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Sample records for bacterial sexually transmitted

  1. Current Concepts in Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the most common infectious diseases worldwide, with over 350 million new cases occurring each year, and have far-reaching health, social, and economic consequences. Failure to diagnose and treat STDs at an early stage may result in serious complications and sequelae. STDs are passed from person to person primarily by sexual contact and are classified into varied groups. Some cause mild, acute symptoms and some are life-threatening. They are caused by many different infectious organisms and are treated in different ways. Syphilis and gonorrhea are ancient afflictions. Now, however, Chlamydia is prevalent and has become the most common bacterial STD. Antimicrobial resistance of several sexually transmitted pathogens is increasing, rendering some regimens ineffective, adding to therapeutic problems. A standardized treatment protocol for STDs is recommended to ensure that all patients receive adequate treatment. Appropriate treatment of STDs is an important public health measure. PMID:22025952

  2. Antibiotic resistance in prevalent bacterial and protozoan sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are "largely inevitable" and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI. PMID:26392647

  3. Antibiotic resistance in prevalent bacterial and protozoan sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are largely inevitable and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI. PMID:26392647

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Sexually transmitted diseases STDs Sexually transmitted infections STIs Medical or Scientific Names Sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted infections Last Reviewed: ...

  5. Aminomethyl spectinomycins as therapeutics for drug-resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, David F; Waidyarachchi, Samanthi L; Madhura, Dora B; Shcherbakov, Dimitri; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Jiuyu; Abdelrahman, Yasser M; Singh, Aman P; Duscha, Stefan; Rathi, Chetan; Lee, Robin B; Belland, Robert J; Meibohm, Bernd; Rosch, Jason W; Böttger, Erik C; Lee, Richard E

    2015-05-20

    The antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis with a unique mechanism of action and an excellent safety index, but it lacks antibacterial activity against most clinically important pathogens. A series of N-benzyl-substituted 3'-(R)-3'-aminomethyl-3'-hydroxy spectinomycins was developed on the basis of a computational analysis of the aminomethyl spectinomycin binding site and structure-guided synthesis. These compounds had ribosomal inhibition values comparable to spectinomycin but showed increased potency against the common respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis, as well as the sexually transmitted bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Non-ribosome-binding 3'-(S) isomers of the lead compounds demonstrated weak inhibitory activity in in vitro protein translation assays and poor antibacterial activity, indicating that the antibacterial activity of the series remains on target against the ribosome. Compounds also demonstrated no mammalian cytotoxicity, improved microsomal stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. The lead compound from the series exhibited excellent chemical stability superior to spectinomycin; no interaction with a panel of human receptors and drug metabolism enzymes, suggesting low potential for adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions in vivo; activity in vitro against a panel of penicillin-, macrolide-, and cephalosporin-resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates; and the ability to cure mice of fatal pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Together, these studies indicate that N-benzyl aminomethyl spectinomycins are suitable for further development to treat drug-resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections. PMID:25995221

  6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes ... is no cure. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  7. Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kieren, Dianne; Cumming, Ceinwen E.; Cumming, David C.

    1992-01-01

    The discouraging results of early efforts to educate the public about sexually transmitted diseases indicated that the goals of STD preventive action must be longer term and must change attitudes and behaviour as well as educate. They must also avoid an ostrich mentality about the sexual involvement of young people. This article examines more recent approaches to teaching about sexuality in general and STD prevention in particular. PMID:21221351

  8. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bacterial vaginosis fact sheet Chlamydia fact sheet Genital herpes fact sheet Genital warts fact sheet Gonorrhea fact ... to get some STIs, such as syphilis and herpes, without having sex. Through sexual contact between women ...

  9. Sexually Transmitted Cervicitis

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Cervical infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Herpes simplex virus are some of the most common sexually transmitted infections. They are often asymptomatic, and therefore the patient is at risk of developing complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. It is important to recognize cervicitis, investigate it appropriately, and provide early treatment. Sexual partners must also be located and offered therapy to prevent re-infection in the index patient. PMID:21248969

  10. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...

  11. About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) KidsHealth > For Teens > About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) ... death (in the case of HIV/AIDS). How STDs Spread One reason STDs spread is because people ...

  12. Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsay; Angarone, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a significant burden on public health in the United States. Primary prevention counseling with early diagnosis and treatment remain the best methods to decrease the incidence of STIs. Through significant public heath interventions, the incidence of gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and trichomoniasis is decreasing; however, the incidence of primary and secondary syphilis is increasing. Human papilloma virus remains the most common STI, but new vaccinations have the possibility of having a significant impact on this virus's disease potential. This review discusses the most common STIs in the United States, focusing on clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:26475947

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Mark A; Trout, Wayne

    2015-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) continue to be a global epidemic with significant risk of morbidity/mortality for the fetus. STDs with prominent cutaneous findings including condylomata acuminata, genital herpes infections, and syphilis are reviewed. Important clinical cutaneous findings help aid early diagnosis and facilitate treatment. Condylomata acuminata have the potential of causing cervical cancer, anogenital cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Significant advances have been made in human papilloma virus vaccinations and treatment. Genital herpes infection can produce significant physical and emotional distress to the patient and significant potential harm to the fetus. Early clinical recognition of STDs and their appropriate management is critical. PMID:25565081

  14. Are social organizational factors independently associated with a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection among urban adolescents and young adults?

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Jacky M.; Hensel, Devon J.; Tanner, Amanda E.; Reilly, Meredith L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the social organization of neighborhoods including informal social control and social cohesion and a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among adolescents and young adults in one U.S. urban setting. Data for the current study were collected from April 2004 to April 2007 in a cross-sectional household study. The target population included English-speaking, sexually-active persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years who resided in 486 neighborhoods. The study sample included 599 participants from 63 neighborhoods. A current bacterial STI was defined as diagnosis of a chlamydia and/or gonorrhea infection at the time of study participation. Participants reported on informal social control (i.e. scale comprised of 9 items) and social cohesion (i.e. scale comprised of 5 items) in their neighborhood. In a series of weighted multilevel logistic regression models stratified by gender, greater informal social control was significantly associated with a decreased odds of a current bacterial STI among females (AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34, 0.84) after controlling for individual social support and other factors. The association, while in a similar direction, was not significant for males (AOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.48, 1.12). Social cohesion was not significantly associated with a current bacterial STI among females (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.61, 1.19) and separately, males (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.67, 1.44). Greater individual social support was associated with an almost seven-fold increase in the odds of a bacterial STI among males (AOR 6.85, 95% CI 1.99, 23.53), a finding which is in contrast to our hypotheses. The findings suggest that neighborhood social organizational factors such as informal social control have an independent relationship with sexual health among U.S. urban youth. The causality of the relationship remains to be determined. PMID:25089964

  15. Are social organizational factors independently associated with a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection among urban adolescents and young adults?

    PubMed

    Jennings, Jacky M; Hensel, Devon J; Tanner, Amanda E; Reilly, Meredith L; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2014-10-01

    This study explored the relationship between the social organization of neighborhoods including informal social control and social cohesion and a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among adolescents and young adults in one U.S. urban setting. Data for the current study were collected from April 2004 to April 2007 in a cross-sectional household study. The target population included English-speaking, sexually-active persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years who resided in 486 neighborhoods. The study sample included 599 participants from 63 neighborhoods. A current bacterial STI was defined as diagnosis of a chlamydia and/or gonorrhea infection at the time of study participation. Participants reported on informal social control (i.e. scale comprised of 9 items) and social cohesion (i.e. scale comprised of 5 items) in their neighborhood. In a series of weighted multilevel logistic regression models stratified by gender, greater informal social control was significantly associated with a decreased odds of a current bacterial STI among females (AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34, 0.84) after controlling for individual social support and other factors. The association, while in a similar direction, was not significant for males (AOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.48, 1.12). Social cohesion was not significantly associated with a current bacterial STI among females (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.61, 1.19) and separately, males (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.67, 1.44). Greater individual social support was associated with an almost seven-fold increase in the odds of a bacterial STI among males (AOR 6.85, 95% CI 1.99, 23.53), a finding which is in contrast to our hypotheses. The findings suggest that neighborhood social organizational factors such as informal social control have an independent relationship with sexual health among U.S. urban youth. The causality of the relationship remains to be determined. PMID:25089964

  16. Sexually transmitted viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, F.

    1989-01-01

    Human viruses known to be spread by sexual contact include herpes simplex viruses (HSV), papillomaviruses (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and cytomegalovirus. Infections with the first three (HSV, HPV, and HIV) have reached epidemic proportions and pose global health concerns. Most of what we know about these human pathogens has been learned only recently, owing to the advent of DNA technologies and advances in culture techniques. In fact, our awareness of one virally transmitted venereal disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, dates to the early 1980s. This paper touches on various aspects of the biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and, where applicable, oncogenicity of these agents, as well as current treatments and vaccine initiatives. PMID:2549736

  17. Association of Bacterial vaginosis and other Sexually Transmitted Infections with HIV among pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Imade, Godwin E.; Musa, Jonah; Sagay, Atiene S.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sankale, Jean-Louis; Idoko, John; Kanki, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Jos, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross- sectional study of pregnant women who participated in the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV program of the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria, between April 2002 and July 2004, at the Jos University Teaching Hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Blood, high vaginal and endocervical samples were obtained for diagnosis of HIV, BV and other STIs. Data were analyzed for prevalence of HIV, BV and other STIs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models generated unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) as well as 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association of BV and other STIs with HIV prevalence. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 4,046 pregnant women were studied and 97.6% (3,950/4,046) had complete laboratory records for analysis. The prevalence of HIV was 8.2% (CI: 7.49.1); BV 11.9% (CI: 10.912.9); Candida 10.7% (CI: 9.711.7); mixed infection of BV and Candida 2.8% (CI: 2.33.4); Trichomonads 0.6% (CI: 0.30.8) and syphilis 0.35% (0.160.54). BV, Candida, mixed BV and Candida; and Trichomonads were independently associated with HIV infection [adjusted OR (95% CI), 2.9 (CI: 2.23.9); 2.0 (CI: 1.52.9); 3.4 (CI: 2.05.6), and 3.3 (CI: 1.19.7) respectively]. Conclusion HIV prevalence is higher among pregnant women who have BV, Candida and Trichomonads vaginal infections compared with women who have no evidence of infection. The practice of routine screening for BV and other STIs among pregnant women as a strategy for identifying women at risk for prevalent HIV infection should be sustained/ encouraged and the syndromic management of STIs should be integrated into all antenatal care management protocols in antenatal clinics in order to curb the epidemic of heterosexual HIV transmission.

  18. Sexual Behavior and Network Characteristics and Their Association with Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Hyman M.; Irvin, Risha; Wilton, Leo; Van Tieu, Hong; Watson, Chauncey; Magnus, Manya; Chen, Iris; Gaydos, Charlotte; Hussen, Sophia A.; Mannheimer, Sharon; Mayer, Kenneth; Hessol, Nancy A.; Buchbinder, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Black men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and individual risk behavior does not fully explain the higher prevalence when compared with other MSM. Using the social-ecological framework, we evaluated individual, social and sexual network, and structural factors and their association with prevalent STIs among Black MSM. Methods The HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 was a multi-site cohort study designed to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention for Black MSM in six US cities. Baseline assessments included demographics, risk behavior, and social and sexual network questions collected information about the size, nature and connectedness of their sexual network. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having any prevalent sexually transmitted infection (gonorrhea, chlamydia, or syphilis). Results A total of 1,553 Black MSM were enrolled in this study. In multivariate analysis, older age (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.49–0.66, p<0.001) was associated with a lower odds of having a prevalent STI. Compared with reporting one male sexual partner, having 2–3 partners (aOR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.08–2.81, p<0.024) or more than 4 partners (aOR = 2.29; 95% CI 1.43–3.66, p<0.001) was associated with prevalent STIs. Having both Black and non-Black sexual partners (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.45–0.99, p = 0.042) was the only sexual network factor associated with prevalent STIs. Conclusions Age and the number and racial composition of sexual partners were associated with prevalent STIs among Black MSM, while other sexual network factors were not. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of the individual, network, and structural factors on prevalent STIs among Black MSM to inform combination interventions to reduce STIs among these men. PMID:26720332

  19. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human

  20. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…

  1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... based antimicrobial susceptibility testing for GISP Archive Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook How You Can Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This page ...

  2. Sexually transmitted infections and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ljubojevi?, Suzana; Lipozen?i?, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a public health problem of major significance in most of the world. Adolescents make up about 20% of the world population, of whom 85% live in developing countries. They are at a greater risk of STIs because they frequently have unprotected intercourse, biologically may be more susceptible to infection, often are engaged in multiple monogamous relationships of limited duration, and face multiple obstacles in accessing confidential health care services. Young people who begin to have sexual intercourse in early or middle adolescence are more likely to develop an STI than those who postpone intercourse until later adolescence or adulthood. The most common STIs among adolescents are chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus infection, and trichomoniasis. Unfortunately, lately the incidence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among adolescents is growing. Comprehensive sex education programs in schools can increase STI knowledge and prevent risky sexual behaviors. Health care providers can promote STI prevention methods, including counseling about safe sex. PMID:21251451

  3. Women and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, C; Chrisler, J C

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of historical developments in women's health care. It describes the current campaign against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and assesses the campaign's success in light of its history and the reality of women's lives. The authors suggest that women are forced into a double-bind in which they are expected to take responsibility for the prevention of STDs although they may not have the ability to do so. Modifications are suggested which take into account gender-role socialization and social group norms. PMID:1462599

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Teens at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascola, Laurene

    1987-01-01

    Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)

  5. Sexual function, sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Conard, Lee Ann E; Blythe, Margaret J

    2003-02-01

    As adolescents progress through puberty, many biological changes occur and, for young women, this includes the onset of menses and the capability for reproduction. During this time, sexual identity is developed and expressions of sexuality become more frequent. Adolescent women engage in a variety of sexual behaviours, both non-coital and coital. As teens begin dating relationships, they are at risk for dating violence and sexual abuse. Some may even be raped after sedation with a 'date rape' drug. As adolescents attempt to develop intimate sexual relationships, they may be at high risk for health consequences associated with sexual activity, such as pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Providers, such as physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants and nurses, must know current STD diagnosis and treatment recommendations to decrease morbidity caused by these infections. By knowing how to interview, understanding legal issues and anticipating concerns pertinent to teens, providers have the opportunity to decrease barriers to health care for adolescents. PMID:12758229

  6. Hepatitis B as a Sexually Transmitted Disease

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Brian A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a serious, common, viral, sexually transmitted disease. It is unique among the sexually transmitted diseases in that a safe, effective, proven vaccine is available. Increased recognition of hepatitis B as an important STD, appropriate counseling, and wise use of vaccination may well reduce the prevalence of this disease. PMID:21221349

  7. Ano-Rectal Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Disease

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ralph E.

    1987-01-01

    Diseases of the anus and rectum are frequently the outcome of proctogenital and oral-anal sexual activities. These sexually transmitted diseases are more common among homosexual and bisexual men than among heterosexuals. A variety of infectious agents are responsible including viruses, bacteria, spirochetes, helminths, and protozoa. Anal warts, herpetic ulcers, and syphilitic chancres are common anal STDs. Gonorrhea, herpes, and chlamydial organisms are common causes of venereal acute proctitis. Enteric infections such as shigellosis, amebiasis, giardiasis and pinworms can be transmitted by oral-anal contact. Aggressive sexual attempts at auto-eroticism using rectally inserted foreign bodies may cause traumatic proctitis complicated by bacterial peritonitis or perirectal abscesses. PMID:21263807

  8. Sexually transmitted infections in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Muhammad Arif; Hussain, Fatma; Iqbal, Javed; Akhtar, Shahid Javed

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a major global health problem leading to morbidity, mortality and stigma. Prior to this study there was no information on the prevalence and knowledge of STIs in Faisalabad, Pakistan. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, cross-sectional study in patients attending STI clinics from July 2006 to September 2009. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After obtaining consent, patients completed structured questionnaires used for behavioral surveys. Blood and urethral swabs were collected and tested for syphilis, gonococcus, genital herpes, chlamydia and chancroid. RESULT: Mean (standard deviation) age of the 1532 participants was 38.9 (9.4) years, including 37.8 (10.2) years for males and 35.5 (6.3) years females. Male gender (n=1276, 83.3%), low socioeconomic class (n=1026, 67.0%) and residence in rural suburbs (n=970, 63.3%) were more common. Most (n=913, 59.6%) were aware of the modes of transmission of STIs and the associated complications, 20% (n=306) were condom users, and 21.2% (n=324) had knowledge of safe sex. Opposite-sex partners were preferred by 972 (63.4%) patients, while 29.9% (n=458) had both homosexual and heterosexual sex partners. Syphilis was present in 29.5% of patients (n=452); gonorrhea, in 13% (n=200), HSV-2, in 3.2% (n=49), chlamydia, in 4.7% (n=72) and chancroid, in 1.3% (n=20). CONCLUSION: This report establishes baseline local prevalence rates for STIs. Syphilis emerged as the most prevalent STI in Faisalabad. Population-based studies are required to study the epidemiology of STIs, along with initiation of national health-education campaign. PMID:21623055

  9. Updating the management of sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Catriona; Lewis, David

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The control of sexually transmitted infections relies on case-finding and treatment of sexual contacts to prevent further transmission. Screening for infections should be tailored to the demographic and sexual risk of the individual. For most sexually transmitted infections, screening is performed on self-collected, non-invasive samples using highly sensitive molecular assays. These are quick and inexpensive. Shorter courses of antivirals for genital herpes are now recommended. New chemoprophylactic strategies for preventing HIV transmission have emerged, including treatment to prevent transmission and the use of antiretrovirals for pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:26843713

  10. Association of sexually transmitted infections, Candida species, gram-positive flora and perianal flora with bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Vahidnia, Ali; Tuin, Hellen; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterised by depletion of the normal Lactobacillus spp. and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. We investigated the composition of vaginal microbiota and their association with BV in women of reproductive age. Vaginal samples from 1197 women were analysed, whereby n=451 patients had normal flora and n=614 were diagnosed with BV, the remaining patients were diagnosed with having either intermediate flora (n=42) or dysbacteriosis (n=90). The reported results show that pathogens are associated with BV. This knowledge will further expand our understanding of events leading to BV, which may lead to more effective prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:26485014

  11. The impact of meeting locations for men having sex with men on the risk for bacterial sexually transmitted infections: analyses from a cross-sectional online survey

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, U; an der Heiden, M; Gassowski, M; Kruspe, M; Drewes, J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Opportunities for men having sex with men (MSM) to meet each other have very much improved by new communication technologies. Meeting venue-based characteristics can impact how many partners are met and how much sexual risk is taken. We analysed the association between physical and virtual venues and the risk for bacterial sexually transmitted infections (bSTIs) among participants in an MSM online survey. Methods Data were collected during 2013/2014 with a survey targeting MSM living in Germany. The impact of the meeting place with the last non-steady anal sex partner on diagnosis with a bSTI in the previous year was analysed using bivariate and multivariate regression analysis, taking into account self-reported HIV status, serostatus communication, condom use, partner number, age and city size. Results The study sample consisted of 8878 respondents (7799 not diagnosed with HIV; 1079 diagnosed with HIV). Meeting partners online was most common (62% HIV−/51% HIV+), followed by sex venues (11% HIV−/25% HIV+); other venues were each reported by 2–6% of the respondents. Venue-dependent proportions reporting bSTIs in the recent year were 2–4 folds higher among men diagnosed with HIV. In multivariate analysis, HIV status was the strongest predictor for bSTIs (OR=5.0; 95% CI 2.8 to 8.7). Compared with meeting partners online, sex (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5) and social venues (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.6) were associated with increased bSTI risk for men not diagnosed with HIV, but the risk when meeting partners by smartphone apps was only of borderline significance (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9 to 2.3). For men diagnosed with HIV, bSTI risk increased for sex venues (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1), and was lower for non-gay/other venues (OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5). Conclusions Venues are connected to social-behavioural facets of corresponding sexual encounters, and may be important arenas for differential HIV and STI education, treatment and prevention. PMID:26537499

  12. Social Implications of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Dianne

    1983-01-01

    Changes in attitudes toward sexuality have contributed to the rise in incidence of sexually transmitted diseases. The persistence of social stigma towards STD acts as a barrier to treatment-seeking. The exaggerated threat of genital herpes has led to unnecessary suffering, anxiety and increased social stigma, but is unlikely to alter sexual behavior. A change in attitudes will be necessary if attempts to control the spread of STD are to be successful. PMID:21283431

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases in Sabah and Sarawak.

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, R D

    1981-01-01

    Despite being part of one of the few remaining primitive areas of the world, both Sabah and Sarawak are provided with adequate, though simple, urban and rural general medical services. At present no reliable data on the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in these areas have been collected and no organised treatment services are available. Gonorrhoea appears to be the commonest notifiable infectious disease in Sarawak, and beta-lactamase-producing strains have been isolated. Because of the rapidly expanding economy and the encouragement of the tourist trade, sexually transmitted disease is likely to prove an increasing problem, for which a specialised service for diagnosis and treatment is badly needed. PMID:6895709

  14. The Office Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Crombie, Fionnella S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The family physician plays an important role in controlling the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Accurate identification, diagnosis and treatment are essential in exercising this control. In addition, attention must be paid to educating patients and to treating their sexual contacts. This paper will review the management of some of the more common diseases including urethritis, vaginitis, cervicitis, herpes, genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. PMID:21263806

  15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Canada: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Marion; Elmslie, Kimberly; Paulson, Eleanor; Jessamine, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    At least 26 sexually transmissible infections have been identified to date. Only five of these, however, are currently reportable on a national basis. While the true incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is underrestimated because of the number that are non-notifiable, it has become increasingly clear that these non-reportable STDs are at least as common as those that are reportable. PMID:21263798

  16. Adolescent Sexuality: Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,

  17. Semen-Derived Enhancer of Viral Infection (SEVI) Binds Bacteria, Enhances Bacterial Phagocytosis by Macrophages, and Can Protect against Vaginal Infection by a Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Easterhoff, David; Ontiveros, Fernando; Brooks, Lauren R.; Kim, Yoel; Ross, Brittany; Silva, Jharon N.; Olsen, Joanna S.; Feng, Changyong; Hardy, Dwight J.; Dunman, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI) is a positively charged amyloid fibril that is derived from a self-assembling proteolytic cleavage fragment of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286). SEVI efficiently facilitates HIV-1 infection in vitro, but its normal physiologic function remains unknown. In light of the fact that other amyloidogenic peptides have been shown to possess direct antibacterial activity, we investigated whether SEVI could inhibit bacterial growth. Neither SEVI fibrils nor the unassembled PAP248-286 peptide had significant direct antibacterial activity in vitro. However, SEVI fibrils bound to both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) bacteria, in a charge-dependent fashion. Furthermore, SEVI fibrils but not the monomeric PAP248-286 peptide promoted bacterial aggregation and enhanced the phagocytosis of bacteria by primary human macrophages. SEVI also enhanced binding of bacteria to macrophages and the subsequent release of bacterially induced proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-1?). Finally, SEVI fibrils inhibited murine vaginal colonization with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These findings demonstrate that SEVI has indirect antimicrobial activity and that this activity is dependent on both the cationic charge and the fibrillar nature of SEVI. PMID:23507280

  18. Semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI) binds bacteria, enhances bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages, and can protect against vaginal infection by a sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Easterhoff, David; Ontiveros, Fernando; Brooks, Lauren R; Kim, Yoel; Ross, Brittany; Silva, Jharon N; Olsen, Joanna S; Feng, Changyong; Hardy, Dwight J; Dunman, Paul M; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    The semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI) is a positively charged amyloid fibril that is derived from a self-assembling proteolytic cleavage fragment of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP(248-286)). SEVI efficiently facilitates HIV-1 infection in vitro, but its normal physiologic function remains unknown. In light of the fact that other amyloidogenic peptides have been shown to possess direct antibacterial activity, we investigated whether SEVI could inhibit bacterial growth. Neither SEVI fibrils nor the unassembled PAP(248-286) peptide had significant direct antibacterial activity in vitro. However, SEVI fibrils bound to both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) bacteria, in a charge-dependent fashion. Furthermore, SEVI fibrils but not the monomeric PAP(248-286) peptide promoted bacterial aggregation and enhanced the phagocytosis of bacteria by primary human macrophages. SEVI also enhanced binding of bacteria to macrophages and the subsequent release of bacterially induced proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-1?). Finally, SEVI fibrils inhibited murine vaginal colonization with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These findings demonstrate that SEVI has indirect antimicrobial activity and that this activity is dependent on both the cationic charge and the fibrillar nature of SEVI. PMID:23507280

  19. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This document contains a reference sheet and an annotated bibliography concerned with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The reference sheet provides a brief, accurate overview of STDs which includes both statistical and background information. The bibliography contains 83 entries, listed alphabetically, that deal with STDs. Books and articles

  20. Survey of Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This survey covers periodical literature published in the field of research on sexually transmitted diseases during 1985. The articles cover the following diseases: (1) genital chlamydial infection; (2) gonorrhea; (3) genital herpes infection; (4) human papillomavirus infection; (5) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); (6) genital

  1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This document contains a reference sheet and an annotated bibliography concerned with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The reference sheet provides a brief, accurate overview of STDs which includes both statistical and background information. The bibliography contains 83 entries, listed alphabetically, that deal with STDs. Books and articles…

  2. Survey of Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This survey covers periodical literature published in the field of research on sexually transmitted diseases during 1985. The articles cover the following diseases: (1) genital chlamydial infection; (2) gonorrhea; (3) genital herpes infection; (4) human papillomavirus infection; (5) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); (6) genital…

  3. Travel-related sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common notifiable health problems worldwide, with particularly high rates in developing countries. Men and women with multiple sexual partners at home or a previous history of STIs are more likely to have casual sexual exposure (CSE) while travelling. Over the last several decades 5% to even 50% of short-term travellers engaged in CSE during foreign trips. It is estimated that only 50% of travellers use condoms during casual sex abroad. Sexual contact with commercial sex workers is an exceptionally high-risk behaviour. The common risk factor is also young age. Adolescents and young adults constitute 25% of the sexually active population, but represent almost 50% of all new acquired STIs. Many STIs are asymptomatic and therefore can be difficult to identify and control. The clinical manifestation of STIs can be grouped into a number of syndromes, such as genital ulcer or erosion, urethral or vaginal discharge, pelvic inflammatory disease. STIs are divided into curable infections caused by bacteria (gonorrhoea, chlamydiasis, syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale) or protozoa (trichomoniasis) and incurable viral infections (genital herpes, genital warts, HIV). STIs are not only a cause of acute morbidity, but may result in complications including male and female infertility, ectopic pregnancy, cervical cancer, premature mortality or miscarriage. Monogamous sex with a stable, uninfected partner or sexual abstinence remains the only way to avoid the risk of becoming infected with STIs. PMID:26726895

  4. The gay report on sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, W W; Barrett, D; Jay, K; Young, A

    1981-01-01

    Most studies of sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual men have examined prevalence in clinic populations; for comparative purposes, we analyzed data from a survey of 4,329 gay men conducted in 1977. Among 4,212 respondents to the self-administered questionnaire, 66.8 per cent reported previous infection with pediculosis; 38.4 per cent, gonorrhea; 24.1 per cent, nonspecific urethritis; 18.1 per cent, venereal warts; 13.5 per cent, syphilis; 9.7 per cent, hepatitis; and 9.4 per cent, herpes. Number of different lifetime sexual partners best predicted histories of symphilis (r = .249), gonorrhea (r = .402), and the other diseases; frequency of checkups, years as a practicing homosexual, and furtive sexual activities were among the many other significant correlates of venereal infections. Respondents most often sought examinations from private physicians (39.4 per cent); those who visited gay clinics were examined most often and felt most positive about their medical care. Gay men who participated in the survey reported frequent infections with many of the same sexually transmitted diseases often seen in private medical practices, public VD clinics, and gay health centers. Since high rates of disease are related to large numbers of different partners, frequent exposures with anonymous contacts, and anal intercourse, we recommend frequent examinations for those whose life-styles include these characteristics. PMID:6895004

  5. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in female clinic attendees in Honiara, Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kako, H; Butcher, R; Lauri, B; Puiahi, E; Pitakaka, R; Sokana, O; Kilua, G; Roth, A; Solomon, A W; Mabey, D C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine the prevalence of common bacterial sexually transmitted infections, including Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in women attending clinics in the Solomon Islands. Methods We conducted a sexual health survey among women attending three nurse-led community outpatient clinics in August 2014, to establish the prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in female clinic attenders in Honiara, Solomon Islands. Vaginal swab samples were tested for infection with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae using a commercial strand displacement amplification assay. Serum samples were tested for syphilis. Results We enrolled 296 women, aged 1649, attending three clinics. Knowledge of safe sexual practices was high but reported condom usage was low. The prevalence of infection with C. trachomatis was 20%. The prevalence of infection with N. gonorrhoeae and syphilis were 5.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Conclusions Bacterial sexually transmitted infections are a major health problem in the Solomon Islands. Interventions are urgently needed. PMID:25922103

  6. High School Dropouts and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark; Pörtner, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    People who drop out of high school fare worse in many aspects of life. We analyze the relationship between dropping out of high school and the probability of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Previous studies on the relationship between dropout status and sexual outcomes have not empirically addressed unobserved heterogeneity at the individual level. Using fixed effects estimators, we find evidence supporting a positive relationship between dropping out of high school and the risk of contracting an STI for females. Furthermore, we present evidence that illustrates differences between the romantic partners of dropouts versus enrolled students. These differences suggest that female dropouts may be more susceptible to contracting STIs because they partner with significantly different types of people than non-dropouts. Our results point to a previously undocumented benefit of encouraging those at risk of dropping out to stay in school longer. PMID:25705058

  7. [Modern diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, N H; Meyer, T

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has significantly improved in recent years by the application of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). In addition to detection of infectious agents, molecular methods were also used for characterization of pathogens (typing, genotypic resistance testing). In contrast to conventional Sanger sequencing of amplicons, new sequencing technologies (next generation sequencing) are able to identify resistant variants that represent only small minorities in a heterogeneous population. NAATs are also available as fully automated closed systems that can be run independently of centralized laboratories and will become increasingly important for point-of-care testing. PMID:26646440

  8. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases: the global picture.

    PubMed Central

    De Schryver, A.; Meheus, A.

    1990-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are now the commonest group of notifiable infectious diseases in most countries, particularly in the age group of 15 to 50 years and in infants. Their control is important considering the high incidence of acute infections, complications and sequelae, their socioeconomic impact, and their role in increasing transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The worldwide incidence of major bacterial and viral STD is estimated at over 125 million cases yearly. STD are hyperendemic in many developing countries. In industrialized countries, the bacterial STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chancroid) declined from the peak during the Second World War till up to the late fifties, then increased during the sixties and early seventies, and they have been decreasing again from the late seventies till the present. In the industrialized world, diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis, genital herpes virus, human papillomaviruses and human immunodeficiency virus are now more important than the classical bacterial ones; both groups remain major health problems in most developing countries. Infection rates are similar in both women and men, but women and infants bear the major burden of complications and serious sequelae. Infertility and ectopic pregnancies are often a consequence of pelvic inflammatory disease, and are preventable. Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnant women can result in prematurity, stillbirth and neonatal infections. In many areas 1-5% of newborns are at risk of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, a blinding disease; congenital syphilis causes up to 25% of perinatal mortality. Genital and anal cancers (especially cervical cancer) are associated with viral sexually transmitted diseases (genital human papillomavirus and herpes virus infections). Urethral stricture and infertility are frequent sequelae in men. PMID:2289300

  9. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed

  10. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  11. Texas Health Officials Report Sexually Transmitted Case of Zika Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Texas Health Officials Report Sexually Transmitted Case of Zika Virus News comes day after WHO declared pathogen a ... officials in Texas have confirmed a case of Zika virus infection that was transmitted by sex, and not ...

  12. Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Bipartite Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Luo-Sheng; Zhong, Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Fan

    2009-01-01

    We study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model on bipartite graph. According to the difference of sex conception in western and oriental nations, we construct the Barabási Albert-Barabási Albert (BA-BA) model and Barabási-Albert Homogeneity (BA-HO) model for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Applying the rate equation approach, the positive equilibria of both models are given analytically. We find that the ratio between infected females and infected males is distinctly different in both models and the infected density in the BA-HO model is much less than that in the BA-BA model. These results explain that the countries with small ratio have less infected density than those with large ratio. Our numerical simulations verify these theoretical results.

