Mehlika
We describe a new method for studying the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in the natural ecosystem. Our approach is based on single-strand-conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of PCR products of 16S rRNA genes from complex bacterial populations. A pair of eubacterial universal primers for amplification of the variable V3 region were designed from the 16S rRNA sequences of 1,262
DONG-HUN LEE; YOUNG-GUN ZO; ANDSANG-JONG KIM
Responding to various stimuli is indispensable for the maintenance of homeostasis. The downregulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription is one of the mechanisms involved in the response to stimuli by various cellular processes, such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Cell differentiation is caused by intra- and extracellular stimuli and is associated with the downregulation of rRNA transcription as well as reduced cell growth. The downregulation of rRNA transcription during differentiation is considered to contribute to reduced cell growth. However, the downregulation of rRNA transcription can induce various cellular processes; therefore, it may positively regulate cell differentiation. To test this possibility, we specifically downregulated rRNA transcription using actinomycin D or a siRNA for Pol I-specific transcription factor IA (TIF-IA) in HL-60 and THP-1 cells, both of which have differentiation potential. The inhibition of rRNA transcription induced cell differentiation in both cell lines, which was demonstrated by the expression of the common differentiation marker CD11b. Furthermore, TIF-IA knockdown in an ex vivo culture of mouse hematopoietic stem cells increased the percentage of myeloid cells and reduced the percentage of immature cells. We also evaluated whether differentiation was induced via the inhibition of cell cycle progression because rRNA transcription is tightly coupled to cell growth. We found that cell cycle arrest without affecting rRNA transcription did not induce differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, our results demonstrate the first time that the downregulation of rRNA levels could be a trigger for the induction of differentiation in mammalian cells. Furthermore, this phenomenon was not simply a reflection of cell cycle arrest. Our results provide a novel insight into the relationship between rRNA transcription and cell differentiation.
Hayashi, Yuki; Kuroda, Takao; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Wang, Changshan; Iwama, Atsushi; Kimura, Keiji
Extracting DNA directly from micro-organisms living in soil is a crucial step for the molecular analysis of soil microbial communities. However, the use of a plethora of different soil DNA extraction protocols, each with its own bias, makes accurate data comparison difficult. To overcome this problem, a method for soil DNA extraction was proposed to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 2006. This method was evaluated by 13 independent European laboratories actively participating in national and international ring tests. The reproducibility of the standardized method for molecular analyses was evaluated by comparing the amount of DNA extracted, as well as the abundance and genetic structure of the total bacterial community in the DNA extracted from 12 different soils by the 13 laboratories. High quality DNA was successfully extracted from all 12 soils, despite different physical and chemical characteristics and a range of origins from arable soils, through forests to industrial sites. Quantification of the 16S rRNA gene abundances by real time PCR and analysis of the total bacterial community structure by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (A-RISA) showed acceptable to good levels of reproducibility. Based on the results of both ring-tests, the method was unanimously approved by the ISO as an international standard method and the normative protocol will now be disseminated within the scientific community. Standardization of a soil DNA extraction method will improve data comparison, facilitating our understanding of soil microbial diversity and soil quality monitoring. PMID:21256879
Petric, I; Philippot, L; Abbate, C; Bispo, A; Chesnot, T; Hallin, S; Laval, K; Lebeau, T; Lemanceau, P; Leyval, C; Lindström, K; Pandard, P; Romero, E; Sarr, A; Schloter, M; Simonet, P; Smalla, K; Wilke, B-M; Martin-Laurent, F
Posttranscriptional modification in RNA generally serves to fine-tune and regulate RNA structure and, in many cases, is relatively conserved and phylogenetically distinct. We report the complete modification map for SSU rRNA from Thermus thermophilus, determined primarily by HPLC/electrospray ionization MS-based methods. Thermus modification levels are significantly lower, and structures at the nucleoside level are very different from those of the archaeal thermophile Sulfolobus solfataricus growing in the same temperature range [Noon, K. R., et al. (1998) J. Bacteriol. 180, 2883-2888]. The Thermus modification map is unexpectedly similar to that of Escherichia coli (11 modified sites), with which it shares identity in 8 of the 14 modifications. Unlike the heavily methylated Sulfolobus SSU RNA, Thermus contains a single ribose-methylated residue, N(4),2'-O-dimethylcytidine-1402, suggesting that O-2'-ribose methylation in this bacterial thermophile plays a reduced role in thermostabilization compared with the thermophilic archaea. Adjacent pseudouridine residues were found in the single-stranded 3' tail of Thermus 16S rRNA at residues 1540 and 1541 (E. coli numbering) in the anti-Shine-Dalgarno mRNA binding sequence. The present results provide an example of the potential of LC/MS for extensive modification mapping in large RNAs. PMID:16605256
Guymon, Rebecca; Pomerantz, Steven C; Crain, Pamela F; McCloskey, James A
Gallibacterium was recently established as a new genus including organisms previously reported as Pasteurella anatis, [Actinobacillus] salpingitidis and avian Pasteurella haemolytica-like organisms. The aim of the present study was to develop a PCR method allowing unambiguous identification of Gallibacterium. PCR primers positioned in the 16S rRNA (1133fgal) and 23S rRNA (114r) genes were defined and their specificity was subsequently tested on 122 strains. Twenty-five of the strains represented all of the presently available 15 phenotypic variants of Gallibacterium from different geographical locations, 22 other strains represented other poultry associated bacterial species or bacteria which could pose a differential diagnostic problem including members of the families Pasteurellaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Flavobacteriaceae, and finally 75 Gallibacterium field strains isolated from Mexican chicken egg-layers. Specific amplicons were generated in all 100 Gallibacterium strains tested, whereas none of the non-Gallibacterium strains tested positive. Correct identification was confirmed by hybridization with the Gallibacterium specific probe GAN850. Two internal amplification control strategies were successfully incorporated into the PCR assay, one based on amplification of the house-keeping gene rpoB (sharing target DNA) and another based on addition of trout DNA (foreign target DNA) and amplification with beta-actin specific primers. In conclusion, the described PCR assay enables specific identification of Gallibacterium and will thus stand as a strong alternative to the present diagnostic methods. PMID:17350770
Bojesen, Anders Miki; Vazquez, Maria Elena; Robles, Fransisco; Gonzalez, Carlos; Soriano, Edgardo V; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Christensen, Henrik
Bacterial diversity in acidic mine drainage at a historic Maine iron mining site was investigated by isolation of environmental DNA, PCR amplification of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and DNA sequencing.
Gaynor, J.; Sawyer, T.; Riley, F. E.; Moulton, K. D.; Rothschild, L. J.; Duboise, S. M.
Small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) is a phylogenetically informative molecule found in all species. Because it is poorly preserved in most environments, it is a useful marker for active microbial populations. We are using the natural-abundance stable carbon isotopic composition of specific microbial groups to help identify the carbon substrates contributing to microbial biomass in a variety of marine environments. At Guaymas Basin, hydrothermal fluids interact with abundant sedimentary organic carbon to produce natural gas and petroleum. Where this reaches the sediment surface, it can support dense patches of seafloor life, including Beggiatoa mats. We report here on the stable carbon isotopic composition of SSU rRNA from a Beggiatoa mat transect, a cold background site, a warm site with high oil concentration, and a second Beggiatoa mat. The central part of the transect mat overlay the steepest temperature gradient, and was visually dominated by orange Beggiatoa. This was fringed by white Beggiatoa mat and bare, but still warm, sediment. Methane concentrations were saturating beneath the orange and white mats and at the oily site, lower beneath bare sediment, and below detection at the background site. Our initial hypotheses were that rRNA isotopic composition would be strongly influenced by methane supply, and that archaeal rRNA might be lighter than bacterial due to contributions from methanogens and anaerobic methane oxidizers. We used biotin-labeled oligonucleotides to capture Bacterial and Archaeal SSU rRNA for isotopic determination. Background-site rRNA was isotopically heaviest, and bacterial RNA from below 2 cm at the oily site was lightest, consistent with control by methane. Within the transect mat, however, the pattern was more complicated; at some sediment depths, rRNA from the mat periphery was isotopically lightest. Part of this may be due to the spatially and temporally variable paths followed by hydrothermal fluid, which can include horizontal flow. There was no consistent isotopic difference between rRNAs captured by the two probes, although RNA recoveries were too low for isotopic determinations at depths where methanogens and methane oxidizers are expected. Our prediction that rRNA stable carbon isotopic composition would correlate with methane supply was borne out by the comparison between background and mat sediments, but may be an oversimplification for sites within hydrothermal features. Future work will include the isotopic characterization of other potential carbon substrates, such as acetate. We are also investigating cold-seep sediments and brine pools in the Gulf of Mexico, where methane is significantly more 13C-depleted than at Guaymas Basin and may therefore leave a stronger imprint on microbial biomass.table carbon isotopes of rRNA captured with Bacterial and Archaeal probes at mat transect and background sites.
MacGregor, B. J.; Mendlovitz, H.; Albert, D.; Teske, A. P.
The fiber-associated rumen bacterial community was phylogenetically examined by analysis of 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) sequences. Hay stems of orchardgrass and alfalfa were incubated for 6 and 20 h, respectively in the rumen of two different sheep, and total DNA was extracted from the incubated stems to clone bacterial 16S rDNAs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 91 such clones, 21 showed more than 97% sequence similarity with known isolates, 32 clones had 90-97% similarity with known sequences, and for the remaining 38 clones, the similarity was less than 90%. The majority of clones fell into the Cytophaga-Flavobacter-Bacteroides and low G+C Gram-positive bacterial phyla (43 and 44%, respectively). Prevotella-related and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens-related sequences formed large clusters in the phylogenetic tree. Unknown sequences were found to form three unique clusters, one of which was suggested by semi-quantitative PCR to be more prevalent in the rumen receiving a high alfalfa diet. PMID:14659538
Koike, Satoshi; Yoshitani, Sayo; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Tanaka, Keiichi
Chronic bacterial prostatitis: efficacy of short-lasting antibiotic therapy with prulifloxacin (Unidrox(R)) in association with saw palmetto extract, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin (Lactorepens(R))
Background Bacterial prostatitis (BP) is a common condition accounting responsible for about 5-10% of all prostatitis cases; chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) classified as type II, are less common but is a condition that significantly hampers the quality of life, (QoL) because not only is it a physical condition but also a psychological distress. Commonly patients are treated with antibiotics alone, and in particular fluoroquinolones are suggested by the European Urology guidelines. This approach, although recommended, may not be enough. Thus, a multimodal approach to the prolonged antibiotic therapy may be helpful. Methods 210 patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis were enrolled in the study. All patients were positive to Meares-Stamey test and symptoms duration was?>?3 months. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a long lasting therapy with a fluoroquinolone in association with a nutraceutical supplement (prulifloxacin 600 mg for 21 days and an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Lactobacillus Sporogens 200 mg, Arbutin 100 mg for 30 days). Patients were randomized in two groups (A and B) receiving respectively antibiotic alone and an association of antibiotic plus supplement. Results Biological recurrence at 2 months in Group A was observed in 21 patients (27.6%) and in Group B in 6 patients (7.8%). Uropathogens found at the first follow-up were for the majority Gram – (E. coli and Enterobacter spp.). A statistically significant difference was found at the time of the follow-up between Group A and B in the NIH-CPSI questionnaire score, symptoms evidence and serum PSA. Conclusions Broad band, short-lasting antibiotic therapy in association with a nutritional supplement (serenoa repens, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin) show better control and recurrence rate on patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitits in comparison with antibiotic treatment alone. Trial registration NCT02130713 Date of trial Registration: 30/04/2014
The high throughput and cost-effectiveness afforded by short-read sequencing technologies, in principle, enable researchers to perform 16S rRNA profiling of complex microbial communities at unprecedented depth and resolution. Existing Illumina sequencing protocols are, however, limited by the fraction of the 16S rRNA gene that is interrogated and therefore limit the resolution and quality of the profiling. To address this, we present the design of a novel protocol for shotgun Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, optimized to amplify more than 90% of sequences in the Greengenes database and with the ability to distinguish nearly twice as many species-level OTUs compared to existing protocols. Using several in silico and experimental datasets, we demonstrate that despite the presence of multiple variable and conserved regions, the resulting shotgun sequences can be used to accurately quantify the constituents of complex microbial communities. The reconstruction of a significant fraction of the 16S rRNA gene also enabled high precision (>90%) in species-level identification thereby opening up potential application of this approach for clinical microbial characterization.