  13. History of sexually transmitted infections (STI).

    PubMed

    Burg, G

    2012-08-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are as old as mankind and epidemics are mentioned already in the Old Testament. However, the perception of the conditions has changed over the centuries. In ancient times they were taken for an individual punishment for a blasphemic conduct of life or as a consequence of low sanitation and hygiene. In the medieval ages, the relation to sexual activities was recognized, but the diversity of clinical symptoms was seen as variations of one disease, depending on the stage of the disease and the general health condition of the diseased person. In the late 15th and 16th century a presumably "new plague" had been imported to Europe and was rapidly spread by soldiers. Misinterpretations of wrong experiments on the suspected identity of syphilis and gonorrhoea led to nosologic misconceptions in the 17th and early 19th century. The late 19th and beginning of 20st century due to the many achievements in microbiology and chemistry finally took the frightening threat from the STDs, which have terrorized millions of "normal" and "famous" people of all social classes over centuries and has been linked to many scandals. Moreover, the perception of STDs has turned from a "personal stroke of fate" into a collectively important issue of public health. PMID:23007208

  14. [Sexually transmitted infections: epidemiology and control].

    PubMed

    Díez, M; Díaz, A

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) include a group of diseases of diverse infectious etiology in which sexual transmission is relevant. The burden of disease that STI represent globally is unknown for several reasons. Firstly, asymptomatic infections are common in many STI; secondly, diagnostic techniques are not available in some of the most affected countries; finally, surveillance systems are inexistent or very deficient in many areas of the world. The Word Health Organization has estimated that in 1999 there were 340 million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia infection and trichomoniasis. An increasing trend in the incidence of gonorrhoea and syphilis has been noticed in the last years in the European Union, including Spain. Co-infection with other STI, especially HIV, should be ruled out in all STI patients. Chlamydia screening is also of particular importance since this is the most common STI in Europe and frequently goes unnoticed. STI prevention and control should be based on health education, early diagnosis and treatment, screening for asymptomatic infections, contact investigation and vaccination for those diseases for which a vaccine is available. PMID:21750856

  15. Sexual Practices, Risk Perception and Knowledge Of Sexually Transmitted Disease Risk Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Coffey, Patricia; Bingham, Allison

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be spread between female sex partners, probably through the exchange of cervicovaginal fluid and direct mucosal contact. Additionally, lesbians have a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, which may represent an STD in this population. However, few data on sexual practices or perceived STD risk among lesbians are available to guide development of interventions aimed at reducing the risk. METHODS To inform the development of a safer-sex intervention for women who have sex with women, focus group discussions were conducted with 23 lesbian and bisexual women aged 1829. Topics included sexual practices, STD transmission and prevention, and knowledge about bacterial vaginosis. RESULTS Although six participants had had bacterial vaginosis and three an STD, women reported little use of preventive measures with female partners (washing hands, using rubber gloves and cleaning sex toys). Participants said that vaginal penetrative practices using sex toys and fingers or hands are common, and that partners frequently share sex toys during a sexual encounter, generally without condoms. Knowledge of potential for STD transmission between women, and of bacterial vaginosis, was limited. Participants viewed use of barrier methods (gloves or condoms) as acceptable, provided that there is a reason (usually STD-focused) to use them and that they are promoted in the context of sexual health and pleasure. CONCLUSIONS Safer-sex messages aimed at lesbian and bisexual women should emphasize the plausibility of STD transmission between women, personal responsibility and care for partnerswell-being; should target common sexual practices; and should promote healthy sexuality. PMID:15888397

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases: a neglected public health priority.

    PubMed Central

    Yankauer, A

    1994-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases remain uncontrolled although millions of cases occur annually in the United States. The advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is also a sexually transmitted disease, has not altered this situation. The major portion of federal funding for sexually transmitted diseases is allocated to a search for an AIDS vaccine or cure. State health department funding for sexually transmitted diseases, although only a small fraction of the $1.3 billion AIDS research budget of the National Institutes of Health, is largely consumed by AIDS. A single adequately funded sexually transmitted disease control program that applies well-established public health principles for the control of communicable diseases would make sense. However, a consensus to develop and support such a program does not exist in the United States. PMID:7998625

  17. [Contraception, abortion and sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Nesheim, B I

    1992-02-28

    Contraceptives that protect against pregnancy tend to offer the least protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), particularly needed by young people who change partners frequently. Oral contraceptive (OCs) protect best against pregnancy and salpingitis, but they do not protect against infections of the cervix; thus, there is a higher incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea among OC users. The IUD is also very effective, but there is an elevated risk of infections during the first 20 days after fitting, as bacteria may move up to the uterus from the cervical canal during insertion. The effectiveness of the condom depends on the users, and studies show that when used consistently it provides significant protection against STDs. The diaphragm also protects against STDs, but it is insignificant from a quantitative point of view. In Norway, in 1977, 30% of 18-19 year old women used OCs, and 21% used IUDs. In contrast, in 1988, 65% of 20-year old women used OCs and 5% used IUDs. Condom use remains unchanged. The rate of abortion has not changed since 1977; it is highest among women aged 18-29 (about 30/1000 women per year), although safe contraception use has increased from 50% to 70% among women aged 18-19. Free-service health clinics with evening hours have met a clear need for counseling in the past 20 years. In the 1970s the demand was high for induced abortion, safe contraceptives, and IUD insertion. Later, OCs had lower hormone content and fewer site effects, and their dispensation became more widespread among general practitioners. Nowadays a large proportion of women seek advice on STDs, and 65% of them attend because the consultation is free. It is an important task of these clinics to provide guidance, examination, and treatment to high-risk people to help them avoid STDs and unwanted pregnancy. PMID:1561591

  18. Engineering immunity in the mucosal niche against sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Renuka; Woodrow, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of the genital tract are the site of entry to over 30 different bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens that are the cause of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. Women and adolescent girls are more severely impacted by STIs than men due in part to a greater biological susceptibility for acquiring infections and differences in disease sequelae. While it is widely accepted that preventative vaccines against the most commonly transmitted STIs would have a major impact on decreasing the global health burden of STIs for women worldwide, several challenges preclude their development. The female genital tract is a complex niche of microflora, hormonal influences, and immune tissues and cells that result in a mucosal immune system that is distinct from other mucosal sites and from our systemic immune system. An appreciation of these differences and their effect on shaping mucosal immunity to sexually transmitted pathogens is an important determinant for the design of effective STI vaccines. Here we describe the anatomy and mucosal immune system of the female reproductive tract, and discuss bioengineering strategies to design mucosal vaccines that overcome delivery challenges and coordinate the presentation kinetics and compartmentalization of antigens and adjuvants to relevant mucosal immune cell subsets. In particular, we describe recent progress in understanding the role of specific mucosal dendritic cell subsets in facilitating immune responses to pathogenic microbes in the genital mucosa. We also discuss the development of pathogen-mimicking materials that may be useful for engineering protective immunity in this mucosal niche. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 8:107-122. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1359 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26153141

  19. Sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancy, and adolescent health promotion.

    PubMed

    Santelli, J S; DiClemente, R J; Miller, K S; Kirby, D

    1999-02-01

    Adolescence is a critical period in the development of sexual behaviors that may lead to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and to unintended pregnancy. Understanding adolescent sexual behavior is essential for understanding adolescents' risk of pregnancy and STD/HIV infection and for planning and evaluating health promotion activities. This chapter reviews the sexual behaviors and psychosocial factors associated with STDs and unintended pregnancy among adolescents as well as school-, community-, and clinic-based interventions designed to reduce risk behaviors and promote adolescent sexual health. PMID:10086168

  20. Marital Status and Sexually Transmitted Infections among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eboni M.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the relationship between low marriage rates and racial disparities in sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates. Data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth was used to examine the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors by marital status. Logistic regression was used to examine whether racial differences in marriage…

  1. Marital Status and Sexually Transmitted Infections among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eboni M.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the relationship between low marriage rates and racial disparities in sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates. Data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth was used to examine the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors by marital status. Logistic regression was used to examine whether racial differences in marriage

  2. Sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections among self-identified lesbian and bisexual college women.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Lisa L; Kerby, Molly B; Nicholson, Thomas J; Lu, Ning

    2007-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a significant health issue for lesbian and bisexual women. Older age and having a history of sexual intercourse with males are primary risk factors for STIs among this population. However, little research has been conducted to assess sexual risk among lesbian and bisexual college women exclusively. A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted with 230 self-identified lesbian and bisexual female college students to examine their sexual risk and to determine with which, if any, STIs they had ever been diagnosed. Eight percent of lesbian and bisexual college women reported ever being diagnosed with an STI; the human papillomavirus, bacterial vaginosis, and genital herpes accounted for 84% of STI cases. Number of lifetime sex partners was significantly associated with an STI diagnosis among this population. Older age, engaging in penile-vaginal intercourse with a male (lifetime), and younger age at first same-sex experience were significantly associated with a greater number of lifetime sex partners. Results may be useful to sexual health programs targeting lesbian and bisexual college women and/or their providers. PMID:19042904

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents: update 1991.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, W D

    1991-06-01

    Clinicians caring for sexually active adolescents are likely to be called on to diagnose and treat many of the STDs discussed in this article. A variety of other STDs not covered here also may be observed, including lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, molluscum contagiosum, scabies, pediculosis, and hepatitis A, B, and C. Some of the special issues related to gay and lesbian youth are discussed in the article by Drs Bidwell and Deisher (see "Adolescent Sexuality: Current Issues," pp 293-302). Nonetheless, it should be mentioned that the same STDs occur in homosexual youths as in their heterosexual counterparts. However, the prevalence rates for many STDs differ between the two groups, and some STDs are rarely seen in heterosexual males. These discrepancies may be explained by a number of determinants including anatomic and physiologic factors (eg, lesbian women have lower rates of STDs), differences in sexual practices (eg, genital-anal and oral-anal contact), and numbers of sexual partners, although this last factor may be less important in adolescents as compared with adult gay men. Discovery of one STD should always prompt a search for others because multiple concurrent infections is the rule rather than the exception. A serologic test for syphilis and a discussion of the potential for HIV infection (possibly testing for HIV as well) should take place at each new encounter for an STD. Some patients, including those with multiple partners, have an increased chance for acquisition of an STD. However, the reality is that any adolescent who has had sexual intercourse could have an STD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1861893

  4. Sexually-transmitted disease risk in a Micronesian atoll population.

    PubMed

    Brewis, A A

    1992-10-01

    The potential health threat of AIDS to the native island-based populations in the Pacific is now widely appreciated by those working in the public-health sector throughout the region. Although several countries in the region are yet to identify any cases of AIDS or HIV seropositivity, there is reason to suspect that heterosexual contact may emerge as a predominant mode of spread of HIV infection into native Pacific island populations. Sexual networks and their relationship to potentially 'risky behaviours' are described for a single native Micronesian atoll community on the basis of ethnographic observation and interviewing. This description is combined with the investigation of historic-demographic dimensions of the epidemiology of sexually-transmitted diseases in the same population to draw some conclusions about the opportunities for HIV transmission and acquisition among the sexually-active portions of this community. Although sexually-transmitted diseases have not had an appreciable epidemiological or demographic impact on the population in the past, the sexual networks within the community and beyond provide ample opportunity for the introduction and spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and its sequel AIDS. PMID:10148657

  5. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and School-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the

  6. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and School-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  9. Stigma and stereotypes: women and sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise; Peters, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections have long been associated with stigma and stereotypes due to their very nature. Throughout history sexually transmitted infections have been associated with female prostitution and deviant immoral behaviour making women who contract these infections particularly vulnerable to being stigmatised and stereotyped. Although the stigma attached to such infections has previously been documented in the literature, the aim of this research was to gain in depth insight into young Australian women's experiences of having a sexually transmitted infection from a feminist perspective. Findings from this study provide insight into the onerous effects stigma can have on women with these infections and sheds light on how these effects can influence self-perceptions, fear of rejection and feelings of unworthiness. These findings can provide nurses with greater understanding and insight into the effects of stigma on women's experiences of having a sexually transmitted infection. Having this understanding and insight has the potential to promote therapeutic care and minimise the stigma that may be felt among women who have contracted this type of infection. PMID:22482278

  10. The Silent Epidemic. Teens and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Susan

    1998-01-01

    One-quarter of the 3 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) each year occur in teenagers. Teens are at high risk because of biological, age, and behavioral factors. Education is the best weapon against STDs. As their children's first sex educators, parents must make every effort to promote STD education at home and school. (SM)

  11. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

  12. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted infections among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsuami, M. Jacques; Sanders, Ladatra S.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has not been determined conclusively whether greater knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is associated with lower rates of STIs. Purpose: This study sought to determine STI knowledge among high school students and factors associated with such knowledge, and to determine whether poor STI knowledge is associated with…

  13. Sexually Transmitted Disease Services at US Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumans, Emilia H.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Motamed, Cathy; Kohl, Katrin; Schillinger, Julia A.; Markowitz, Lauri E.

    2005-01-01

    The authors' objectives in this study were to describe the proportion of schools providing and the percentage of students with access to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) education, treatment, and prevention services at 2-year and 4-year US colleges and universities. The authors mailed self-administered questionnaires to a stratified…

  14. The rise and fall of sexually transmitted diseases in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Cronberg, S

    1993-01-01

    Syphilis appeared in Sweden in 1497. It was recognized as a sexually transmitted disease that rapidly spread in the upper classes and later to the poor. It ravaged the country in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. At that time the concept of venereal disease included all sexually transmitted diseases. Preventive measures were introduced. They were based on information, medical intervention and elimination of risk factors. Registration of hospitalised patients was introduced in the eighteenth century. The highest incidence of syphilis occurred during the First World War. In the last decade the incidence of sexually transmitted disorders has abruptly decreased. Thus the yearly incidence of gonorrhoea has decreased from 40,000 to 500 cases. The law demands contact tracing with obligatory testing. People who deliberately expose others to risk may be condemned to isolation for an unrestricted time. This legislation has probably contributed less to the successful containment than the fact that information on aids and sexually transmitted diseases has reached all the population, and made it aware of the risks and produced changed behaviour, especially among prostitutes, homosexual men and drug addicts. PMID:8335310

  15. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  16. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1981-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

  17. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic places to identify and prevent intimate partner violence. PMID:25741656

  18. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations. PMID:25427632

  19. Interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Jeanne M; Cates, Willard

    2011-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines were last updated in 2006. To update the "Clinical Guide to Prevention Services" section of the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines, we reviewed the recent science with reference to interventions designed to prevent acquisition of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Major interval developments include (1) licensure and uptake of immunization against genital human papillomavirus, (2) validation of male circumcision as a potent prevention tool against acquisition of HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), (3) failure of a promising HIV vaccine candidate to afford protection against HIV acquisition, (4) encouragement about the use of antiretroviral agents as preexposure prophylaxis to reduce risk of HIV and herpes simplex virus acquisition, (5) enhanced emphasis on expedited partner management and rescreening for persons infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (6) recognition that behavioral interventions will be needed to address a new trend of sexually transmitted hepatitis C among men who have sex with men, and (7) the availability of a modified female condom. A range of preventive interventions is needed to reduce the risks of acquiring STI, including HIV infection, among sexually active people, and a flexible approach targeted to specific populations should integrate combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. These would ideally involve an array of prevention contexts, including (1) communications and practices among sexual partners, (2) transactions between individual clients and their healthcare providers, and (3) comprehensive population-level strategies for prioritizing prevention research, ensuring accurate outcome assessment, and formulating health policy. PMID:22080271

  20. Microbicides for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted HIV Infections

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Onkar; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 34 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) at the end of 2011. From the last two decades, researchers are actively involved in the development of an effective HIV-1 treatment, but the results intended are still doubtful about the eradication of HIV. The HIV-1 virus has gone from being an “inherently untreatable” infectious agent to the one liable to be affected by a range of approved therapies. Candidate microbicides have been developed to target specific steps in the process of viral transmission. Microbicides are self-administered agents that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the aim of preventing, or reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV-1. The development of efficient, widely available, and low-cost microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted HIV infections should be given high priority. In this review, we studied the various forms of microbicides, their mechanism of action, and their abundant approaches to control the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). PMID:26556193

  1. A social model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2004-10-01

    We have introduced recently a model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a key factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population. The social behavior is taking into account by means of two parameters: the fraction of singles ρs and the promiscuity p. The promiscuity parameter defines the per individual daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In this contribution we show that the interaction between this two parameters give rise to a non-trivial epidemic threshold condition, when going from the homogeneous case ( ρs=1) to heterogeneous cases ( ρs<1). These results can have profound implication in the interpretation of real epidemic data.

  2. Traditional Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention and Control Strategies: Tailoring for African American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, Roxanne Y.; Berkel, Cady; Brooks, Lesley C.; Groseclose, Samuel L.; Johnson, David B.; Valentine, Jo A.

    2009-01-01

    African Americans carry the largest disease burden for bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. These infections can have a devastating impact on sexual and reproductive health if they are not diagnosed and treated. Traditionally, public health efforts to prevent and control bacterial STDs have been through surveillance, clinical services, partner management, and behavioral intervention strategies. However, the persistence of disparities in STDs indicates that these strategies are not achieving sufficient impact in African American communities. It may be that factors such as limited access, acceptability, appropriateness, and affordability of services reduce the efficacy of these strategies for African American communities. In this article we describe the STD prevention strategies and highlight the challenges and implications of these strategies in addressing disparities in African American communities. PMID:18955915

  3. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel: From Boudoir to Bordello.

    PubMed

    Avery, Ann K; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one's home environment-which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling. PMID:26542045

  4. Reappraisal of sexually transmitted infections in children: A hospital-based study from an urban area

    PubMed Central

    Mendiratta, Vibhu; Agarwal, Soumya; Chander, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in children can be acquired either by sexual, or non-sexual route. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) in children reflect the pattern of STI in adult population and the knowledge, attitude and practices of the society. They also serve as an indicator of STI control strategies. Aims: A retrospective study spanning over a period of 5 years from 2007 to 2011) was undertaken to make a detailed analysis of demographic, behavioral, epidemiological and clinical profile of STD among children (<19 years). Materials and Methods: The medical records of children attending the STI clinic of Smt. Sucheta Kriplani Hospital from year 2007 to 2011 were studied. Results of Gram's staining, KOH examination, Tzanck smear, culture and serological tests like Venereal Disease Research Laboratory for syphilis and ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) wherever performed were recorded along with the final diagnosis. Results: The study showed a steady rise in the prevalence of STIs from 1% to 4.9% in the initial 4 years. STIs were more commonly observed in girls (M:F ratio - 1:1.13) and in adolescents >16 years of age. Homosexuality was present in 33.3% of males. History of sexual abuse was given by 4 children. 2 children were seropositive for HIV by ELISA technique. Viral STIs (Cyanea acuminata, molluscum contagiosum, herpes genitalis) were 1.5 times more common than bacterial infections. Conclusion: The societal sexual practices have undergone tremendous changes, which is reflected in a steady rise in STIs (predominantly viral), sexual abuse and homosexuality in children. There is an urgent need for strengthening of school health programs aiming at adolescent sexual health. PMID:24958982

  5. Evaluation of syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections within the Kisumu Incidence Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Fredrick Odhiambo; Ndivo, Richard; Oswago, Simon; Ondiek, Johnson; Pals, Sherri; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Chen, Robert T; Chege, Wairimu; Gray, Kristen Mahle

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background While laboratory aetiological diagnosis is considered the gold standard for diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted infections, syndromic management has been presented as a simplified and affordable approach for sexually transmitted infection management in limited resource settings. Methods Sexually transmitted infection signs and symptoms were collected using staff-administered computer-assisted personal interview and audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants underwent a medical examination and laboratory testing for common sexually transmitted infections. The performance of syndromic management was assessed on the agreement between interviewing methods as well as accurate diagnosis. Results We screened 846 participants, of whom 88 (10.4%) received syndromic sexually transmitted infection diagnosis while 272 (32.2%) received an aetiological diagnosis. Agreement between syndromic and aetiological diagnoses was very poor (overall kappa = 0.09). The most prevalent sexually transmitted infection was herpes simplex virus type 2 and the percentage of persons with any sexually transmitted infection was higher among women (48.6%) than men (15.6%, p <0.0001). Agreement between audio computer-assisted self-interview and computer-assisted personal interview interviewing methods for syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections ranged from poor to good. Conclusion Our findings suggest that syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections is not a sufficient tool for sexually transmitted infection diagnosis in this setting; development and improvement of sexually transmitted infection diagnostic capabilities through laboratory confirmation is needed in resource-limited settings. PMID:24516075

  6. Promiscuity and the evolution of sexual transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonalves, Sebastin; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2003-09-01

    We study the relation between different social behaviors and the onset of epidemics in a model for the dynamics of sexual transmitted diseases. The model considers the society as a system of individual sexuated agents that can be organized in couples and interact with each other. The different social behaviors are incorporated assigning what we call a promiscuity value to each individual agent. The individual promiscuity is taken from a distribution and represents the daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In terms of this parameter we find a threshold for the epidemic which is much lower than the classical SIR model prediction, i.e., R0 (basic reproductive number)=1. Different forms for the distribution of the population promiscuity are considered showing that the threshold is weakly sensitive to them. We study the homosexual and the heterosexual case as well.

  7. Romantic love and sexually transmitted infection acquisition: hypothesis and review.

    PubMed

    Goldmeier, David; Richardson, Daniel

    2005-09-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the UK continue to increase. A discrepancy between knowledge and awareness of STIs, and sexual behaviour appears to be ubiquitous throughout the world. We hypothesize that human beings are biologically programmed to fall in love and bond in powerful relationships, which, at least in the short term, prevents them from using knowledge and cognitive strategies to prevent STI acquisition. We compare this with obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviours seen in obsessive-compulsive disorders. We suggest how romantic love might overwhelm logical thought processes to cause a deterministic and non-logical response to have sex and thus acquire STIs. An understanding of this concept may help us humans to be more insightful and thoughtful about STI acquisition. PMID:16176620

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Sexually Transmitted Pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Jane M.; Hirt, Robert P.; Silva, Joana C.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Schatz, Michael; Zhao, Qi; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Bidwell, Shelby L.; Alsmark, U. Cecilia M.; Besteiro, Sbastien; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Noel, Christophe J.; Dacks, Joel B.; Foster, Peter G.; Simillion, Cedric; Van de Peer, Yves; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Westrop, Gareth D.; Mller, Sylke; Dessi, Daniele; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Ren, Qinghu; Paulsen, Ian; Zhang, Hanbang; Bastida-Corcuera, Felix D.; Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto; Brown, Mark T.; Hayes, Richard D.; Mukherjee, Mandira; Okumura, Cheryl Y.; Schneider, Rachel; Smith, Alias J.; Vanacova, Stepanka; Villalvazo, Maria; Haas, Brian J.; Pertea, Mihaela; Feldblyum, Tamara V.; Utterback, Terry R.; Shu, Chung-Li; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter J.; Hrdy, Ivan; Horvathova, Lenka; Zubacova, Zuzana; Dolezal, Pavel; Malik, Shehre-Banoo; Logsdon, John M.; Henze, Katrin; Gupta, Arti; Wang, Ching C.; Dunne, Rebecca L.; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Upcroft, Peter; White, Owen; Salzberg, Steven L.; Tang, Petrus; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Ying-Shiung; Embley, T. Martin; Coombs, Graham H.; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Tachezy, Jan; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the ~160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction with the shaping of metabolic pathways that likely transpired through lateral gene transfer from bacteria, and amplification of specific gene families implicated in pathogenesis and phagocytosis of host proteins may exemplify adaptations of the parasite during its transition to a urogenital environment. The genome sequence predicts previously unknown functions for the hydrogenosome, which support a common evolutionary origin of this unusual organelle with mitochondria. PMID:17218520

  9. Sexually transmitted diseases in the history of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lyons, M

    1994-04-01

    First noticed in Uganda in 1863 by a European explorer, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were cited as a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout this century. In 1908 the venereal diseases campaign was launched marking the real introduction of western medicine. By the mid-1920s, the campaign was combined with the medical service but throughout the colonial period (1901-1962) venereal diseases were considered intractable. A 1991 survey revealed alarming incidence rates and in light of the importance of STDs as a co-factor in the transmission of HIV, it is of paramount importance to implement more effective control measures. PMID:8206475

  10. Sexually transmitted diseases in the history of Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, M

    1994-01-01

    First noticed in Uganda in 1863 by a European explorer, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were cited as a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout this century. In 1908 the venereal diseases campaign was launched marking the real introduction of western medicine. By the mid-1920s, the campaign was combined with the medical service but throughout the colonial period (1901-1962) venereal diseases were considered intractable. A 1991 survey revealed alarming incidence rates and in light of the importance of STDs as a co-factor in the transmission of HIV, it is of paramount importance to implement more effective control measures. PMID:8206475

  11. The effect of abortion legalization on sexual behavior: evidence from sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Klick, Jonathan; Stratmann, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Unwanted pregnancy represents a major cost of sexual activity. When abortion was legalized in a number of states in 1969 and 1970 (and nationally in 1973), this cost was reduced. We predict that abortion legalization generated incentives leading to an increase in sexual activity, accompanied by an increase in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using Centers for Disease Control data on the incidence of gonorrhea and syphilis by state, we test the hypothesis that abortion legalization led to an increase in sexually transmitted diseases. We find that gonorrhea and syphilis incidences are significantly and positively correlated with abortion legalization. Further, we find a divergence in STD rates among early legalizing states and late legalizing states starting in 1970 and a subsequent convergence after the Roe v. Wade decision, indicating that the relation between STDs and abortion is casual. Abortion legalization accounts for about one-fourth of the average disease incidence. PMID:15457623

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases in children in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Richens, J

    1994-08-01

    The populations of developing countries have younger age structures than the populations of more developed, Western countries. That is, children, adolescents, and youth constitute a far greater proportion of the populations of developing countries than in developed countries. These young people experiment with sex and sexual intercourse or have coitus on a regular basis depending upon their individual personalities and circumstances. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among younger age groups in developing countries is not well documented. It may, however, be inferred on the basis of reported experience of STD in surveys of adolescents and young adults that many children are infected with STDs. Some young people have sex consensually, some are coaxed into it, and others are coerced. On the one hand, young children have been thought to contract STD by sitting on the laps of infected, scantily-clad adults where such limited attire is the norm. Close contact between youngsters such as communal sleeping, for example, could then facilitate the spread of the STD among children. Sex, consensual or otherwise, is not involved in such infection and transmission beyond the index adult. On the other hand, however, many children and adolescents are forced to have sexual relations and/or intercourse either directly against their will or as a result of the primal need to ensure their individual survival. For example, there are an estimated 100-200 million street children worldwide; many have little alternative but to sell sex to survive. When having sex, they may not use condoms because they are unaware of the STD risk they face, they have no access to free condoms, clients/employers/peers prevent them from using condoms, or due to a myriad of other reasons. Struggling to survive, many such kids place condom use very low on their list of priorities. Children and adolescents can also become infected and transmit STDs to others by engaging in sexual intercourse under more narrowly-defined cultural norms. For example, the belief exists that a male with urethritis can be cured by sexual intercourse with a virgin or prepubertal girl. Elsewhere, it is normal practice for an adult male, typically a boy's uncle, to have anal insertive sexual intercourse with the boy on a regular basis over the period of a couple years to facilitate his transition into manhood. People in young age groups around the world have sex for a range of reasons under a variety of conditions. Measures are needed to ensure that they have the means to prevent infection with STDs and control that infection, if possible, once acquired. Sections discuss vulvovaginitis, donovanosis, chancroid, and venereal and nonvenereal treponematosis, as well as prevention and future research. PMID:7959715

  13. Rapid tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the way forward

    PubMed Central

    Peeling, R W; Holmes, K K; Mabey, D

    2006-01-01

    In the developing world, laboratory services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are either not available, or where limited services are available, patients may not be able to pay for or physically access those services. Despite the existence of national policy for antenatal screening to prevent congenital syphilis and substantial evidence that antenatal screening is cost?effective, implementation of syphilis screening programmes remains unacceptably low because of lack of screening tools that can be used in primary health care settings. The World Health Organization Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diagnostics Initiative (SDI) has developed the ASSURED criteria as a benchmark to decide if tests address disease control needs: Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User?friendly, Rapid and robust, Equipment?free and Deliverable to end?users. Rapid syphilis tests that can be used with whole blood approach the ASSURED criteria and can now be deployed in areas where no previous screening has been possible. Although rapid tests for chlamydia and gonorrhoea lack sensitivity, more tests are in development. The way forward for STI diagnostics requires a continuing quest for ASSURED tests, the development of a road map for test introduction, sustainable programmes for quality assurance, and the creation of a robust infrastructure linked to HIV prevention that ensures sustainability of STI control efforts that includes viral STIs. PMID:17151023

  14. Sexualization of the female foot as a response to sexually transmitted epidemics: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Colapietro, G; Slaby, A E; Melemis, S M; Bowman, R K

    1998-10-01

    The authors reviewed historical literature and hypothesized a relationship between epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases and foot fetishism. They tested this hypothesis by quantifying foot-fetish depictions in the mass-circulation pornographic literature during a 30-yr. interval. An exponential increase was noted during the period of the current AIDS epidemic. The authors offer reasons for this possible relationship. PMID:9819924

  15. Monitoring knowledge among family, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual partnership characteristics of African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2014-10-01

    Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population. PMID:25211255

  16. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis

  17. Sexual Relationship Power as a Mediator between Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,

  18. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…

  19. The social behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2003-10-01

    We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.