Lay, Christophe; Ho, Eliza Xin Pei; Low, Louie; Hibberd, Martin Lloyd; Nagarajan, Niranjan
This work aimed at evaluating the biodegradability of different bacterial surfactants in liquid medium and in soil microcosms. The biodegradability of biosurfactants by pure and mixed bacterial cultures was evaluated through CO(2) evolution. Three bacterial strains, Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMA ES11, Acinetobacter haemolyticus LBBMA 53 and Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA 101B, used the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus sp. LBBMA 111A (mixed lipopeptide), Bacillus subtilis LBBMA 155 (lipopeptide), Flavobacterium sp. LBBMA 168 (mixture of flavolipids), Dietzia Maris LBBMA 191(glycolipid) and Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201(lipopeptide) as carbon sources in minimal medium. The synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also mineralized by these microorganisms, but at a lower rate. CO(2) emitted by a mixed bacterial culture in soil microcosms with biosurfactants was higher than in the microcosm containing SDS. Biosurfactant mineralization in soil was confirmed by the increase in surface tension of the soil aqueous extracts after incubation with the mixed bacterial culture. It can be concluded that, in terms of biodegradability and environmental security, these compounds are more suitable for applications in remediation technologies in comparison to synthetic surfactants. However, more information is needed on structure of biosurfactants, their interaction with soil and contaminants and scale up and cost for biosurfactant production. PMID:21053055
Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Carvalho, André M X; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C
Bacterial infections are frequent complications among patients treated for cancer. The type, severity, and treatment of bacterial infections vary and depend upon the specific malignancy, associated chemotherapies, and transplantation. This chapter discusses commonly encountered bacterial pathogens as well as Nocardia and mycobacteria in patients with cancer and addresses the clinical syndromes and management. Drug-resistant bacteria are becoming an increasingly recognized problem in patients with cancer. Antimicrobial resistance in select gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are discussed along with the mechanisms of resistance and recommended therapies. PMID:24706222
Wilson, John W
The helix 69 (H69) region of the large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of Homo sapiens contains five pseudouridine (?) residues out of 19 total nucleotides, three of which are highly conserved. In this study, the effects of this abundant modified nucleotide on the structure and stability of H69 were compared with those of uridine in double-stranded (stem) regions. These results were compared with previous hairpin (stem plus single-stranded loop) studies to understand the contributions of the loop sequences to H69 structure and stability. The role of a loop nucleotide substitution from an A in bacteria (position 1918 in Escherichia coli 23S rRNA) to a G in eukaryotes (position 3734 in H. sapiens 28S rRNA) was examined. Thermodynamic parameters for the duplex RNAs were obtained through UV melting studies, and differences in the modified and unmodified RNA structures were examined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The overall folded structure of human H69 appears to be similar to the bacterial RNA, consistent with the idea that ribosome structure and function are highly conserved; however, our results reveal subtle differences in structure and stability between the bacterial and human H69 RNAs in both the stem and loop regions. These findings may be significant with respect to H69 as a potential drug target site. PMID:21858779
Sumita, Minako; Jiang, Jun; SantaLucia, John; Chow, Christine S
While Helicobacter pylori is accepted as the major bacterial agent of gastric disease in humans, some patients and many animals are infected with a larger, tightly helical-shaped bacterium previously referred to as 'Helicobacter heilmannii' or 'Gastrospirillum hominis'. Taxonomic classification of these bacteria has been hampered by the inability to cultivate them in vitro and by the inadequate discriminatory power of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. This study describes the detection and phylogenetic analysis of 26 different gastrospirillum isolates from humans and animals, which incorporates sequence data based on the 16S rRNA and urease genes. Fifteen gastrospirilla detected in humans, primates and pigs clustered with 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis', thus expanding the host range for this organism. By comparison, based on 16S rRNA data, the remaining 11 gastrospirilla could not be differentiated from Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii and Helicobacter salomonis. However, urease gene sequence analysis allowed for the discrimination of this latter group into four discrete clusters, three of which contained the above recognized species. The fourth cluster contained isolates from human and feline hosts, and should provisionally be considered a unique bacterial species, for which the name 'Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii' is proposed. PMID:15545459
O'Rourke, Jani L; Solnick, Jay V; Neilan, Brett A; Seidel, Karin; Hayter, Robert; Hansen, Lori M; Lee, Adrian
A rapid, sensitive, inexpensive in situ hybridization technique, using 30-mer 16S rRNA probes, can specifically differentiate two closely related Bacillus spp., B. polymyxa and B. macerans. The 16S rRNA probes were labeled with a rhodamine derivative (Texas Red), and quantitative fluorescence measurements were made on individual bacterial cells. The microscopic fields analyzed were selected by phase-contrast microscopy, and the fluorescence imaging analyses were performed on 16 to 67 individual cells. The labeled 16S rRNA probe, POL, whose sequence was a 100% match with B. polymyxa 16S rRNA but only a 60% match with B. macerans 16S rRNA, gave quantitative fluorescence ratio measurements that were 34.8-fold higher for B. polymyxa cells than for B. macerans cells. Conversely, the labeled probe, MAC, which matched B. polymyxa 16S rRNA in 86.6% of its positions and B. macerans 16S rRNA in 100% of its positions, gave quantitative fluorescence measurements that were 59.3-fold higher in B. macerans cells than in B. polymyxa cells. Control probes, whose 16S rRNA sequence segment (P-M) was present in both B. polymyxa and B. macerans as well as a panprokaryotic probe (16S), having a 100% match with all known bacteria, hybridized equally well with both organisms. These latter hybridizations generated very high fluorescence signals, but their comparative fluorescence ratios (the differences between two organisms) were low. The control paneukaryotic probe (28S), which had less than 30% identity for both B. macerans and B. polymyxa, did not hybridize with either organism.
Jurtshuk, R. J.; Blick, M.; Bresser, J.; Fox, G. E.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr
A rapid procedure for the identification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood (AFB) disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), based on PCR and restriction fragment analysis of the 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) is described. Eighty-six bacterial strains belonging to 39 species of the genera Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Virgibacillus were characterized. Amplified rDNA was digested with seven restriction endonucleases. The combined data from restriction analysis enabled us to distinguish 35 profiles. Cluster analysis revealed that P. larvae subsp. larvae and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens formed a group with about 90% similarity; however, the P. larvae subsp. larvae restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern produced by endonuclease HaeIII was found to be unique and distinguishable among other closely related bacteria. This pattern was associated with DNA extracted directly from honeybee brood samples showing positive AFB clinical signs that yielded the restriction profile characteristic of P. larvae subsp. larvae, while no amplification product was obtained from healthy larvae. The method described here is particularly useful because of the short time required to carry it out and because it allows the differentiation of P. larvae subsp. larvae-infected larvae from all other species found in apiarian sources.
Alippi, Adriana M.; Lopez, Ana Claudia; Aguilar, O. Mario
The diversity of bacterial groups in activated sludge from large- and small-scale wastewater treatment plants was explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Activated sludge samples (three small and 17 large scale) were collected from 12 wastewater treatment plants to clarify precise taxonomy and relative abundances. DNA was extracted, and amplified by 4 base barcoded 27f/519r primer set. The 454 Titanium (Roche) pyrosequences were obtained and analyses performed by Quantitative Insight Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) with around 100,000 reads. Sequence statistics were computed, while constructing a phylogenetic tree and heatmap. Computed results explained total microbial diversity at phylum and class level and resolution was further extended to Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) based taxonomic assignment for investigating community distribution based on individual sample. Composition of sequence reads were compared and microbial community structures for large- and small-scale treatment plants were identified as major phyla (Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes) and classes (Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes). Also, family level breakdowns were explained and differences in family Nitrospiraceae and phylum Actinobacteria found at their species level were also illustrated. Thus, the pyrosequencing method provides high resolution insight into microbial community structures in activated sludge that might have been unnoticed with conventional approaches. PMID:22949246
Ranasinghe, Purnika Damindi; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Oshiki, Mamoru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Mino, Takashi
Previous investigations demonstrated that a standardized extract of ginger rhizome inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori in vitro with a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 0.78 to 12.5 ?g/mL. In the present work, the extract was tested in a rodent model of H. pylori-induced disease, the Mongolian gerbil, to examine the effects of the extract on both prevention and eradication of infection. The extract was administered to Mongolian gerbils at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in rations either 3 weeks prior to infection or 6 weeks post-infection. Treatment with the standardized ginger extract reduced H. pylori load as compared with controls and significantly (P<0.05) reduced both acute and chronic muscosal and submucosal inflammation, cryptitis, as well as epithelial cell degeneration and erosion induced by H. pylori. Importantly, the extract did not increase morbidity or mortality. Further investigations of the mechanism demonstrated that the ginger extract inhibited the activity of cyclooxygenase-2, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 8.5 ?g/mL in vitro, inhibited the nuclear factor-?B transcriptional response in kBZ Jurkat cells (human T lymphocytes) with an IC50 of 24.6 ?g/mL, and significantly inhibited the release of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-? from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with IC50 values of 3.89, 7.7, 8.5, and 8.37 ?g/mL, respectively. These results suggest ginger extracts may be useful for development as agents to reduce H. pylori-induced inflammation and as for gastric cancer chemoprevention.
Gaus, Kristen; Huang, Yue; Israel, Dawn A.; Pendland, Susan L.; Adeniyi, Bolanle A.; Mahady, Gail B.
Six human 5S rRNA genes and gene variants and one pseudogene have been sequenced. The six genes/variants were transcribed in a HeLa cell extract with about equal efficiency. Three genes contain the Sp1 binding sequence GGGCGG in position -43 to -38 and three genes contain the Sp1 like sequence GGGCCG in this position. The six genes contain furthermore one Sp1 binding site in a position about -245 and one ATF recognition site in a position about -202. A 12 bp sequence (GGCTCTTGGGGC) found in position -32 to -21 strongly influenced the transcriptional efficiency in vitro. This 12-mer, designated the D box, has also been found upstream a 5S rRNA gene from hamster and mouse. Removal of the Sp1 binding sites had no effect on the transcription in vitro whereas the transcriptional efficiency decreased to 10% if the D box was removed from the human 5S rRNA gene. Images
Nielsen, J N; Hallenberg, C; Frederiksen, S; S?rensen, P D; Lomholt, B
Deoxyoligonucleotide probes were constructed for the identification of Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequence data. Probes were targeted to hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA. Specificity of oligonucleotide probes was tested in a colony blot assay with type strains of 15 Campylobacter and Arcobacter species as well as in a slot blot format using genomic DNA extracted from field strains of C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Two oligonucleotides were constructed for C. fetus that hybridized with equal specificity with each of 57 biochemically confirmed isolates of C. fetus but not with any other Campylobacter species. The C. hyointestinalis probe reacted with 47 of 48 biochemically confirmed field isolates of C. hyointestinalis. In Southern blot hybridization of BglII digests of genomic DNA, the respective probes reacted within three restriction fragments of either C. hyointestinalis (7.2, 8.2, and 10.1 kb) or C. fetus (7.0, 7.7, and 9.0 kb). This suggests multiple copies of genes encoding 16S rRNA. Images
Wesley, I V; Wesley, R D; Cardella, M; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J
The bacterial population in several Philippine fermented food preparations was assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA). Genomic DNA was isolated directly from alamang (fermented shrimp paste), burong isda (fermented fish and rice), burong hipon (fermented shrimp and rice), burong mustasa (fermented mustard leaves), tuba (sugar cane wine), suka (vinegar) and sinamak (spiced vinegar) using one of two protocols, namely - MoBio DNA Extraction Kit procedure and a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based method. Samples recalcitrant to both methods underwent enrichment in three culture broths prior to DNA isolation. Isolated DNA was amplified using nested primer pairs targeting the bacterial 16S rDNA. PCR products were subjected to DGGE to elucidate the bacterial diversity in each fermented food. 16S rDNA sequence analyses revealed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were dominant in the food samples. The LAB identified were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus pontis and Weissella cibaria. Identified AAB were Acetobacter pomorum, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter orientalis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Among these, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and W. cibaria are established probiotic bacteria, while L. panis and L. pontis are potential probiotic bacteria. This finding would increase the appeal and significance of local fermented foods to consumers. Furthermore, the majority of the identified bacteria in the study have not been reported before in culture-dependent studies of similar food preparations. As such, some of the bacterial 16S rDNA obtained were cloned to have an initial partial bacterial 16S rDNA library for Philippine fermented foods. PMID:22146687
Dalmacio, L M M; Angeles, A K J; Larcia, L L H; Balolong, M P; Estacio, R C
The impacts of planted transgenic rice varieties on bacterial communities in paddy soils were monitored using both cultivation and molecular methods. The rice field plot consisted of eighteen subplots planted with two genetically modified (GM) rice and four non-GM rice plants in three replicates. Analysis with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed that the bacterial community structures were quite similar to each other in a given month, suggesting that there were no significant differences in bacterial communities between GM and non- GM rice soils. The bacterial community structures appeared to be generally stable with the seasons, as shown by a slight variation of microbial population levels and DGGE banding patterns over the year. Comparison analysis of 16S rDNA clone libraries constructed from soil bacterial DNA showed that there were no significant differences between GM and non-GM soil libraries but revealed seasonal differences of phyla distribution between August and December. The composition profile of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) between GM and non-GM soils also was not significantly different to each other. When soil DNAs were analyzed with PCR by using primers for the bar gene, which was introduced into GM rice, positive DNA bands were found in October and December soils. However, no bar gene sequence was detected in PCR analysis with DNAs extracted from both cultured and uncultured soil bacterial fractions. The result of this study suggested that, in spite of seasonal variations of bacterial communities and persistence of the bar gene, the bacterial communities of the experimental rice field were not significantly affected by cultivation of GM rice varieties. PMID:18309263
Kim, Min-Cheol; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Shin, Hye-Chul; Kim, Taesung; Ryu, Tae-Hun; Kim, Dong-Hern; Song, Hong-Gyu; Lee, Geon Hyoung; Ka, Jong-Ok
In arctic glacier moraines, bioweathering primed by microbial iron oxidizers creates fertility gradients that accelerate soil\\u000a development and plant establishment. With the aim of investigating the change of bacterial diversity in a pyrite-weathered\\u000a gradient, we analyzed the composition of the bacterial communities involved in the process by sequencing 16S rRNA gene libraries\\u000a from different biological soil crusts (BSC). Bacterial communities
Francesca Mapelli; Ramona Marasco; Agostino Rizzi; Franco Baldi; Stefano Ventura; Daniele Daffonchio; Sara Borin
ABSTRACT Obligate anaerobes are important etiological agents in pneumonia or pleuropneumonia in horses, because they are isolated more commonly from ill horses that have died or been euthanized than from those that survive. We performed bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for obligate anaerobes to establish effective antimicrobial therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify 58 obligate anaerobes and compared the results with those from a phenotypic identification kit. The identification results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were more reliable than those of the commercial kit. We concluded that genera Bacteroides and Prevotella—especially B. fragilis and P. heparinolytica—are dominant anaerobes in lower respiratory tract infection in horses; these organisms were susceptible to metronidazole, imipenem and clindamycin.
KINOSHITA, Yuta; NIWA, Hidekazu; KATAYAMA, Yoshinari; HARIU, Kazuhisa
Pyrosequencing-based 16S rRNA profiling has become a common powerful tool to obtain the community structure of gastrointestinal tract microbiota, but it is still hard to process the massive amount of sequence data into microbial composition data, especially at the species level. Here we propose a new approach in combining the quantitative insights into microbial ecology (QIIME), Mothur and ribosomal database project (RDP) programs to efficiently process 454 pyrosequence data to bacterial composition data up to the species level. It was demonstrated to precisely convert batch sequence data of 16S rRNA V6-V8 amplicons obtained from adult Singaporean fecal samples to taxonomically annotated biota data.
NAKAYAMA, Jiro; JIANG, Jiahui; WATANABE, Koichi; CHEN, Kangting; NINXIN, Huang; MATSUDA, Kazunori; KURAKAWA, Takashi; TSUJI, Hirokazu; SONOMOTO, Kenji; LEE, Yuan-Kun
Obligate anaerobes are important etiological agents in pneumonia or pleuropneumonia in horses, because they are isolated more commonly from ill horses that have died or been euthanized than from those that survive. We performed bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for obligate anaerobes to establish effective antimicrobial therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify 58 obligate anaerobes and compared the results with those from a phenotypic identification kit. The identification results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were more reliable than those of the commercial kit. We concluded that genera Bacteroides and Prevotella-especially B. fragilis and P. heparinolytica-are dominant anaerobes in lower respiratory tract infection in horses; these organisms were susceptible to metronidazole, imipenem and clindamycin. PMID:24366152
Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Katayama, Yoshinari; Hariu, Kazuhisa
Metagenomic analysis of the human intestinal microbiota has extended our understanding of the role of these bacteria in improving human intestinal health; however, a number of reports have shown that current total fecal DNA extraction methods and 16S rRNA universal primer sets could affect the species coverage and resolution of these analyses. Here, we improved the extraction method for total DNA from human fecal samples by optimization of the lysis buffer, boiling time (10 min), and bead-beating time (0 min). In addition, we developed a new longrange 16S rRNA universal PCR primer set targeting the V6 to V9 regions with a 580 bp DNA product length. This new 16S rRNA primer set was evaluated by comparison with two previously developed 16S rRNA universal primer sets and showed high species coverage and resolution. The optimized total fecal DNA extraction method and newly designed long-range 16S rRNA universal primer set will be useful for the highly accurate metagenomic analysis of adult and infant intestinal microbiota with minimization of any bias. PMID:24722376
Ku, Hye-Jin; Lee, Ju-Hoon
The motility of organisms is often directed in response to environmental stimuli. Rheotaxis is the directed movement resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates, and spermatozoa. Using carefully controlled microfluidic flows, we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Excellent quantitative agreement between experiments with Bacillus subtilis and a mathematical model reveals that bacterial rheotaxis is a purely physical phenomenon, in contrast to fish rheotaxis but in the same way as sperm rheotaxis. This previously unrecognized bacterial taxis results from a subtle interplay between velocity gradients and the helical shape of flagella, which together generate a torque that alters a bacterium's swimming direction. Because this torque is independent of the presence of a nearby surface, bacterial rheotaxis is not limited to the immediate neighborhood of liquid–solid interfaces, but also takes place in the bulk fluid. We predict that rheotaxis occurs in a wide range of bacterial habitats, from the natural environment to the human body, and can interfere with chemotaxis, suggesting that the fitness benefit conferred by bacterial motility may be sharply reduced in some hydrodynamic conditions.
Marcos; Fu, Henry C.; Powers, Thomas R.; Stocker, Roman
Bacterial communities in decaying sapwood and heartwood of Keteleeria evelyniana were demonstrated through constructing rRNA gene libraries. At 3% of sequence difference, 81 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified from 91 partial 16S rRNA gene fragments. These clones belonged to Proteobacteria (63.7%), Actinobacteria (13.2%), Acidobacteria (8.8%), Firmicutes (3.3%), Chlamydiae (5.5%), Chloiroflexi (3.3%), Verrucomicrobia (1.1%) and Cyanobacteria (1.1%). The heartwood displayed
Han-Bo Zhang; Ming-Xia Yang; Ran Tu
The phylogenetic diversity of macroaggregate-attached vs. free-living marine bacteria, co-occurring in the same water mass, was compared. Bacterial diversity and phylogcnetic identity were inferred by analyzing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified, cloned ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Ribosomal RNA genes from macroaggregatc-associated bacteria were fundamentally different from those of free-living bacterio- plankton. Most rRNA types recovered from the free-living bacterioplankton were
EDWARD F. DELONG; DIANA G. FRANKS; ALICE L. ALLDREDGE
The quality and yield of extracted DNA are critical for the majority of downstream applications in molecular biology. Moreover, molecular techniques such as quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) are becoming increasingly widespread; thus, validation and cross-laboratory comparison of data require standardization of upstream experimental procedures. DNA extraction methods depend on the type and size of starting material(s) used. As such, the extraction of template DNA is arguably the most significant variable when cross-comparing data from different laboratories. Here, we describe a reliable, inexpensive and rapid method of DNA purification that is equally applicable to small or large scale or high-throughput purification of DNA. The protocol relies on a CTAB-based buffer for cell lysis and further purification of DNA with phenol : chloroform : isoamyl alcohol. The protocol has been used successfully for DNA purification from rumen fluid and plant cells. Moreover, after slight alterations, the same protocol was used for large-scale extraction of DNA from pure cultures of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The yield of the DNA obtained with this method exceeded that from the same samples using commercial kits, and the quality was confirmed by successful qPCR applications. PMID:22029887
Minas, Konstantinos; McEwan, Neil R; Newbold, Charles Jamie; Scott, Karen P
The scope of marine phytoplankton diversity is uncertain in many respects because, like bacteria, these organisms sometimes lack defining morphological characteristics and can be a challenge to grow in culture. Here, we report the recovery of phylogenetically diverse plastid small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene (rDNA) clones from natural plankton populations collected in the Pacific Ocean off the mouth of Yaquina Bay, Oreg. (OCS clones), and from the eastern continental shelf of the United States off Cape Hatteras, N.C. (OM clones). SSU rRNA gene clone libraries were prepared by amplifying rDNAs from nucleic acids isolated from plankton samples and cloning them into plasmid vectors. The PCR primers used for amplification reactions were designed to be specific for bacterial SSU rRNA genes; however, plastid genes have a common phylogenetic origin with bacteria and were common in both SSU rRNA gene clone libraries. A combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, nucleic acid sequencing, and taxon-specific oligonucleotide probe hybridizations revealed that 54 of the 116 OCS gene clones were of plastid origin. Collectively, clones from the OCS and OM libraries formed at least eight unique lineages within the plastid radiation, including gene lineages related to the classes Bacillariophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Prasinophyceae; for a number of unique clones, no close phylogenetic neighbors could be identified with confidence. Only a group of two OCS rRNA gene clones showed close identity to the plastid SSU rRNA gene sequence of a cultured organism [Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) Hay and Mohler; 99.8% similar]. The remaining clones could not be identified to the genus or species level. Although cryptic species are not as prevalent among phytoplankton as they are among their bacterial counterparts, this genetic survey nonetheless uncovered significant new information about phytoplankton diversity.
Rappe, Michael S.; Suzuki, Marcelino T.; Vergin, Kevin L.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.
Microorganisms were evaluated for use in recovery of uranium under conditions of in-situ solution mining. The cultures tested were Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, the faculative-thermophilic TH3 strain, and two Sulfolobus species. Growth of the organisms occurred in the presence of 0.34 to 5.0 mM uranyl ion with higher concentrations being inhibitory. Uranium ore from the Anaconda Minerals Co. Jackpile mine was not readily leachable by microorganisms. To support bacterial activity the ore was supplemented with pyrite or ferrous iron. The ore possessed some toxic properties. T. ferrooxidans was able to assist in leaching of uranium from the ore at a hydrostatic pressure of 10.3 MPa.
Brierley, J.A.; Brierley, C.L.; Torma, A.E.
In the ocean's most extreme depths, pressures of 70 to 110 megapascals prevent the growth of all but the most hyperpiezophilic (pressure-loving) organisms. The physiological adaptations required for growth under these conditions are considered to be substantial. Efforts to determine specific adaptations permitting growth at extreme pressures have thus far focused on relatively few ?-proteobacteria, in part due to the technical difficulties of obtaining piezophilic bacteria in pure culture. Here, we present the molecular phylogenies of several new piezophiles of widely differing geographic origins. Included are results from an analysis of the first deep-trench bacterial isolates recovered from the southern hemisphere (9.9-km depth) and of the first gram-positive piezophilic strains. These new data allowed both phylogenetic and structural 16S rRNA comparisons among deep-ocean trench piezophiles and closely related strains not adapted to high pressure. Our results suggest that (i) the Circumpolar Deep Water acts as repository for hyperpiezophiles and drives their dissemination to deep trenches in the Pacific Ocean and (ii) the occurrence of elongated helices in the 16S rRNA genes increases with the extent of adaptation to growth at elevated pressure. These helix changes are believed to improve ribosome function under deep-sea conditions.
Lauro, Federico M.; Chastain, Roger A.; Blankenship, Lesley E.; Yayanos, A. Aristides; Bartlett, Douglas H.
Bacterial community dynamics were investigated in a land treatment unit (LTU) established at a site contaminated with highly weathered petroleum hydrocarbons in the C10 to C32 range. The treatment plot, 3,000 cubic yards of soil, was supplemented with nutrients and monitored weekly for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), soil water content, nutrient levels, and aerobic heterotrophic bacterial counts. Weekly soil samples were analyzed with 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis to monitor bacterial community structure and dynamics during bioremediation. TPH degradation was rapid during the first 3 weeks and slowed for the remainder of the 24-week project. A sharp increase in plate counts was reported during the first 3 weeks, indicating an increase in biomass associated with petroleum degradation. Principal components analysis of TRF patterns revealed a series of sample clusters describing bacterial succession during the study. The largest shifts in bacterial community structure began as the TPH degradation rate slowed and the bacterial cell counts decreased. For the purpose of analyzing bacterial dynamics, phylotypes were generated by associating TRFs from three enzyme digests with 16S rRNA gene clones. Two phylotypes associated with Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were dominant in TRF patterns from samples during rapid TPH degradation. After the TPH degradation rate slowed, four other phylotypes gained dominance in the community while Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas phylotypes decreased in abundance. These data suggest that specific phylotypes of bacteria were associated with the different phases of petroleum degradation in the LTU.
Kaplan, Christopher W.; Kitts, Christopher L.
One-hundred-and-three isolates of Bacteroides ovatus,B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. xylanisolvens were recovered from cow, goat, human, and pig fecal enrichments with cellulose or xylan/pectin. Isolates were compared using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR), and phenotypic microarrays. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed high sequence identity in these Bacteroides; with distinct phylogenetic groupings by bacterial species but not host origin. Phenotypic microarray analysis demonstrated these Bacteroides shared the ability to utilize many of the same carbon substrates, without differences due to species or host origin, indicative of their broad carbohydrate fermentation abilities. Limited nitrogen substrates were utilized; in addition to ammonia, guanine, and xanthine, purine derivatives were utilized by most isolates followed by a few amino sugars. Only rep-PCR analysis demonstrated host-specific patterns, indicating that genomic changes due to coevolution with host did not occur by mutation in the 16S rRNA gene or by a gain or loss of carbohydrate utilization genes within these Bacteroides. This is the first report to indicate that host-associated genomic differences are outside of 16S rRNA gene and carbohydrate utilization genes and suggest conservation of specific bacterial species with the same functionality across mammalian hosts for this Bacteroidetes clade.
Atherly, Todd; Ziemer, Cherie J
X-ray crystal structures were determined of the broad-spectrum aminoglycoside-resistance A1408 16S rRNA methyltransferases KamB and NpmA, from the aminoglycoside-producer Streptoalloteichus tenebrarius and human pathogenic Escherichia coli, respectively. Consistent with their common function, both are Class I methyltransferases with additional highly conserved structural motifs that embellish the core SAM-binding fold. In overall structure, the A1408 rRNA methyltransferase were found to be most similar to a second family of Class I methyltransferases of distinct substrate specificity (m7G46 tRNA). Critical residues for A1408 rRNA methyltransferase activity were experimentally defined using protein mutagenesis and bacterial growth assays with kanamycin. Essential residues for SAM coenzyme binding and an extended protein surface that likely interacts with the 30S ribosomal subunit were thus revealed. The structures also suggest potential mechanisms of A1408 target nucleotide selection and positioning. We propose that a dynamic extended loop structure that is positioned adjacent to both the bound SAM and a functionally critical structural motif may mediate concerted conformational changes in rRNA and protein that underpin the specificity of target selection and activation of methyltransferase activity. These new structures provide important new insights that may provide a starting point for strategies to inhibit these emerging causes of pathogenic bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides.