  20. Sexual Assault and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adults, Adolescents, and Children.

    PubMed

    Seña, Arlene C; Hsu, Katherine K; Kellogg, Nancy; Girardet, Rebecca; Christian, Cindy W; Linden, Judith; Griffith, William; Marchant, Anne; Jenny, Carole; Hammerschlag, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated treatment regimens; vaccinations for human papillomavirus (HPV) among previously unvaccinated patients aged 9-26 years; and consideration for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis using an algorithm to assess the timing and characteristics of the exposure. For child sexual assault (CSA) survivors, recommendations include targeted diagnostic testing with increased use of NAATs when appropriate; routine follow-up visits within 6 months after the last known sexual abuse; and use of HPV vaccination in accordance with national immunization guidelines as a preventive measure in the post-sexual assault care setting. For CSA patients, NAATs are considered to be acceptable for identification of gonococcal and chlamydial infections from urine samples, but are not recommended for extragenital testing due to the potential detection of nongonococcal Neisseria species. Several research questions were identified regarding the prevalence, detection, and management of STI/HIV infections among adult, adolescent, and pediatric sexual assault survivors. PMID:26602623

  1. Health care seeking behaviors related to sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Fortenberry, J D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study identified social, cognitive, and behavioral factors associated with how adolescents seek health care for sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS: Data for male and female adolescents (n = 208) attending a clinic specializing in sexually transmitted diseases were examined. RESULTS: Symptomatic female adolescents required greater time to obtain care than asymptomatic female adolescents or symptomatic male adolescents. Factors affecting duration of care seeking interval included perception of barriers to care, lower self-efficacy for response to a sexually transmitted disease, greater perceived seriousness of sexually transmitted diseases, previous history of sexually transmitted diseases, and stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Improved secondary sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts among adolescents require reductions in barriers to care and improved symptom recognition by adolescents. PMID:9096544

  2. Sexual behaviour and risk of sexually transmitted infections in young female healthcare students in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Tomás-Rodríguez, María Isabel; Antón-Ruiz, Fina; Belda-Ibañez, Josefina; Montejo, Ángel Luis; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms). Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]). Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05) included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008) and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001). Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI. PMID:26966654

  3. Recreational urethral sounding is associated with high risk sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. RESULTS There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED. CONCLUSIONS Urethral sounding is a sexual practice that is associated with higher risk sexual behaviour and carries the potential for morbidity. Research on means for risk reduction for men who choose to engage in recreational sounding requires further study. PMID:22221824

  4. Adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases: attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L S; Rozmus, C; Edmisson, K

    1999-06-01

    This study described rural adolescents' attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values with regard to sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Rotter's Social Learning Theory (1954) provided the theoretical framework for this descriptive, correlational design. The convenience sample consisted of 170 students from one rural high school. Consistent with past studies, results included the following: participants had more correct than incorrect knowledge related to sexual intercourse and STDs; the majority had positive attitudes toward condom use and believed it was OK for peers to have sex with a "steady;" the value of an exciting life correlated positively with attitudes toward sex; knowledge of sexual intercourse correlated positively with attitudes toward condom use; and the value health correlated positively with knowledge of sex and attitudes toward condom use, and negatively with attitudes toward sex. The findings in this study suggest the need for ongoing research with adolescents in the area of sexuality and STDs. Additionally, the findings support past studies, which revealed that knowledge of sexual intercourse and STDs has little impact on attitudes toward sexual intercourse. With the serious nature of some of the undesired consequences of adolescent sexual behavior, current and accurate information on this population is needed to assist health educators in developing interventions in this area. PMID:10394221

  5. Natural polyphenols: potential in the prevention of sexually transmitted viral infections.

    PubMed

    Date, Abhijit A; Destache, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Sexually transmitted viral infections represent a major public health concern due to lack of effective prevention strategies. Efforts are ongoing to develop modalities that can enable simultaneous prevention of multiple sexually transmitted infections. In the present review, we discuss the potential of natural polyphenols to prevent sexually transmitted viral infections. The review gives an account of various in vitro and in vivo studies carried out on epigallocatechin gallate, theaflavins (black tea polyphenols), resveratrol, genistein and curcumin to highlight their potential to prevent sexually transmitted infections caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), HSV (herpes simplex virus) and HPV (human papilloma virus). PMID:26546859

  6. How to run a prison sexually transmitted infection service.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alan

    2011-06-01

    The rationale for providing in-reach services for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and bloodborne viruses (BBV) diagnosis and treatment to prisoners includes the principles underpinning the design and implementation of these services and understanding the special considerations needed to accommodate the effects of the prison regime and categories of prison. Recent literature on service delivery and standards were reviewed. There is ample evidence worldwide that STI and BBV infection are more highly prevalent in prison populations than in the outside community. STI diagnosis and treatment services are therefore an essential component of any STI control programme. Services should be commissioned with characteristics of the prison setting in mind and link in with the local health strategy and action plan. Approval of funding is strongly supported by the quick win from the diagnosis and treatment of highly prevalent STI. The quality of services must be assured by a monitoring and governance framework grounded on national standards. PMID:21422046

  7. Skin as an indicator for sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Henry J C

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous signs and skin conditions associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are discussed. Syphilis, condyloma acuminata, and scabies are well-known STIs with cutaneous manifestations. Chlamydia and gonorrhea can also cause specific muco-cutaneous signs and symptoms. HIV often manifests itself through skin conditions. Dermatologists are pivotal in the timely diagnosis of HIV infection and play an important role in the disease prognosis and ongoing transmission. Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN), an HPV related precursor of anal carcinoma affecting HIV positive men, is a relatively new condition that many dermatologists will face in the future. STIs should be involved in the differential diagnosis when dermatologists are confronted with anogenital dermatoses, especially in patients with an increased risk for STIs. PMID:24559554

  8. Surveillance of sexually transmitted infections in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G; Paine, T; Thomas, D

    2001-05-01

    Surveillance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in England and Wales has, in the past, relied principally on aggregated statistical data submitted by all genitourinary medicine clinics to the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, supplemented by various laboratory reporting systems. Although these systems provide comparatively robust surveillance data, they do not provide sufficient information on risk factors to target STI control and prevention programmes appropriately. Over recent years, substantial rises in STIs, the emergence of numerous outbreaks of STIs, and changes in gonococcal resistance patterns have necessitated the introduction of more sophisticated surveillance mechanisms. This article describes current STI surveillance systems in England and Wales, including new systems that have recently been introduced or are currently being developed to meet the need for enhanced STI surveillance data. PMID:11679688

  9. Sexually transmitted infections of the anus and rectum.

    PubMed

    Assi, Roland; Hashim, Peter W; Reddy, Vikram B; Einarsdottir, Hulda; Longo, Walter E

    2014-11-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a significant public health concern. Several STIs, once thought to be on the verge of extinction, have recently reemerged. This change is thought to be partially related to an increase in STIs of the anus and rectum. Importantly, the global human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic has contributed to the emergence of particular anorectal lesions that require specialized approaches. In this report, we review common anorectal STIs that are frequently referred to colorectal surgeons in the United States. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management are summarized, including the latest treatment recommendations. The particularity of anorectal diseases in HIV/AIDS is addressed, along with recent trends in anal cytology and human papillomavirus vaccination. PMID:25386074

  10. Sexually transmitted diseases in modern China: a historical survey.

    PubMed Central

    Diktter, F

    1993-01-01

    This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attitudes have also structured medical responses to venereal disease. From the reform movements between the two World Wars to the more recent communist health campaigns, medical theory has often been confused with moral prescription. PMID:8244349

  11. Sexually transmitted diseases in Canada, 1800-1992.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, H

    1994-01-01

    The history of sexually transmitted diseases in Canada from 1800 to the present reflects the changing views and values of citizens, medical experts, politicians and bureaucrats. During the colonial period, the military devoted attention to the problem but strict moral codes and social conventions prevented public discussion. Although middle class reformers began to pressure the federal government for funding and direction after 1900, World War I was the catalyst for involvement. Health education through a voluntary group and federal-provincial cost-shared funding for treatment facilities across Canada were introduced to control STDs. Public perception of STD patients as marginalised or deviant limited the impact of these efforts. Social changes during the 1960s, new STDs appearing in the 1970s and the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s have redirected the STD campaign to focus on high risk groups and prevention rather than the moralistic curative efforts of the past. PMID:8300103

  12. Challenges to the management of curable sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Chen, Marcus Y; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2015-01-01

    Each year, hundreds of millions of new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur worldwide resulting in reproductive and other serious sequelae, as well as enhanced transmission of HIV. The clinical management and control of these STIs should include as a minimum access to services that provide timely and accurate diagnostic testing together with effective treatment. The provision of appropriate treatment is challenged by the development of increasing antimicrobial resistance, in particular with gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, requiring new treatments and management algorithms. In addition, infections such as chlamydia, syphilis and trichomoniasis, which show few signs of resistance, are nevertheless highly prevalent and require better public health control measures. While these may be achievable in high income countries, they are still beyond the reach of many low and middle income countries, making substantial improvements in STI management and reductions in STI prevalence challenging. PMID:26306415

  13. Hospital response protocols for child sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Kinnon, D; Doherty, J A

    1992-01-01

    Hospitals are significant portals of entry to the health care system for children who have been sexually abused. Hospital staff have the opportunity to investigate, intervene in and prevent the cycle of abuse. Accordingly, several Canadian hospitals have standardized responses to meet the needs of the sexually abused child; however, the prevalence of protocols and the degree of standardization across the country have not been documented. A survey of hospitals in Canada indicated that 46% of hospitals that treated children had a response protocol for child sexual abuse and only 17% had a response protocol for sexually transmitted diseases in children. Protocols were more likely to be in place in hospitals that were accredited, specialized in paediatrics, were designated as teaching facilities for medicine, nursing and social work, and had more than 200 beds. In hospitals without protocols, staff were often not convinced of their need or desirability. PMID:1423106

  14. Sexually transmitted infections and HIV: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Workowski, Kimberly A

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in HIV-infected persons can identify sexual risk behaviors and specific STIs that may increase transmission of STIs and HIV. HIV-infected men and women should be screened annually for syphilis and urogenital gonorrhea and chlamydia. Serologic testing for hepatitis A, B, and C viruses should also be performed. Women should be tested for trichomoniasis and undergo a cervical Papanicolaou test annually. Men who report receptive anal intercourse with men during the preceding year should be screened for rectal gonorrhea and chlamydia. Men who report receptive oral intercourse with men during the preceding year should be screened for oropharyngeal gonorrhea. More frequent screening at 3- to 6-month intervals may be indicated for men who have sex with men who have numerous or anonymous partners. STIs may have unusual presentations in HIV-infected patients. Aspects of diagnosis and management of common STIs will be discussed in this article. This article summarizes a presentation by Kimberly A. Workowski, MD, at the IAS-USA live continuing medical education course held in New York City in October 2011. PMID:22538245

  15. HIV seroprevalence surveys in sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Onorato, I M; McCray, E; Pappaioanou, M; Johnson, R; Aral, S; Hardy, A M; Dondero, T J

    1990-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control, in cooperation with State and local health departments, is conducting human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV), seroprevalence surveys, using standard protocols, in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in selected metropolitan areas throughout the United States. The surveys are blinded (serologic test results not identified with a person) as well as nonblinded (clients voluntarily agreeing to participate). STD clinics are important sentinel sites for the surveillance of HIV infection because they serve persons who are at increased risk as a result of certain behaviors, such as unprotected sex, homosexual exposure, or intravenous drug use. HIV seroprevalence rates will be obtained in the sentinel clinics each year so that trends in infection can be assessed over an extended period of time. Behaviors that place clients at risk for infection, or protect against infection, are being evaluated in voluntary, nonblinded surveys to define groups for appropriate interventions and to detect changes in response to education and prevention programs. Although inferences drawn from the surveys are limited by the scope of the clinics and clients surveyed, HIV trends in STD clinic client populations should provide a sensitive monitor of the course of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic among persons engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:2108455

  16. Sexually transmitted infections-microbial infections, 2007 update.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Human sexual behavior required for the continuation of humankind nevertheless has its downsides, among them sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The treatment of microbial STIs is challenging but not in itself essentially very difficult. Controlling STIs, on the other hand, is like the task of Sisyphus, a king in Greek mythology who was forced forever to roll a block of stone to the top of a steep hill, only to see it roll back to the valley, where he started the toilsome task again. This is how many a venereologist must view the day's practice, supervising patients with STIs. Yes, there are newcomers, many of them very young, but there are many others, the recidivists, whom the physician and health care staff know only too well. "You don't mind seeing me again, doc. You (collectively) were so good to me last time"--as though catching a chlamydial infection 3 or 4 times, gonorrhea 20 or 30 times, and syphilis on occasion were badges of virility or part of life's natural progression. This is the pattern of STIs in 2007. PMID:17786104

  17. Asymptomatic urethral infection in male sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees.

    PubMed

    Yu, J T H T; Tang, W Y M; Lau, K H; Chong, L Y; Lo, K K

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic male patients with urethral infections attending a government sexually transmitted infection clinic in Hong Kong and their microbiological profile. A total of 274 consecutive male patients without any symptoms for urethral infections were recruited. A questionnaire was used to record the symptoms, sexual history and demographics. Further assessment, including urethral smear for Gram stain, gonococcal culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) were performed. In 274 asymptomatic patients, 36 patients had non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) and two patients had positive gonococcal culture. Among the asymptomatic patients with NGU, there were 6 (16.6%), 10 (22.8%) and five (13.9%) patients with positive PCR for CT, UU and MG, respectively. In addition, there were 14 asymptomatic patients with positive PCR for CT but without evidence of NGU. In conclusion, urethral infections were identified in a significant number of asymptomatic male patients and therefore, routine screening for this group is warranted. PMID:18397552

  18. Intrauterine device use and some issues related to sexually transmitted disease screening and occurrence.

    PubMed

    Hodoglugil, N N; Aslan, D; Bertan, M

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sexually transmitted disease (STD) occurrence and STD complaints in women using intrauterine device (IUD) with women who are not using any modern contraceptive method in a family planning setting in Trabzon, Turkey. A great majority of all women in both groups were housewives and all indicated their husbands as the first and only lifetime sexual partner. The IUD user group (n = 211) did not differ significantly from the nonuser group (n = 155) in terms of mean age, years of schooling, first age at intercourse, frequency of sexual intercourse or practice of vaginal douching (p >0.05). STD signs and symptoms were not found to be significantly different among both groups, with the exception of vaginal discharge. IUD users complained more of abnormal vaginal discharge than nonusers (RR = 2.09, CI = 1.17-3.75, p = 0.007). Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed with the Gram-staining of the vaginal smear and current IUD users were found to be 2.78 times more likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis as compared to nonusers (p <0.00). The diagnosis of trichomoniasis, N. gonorrhea, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and Chlamydia was not found to be associated with IUD use. PMID:10958878

  19. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6

  20. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  1. Gender Role Discrepancy Stress, High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gentile, Brittany; Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies. PMID:25564036

  2. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    PubMed

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas. PMID:23480474

  3. Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Davoren, Martin P; Hayes, Kevin; Horgan, Mary; Shiely, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Objective The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland. Design Routine diagnostic, demographic and behavioural data from first-time visits to three screening centres in the southwest of Ireland were obtained. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents. Results A total of 2784 first-time patients, aged 1319?years, received 3475 diagnoses between January 1999 and September 2009; 1168 (42%) of adolescents had notifiable STIs. The incidence rate of STIs is 225/100 000 person-years. Univariate analysis identified eligible risk factors (p<0.2) for inclusion in the multivariable model. Multivariable logistic regression showed the dominant risk factors for STI diagnosis to be: males who sometimes [odds ratio (OR) 2.02] or never (OR 1.83) use condoms; and females 1819?years (OR 2.26) and 1618?years (OR 1.8), with 2 (OR 1.33) or 3+ (OR 1.56) partners in the last 12?months, who are non-intravenous drug users (OR 0.72), are most likely to receive a positive STI diagnosis. Conclusions STI diagnosis has become increasingly common in Ireland. The proportion of notifications among those aged under 20?years is increasing. These data illustrate the significance of age, condom use and number of sexual partners as risk factors for STI diagnosis. Furthermore, providing data for the first time, we report on the high incidence rate of STIs among adolescents in Ireland. The high levels of risk-taking behaviour and STI acquisition are highlighted and suggest that there is a need for an integrated public health approach to combat this phenomenon in the adolescent population. PMID:24916479

  4. Voluntary vaccination strategy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative. PMID:26877073

  5. Sexually Transmitted Infection Among Adolescents Receiving Special Education Services

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, David S.; Eleey, Catharine C.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Noll, Elizabeth; Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Blank, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND To estimate the relative risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among children identified as having learning disabilities through the special education system. METHODS This cross-sectional study used special education data and Medicaid data from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for calendar year 2002. The sample comprised 51,234 Medicaid-eligible children, aged 1217 years, 8015 of whom were receiving special education services. Claims associated with diagnoses of STIs were abstracted, and logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of STI among children in different special education categories. RESULTS There were 3% of males and 5% of females who were treated for an STI through the Medicaid system in 2002. Among females, those in the mental retardation (MR) category were at greatest risk (6.9%) and those in the emotionally disturbed or no special education category at lowest risk (4.9% each). Among males, STIs were most prevalent among those classified as mentally gifted (6.7%) and lowest among those in the MR category (3.0%). In adjusted analyses, males with specific learning disabilities and females with MR or who were academically gifted were at excess risk for STIs. CONCLUSIONS The finding that children with learning disabilities are at similar or greater risk for contracting STIs as other youth suggests the need to further understand their risk behaviors and the potential need to develop prevention programs specific to their learning needs. PMID:18611213

  6. DNA Microarray Characterization of Pathogens Associated with Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Boyang; Wang, Suwei; Tian, Zhenyang; Hu, Pinliang; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study established a multiplex PCR-based microarray to detect simultaneously a diverse panel of 17 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)-associated pathogens including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 54 and 58. The target genes are 16S rRNA gene for N. gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium, M. hominism, and Ureaplasma, the major outer membrane protein gene (ompA) for C. trachomatis, the glycoprotein B gene (gB) for HSV; and the L1 gene for HPV. A total of 34 probes were selected for the microarray including 31 specific probes, one as positive control, one as negative control, and one as positional control probe for printing reference. The microarray is specific as the commensal and pathogenic microbes (and closely related organisms) in the genitourinary tract did not cross-react with the microarray probes. The microarray is 10 times more sensitive than that of the multiplex PCR. Among the 158 suspected HPV specimens examined, the microarray showed that 49 samples contained HPV, 21 samples contained Ureaplasma, 15 contained M. hominis, four contained C. trachomatis, and one contained N. gonorrhoeae. This work reports the development of the first high through-put detection system that identifies common pathogens associated with STDs from clinical samples, and paves the way for establishing a time-saving, accurate and high-throughput diagnostic tool for STDs. PMID:26208181

  7. HIV testing and sexually transmitted infection care among sexually active youth in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Delva, Wim; Wuillaume, Franoise; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Claeys, Patricia; Verstraelen, Hans; Broeck, Davy Vanden; Temmerman, Marleen

    2008-10-01

    In light of the imminent threat of a growing HIV epidemic in east and southeast Europe, optimal accessibility of primary and secondary HIV preventative interventions, including HIV testing and sexually transmitted infection (STI) care, are fast becoming public health priorities. We surveyed 2150 high school students in Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYR of Macedonia, Serbia, and Montenegro to examine the uptake of HIV testing and associated predictors. Among sexually active youth (n = 651), 5.9% had already been tested for HIV. In marginal logistic regression, country of origin, type of high school, knowing a friend or relative with HIV, poor self-assessed health status, suspicion of having had an STI, and not having used a condom at first sex were independently associated with HIV testing. Fear of the diagnosis, fear of violation of confidentiality, and not knowing where to go for HIV testing were reported as barriers to HIV testing. Of sexually active adolescents who thought they might have contracted an STI, only 42% had subsequently visited a doctor or health facility. The main reasons for not doing so were spontaneous disappearance of the complaints, fear of the diagnosis and being ashamed of discussing the problem. In conclusion, the uptake of HIV testing among this population of sexually active, urban high school students was found to be low, although a higher prevalence of HIV testing history was observed among students showing evidence of risky sexual behavior. Practical and psychological factors seem to challenge the accessibility of facilities for HIV testing and STI care. PMID:18847388

  8. Point of care diagnostics for sexually transmitted infections: perspectives and advances

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte; Hardick, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) tests are urgently needed to control sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics, so that patients can receive immediate diagnoses and treatment. Current POC assays for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae perform inadequately and require better assays. Diagnostics for Trichomonas vaginalis rely on wet preparation, with some notable advances. Serological POC assays for syphilis can impact resource-poor settings, with many assays available, but only one available in the U.S. HIV POC diagnostics demonstrate the best performance, with excellent assays available. There is a rapid assay for HSV lesion detection; but no POC serological assays are available. Despite the inadequacy of POC assays for treatable bacterial infections, application of technological advances offers the promise of advancing POC diagnostics for all STIs. PMID:24484215

  9. Improving sexually transmitted infection results notification via mobile phone technology

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Jennifer L.; Huppert, Jill S.; Taylor, Regina G.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Byczkowski, Terri L.; Kahn, Jessica A.; Alessandrini, Evaline A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To improve adolescent notification of positive sexually transmitted infection (STI) tests using mobile phone technology and STI information cards. Methods A randomized intervention among 14-21 year-olds in a pediatric emergency department (PED). A 23 factorial design with replication was used to evaluate the effectiveness of six combinations of two factors on the proportion of STI-positive adolescents notified within 7 days of testing. Independent factors included: method of notification (call, text message, or call + text message) and provision of an STI information card with or without a phone number to obtain results. Covariates for logistic regression included age, empiric STI treatment, days until first attempted notification and documentation of confidential phone number. Results Approximately half of the 383 females and 201 males enrolled were ? 18 years. Texting only or type of card was not significantly associated with patient notification rates, and there was no significant interaction between card and notification method. For females, successful notification was significantly greater for call + text message (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.4, 6.9]), and documenting a confidential phone number was independently associated with successful notification (OR 3.6 [95% CI 1.7, 7.5]). We found no significant predictors of successful notification for males. Of patients with a documented confidential phone number who received a call + text message, 94% of females and 83% of males were successfully notified. Conclusions Obtaining a confidential phone number and using call + text message improved STI notification rates among female but not male adolescents in a PED. PMID:24962503

  10. Sexually Transmitted Infections among HIV-1-Discordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Brandon L.; Kiarie, James N.; Morrison, Susan; John-Stewart, Grace C.; Kinuthia, John; Whittington, William L. H.; Farquhar, Carey

    2009-01-01

    Introduction More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. Methods HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI. Results Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11%) females and 30 (7%) males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9%) and syphilis (2.6%). Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01), and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01) and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01). Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01). Conclusions Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519 PMID:20011596

  11. [Sexually transmitted diseases and the HIV/AIDS epidemic].

    PubMed

    Valdespino-Gmez, J L; Garca-Garca, M de L; del Ro-Chiriboga, C; Cruz-Palacios, C; Loo-Mndez, E; Lpez-Sotelo, A

    1995-01-01

    Studies on sexually transmitted diseases (STD) during the previous years in Mexico are discussed. The information sources were: a) Surveys among commercial sex workers. Since 1990, 1,386 women have been studied in four federal states through structured questionnaires and laboratory tests. Prevalence of different STD's has been significant (syphilis (VDRL, FTA-abs) 23.7%; chlamydiosis (Ag IF) 12.9%; gonorrhea (Ag, ELISA) 11.5%; anti-HBs 11.0%; herpes 1,2 (IgM) 9.3%, HBsAg 5.7%. Frequency of HIV (ELISA, Western blot) has been low; 0.5%. In 1994, 662 women were studied in Mexico City, with different laboratory techniques for chlamydiosis and gonorrhea (culture), hepatitis B (anticore antibodies) and herpes (total antibodies) with the following results: syphilis 1.5-12%; chlamydiosis 10.8-11.7%; gonorrhea 0-5.9%; hepatitis B 0-7.1%; herpes 44.7-78%; and HIV 0-1.4%. b) Surveys among men with homosexual and bisexual practices. 325 subjects have been studied in three federal states using methods similar to those of the 1990 survey. Contrasting with results among women, HIV prevalence was found to be high; (18.8%), and considerable for other STD's: anti-HBsAg 28.6%, syphilis 34.9%, recent herpes 10.9%, HBsAg 5.0%, chlamydiosis (Ag, IF) 4.3%, herpes simplex 1,2 (Ag, IF) 4.7%, gonorrhea (Ag, ELISA) 2.8%. c) Patient clinical studies. The clinical interrelationship between different STD and HIV infection has been studied; clinical differences are described between patients with condylomata or syphilis depending on HIV serostatus. Implications of the interrelationship between different STD's and HIV infection for the prevention and control of these diseases are discussed. PMID:8599129

  12. A surveillance model for sexually transmitted infections in India.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Partha; Morineau, Guy; Das, Anjana; Mehendale, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The strategy for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in India is based on syndromic case management delivered through designated STI/reproductive tract infection (RTI) centers (DSRCs) situated in medical colleges, district hospitals, and STI-clinics of targeted interventions programs. Laboratory tests for enhanced syndromic management are available at some sites. To ensure country-level planning and effective local implementation of STI services, reliable and consistent epidemiologic information is required on the distribution of STI cases, rate and trends of newly acquired infections, and STI prevalence in specific population groups. The present STI management information system is inadequate to meet these requirements because it is based on syndromic data and limited laboratory investigations on STIs reported passively by DSRCs and laboratories. Geographically representative information on the etiology of STI syndromes and antimicrobial susceptibility of STI pathogens although essential for optimizing available treatment options, is deficient. Surveillance must provide high quality information on: (a) prevalence of STIs such as syphilis, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among high-risk groups; syphilis in the general population and pregnant antenatal women; (b) demographic characteristics such as age, sex, new/recurrent episode, and type of syndromically diagnosed STI cases; (c) proportion of acute infections such as urethral discharge (UD) in men and nonherpetic genital ulcer disease (GUD) in men and women; (d) etiology of STI syndromes; and (e) gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility. We describe here a framework for an STI sentinel surveillance system in India, building on the existing STI reporting systems and infrastructure, an overview of the components of the proposed surveillance system, and operational challenges in its implementation. PMID:26584168

  13. Sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections in student population.

    PubMed

    Dijani?, Tomislav; Kozul, Karlo; Miskulin, Maja; Medi?, Alan; Jurcev-Savicevi?, Anamarija; Burazin, Jelena

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the differences in sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections (STI) between the first-year and the last-year students. Data were collected by filling anonymous and consented questionnaire in June of 2011 at University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer in Osijek, Croatia. Out of 857 students in the planned sample, 462 (53.9%) filled out the questionnaire, and 353/462 (76.4%) were sexually active. Data from sexually active students were processed and statistically significant results between first-year and the last-year students were presented. Studied sample consisted of 192/353 (54.4%) first-year students and 161/353 (45.6%) last-year students. Average age of sexual initiation for the first-year students was 17.28 +/- 1.29 years, a for the last-year students 18.45 +/- 2.14 years, and the difference is significant (Man-Whitney test = 10335.00, p < 0.01). First-year students have lower number of sexual partners (chi2 = 28.005, p < 0.01), during relationship they had lower number of intercourses with the third person (2 = 17.947, p < 0.01), and feel that lower number of their friends were already sexually active at the time of their own sexual initiation (chi2 = 18.350, p < 0.01). First-year students more often inform their partners about existing or previous STI (chi2 = 14.476, p < 0.01) and curiosity significantly influenced their decision regarding sexual initiation (chi2 = 8.689, p < 0.05). First-year students more often used condom at their first sexual intercourse (chi2 = 7.275, p < 0.01), and more rarely used withdrawal (chi2 = 6.380, p < 0.05). At their last sexual intercourse, first-year students more often used any kind of protection (chi2 = 3.853, p < 0.05),more often used condom (chi2 = 11.110, p < 0.01) and withdrawal (chi2 = 5.156, p < 0.05), and more rarely used contraceptive pills (chi2 = 4.405, p < 0.05). First-year students more often use condom in a permanent relationship (chi2 = 13.384, p < 0.05), and also plan to use it during following intercourse in the permanent relationship (chi2 = 17.575, p < 0.01). Growing condom use and decreasing risky sexual behaviour among students, as well as other adolescents and young adults needs to be maintained. Youth should learn before sexual initiation that only correct condom use at every sexual intercourse protects them against STI and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sexual education and STI/HIV prevention programmes, positive role of media (television) and civil organisations that communicate with the youth can help that. Such changes among adolescents and young adults should have to be seen in student population as well. PMID:24851594

  14. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Function in Relation to Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Brookings, Claire; Goldmeier, David

    2013-01-01

    Infertility affects about 8% to 12% of couples, with male infertility being responsible for about 30% of cases. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are known to cause complications of pregnancy and are associated with tubal infertility in females, but the association with male fertility is still controversial. The prevalence of curable STIs has risen to an estimated 448 million a year with the number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at 34 million. This review looks at the evidence available to date, regarding the effect of STIs and male accessory gland infections on markers of male fertility and the evidence that STIs negatively affect sexual functioning, thus adversely affecting the ability to conceive. The review will also cover new developments in the use of medications and fertility treatments as an aid to conception in couples serodiscordant for HIV. PMID:23526114

  15. The male sexual partners of adult versus teen women with sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls, age 15 - 19 years-old, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women, age 20 - 41 years-old, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Study Design Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone (SAFE), a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Results Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (p < 0.05) to be infected with any STI at intake. Men partnered with teens were younger and had significantly more sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was “really important” for the teen to have their baby (p = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (p = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Conclusions Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention. PMID:19704393

  16. The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis in relation to sexual behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been most consistently linked to sexual behaviour, and the epidemiological profile of BV mirrors that of established sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It remains a matter of debate however whether BV pathogenesis does actually involve sexual transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms from men to women. We therefore made a critical appraisal of the literature on BV in relation to sexual behaviour. Discussion G. vaginalis carriage and BV occurs rarely with children, but has been observed among adolescent, even sexually non-experienced girls, contradicting that sexual transmission is a necessary prerequisite to disease acquisition. G. vaginalis carriage is enhanced by penetrative sexual contact but also by non-penetrative digito-genital contact and oral sex, again indicating that sex per se, but not necessarily coital transmission is involved. Several observations also point at female-to-male rather than at male-to-female transmission of G. vaginalis, presumably explaining the high concordance rates of G. vaginalis carriage among couples. Male antibiotic treatment has not been found to protect against BV, condom use is slightly protective, whereas male circumcision might protect against BV. BV is also common among women-who-have-sex-with-women and this relates at least in part to non-coital sexual behaviours. Though male-to-female transmission cannot be ruled out, overall there is little evidence that BV acts as an STD. Rather, we suggest BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease (SED), with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor. This may relate to two distinct pathogenetic mechanisms: (1) in case of unprotected intercourse alkalinisation of the vaginal niche enhances a shift from lactobacilli-dominated microflora to a BV-like type of microflora and (2) in case of unprotected and protected intercourse mechanical transfer of perineal enteric bacteria is enhanced by coitus. A similar mechanism of mechanical transfer may explain the consistent link between non-coital sexual acts and BV. Similar observations supporting the SED pathogenetic model have been made for vaginal candidiasis and for urinary tract infection. Summary Though male-to-female transmission cannot be ruled out, overall there is incomplete evidence that BV acts as an STI. We believe however that BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease, with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor. PMID:20353563

  17. Post-treatment sexual and prevention behaviours of adolescents with sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Fortenberry, J; Brizendine, E; Katz, B; Orr, D

    2002-01-01

    Methods: 251 1421 year old participants (83% female; 83% African-American) diagnosed with gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomonas, or non-gonococcal urethritis or sexual contacts of infected partners. Participants were clients of a public sexually transmitted diseases clinic or primary care adolescent clinics. Data were collected by structured interview at treatment, 1 month post-treatment, and 3 months post-treatment. At each visit, participants were asked about coital frequency and condom use for each recent partner. At 1 month, participants were asked when coitus occurred following treatment. At each follow up visit, sex partners were compared to partners named at treatment and classified as "same partner(s)," "new partner(s)," or both "same and new partner(s)." Results: Post-treatment abstinence was reported by 26% and 19% for the 1 month and 3 month visits, respectively. Abstinence was associated with greater likelihood of infection at enrolment although abstainers reported fewer lifetime STI and fewer lifetime sex partners. A substantial proportion of participants reported additional sexual contact with a previous partner. The average proportion of condom protected coital events increased from about 45% at enrolment to 64% at 1 month and 58% at 3 months (p<0.05). Higher levels were sustained for the 3 months following treatment. Conclusions: Many adolescents adopt, at least temporarily, risk reduction behaviours such as abstinence or increased condom use. Sexual re-exposure to potentially untreated previous partners may increase risk of subsequent reinfection. PMID:12407242

  18. Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a

  19. Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…

  20. How Can Men Reduce the Risk of Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can men reduce the risk of getting a sexually transmitted disease (STD)? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Men can take the following measures to avoid STDs: Know your partner's STD and health history Talk ...