Macmaster, Rachel; Zelinskaya, Natalia; Savic, Miloje; Rankin, C. Robert; Conn, Graeme L.
One-hundred-and-three isolates of Bacteroides ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. xylanisolvens were recovered from cow, goat, human, and pig fecal enrichments with cellulose or xylan/pectin. Isolates were compared using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR), and phenotypic microarrays. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed high sequence identity in these Bacteroides; with distinct phylogenetic groupings by bacterial species but not host origin. Phenotypic microarray analysis demonstrated these Bacteroides shared the ability to utilize many of the same carbon substrates, without differences due to species or host origin, indicative of their broad carbohydrate fermentation abilities. Limited nitrogen substrates were utilized; in addition to ammonia, guanine, and xanthine, purine derivatives were utilized by most isolates followed by a few amino sugars. Only rep-PCR analysis demonstrated host-specific patterns, indicating that genomic changes due to coevolution with host did not occur by mutation in the 16S rRNA gene or by a gain or loss of carbohydrate utilization genes within these Bacteroides. This is the first report to indicate that host-associated genomic differences are outside of 16S rRNA gene and carbohydrate utilization genes and suggest conservation of specific bacterial species with the same functionality across mammalian hosts for this Bacteroidetes clade. PMID:24532571
Atherly, Todd; Ziemer, Cherie J
Many bacteria and fungi can enhance plant growth. The present review is limited to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). However, it includes endophytic bacteria that show plant growth enhancing activity as well. Also the best studied bacterial mechanisms of plant growth promotion are discussed, with a special emphasis on biological nitrogen fixation and synthesis of phytohormones, including less understood mechanisms
LUIS E. FUENTES-RAMIREZ; Jesus Caballero-Mellado
Bacterial vaginosis is the commonest cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age, with a prevalence as high as 50% in some communities. The symptoms of discharge and offensive smell can cause considerable distress, although 50% of women are asymptomatic when diagnosed. Microbiologically the usually dominant lactobacillus flora is overwhelmed by an overgrowth of predominantly anaerobic organisms, accompanied
Field-collected mosquitoes of the two main malaria vectors in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and Anopheles funestus, were screened for their midgut bacterial contents. The midgut from each blood-fed mosquito was screened with two different detection pathways, one culture independent and one culture dependent. Bacterial species determination was achieved by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Altogether, 16 species from
Jenny M. Lindh; Olle Terenius; Ingrid Faye
Transcription factor TFIIIC2 derived from human cells is required for tRNA-type gene transcription and binds with high affinity to the essential B-box promoter element of tRNA-type genes. Although 5S rRNA genes contain no homology with the tRNA-type gene B box, we show that TFIIIC2 is also required for Xenopus laevis 5S rRNA gene transcription. TFIIIC2 protected an approximately 30-base-pair (-10 to +18) region of a Xenopus 5S rRNA gene from DNase I digestion. This region, which spanned the transcription start site, included sequences that are highly conserved among eucaryotic 5S rRNA genes and have no homology with the B-box sequence of tRNA genes. Mutation of the TFIIIC2-binding site reduced transcription of the 5S rRNA gene by a factor of 10 in HeLa cell extracts. Methylation of C residues within the TFIIIC2-binding site interfered with binding of TFIIIC2. These results suggest a role of the TFIIIC2-binding sequence in 5S rRNA gene transcription. In addition, the 5S rRNA gene binding site and the tRNA-type gene B-box sequence did not compete with each other for binding to TFIIIC2 any better than did an unrelated DNA sequence, indicating that TFIIIC2 interacts with 5S rRNA genes and tRNA-type genes through separate DNA-binding domains or polypeptides. Images
Fradkin, L G; Yoshinaga, S K; Berk, A J; Dasgupta, A
We characterized, at millimeter resolution, bacterial biomass, diversity, and vertical stratification of biological soil crusts in arid lands from the Colorado Plateau. Microscopic counts, extractable DNA, and plate counts of viable aerobic copiotrophs (VAC) revealed that the top centimeter of crusted soils contained atypically large bacterial populations, tenfold larger than those in uncrusted, deeper soils. The plate counts were not always consistent with more direct estimates of microbial biomass. Bacterial populations peaked at the immediate subsurface (1-2 mm) in light-appearing, young crusts, and at the surface (0-1 mm) in well-developed, dark crusts, which corresponds to the location of cyanobacterial populations. Bacterial abundance decreased with depth below these horizons. Spatially resolved DGGE fingerprints of Bacterial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated the presence of highly diverse natural communities, but we could detect neither trends with depth in bacterial richness or diversity, nor a difference in diversity indices between crust types. Fingerprints, however, revealed the presence of marked stratification in the structure of the microbial communities, probably a result of vertical gradients in physicochemical parameters. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that most of the naturally occurring bacteria are novel types, with low sequence similarity (83-93%) to those available in public databases. DGGE analyses of the VAC populations indicated communities of lower diversity, with most types having sequences more than 94% similar to those in public databases. Our study indicates that soil crusts represent small-scale mantles of fertility in arid ecosystems, harboring vertically structured, little-known bacterial populations that are not well represented by standard cultivation methods.
Garcia-Pichel, F.; Johnson, S. L.; Youngkin, D.; Belnap, J.
A rapid procedure for the identification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood (AFB) disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), based on PCR and restriction fragment analysis of the 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) is described. Eighty-six bacterial strains belonging to 39 species of the genera Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Virgibacillus were characterized. Amplified rDNA was digested
Adriana M. Alippi; Ana Claudia Lopez; O. Mario Aguilar
Fluorescent-labeled, rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes were used with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) for in situ detection of bacteria located on root surfaces. Inoculated Pseudomonas syringae and Rhodococcus fascians cells were directly fixed on the root surface prior to analysis by LSCM and probed using a Texas red-tagged oligonucleotide probe. Natural bacterial populations on the surface of non-sterile clover root
S. J. Macnaughton; T. Booth; T. M. Embley; A. G. O'Donnell
BackgroundBacterial colonization is hypothesized to play a pathogenic role in the non-healing state of chronic wounds. We characterized wound bacteria from a cohort of chronic wound patients using a 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing approach and assessed the impact of diabetes and antibiotics on chronic wound microbiota.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe prospectively enrolled 24 patients at a referral wound center in Baltimore, MD; sampled
Lance B. Price; Cindy M. Liu; Johan H. Melendez; Yelena M. Frankel; David Engelthaler; Maliha Aziz; Jolene Bowers; Rogan Rattray; Jacques Ravel; Chris Kingsley; Paul S. Keim; Gerald S. Lazarus; Jonathan M. Zenilman; Adam J. Ratner
One hundred and twenty bacterial isolates were obtained from a hypersaline pond (c. 22% salinity) in Sichuan, China. Bacteria\\u000a were isolated from hypersaline water, sediment and soil samples using three culture media and an incubation temperature of\\u000a 37°C. Of these isolates, 47 were selected and examined by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and by tests of\\u000a salt tolerance.
Jie Tang; Ai-ping Zheng; Eden S. P. Bromfield; Jun Zhu; Shuang-cheng Li; Shi-quan Wang; Qi-ming Deng; Ping Li
Deep-subsurface samples obtained by deep drilling are likely to be contaminated with mesophilic microorganisms in the drilling fluid, and this could affect determination of the community structure of the geothermal microflora using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. To eliminate possible contamination by PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from mesophiles, a combined thermal denaturation and enzyme digestion method, based on a strong correlation between the G+C content of the 16S rRNA gene and the optimum growth temperatures of most known prokaryotic cultures, was used prior to clone library construction. To validate this technique, hot spring fluid (76 degrees C) and river water (14 degrees C) were used to mimic a deep-subsurface sample contaminated with drilling fluid. After DNA extraction and PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes from individual samples separately, the amplified products from river water were observed to be denatured at 82 degrees C and completely digested by exonuclease I (Exo I), while the amplified products from hot spring fluid remained intact after denaturation at 84 degrees C and enzyme digestion with Exo I. DNAs extracted from the two samples were mixed and used as a template for amplification of the 16S rRNA genes. The amplified rRNA genes were denatured at 84 degrees C and digested with Exo I before clone library construction. The results indicated that the 16S rRNA gene sequences from the river water were almost completely eliminated, whereas those from the hot spring fluid remained. PMID:16391020
Kimura, Hiroyuki; Sugihara, Maki; Kato, Kenji; Hanada, Satoshi
In order to determine if variations in rRNA sequence could be used for discrimination of the members of the Bacillus cereus group, we analyzed 183 16S rRNA and 74 23S rRNA sequences for all species in the B. cereus group. We also analyzed 30 gyrB sequences for B. cereus group strains with published 16S rRNA sequences. Our findings indicated that
Sergei G. Bavykin; Yuri P. Lysov; Vladimir Zakhariev; John J. Kelly; Joany Jackman; David A. Stahl; Alexey Cherni
In order to determine if variations in rRNA sequence could be used for discrimination of the members of the Bacillus cereus group, we analyzed 183 16S rRNA and 74 23S rRNA sequences for all species in the B. cereus group. We also analyzed 30 gyrB sequences for B. cereus group strains with published 16S rRNA sequences. Our findings indicated that
S. G. Bayvkin; Y. P. Lysov; V. Zakhariev; J. J. Kelly; J. Jackman; D. A. Stahl; A. Cherni
For the phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities present in environmental samples microbial DNA can be extracted from the sample, 16S rDNA can be amplified with suitable primers and the PCR, and clonal libraries can be constructed. We report a protocol that can be used for efficient cell lysis and recovery of DNA from marine sediments. Key steps in this procedure include the use of a bead mill homogenizer for matrix disruption and uniform cell lysis and then purification of the released DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. For sediments collected from two sites in Puget Sound, over 96% of the cells present were lysed. Our method yields high-molecular-weight DNA that is suitable for molecular studies, including amplification of 16S rRNA genes. The DNA yield was 47 micrograms per g (dry weight) for sediments collected from creosote-contaminated Eagle Harbor, Wash. Primers were selected for the PCR amplification of (eu)bacterial 16S rDNA that contained linkers with unique 8-base restriction sites for directional cloning. Examination of 22 16S rDNA clones showed that the surficial sediments in Eagle Harbor contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain (G. J. Olsen, C. R. Woese, and R. Overbeek, J. Bacteriol. 176:1-6, 1994) with members of six major lineages represented: alpha, delta, and gamma Proteobacteria; the gram-positive high G+C content subdivision; clostridia and related organisms; and planctomyces and related organisms. None of the clones were identical to any representatives in the Ribosomal Database Project small subunit RNA database. The analysis of clonal representives in the first report using molecular techniques to determine the phylogenetic composition of the (eu)bacterial community present in coastal marine sediments.
Gray, J P; Herwig, R P
Active methanotrophs in a landfill soil were revealed by detecting the 16S rRNA of methanotrophs and the mRNA transcripts of key genes involved in methane oxidation. New 16S rRNA primers targeting type I and type II methanotrophs were designed and optimized for analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Direct extraction of RNA from soil enabled the analysis of the expression of the functional genes: mmoX, pmoA and mxaF, which encode subunits of soluble methane monooxygenase, particulate methane monooxygenase and methanol dehydrogenase respectively. The 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for type I methanotrophs detected Methylomonas, Methylosarcina and Methylobacter sequences from both soil DNA and cDNA which was generated from RNA extracted directly from the landfill cover soil. The 16S rRNA primers for type II methanotrophs detected primarily Methylocella and some Methylocystis 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of mRNA recovered from the soil indicated that Methylobacter, Methylosarcina, Methylomonas, Methylocystis and Methylocella were actively expressing genes involved in methane and methanol oxidation. Transcripts of pmoA but not mmoX were readily detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), indicating that particulate methane monooxygenase may be largely responsible for methane oxidation in situ. PMID:17922768
Chen, Yin; Dumont, Marc G; Cébron, Aurélie; Murrell, J Colin
A method based on 16S rRNA gene-targeted PCR and oligonucleotide probing was developed for detecting Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum PCP-1 in soil. The primers and probe were specific for PCP-1 in DNA extracts of three soils. The method allowed for PCP-1 detection in soil with a detection limit of 3 x 10(2) cells per g.
Briglia, M; Eggen, R I; de Vos, W M; van Elsas, J D
Spacecraft hardware and assembly cleanroom surfaces (233 m2 in total) were sampled, total genomic DNA was extracted, hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria and archaea) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (fungi) were subjected to 454 tag-encoded pyrosequencing PCR amplification, and 203,852 resulting high-quality sequences were analyzed. Bioinformatic analyses revealed correlations between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) abundance and certain sample characteristics, such as source (cleanroom floor, ground support equipment [GSE], or spacecraft hardware), cleaning regimen applied, and location about the facility or spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) cleanroom floor and GSE surfaces gave rise to a larger number of diverse bacterial communities (619 OTU; 20 m2) than colocated spacecraft hardware (187 OTU; 162 m2). In contrast to the results of bacterial pyrosequencing, where at least some sequences were generated from each of the 31 sample sets examined, only 13 and 18 of these sample sets gave rise to archaeal and fungal sequences, respectively. As was the case for bacteria, the abundance of fungal OTU in the GSE surface samples dramatically diminished (9× less) once cleaning protocols had been applied. The presence of OTU representative of actinobacteria, deinococci, acidobacteria, firmicutes, and proteobacteria on spacecraft surfaces suggests that certain bacterial lineages persist even following rigorous quality control and cleaning practices. The majority of bacterial OTU observed as being recurrent belonged to actinobacteria and alphaproteobacteria, supporting the hypothesis that the measures of cleanliness exerted in spacecraft assembly cleanrooms (SAC) inadvertently select for the organisms which are the most fit to survive long journeys in space.
Vaishampayan, Parag; Nilsson, Henrik R.; Torok, Tamas; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri
In this study, three bacterial communities were obtained from 12 Leonardite samples with the aim of identifying a clean, effective, and economic technique for the dissolution of Leonardite, a type of low-grade coal, in the production of humic acid (HA). The biodegradation ability and characteristics of the degraded products of the most effective bacterial community (MCSL-2), which degraded 50% of the Leonardite within 21 days, were further investigated. Analyses of elemental composition, (13)C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared revealed that the contents of C, O, and aliphatic carbon were similar in biodegraded humic acid (bHA) and chemically (alkali) extracted humic acid (cHA). However, the N and carboxyl carbon contents of bHA was higher than that of cHA. Furthermore, a positive correlation was identified between the degradation efficiency and the increasing pH of the culture medium, while increases of manganese peroxidase and esterase activities were also observed. These data demonstrated that both alkali production and enzyme reactions were involved in Leonardite solubilization by MCSL-2, although the former mechanism predominated. No fungus was observed by microscopy. Only four bacterial phylotypes were recognized, and Bacillus licheniformis-related bacteria were identified as the main group in MCSL-2 by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, thus demonstrating that Leonardite degradation ability has a limited distribution in bacteria. Hormone-like bioactivities of bHA were also detected. In this study, a bacterial community capable of Leonardite degradation was identified and the products characterized. These data implicate the use of such bacteria for the exploitation of Leonardite as a biofertilizer. PMID:22075634
Gao, Tong-Guo; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Jin-Shui; Li, Bao-Zhen; Yuan, Hong-Li
Spacecraft hardware and assembly cleanroom surfaces (233 m(2) in total) were sampled, total genomic DNA was extracted, hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria and archaea) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (fungi) were subjected to 454 tag-encoded pyrosequencing PCR amplification, and 203,852 resulting high-quality sequences were analyzed. Bioinformatic analyses revealed correlations between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) abundance and certain sample characteristics, such as source (cleanroom floor, ground support equipment [GSE], or spacecraft hardware), cleaning regimen applied, and location about the facility or spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) cleanroom floor and GSE surfaces gave rise to a larger number of diverse bacterial communities (619 OTU; 20 m(2)) than colocated spacecraft hardware (187 OTU; 162 m(2)). In contrast to the results of bacterial pyrosequencing, where at least some sequences were generated from each of the 31 sample sets examined, only 13 and 18 of these sample sets gave rise to archaeal and fungal sequences, respectively. As was the case for bacteria, the abundance of fungal OTU in the GSE surface samples dramatically diminished (9× less) once cleaning protocols had been applied. The presence of OTU representative of actinobacteria, deinococci, acidobacteria, firmicutes, and proteobacteria on spacecraft surfaces suggests that certain bacterial lineages persist even following rigorous quality control and cleaning practices. The majority of bacterial OTU observed as being recurrent belonged to actinobacteria and alphaproteobacteria, supporting the hypothesis that the measures of cleanliness exerted in spacecraft assembly cleanrooms (SAC) inadvertently select for the organisms which are the most fit to survive long journeys in space. PMID:22729532
La Duc, Myron T; Vaishampayan, Parag; Nilsson, Henrik R; Torok, Tamas; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri
Studies on the effect of environmental conditions on plants and microorganisms are a central issue in ecology, and they require an adequate experimental setup. A strategy often applied in geobotanical studies is based on the reciprocal transplantation of plant species at different sites. We adopted a similar approach as a field-based tool to investigate the relationships of soil bacterial communities with the environment. Soil samples from two different (calcareous and siliceous) unvegetated glacier forefields were reciprocally transplanted and incubated for 15 months between 2009 and 2010. Controls containing local soils were included. The sites were characterized over time in terms of geographical (bedrock, exposition, sunlight, temperature, and precipitation) and physicochemical (texture, water content, soluble and nutrients) features. The incubating local (“home”) and transplanted (“away”) soils were monitored for changes in extractable nutrients and in the bacterial community structure, defined through terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA gene. Concentrations of soluble ions in most samples were more significantly affected by seasons than by the transplantation. For example, NO3? showed a seasonal pattern, increasing from 1 to 3 ?g NO3? (g soil dry weight)?1 after the melting of snow but decreasing to <1 ?g NO3? (g soil dry weight)?1 in autumn. Seasons, and in particular strong precipitation events occurring in the summer of 2010 (200 to 300 mm of rain monthly), were also related to changes of bacterial community structures. Our results show the suitability of this approach to compare responses of bacterial communities to different environmental conditions directly in the field.
Lazzaro, Anna; Gauer, Andreas; Zeyer, Josef
The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are one of the coldest and driest environments on Earth with paleosols in selected areas that date to the emplacement of tills by warm-based ice during the Early Miocene. Cited as an analogue to the martian surface, the ability of the Antarctic environment to support microbial life-forms is a matter of special interest, particularly with the upcoming NASA/ESA 2018 ExoMars mission. Lipid biomarkers were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry to assess sources of organic carbon and evaluate the contribution of microbial species to the organic matter of the paleosols. Paleosol samples from the ice-free Dry Valleys were also subsampled and cultivated in a growth medium from which DNA was extracted with the explicit purpose of the positive identification of bacteria. Several species of bacteria were grown in solution and the genus identified. A similar match of the data to sequenced DNA showed that Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteriodetes, and Actinobacteridae species were cultivated. The results confirm the presence of bacteria within some paleosols, but no assumptions have been made with regard to in situ activity at present. These results underscore the need not only to further investigate Dry Valley cryosols but also to develop reconnaissance strategies to determine whether such likely Earth-like environments on the Red Planet also contain life. PMID:21545270
Hart, Kris M; Szpak, Michal T; Mahaney, William C; Dohm, James M; Jordan, Sean F; Frazer, Andrew R; Allen, Christopher C R; Kelleher, Brian P
The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are one of the coldest and driest environments on Earth with paleosols in selected areas that date to the emplacement of tills by warm-based ice during the Early Miocene. Cited as an analogue to the martian surface, the ability of the Antarctic environment to support microbial life-forms is a matter of special interest, particularly with the upcoming NASA/ESA 2018 ExoMars mission. Lipid biomarkers were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to assess sources of organic carbon and evaluate the contribution of microbial species to the organic matter of the paleosols. Paleosol samples from the ice-free Dry Valleys were also subsampled and cultivated in a growth medium from which DNA was extracted with the explicit purpose of the positive identification of bacteria. Several species of bacteria were grown in solution and the genus identified. A similar match of the data to sequenced DNA showed that Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteriodetes, and Actinobacteridae species were cultivated. The results confirm the presence of bacteria within some paleosols, but no assumptions have been made with regard to in situ activity at present. These results underscore the need not only to further investigate Dry Valley cryosols but also to develop reconnaissance strategies to determine whether such likely Earth-like environments on the Red Planet also contain life.
Hart, Kris M.; Szpak, Michal T.; Mahaney, William C.; Dohm, James M.; Jordan, Sean F.; Frazer, Andrew R.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; Kelleher, Brian P.
rRNA synthesis decreases significantly during the differentiation of rat L6 myoblasts to myotubes. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated that the decrease was attributable to decreased rates of rRNA gene transcription. Immunoblot analysis indicated a marked reduction in amounts of the RNA polymerase I transcription factors UBF1 and UBF2 (upstream binding factors 1 and 2, respectively). The levels of these factors dropped in parallel with the down-shift in rRNA gene transcription. The amount of UBF does not fall due to a general decrease in cellular protein, as myosin heavy-chain protein accumulates markedly during this same time. RNA blots of total RNA isolated from myoblasts and differentiating myotubes showed a decrease in the mRNA for UBF, at the same time the mRNA for myogenin was accumulating. The down-shift in UBF mRNA levels preceded the decrease in the protein levels for UBF. There have been reports that the acute response of the rRNA gene transcription system to physiological signals in many systems involves an RNA polymerase I-associated factor. However, our results imply that the regulation of rRNA gene DNA transcription in response to physiological processes, such as differentiation, may involve multiple regulatory pathways. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4
Larson, D E; Xie, W; Glibetic, M; O'Mahony, D; Sells, B H; Rothblum, L I
Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are organelles composed entirely of protein. They promote specific metabolic processes by encapsulating and colocalizing enzymes with their substrates and cofactors, by protecting vulnerable enzymes in a defined microenvironment, and by sequestering toxic or volatile intermediates. Prototypes of the BMCs are the carboxysomes of autotrophic bacteria. However, structures of similar polyhedral shape are being discovered in an ever-increasing number of heterotrophic bacteria, where they participate in the utilization of specialty carbon and energy sources. Comparative genomics reveals that the potential for this type of compartmentalization is widespread across bacterial phyla and suggests that genetic modules encoding BMCs are frequently laterally transferred among bacteria. The diverse functions of these BMCs suggest that they contribute to metabolic innovation in bacteria in a broad range of environments. PMID:20825353
Kerfeld, Cheryl A; Heinhorst, Sabine; Cannon, Gordon C
Cell shape is not the product of a particular gene or protein, but the result of the collective actions of many of them. These\\u000a are involved in several processes, including peptidoglycan precursor synthesis, peptidoglycan synthesis and recycling, cell\\u000a elongation, cell septation and division site selection. The analysis of the “morphogene” content of several bacterial genomes\\u000a suggests that there are three
Jesús Mingorance; Anabel Rico; Paulino GÓmez-Puertas
The 16S rRNA species in bacterial precursor rRNAs is followed by two evolutionarily conserved features: (i) a double-stranded stem formed by complementary sequences adjacent to the 5' and 3' ends of the 16S rRNA; and (ii) a 3'-transfer RNA sequence. To assess the possible role of these features, plasmid constructs with precursor-specific features deleted were tested for their capacity to form mature rRNA. Stem-forming sequences were dispensable for both 5' and 3' terminus formation; whereas an intact spacer tRNA positioned greater than 24 nucleotides downstream of the 16S RNA sequence was required for correct 3'-end maturation. These results suggest that spacer tRNA at an appropriate location helps form a conformation obligate for pre-rRNA processing, perhaps by binding to a nascent binding site in preribosomes. Thus, spacer tRNAs may be an obligate participant in ribosome formation. Images
Srivastava, A K; Schlessinger, D
The aim of this study was to examine the bacterial composition of high latitude soils from the Darwin-Hatherton glacier region of Antarctica. Four soil pits on each of four glacial drift sheets were sampled for chemical and microbial analyses. The four drifts-Hatherton, Britannia, Danum, and Isca-ranged, respectively, from early Holocene (10 ky) to mid-Quaternary (ca 900 ky). Numbers of culturable bacteria were low, with highest levels detected in soils from the younger Hatherton drift. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries prepared from samples below the desert pavement for each of the four drift sheets. Between 31 and 262 clones were analysed from each of the Hatherton, Britannia, and Danum drifts. Bacterial sequences were dominated by members of the phyla Deinococcus-Thermus, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Culturable bacteria, including some that clustered with soil clones (e.g., members of the genera Arthrobacter, Adhaeribacter, and Pontibacter), belonged to Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The isolated bacteria are ideal model organisms for genomic and phenotypic investigations of those attributes that allow bacteria to survive and/or grow in Antarctic soils because they have close relatives that are not tolerant of these conditions. PMID:23820800
Aislabie, Jackie M; Lau, Anna; Dsouza, Melissa; Shepherd, Charis; Rhodes, Phillippa; Turner, Susan J
Bacterial consortium-AIE2 with a capability of contemporaneous Cr(VI) reduction and azo dye RV5 decolourization was developed\\u000a from industrial wastewaters by enrichment culture technique. The 16S rRNA gene based molecular analyses revealed that the\\u000a consortium bacterial community structure consisted of four bacterial strains namely, Alcaligenes sp. DMA, Bacillus sp. DMB, Stenotrophomonas sp. DMS and Enterococcus sp. DME. Cumulative mechanism of Cr(VI)
Chirayu Desai; Kunal Jain; Bharat Patel; Datta Madamwar
Relative quantification real-time PCR was used to quantify several bacterial species in ruminal samples from two lactating cows, each sampled 3 h after feeding on two successive days. Abundance of each target taxon was calculated as a fraction of the total 16S rRNA gene copies in the samples, using taxon-specific and eubacterial domain-level primers. Bacterial populations showed a clear predominance of members of the genus Prevotella, which comprised 42% to 60% of the bacterial rRNA gene copies in the samples. However, only 2% to 4% of the bacterial rRNA gene copies were represented by the classical ruminal Prevotella species Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Prevotella brevis. The proportion of rRNA gene copies attributable to Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Selenomonas ruminantium and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were each generally in the 0.5% to 1% range. Proportions for Ruminobacter amylophilus and Eubacterium ruminantium were lower (0.1% to 0.2%), while Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Streptococcus bovis, Ruminococcus albus and Megasphaera elsdenii were even less abundant, each comprising <0.03% of the bacterial rRNA gene copies. The data suggest that the aggregate abundance of the most intensively studied ruminal bacterial species is relatively low and that a large fraction of the uncultured population represents a single bacterial genus. PMID:17235560
Stevenson, David M; Weimer, Paul J
The 16S and 23S rRNA higher-order structures inferred from comparative analysis are now quite refined. The models presented here differ from their immediate predecessors only in minor detail. Thus, it is safe to assert that all of the standard secondary-structure elements in (prokaryotic) rRNAs have been identified, with approximately 90% of the individual base pairs in each molecule having independent comparative support, and that at least some of the tertiary interactions have been revealed. It is interesting to compare the rRNAs in this respect with tRNA, whose higher-order structure is known in detail from its crystal structure (36) (Table 2). It can be seen that rRNAs have as great a fraction of their sequence in established secondary-structure elements as does tRNA. However, the fact that the former show a much lower fraction of identified tertiary interactions and a greater fraction of unpaired nucleotides than the latter implies that many of the rRNA tertiary interactions remain to be located. (Alternatively, the ribosome might involve protein-rRNA rather than intramolecular rRNA interactions to stabilize three-dimensional structure.) Experimental studies on rRNA are consistent to a first approximation with the structures proposed here, confirming the basic assumption of comparative analysis, i.e., that bases whose compositions strictly covary are physically interacting. In the exhaustive study of Moazed et al. (45) on protection of the bases in the small-subunit rRNA against chemical modification, the vast majority of bases inferred to pair by covariation are found to be protected from chemical modification, both in isolated small-subunit rRNA and in the 30S subunit. The majority of the tertiary interactions are reflected in the chemical protection data as well (45). On the other hand, many of the bases not shown as paired in Fig. 1 are accessible to chemical attack (45). However, in this case a sizeable fraction of them are also protected against chemical modification (in the isolated rRNA), which suggests that considerable higher-order structure remains to be found (although all of it may not involve base-base interactions and so may not be detectable by comparative analysis). The agreement between the higher-order structure of the small-subunit rRNA and protection against chemical modification is not perfect, however; some bases shown to covary canonically are accessible to chemical modification (45).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).