  1. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths*

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Data were collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This paper reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths’ sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis results for recent cocaine and marijuana use, and self-reported engaging in risky sexual behavior. The across gender, multiple group model involved: (1) a confirmatory factor analysis of these variables, reflecting a latent variable labeled Risk, (2) a regression of Risk on the youths’ age, and (3) an examination of the covariance between Risk and the youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charge. Results indicate the youths’ STD status, drug use, and reported risky sexual behavior are interrelated phenomena, similarly experienced across gender. Age was the only correlate of Risk status that demonstrated a significant gender group difference. The youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charges did not significantly affect Risk, regardless of gender. Research and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21221415

  2. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Howe, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

  3. Molecular Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Harkins, April L.; Munson, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia, with its Chlamydia trachomatis etiology, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States and is often transmitted via asymptomatic individuals. This review summarizes traditional and molecular-based diagnostic modalities specific to C. trachomatis. Several commercially available, FDA-approved molecular methods to diagnose urogenital C. trachomatis infection include nucleic acid hybridization, signal amplification, polymerase chain reaction, strand displacement amplification, and transcription-mediated amplification. Molecular-based methods are rapid and reliable genital specimen screening measures, especially when applied to areas of high disease prevalence. However, clinical and analytical sensitivity for some commercial systems decreases dramatically when testing urine samples. In vitro experiments and clinical data suggest that transcription-mediated amplification has greater analytical sensitivity than the other molecular-based methods currently available. This difference may be further exhibited in testing of extragenital specimens from at-risk patient demographics. The development of future molecular testing could address conundrums associated with confirmatory testing, medicolegal testing, and test of cure. PMID:21822498

  4. A Study of the Awareness of Selected College Students Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Gregory H.; Klein, Daniel

    Changes in sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates among adolescents and young adults may depend on changes in sexual activity, accessibility of referral and treatment services, and education. To assess the knowledge and attitudes of college students toward various aspects of STD's, a 45-item Likert inventory focusing on symptoms, prevalence,

  5. Increase in Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men, England, 2014.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Hamish; Mitchell, Holly; Sile, Bersabeh; Duffell, Stephen; Nardone, Anthony; Hughes, Gwenda

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance data from sexual health clinics indicate recent increases in sexually transmitted infections, particularly among men who have sex with men. The largest annual increase in syphilis diagnoses in a decade was reported in 2014. Less condom use may be the primary reason for these increases. PMID:26689861

  6. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that

  7. School Health Education To Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. WHO AIDS Series 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide provides a framework within which education authorities can work with teachers, parents, and community leaders to help young people learn the facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). It emphasizes the importance of education about human behavior and sexuality that is appropriate to…

  8. Urban Men's Knowledge and Perceptions regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…

  9. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  10. Increase in Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men, England, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Holly; Sile, Bersabeh; Duffell, Stephen; Nardone, Anthony; Hughes, Gwenda

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance data from sexual health clinics indicate recent increases in sexually transmitted infections, particularly among men who have sex with men. The largest annual increase in syphilis diagnoses in a decade was reported in 2014. Less condom use may be the primary reason for these increases. PMID:26689861

  11. Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual) and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. Method This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 1549 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence. Conclusion Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease among currently married women. PMID:24470776

  12. Tweet Content Related to Sexually Transmitted Diseases: No Joking Matter

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie YS

    2014-01-01

    Background Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of tweeters (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of tweet messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. Objective The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDschlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. Methods We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words chlamydia or HIV, and the hashtags #chlamydia or #HIV. Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. Results A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words chlamydia and/or HIV. Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20.6%, 128/620), using a logo avatar (66.9%, 415/620), and with identifiable accounts (85.2%, 528/620). No government departments, non-governmental organizations, scientific media, or academic institutions posted a joke on STDs. A total of 104 of these analyzed tweets were re-tweeted messages, belonging to 68 unique tweets. The content was serious (99%, 67/68), factual (90%, 52/58), and about HIV (85%, 58/68). Conclusions Social media such as Twitter may be an important source of information regarding STDs provided that the topic is presented appropriately. Reassuringly, the study showed that almost 9/10 of tweets on STDs (chlamydia and HIV) were of serious content, and many of the tweets that were re-tweeted were facts. The jokes that were tweeted were mainly about chlamydia, and posted by non-identifiable emitters. We believe social media should be used to an even larger extent to disseminate correct information about STDs. PMID:25289463

  13. Sexual health and sexually transmitted infections in the North American Arctic.

    PubMed

    Gesink Law, Dionne; Rink, Elizabeth; Mulvad, Gert; Koch, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to describe the basic epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections for Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of North America. We summarized published and unpublished rates of chlamydial infection and gonorrhea reported from 2003 through 2006 for Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. In 2006, Alaska reported high rates of chlamydial infection (715 cases/100,000 population) compared with the United States as a whole; northern Canada reported high rates of chlamydial infection (1,693 cases/100,000) and gonorrhea (247 cases/100,000) compared with southern Canada; and Greenland consistently reported the highest rates of chlamydial infection (5,543 cases/100,000) and gonorrhea (1,738 cases/100,000) in the Arctic. Rates were high for both men and women, although the highest incidence of infection was predominantly reported for young women in their early twenties. We propose that community-based participatory research is an appropriate approach to improve sexual health in Arctic communities. PMID:18258070

  14. Transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection: risks, sources and interventions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, S J

    2004-04-01

    Records of the transmission of bacterial infections by transfusion date back to the beginning of organized blood banking. Despite tremendous strides in preventing viral infection through careful donor screening and viral testing, there has been little improvement in reducing the risk of bacterial sepsis since the introduction of closed collection systems. Based on the French Haemovigilance study, the British Serious Hazards of Transmission (SHOT) study and fatality reports to the United States Food and Drug Administration, the risk of clinically apparent sepsis exceeds the risk of HIV, HBV, and HCV transmission. Sources of contamination include the skin, blood, disposables, and the environment. Potential interventions to reduce transfusion-associated bacterial sepsis include improvements to donor arm preparation, diversion of the first aliquot of whole blood, introduction of bacterial testing and/or implementation of pathogen reduction methods. PMID:15078249

  15. Identifying Adolescent Patients at Risk for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Development of a Brief Sexual Health Screening Survey.

    PubMed

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Chung, Richard; Thompson, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the association between survey responses to health behaviors, personality/psychosocial factors, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to create a brief survey to identify youth at risk for contracting STIs. Participants included 200 racially diverse 14- to 18-year-old patients from a pediatric primary care clinic. Two sexual behavior variables and one peer norm variable were used to differentiate subgroups of individuals at risk of contracting a STI based on reported history of STIs using probability (decision tree) analyses. These items, as well as sexual orientation and having ever had oral sex, were used to create a brief sexual health screening (BSHS) survey. Each point increase in total BSHS score was associated with exponential growth in the percentage of sexually active adolescents reporting STIs. Findings suggest that the BSHS could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to quickly and accurately detect sexual risk among adolescent patients. PMID:25527529

  16. Commentary: methods women can use that may prevent sexually transmitted disease, including HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, M J; Gollub, E L

    1992-01-01

    Although sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are a major concern for women, few prevention messages are targeted specifically to women. Those that are generally stress abstaining, altering the number or selection of partners, and urging partners to use condoms. But these behaviors may be unrealistic for many women, particularly women who are at highest risk for sexually transmitted diseases, because they require significant changes in life-style or depend on male-controlled condom use. Recommendation of contraceptives for prevention of sexually transmitted diseases depends largely on how well specific methods perform under controlled conditions, either in the laboratory or in clinical trials. Observational studies, which better reflect day-to-day use, indicate that condoms, barriers, and spermicides, used properly and consistently, can provide substantial protection against various sexually transmitted diseases. Condoms can similarly help protect against HIV, but studies of barriers and spermicides are scant and currently inconclusive. Finally, those methods that are controlled by women are consistently more effective in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. Thus, although condoms used well are still the best choice, the imperative for female-controlled methods indicates that diaphragms and spermicides should receive greater emphasis in prevention messages. PMID:1443295

  17. Changes in sexually transmitted disease rates after HIV testing and posttest counseling, Miami, 1988 to 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, M W; Zaidi, A A; Wroten, J E; Witte, J J; Peterman, T A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The effects of posttest counseling on acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases in patients at a large urban sexually transmitted disease clinic were studied. METHODS. Comparisons were made of the percentage of patients who had a positive gonorrhea culture (or any sexually transmitted disease) in the 6 months before and after human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and testing. RESULTS. For 331 patients counseled about a positive HIV test, the percentage with gonorrhea was 6.3 before and 4.5 after posttest counseling (29% decrease). For 666 patients counseled about a negative test, the percentage with gonorrhea was 2.4 before and 5.0 after posttest counseling (106% increase). With any sexually transmitted disease as the outcome, patients who tested positive for HIV had a 12% decrease and patients who tested negative had a 103% increase after counseling. CONCLUSIONS. HIV counseling and testing was associated with a moderate decrease in sexually transmitted diseases among patients who tested positive for the virus, but risk increased for patients who tested negative. This suggests a need to improve posttest counseling in this clinic and to assess the effects of counseling and testing in other clinics. PMID:8460729

  18. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: from HPV to HTLV - clinical profile and associated factors*

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Fabola Suris; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends the performance of serological tests in patients with clinical signs of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. However, data are lacking to affirm the necessity of testing these patients for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 or type 2. This is a cross-sectional study with 120 patients seen at the Sexually Transmitted Diseases unit of the Sanitary Dermatology Outpatient Clinic of Rio Grande do Sul. The serum from none of the patients was positive for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 or type 2. Viral warts were the most frequent diagnosis. Drug use was confirmed as a risk factor and high educational levels were found to be a protective factor against Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  19. A Vicarious Experience of the Actions of Contraceptive Devices in Birth Control and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2002-01-01

    Describes how self-constructed models of the male and female reproductive systems are used to simulate sexual intercourse and the actions of contraceptive devices in preventing conception and sexually transmitted diseases. (Author/YDS)

  20. Sex Work and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Asia: A Biosocial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Joan; Bhabha, Jacqueline; Kleinman, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    The Harvard University Asia Center hosted a symposium in October 2010 focused on sex work and sexually transmitted infections in Asia, engaging a biosocial approach to promote sexual health in this region. Asia has an estimated 151 million cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs; eg, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia) each year, with commercial sex interactions playing a large role in ongoing transmission. Substantial human movement and migration, gender inequalities, and incipient medical and legal systems in many states stymie effective STI control in Asia. The articles in this supplement provide theoretical and empirical pathways to improving the sexual health of those who sell and purchase commercial sex in Asia. The unintended health consequences of various forms of regulating commercial sex are also reviewed, emphasizing the need to carefully consider the medical and public health consequences of new and existing policies and laws. PMID:22043032

  1. Legal Barriers to Adolescent Participation in Research About HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Moore, Quianta L; Paul, Mary E; McGuire, Amy L; Majumder, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Whether adolescents can participate in clinical trials of pharmacologic therapies for HIV prevention, such as preexposure prophylaxis, without parental permission hinges on state minor consent laws. Very few of these laws explicitly authorize adolescents to consent to preventive services for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Unclear state laws may lead to research cessation. We have summarized legal, ethical, and policy considerations related to adolescents' participation in HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention research in the United States, and we have explored strategies for facilitating adolescents' access. PMID:26562103

  2. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…

  3. EveryBody[TM]: Preventing HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeberlein, Deborah

    EveryBody is a curriculum that emphasizes prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among early adolescents. It fosters active learning and facilitates communication about HIV/STD prevention and promotes safer behaviors. EveryBody incorporates current research on adolescent development so it…

  4. Patterns of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Reported among Students in a Federal University in Midwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omobude-Idiado, S. N.; Bazuaye, G. N.

    2009-01-01

    The study analysed the patterns of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) among students in a Nigerian University. It is a retrospective study of 38,933 students who attended the University Health Centre from 2001 to 2005. The results showed that 1.8% of all the students who attended the clinic had STIs. The study also revealed that 85.26% of the

  5. Teaching About Sexually Transmitted Diseases; A Curriculum Guide and Resources For Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This curriculum guide provides school districts that already have VD education programs with up-to-date information about research and epidemiology relating to sexually transmitted diseases. For districts wishing to implement a program for the first time, it offers both a structured framework and the resources and materials needed for a complete

  6. American College Health Association Annual Pap Test and Sexually Transmitted Infection Survey: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Davis; Roberts, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results: Almost

  7. Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their…

  8. EveryBody[TM]: Preventing HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeberlein, Deborah

    EveryBody is a curriculum that emphasizes prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among early adolescents. It fosters active learning and facilitates communication about HIV/STD prevention and promotes safer behaviors. EveryBody incorporates current research on adolescent development so it

  9. Integrating the Perspective of Vulnerable Heterosexual Male Adolescents to Prevent Premature Paternity and Sexually Transmitted Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manseau, Helene; Blais, Martin; Engler, Kim; Bosse, Marie-Andre

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the perspective of vulnerable Canadian (Quebecker) adolescents defined as such on account of their numerous experiences with potential or actual fatherhood or exposure to sexually transmitted infection. The interviews allowed youth to talk about their experiences with paternity, their sex lives and their views on sex education.

  10. One Size Fits All? Promoting Condom Use for Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention among Heterosexual Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Visser, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use

  11. An attributional analysis of stigma associated with sexually transmitted diseases and its relationship with communication efficacy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jina H; Jang, Suahn

    2012-07-01

    People typically attribute more responsibility to those individuals who are infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) than other diseases. This study tested how different routes (i.e., sexually transmitted or foodborne) of transmission have an impact on individuals' general perception on stigma/shame and the attributions of responsibility, when controlling for symptoms/conditions of the hypothetical virus infection. Two hundreds and ninety eight college students were recruited for the study. As predicted, people who were attributed with control over contracting the virus (i.e., sexually transmitted route) were likely to be assigned a greater level of personal responsibility and were more likely to receive blame from others than people who were attributed relatively less control over contracting the virus (i.e., foodborne). The relationship between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy was also assessed. The results supported our prediction that there was a significant association between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy, in that the perceived controllability of the situation, perceived responsibility for the situation, and blame were all significantly correlated with communication efficacy in a negative direction. Practical applications by evaluating the effectiveness of the actual Merck's Gardasil advertisement were discussed that the Gardasil advertisement appears to reduce the perceived shame and stigma associated with the sexually transmitted nature of the virus by not revealing the true nature of the virus upfront. PMID:22980337

  12. Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their

  13. A method for identifying persons at high risk for sexually transmitted infections: opportunity for targeting intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Richert, C A; Peterman, T A; Zaidi, A A; Ransom, R L; Wroten, J E; Witte, J J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to identify persons at high risk for acquiring new sexually transmitted infections. METHODS. Computerized medical records from sexually transmitted disease clinics in Dade County, Florida, were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study. For all patients who visited in 1987, risk factors were identified for returning to the clinics within a year with a new sexually transmitted infection. Predictor variables were derived from the index visit and any visits in the year prior to the index visit. Logistic regression was used to develop a model that was applied to all patients who attended in 1989. RESULTS. Of 24,439 patients attending in 1987, 18.5% returned within a year with a new infection. Return rates were highest for 15- to 19-year-old Black males (31.8%). The highest odds ratios for returning were a diagnosis or treatment for an infection in the previous year and a diagnosis or treatment for infection at the index visit. The patients predicted to be at highest risk had a 39% return rate. There were as many new infections among the 2893 patients at highest risk as there were among the 13,326 patients at lowest risk. CONCLUSIONS. We developed a model that identifies persons at very high risk for sexually transmitted infection. These persons should be targeted for intensive intervention to reduce their risk. PMID:8460727

  14. Education on Sexually Transmitted Infections: Finding Common Ground among Youth, Parents, Providers and Policy Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Joan R.

    2008-01-01

    Outcomes from sex education are shaped not only by the knowledge and attitudes of youth but also by groups influential in young people's lives. American youth bear one of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the industrialized world. Four constituencies with important roles in communicating about STIs are youth, parents,

  15. Commentary: Methods Women Can Use That May Prevent Sexually Transmitted Disease, Including HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Michael J.; Gollub, Erica L.

    1992-01-01

    Ten observational studies indicate that condoms help prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but research on barriers and spermicides is lacking. Given the effectiveness of female-controlled methods in preventing other sexually transmitted diseases, more research into protection from HIV infection by use of diaphragms and spermicides

  16. Likelihood of Condom Use When Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Suspected: Results from a Clinic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Charnigo, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the event-level associations between perceived risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition/transmission and condom use during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) among STD clinic attendees. Method: A convenience sample (N = 622) completed daily electronic assessments. Two questions were proxies of perceived risk:

  17. An Intervention to Promote the Female Condom to Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free

  18. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with

  19. An Intervention to Promote the Female Condom to Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…

  20. Likelihood of Condom Use When Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Suspected: Results from a Clinic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Charnigo, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the event-level associations between perceived risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition/transmission and condom use during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) among STD clinic attendees. Method: A convenience sample (N = 622) completed daily electronic assessments. Two questions were proxies of perceived risk:…

  1. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, covering the following topics (1) Health Education; and…

  2. Does Funding for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Matter? Evidence from Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Harrison, Paul; Scotton, Carol R.; Varghese, Beena

    2005-01-01

    Since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has allocated several billion dollars for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. Using state-level data from 1981 to 1998, the authors found that greater amounts of prevention funding in a given year are…

  3. Recruitment Strategies and Motivations for Sexually Transmitted Disease Testing among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Zenilman, Jonathan; Nanda, Joy P.; Mark, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated procedures for recruiting college students for sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing as part of a research study examining the impact of HSV serologic testing. Participants: A convenience sample of 100 students was drawn from students aged 18 to 35 years enrolled at one university in a mid-Atlantic state

  4. Does Funding for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Matter? Evidence from Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Harrison, Paul; Scotton, Carol R.; Varghese, Beena

    2005-01-01

    Since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has allocated several billion dollars for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. Using state-level data from 1981 to 1998, the authors found that greater amounts of prevention funding in a given year are

  5. American College Health Association Annual Pap Test and Sexually Transmitted Infection Survey: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Davis; Roberts, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results: Almost…

  6. Recruitment Strategies and Motivations for Sexually Transmitted Disease Testing among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Zenilman, Jonathan; Nanda, Joy P.; Mark, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated procedures for recruiting college students for sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing as part of a research study examining the impact of HSV serologic testing. Participants: A convenience sample of 100 students was drawn from students aged 18 to 35 years enrolled at one university in a mid-Atlantic state…

  7. [Sexually transmitted diseases among the elderly: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Dornelas Neto, Jader; Nakamura, Amanda Sayuri; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri; Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda

    2015-12-01

    The prolongation of an active sexual life in addition to unsafe practices are reflected in the possibility of the occurrence of STDs among the elderly. The scope of this study is to analyze the evolving trend of STDs among the elderly in Brazil and in the world and also to identify the main issues addressed in the literature, providing data that can support public policies that address the health of the elderly. A systematic search was performed in the Lilacs, IBECS, Cochrane Library, Medline, SciELO and PubMed databases. Of a total of 979 studies found, 44 matched the inclusion criteria and comprised the sample of the review. Six main themes were identified: risk factors for infection (34 studies); the influence of Sildenafil as a possible factor (18); diagnosis of STDs in general (20); HIV treatment (24); comorbidities related to HIV (24); and the prevention of STDs (20). More than one theme can be found in each study. The conclusion drawn is that this age group remains out of the focus of public policies of health promotion in the STD context. Therefore, there is a need for awareness about the changes in behavior and the epidemiological profile of this population group. PMID:26691809

  8. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in rural Haitian men.

    PubMed

    Downey, Robert F; Hammar, Donna; Jobe, Kathleen A; Schmidt, Terri A; Slyke, Lori Van; Yassemi, Yassi; Zive, Dana

    2015-09-01

    The study attempts to determine the prevalence of organisms associated with urethritis in men in rural southwestern Haiti and to determine the association with demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. A standardised verbal interview was conducted; genital examinations were done; urethral swabs were collected for nucleic acid amplification testing, and first void urine was obtained for urinalysis. The mean participant age was 54; 88.8% lived in a rural area. Swabs were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis in 13.7% (28/205), Mycoplasma genitalium in 6.3% (13/205), Chlamydia trachomatis in 4.4% (9/205) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 0% (0/205). Subjects who never reported using condoms were nearly 3.5 times more likely to have any positive swab result (OR: 3.46, 95% CI 1.31-9.14). Subjects who reported their partners had other sexual partners or were unsure were more than three times likely to have any positive swab result (OR: 3.44, 95% CI 1.33-8.92). Infections with Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium were the most common. PMID:25228665

  9. Race/ethnicity, sexual partnerships with men involved with drugs, and sexually transmitted infections among a sample of urban young adult women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Leah F; Brown, Qiana; Cavanaugh, Courtenay; Lawson, April

    2015-10-01

    In many urban neighbourhoods in the United States, drug markets borne from disadvantage have produced risk for sexually transmitted infections through altered sexual norms and partnerships. Presently, we examined the association of race, sexual partnerships with men involved with drugs, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections among 240 African American and white women aged 18-30 years. Thirty seven per cent reported ever having a sexually transmitted infection. Almost 30% of Whites reported sex with a drug user, compared to 5% of African Americans. Fifty eight per cent of African Americans compared to 31% of Whites reported sex with a drug dealer. On Step 1 of a sequential logistic regression model, race was associated with lifetime sexually transmitted infections (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.61-8.34). Results from the full sequential logistic regression model indicated a significant, but smaller association of race and lifetime sexually transmitted infections (Adjusted OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.78-7.02) and an association of sex with a drug dealer and lifetime sexually transmitted infections (Adjusted OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.55-5.20). Forming sexual partnerships with drug dealers may place women at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and explain racial disparities. More research focused on drug dealers as core transmitters is needed. PMID:25505044

  10. Behavioral Convergence: Implications for Mathematical Models of Sexually Transmitted Infection Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Aral, Sevgi O.; Ward, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends in the behaviors of some groups with high sexual activity and of the general population in some countries suggest that sexual behavior profiles of high and low sexual activity categories may be converging and may call into question the assumptions around sexual mixing that are built into theoretical models of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission dynamics. One category of high sexual activity, sex work, has been undergoing modification in many societies, becoming more acceptable, more dispersed, and larger in volume in some societies and shrinking in others. Concurrent with changes in the characteristics of sex work, the accumulating data on the sexual behaviors of the general population suggest a shift toward those of sex workers, including large numbers of sex partners and short-duration partnerships. The closing of the gap between behaviors associated with high and low sexual activity may have important implications for theories of sexual structure and models of transmission dynamics for STIs, including HIV infection. PMID:25381381

  11. Compliance With Hepatitis B Vaccination Among Adult Males With Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Reza; Mellat Ardekani, Ali; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a diverse group of infections caused by widely differing microorganisms (viruses, protozoa, bacteria, yeasts, ectoparasites and even a nematode), with transmission from person to person by sexual contact as its common characteristic. In all societies, sexually transmitted infections rank among the most common infectious diseases. These patients are at risk for hepatitis B virus infection, but have been relatively neglected in terms of hepatitis B virus vaccination. Objectives: In this study, compliance with hepatitis B vaccination among adult males with sexually diseases was examined. Patients and Methods: In this survey, 114 males, referred to an infectious diseases clinic, were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating their knowledge of hepatitis B vaccine, and were interviewed to assess their reasons for refusal or acceptance. Finally, SPSS (version 16) was used to perform the statistical analyses. Variables were analyzed with Chi-square tests. Results: The results of this study indicated that the overall hepatitis B vaccine acceptance rate was acceptably high. Among all, 53.5% correctly identified that a vaccine to prevent hepatitis B virus infection had been available, 15% had a negative opinion, and 31.5% were neutral. The rations of all three doses of vaccination were 69.3%. Conclusions: Among the respondents, 87% were currently married, 86.8% were currently employed, 17.5% have addiction, 34.2 % used condom, and 36.8% correctly identified hepatitis B as a sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25485048

  12. Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Update: A Review of the CDC 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines and Epidemiologic Trends of Common STDs in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Maria Veneranda C; Wasserman, Glenn M

    2012-01-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated its recommendations for treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In this review we highlight new treatment recommendations for mitigating the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the emergence of azithromycin-resistant Treponema pallidum, and treatment options for bacterial vaginosis and venereal warts. We also cover epidemiologic trends for common STDs in Hawai‘i. PMID:22454816

  13. Correlates of prevalent sexually transmitted infections among participants screened for an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Otieno, Fredrick Odhiambo; Ndivo, Richard; Oswago, Simon; Pals, Sherri; Chen, Robert; Thomas, Timothy; Kunneke, Ernesta; Mills, Lisa A; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor

    2015-03-01

    We determined the prevalence of four sexually transmitted infections and the demographic and behavioural correlates associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections among participants in an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, western Kenya. Participants were enrolled from a convenience sample and underwent aetiologic sexually transmitted infection investigation. Demographic and behavioural information were collected and basic clinical evaluation performed. Multiple regression analysis was done to determine variables associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections. We screened 846, 18- to 34-year-olds. One-third had at least one sexually transmitted infection with specific prevalence being: syphilis, 1.6%; gonorrhoea, 2.4%; herpes simplex virus type-2, 29.1%; chlamydia, 2.8%; and HIV, 14.8%. Odds of having any sexually transmitted infection were higher among participants who were women, were aged 20-24 or 30-34 years compared to 18-19 years, had secondary or lower education compared to tertiary education, were divorced, widowed or separated compared to singles, reported having unprotected sex compared to those who did not, reported previous sexually transmitted infection treatment, and tested HIV-positive. Multiple strategies are needed to address the overall high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections as well as the gender disparity found in this Kenyan population. Structural interventions may be beneficial in addressing educational and socio-economic barriers, and increasing the uptake of health-promoting practices. PMID:24810218

  14. Correlates of prevalent sexually transmitted infections among participants screened for an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Fredrick Odhiambo; Ndivo, Richard; Oswago, Simon; Pals, Sherri; Chen, Robert; Thomas, Timothy; Kunneke, Ernesta; Mills, Lisa A; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Background We determined the prevalence of four sexually transmitted infections and the demographic and behavioural correlates associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections among participants in an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, western Kenya. Methods Participants were enrolled from a convenience sample and underwent aetiologic sexually transmitted infection investigation. Demographic and behavioural information were collected and basic clinical evaluation performed. Multiple regression analysis was done to determine variables associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections. Results We screened 846, 18- to 34-year-olds. One-third had at least one sexually transmitted infection with specific prevalence being, syphilis; 1.6%, gonorrhoea; 2.4%, herpes simplex virus type-2; 29.1%, chlamydia; 2.8%, and HIV; 14.8%. Odds of having any sexually transmitted infection were higher among participants who were women, were aged 2024 or 3034 years compared to 1819 years, had secondary or lower education compared to tertiary education, were divorced, widowed or separated compared to singles, reported having unprotected sex compared to those who did not, reported previous sexually transmitted infection treatment, and tested HIV-positive. Conclusion Multiple strategies are needed to address the overall high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections as well as the gender disparity found in this Kenyan population. Structural interventions may be beneficial in addressing educational and socio-economic barriers, and increasing the uptake of health-promoting practices. PMID:24810218

  15. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive and HIV negative females, in a tertiary care hospital - An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Dimple; Sandhu, Ivy; Bahl, RK; Bhatia, Ruby; Goyal, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The presentation and course of Sexually transmitted diseases(STI) may be altered by presence of coexisting HIV status. Aim of the study was to study the prevalence of STI in 50 females with HIV infection and 50 females without HIV infection and to study the pap smear of patients to look for any cellular changes (dysplasia) due to sexually transmitted infections. Material and methods: The present study was an observational study, which was undertaken on 100 females with STIs (50 females with coexistent HIV infection and 50 females without HIV infection), in the age group 15-49 years attending Skin and VD OPD of Rajindra hospital, Patiala. Results: In our study, the commonest presenting complaint in case of both HIV positive (66%) and HIV negative (80%) women was vaginal discharge. PAP smear abnormalities were present in 28 (56%) HIV positive women and 11 (22%) HIV negative women. In case of HIV positive women, the inflammation was trichomonal in 4 (8%), bacterial in 2 (4%), fungal in 2 (4%) and non-specific in 20 (40%) patients. In HIV negative women, the inflammation was trichomonal in 2 (4%) patients, bacterial in 2 (4%) patients and non-specific in 7 (14%) patients. The difference in abnormality seen in PAP smear between HIV positive and HIV negative women is statistically significant only in case of non-specific inflammation which is more common in case of HIV positive women. Conclusion: From the present study, it was concluded vaginal discharge was the commonest presenting complaint in both HIV positive and HIV negative women, though the commonest cause of vaginal discharge was candidiasis in HIV positive females and bacterial vaginosis in HIV negative females. Also, PAP smear abnormalities were significantly higher in HIV positive women than HIV negative women. So it is important that HIV positive women should have complete gynecological evaluation including a PAP smear with aggressive screening of STIs. PMID:26392656

  16. Private sexual behavior, public opinion, and public health policy related to sexually transmitted diseases: a US-British comparison.

    PubMed Central

    Michael, R T; Wadsworth, J; Feinleib, J; Johnson, A M; Laumann, E O; Wellings, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to characterize sexual behavior and opinions about sex in the United States and Britain; implications are discussed for effective public health policy regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. METHODS: Large-scale national probability surveys conducted in the 2 countries detailed sexual behavior, opinions, and the prevalence of STDs. RESULTS: In comparison with that of Britain, the US population has greater variability in sexual behavior, less tolerant opinions about sexual behavior, and a higher STD prevalence and lower condom usage among men. CONCLUSIONS: The survey data show compelling evidence from both countries of a strong association between number of sex partners and STD risk. In the United States relative to Britain, there is both greater dispersion in sexual behavior and a greater incidence of unconditional opposition to certain sexual practices. The former implies a need for strong public health policy to address the risks of STDs, but the latter implies strong opposition to that policy. This disjuncture between public health need and feasibility may contribute to the high US rate of STDs. PMID:9585739

  17. Clinician Adherence to Recommendations for Screening of Adolescents for Sexual Activity and Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Monika K; Witt, Rachel; Hayes, Katie L; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Gerber, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate clinician adherence to guidelines for documentation of sexual history and screening for sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV during routine adolescent well visits. Secondary objectives were to determine patient and clinician factors associated with sexual history documentation and STI/HIV testing. Study design Retrospective, cross-sectional study of 1000 randomly selected 1319 year old routine well visits at all 29 pediatric primary care practices affiliated with a childrens hospital. We evaluated frequency of documentation of sexual history and testing for gonorrhea/chlamydia (GC/CT) and HIV testing. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with documentation and testing. Results Of the 1000 patient visits reviewed, 212 (21.2%; 95% CI 18.7, 23.7) had a documented sexual history, of which 45 adolescents (21.2%; 95% CI 15.7, 26.8) encounters were documented as being sexually active. Overall, 26 (2.6%; 95% CI 1.6, 3.6) patients were tested for GC/CT and 16 (1.6%; 95% CI 0.8, 2.4) for HIV. In multivariable analyses, factors associated with sexual history documentation included older patient age, non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, non-private insurance status, and care by female clinician. Factors associated with GC/CT testing included male gender, non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, and non-private insurance. HIV testing was more likely to be performed on older adolescents, those of non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, and those with non-private insurance. Conclusions Pediatric primary care clinicians infrequently document sexual histories and perform STI and HIV testing on adolescent patients. Future studies should investigate provider beliefs, clinical decision-making principles, and perceived barriers to improve the sexual health care of adolescents and evaluate interventions to increase rates of adolescent sexual health screening. PMID:24840761

  18. Surveillance report: disease trends at New Zealand sexually transmitted disease clinics 1977-1993.

    PubMed Central

    Lyttle, P H

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To document trends in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) recorded by New Zealand STD Clinics from 1977-1993. METHODS--Clinic disease figures have been recorded since clinics commenced in the 1920s and were recorded in a comprehensive format from the 1970s. The New Zealand Venereological Society has collated these data since 1986. RESULTS--The most common STDs in New Zealand clinics are genital warts, non-specific genital infections, chlamydia and genital herpes. Genital Wart infection has been the commonest STD diagnosed in clinics since 1988 and occurred in 17.9% of new patients in 1993. Non Specific Genital Infections were the commonest diagnosis from 1977 to 1988 affecting 17.5% of new patients in 1993. Chlamydia has shown a fall since the mid 1980s diagnosed in 5.4% of new patients in 1993 compared with 14.6% in 1986. Gonorrhoea incidence has fallen steadily since 1975 affecting only 1.1% new patients in 1993. Genital Herpes numbers tripled from 1977 to 1993 and 54% are primary cases. HIV Disease has increased clinic workload greatly with screening and counselling conducted in 25% of new patients in 1993. HIV disease was diagnosed or managed in 0.2% new clinic patients (49 cases). Syphilis has remained at a low incidence in New Zealand diagnosed in 0.3% new patients in 1993. CONCLUSION--Attendance for the viral diseases, HIV disease, genital warts and genital herpes is increasing while for the bacterial diseases, gonorrhoea and chlamydia is decreasing. The rise in disease numbers since 1990 may be due to meeting service needs rather than a true rise in disease incidence. STD surveillance in New Zealand is improving with new reporting systems being developed. PMID:8001945

  19. Alcohol Abuse, Sexual Risk Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women in Moshi Urban District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods 2,019 women aged 20–44 were randomly selected in a two-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Results Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.06–3.98) and sexual violence (OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.05–2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.01–2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.08–2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.46–4.00) compared to women with one sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.55–1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. Conclusions The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs. PMID:19060779

  20. Crystal Clear? The Relationship Between Methamphetamine Use and Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Mialon, Hugo M; Nesson, Erik T; Samuel, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    Public health officials have cited methamphetamine control as a tool with which to decrease HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, based on previous research that finds a strong positive correlation between methamphetamine use and risky sexual behavior. However, the observed correlation may not be causal, as both methamphetamine use and risky sexual behavior could be driven by a third factor, such as a preference for risky behavior. We estimate the effect of methamphetamine use on risky sexual behavior using monthly data on syphilis diagnoses in California and quarterly data on syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia diagnoses across all states. To circumvent possible endogeneity, we use a large exogenous supply shock in the US methamphetamine market that occurred in May 1995 and a later shock stemming from the Methamphetamine Control Act, which went into effect in October 1997. While the supply shocks had large negative effects on methamphetamine use, we find no evidence that they decreased syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia rates. Our results have broad implications for public policies designed to decrease sexually transmitted infection rates. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25545965

  1. Adolescent girls' perceived prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and condom use.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, S L; Lewis, L M; Succop, P A; Burklow, K A; Biro, F M

    1997-06-01

    Little is known concerning sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescent girls' perceptions of the prevalence of condom use and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Girls (n = 174; 41% sexually experienced) rated the prevalence of condom use among friends and STDs among male and female friends and adolescents in general. Girls perceive the prevalence of STDs similarly across both gender and level of familiarity. For the most part, however, the girls perceived the prevalence among boys and girls more similarly than among friends and adolescents in general. No significant differences were found between sexually experienced and inexperienced girls in perceptions of condom use prevalence, but girls with a history of STD perceived condoms as used less frequently. Girls with an STD history perceived STDs as the most prevalent, followed by sexually inexperienced girls and then sexually experienced girls without a history of an STD. After an adolescent girl initiates sexual intercourse, STD experience could be a key variable in affecting her perceptions. Prevention programs can incorporate an understanding of patients' perceptions of condom use and STDs. PMID:9213230

  2. Sexually transmitted infections: new guidelines for an old problem on the college campus.

    PubMed

    Rimsza, Mary Ellen

    2005-02-01

    Approximately 80% of college-age adolescents are sexually active and at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Over 4 million STIs occur in teenagers annually and young adults between the ages of 18 and 24, while adolescents 15 to 17 years of age have higher rates of STIs than any other age group in the United States. Thus, the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of STIs are a critical part of college health care. This article will discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of some of the most common STIs encountered in the college-age group, with an emphasis on new guidelines for treatment. PMID:15748932

  3. The Influence of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Perceived Susceptibility Patterns on Sexual Risk Reduction for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2005-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibility

  4. The Influence of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Perceived Susceptibility Patterns on Sexual Risk Reduction for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2005-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibility…

  5. A review of sexually transmitted bovine trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis affecting cattle reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Michi, Aubrey N; Favetto, Pedro H; Kastelic, John; Cobo, Eduardo R

    2016-03-15

    The objective is to discuss sexually transmitted diseases caused by Tritrichomonas foetus (T foetus) and Campylobacter fetus (C fetus) subsp. venerealis, with a focus on prevalence, pathogenesis, and diagnosis in cows and bulls. Diagnosis and control are problematic because these diseases cause severe reproductive losses in cows, but in bulls are clinically asymptomatic, which allows the disease to flourish, especially in the absence of legislated control programs. We review research regarding prophylactic systemic immunization of bulls and cows with antigens of T foetus and C fetus venerealis and their efficacy in preventing or clearing preexisting infections in the genital tract. Current diagnostic methods of C fetus venerealis and T foetus (microbial culture and PCR) should be improved. Review of the latest advances in bovine trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis should promote knowledge and provide an impetus to pursue further efforts to control bovine sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:26679515

  6. Program Evaluation for Sexually Transmitted Disease Programs: In Support of Effective Interventions.

    PubMed

    Carter, Marion W

    2016-02-01

    Program evaluation is a key tool for gathering evidence about the value and effectiveness of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs and interventions. Drawing from published literature, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evaluation framework, and program examples, this article lays out some of the key principles of program evaluation for STD program staff. The purpose is to offer STD program staff a stronger basis for talking about, planning, conducting, and advocating for evaluation within their respective program contexts. PMID:26779682

  7. What's new in sexually transmitted infections in the HIV care setting: focus on syphilis and gonorrhea.

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Jeanne M

    Sexually transmitted infections are a resurgent problem in HIV disease. The number of new cases of syphilis among men who have sex with men has continued to increase, requiring renewed vigilance in screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Drug-resistant gonorrhea has prompted changes in treatment regimens and warrants continued monitoring. This article summarizes an IAS-USA continuing education webinar presented by Jeanne M. Marrazzo, MD, MPH, in January 2014. PMID:25612179

  8. Vaginal Microbiota and Sexually Transmitted Infections That May Influence Transmission of Cell-Associated HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal microbiota and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are likely to influence the transmission of cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota (Nugent score 03) will likely inhibit transmission, especially female-to-male transmission. In contrast, polymicrobial microbiota (Nugent score 410), community state types IV-A and IV-B, and STIs will likely increase transmission of cell-associated HIV. PMID:25414415

  9. Dynamic analysis of a sexually transmitted disease model on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xin-Peng; Xue, Ya-Kui; Liu, Mao-Xing

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a sexually transmitted disease model is proposed on complex networks, where contacts between humans are treated as a scale-free social network. There are three groups in our model, which are dangerous male, non-dangerous male, and female. By mathematical analysis, we obtain the basic reproduction number for the existence of endemic equilibrium and study the effects of various immunization schemes about different groups. Furthermore, numerical simulations are undertaken to verify more conclusions.

  10. Risky sexual practices among youth attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Urassa, W; Moshiro, C; Chalamilla, G; Mhalu, F; Sandstrom, E

    2008-01-01

    Background Youth have been reported to be at a higher risk of acquiring STIs with significant adverse health and social consequences. Knowledge on the prevailing risky practices is an essential tool to guide preventive strategies. Methods Youth aged between 18 and 25 years attending an STI clinic were recruited. Social, sexual and demographic characteristics were elicited using a structured standard questionnaire. Blood samples were tested for syphilis and HIV infections. Urethral, high vaginal and cervical swabs were screened for common STI agents. Results A total of 304 youth were studied with mean age of 21.5 and 20.3 years for males and females respectively. 63.5% of youth were seeking STI care. The mean age of coitache was 16.4 and 16.2 years for males and females respectively. The first sexual partner was significantly older in females compared to male youth (23.0 vs 16.8 years) (p < 0.01). 93.2% of male youth reported more than one sexual lifetime partner compared to 63.0% of the females. Only 50% of males compared to 43% of females had ever used a condom and fewer than 8.3% of female youth used other contraceptive methods. 27.1% of pregnancies were unplanned and 60% of abortions were induced. 42.0% of female youth had received gifts/money for sexual favours. The HIV prevalence was 15.3% and 7.5% for females and males respectively. The prevalence of other STIs was relatively low. Among male youth, use of alcohol or illicit drugs was associated with increased risk of HIV infection. However, the age of sexual initiation, number of sexual partners or the age of the first sexual partner were not associated with increased risk of being HIV infected. Conclusion Most female youth seen at the STI clinic had their first sexual intercourse with older males. Youth were engaging in high risk unprotected sexual practices which were predisposing them to STIs and unplanned pregnancies. There is a great need to establish more youth-friendly reproductive health clinics, encourage consistent and correct use of condoms, delay in sexual debut and avoid older sexual partners in females. PMID:19019224

  11. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors and Risk Determinants Among Sexually Active Adolescent Males: Results From a School-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Rosario, Margaret; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined disparities in risk determinants and risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) between gay-identified, bisexual-identified, and heterosexual-identified young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and heterosexual-identified young men who have sex with women (YMSW) using a school-based sample of US sexually active adolescent males. Methods We analyzed a pooled data set of Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2005 and 2007 that included information on sexual orientation identity, sexual behaviors, and multiple STI risk factors. Results Bisexual-identified adolescents were more likely to report multiple STI risk behaviors (number of sex partners, concurrent sex partners, and age of sexual debut) compared with heterosexual YMSW as well as heterosexual YMSM and gay-identified respondents. Gay, bisexual, and heterosexual YMSM were significantly more likely to report forced sex compared with heterosexual YMSW. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that sexual health disparities emerge early in the life course and vary by both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. In particular, they show that bisexual-identified adolescent males exhibit a unique risk profile that warrants targeted sexual health interventions. PMID:24825214

  12. Medical and Legal Implications of Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Guillén, Christina D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child can have, in addition to medical implications, serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse, and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possible abuse. The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of child sexual abuse, including the epidemiology of major STIs including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus, and the current recommendations for diagnostic testing in this population. PMID:20610820

  13. Heteronormativity hurts everyone: experiences of young men and clinicians with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira

    2013-09-01

    Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses. PMID:23117592

  14. Drug treatment of nonviral sexually transmitted diseases: specific issues in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, C E; Biro, F M

    2001-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are common and happen more frequently in younger patients. These adolescents have unique risks of acquiring infection because of developing psychosocial skills, biological factors and sociocultural barriers. The clinician must be adept at identifying and modifying these risks through knowledge of the adolescent stages of development and biology, with good history and examination skills that make teens comfortable during their evaluation, and with patient education and treatment. Whereas patient compliance and partner notification can be problematic in any population, teenagers may be more prone not to follow through on these issues. While compliance may notbe as important as previously thought, there is a dearth of studies of patient compliance and STD treatment in adolescents. Guidelines for the treatment of STDs were published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1998 and the Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Diseases in 1999. Most of the data obtained to formulate these guidelines were not necessarily adolescent specific and few studies, if any, have included adolescent patients since the CDC document was published. In the treatment of chlamydia, it appears that even with relative noncompliance with the 7-day regimen of doxycycline, it is as effective as single dose azithromycin. This has implications in cost control, important for centres with limited funds for treatment. While fluoroquinolone-resistant gonorrhoea has been reported for some time, the number of reports in the US is increasing, with a recent report of decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. As many studies have shown efficacy with single agent therapy with azithromycin in combined gonococcal and chlamydial infection, one must view these new resistance data with concern and give serious consideration to dual agent treatment, especially in the locale of the practitioner. Also, fluoroquinolone use is not advised in patients under the age of 18 years at present because of concerns of adverse effects on cartilage. While not much has changed from the 1998 guidelines for most of the other STDs, there seems to be a general trend in treating pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) on an outpatient basis if good follow-up is assured, even in the adolescent population. There is still debate on whether anaerobe coverage is needed in PID without tubo-ovarian abscess or other complications. One other update includes the use of daily metronidazole gel instead of twice daily usage in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. With the lack of studies specific to adolescents, it is left up to the clinician to tailor the treatment of adolescents on the basis of current guidelines and patient preferences. PMID:11513280

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. This study investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from an STD clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men, and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior, including more sexual partners, unprotected sex, and sex trading. Alcohol use for men, and drug use for women, mediated the relation between CSA and the number of partners in the past three months; intimate partner violence mediated the relation between CSA and the number of episodes of unprotected sex in the past three months for women. These results document the prevalence of CSA among patients seeking care for an STD, and can be used to tailor sexual risk-reduction programs for individuals who were sexually abused. PMID:16881780

  16. Patterns of uptake of treatment for self reported sexually transmitted infection symptoms in rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, J; Garnett, G; Nyamukapa, C; Donnelly, C; Mason, P; Gregson, S

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the extent of self reported symptoms perceived to be related to sexually transmitted infections and the patterns of subsequent treatment seeking behaviour in a predominantly rural population of Zimbabwe. Methods: A population based survey of 4331 men and 5149 women was conducted in rural Zimbabwe during 19982000. Structured confidential interviews collected data on self reported sexually transmitted infection symptoms, treatment seeking behaviour, sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual behaviour. Results: 25% of men aged 1754 years report experiencing genital sores and 25% of men report experiencing urethral discharge; 30% of women aged 1544 years report experiencing vaginal discharge. The lifetime number of sexual partners, age, and years of sexual activity were all significant predictors of symptoms for both men and women (all p values <0.001). 92% of men and 62% of women had sought treatment for their symptoms in the past year (p value <0.001). Men and women were equally likely to have sought treatment at a local hospital or clinic, but women were much less likely than men to have sought treatment at a different hospital or clinic. Among those who had sought treatment, men sought treatment faster than women and were more likely to report being "very satisfied" with their treatment than women. Conclusions: The gender differences in treatment seeking are of major concern for control efforts and further work on determining the reasons for these should be a priority. This would inform the likely impact of both increasing availability of local services and further reducing the stigma faced by those wishing to access such services. PMID:16061541

  17. [Knowledge and practice of adolescents in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Martini, Jussara Gue; Bandeira, Adriana da Silva

    2003-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the knowledge of adolescents regarding the prevention and transmission of DST's, HIV/AIDS. It was carried out in a school in the city of Canoas/RS. 121 students, with age between 12-19 participated in the study. According to the interviews 22.3% said that their sexual life starts at the age between 12 and 16. Student's knowledge regarding the transmission of DST's is evident, since 79% of the students pointed out that those diseases are transmitted through sexual contact if there is no use of condoms. However some myths and stereotypes related to these disease were also identified. 16.3% of the adolescents believe that contamination can occur in bathrooms, swimming pools and saunas. PMID:14692281

  18. Risk assessment practices of Texas private practitioners for sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Melville, Sharon K; Arbona, Sonia I; Jablonski, Cheryl L E; Kantor, Lois I; Lee, James H; Paradise, Caeli; Seamans, Debra Bement

    2004-06-01

    This study describes the sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk assessment practices of a sample of private primary care practitioners in Texas. Elicitation of sexual history was not universal when these clinicians took the health history of their patients. Only 40% of the practices reported conducting a risk assessment for STD with all of their patients. In general, practices in obstetrics and gynecology, physicians providing care for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and female physicians were more likely to indicate that they assess all of their patients for risks of STD. More than 90% of the practitioners conduct risk assessment for STD with all of those patients perceived to be at risk, but the criteria used for determining those patients vary greatly among practitioners. Private physicians in Texas provide care for a large proportion of individuals afflicted with STDs; our findings raise concerns about the lack of uniformity in the process of identifying patients at risk for STD. PMID:15267029

  19. 'Searching for Mary, Glasgow': contact tracing for sexually transmitted diseases in twentieth-century Scotland.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R

    1996-08-01

    Social historians of medicine and sexuality have focused in recent years upon various strands of public health policy towards sexually transmitted diseases. However, despite the fact that, from the 1930s, contact tracing became one of the primary weapons with which British government sought to contain the incidence of STDs, its history in twentieth-century Britain has been largely ignored. Based on a range of governmental and private archives, supplemented by interviews with former practitioners, this paper examines the development of contact tracing in Scotland from its origins in the interwar period, through its expansion under Defence Regulation 33B during the period 1942-7, to its postwar development within the National Health Service. Particular attention is paid to the discriminatory aspects of wartime controls and to the professional, resource, and legal constraints shaping contact tracing in postwar Scotland. PMID:11613447

  20. Dynamic modeling and analysis of sexually transmitted diseases on heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuping; Jin, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Considering homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts in the course of sexual contacts, double degrees which describe the numbers of homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts are introduced, correlation coefficients about degrees based on the joint probability distribution are given, and an SIS mean-field model about sexually transmitted diseases is presented when degrees are uncorrelated. The basic reproduction number of diseases is studied by the method of next generation matrix. Results show that, when homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts all exist, once the disease is epidemic in the interior of male (female) population which is caused by male (female) homosexual transmissions, or the disease is epidemic between the two species which is caused by heterosexual transmissions, the disease must be epidemic in the whole population. Numerical simulations confirm the theoretical results.

  1. Sexually transmitted infections clinics as strategic venues for targeting high risk populations for HIV research and sexual health interventions.

    PubMed

    Clatts, Michael C; Rodrguez-Daz, Carlos E; Garca, Hermes; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L; Coln-Lpez, Vivian; Prez-Rios, Naydi; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G

    2011-09-01

    Puerto Rico has one of the highest incidence rates of HIV in the U.S. Concurrent with increases in sexually transmitted infections (STI), an increasing share of the new infections in PR are associated with sexual transmission. Much of the available research on sexual risk in PR derives from STI/HIV surveillance data. There is limited social and epidemiological research on sexual risk in PR, particularly in hidden and often hard-to-reach populations at high risk. Despite the absence of substantial resources that most epidemiological studies require, a research collaboration was initiated in 2007 between researchers in the School of Public Health at the University of Puerto Rico and the Centro Latinoamericano de Enfermedades de Transmisin Sexual (CLETS), one of the largest publicly funded centers for STI/HIV screening and treatment in the San Juan metropolitan area. Structured as a case study in the development of community-based research collaborations, this paper describes the early history and development of the project, including formative research, recruitment and training of students, and evolution in the study design that contributed to the current configuration of the ongoing "Core" study. Preliminary data are presented, highlighting data from a number of subpopulations that may contribute to our understanding of the role of behavioral risk in the STI/HIV epidemics in PR. More generally, the paper may guide the development of similar collaboration elsewhere in the Caribbean where HIV risk is increasing but where resources for research in high risk settings and groups are scarce. PMID:21932709

  2. Assessment: A Core Function for Implementing Effective Interventions in Sexually Transmitted Disease Control Programs.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Karen; Torrone, Elizabeth; Nelson, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Assessment is a core function in sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and control programs. Assessment is more than reviewing case report data; it includes taking into consideration an array of data of various sources and types to be able to respond to emerging disease threats, align human and financial resources, and plan for the future. In this article, we outline key assessment domains, data sources, activities, and methods for STD programs. We present an illustrative case study of how assessment can be used to identify effective interventions for STD control. PMID:26779686

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Plorde, D S

    1981-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to the education and employment of women--and improved medical services are essential for the long-term control of STD. PMID:6895708

  4. [Sexually transmitted diseases: the impact of stigma and taboo on current medical care].

    PubMed

    Badura-Lotter, G

    2014-04-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are probably the most tabooed diseases we know. The many taboos and the related stigmata shape patients' lives and significantly influence health care policies, medical research, and current problems in medical ethics. To better understand these complex influences, the still powerful taboos and related metaphors associated with illness and disease are analyzed within their cultural and historical background and concerning the actual impact on patient care and research. It becomes obvious that research and health care policies cannot be satisfyingly successful in helping people affected by STDs as long as these "nonscientific" factors are not taken into account. PMID:24623036

  5. Herpes Genitalis in Patients Attending a Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, David; Gutman, Mory; Hrytzay, Millie; McLachlin, Jeanette

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study of 210 patients attending a hospital-based sexually transmitted disease clinic, we documented the prevalence of genital herpes infection (GHI) and its association with gonococcal infection (GI). Herpes simplex virus type 2 was cultured from 58% of symptomatic patients and 0.5% of asymptomatic patients. The ratio of GI to GHI was 41:31 by clinical criteria. The laboratory-confirmed ratio was 41:18. These ratios are much higher than those normally used to estimate the caseload of GHI. PMID:21283317

  6. Sexually transmitted infections in U.S. Air Force recruits in basic military training.

    PubMed

    Webber, Bryant J; Pawlak, Mary T; Jones, Nathan M; Tchandja, Juste N; Foster, Gwendolyn A

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the counts, prevalence, and trends of five common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among U.S. Air Force recruits during 2012-2014. Chlamydia and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) were the most commonly identified STIs in females, with a prevalence of 4,841.2 and 432.3 per 100,000, respectively. Genital HSV was the most commonly identified STI in males at 133.4 per 100,000. There were 13 cases of chlamydia and gonorrhea co-infection among females and none among males. STI prevalence was lower than in a similarly aged U.S. civilian population. PMID:26930147

  7. Modelling the spread of sexually transmitted diseases on scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mao-Xing; Ruan, Jiong

    2009-06-01

    In this paper a new model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is presented. The dynamic behaviors of the model on a heterogenous scale-free (SF) network are considered, where the absence of a threshold on the SF network is demonstrated, and the stability of the disease-free equilibrium is obtained. Three immunization strategies, uniform immunization, proportional immunization and targeted immunization, are applied in this model. Analytical and simulated results are given to show that the proportional immunization strategy in the model is effective on SF networks.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Meghan D.; Grayson, Cary T.; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction.…

  9. Using Process Data to Understand Outcomes in Sexual Health Promotion: An Example from a Review of School-Based Programmes to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Barnett-Page, E.; Kavanagh, J.; Picot, J.; Frampton, G. K.; Cooper, K.; Hartwell, D.; Clegg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible

  10. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Meghan D.; Grayson, Cary T.; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction.

  11. Using Process Data to Understand Outcomes in Sexual Health Promotion: An Example from a Review of School-Based Programmes to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Barnett-Page, E.; Kavanagh, J.; Picot, J.; Frampton, G. K.; Cooper, K.; Hartwell, D.; Clegg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible…

  12. Gender Differences in Associations between Exposure to School HIV Education and Protective Sexual Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Disease/HIV Diagnosis among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Murray, Jessica E.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess associations between school HIV education and protective sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV diagnosis with a representative sample of male and female high school students. Data from male and female adolescent participants in the 1999, 2001 and 2003 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n =

  13. Gender Differences in Associations between Exposure to School HIV Education and Protective Sexual Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Disease/HIV Diagnosis among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Murray, Jessica E.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess associations between school HIV education and protective sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV diagnosis with a representative sample of male and female high school students. Data from male and female adolescent participants in the 1999, 2001 and 2003 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n =…

  14. Effective Evidence-Based Programs For Preventing Sexually-Transmitted Infections: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Dafina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2015-01-01

    Educational programs for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have often been implemented in different settings and populations. Mathematica Policy Research and Child Trends conducted a systematic review of 289 evidence-based interventions aiming to reduce STIs and sexual risk behavior in adolescents in the United States. These interventions were published between 1989 and 2012. We conducted a meta-analysis of the interventions that assessed incidence of STIs at follow up, and we identified key characteristics of successful interventions. Results showed that on average interventions reduced incidence roughly from 7 to 6 out of 100 people (17% relative risk reduction (RRR)). Interventions focused on abstinence had no effect, while comprehensive education programs aiming to improve skills and promote safe sexual practices reduced risk by 4 percent (23% RRR). In particular, interventions teaching condom use skills or communication and negotiation skills reduced incidence of STIs by 3 to 4 percent (30% RRR). Finally, interventions decreasing frequency of intercourse or number of sexual partners and interventions increasing condom use also reduced incidence of STIs by 5 to 7 percent (28-36% RRR). Overall properly designed interventions with the above-mentioned characteristics can achieve a 30% reduction of STI incidence. Implications for designing successful interventions to prevent STIs in adolescents are discussed. PMID:26149164

  15. Sexually transmitted infection screening uptake and knowledge of sexually transmitted infection symptoms among female sex workers participating in a community randomised trial in Peru.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Pamela K; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Buendia, Clara; Hughes, James P; Mejia, Carolina; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, and knowledge of STI symptoms among female sex workers in Peru associated with sex work venues and a community randomised trial of STI control. One component of the Peru PREVEN intervention conducted mobile-team outreach to female sex workers to reduce STIs and increase condom use and access to government clinics for STI screening and evaluation. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, clustering by city. As-treated analyses were conducted to assess outcomes associated with reported exposure to the intervention. Care-seeking was more frequent in intervention communities, but differences were not statistically significant. Female sex workers reporting exposure to the intervention had a significantly higher likelihood of condom use, STI screening at public health clinics, and symptom recognition compared to those not exposed. Compared with street- or bar-based female sex workers, brothel-based female sex workers reported significantly higher rates of condom use with last client, recent screening exams for STIs, and HIV testing. Brothel-based female sex workers also more often reported knowledge of STIs and recognition of STI symptoms in women and in men. Interventions to promote STI detection and prevention among female sex workers in Peru should consider structural or regulatory factors related to sex work venues. PMID:25941053

  16. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Non-Sexually Transmitted Strains of Haemophilus ducreyi

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Jordan R.; Roberts, Sally A.; Humphreys, Tricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU) that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA), serum resistance protein (dsrA), and a collagen adhesin (ncaA) contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts. PMID:25774793

  17. The potential role of custody facilities in controlling sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, D; Scribner, R; Clark, J; Cory, D

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The National Commission on Correctional Health Care recommends that medical screening, including tests for syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases, be performed by the 14th day after initial booking procedures. Because the average length of stay in detention is usually less than 14 days, most detainees are not screened or treated for asymptomatic communicable diseases. METHODS. In order to determine the incidence and prevalence of syphilis among those booked through a large county jail, a rapid screening procedure to test newly incarcerated inmates and treat those infected was implemented over a 3-week period. RESULTS. Among 6309 detainees eligible for testing during the 3-week period of the study, 129 (2%) were diagnosed with syphilis. During the preceding month when only those reporting symptoms or high-risk behaviors were screened, 20 cases were diagnosed. The sensitivity and predictive value of self-reported risk factors for syphilis infection were low. Among the first 110 diagnosed cases, 17 (15.5%) were released within 3 days and 86 (78%) were released within 6 days. CONCLUSIONS. If screening and treatment for syphilis are delayed until the 14th day after booking, the majority of infected inmates will be released prior to evaluation and treatment. Rapid screening and treatment for selected sexually transmitted diseases are likely to be an effective public health measure when implemented in custody settings. PMID:1546771

  18. Adolescents in the age of AIDS: myths, misconceptions, and misunderstandings regarding sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Cohall, A.; Kassotis, J.; Parks, R.; Vaughan, R.; Bannister, H.; Northridge, M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to evaluate the extent of knowledge possessed by young people residing in an urban sexually transmitted disease (STD) and AIDS epicenter about STDs, including AIDS; and to determine whether knowledge levels varied by age, gender, race/ ethnicity, and/or previous health instruction. A total of 867 adolescents (472 females and 395 males) attending a large public high school in New York City completed a self-administered survey. Levels of knowledge about AIDS transmission and prevention were high (mean percentage correct = 91.8%). Nonetheless, adolescent respondents locked awareness about the prevalence of common STDs, had limited understanding of the ways in which these diseases can be transmitted and prevented, and were unaware of potentially serious sequelae resulting from exposure to infectious agents (e.g., infertility from chlamydial infections). Young people who had taken a health education course in which STDs were discussed did slightly better on the knowledge survey than did their peers. While the prevention of HIV infection is, and should be, a national priority, more concerted efforts are needed to better educate young people about other STDs in the overall context of sexual health. PMID:12653384

  19. Previously Transmitted HIV-1 Strains Are Preferentially Selected During Subsequent Sexual Transmissions

    PubMed Central

    Redd, Andrew D.; Collinson-Streng, Aleisha N.; Chatziandreou, Nikolaos; Mullis, Caroline E.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Martens, Craig; Ricklefs, Stacy; Kiwanuka, Noah; Nyein, Phyu Hninn; Lutalo, Tom; Grabowski, Mary K.; Kong, Xiangrong; Manucci, Jordyn; Sewankambo, Nelson; Wawer, Maria J.; Gray, Ronald H.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Fauci, Anthony S.; Sagar, Manish; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?A genetic bottleneck is known to exist for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the point of sexual transmission. However, the nature of this bottleneck and its effect on viral diversity over time is unclear. Methods.?Interhost and intrahost HIV diversity was analyzed in a stable population in Rakai, Uganda, from 1994 to 2002. HIV-1 envelope sequences from both individuals in initially HIV-discordant relationships in which transmission occurred later were examined using Sanger sequencing of bulk polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (for 22 couples), clonal analysis (for 3), and next-generation deep sequencing (for 9). Results.?Intrahost viral diversity was significantly higher than changes in interhost diversity (P<.01). The majority of HIV-1discordant couples examined via bulk PCR (16 of 22 couples), clonal analysis (3 of 3), and next-generation deep sequencing (6 of 9) demonstrated that the viral populations present in the newly infected recipient were more closely related to the donor partner's HIV-1 variants found earlier during infection as compared to those circulating near the estimated time of transmission (P=.03). Conclusions.?These findings suggest that sexual transmission constrains viral diversity at the population level, partially because of the preferential transmission of ancestral as opposed to contemporary strains circulating in the transmitting partner. Future successful vaccine strategies may need to target these transmitted ancestral strains. PMID:22997233

  20. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Jordan R; Roberts, Sally A; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU) that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA), serum resistance protein (dsrA), and a collagen adhesin (ncaA) contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts. PMID:25774793

  1. Risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection in black female attendees of a sexually transmitted disease clinic.

    PubMed

    Baddour, L M; Bucak, V A; Somes, G; Hudson, R

    1988-01-01

    Although recent data have supported the role of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in women, studies generating these data have enrolled few black women. We therefore examined black female participants attending our local health department's sexually transmitted disease clinic for the treatment of presumed uncomplicated gonorrhea in serologic and risk-factor surveys of hepatitis B virus infection. Twenty-four (17.6%) of 136 subjects tested had evidence of prior hepatitis B infection. Serologic evidence of hepatitis B infection was significantly associated with three different barometers of sexual activity that included: (1) years of sexual activity (P less than 0.005); (2) history of sexually transmitted disease (P less than 0.02); and (3) number of lifetime heterosexual partners (P less than 0.001). These data provide further support that the quantity of sexual exposure seems to be an important risk factor for hepatitis B infection in heterosexually active females. PMID:3227474

  2. Multiple Abortions and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Young Migrant Women Working in Entertainment Venues in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yongyang; Tao, Haidong; Xu, Song; Xia, Junrui; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Zaller, Nickolas; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of 358 young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with two indicators of sexual and reproductive health: (1) multiple abortions and (2) the dual risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and abortion history. One quarter (25.4 percent) of the women in this sample had multiple abortions during their lifetime and, of those with any abortion history, 18.3 percent had had an abortion outside of a regulated health clinic. One-third (33.0 percent) of the sample had had an STI during the past year, and approximately one-fourth (23.7 percent) of those women did not receive STI treatment in a public hospital. Approximately one-fourth (23.5 percent) of the sample reported both a history of abortion and an STI during the past year. Women with a history of multiple abortions had significantly lower income levels, were more likely to have sex with clients and with husbands, and tended more to use alcohol before sex. Women who experienced both abortion and STI risks were more likely to report having had unprotected sex, genitourinary tract infections symptoms, anxiety, illicit drug use, and suicidal ideation. Enhanced efforts are needed to improve reproductive and sexual health for female migrants in urban China, particularly those working in entertainment venues. PMID:25902189

  3. Adolescent Patient Preferences Surrounding Partner Notification and Treatment for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Jennifer L.; Huppert, Jill S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Taylor, Regina G.; Holland, Carolyn K.; Alessandrini, Evaline A.; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Important barriers to addressing the sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemic among adolescents are the inadequate partner notification of positive STI results and insufficient rates of partner testing and treatment. However, adolescent attitudes regarding partner notification and treatment are not well understood. The aim was to qualitatively explore the barriers to and preferences for partner notification and treatment among adolescent males and females tested for STIs in an emergency department (ED) setting and to explore the acceptability of ED personnel notifying their sexual partners. Methods This was a descriptive, qualitative study in which a convenience sample of 40 adolescents (18 females, 22 males) 14 to 21 years of age who presented to either adult or pediatric EDs with STI-related complaints participated. Individualized, semistructured, confidential interviews were administered to each participant. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim by an independent transcriptionist. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Results Barriers to partner notification included fear of retaliation or loss of the relationship, lack of understanding of or concern for the consequences associated with an STI, and social stigma and embarrassment. Participants reported two primary barriers to their partners obtaining STI testing and treatment: lack of transportation to the health care site and the partner's fear of STI positive test results. Most participants preferred to notify their main sexual partners of an STI exposure via a face-to-face interaction or a phone call. Most participants were agreeable with a health care provider (HCP) notifying their main sexual partners of STI exposure and preferred that the HCP notify the partner by phone call. Conclusions There are several adolescent preferences and barriers for partner notification and treatment. To be most effective, future interventions to prevent adolescent STIs should incorporate these preferences and address the barriers to partner notification. In an ED setting, using HCPs to provide partner notification of STI exposures is acceptable to adolescent patients; however, the feasibility of this type of program needs further exploration. PMID:25545855

  4. Biological Markers of Sexual Activity: Tools for Improving Measurement in HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Maria F.; Steiner, Markus J.; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Warner, Lee; Jamieson, Denise J.; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Research on interventions to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is heavily influenced by participant reporting of sexual behavior, despite uncertainty about its validity. Exclusive reliance on participant self-report often is based, overtly or by implication, on 4 assumptions: (1) no feasible alternatives exist; (2) misreporting can be minimized to levels that can be disregarded; (3) misreporting tends to underreport sensitive behaviors; and (4) misreporting tends to be nondifferential with respect to the groups being compared. The objective of this review are to evaluate these assumptions, including a review of studies using semen biomarkers to evaluate the validity of self-reported data, and to make recommendations for applying biological markers of semen exposure detectable in women to further strengthen research on HIV/STI prevention. Increasing evidence shows that semen biomarkers provide an important means of assessing and augmenting the validity of studies on HIV/STI prevention. Additional biomarkers are needed to assess male exposure to vaginal sex and both male and female exposure to anal sex. Methods and study designs that incorporate biomarkers into studies collecting self-reported behavioral data should be considered where possible. PMID:23677018

  5. Using Sexually Transmitted Infection Biomarkers to Validate Reporting of Sexual Behavior within a Randomized, Experimental Evaluation of Interviewing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Mensch, Barbara S.; de A. Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S.; Jones, Heidi E.; Lippman, Sheri A.; Montgomery, Mark R.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the reporting of sexual and other risk behaviors within a randomized experiment using a computerized versus face-to-face interview mode. Biomarkers for sexually transmitted infection (STI) were used to validate self-reported behavior by interview mode. As part of a parent study evaluating home versus clinic screening and diagnosis for STIs, 818 women aged 18?40 years were recruited in 2004 at or near a primary care clinic in So Paulo, Brazil, and were randomized to a face-to-face interview or audio computer-assisted self-interviewing. Ninety-six percent of participants were tested for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. Reporting of STI risk behavior was consistently higher with the computerized mode of interview. Stronger associations between risk behaviors and STI were found with the computerized interview after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These results were obtained by using logistic regression approaches, as well as statistical methods that address potential residual confounding and covariate endogeneity. Furthermore, STI-positive participants were more likely than STI-negative participants to underreport risk behavior in the face-to-face interview. Results strongly suggest that computerized interviewing provides more accurate and reliable behavioral data. The analyses also confirm the benefits of using data on prevalent STIs for externally validating behavioral reporting. PMID:18525081