Gutell, R. R.; Larsen, N.; Woese, C. R.
In cases of bacteraemia, a rapid species identification of the causal agent directly from positive blood culture broths could assist clinicians in the timely targeting of empirical antimicrobial therapy. For this purpose, we evaluated the direct identification of micro-organisms from BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux) anaerobic positive blood cultures without charcoal using the Microflex matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of flight MS (Bruker), after bacterial extraction by using two different methods: the MALDI Sepsityper kit (Bruker) and an in-house saponin lysis method. Bruker's recommended criteria for identification were expanded in this study, with acceptance of the species identification when the first three results with the best matches with the MALDI Biotyper database were identical, whatever the scores were. In total, 107 monobacterial cultures and six polymicrobial cultures from 77 different patients were included in this study. Among monomicrobial cultures, we identified up to the species level 67 and 66?% of bacteria with the MALDI Sepsityper kit and the saponin method, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two extraction methods. The direct species identification was particularly inconclusive for Gram-positive bacteria, as only 58 and 52?% of them were identified to the species level with the MALDI Sepsityper kit and the saponin method, respectively. Results for Gram-negative bacilli were better, with 82.5 and 90?% of correct identification to the species level with the MALDI Sepsityper kit and the saponin method, respectively. No misidentifications were given by the direct procedures when compared with identifications provided by the conventional method. Concerning the six polymicrobial blood cultures, whatever the extraction method used, a correct direct identification was only provided for one of the isolated bacteria on solid medium in all cases. The analysis of the time-to-result demonstrated a reduction in the turnaround time for identification ranging from 1 h 06 min to 24 h 44 min, when performing the blood culture direct identification in comparison with the conventional method, whatever the extraction method. PMID:22837218
Meex, Cécile; Neuville, Florence; Descy, Julie; Huynen, Pascale; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; De Mol, Patrick; Melin, Pierrette
The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomya) albopictus is an invasive species that has spread across the world in the last two decades, showing a great capacity to adapt to contrasting climates and environments. While demonstrated in many insects, the contribution of bacterial symbionts in Aedes ecology is a challenging aspect that needs to be investigated. Also some bacterial species have already been identified in Ae. albopictus using classical methods, but a more accurate survey of mosquito-associated bacterial diversity is needed to decipher the potential biological functions of bacterial symbionts in mediating or constraining insect adaptation. We surveyed the bacteria associated with field populations of Ae. albopictus from Madagascar by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Different aspects of amplicon preparation and sequencing depth were tested to optimize the breadth of bacterial diversity identified. The results revealed that all mosquitoes collected from different sites have a bacterial microbiota dominated by a single taxon, Wolbachia pipientis, which accounted for about 99% of all 92,615 sequences obtained. As Ae. albopictus is known to harbor two Wolbachia strains (wAlbA and wAlbB), a quantitative PCR was used to estimate the relative densities, (i.e., the bacteria-to-host gene ratios) of each strains in individual mosquitoes. Relative densities were between 6.25 × 10(0.01) and 5.47 × 10(0.1) for wAlbA and between 2.03 × 10(0.1) and 1.4 × 10(1) for wAlbB. Apart from Wolbachia, a total of 31 bacterial taxa were identified at the genus level using different method variations. Diversity index values were low and probably underestimated the true diversity due to the high abundance of Wolbachia sequences vastly outnumbering sequences from other taxa. Further studies should implement alternative strategies to specifically discard from analysis any sequences from Wolbachia, the dominant endosymbiotic bacterium in Ae. albopictus from this area. PMID:24860790
Minard, Guillaume; Tran, Florence-Hélène; Dubost, Audrey; Tran-Van, Van; Mavingui, Patrick; Moro, Claire Valiente
The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomya) albopictus is an invasive species that has spread across the world in the last two decades, showing a great capacity to adapt to contrasting climates and environments. While demonstrated in many insects, the contribution of bacterial symbionts in Aedes ecology is a challenging aspect that needs to be investigated. Also some bacterial species have already been identified in Ae. albopictus using classical methods, but a more accurate survey of mosquito-associated bacterial diversity is needed to decipher the potential biological functions of bacterial symbionts in mediating or constraining insect adaptation. We surveyed the bacteria associated with field populations of Ae. albopictus from Madagascar by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Different aspects of amplicon preparation and sequencing depth were tested to optimize the breadth of bacterial diversity identified. The results revealed that all mosquitoes collected from different sites have a bacterial microbiota dominated by a single taxon, Wolbachia pipientis, which accounted for about 99% of all 92,615 sequences obtained. As Ae. albopictus is known to harbor two Wolbachia strains (wAlbA and wAlbB), a quantitative PCR was used to estimate the relative densities, (i.e., the bacteria-to-host gene ratios) of each strains in individual mosquitoes. Relative densities were between 6.25 × 100.01 and 5.47 × 100.1 for wAlbA and between 2.03 × 100.1 and 1.4 × 101 for wAlbB. Apart from Wolbachia, a total of 31 bacterial taxa were identified at the genus level using different method variations. Diversity index values were low and probably underestimated the true diversity due to the high abundance of Wolbachia sequences vastly outnumbering sequences from other taxa. Further studies should implement alternative strategies to specifically discard from analysis any sequences from Wolbachia, the dominant endosymbiotic bacterium in Ae. albopictus from this area.
Minard, Guillaume; Tran, Florence-Helene; Dubost, Audrey; Tran-Van, Van; Mavingui, Patrick; Valiente Moro, Claire
Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in bacterial population dynamics and nutrient pathways following jellyfish blooms which have important implications for ecology of coastal waters. PMID:22745726
Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovšek, Tjaša; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina
Virus like dsDNA elements (VLE) in yeast were previously shown to encode the killer toxins PaT and zymocin, which target distinct tRNA species via specific anticodon nuclease (ACNase) activities. Here, we characterize a third member of the VLE-encoded toxins, PiT from Pichia inositovora, and identify PiOrf4 as the cytotoxic subunit by conditional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to the tRNA targeting toxins, however, neither a change of the wobble uridine modification status by introduction of elp3 or trm9 mutations nor tRNA overexpression rescued from PiOrf4 toxicity. Consistent with a distinct RNA target, expression of PiOrf4 causes specific fragmentation of the 25S and 18S rRNA. A stable cleavage product comprising the first ? 130 nucleotides of the 18S rRNA was purified and characterized by linker ligation and subsequent reverse transcription; 3'-termini were mapped to nucleotide 131 and 132 of the 18S rRNA sequence, a region showing some similarity to the anticodon loop of tRNA(Glu)(UUC), the zymocin target. PiOrf4 residues Glu9 and His214, corresponding to catalytic sites Glu9 and His209 in the ACNase subunit of zymocin are essential for in vivo toxicity and rRNA fragmentation, raising the possibility of functionally conserved RNase modules in both proteins. PMID:24308908
Kast, Alene; Klassen, Roland; Meinhardt, Friedhelm
High-level resistance to a broad spectrum of aminoglycoside antibiotics can arise through either N7-methyl guanosine 1405 (m7G1405) or N1-methyl adenosine 1408 (m1A1408) modifications at the drug binding site in the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit decoding center. Two distinct families of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) methyltransferases that incorporate these modifications were first identified in aminoglycoside-producing bacteria but were more recently identified in both human and animal pathogens. These resistance determinants thus pose a new threat to the usefulness of aminoglycosides as antibiotics, demanding urgent characterization of their structures and activities. Here, we describe approaches to cloning, heterologous expression in E. coli, and purification of two A1408 rRNA methyltransferases: KamB from the aminoglycoside-producer Streptoalloteichus tenebrarius and NpmA identified in a clinical isolate of pathogenic E. coli ARS3. Antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays and in vitro analysis of KamB and NpmA using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) binding by isothermal titration calorimetry and 30S subunit methylation assays showed both enzymes were soluble, folded and active. Finally, crystals of each enzyme complexed with SAM were obtained, including selenomethionine-derived KamB, that will facilitate high-resolution X-ray crystallographic analyses of these important bacterial antibiotic-resistance determinants.
Zelinskaya, Natalia; Rankin, C. Robert; Macmaster, Rachel; Savic, Miloje; Conn, Graeme L.
Serenoa repens associated with Urtica dioica (ProstaMEV) and curcumin and quercitin (FlogMEV) extracts are able to improve the efficacy of prulifloxacin in bacterial prostatitis patients: results from a prospective randomised study.
We report the results of a prospective randomised study to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Serenoa repens, Urtica dioica (ProstaMEV), quercitin and curcumin (FlogMEV) extracts associated with prulifloxacin in patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). From a whole population of 284 patients, 143 patients affected by CBP [National Institutes of Health (NIH) class II prostatitis] were enrolled. All patients received prulifloxacin 600 mg daily for 14 days, in accordance with antibiogram results. Patients were split into two groups: Group A received prulifloxacin associated with ProstaMEV and FlogMEV; Group B received only antibiotic therapy. Microbiological and clinical efficacies were tested by two follow-up visits at 1 month and 6 months, respectively. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI) and International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaires. Group A comprised 106 patients and Group B comprised 37 patients. One month after treatment, 89.6% of patients who had received prulifloxacin associated with ProstaMEV and FlogMEV did not report any symptoms related to CBP, whilst only 27% of patients who received antibiotic therapy alone were recurrence-free (P < 0.0001). Significant differences were found between groups in terms of symptoms and QoL (P < 0.0001 for both). Six months after treatment, no patients in Group A had recurrence of disease whilst two patients in Group B did. Questionnaire results demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups (all P < 0.001). The association of S. repens, U. dioica (ProstaMEV), quercitin and curcumin (FlogMEV) extracts is able to improve the clinical efficacy of prulifloxacin in patients affected by CBP. PMID:19181486
Cai, Tommaso; Mazzoli, Sandra; Bechi, Adriano; Addonisio, Patrizia; Mondaini, Nicola; Pagliai, Roberto Castricchi; Bartoletti, Riccardo
Due to the inadequate automation in the amplification and sequencing procedures, the use of 16S rRNA gene sequence-based methods in clinical microbiology laboratories is largely limited to identification of strains that are difficult to identify by phenotypic methods. In this study, using conventional full-sequence 16S rRNA gene sequencing as the “gold standard,” we evaluated the usefulness of the MicroSeq 500 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-based bacterial identification system, which involves amplification and sequencing of the first 527-bp fragment of the 16S rRNA genes of bacterial strains and analysis of the sequences using the database of the system, for identification of clinically significant bacterial isolates with ambiguous biochemical profiles. Among 37 clinically significant bacterial strains that showed ambiguous biochemical profiles, representing 37 nonduplicating aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative, anaerobic, and Mycobacterium species, the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA-based bacterial identification system was successful in identifying 30 (81.1%) of them. Five (13.5%) isolates were misidentified at the genus level (Granulicatella adiacens was misidentified as Abiotrophia defectiva, Helcococcus kunzii was misidentified as Clostridium hastiforme, Olsenella uli was misidentified as Atopobium rimae, Leptotrichia buccalis was misidentified as Fusobacterium mortiferum, and Bergeyella zoohelcum was misidentified as Rimerella anatipestifer), and two (5.4%) were misidentified at the species level (Actinomyces odontolyticus was misidentified as Actinomyces meyeri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus was misidentified as Arcobacter butzleri). When the same 527-bp DNA sequences of these seven isolates were compared to the known 16S rRNA gene sequences in the GenBank, five yielded the correct identity, with good discrimination between the best and second best match sequences, meaning that the reason for misidentification in these five isolates was due to a lack of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these bacteria in the database of the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA-based bacterial identification system. In conclusion, the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA-based bacterial identification system is useful for identification of most clinically important bacterial strains with ambiguous biochemical profiles, but the database of the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA-based bacterial identification system has to be expanded in order to encompass the rarely encountered bacterial species and achieve better accuracy in bacterial identification.
Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Ng, Kenneth H. L.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yip, Kam-tong; Fung, Ami M. Y.; Leung, Kit-wah; Tam, Dorothy M. W.; Que, Tak-lun; Yuen, Kwok-yung
Sensing their environment is a crucial ability of all life forms. In higher eukaryotes the sensing of airborne volatile compounds, or olfaction, is well developed. In plants, slime moulds and yeast there is also compelling evidence that these organisms can smell their environment and respond accordingly. Here we show that bacteria are also capable of olfaction. Bacillus licheniformis was able to sense airborne volatile metabolites produced by neighbouring bacterial cultures and cells could respond to this chemical information in a coordinated way. When Bacillus licheniformis was grown in a microtitre plate adjacent to a bacterial culture of the same or a different species, growing in complex medium, biofilm formation and pigment production were elicited by volatile molecules. A weaker response occurred in increasingly distant wells. The emitted volatile molecule was identified as ammonia. These data demonstrate that B. licheniformis has evolved the ability collect information about its environment from the surrounding air and physiologically respond to it in a manner similar to olfaction. This is the first time that a behavioural response triggered by odorant molecules received through the gas phase is described in bacteria. PMID:20721987
Nijland, Reindert; Burgess, J Grant
Understanding patterns of biodiversity in microbial communities is severely constrained by the difficulty of adequately sampling these complex systems. We illustrate the problem with empirical data from small surveys (200-member 16S rRNA gene clone libraries) of four bacterial soil communities from two locations in Arizona. Among the four surveys, nearly 500 species-level groups (Dunbar et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:662-1669,
John Dunbar; Susan M. Barns; Lawrence O. Ticknor; Cheryl R. Kuske
Atopobium vaginae was described in 1999 by Rodriguez et al. It is a Gram-positive bacterium producing organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid, formic acid) as a results of glucose fermentation. It was first found in vaginal swab taken from a healthy woman using 16S rRNA analysis. A. vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis and its consequences in upper part of women reproductive organs. PMID:16958231
Romanik, Ma?gorzata; Friedek, Daniela; Wojciechowska-Wieja, Anna; Martirosian, Gayane
We present bacterial biogeography as sampled from the human gastrointestinal tract of four healthy subjects. This study generated >32 million paired-end sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA genes (V3 region) representing >95,000 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% similarity clusters), with >99% Good's coverage for all samples. The highest OTU richness and phylogenetic diversity was found in the mouth samples. The microbial communities of multiple biopsy sites within the colon were highly similar within individuals and largely distinct from those in stool. Within an individual, OTU overlap among broad site definitions (mouth, stomach/duodenum, colon and stool) ranged from 32–110 OTUs, 25 of which were common to all individuals and included OTUs affiliated with Faecalibacterium prasnitzii and the TM7 phylum. This first comprehensive characterization of the abundant and rare microflora found along the healthy human digestive tract represents essential groundwork to investigate further how the human microbiome relates to health and disease.
Stearns, Jennifer C.; Lynch, Michael D. J.; Senadheera, Dilani B.; Tenenbaum, Howard C.; Goldberg, Michael B.; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.; Croitoru, Kenneth; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Neufeld, Josh D.
Formation of biofilms causes severe problems in paper machines, and hence financial costs. It would be preferable to prevent attachment of the primary-colonizing bacteria than to control the growth of secondary communities, which are sheltered by exopolysaccharide slime layers. We have therefore investigated the early succession of paper-machine biofilms by incubating stainless-steel test coupons in the process water-flow lines in two paper machines operating in slightly alkaline conditions in temperatures (45 and 49 degrees C) supporting thermophilic microbes. Microbial succession was profiled using length heterogeneity analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes (LH-PCR) and linking the sequence data of the created 16S rRNA gene libraries to the dominant LH-PCR peaks. Although the bacterial fingerprints obtained from the attached surface communities varied slightly in different samples, the biomarker signals of the dominating primary-colonizing bacterial groups remained high over time in each paper machine. Most of the 16S rRNA gene copies in the early biofilms were assigned to the genera Rhodobacter, Tepidimonas, and Cloacibacterium. The dominance of these sequence types decreased in the developing biofilms. Finally, as phylogenetically identical primary-colonizers were detected in the two different paper mills, the machines evidently had similar environmental conditions for bacterial growth and potentially a common source of contamination. PMID:19390885
Tiirola, Marja; Lahtinen, Tomi; Vuento, Matti; Oker-Blom, Christian
Distinct partitioning has been observed in the composition and diversity of bacterial communities inhabiting the surface and overlying seawater of three coral species infected with black band disease (BBD) on the southern Caribbean island of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. PCR amplification and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) with universally conserved primers have identified over 524 unique bacterial sequences affiliated with 12 bacterial divisions. The molecular sequences exhibited less than 5% similarity in bacterial community composition between seawater and the healthy, black band diseased, and dead coral surfaces. The BBD bacterial mat rapidly migrates across and kills the coral tissue. Clone libraries constructed from the BBD mat were comprised of eight bacterial divisions and 13% unknowns. Several sequences representing bacteria previously found in other marine and terrestrial organisms (including humans) were isolated from the infected coral surfaces, including Clostridium spp., Arcobacter spp., Campylobacter spp., Cytophaga fermentans, Cytophaga columnaris, and Trichodesmium tenue.
Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Bonheyo, George T.; Fouke, Bruce W.
Changes in soil microbial community structure and diversity may reflect environmental impact. We exam- ined 16S rRNA gene fingerprints of bacterial communities in six agroecosystems by PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) separation. These soils were treated with manure for over a century or different fertilizers for over 70 years. Bacterial community structure and diversity were affected by
H. Y. Sun; S. P. Deng; W. R. Raun
The effects of petroleum contamination on the bacterial community of a pristine microbial mat from Salins-de-Giraud (Camargue, France) have been investigated. Mats were maintained as microcosms and contaminated with no. 2 fuel oil from the wreck of the Erika. The evolution of the complex bacterial community was monitored by combining analyses based on 16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. 16S
Sylvain Bordenave; M. S. Goni-Urriza; P. Caumette; R. Duran
Bacterial diversity in mine tailing microbial communities has not been thoroughly investigated despite the correlations that have been observed between the relative microbial diversity and the success of revegetation efforts at tailing sites. This study employed phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes to compare the bacterial communities present in highly disturbed, extremely (pH 2.7) and moderately (pH 5.7) acidic lead-zinc
Monica O. Mendez; Julia W. Neilson; Raina M. Maier
The contents of fed-batch composting (FBC) reactors often aggregate after prolonged operation. This process leads to irreversible\\u000a breakdown of the decomposition reaction and possible alteration of the bacterial communities. We compared the structures of\\u000a bacterial communities in reactors under aggregate and optimal conditions. The results of 16S rRNA gene clone analysis showed\\u000a that populations of the family Bacillaceae (such as
Keiko Watanabe; Norio Nagao; Tatsuki Toda; Norio Kurosawa
Divergent members of the bacterial division Verrucomicrobiales in a temperate freshwater lake 1 Publication 2291 of the Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Limnology, Nieuwersluis, The Netherlands. 1
Bacterial diversity in the water column of a freshwater lake in the Netherlands was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered through PCR amplification from total community DNA. Among 23 unique cloned sequences, two appeared to belong to the recently described bacterial division Verrucomicrobiales. One of the two sequences was most similar to a group of environmental clones
Gabriël Zwart; Raymond Huismans; Miranda P van Agterveld; Yves Van de Peer; Peter De Rijk; Hugo Eenhoorn; Gerard Muyzer; Erik J van Hannen; Herman J Gons; Hendrikus J Laanbroek
More than one copy of rRNA operons, which code for both the small-subunit (SSU) and large-subunit (LSU) rRNA, are often found in prokaryotes. It is generally assumed that all rRNA operons within a single cell are almost identical. A notable exception is the extremely halophilic archaeal genus Haloarcula, most species of which are known to harbor highly divergent rRNA operons
Yan Boucher; Christophe J. Douady; Adrian K. Sharma; Masahiro Kamekura; W. Ford Doolittle
The changes in bacterial communities associated with the marine sponge Mycale laxissima on transfer to aquaculture were studied using culture-based and molecular techniques. M. laxissima was maintained alive in flowthrough and closed recirculating aquaculture systems for 2 years and 1 year, respectively. The bacterial communities associated with wild and aquacultured sponges, as well as the surrounding water, were assessed using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial richness and diversity were measured using DOTUR computer software, and clone libraries were compared using S-LIBSHUFF. DGGE analysis revealed that the diversity of the bacterial community of M. laxissima increased when sponges were maintained in aquaculture and that bacterial communities associated with wild and aquacultured M. laxissima were markedly different than those of the corresponding surrounding water. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA from sponges confirmed that the bacterial communities changed during aquaculture. These communities were significantly different than those of seawater and aquarium water. The diversity of bacterial communities associated with M. laxissima increased significantly in aquaculture. Our work shows that it is important to monitor changes in bacterial communities when examining the feasibility of growing sponges in aquaculture systems because these communities may change. This could have implications for the health of sponges or for the production of bioactive compounds by sponges in cases where these compounds are produced by symbiotic bacteria rather than by the sponges themselves.
Mohamed, Naglaa M.; Enticknap, Julie J.; Lohr, Jayme E.; McIntosh, Scott M.; Hill, Russell T.
Stable isotope probing (SIP) is a novel technique to characterize structure and in situ function of active microbial populations, which is based on the incorporation of 13C-labelled substrates into nucleic acids. Here, we have traced methylotrophic members of a rice field soil microbial community, which became active upon continuous addition of 13C-methanol (< 22 mM) as studied in microcosms. By combining rRNA- and DNA-based SIP, as well as domain-specific real-time PCR detection of templates in fractions of centrifugation gradients, we were able to detect 13C-labelled bacterial rRNA after 6 days of incubation. Fingerprinting and comparative sequence analysis of 'heavy' bacterial rRNA showed that mostly members of the Methylobacteriaceae and a novel clade within the Methylophilaceae formed part of the indigenous methylotrophic community. Over time, however, the Methylophilaceae were enriched. Unexpectedly, nucleic acids of eukaryotic origin were detected, mostly in intermediately 13C-labelled gradient fractions. These eukaryotes were identified as fungi mostly related to Fusarium and Aspergillus spp., and also Cercozoa, known as predatory soil flagellates. The detection of fungi and protozoa in 13C-enriched nucleic acid fractions suggests a possible involvement in either direct assimilation of label by the fungi, or a food web, i.e. that primary 13C-methanol consuming methylotrophs were decomposed by fungi and grazed by protozoa. PMID:14686942
Lueders, Tillmann; Wagner, Bianca; Claus, Peter; Friedrich, Michael W
Peritonitis still remains a serious complication with high rate of morbidity and mortality in patients on CAPD. Rapid and accurate identification of pathogens causing peritonitis in a CAPD patient is essential for early and optimal treatment. The aim of this study was to use 16S rRNA and ITS gene sequencing to identify common bacterial and fungal pathogens directly from the peritoneal fluid without culturing. Ninety one peritoneal fluids obtained from 91 different patients on CAPD suspected for peritonitis were investigated for etiological agents by 16S rRNA and ITS gene sequencing. Data obtained by molecular method was compared with the results obtained by culture method. Among the 45 patients confirmed for peritonitis based on international society of peritoneal dialysis (ISPD) guidelines, the etiological agents were identified in 37(82.2%) samples by culture method, while molecular method identified the etiological agents in 40(88.9%) samples. Despite the high potential application of the 16S rRNA and ITS gene sequencing in comparison to culture method to detect the vast majority of etiological agents directly from peritoneal fluids; it could not be used as a standalone test as it lacks sensitivity to identify some bacterial species due to high genetic similarity in some cases and inadequate database in Gene Bank. However, it could be used as a supplementary test to the culture method especially in the diagnosis of culture negative peritonitis. PMID:24522129
Ahmadi, S H; Neela, V; Hamat, R A; Goh, B L; Syafinaz, A N
Different regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene evolve at different evolutionary rates. The scientific outcome of short read sequencing studies therefore alters with the gene region sequenced. We wanted to gain insight in the impact of primer choice on the outcome of short read sequencing efforts. All the unknowns associated with sequencing data, i.e. primer coverage rate, phylogeny, OTU-richness and taxonomic assignment, were therefore implemented in one study for ten well established universal primers (338f/r, 518f/r, 799f/r, 926f/r and 1062f/r) targeting dispersed regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. All analyses were performed on nearly full length and in silico generated short read sequence libraries containing 1175 sequences that were carefully chosen as to present a representative substitute of the SILVA SSU database. The 518f and 799r primers, targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, were found to be particularly suited for short read sequencing studies, while the primer 1062r, targeting V6, seemed to be least reliable. Our results will assist scientists in considering whether the best option for their study is to select the most informative primer, or the primer that excludes interferences by host-organelle DNA. The methodology followed can be extrapolated to other primers, allowing their evaluation prior to the experiment.