  6. Risk Factors for Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: Implications for HIV/Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    LIU, HONGJIE; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; LIU, HUI; LIANG, GUOJUN; CHEN, XINGUANG; YANG, HONGMEI; HONG, YAN

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify risk factors associated with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing in 2002. Migrants with STDs consisted of 432 migrants who sought STD care in two public STD clinics. Migrants without STDs included 892 migrants recruited from 10 occupational clusters. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Compared to migrants without STDs, migrants with STDs were more likely to report having engaged in commercial sex (selling or buying sex) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.71–4.25), multiple sex partners in the previous month (OR = 6.50, 95% CI: 3.73–11.32) and higher perceived HIV-related stigma (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.30–2.75). Being a migrant with an STD was also associated with female gender (OR = 4.10, 95% CI: 2.89–5.82), higher education (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.40–6.06), and higher monthly salary (OR = 1.68. 95% CI: 1.23–2.29). Migrants with STDs visited their hometowns more frequently and had more stable jobs than migrants without STDs. Approximately 10% of the migrants with STDs and 7.7% of the migrants without STDs always used condoms. This study suggests that among migrants, acquisition of an STD is associated with higher participation in risk behaviors as would be expected, but also with higher perceived stigma, education, stable jobs, salary, and with female gender. Appropriate behavioral intervention programs are advocated to reduce the risk and stigma among the special population. PMID:15665635

  7. Risk perception of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage sexual behaviour: attitudes towards in a sample of Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Guidi, E; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Lupi, S; Gregorio, P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study is to determine awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their prevention in people aged 14-19 of Ferrara and province. The study was carried out using a self-administered standardised anonymous questionnaire in a sample of students attending to three upper secondary schools. Total number of collected questionnaires was 2695, the average age of interviewed was 17.1. Only 52.3% of respondents correctly recognized STD definition. Over 95% of subjects identified acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), while properly classification of Hepatitis B increased with age and lowest degree of knowledge concerned herpes infection and Candidiasis. Sex without condom (95.97%) and needle exchange in drugs abusers (94.9%) are considered high risk behaviours. 80.3% of interviewed, without distinction of school attendance, sex, and age considered lack of information as a situation of high risk. Condoms are not used by 46.4% of the subjects in case of sex with a regular partner and by 9.5% with casual partner. Majority of students declared condoms very safe in preventing STDs but an important percentage indicated also contraception methods; correct answers were higher among females and increased with age. Main sources of information were TV (21.6%), school (21.1%) and friends (14.8%) and a few sought information from family doctor (7.4%) and web (4.8%). The study suggests, as priority, to improve teenagers' awareness about risk behaviours and prevention of STDs. School can play an important role in reinforcement of sexual education programmes and directing young people to general practitioners and primary sexual health care services. PMID:24396993

  8. Association Between Body Mass Index, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Contraceptive Compliance

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Andrea L.; Lugo, Jonathan M.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pyles, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies have examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sexual behaviors, but little information exists on this relationship among racially diverse, low-income women using objectively measured clinical data. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BMI and sexual behaviors, rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy, and contraceptive adherence among adolescent and young adult women. Methods As part of a larger study, 1,015 Hispanic (54.2%), Black (18.6%) and White (24.8%) women aged 16 to 24 years seeking family planning services at publicly funded reproductive health clinics provided data on their baseline sexual behaviors, and contraceptive use and pregnancy history over 12 months. Objective clinical data were available from medical records at baseline (i.e., height, weight, and Papanicolaou [Pap] smear results), and over a 12-month period (i.e., STI results). Multivariable analyses were used to compare sexual behaviors, STI rates, contraceptive compliance, and unintended pregnancy rates between obese, overweight, and normal weight participants after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and other confounders. Results Overall, 423 (36.6%), 304 (26.3%), and 288 (24.9%) participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, and obese, respectively. No statistically significant association was observed between BMI and sexual behaviors, STI rates (overweight odds ratio [OR] 0.67; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] [0.4, 1.08]; obese OR 0.68; 95% CI [0.42, 1.10]); contraceptive compliance (overweight OR 0.89; 95% CI [0.69, 1.16]; obese OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.68, 1.16]), or unintended pregnancy (overweight OR 1.08 95% CI [0.73, 1.60]; obese OR 1.09; 95% CI [0.72, 1.63]). Conclusion STI history and contraceptive compliance did not vary by BMI. Therefore, all women should receive equal contraceptive counseling (including condoms) to reduce the risk of unplanned pregnancy and STIs. PMID:24093760

  9. Sexually-Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Cannot Be Directly Predicted from Plasma or PBMC-Derived Viral Quasispecies in the Transmitting Partner

    PubMed Central

    Frange, Pierre; Meyer, Laurence; Jung, Matthieu; Goujard, Cecile; Zucman, David; Abel, Sylvie; Hochedez, Patrick; Gousset, Marine; Gascuel, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Chaix, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Objective Characterization of HIV-1 sequences in newly infected individuals is important for elucidating the mechanisms of viral sexual transmission. We report the identification of transmitted/founder viruses in eight pairs of HIV-1 sexually-infected patients enrolled at the time of primary infection (“recipients”) and their transmitting partners (“donors”). Methods Using a single genome-amplification approach, we compared quasispecies in donors and recipients on the basis of 316 and 376 C2V5 env sequences amplified from plasma viral RNA and PBMC-associated DNA, respectively. Results Both DNA and RNA sequences indicated very homogeneous viral populations in all recipients, suggesting transmission of a single variant, even in cases of recent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in donors (n = 2) or recipients (n = 3). In all pairs, the transmitted/founder virus was derived from an infrequent variant population within the blood of the donor. The donor variant sequences most closely related to the recipient sequences were found in plasma samples in 3/8 cases and/or in PBMC samples in 6/8 cases. Although donors were exclusively (n = 4) or predominantly (n = 4) infected by CCR5-tropic (R5) strains, two recipients were infected with highly homogeneous CXCR4/dual-mixed-tropic (X4/DM) viral populations, identified in both DNA and RNA. The proportion of X4/DM quasispecies in donors was higher in cases of X4/DM than R5 HIV transmission (16.7–22.0% versus 0–2.6%), suggesting that X4/DM transmission may be associated with a threshold population of X4/DM circulating quasispecies in donors. Conclusions These suggest that a severe genetic bottleneck occurs during subtype B HIV-1 heterosexual and homosexual transmission. Sexually-transmitted/founder virus cannot be directly predicted by analysis of the donor’s quasispecies in plasma and/or PBMC. Additional studies are required to fully understand the traits that confer the capacity to transmit and establish infection, and determine the role of concomitant STIs in mitigating the genetic bottleneck in mucosal HIV transmission. PMID:23874894

  10. Sentinel surveillance of sexually transmitted infections/HIV and risk behaviors in vulnerable populations in 5 Central American countries.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ramon J; Ghee, Annette E; Nunez, Cesar A; Mayorga, Ruben; Tapia, Kenneth A; Astete, Sabina G; Hughes, James P; Buffardi, Anne L; Holte, Sarah E; Holmes, King K

    2007-09-01

    In El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, we recruited 2466 female sex workers (FSWs) by probabilistic or comprehensive sampling and 1418 men who have sex with men (MSM) by convenience sampling to measure sociobehavioral risk and sexually transmitted infections. For MSM, HIV seroprevalence ranged from 7.6% in Nicaragua to 15.3% in El Salvador, and estimated HIV seroincidence per 100 person-years ranged from 2.7 in Panama to 14.4 in Nicaragua; 61% reported using condoms consistently with casual male partners, 29% reported exposure to behavioral interventions, and 22% reported recent sex with male and female partners. For FSWs, HIV seroprevalence ranged from 0.2% in Nicaragua and Panama to 9.6% in Honduras, where estimated HIV seroincidence was also highest (3.2 per 100 person-years); 77% and 72% of FSWs reported using condoms consistently with new and regular clients. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 seroprevalence averaged 85.3% in FSWs and 48.2% in MSM, and syphilis seropositivity averaged 9.6% in FSWs and 8.3% in MSM. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae prevalences in FSWs averaged 20.1% and 8.1%, and Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis prevalences averaged 11.0% and 54.8%. An ongoing HIV epidemic involves Central American MSM with potential bridging to women. In FSWs, HSV-2 infection was associated with HIV infection (odds ratio = 11.0, 95% confidence interval: 2.9 to 7.9). For these vulnerable populations, prevention must incorporate acceptable and effective sexual health services, including improved condom access and promotion. PMID:17972366

  11. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in rural women in Papua New Guinea: are WHO therapeutic algorithms appropriate for case detection?

    PubMed Central

    Passey, M.; Mgone, C. S.; Lupiwa, S.; Tiwara, S.; Lupiwa, T.; Alpers, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of a large reservoir of untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in developing countries has prompted a number of suggestions for improving case detection, including the use of clinical algorithms and risk assessments to identify women likely to be infected when they present to clinics for other reasons. We used data from a community-based study of STDs to develop and evaluate algorithms for detection of cervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and for detection of vaginal infection with Trichomonas vaginalis or bacterial vaginosis. The algorithms were derived using data from 192 randomly selected women, then evaluated on 200 self-selected women. We evaluated the WHO algorithm for vaginal discharge in both groups. The prevalences of cervical and vaginal infection in the randomly selected group were 27% and 50%, respectively, and 23% and 52%, respectively, in the self-selected group. The derived algorithms had high sensitivities in both groups, but poor specificities in the self-selected women, and the positive predictive values were unacceptably low. The WHO algorithms had extremely low sensitivity for detecting either vaginal or cervical infection because relatively few women reported vaginal discharge. Simple algorithms and risk assessments are not valid for case detection in this population. PMID:9803591

  12. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts. PMID:3781857

  13. [Sexually transmitted diseases and other risks in the adult film industry].

    PubMed

    Kluger, N

    2014-02-01

    The adult film industry nowadays represents a legal multi-billion dollar business. The main health risks of adult performers are well known. They mainly include the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, herpes and papillomavirus. However, despite regular follow-up, the frequency of STD remains significant in this high-risk population since a large part of the industry continues to reject systematic use of condoms. Besides, performers are also exposed to other physical and mental health issues often not known to the public. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known about STD and other risks among the community of performers in the adult film industry. PMID:24507206

  14. Factors associated with anxiety in patients attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic: qualitative survey.

    PubMed

    Arkell, J; Osborn, D P J; Ivens, D; King, M B

    2006-05-01

    We used qualitative methods to explore factors, which might explain increased anxiety in patients attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Twenty patients, who scored significantly for anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) attended a 20-minute interview. This explored factors contributing to their current psychological symptoms. Transcripts revealed three main themes. First were factors related to possible STIs and the clinic visit. These included health anxieties about HIV or fertility and clinic factors, including staff attitudes and clinic location. Second were factors unrelated to the clinic, including previous emotional difficulties or substance misuse. Third were issues concerning stigma, embarrassment and shame. The origins of anxiety in STI patients are multifactorial and difficult to identify during brief appointments. Despite modern clinics and attitudes, stigma and embarrassment remain prominent. Interventions to address these factors could improve psychological health in this patient group. PMID:16643678

  15. The epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in China: implications for control and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    China has experienced an increasing epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. High risk groups likely to be infected include female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients, men who have sex with men (MSM), drug users and migrant workers. Prevention can be achieved through education of the population, condom promotion, early detection of symptomatic and asymptomatic people, and effective diagnosis and treatment of these patients and their partners. This article aims to describe the profile of the epidemic in high-risk groups in China as well as to detail the contributing factors and the implications for control. Programmes for the control of STIs should be immediate priorities in China, and primary and secondary prevention strategies are vital to this process. PMID:21975019

  16. School-Based Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening: Review and Programmatic Guidance.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Felicia M T; Dittus, Patricia; Salmon, Melinda E; Nsuami, M Jacques

    2016-02-01

    School-based sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening (SBSS) was designed to provide chlamydia and gonorrhea testing, treatment, and counseling to adolescents in a school setting to overcome some of the difficulties of screening in this population. To inform STD control programs and other entities on decision making about potentially implementing this intervention, we reviewed existing published and gray literature on SBSS from 1998 to 2014. Although they are work-intensive to establish, school-based STD screening programs are a feasible and cost-effective way of testing large numbers of male and female adolescents for chlamydia and gonorrhea, and to provide counseling and treatment to almost all those who are found infected. School-based STD screening programs do not seem to reduce prevalence in either the school or the general adolescent population, although there are currently relatively few studies on large-scale SBSS. More research in this field is needed. PMID:26779684

  17. Sexually transmitted infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes incidence rates of the five most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces during 2000 to 2012. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections were the most common, followed in decreasing order of frequency by infections associated with chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Compared to their counterparts, women, younger service members, soldiers, and enlisted members had higher incidence rates of each STI. Rates tended to be lower among married personnel. Rates of chlamydia, HPV, and gonorrhea diagnoses were notably higher among women during 2006 to 2008 but rates of the latter two infections have since declined sharply. The relatively recent introduction of STI screening among young service women and the HPV vaccine are discussed. PMID:23461303

  18. Prostate involvement during sexually transmitted infections as measured by prostate-specific antigen concentration

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, S; Nevin, R L; Pakpahan, R; Elliott, D J; Cole, S R; De Marzo, A M; Gaydos, C A; Isaacs, W B; Nelson, W G; Sokoll, L J; Zenilman, J M; Cersovsky, S B; Platz, E A

    2011-01-01

    Background: We investigated prostate involvement during sexually transmitted infections by measuring serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a marker of prostate infection, inflammation, and/or cell damage in young, male US military members. Methods: We measured PSA before and during infection for 299 chlamydia, 112 gonorrhoea, and 59 non-chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU) cases, and 256 controls. Results: Chlamydia and gonorrhoea, but not NCNGU, cases were more likely to have a large rise (?40%) in PSA than controls (33.6%, 19.1%, and 8.2% vs 8.8%, P<0.0001, 0.021, and 0.92, respectively). Conclusion: Chlamydia and gonorrhoea may infect the prostate of some infected men. PMID:21792196

  19. [Update on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of sexually-transmitted infections].

    PubMed

    Lepe Jimnez, Jos Antonio; Otero Guerra, Luis; Blanco Galn, Mara Antonia; Aznar Martn, Javier; Vzquez Valds, Fernando

    2008-11-01

    In the last decade, cases of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) have progressively increased in Europe. The reasons for this increase are unclear, but may involve changes in social behavior, migration and international travel, coupled with the emergence of risk groups that have not been taken into sufficient consideration to date. The routine use of molecular diagnostic techniques for many of these infections has solved many problems of sensitivity and the suitability of samples for microbiological diagnosis: non-invasive samples can be used, which has undoubtedly contributed to the increase in the number of cases. Moreover, molecular methods have also been introduced for antibiotic and antiviral susceptibility testing, as well as for molecular characterization of clinical isolates. All of these factors, together with the approval of the vaccine against the human papillomavirus, have changed the landscape of STIs across Europe. PMID:19100164

  20. Individual and community risk factors and sexually transmitted diseases among arrested youths: a two level analysis.

    PubMed

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

    2009-08-01

    High rates of infection for chlamydia and gonorrhea have been noted among youths involved in the juvenile justice system. Although both individual and community-level factors have been found to be associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk, their relative importance has not been tested in this population. A two-level logistic regression analysis was completed to assess the influence of individual-level and community-level predictors on STD test results among arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility. Results from weighted two level logistic regression analyses (n = 1,368) indicated individual-level factors of gender (being female), age, race (being African American), and criminal history predicted the youths' positive STD status. For the community-level predictors, concentrated disadvantage significantly and positively predicted the youths' STD status. Implications of these findings for future research and public health policy are discussed. PMID:19224357

  1. A history of sexually transmitted diseases in Thailand: policy and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Bamber, S D; Hewison, K J; Underwood, P J

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Thailand. The presentation is divided into three main sections: the period up to the 1930s; the period from the 1930s until the end of the early 1980s; and the period from the early 1980s until the present, the so-called 'AIDS Era'. The discussion in each of these sections focuses, as far as sources permit, on the epidemiological picture, as well as describing public and official responses to these diseases. In the final part of the paper consideration is given to these findings in relation to the present situation in Thailand regarding the HIV/AIDS epidemic. PMID:8509097

  2. First, do no harm: the US sexually transmitted disease experiments in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Michael A; Garca, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Beginning in 1946, the United States government immorally and unethically-and, arguably, illegally-engaged in research experiments in which more than 5000 uninformed and unconsenting Guatemalan people were intentionally infected with bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases. Many have been left untreated to the present day. Although US President Barack Obama apologized in 2010, and although the US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues found the Guatemalan experiments morally wrong, little if anything has been done to compensate the victims and their families. We explore the backdrop for this unethical medical research and violation of human rights and call for steps the United States should take to provide relief and compensation to Guatemala and its people. PMID:24134370

  3. Antimicrobial self medication in patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic.

    PubMed

    Adu-Sarkodie, Y A

    1997-07-01

    One of the health education messages given in sexually transmitted disease (STD) control is patients' adopting appropriate health seeking behaviour. This includes reporting to health facilities for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. In parts of the world where STD aetiologic agents have assumed resistance to commonly used antimicrobials, this is important. The antimicrobial self medication practices of 764 patients attending an STD clinic in a developing country were studied. Seventy-four and a half per cent admitted to self medication before reporting to the clinic. The antibiotics taken in inappropriate dosages were purchased over the counter, given by friends or were 'left-overs' from previous medications. In the fight to control STD spread as a means of reducing the incidence of HIV/AIDS, indiscriminate use of antimicrobials needs to be guarded against. PMID:9228594

  4. Depression and Social Stigma Among MSM in Lesotho: Implications for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Mothopeng, Tampose; Taruberekera, Noah; Nkonyana, John; Baral, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Social stigma is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa, and may influence risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) via its association with depression. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 530 MSM in Lesotho accrued via respondent-driven sampling. Using generalized structural equation models we examined associations between stigma, social capital, and depression with condom use and testing positive for HIV/STIs. Depression was positively associated with social stigma experienced or perceived as a result of being MSM. In contrast, increasing levels of social cohesion were negatively associated with depression. Social stigma was associated with testing positive for HIV; however, this association did not appear to be mediated by depression or condom use. These data suggest a need for integrated HIV and mental health care that addresses stigma and discrimination and facilitates positive social support for MSM. PMID:25969182

  5. Diagnostic challenges of sexually transmitted infections in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Ronald, Allan

    2009-12-01

    The global burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is highest in the developing world where access to laboratory services is limited. Sophisticated laboratory diagnostic tests using noninvasive specimens have enabled developed countries to screen and diagnose curable STIs in a variety of settings, but control programs in resource-limited settings continue to struggle to find simple rapid tests that can provide adequate performance in the absence of laboratory services. While recent technological advances and investments in research and development may soon yield improved STI tests that can make an impact, these tests will need to be deployed within a health system that includes: regulatory oversight, quality assurance, good supply-chain management, effective training, information systems and a sound surveillance system to monitor disease trends, inform policy decisions and assess the impact of interventions. PMID:19995188

  6. Syndemics, sex and the city: understanding sexually transmitted diseases in social and cultural context.

    PubMed

    Singer, Merrill C; Erickson, Pamela I; Badiane, Louise; Diaz, Rosemary; Ortiz, Dugeidy; Abraham, Traci; Nicolaysen, Anna Marie

    2006-10-01

    This paper employs syndemics theory to explain high rates of sexually transmitted disease among inner city African American and Puerto Rican heterosexual young adults in Hartford, CT, USA. Syndemic theory helps to elucidate the tendency for multiple co-terminus and interacting epidemics to develop under conditions of health and social disparity. Based on enhanced focus group and in-depth interview data, the paper argues that respondents employed a cultural logic of risk assessment which put them at high risk for STD infection. This cultural logic was shaped by their experiences of growing up in the inner city which included: coming of age in an impoverished family, living in a broken home, experiencing domestic violence, limited expectations of the future, limited exposure to positive role models, lack of expectation of the dependency of others, and fear of intimacy. PMID:16782250

  7. First, Do No Harm: The US Sexually Transmitted Disease Experiments in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Garca, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 1946, the United States government immorally and unethicallyand, arguably, illegallyengaged in research experiments in which more than 5000 uninformed and unconsenting Guatemalan people were intentionally infected with bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases. Many have been left untreated to the present day. Although US President Barack Obama apologized in 2010, and although the US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues found the Guatemalan experiments morally wrong, little if anything has been done to compensate the victims and their families. We explore the backdrop for this unethical medical research and violation of human rights and call for steps the United States should take to provide relief and compensation to Guatemala and its people. PMID:24134370

  8. Prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus among men attending sexually transmitted infections clinics in Anhui, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Shuying; Cao, Yifei; Yang, Lei; Chen, Yue; Minhas, Veenu; Wood, Charles; Zhang, Tiejun

    2016-02-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) may be transmitted via sexual contacts, but limited information is available on KSHV infection status among sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients in China. The main objective of the present study was to determine the KSHV seroprevalence and its risk factors among male STI patients. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three prefectures of Anhui province, China, between June and September 2013. A total of 1,600 male patients who visited an STI clinic were invited, and 1,372 participated in the study. Data were abstracted from the medical records for all the patients. Blood samples were collected and tested for antibodies to KSHV, HIV, HCV, and syphilis. Factors associated with KSHV seropositivity were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of KSHV, HIV, HCV, and syphilis was 13.3%, 0.7%, 0.6%, and 12.5%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, KSHV infection was significantly associated with ever having anal sex with men (19 out of 30 males, OR: 8.64, 95%CI: 1.92-38.79) and HIV infection (six out of nine HIV-positive individuals, OR: 8.39, 95%CI: 1.80-39.04). There were no significant associations of KSHV infection with drug use, heterosexual sex behaviors, syphilis, and HCV. Our finding has shown that a relatively moderate prevalence of KSHV was found among male STI patients. While an increased risk for KSHV infection was observed among participants with homosexual contacts. Routine KSHV testing is recommended for male individuals attending STI clinics. J. Med. Virol. 88:304-311, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26147809

  9. The role of epidemiology and surveillance systems in the control of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Catchpole, M A

    1996-01-01

    Surveillance and epidemiological studies are essential components of effective control programmes for sexually transmitted diseases. While other forms of basic biomedical research may add to our understanding of why an exposure or behaviour causes or prevents disease, only epidemiology allows the quantification of the magnitude of the exposure-disease relationship in humans. It is this measure of the association between risk and disease that is needed to inform rational policy on altering risk through intervention. Surveillance data are used both to determine the need for public health action and to assess the effectiveness of programmes: they are required for the setting of priorities, for planning and resource allocation, for the definition of population subgroups and risky behaviours for targeted interventions, for the development of disease prevention programmes, and for the evaluation of interventions. Data from surveillance systems and epidemiological studies can also inform diagnostic and therapeutic practice, and indicate areas for further research. Over the last 20 years chlamydia infections and viral agents have emerged as the major cause of STD in developed countries, and with this change in the aetiological mix of STD cases the focus of prevention and control of STDs has shifted from treatment and partner notification towards health education. In developing countries there is an urgent need for appropriate surveillance infrastructures, particularly now that there is evidence that STD control programmes, informed by surveillance data, can reduce HIV transmission at the population level. The importance of surveillance and epidemiology in the control of STDs is set to increase in the face of the changing pattern of sexually transmitted pathogens. The challenge to clinicians and epidemiologists is to work together in developing systems that will inform new approaches to control and prevention. PMID:8976846

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis in Selected US Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics: Testing, Screening, and Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Meites, Elissa; Llata, Eloisa; Braxton, Jim; Schwebke, Jane R.; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Pathela, Preeti; Asbel, Lenore E.; Kerani, Roxanne P.; Mettenbrink, Christie J.; Weinstock, Hillard S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection in the United States, affecting 3.1% of women of reproductive age. Infection is associated with HIV acquisition and pelvic inflammatory disease. In the United States, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend testing all women with vaginal discharge for T. vaginalis, but except for HIV-infected women, there are no national guidelines for screening asymptomatic persons. The objective of this analysis is to assess testing and screening practices for T. vaginalis among symptomatic and asymptomatic women in the sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic setting. Methods We analyzed data on demographics, clinical presentation, and laboratory testing for all women visiting a clinician in 2010 to 2011 at any of 15 STD clinics participating in the STD Surveillance Network. Prevalence of laboratory-confirmed T. vaginalis infection was calculated among symptomatic women tested and among asymptomatic women screened. Results A total of 59,176 women visited STD clinicians: 39,979 were considered symptomatic and 19,197 were considered asymptomatic for T. vaginalis infection, whereas 211 were HIV-infected. Diagnostic practices varied by jurisdiction: 4.0% to 96.1% of women were tested or screened for T. vaginalis using any laboratory test. Among 17,952 symptomatic women tested, prevalence was 26.2%. Among 3909 asymptomatic women screened, prevalence was 6.5%. Among 92 HIV-infected women tested/screened, prevalence was 29.3%. Conclusions Trichomoniasis is common among STD clinic patients. In this analysis, most STD clinics tested symptomatic women seeking care, in accordance with national guidelines. All HIV-infected women should be screened annually. Additional evidence and national guidance are needed regarding potential benefits of T. vaginalis screening in other asymptomatic women. PMID:24113409

  11. THE COST OF IMPLEMENTING RAPID HIV TESTING IN SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES CLINICS IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Eggman, Ashley A.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Leff, Jared A.; Golden, Matthew R.; Castellon, Pedro C.; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Colfax, Grant N.; Metsch, Lisa R.; Schackman, Bruce R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rapid HIV testing in high-risk populations can increase the number of persons who learn their HIV status and avoid spending clinic resources to locate persons identified as HIV-infected. Methods We determined the cost to sexually transmitted disease clinics of point-of-care rapid HIV testing using data from 7 public clinics that participated in a randomized trial of rapid testing with and without brief patient-centered risk-reduction counseling in 2010. Costs included counselor and trainer time, supplies, and clinic overhead. We applied national labor rates and test costs. We calculated median clinic start-up costs and mean cost per patient tested, and projected incremental annual costs of implementing universal rapid HIV testing compared to current testing practices. Results Criteria for offering rapid HIV testing and methods for delivering non-rapid test results varied among clinics prior to the trial. Rapid HIV testing cost an average of $22/patient without brief risk-reduction counseling and $46/patient with counseling in these 7 clinics. Median start-up costs per clinic were $1,100 and $16,100 without and with counseling, respectively. Estimated incremental annual costs per clinic of implementing universal rapid HIV testing varied by whether or not brief counseling is conducted and by current clinic testing practices, ranging from a savings of $19,500 to a cost of $40,700 without counseling and a cost of $98,000 to $153,900 with counseling. Conclusions Universal rapid HIV testing in sexually transmitted disease clinics with same day results can be implemented at relatively low cost to STD clinics, if brief risk-reduction counseling is not offered. PMID:25118967

  12. Prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens associated with HPV infection in cervical samples in a Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Magaa-Contreras, Mariana; Contreras-Paredes, Adriana; Chavez-Blanco, Alma; Lizano, Marcela; De la Cruz-Hernandez, Yanira; De la Cruz-Hernandez, Erick

    2015-12-01

    Cervical cancer development has been mainly associated with persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. However, HPV infection is unlikely to be sufficient to cause cervical cancer, and the contribution of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) could be the determining factor for cervical lesion-progression. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of STIs associated with HPV-positivity in 201 cervical samples from patients who underwent annual routine gynecological exams. The overall prevalence of STIs was 57.7%, and the most frequent infection was Ureaplasma spp (UP) (39.8%), followed by Gardnerella vaginalis (GV) (25.9%), ?-HPV (18.4%), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (1.5%), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) (0.5%). The highest prevalence rate of multiple non-HPV infections was observed for the age-range 31-40; for papillomavirus infection, the age-range was 21-30. In normal cervical samples, HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype (24.3%), followed by genotypes 58 (13.5%) and 52 (10.8%). Intriguingly, HPV18 was not detected in the study population, and genotypes 52 and 58 were found exclusively in samples with abnormal cytology. Papillomavirus infection with oncogenic types was significantly associated with GV (P?=?0.025) and strongly associated with multiple non-HPV pathogens (P?=?0.002). The following variables correlated significantly with cytological diagnosis of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL): GV (P?=?0.028), multiple non-HPV infections (P?=?0.001), and high-risk HPV positivity (P?=?0.001). Epidemiological data from this study will contribute to the molecular detection of sexually transmitted pathogens from screening programs to identify those women who are at risk for developing cervical lesions. PMID:26010580

  13. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors from the NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Celentano, David D.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Pequegnat, Willo; Abdala, Nadia; Green, Annette M.; Handsfield, H. Hunter; Hartwell, Tyler D.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study describes the baseline prevalence and correlates of common bacterial and viral sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and risk behaviors among individuals at high risk for HIV recruited in five low- and middle-income countries. Correlations of risk behaviors and demographic factors with prevalent STDs and the association of STDs with HIV prevalence are examined. Between 2,212 and 5,543 participants were recruited in each of five countries (China, India, Peru, Russia, and Zimbabwe). Standard protocols were used to collect behavioral risk information and biological samples for STD testing. Risk factors for HIV/STD prevalence were evaluated using logistic regression models. STD prevalence was significantly higher for women than men in all countries, and the most prevalent STD was Herpes simplex virus-type 2 (HSV-2). HIV prevalence was generally low (below 5%) except in Zimbabwe (30% among women, 11.7% among men). Prevalence of bacterial STDs was generally low (below 5% for gonorrhea and under 7% for syphilis in all sites), with the exception of syphilis among female sex workers in India. Behavioral and demographic risks for STDs varied widely across the five study sites. Common risks for STDs included female gender, increasing number of recent sex partners, and in some sites, older age, particularly for chronic STDs (i.e., HSV-2 and HIV). Prevalence of HIV was not associated with STDs except in Zimbabwe, which showed a modest correlation between HIV and HSV-2 prevalence (Pearson coefficient = .55). These findings underscore the heterogeneity of global STD and HIV epidemics and suggest that local, focused interventions are needed to achieve significant declines in these infections. PMID:25400718

  14. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including HIV in street-connected adolescents in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Susanna E; Chirchir, Amon K; Muthoni, Lauryn N; Ayuku, David; Koech, Julius; Nyandiko, Winstone; Carter, E Jane; Braitstein, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to characterise the sexual health of street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya, analyse gender disparity of risks, estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and identify factors associated with STIs. Methods A cross-sectional study of street-connected adolescents ages 12–21 years was conducted in Eldoret, Kenya. Participants were interviewed and screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus-2, syphilis and HIV. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with having any STI. Results Of the 200 participants, 81 (41%) were female. 70.4% of females and 60.5% of males reported sexual activity. Of those that participated in at least one STI test, 28% (55/194) had ≥1 positive test, including 56% of females; 14% (28/194) had >1 positive test. Twelve females and zero males (6% overall, 14.8% of females) were HIV positive. Among females, those with HIV infection more frequently reported transactional sex (66.7% vs 26.1%, p=0.01), drug use (91.7% vs 56.5%, p=0.02), and reported a prior STI (50.0% vs 14.7%, p<0.01). Having an adult caregiver was less likely among those with HIV infection (33.3% vs 71.0%, p=0.04). Transactional sex (AOR 3.02, 95% CI (1.05 to 8.73)), a previous STI (AOR 3.46 95% CI (1.05 to 11.46)) and ≥2 sexual partners (AOR 5.62 95% (1.67 to 18.87)) were associated with having any STI. Conclusions Street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya are engaged in high-risk sexual behaviours and females in particular have a substantial burden of STIs and HIV. There is a need for STI interventions targeted to street-connected youth. PMID:25714102

  15. Effects of adaptive protective behavior on the dynamics of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Michael A L; Eisenberg, Marisa C

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to present a complex and costly challenge to public health programs. The preferences and social dynamics of a population can have a large impact on the course of an outbreak as well as the effectiveness of interventions intended to influence individual behavior. In addition, individuals may alter their sexual behavior in response to the presence of STIs, creating a feedback loop between transmission and behavior. We investigate the consequences of modeling the interaction between STI transmission and prophylactic use with a model that links a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) system to evolutionary game dynamics that determine the effective contact rate. The combined model framework allows us to address protective behavior by both infected and susceptible individuals. Feedback between behavioral adaptation and prevalence creates a wide range of dynamic behaviors in the combined model, including damped and sustained oscillations as well as bistability, depending on the behavioral parameters and disease growth rate. We found that disease extinction is possible for multiple regions where R0>1, due to behavior adaptation driving the epidemic downward, although conversely endemic prevalence for arbitrarily low R0 is also possible if contact rates are sufficiently high. We also tested how model misspecification might affect disease forecasting and estimation of the model parameters and R0. We found that alternative models that neglect the behavioral feedback or only consider behavior adaptation by susceptible individuals can potentially yield misleading parameter estimates or omit significant features of the disease trajectory. PMID:26362102

  16. Biologically confirmed sexually transmitted infection and depressive symptomatology among African‐American female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, L F; DiClemente, R J; Wingood, G M; Crosby, R A; Lang, D L; Harrington, K

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine prospectively the relation between sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis and depressive symptomatology. Methods Secondary data analyses were performed on 175 sexually active African‐American female adolescents, who were recruited from high risk neighbourhoods in Birmingham, Alabama, United States. Results ANCOVA was used to compare adolescents who tested positive with adolescents who tested negative on three waves of depressive symptom scores, controlling for age. The STI positive group had higher depressive symptom levels at 6 months relative to the STI negative group. This result was moderated by baseline depressive symptom levels: for adolescents above the clinical threshold, the STI negative group experienced a decrease in symptoms at 6 months whereas the STI positive group maintained the same level. For adolescents below the clinical threshold, there were no changes in depressive symptom levels regardless of diagnosis. Conclusions Receiving an STI diagnosis may affect depressive symptomatology for those at risk for depression. Screening for depression in settings that provide STI testing and treatment may be warranted for this population. PMID:16461605

  17. Immune anticipation of mating in Drosophila: Turandot M promotes immunity against sexually transmitted fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weihao; McClure, Colin D; Evans, Cara R; Mlynski, David T; Immonen, Elina; Ritchie, Michael G; Priest, Nicholas K

    2013-12-22

    Although it is well known that mating increases the risk of infection, we do not know how females mitigate the fitness costs of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It has recently been shown that female fruitflies, Drosophila melanogaster, specifically upregulate two members of the Turandot family of immune and stress response genes, Turandot M and Turandot C (TotM and TotC), when they hear male courtship song. Here, we use the Gal4/UAS RNAi gene knockdown system to test whether the expression of these genes provides fitness benefits for females infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii under sexual transmission. As a control, we also examined the immunity conferred by Dorsal-related immunity factor (Dif), a central component of the Toll signalling pathway thought to provide immunity against fungal infections. We show that TotM, but not TotC or Dif, provides survival benefits to females following STIs, but not after direct topical infections. We also show that though the expression of TotM provides fecundity benefits for healthy females, it comes at a cost to their survival, which helps to explain why TotM is not constitutively expressed. Together, these results show that the anticipatory expression of TotM promotes specific immunity against fungal STIs and suggest that immune anticipation is more common than currently appreciated. PMID:24174107

  18. Immune anticipation of mating in Drosophila: Turandot M promotes immunity against sexually transmitted fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Weihao; McClure, Colin D.; Evans, Cara R.; Mlynski, David T.; Immonen, Elina; Ritchie, Michael G.; Priest, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that mating increases the risk of infection, we do not know how females mitigate the fitness costs of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It has recently been shown that female fruitflies, Drosophila melanogaster, specifically upregulate two members of the Turandot family of immune and stress response genes, Turandot M and Turandot C (TotM and TotC), when they hear male courtship song. Here, we use the Gal4/UAS RNAi gene knockdown system to test whether the expression of these genes provides fitness benefits for females infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii under sexual transmission. As a control, we also examined the immunity conferred by Dorsal-related immunity factor (Dif), a central component of the Toll signalling pathway thought to provide immunity against fungal infections. We show that TotM, but not TotC or Dif, provides survival benefits to females following STIs, but not after direct topical infections. We also show that though the expression of TotM provides fecundity benefits for healthy females, it comes at a cost to their survival, which helps to explain why TotM is not constitutively expressed. Together, these results show that the anticipatory expression of TotM promotes specific immunity against fungal STIs and suggest that immune anticipation is more common than currently appreciated. PMID:24174107

  19. A versatile ODE approximation to a network model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Bauch, C T

    2002-11-01

    We develop a moment closure approximation (MCA) to a network model of sexually transmitted disease (STD) spread through a steady/casual partnership network. MCA has been used previously to approximate static, regular lattices, whereas application to dynamic, irregular networks is a new endeavour, and application to sociologically-motivated network models has not been attempted. Our goals are 1). to investigate issues relating to the application of moment closure approximations to dynamic and irregular networks, and 2). to understand the impact of concurrent casual partnerships on STD transmission through a population of predominantly steady monogamous partnerships. We are able to derive a moment closure approximation for a dynamic irregular network representing sexual partnership dynamics, however, we are forced to use a triple approximation due to the large error of the standard pair approximation. This example underscores the importance of doing error analysis for moment closure approximations. We also find that a small number of casual partnerships drastically increases the prevalence and rate of spread of the epidemic. Finally, although the approximation is derived for a specific network model, we can recover approximations to a broad range of network models simply by varying model parameters which control the structure of the dynamic network. Thus our moment closure approximation is very flexible in the kinds of network models it can approximate. PMID:12424529

  20. Continuing Need for Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics After the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Parsell, Bradley W.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Habel, Melissa A.; Tao, Guoyu; Pearson, William S.; Gift, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the characteristics of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients, their reasons for seeking health services in STD clinics, and their access to health care in other venues. Methods. In 2013, we surveyed persons who used publicly funded STD clinics in 21 US cities with the highest STD morbidity. Results. Of the 4364 STD clinic patients we surveyed, 58.5% were younger than 30 years, 72.5% were non-White, and 49.9% were uninsured. They visited the clinic for STD symptoms (18.9%), STD screening (33.8%), and HIV testing (13.6%). Patients chose STD clinics because of walk-in, same-day appointments (49.5%), low cost (23.9%), and expert care (8.3%). Among STD clinic patients, 60.4% had access to another type of venue for sick care, and 58.5% had access to another type of venue for preventive care. Most insured patients (51.6%) were willing to use insurance to pay for care at the STD clinic. Conclusions. Despite access to other health care settings, patients chose STD clinics for sexual health care because of convenient, low-cost, and expert care. Policy Implication. STD clinics play an important role in STD prevention by offering walk-in care to uninsured patients. PMID:26447908

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Hazardously-Drinking Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Incarcerated women are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI). Left untreated, these infections can have severe adverse health effects. This study presents prevalence rates of Trichomonas, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea, and factors related to having an STI in a sample of 245 hazardously-drinking incarcerated women who reported heterosexual intercourse in the previous 3 months. Vaginal swabs were collected following the self-report baseline assessment. Participants averaged 34.1 ( 8.9) years of age; 174 (71.3%) were non-Hispanic Caucasian, 47 (19.3%) were African-American, 17 (7.0%) were Hispanic, and 6 (2.5%) were of other racial or ethnic origins. Twenty-three percent of participants tested positive for Chlamydia, Trichomonas, or Gonorrhea. Being African-American, more frequent sex with a casual partner, and reporting more than one male partner were significantly positively related to STI, while more frequent sex with a main partner was inversely related. Due to the high rates of infection in this population, jail admission provides a public health opportunity to access a concentrated group of STI-infected women. STI testing targeted at specific demographic factors, for instance younger age, will miss infected women. Risky sexual partnerships, as well as the benefit of maintaining stable main partnerships may be important topics during STI prevention interventions. PMID:22458289

  2. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and other sexually transmitted infections among MSM from three cities in Panama.

    PubMed

    Hakre, Shilpa; Arteaga, Griselda B; Nez, Aurelio E; Arambu, Nelson; Aumakhan, Bulbulgul; Liu, Michelle; Peel, Sheila A; Pascale, Juan M; Scott, Paul T

    2014-08-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to conduct a biobehavioral survey among men who have sex with men (MSM) in three cities in the Republic of Panama. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors. Among 603 MSM recruited, RDS-adjusted seroprevalences (95% confidence intervals) were: HIV-David 6.6% (2.2-11.4%), Panama 29.4% (19.7-39.7%), and Colon 32.6% (18.0-47.8%); active syphilis-David 16.0% (8.9-24.2%), Panama 24.7% (16.7-32.9%), Colon 31.6% (14.8-47.5%); resolved HBV infection-David 10.0% (4.8-16.8%), Panama 29.4% (20.0-38.3%), and Colon 40.6% (21.9-54.4%); herpes simplex virus type 2-David 38.4% (27.9-48.9%), Panama 62.6% (52.8-71.0%), and Colon 72.9% (57.4-85.8%). At least a third of MSM in each city self-identified as heterosexual or bisexual. HIV prevalence is concentrated among MSM. Preventive interventions should focus on increasing HIV and syphilis testing, and increasing promotion of condom awareness and use. PMID:24927712

  3. Brief Messages to Promote Prevention and Detection of Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    We review the results of our research program investigating the effects of brief risk awareness interventions for sexually active young adults—the age group most at-risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Our review examines the influence of framed messages, individual differences, and visual aids on key attitudes, behavioral intentions, and health outcomes in three extensive longitudinal studies. Our first study showed that health messages can promote self-reported condom use (screening for STIs) when the messages were framed in positive (negative) terms. This study also showed that adding visual aids to the positive and negative framed messages made them equally and highly effective for promoting self-reported behavior. Visual aids increased self-reported behavior by eliminating the effect of framing on attitudes and behavioral intentions, which in turn influenced self-reported behavior. Our second study showed that visual aids were especially helpful for reducing the effect of message framing among young adults with low numeracy and high graph literacy. Our third study showed that visual aids influenced key attitudes, behavioral intentions, and self-reported behavior as much as a validated 8-hour educational program. Overall, our research suggests that well-constructed visual aids provide simple, effective ways of communicating quantitative information about STIs to at-risk young adults. Theoretical mechanisms, public policy implications, and open questions are discussed. PMID:26149162

  4. Transmission of sexually transmitted disease in complex network of the Penna model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Li, Chunguang

    2007-04-01

    The Penna model is a computational model which can encompass the inheritance, mutation, evolution and ageing phenomena of population successfully. Some researchers considered social interactions in an asexual Penna model, got a complex network and found some interesting properties. We consider a sexual Penna model to study the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our model can also generate a complex network and we observed some properties in real networks, such as small-world and assortative mixing. In the real world, the fatality of STD is changing with the advancing of medicine and it can affect our life. In this paper, we uncover the effect induced by the fatality of STD. We found that fatality plays an important role in the transmission of STD because whether the STD will disappear or continue to exist depends on the fatality of STD. Also, the fatality of STD can affect the evolution of inherited diseases and average life span. Some properties found in the model should be useful for the prevention and control of STD.

  5. Race and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Women With and Without Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Feske, Ulrike; Angiolieri, Teresa; Gold, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with and without a lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) and to compare their histories to those of a group of women with a current nonpsychotic axis I disorder. Methods Two-hundred fifteen women completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I diagnoses (SCID-I), Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality for Axis II diagnoses (SIDP-IV), and a sexual health interview. African American women were oversampled because little is known about BPD in African American women and because they are at greater risk for STDs than non-African American women. Results Women with a lifetime SUD (especially cannabis use disorder) reported more STD risk factors and STDs than women without a lifetime SUD. BPD dimensional scores and African American race were predictors of STD, even after controlling for age, socioeconomic status (SES), SUDs, and participation in the sex trade. Conclusions Determining predictors of STDs within at-risk subpopulations may help reduce the spread of STDs and prevent HIV infection within these groups by helping providers identify women at the highest risk of infection. PMID:21219244

  6. Vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in three provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Ning; Yue, Xiaoli; Gong, Xiangdong

    2015-05-01

    Though vaginal douching is a common practice among female sex workers that could increase the risk of HIV and adverse reproductive health outcomes, it has drawn limited attention. From November 2010 to January 2011, a convenience sample of female sex workers was recruited in three cities in China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather socio-demographic and behavioural information. Blood samples were collected for syphilis serological tests. Endo-cervical swabs were collected and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with vaginal douching and the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infection. A total of 1032 eligible female sex workers were enrolled. The overall prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and vaginal douching with disinfectant were 23.4% and 23.1%, respectively. Factors independently associated with douching practice included study sites, venue types, ethnicity, having regular partner and sexually transmitted infection history. No significant association was found between vaginal douching and current sexually transmitted infection. Vaginal douching with disinfectant after sex with clients seemed to be a prevalent practice among female sex workers in China. Prevention programmes targeting female sex workers should incorporate components about the adverse health outcomes associated with vaginal douching. PMID:25015933

  7. Social marketing sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention: a consumer-centered approach to achieving behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lamptey, P R; Price, J E

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that international sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention efforts might be enhanced by the application of social marketing principles. It first outlines the conceptual basis of social marketing approaches to health behaviour change generally and then explores key issues and opportunities for using these principles to improve current STD/HIV prevention efforts. PMID:9792356

  8. Sexually Transmitted Infections and the Use of Condoms in Biology Textbooks. A Comparative Analysis across Sixteen Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Sandie; Clement, Pierre; Carvalho, Graca; Gilda, Alves; Berger, Dominique; Thiaw, Seyni Mame; Sabah, Selmaoui; Salaheddine, Khzami; Skujiene, Grita; Abdelli, Sami; Mondher, Abrougui; Calado, Florbela; Bogner, Franz; Assaad, Yammine

    2008-01-01

    Our study focused on two topics, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and their control using condoms. For this, we analysed and compared 42 school textbooks from 16 countries on the general topic "Human Reproduction and Sex Education" using a specific grid designed by the BIOHEAD-Citizen project. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was a…

  9. Behavioural Interventions for the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Young People Aged 13-19 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picot, Joanna; Shepherd, Jonathan; Kavanagh, Josephine; Cooper, Keith; Harden, Angela; Barnett-Page, Elaine; Jones, Jeremy; Clegg, Andrew; Hartwell, Debbie; Frampton, Geoff K.

    2012-01-01

    We systematically reviewed school-based skills building behavioural interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. References were sought from 15 electronic resources, bibliographies of systematic reviews/included studies and experts. Two authors independently extracted data and quality-assessed studies. Fifteen randomized

  10. Assessment of Coinfection of Sexually Transmitted Pathogen Microbes by Use of the Anyplex II STI-7 Molecular Kit

    PubMed Central

    Amarsy, R.; Goubard, A.; Aparicio, C.; Loeung, H. U.; Segouin, C.; Gueret, D.; Jacquier, H.; Meunier, F.; Mougari, F.; Cambau, E.

    2014-01-01

    Anyplex STI-7 is a new molecular kit that detects seven sexually transmitted pathogens. Among 202 subjects screened for genital infection, 143 (70.4%) were diagnosed with at least one pathogen, in concordance with reference methods. In addition, the Anyplex STI-7 demonstrated coinfections, such as that with Ureaplasma parvum and Chlamydia trachomatis, in young women. PMID:25540390

  11. The Association of Early Substance Use with Lifetime/Past Year Contraction of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merianos, Ashley L.; Rosen, Brittany L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Fehr, Sara K.

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose is to examine the impact of early substance use on lifetime and past year contraction of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, and syphilis. A secondary analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 52,529) was conducted to determine if lifetime or past year STD

  12. The theoretical impact and cost-effectiveness of vaccines that protect against sexually transmitted infections and disease.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Geoff P

    2014-03-20

    Sexually transmitted diseases, a source of widespread morbidity and sometimes mortality, are caused by a diverse group of infections with a common route of transmission. Existing vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papilloma virus 16, 18, 6 and 11 are highly efficacious and cost effective. In reviewing the potential role for other vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) a series of questions needs to be addressed about the burden of disease, the potential characteristics of a new vaccine, and the impact of other interventions. These questions can be viewed in the light of the population dynamics of sexually transmitted infections as a group and how a vaccine can impact these dynamics. Mathematical models show the potential for substantial impact, especially if vaccines are widely used. To better make the case for sexually transmitted infection vaccines we need better data and analyses of the burden of disease, especially severe disease. However, cost effectiveness analyses using a wide range of assumptions show that STI vaccines would be cost effective and their development a worthwhile investment. PMID:24606635

  13. Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Adults: Prevalence, Perceived Risk, and Risk-Taking Behaviors. Research Brief. Publication #2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Schelar, Erin; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States is among the highest in the western industrialized world. Nearly 19 million new STDs are diagnosed each year, and more than 65 million Americans live with an incurable STD, such as herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV). Young people, in particular, are at a heightened risk

  14. The Association of Early Substance Use with Lifetime/Past Year Contraction of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merianos, Ashley L.; Rosen, Brittany L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Fehr, Sara K.

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose is to examine the impact of early substance use on lifetime and past year contraction of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, and syphilis. A secondary analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 52,529) was conducted to determine if lifetime or past year STD…

  15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Adults: Prevalence, Perceived Risk, and Risk-Taking Behaviors. Research Brief. Publication #2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Schelar, Erin; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States is among the highest in the western industrialized world. Nearly 19 million new STDs are diagnosed each year, and more than 65 million Americans live with an incurable STD, such as herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV). Young people, in particular, are at a heightened risk…

  16. Sociodemographic, sexual, and HIV and other sexually transmitted disease risk profiles of nonhomosexual-identified men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, William L

    2009-06-01

    I examined sociodemographic, sexual, and HIV and other sexually transmitted disease risk differences among homosexual- and nonhomosexual-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Non-Mexican Latino ethnicity, marriage or cohabitation, religiosity, and incarceration history were positively associated with being nonhomosexual identified. Being nonhomosexual identified was associated with some risk (e.g., more sexual intercourse while intoxicated) and protective (e.g., fewer male partners) behaviors. Probabilistic sampling strategies may be useful in future research and intervention efforts. PMID:19372533

  17. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth With Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence and persistence of 20 HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) sexual and drug use risk behaviors and to predict their occurrence in 4 mutually exclusive diagnostic groups of delinquent youth: (1) major mental disorders (MMD); (2) substance use disorders (SUD); (3) comorbid MMD and SUD (MMD+SUD); and (4) neither disorder. Methods At the baseline interview, HIV/STI risk behaviors were assessed in 800 juvenile detainees, aged 10 to 18 years; youth were reinterviewed approximately 3 years later. The final sample (n = 689) includes 298 females and 391 males. Results The prevalence and persistence of HIV/STI risk behaviors was high in all diagnostic groups. Youth with SUD at baseline were over 10 times more likely to be sexually active and to have vaginal sex at follow-up than youth with MMD+SUD (AOR=10.86, 95% CI=1.4382.32; AOR=11.63, 95% CI=1.4990.89, respectively) and four times more likely to be sexually active and to have vaginal sex than youth with neither disorder (AOR=4.20, 95% CI=1.0616.62; AOR=4.73, 95% CI=1.2118.50, respectively). Youth with MMD at baseline were less likely to have engaged in unprotected vaginal and oral sex at follow-up compared with youth with neither disorder (AOR=0.11, 95% CI=0.020.50; AOR=0.07, 95% CI=0.010.34, respectively), and with youth with SUD (AOR=0.10, 95% CI=0.020.50; OR=0.10, 95% CI=0.020.47, respectively). Youth with MMD+SUD were less likely (AOR=0.28, 95% CI=0.090.92) to engage in unprotected oral sex compared with those with neither disorder. Conclusions Irrespective of diagnostic group, delinquent youth are at great risk for HIV/STIs as they age into adulthood. SUD increases risk. Because detained youth are released after approximately 2 weeks, their risk behaviors become a community health problem. Pediatricians and child psychiatrists must collaborate with corrections professionals to develop HIV/STI interventions and ensure that programs started in detention centers continue after youth are released. PMID:18645421

  18. The knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards patients with sexually transmitted infections: exploring changes to the curriculum.

    PubMed

    Bell, Amelia; Bray, Lucy

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests that nurses can struggle to care for patients with sexually transmitted infections in a non-judgemental way. It is unknown how targeted education can influence the knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards caring for patients with sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to investigate how a change in curriculum influenced the reported sexual health knowledge and attitudes of pre-registration adult student nurses in a University in the UK. A two phase mixed methods study, using a sequential explanatory strategy, collected quantitative questionnaire data (n = 117) followed by qualitative group data (n = 12). Data were collected from one cohort of students before a curriculum change and then from a subsequent cohort of students. Those students who had increased educational input in relation to sexual health reported higher degrees of knowledge and demonstrated a more positive attitude towards patients with a sexually transmitted infection. Both cohorts of students identified that education in this subject area was essential to challenge negative attitudes and positively influence patient care. Active learning approaches in the curriculum such as small group debates and service user involvement have the ability to allow students to express and challenge their beliefs in a safe and supportive environment. PMID:24875840

  19. Relative Efficacy of a Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infection, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention--Focused Intervention on Changing Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at

  20. Sexual Health Issues Related to College Students and the Use of on Campus Health Clinics for Treatment and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbreath, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Using the Health Belief Model as a conceptual framework, this study examined university students who may seek access to healthcare through an on-campus student clinic for screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data from students enrolled in a general health education

  1. Relative Efficacy of a Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infection, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention--Focused Intervention on Changing Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at…

  2. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  3. HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of women involved in high risk sexual behaviour in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Vandepitte, J.; Bukenya, J.; Weiss, H. A.; Nakubulwa, S.; Francis, S. C.; Hughes, P.; Hayes, R.; Grosskurth, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Uganda has long been successful in controlling the HIV epidemic but there is evidence that HIV prevalence and incidence are increasing again. Data on the HIV/STI epidemic among sex workers are so far lacking from Uganda. This paper describes the baseline epidemiology of HIV/STI in a newly-established cohort of women involved in high risk sexual behaviour in Kampala, Uganda. Methods Women were recruited from red-light-areas in Kampala. Between April 2008-May 2009, 1027 eligible women were enrolled. Socio-demographic and behavioural information was collected; blood and genital samples were tested for HIV/STI. Risk factors for HIV-infection were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Results HIV seroprevalence was 37%. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoea (NG) was 13%, C. trachomatis (CT) 9%, T. vaginalis (TV) 17%, bacterial vaginosis (BV) 56% and 11% had candida infection. 80% had HSV-2 antibodies, 21% were TPHA -positive and 10% had active syphilis (RPR+TPHA+). In 3% of the genital ulcers, T. pallidum (TP) was identified, H. ducreyi (HD) in 6% and HSV-2 in 35%. Prevalent HIV was independently associated with older age, being widowed, lack of education, sex work as sole income, street based sex work, not knowing HIV-status, using alcohol and intravaginal cleansing with soap. HIV-infection was associated with NG, TV, BV, HSV-2 seropositivity and active syphilis. Conclusions Prevalence of HIV/STI is high among women involved in high risk sexual behaviour in Kampala. Targeted HIV prevention interventions including regular STI screening, VCT, condom promotion and counselling for reducing alcohol use are urgently needed in this population. PMID:23330152

  4. Adolescent condom use, the health belief model, and the prevention of sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Hiltabiddle, S J

    1996-01-01

    A nurse practitioner at Women's and Children's Health Services in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has reviewed 26 documents on adolescent development, sexually transmitted disease (STDs), STD risk factors, and factors influencing condom use among heterosexual adolescents to develop recommendations for STD prevention programs. She uses the constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) to incorporate the findings of the literature review into the recommendations. Adolescents tend to use condoms infrequently and inconsistently. They also have a high rate of STDs. The perception that one can enjoy sex with condoms, condom use allows sex at the spur of the moment, condoms are clean and easy to use, condoms are popular with peers, and condoms require the male to be responsible has a positive association with intention to use condoms among adolescents. Among males, the perception of positive attitudes from their girlfriends toward condoms and an increased confidence in their ability to use condoms correctly is positively associated with condom use. Factors associated with nonuse include perceived barriers to condom use (inconvenience, reduced sexual pleasure, or embarrassing to use), increased use of nonbarrier contraceptives since they remove pregnancy prevention as a motivation for condom use, many lifetime partners, intercourse with strangers, multiple sex partners, and alcohol or illicit drug use. HBM focuses on the individual's perceptions, so health providers and educators should assess the individual's needs and how the adolescent's current behavior is meeting these needs. After identifying perceptions about condom use, the provider can intervene. Interventions include targeting misconceptions and perceptions of personal vulnerability and helping the adolescent do a more realistic risk assessment. Providers should focus on the social and physical benefits of condom use rather than just on the health benefits. They should also emphasize modes of STD transmission and effective means of protection, including a demonstration of condom use on a model. PMID:8627404

  5. Associations between psychosocial factors and incidence of sexually transmitted disease among South African adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Heeren, G. Anita; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry; Lewis, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents living in South Africa are at high risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted disease (STD). The present study sought to identify correlates of curable STD incidence among a cohort of adolescents in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Methods Data were collected in conjunction with an HIV/STD prevention intervention randomized controlled trial1. At 54 months post-intervention, curable STD incidence (gonorrhea, chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis) was assayed and self-report measures of potential correlates of STD incidence were collected. Results Participants were adolescents reporting at least one sexual partner in the past 3 months (N = 659). As expected, univariate analyses revealed that girls were more likely than boys to have an STD. In addition, intimate partner violence, unprotected sex, and having older partners were associated with incident STD. In Poisson multiple regression analyses, gender (risk ratio [RR] = 4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.51–6.39), intimate partner violence (RR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12–1.35), unprotected sex (RR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.09–2.01), and multiple partners (RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.11–2.61), but not partner’s age (RR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.94–1.07) were associated with incident STD, adjusting for 42-month STD prevalence. Binge drinking, forced sex, and age were unrelated to STD incidence in both analyses. Interactions between gender and the hypothesized correlates were non-significant, suggesting that gender did not modify these relationships. Conclusions Interventions to reduce HIV/STD incidence among adolescents in South Africa should address the risk associated with gender, unprotected sex, intimate partner violence, and multiple partnerships. PMID:25668645

  6. Parasitic aphrodisiacs: manipulation of the hosts' behavioral defenses by sexually transmitted parasites.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Animals have a number of behavioral defenses against infection. For example, they typically avoid sick conspecifics, especially during mating. Most animals also alter their behavior after infection and thereby promote recovery (i.e., sickness behavior). For example, sick animals typically reduce the performance of energetically demanding behaviors, such as sexual behavior. Finally, some animals can increase their reproductive output when they face a life-threatening immune challenge (i.e., terminal reproductive investment). All of these behavioral responses probably rely on immune/neural communication signals for their initiation. Unfortunately, this communication channel is prone to manipulation by parasites. In the case of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), these parasites/pathogens must subvert some of these behavioral defenses for successful transmission. There is evidence that STIs suppress systemic signals of immune activation (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines). This manipulation is probably important for the suppression of sickness behavior and other behavioral defenses, as well as for the prevention of attack by the host's immune system. For example, the cricket, Gryllus texensis, is infected with an STI, the iridovirus IIV-6/CrIV. The virus attacks the immune system, which suffers a dramatic decline in its ability to make proteins important for immune function. This attack also hampers the ability of the immune system to activate sickness behavior. Infected crickets cannot express sickness behavior, even when challenged with heat-killed bacteria. Understanding how STIs suppress sickness behavior in humans and other animals will significantly advance the field of psychoneuroimmunology and could also provide practical benefits. PMID:24813461

  7. Serological test results of sexually transmitted diseases in patients with condyloma acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Çakmak, Seray; Yalçınkaya Iyidal, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Arzu; Gül, Ülker; Doner, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The incidence of condyloma acuminata (CA) has increased in recent years. Aim To determine demographical features and serological test results of STD in patients with CA. Material and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 94 patients presenting to a dermatology clinic in Ankara, Middle Anatolia, Turkey. Dermatological examinations were made and the patients completed a questionnaire which consisted of questions about their marital status, partners and condom use. In all cases, VDRL/RPR, anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HCV and in 57 cases – HSV type 1–2 IgM and IgG were studied. If the value of VDRL or RPR was positive, TPHA was conducted. Results In our study, 83 men and 11 women had CA. We could not analyze whether our cases had multiple partners and a habit of condom use as some of the patients did not answer questions about their sexual life. We observed VDRL and TPHA positivity in 3 (3.1%) cases, none of those cases had clinical findings of syphilis and they denied using any therapy for syphilis. HBsAg positivity was found in 3 cases. No anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibody positivity was detected. Conclusions The seroprevalence of HBsAg in our study was similar to that of the general population of Turkey. But as we found positive syphilis serology in 3 patients, we suggest that syphilis serology should be investigated in patients with CA. PMID:26366153

  8. Community-based trials of sexually transmitted disease treatment: repercussions for epidemiology and HIV prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific basis for trials exploring the relation between sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Mwanza in the United Republic of Tanzania and Rakai and Masaka in the Republic of Uganda. The importance of a study's location and explanations for the divergent results of these trials are discussed. The modest effect on STDs seen in the trial of syndromic management in Mwanza, in contrast to the 38% reduction in the incidence of HIV, casts doubt on the underlying hypothesis that treating STDs alone slows the transmission of HIV-1. According to the Piot-Fransen model, the trial in Rakai, which offered treatment of STDs to all subjects irrespective of symptoms ("mass" treatment), should have been more effective both in reducing the prevalence of STDs and the incidence of HIV. However, the Rakai trial was stopped because there was no difference in the incidence of HIV between the intervention and control arms. If Mwanza is seen as the trial that needs explaining, another paradigm becomes relevant. In rural East Africa, where all trials have been conducted, networks of concurrent sexual partnerships are a source of infection with both STDs and HIV. Because of their shorter latency periods, STDs may prompt attendance at a clinic before the early signs of HIV-1 infection appear. Part of the management of STDs is to recommend abstinence or the consistent use of condoms until treatment is completed. This recommendation may cover the earliest period of viraemia during primary HIV-1 infection. This paradigm appears to explain the results from Mwanza and Rakai, emphasizing behavioural aspects of syndromic management. PMID:11217667

  9. Surveillance of sexually transmitted diseases in France: recent trends and incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, L; Goulet, V; Massari, V; Lepoutre-Toulemon, A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To present recent trends in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in France and to estimate the gonorrhoea incidence in 1990. METHODS--Trends were analysed from data of three surveillance systems: (1) STD clinics: number of diagnoses, (2) a sentinel voluntary General Practitioner (GP) network: mean number of acute male urethritis/week/GP, characteristics of the notified urethritis (age, presence of discharge, sexual orientation), (3) a sentinel voluntary laboratory network: mean number of gonorrhoea isolates/month/laboratory, characteristics of patients with positive isolates (sex, age, site of sampling) and of strains (PPNG and TRNG rates). To estimate the gonorrhoea incidence in France in 1990, results of a study held among a national sample of laboratories were used, combined with data from surveillance systems and specific studies. RESULTS--Decreasing trends in gonorrhoea in STD clinics and in the laboratory network as well as in acute male urethritis in the GP network have been observed since implementation of the networks in 1985. The rate of PPNG strains has regularly increased in the laboratory network to reach 14% in 1991. Data suggest that the incidence in some acute non recurrent STDs could have increased among homo/bisexual men since 1988. Chlamydia trachomatis is now the most frequent diagnosis in STD clinics. Estimation of male gonorrhoea incidence rate in France in 1990 of 74/100,000 inhabitants (15-59 years) is consistent with figures observed in England and Wales, where the age distribution is very similar. On the other hand, the estimated female gonorrhoea incidence rate of 14/100,000, which concerns only microbiologically ascertained cases, is one third in France than that observed in England and Wales. CONCLUSION--The consistency of the decreasing trends in gonorrhoea and acute male urethritis observed from the different networks reduces the possibility of a bias due to any change in notification or in prescription. Trends in Chlamydia trachomatis will be better appraised in the near future with the recent implementation of new systems. The French STD surveillance appears quite satisfactory for male infections and has been able to show a marked decrease in the incidence of some STDs in the last years. Surveillance of female STDs is to be improved, in terms of monitored diagnoses and selected health care facilities. Differences between the female gonorrhoea incidence rate observed in England and Wales and the one computed for France could be attributed to differences in contact tracing policies between the two countries or to differences in sexual lifestyles. PMID:8300093

  10. Risky Sexual Behavior, Bleeding Caused by Intimate Partner Violence, and Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients of a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Testa, Maria; Zimmerman, Scott J.; Hughes, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to investigate independent contributions of risky sexual behaviors and bleeding caused by intimate partner violence to prediction of HCV infection. Methods. We conducted a casecontrol study of risk factors among patients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic with and without HCV antibodies, group-matched by age. Results. Multivariate analyses indicated that Black race (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 4.4), injection drug use (OR = 20.3; 95% CI = 10.8, 37.8), sharing straws to snort drugs (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.01, 3.0), sharing razors (OR = 7.8; 95% CI = 2.0, 31.0), and exposure to bleeding caused by intimate partner violence (OR = 5.5; 95% CI = 1.4, 22.8) contributed significantly to the prediction of HCV infection; risky sexual behavior and exposure to blood or sores during sexual intercourse did not. Conclusions. HCV risk among patients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic can be explained by direct blood exposure, primarily through injection drug use. Exposure to bleeding caused by intimate partner violence may be a previously unrecognized mechanism for HCV transmission associated with risky sexual behavior. PMID:19218181

  11. Regulation of Mucosal Immunity in the Female Reproductive Tract: The Role of Sex Hormones in Immune Protection Against Sexually Transmitted Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Wira, Charles R.; Fahey, John V.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey V.