Heylen, Kim; Sessitsch, Angela; De Vos, Paul
Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified fragments of genes coding for 16S rRNA was used to study the development of bacterial communities during decomposition of crop residues in agricultural soils. Ten strains were tested, and eight of these strains produced a single band. Furthermore, a mixture of strains yielded distinguishable bands. Thus, DGGE DNA band patterns were used to estimate bacterial diversity. A field experiment performed with litter in nylon bags was used to evaluate the bacterial diversity during the decomposition of readily degradable rye and more refractory wheat material in comparable luvisols and cambisols in northern, central, and southern Germany. The amount of bacterial DNA in the fresh litter was small. The DNA content increased rapidly after the litter was added to the soil, particularly in the rapidly decomposing rye material. Concurrently, diversity indices, such as the Shannon-Weaver index, evenness, and equitability, which were calculated from the number and relative abundance (intensity) of the bacterial DNA bands amplified from genes coding for 16S rRNA, increased during the course of decomposition. This general trend was not significant for evenness and equitability at any time. The indices were higher for the more degradation-resistant wheat straw than for the more easily decomposed rye grass. Thus, the DNA band patterns indicated that there was increasing bacterial diversity as decomposition proceeded and substrate quality decreased. The bacterial diversity differed for the sites in northern, central, and southern Germany, where the same litter material was buried in the soil. This shows that in addition to litter type climate, vegetation, and indigenous microbes in the surrounding soil affected the development of the bacterial communities in the litter.
Dilly, Oliver; Bloem, Jaap; Vos, An; Munch, Jean Charles
Fungal and bacterial community structure in tussock, intertussock and shrub organic and mineral soils at Toolik Lake, Alaska were evaluated. Community structure was examined by constructing clone libraries of partial 16S and 18S rRNA genes. The soil communities were sampled at the end of the growing season in August 2004 and just after the soils thawed in June 2005. The
Matthew David Wallenstein; Shawna McMahon; Joshua Schimel
Volcanic activity creates new landforms that can change dramatically over time as a consequence of biotic succession. Nonetheless, volcanic deposits present severe constraints for microbial colonization and activity. We have characterized bacterial diversity on four recent deposits at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (KVD). Much of the diversity was either closely related to uncultured organisms or distinct from any reported 16S rRNA
Vicente Gomez-Alvarez; Gary M. King
Background Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a central regulator of cell growth and may control cancer development. A cis noncoding rRNA (nc-rRNA) upstream from the 45S rRNA transcription start site has recently been implicated in control of rRNA transcription in mouse fibroblasts. We investigated whether a similar nc-rRNA might be expressed in human cancer epithelial cells, and related to any genomic characteristics. Methodology/Principal Findings Using quantitative rRNA measurement, we demonstrated that a nc-rRNA is transcribed in human lung epithelial and lung cancer cells, starting from approximately ?1000 nucleotides upstream of the rRNA transcription start site (+1) and extending at least to +203. This nc-rRNA was significantly more abundant in the majority of lung cancer cell lines, relative to a nontransformed lung epithelial cell line. Its abundance correlated negatively with total 45S rRNA in 12 of 13 cell lines (P?=?0.014). During sequence analysis from ?388 to +306, we observed diverse, frequent intercopy single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in rRNA, with a frequency greater than predicted by chance at 12 sites. A SNP at +139 (U/C) in the 5? leader sequence varied among the cell lines and correlated negatively with level of the nc-rRNA (P?=?0.014). Modelling of the secondary structure of the rRNA 5?-leader sequence indicated a small increase in structural stability due to the +139 U/C SNP and a minor shift in local configuration occurrences. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate occurrence of a sense nc-rRNA in human lung epithelial and cancer cells, and imply a role in regulation of the rRNA gene, which may be affected by a +139 SNP in the 5? leader sequence of the primary rRNA transcript.
Gu, Yuhan D.; Kasprzak, Wojciech; Hwang, Christopher J.; Fields, Janet R.; Leighty, Robert M.; Quinones, Octavio; Shapiro, Bruce A.; Alvord, W. Gregory; Anderson, Lucy M.
The rRNA genes in most eucaryotic organisms are present in a tandem array. There is substantial evidence that transcription of one of these genes may not be independent of transcription of others. In particular, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the enhancer of rRNA transcription that lies 2.2 kilobases 5' of the transcription initiation site is at least partly within the upstream transcription unit. To ask more directly about the relationship of the tandemness of these genes to their transcription, we have constructed a minirepeat containing two identifiable test genes, with or without enhancer(s). On integration into the URA3 locus, these genes were transcribed by RNA polymerase I. A single enhancer effectively stimulated transcription of both genes by 10- to 30-fold, even when it was located upstream of both or downstream of both. Two enhancers had roughly additive effects. These results suggest a model of enhancer function in tandemly repeated genes. Images
Johnson, S P; Warner, J R
We compared several currently discussed methods for the assessment of bacterial numbers and activity in marine waters, using samples from a variety of marine environments, from aged offshore seawater to rich harbor water. Samples were simultaneously tested for binding to a fluorescently labeled universal 16S rRNA probe; (sup3)H-labeled amino acid uptake via autoradiography; nucleoid-containing bacterial numbers by modified DAPI (4(prm1),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining; staining with 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC), a compound supposed to indicate oxidative cell metabolism; and total bacterial counts (classical DAPI staining), taken as a reference. For the universal-probe counts, we used an image intensifying and processing system coupled to the epifluorescence microscope. All of the above-mentioned methods yielded lower cell counts than DAPI total counts. Universal-probe counts averaged about half of the corresponding DAPI count and were highly correlated to autoradiography counts (r(sup2) = 0.943; n = 7). Nucleoid-containing cell counts could be lower than DAPI counts by as much as 1 order of magnitude but sometimes matched autoradiography or probe counts. CTC counts were 2 orders of magnitude below DAPI counts. Universal 16S rRNA probe counts correlated well with autoradiography results, indicating a population with at least minimal metabolic activity. The greater variability of the nucleoid-containing cell counts calls for further investigation of the processes involved, and CTC counts were well below the range of the other methods tested.
Karner, M.; Fuhrman, J. A.
Identification of bacteria on the surface of clinically infected and non-infected prosthetic hip joints removed during revision arthroplasties by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by microbiological culture
It has been postulated that bacteria attached to the surface of prosthetic hip joints can cause localised inflammation, resulting in failure of the replacement joint. However, diagnosis of infection is difficult with traditional microbiological culture methods, and evidence exists that highly fastidious or non-cultivable organisms have a role in implant infections. The purpose of this study was to use culture and culture-independent methods to detect the bacteria present on the surface of prosthetic hip joints removed during revision arthroplasties. Ten consecutive revisions were performed by two surgeons, which were all clinically and radiologically loose. Five of the hip replacement revision surgeries were performed because of clinical infections and five because of aseptic loosening. Preoperative and perioperative specimens were obtained from each patient and subjected to routine microbiological culture. The prostheses removed from each patient were subjected to mild ultrasonication to dislodge adherent bacteria, followed by aerobic and anaerobic microbiological culture. Bacterial DNA was extracted from each sonicate and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair 27f/1387r. All 10 specimens were positive for the presence of bacteria by both culture and PCR. PCR products were then cloned, organised into groups by RFLP analysis and one clone from each group was sequenced. Bacteria were identified by comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained with those deposited in public access sequence databases. A total of 512 clones were analysed by RFLP analysis, of which 118 were sequenced. Culture methods identified species from the genera Leifsonia (54.3%), Staphylococcus (21.7%), Proteus (8.7%), Brevundimonas (6.5%), Salibacillus (4.3%), Methylobacterium (2.2%) and Zimmermannella (2.2%). Molecular detection methods identified a more diverse microflora. The predominant genus detected was Lysobacter, representing 312 (60.9%) of 512 clones analysed. In all, 28 phylotypes were identified: Lysobacter enzymogenes was the most abundant phylotype (31.4%), followed by Lysobacter sp. C3 (28.3%), gamma proteobacterium N4-7 (6.6%), Methylobacterium SM4 (4.7%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (4.7%); 36 clones (7.0%) represented uncultivable phylotypes. We conclude that a diverse range of bacterial species are found within biofilms on the surface of clinically infected and non-infected prosthetic hip joints removed during revision arthroplasties.
Dempsey, Kate E; Riggio, Marcello P; Lennon, Alan; Hannah, Victoria E; Ramage, Gordon; Allan, David; Bagg, Jeremy
Summary The secondary structure of 5S rRNA has been elucidated by a cladistic analysis resulting in minimal models for eukaryotes, eubacteria, and halophilic-methanogenic archaebacteria, as well as for an ur-5S rRNA. This ancestor of all present-day 5S rRNA molecules is compared with an ur-tRNA and can be fitted into a tRNA-like structure allowing tertiary-structure interactions at the equivalent positions. A
Jörn Wolters; Volker A. Erdmann
Purpose. To review the newer treatments for bacterial keratitis. Data Sources. PubMed literature search up to April 2012. Study Selection. Key words used for literature search: “infectious keratitis”, “microbial keratitis”, “infective keratitis”, “new treatments for infectious keratitis”, “fourth generation fluoroquinolones”, “moxifloxacin”, “gatifloxacin”, “collagen cross-linking”, and “photodynamic therapy”. Data Extraction. Over 2400 articles were retrieved. Large scale studies or publications at more recent dates were selected. Data Synthesis. Broad spectrum antibiotics have been the main stay of treatment for bacterial keratitis but with the emergence of bacterial resistance; there is a need for newer antimicrobial agents and treatment methods. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones and corneal collagen cross-linking are amongst the new treatments. In vitro studies and prospective clinical trials have shown that fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are better than the older generation fluoroquinolones and are as potent as combined fortified antibiotics against common pathogens that cause bacterial keratitis. Collagen cross-linking was shown to improve healing of infectious corneal ulcer in treatment-resistant cases or as an adjunct to antibiotics treatment. Conclusion. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are good alternatives to standard treatment of bacterial keratitis using combined fortified topical antibiotics. Collagen cross-linking may be considered in treatment-resistant infectious keratitis or as an adjunct to antibiotics therapy.
Wong, Raymond L. M.; Gangwani, R. A.; Yu, Lester W. H.; Lai, Jimmy S. M.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common of the vaginitides affecting women of reproductive age. It appears to be due to an alteration in the vaginal ecology by which Lactobacillus spp., the predominant organisms in the healthy vagina, are replaced by a mixed flora including Prevotella bivia, Prevotella disiens, Porphyromonas spp., Mobiluncus spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. All of these organisms except Mobiluncus spp. are also members of the endogenous vaginal flora. While evidence from treatment trials does not support the notion that BV is sexually transmitted, recent studies have shown an increased risk associated with multiple sexual partners. It has also been suggested that the pathogenesis of BV may be similar to that of urinary tract infections, with the rectum serving as a reservoir for some BV-associated flora. The organisms associated with BV have also been recognized as agents of female upper genital tract infection, including pelvic inflammatory disease, and the syndrome BV has been associated with adverse outcome of pregnancy, including premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and fetal loss; postpartum endometritis; cuff cellulitis; and urinary tract infections. The mechanisms by which the BV-associated flora causes the signs of BV are not well understood, but a role for H2O2-producing Lactobacillus spp. in protecting against colonization by catalase-negative anaerobic bacteria has been recognized. These and other aspects of BV are reviewed.
Spiegel, C A
Bacteria are the unseen majority on our planet, with millions of species and comprising most of the living protoplasm. We propose a novel approach for reconstruction of the composition of an unknown mixture of bacteria using a single Sanger-sequencing reaction of the mixture. Our method is based on compressive sensing theory, which deals with reconstruction of a sparse signal using a small number of measurements. Utilizing the fact that in many cases each bacterial community is comprised of a small subset of all known bacterial species, we show the feasibility of this approach for determining the composition of a bacterial mixture. Using simulations, we show that sequencing a few hundred base-pairs of the 16S rRNA gene sequence may provide enough information for reconstruction of mixtures containing tens of species, out of tens of thousands, even in the presence of realistic measurement noise. Finally, we show initial promising results when applying our method for the reconstruction of a toy experimental mixture with five species. Our approach may have a potential for a simple and efficient way for identifying bacterial species compositions in biological samples. All supplementary data and the MATLAB code are available at www.broadinstitute.org/?orzuk/publications/BCS/. PMID:21999287
Amir, Amnon; Zuk, Or
Bacteria are unicellular, ubiquitous microorganisms which grow on soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive wastes, etc. The genome of bacteria constitutes species specific conserved region. The 5S rRNA is one of the most conserved region determined in each bacteria and the size ranges between 110 and 148 bp. On this basis phylogenetic study of 37 bacterial strains was done which results in formation of seven clades and furthermore RNA secondary structure from each clade was made. The lowest free energy (delta G) of the 5S rRNA may divulge the most primitive bacteria and slow changes occurs throughout the evolution whereas the higher free energy indicates less stability during the evolution. The RNA secondary structure may provide new insights to understand bacteria evolution and stability. PMID:19217331
Singh, Vijai; Somvanshi, Pallavi