    2015-01-01

    The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the FRT. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack viral, bacterial, and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus, has evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol (E2) and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate and adaptive immune systems are under hormonal control, that protection varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle and as such, is dampened during the secretory stage of the cycle to optimize conditions for fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets. PMID:24734774

  12. Regulation of mucosal immunity in the female reproductive tract: the role of sex hormones in immune protection against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wira, Charles R; Fahey, John V; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey V

    2014-08-01

    The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the FRT. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack viral, bacterial, and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus, has evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol (E2 ) and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate and adaptive immune systems are under hormonal control, that protection varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle and as such, is dampened during the secretory stage of the cycle to optimize conditions for fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets. PMID:24734774

  13. Sex hormone regulation of innate immunity in the female reproductive tract: the role of epithelial cells in balancing reproductive potential with protection against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wira, Charles R; Fahey, John V; Ghosh, Mimi; Patel, Mickey V; Hickey, Danica K; Ochiel, Daniel O

    2010-06-01

    The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the female reproductive tract. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack many different viral, bacterial and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus have evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells and other immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate immune response is under hormonal control, varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle, and as such is suppressed at mid-cycle to optimize conditions for successful fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets. PMID:20367623

  14. Income inequality and sexually transmitted in the United States: who bears the burden?

    PubMed

    Harling, Guy; Subramanian, S V; Brnighausen, Till; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-02-01

    Three causal processes have been proposed to explain associations between group income inequality and individual health outcomes, each of which implies health effects for different segments of the population. We present a novel conceptual and analytic framework for the quantitative evaluation of these pathways, assessing the contribution of: (i) absolute deprivation - affecting the poor in all settings - using family income; (ii) structural inequality - affecting all those in unequal settings - using the Gini coefficient; and (iii) relative deprivation - affecting only the poor in unequal settings - using the Yitzhaki index. We conceptualize relative deprivation as the interaction of absolute deprivation and structural inequality. We test our approach using hierarchical models of 11,183 individuals in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine the relationship between school-level inequality and sexually transmitted infections (STI) - self-reported or laboratory-confirmed Chlamydia, Gonorrhoea or Trichomoniasis. Results suggest that increased poverty and inequality were both independently associated with STI diagnosis, and that being poor in an unequal community imposed an additional risk. However, the effects of inequality and relative deprivation were confounded by individuals' race/ethnicity. PMID:24565155

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases: meeting the 1990 objectives--a challenge for the 1980s.

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, P J; Parra, W C

    1982-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) represent a major public health problem in the country, cause patients enormous suffering, and cost the nation billions of dollars annually. Demographic, sociological, and behavioral changes in our society during the past decade are important contributors to the growing complexity and scope of the STD problem. Several agencies in the Public Health Service are engaged in the Federal effort against STDs. The Centers for Disease Control, as the lead agency, assists State and local health departments in their STD control efforts. In fiscal year 1981, federally supported syphilis and gonorrhea control efforts--based on prevention of an estimated 209,400 new cases--saved the taxpayers approximately $150 million. To meet the 1990 objectives, both the public and private medical sectors must recognize the STD problem of the 1980s. Without the support of the professional community and involvement of the private sector, the incidence of STDs will continue to increase at alarming proportions during this decade. The opportunity for promoting health, preventing human suffering, and reducing costs to society is great. Making the best of this opportunity is our challenge during this decade. PMID:6896921

  16. Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, D.; Abdool Karim, S. S.; Harrison, A.; Lurie, M.; Colvin, M.; Connolly, C.; Sturm, A. W.

    1999-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored. PMID:10063657

  17. Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1) willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2) the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3) client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4) infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5) PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management. PMID:20082718

  18. In sickness and in health: same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. PMID:22789462

  19. Evaluation of syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections within the Kisumu Incidence Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Otieno, Fredrick Odhiambo; Ndivo, Richard; Oswago, Simon; Ondiek, Johnson; Pals, Sherri; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Chen, Robert T; Chege, Wairimu; Gray, Kristen Mahle

    2014-10-01

    While laboratory aetiological diagnosis is considered the gold standard for diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), syndromic management has been presented as a simplified and affordable approach for STI management in limited resource settings. STI signs and symptoms were collected using staff-administered computer-assisted personal interview and audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants underwent a medical examination and laboratory testing for common STIs. The performance of syndromic management was assessed on the agreement between interviewing methods as well as accurate diagnosis. We screened 846 participants, of whom 88 (10.4%) received syndromic STI diagnosis while 272 (32.2%) received an aetiological diagnosis. Agreement between syndromic and aetiological diagnoses was very poor (overall kappa?=?0.09). The most prevalent STI was herpes simplex virus type 2 and the percentage of persons with any STI was higher among women (48.6%) than men (15.6%, p?

  20. Approaches to control sexually transmitted diseases in Haiti, 1992-95.

    PubMed

    Behets, F M; Génécé, E; Narcisse, M; Liautaud, B; Cohen, M; Dallabetta, G A

    1998-01-01

    Despite major obstacles, activities to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were initiated in Haiti in 1992 in collaboration with local nongovernmental organizations. The approaches included review of available local data, assessment of STD case management practices and constraints, and development of specific STD control activities at the primary health care level, such as systematic screening of all pregnant women for syphilis and improved comprehensive syndrome-based STD case management. The activities included conduct of local studies, presentation and dissemination of results to key audiences, training of health care providers, improvement of local capacities, and consensus-building on implementation of STD control approaches. STD awareness and case management improved considerably; for example, 69% of the clinicians interviewed reported correct STD treatments in the north-eastern primary health care centres in 1995, compared with < 10% in 1992. At the end of the project, national STD case management guidelines were developed by consensus between the various organizations and the Ministry of Health. Lessons learned included the importance of local data generation and of communication and collaboration with various institutions for consensus-building, the need for continued training, and field supervision to ensure behaviour change among STD care providers. A national STD control programme should be implemented as soon as possible in both the public and private sector. External funding will remain critical to control this important public health problem in Haiti. PMID:9648360

  1. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war. PMID:10330595

  2. Perception of sex workers of Lucknow City, Uttar Pradesh, India towards sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pallavi; Masood, Jamal; Singh, Jai Veer; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Abhishek; Asuri, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The prevention, control, and management of sexually transmitted infections/reproductive tract infection (STI/RTI) are well-recognized cost-effective strategies for controlling the spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). A cross-sectional descriptive study was done over a period of 1 year to assess the prevalence of STI, knowledge level about STI, and the STI-HIV link among the female sex workers (FSWs) of Lucknow city, Uttar Pradesh, India along with their biosocial characteristics. Most of the FSWs were illiterate, married, Hindus, and belonged to general category. The prevalence rates of STI among street-based and home-based FSWs were 50.6% and 29.8%, respectively. Knowledge about the role of condom in prevention of STI and the STI-HIV link was significantly less among home-based FSWs than those who are street-based. There is a great lack in the awareness among FSWs regarding STI and their prevention. Behavior change communication (BCC) and advocacy strategy were developed, especially for the home-based group, to strengthen their knowledge regarding the STI-HIV link. PMID:26584175

  3. Factors associated with partner referral among patients with sexually transmitted infections in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Khan, Sharful Islam; Momtaz, Dalia; Kristensen, Sibylle; Vermund, Sten H.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the demographic, behavioural and psychosocial factors associated with partner referral for patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is important for designing appropriate intervention strategies. A survey was conducted among STI clients in three government and three non-governmental organization-operated clinics in Dhaka and Chittagong city in Bangladesh. Demographic and psychosocial information was collected using a questionnaire guided by the Attitude-Social Influence-Self Efficacy model. Partner referral data were collected by verification of referral cards when partners appeared at the clinics within one month of interviewing the STI clients. Of the 1339 clients interviewed, 81% accepted partner referral cards but only 32% actually referred their partners; 37% of these referrals were done by clients randomly assigned to a single counselling session vs. 27% by clients not assigned to a counselling session (p < 0.0001). Among psychosocial factors, partner referral intention was best predicted by attitudes and perceived social norms of the STI clients. Actual partner referral was significantly associated with intention to refer partner and attitudes of the index clients. Married clients were significantly more likely to refer their partners, and clients with low income were less likely to refer partners. Intervention programmes must address psychosocial and socio-economic issues to improve partner referral for STIs in Bangladesh. PMID:20943297

  4. The Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in HIV-1 Progression: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Helen M.; Carpenter, Robert J.; Macalino, Grace E.; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2013-01-01

    Due to shared routes of infection, HIV-infected persons are frequently coinfected with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Studies have demonstrated the bidirectional relationships between HIV and several STIs, including herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), hepatitis B and C viruses, human papilloma virus, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomonas. HIV-1 may affect the clinical presentation, treatment outcome, and progression of STIs, such as syphilis, HSV-2, and hepatitis B and C viruses. Likewise, the presence of an STI may increase both genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, enhancing the transmissibility of HIV-1, with important public health implications. Regarding the effect of STIs on HIV-1 progression, the most studied interrelationship has been with HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfection, with recent studies showing that antiherpetic medications slow the time to CD4 <200 cells/L and antiretroviral therapy among coinfected patients. The impact of other chronic STIs (hepatitis B and C) on HIV-1 progression requires further study, but some studies have shown increased mortality rates. Treatable, nonchronic STIs (i.e., syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomonas) typically have no or transient impacts on plasma HIV RNA levels that resolve with antimicrobial therapy; no long-term effects on outcomes have been shown. Future studies are advocated to continue investigating the complex interplay between HIV-1 and other STIs. PMID:26316953

  5. A systematic review of strategies for partner notification for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Catherine; Coetzee, Nicol; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Lombard, Carl; Guttmacher, Sally; Oxman, Andrew; Schmid, George

    2002-05-01

    This review compares the effects of various sexually transmitted disease (STD) partner-notification strategies. Using review methods endorsed by the Cochrane Collaboration, it updates previous reviews, and addresses some of their methodological limitations. It includes 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing two or more strategies, including 8014 participants. Only two trials were conducted in developing countries, and only two trials were conducted among HIV-positive patients. The review found moderately strong evidence that: (1) provider referral alone, or the choice between patient and provider referral, when compared with patient referral among patients with HIV or any STD, increases the rate of partners presenting for medical evaluation; (2) contract referral, when compared with patient referral among patients with gonorrhoea, results in more partners presenting for medical evaluation; (3) verbal, nurse-given health education together with patient-centred counselling by lay workers, when compared with standard care among patients with any STD, results in small increases in the rate of partners treated. The review concludes that there is a need for evaluations of interventions combining provider training and patient education, for evaluations conducted in developing countries, and for the measurement of potential harmful effects. PMID:11972932

  6. Compliance strategies in a clinic for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Kroger, F

    1980-01-01

    Two student interns in health education assessed provider-patient educational interactions in a public clinic for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Clear verbal instructions related to specific treatment behaviors were omitted in more than half of the interactions observed. Handout materials were above the probable reading level of most clinic patients. The students introduced informal contract pads and some simplified materials to enhance communication between health care providers and patients. While the students were present to monitor activities, return rates of women for gonorrhea test-of-cure cultures increased from 35.4% to 97.1%; rates for men increased from 32.5% to 67.2%. Return rates for women remained high (73.2%) after the students had left, but returned to near the levels before intervention (36.7%) for men. The results suggest that efforts to counsel patients ought to be studied and monitored with the same degree of rigor accorded other elements of a disease control program. PMID:6893873

  7. Video-based sexually transmitted disease patient education: its impact on condom acquisition.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, L N; Doval, A S; Duran, R; O'Donnell, C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study assessed the impact of video-based educational interventions on condom acquisition among men and women seeking services at a large sexually transmitted disease clinic in the South Bronx, New York. METHODS. During 1992, 3348 African American and Hispanic patients were enrolled in a clinical trial of video-based interventions designed to promote safer sex behaviors, including increased condom use. Patients were assigned to one of three groups: control, video, or video plus interactive group discussion. Subjects were given a coupon to redeem for free condoms at a pharmacy several blocks from the clinic. Rates of condom acquisition were assessed by level of intervention. RESULTS. In comparison with a control group, subjects who viewed videos were significantly more likely to redeem coupons for condoms (21.2% redemption rate vs 27.6%). However, participation in interactive sessions after video viewing augmented the positive effects of video viewing alone (27.6% redemption rate vs 36.9%). Gender and ethnicity were significantly associated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. The condom acquisition are almost doubled with the use of culturally appropriate, video-based interventions. Designed to present minimal disruption to clinical services, these interventions can be implemented in clinics servicing at-risk men and women. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7762716

  8. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n?=?763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. PMID:25070945

  9. Potential moral stigma and reactions to sexually transmitted diseases: evidence for a disjunction fallacy.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Nussbaum, A David; Monin, Benot

    2007-06-01

    Five experiments demonstrate how potential moral stigma leads people to underplay their susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and dampens their interest in getting tested. After adding unprotected sex to a list of otherwise innocuous possible vectors for a disease, the authors found that infected people were perceived to be less moral (Experiment 1a), and individuals believed that if they had the disease, others would see them as less moral too (Experiment 1b). Adding this stigmatized vector also reduced reported testing intentions (Experiment 2) and perceived risk of exposure (Experiment 3)--a disjunction fallacy because adding a potential cause reduced estimated likelihood, in violation of basic probability rules. Finally, the authors replicated the effect in a computer virus analog (Experiment 4) and showed that it did not result from simply knowing that one has not engaged in the stigmatized behavior. Results suggest that avoidance of potential stigma can have dramatic health consequences, both for an individual's health decision and for health policy. PMID:17488871

  10. Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Offenders Following Arrest or Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Marc B.; Aalsma, Matthew C.; Scanlon, Michael L.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to estimate rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among criminal offenders in the 1 year after arrest or release from incarceration. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study of risk of having a positive STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis) or incident-positive HIV test in the 1 year following arrest or incarceration in Marion County (Indianapolis), Indiana. Participants were 247 211 individuals with arrest or incarceration in jail, prison, or juvenile detention between 2003 and 2008. Results. Test positivity rates (per 100 000 and per year) were highest for chlamydia (2968) and gonorrhea (2305), and lower for syphilis (278) and HIV (61). Rates of positive STI and HIV were between 1.5 and 2.8 times higher in female than male participants and between 2.7 and 6.9 times higher for Blacks than Whites. Compared with nonoffenders, offenders had a relative risk of 3.9 for chlamydia, 6.6 for gonorrhea, 3.6 for syphilis, and 4.6 for HIV. Conclusions. The 1-year period following arrest or release from incarceration represents a high-impact opportunity to reduce STI and HIV infection rates at a population level. PMID:26469659

  11. Sexual history taking in general practice: managing sexually transmitted infections for female sex workers by doctors and assistant doctors in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Do, Khoi; Minichiello, Victor; Hussain, Rafat; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Vietnam have been increasing. Control of STIs among female sex workers (FSWs) is important in controlling the epidemic. Effective STI control requires that physicians are skilful in taking sexual history for FSW patients. Three hundred and seventy-one physicians responded to a survey conducted in three provinces in Vietnam. The respondents were asked whether they asked FSW patients about their sexual history and information asked during sexual history taking. The respondents were also asked about their barriers for taking sexual history. Over one-fourth (27%) respondents always, over half (54%) respondents sometimes and 19% respondents never obtained a sexual history from FSW patients. Multivariable analysis revealed that factors associated with always taking a sexual history were being doctor, training in STIs and working at provincial level facilities. Physician's discomfort was found to be inversely associated with training on communication with patients, seeing 15 or fewer patients a week, working at provincial level facilities. Issues in sexual history taking among FSW patients in general practice in Vietnam were identified. These issues can help STI control for FSW patients and need due attention in order to improve STI management in Vietnam. PMID:24676130

  12. Response of religious groups to HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Genrich, Gillian L; Brathwaite, Brader A

    2005-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA). Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 20022003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support group located in Port of Spain based upon their perceived willingness to discuss religious affiliation and describe how living with a terminal infection has affected their spiritual lives. The interviewer, a United States Fulbright Scholar, explained the nature and purpose of the study to all participants. Relevant ethical procedures associated with the collection of interview data were adopted: interviews were conducted in a non-coercive manner and confidentiality was assured. All participants provided verbal consent, and agreed to be interviewed without financial or other incentive. Ethics approval was granted on behalf of the Caribbean Conference of Churches Ethics Committee. Interview questions followed a guideline, and employed an open-ended format to facilitate discussion. All interviews were recorded and transcribed by the interviewer. Results Religious representatives' opinions were grouped into the following categories: rationale for the spread of HIV/AIDS, abstinence, condom use, sexuality and homosexuality, compassion, experiences with PWHA, recommendations and current approach to addressing HIV/AIDS in congregations. Religious representatives expressed a measure of acceptance of HIV/AIDS and overwhelmingly upheld compassion for PWHA. Some statements, however, suggested that HIV/AIDS stigma pervades Trinidad's religious organizations. For many representatives, HIV/AIDS was associated with a promiscuous lifestyle and/or homosexuality. Representatives had varying levels of interaction with PWHA, but personal experiences were positively associated with current involvement in HIV/AIDS initiatives. All 4 PWHA interviewed identified themselves as belonging to Christian denominations. Three out of the 4 PWHA described discriminatory experiences with pastors or congregation members during gatherings for religious services. Nonetheless, PWHA expressed an important role for faith and religion in coping with HIV. Conclusion Religious groups in Trinidad are being challenged to promote a clear and consistent response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic; a response that may reflect personal experien

  13. Man up Monday: An Integrated Public Health Approach to Increase Sexually Transmitted Infection Awareness and Testing among Male Students at a Midwest University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth A.; Eastman-Mueller, Heather P.; Henderson, Scott; Even, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This campaign sought to (a) increase awareness of sexual health and chlamydia testing; (b) motivate students, particularly sexually active men who do not pursue regular sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing, to get tested; and (c) improve the capacity of the student health center to provide free chlamydia testing and treatment

  14. Man up Monday: An Integrated Public Health Approach to Increase Sexually Transmitted Infection Awareness and Testing among Male Students at a Midwest University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth A.; Eastman-Mueller, Heather P.; Henderson, Scott; Even, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This campaign sought to (a) increase awareness of sexual health and chlamydia testing; (b) motivate students, particularly sexually active men who do not pursue regular sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing, to get tested; and (c) improve the capacity of the student health center to provide free chlamydia testing and treatment…

  15. Sexual behavior and awareness of Chinese university students in transition with implied risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiaoqin; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Cong, Liming; Xu, Guozhang; Zamani, Saman; Ravari, Shahrzad Mortazavi; Kihara, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    Background The vulnerability of young people to HIV and the recent emergence of the HIV epidemic in China have made it urgent to assess and update the HIV/STD risk profile of Chinese young people. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey with cross-sectional design was conducted among 22,493 undergraduate students in two universities in Ningbo, China. Bivariate trend analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare sexual behaviors and awareness between grades. Results Of respondents, 17.6% of males and 8.6% of females reported being sexually active. Condom was reported never/rarely used by 35% of sexually active students in both genders in the previous year. Pregnancy and induced abortion had each been experienced by about 10% of sexually active female students and the female partners of male students, and about 1.5% of sexually active students of both genders reported being diagnosed with an STD. Multivariate analysis revealed that students in lower grades, compared to those in higher grades, were more likely to have become sexually active before university, to have become aware of sex before high school, and to have been exposed to pornographic media before the age of 17 years, and for sexually active respondents of both genders, to have engaged in sex without using a condom. Conclusion Sexual behaviors of Chinese university students are poorly protected and sexual behaviors and awareness may have been undergoing rapid change, becoming active earlier and more risky. If this trend continues, vulnerable sexual network will grow among them that allow more expansion of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. PMID:16981985

  16. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a specialized STD healthcare center: epidemiology and demographic profile from January 1999 to December 2009*

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Vieira Junior, Elso Elias; Moysés, Ana Carolina Marteline Cavalcante; de Lima, Fernão Dias; de Morais, Fátima Regina Borges; Vizinho, Natalina Lima

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sexually Transmitted Diseases are still considered a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. OBJECTIVE To examine Sexually Transmitted Diseases prevalence and the sickness impact profile of STDs in a reference health center specializing in the treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. METHOD We collected epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data from the medical records and interviews of 4,128 patients who had attended the center from January 1999 to December 2009. RESULTS Male patients outnumbered (76%) females (24%), Caucasians outnumbered (74.3%) those of mixed race (14.8%), blacks (10.8%) and Asians (0.1%). STD occurrence was higher in the 20-29 age group (46.2%) This population included 34.7% high school graduates, 8.7% college graduates and 0.8% illiterates. As for affective-sexual orientation, 86.5% were heterosexual, 7.8% homosexual and 5.5% bisexual. Regarding patients' sexual practices over the previous 30 days, 67.7% reported sexual intercourse with one person, 8.6% had had sex with two persons and 3.9%, with three or more people. The highest incidence of STD was condyloma acuminata, affecting 29.4% of all the patients, genital candidiasis 14.2%, and genital herpes 10.6%. Of the 44.3% who submitted to serologic testing for HIV detection 5% were positive, with a ratio of 6.8 males to 1 female. CONCLUSIONS STD prevalence remains high in Brazil and it is necessary to invest in early detection, prevention and treatment. PMID:24068122

  17. Sexually transmitted infections and pre-exposure prophylaxis: challenges and opportunities among men who have sex with men in the US.

    PubMed

    Scott, Hyman M; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown high efficacy in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in several large clinical trials, and more recently in "real world" reports of clinical implementation and a PrEP demonstration project. Those studies also demonstrated high bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence and raised the discussion of how PrEP may impact STI control efforts, especially in the setting of increasing Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance and the increase in syphilis cases among MSM. Here, we discuss STIs as a driver of HIV transmission risk among MSM, and the potential opportunities and challenges for STI control afforded by expanded PrEP implementation among high-risk MSM. PMID:26793265

  18. Guidelines for the Use of Molecular Biological Methods to Detect Sexually Transmitted Pathogens in Cases of Suspected Sexual Abuse in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child, in addition to medical implications, can have serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possible abuse. The significance of the identification of a sexually transmitted agent in such children as evidence of possible child sexual abuse varies by pathogen. While culture has historically been used for the detection of STIs in cases of suspected abuse in children, the increasing use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in adults and the increasing proliferation of second-generation tests with better sensitivity and specificity has made inroads into the use of such tests in children, especially for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Acceptance by the medicolegal system for sexual abuse cases is still controversial and more test cases will be necessary before definitive use becomes standard practice. In addition, if these assays ever become legally admissible in court, there will be recommendations that more than one NAAT assay be used in order to assure confirmation of the diagnostic result. PMID:22782828

  19. Acceptability of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) among Male Sexually Transmitted Diseases Patients (MSTDP) in China

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Kim, Yoona

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary Medical Male circumcision (VMMC) is an evidence-based, yet under-utilized biomedical HIV intervention in China. No study has investigated acceptability of VMMC among male sexually transmitted diseases patients (MSTDP) who are at high risk of HIV transmission. A cross-sectional survey interviewed 350 HIV negative heterosexual MSTDP in Shenzhen, China; 12.0% (n = 42) of them were circumcised at the time of survey. When the uncircumcised participants (n = 308) were informed that VMMC could reduce the risk of HIV infection via heterosexual intercourse by 50%, the prevalence of acceptability of VMMC in the next six months was 46.1%. Adjusted for significant background variables, significant factors of acceptability of VMMC included: 1) emotional variables: the Emotional Representation Subscale (adjusted odds ratios, AOR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.06–1.18), 2) cognitive variables derived from Health Belief Model (HBM): perceived some chance of having sex with HIV positive women in the next 12 months (AOR = 2.48, 95%CI: 1.15–5.33) (perceived susceptibility), perceived severity of STD infection (AOR = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.02–1.10), perceived benefit of VMMC in risk reduction (AOR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.16–1.42) and sexual performance (AOR = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.26–1.71), perceived barriers against taking up VMMC (AOR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.81–0.95), and perceived cue to action (AOR = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.23–1.61) and self-efficacy (AOR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.26–1.35) related to taking up VMMC. The association between perceived severity of STD infection and acceptability was fully mediated by emotional representation of STD infection. The relatively low prevalence of circumcision and high acceptability suggested that the situation was favorable for implementing VMMC as a means of HIV intervention among MSTDP in China. HBM is a potential suitable framework to guide the design of future VMMC promotion. Future implementation programs should be conducted in STD clinic settings, taking the important findings of this study into account. PMID:26905739

  20. Acceptability of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) among Male Sexually Transmitted Diseases Patients (MSTDP) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zixin; Feng, Tiejian; Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Yoona

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary Medical Male circumcision (VMMC) is an evidence-based, yet under-utilized biomedical HIV intervention in China. No study has investigated acceptability of VMMC among male sexually transmitted diseases patients (MSTDP) who are at high risk of HIV transmission. A cross-sectional survey interviewed 350 HIV negative heterosexual MSTDP in Shenzhen, China; 12.0% (n = 42) of them were circumcised at the time of survey. When the uncircumcised participants (n = 308) were informed that VMMC could reduce the risk of HIV infection via heterosexual intercourse by 50%, the prevalence of acceptability of VMMC in the next six months was 46.1%. Adjusted for significant background variables, significant factors of acceptability of VMMC included: 1) emotional variables: the Emotional Representation Subscale (adjusted odds ratios, AOR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.06-1.18), 2) cognitive variables derived from Health Belief Model (HBM): perceived some chance of having sex with HIV positive women in the next 12 months (AOR = 2.48, 95%CI: 1.15-5.33) (perceived susceptibility), perceived severity of STD infection (AOR = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.02-1.10), perceived benefit of VMMC in risk reduction (AOR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.16-1.42) and sexual performance (AOR = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.26-1.71), perceived barriers against taking up VMMC (AOR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.81-0.95), and perceived cue to action (AOR = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.23-1.61) and self-efficacy (AOR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.26-1.35) related to taking up VMMC. The association between perceived severity of STD infection and acceptability was fully mediated by emotional representation of STD infection. The relatively low prevalence of circumcision and high acceptability suggested that the situation was favorable for implementing VMMC as a means of HIV intervention among MSTDP in China. HBM is a potential suitable framework to guide the design of future VMMC promotion. Future implementation programs should be conducted in STD clinic settings, taking the important findings of this study into account. PMID:26905739

  1. Awareness of school students on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and their sexual behavior: a cross-sectional study conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) rank among the most important health issues for the people especially the young adults worldwide. Young people tend to engage in sexual activity at younger ages in the past decade than in the 1970s, and 1980s. Knowledge is an essential precursor of sexual risk reduction. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, to produce the baseline information about school students' awareness and perception about sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) and their sexual activity to help establish control and education programmes. Methods Students from form 4 (aged between 15 to 16 years), form 5 (aged between 16 to 17 years) and form 6 (aged between 18 to 20 years) in their class rooms were approached and asked to complete self administered and anonymous pre-validated questionnaires. SPSS for windows version 13 was used to analyze the results statistically and results were presented in tabular form. Results Data was collected from 1139 students aged between 15 to 20 years, 10.6% of which claimed that they never heard about STIs. Sexual experience related significantly with gender, race, and education level. Approximately 12.6% claimed to have sexual experience of which 75.7% had their sexual debut at 15-19 years and 38.2% were having more than 3 partners. Sexual experience was found to be significantly associated with gender (p = 0.003), ethnicity (p = 0.001) and education level (p = 0.030). However, multiple partner behaviour was significantly associated only with gender (p = 0.010). Mean knowledge score was 11.60 8.781 and knowledge level was significantly associated with religion (p = 0.005) education level (p = 0.000), course stream (p = 0.000), socioeconomic class (p = 0.000) and sexual experience (p = 0.022). Conclusions It was concluded that school students have moderate level of knowledge about STIs although they are sexually active. Interventions such as reinforcing the link between STIs and HIV/AIDS, assessing the current status of sexuality education in schools and arranging public talks and seminars focusing on STIs prevention education are needed to improve their awareness. PMID:20113511

  2. Desire to father a child and condom use: a study of young black men at risk of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; Graham, Cynthia A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sanders, Stephanie A; Yarber, William L; Salazar, Laura F; Terrell, Ivy; Pasternak, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether men's reported desire to father a child or their perception that someone wanted to have their child was associated with elevated rates of unprotected vaginal sex, we studied a sample of young Black men at high risk of sexually transmitted infection acquisition. Data were collected in clinics treating sexually transmitted infections in three southern U.S. cities. Men 15-23 years of age who identified as Black/African American and reported recent (past two months) penile-vaginal sex were eligible (N?=?578). Logistic regression was used to examine whether desire to conceive a child (self and perception of partners' desire) predicted condom use, adjusting for age and whether they had previously impregnated someone. Their own level of desire to conceive a child was not significantly associated with unprotected vaginal sex or the proportion of times a condom was used. However, those who perceived higher level of someone wanting to conceive their child were 1.73 times more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex (P?=?.006) and 1.62 times more likely to report a lower proportion of times condoms were used (P?=?.019). Young Black men attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in the USA may forego condom use based on a perceived desire of their partners to become pregnant, putting themselves at risk for sexually transmitted infection acquisition and unplanned pregnancy. Findings provide initial support for the relevance of the idea that perceptions of women partners' desire to conceive may be a critical determinant of condomless sex. PMID:25505038

  3. Pattern of sexually transmitted infections in a Muslim majority region of North India

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Iffat; Anwar, Parvaiz; Rather, Shagufta; Sameem, Farah; Majid, Imran; Jabeen, Yasmeen; Mubashir, Syed; Nisa, Nuzhatun; Masood, Qazi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing trends of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS has been noted in the literature over years, depending to some extent on the geographical and cultural factors of the region. In Kashmir Valley also, the pattern of STI may be different from the rest of the country. Aims of the Study: The aim was to present the experience with patterns of STI in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: Retrospective hospital-based study carried out by detailed analysis of case records of 5-year period. Results: A total of 184 patients, 100 males and 84 females, had specific STI. Genital ulcer disease was the presentation in 54 patients (29.35%), out of which herpes genitalis was found in 27 patients (50%), followed by chancroid in 13 (24.07%) and syphilis in 10 (18.52%) patients. 42 female patients (22.83%) presented with vaginal discharge, out of which, 24 (57.14%) had vaginal candidiasis. 24 males (13.04%) presented with urethral discharge, out of which, 15 (62.5%) had nongonococcal and 9 (37.5%) gonococcal urethritis. Genital molluscum contagiosum (MC) was found in 19 patients (10.33%), and warts in 15 (8.15%). HIV positive serology was detected in 3 patients (1.63%). Conclusion: The most common STI encountered in our study was genital ulcer, followed by vaginal discharge, urethritis, genital MC, and genital warts. Herpes genitalis was the commonest genital ulcer; candidiasis was the most common cause of vaginal discharge and nongonococcal urethritis the most common cause of urethritis. These findings are by and large similar to those noted in other parts of our country. PMID:26392651

  4. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections among HIV Positive Women Opting for Intrauterine Contraception

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) are a high risk group for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, the majority of women with STIs are asymptomatic. Data on prevalence of STIs among WLHA in Uganda are limited. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence and factors associated with STIs among WLHA opting for intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). Methods Three hundred fifty one WLHA deemed free of STIs using a syndromic logarithm were enrolled into the study. Endo-cervical swabs were taken before IUD insertion and PCR test for Nisseria gonorrhea (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections conducted. Results Participants mean age was 29.4 6.2 years, 83% were under 35years, 50% had secondary education and 73% were married. The majority (69%) had disclosed their HIV sero status to their spouses, 82% used Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, 70% were on antiretroviral therapy, 90% had CD4 count greater than 350, about 60% reported condoms use and 70% were of parity 2-4. Over 50% of the participants spouses were older than 35 years and 72% had attained secondary education. STIs prevalence was 11.1%, (95% CI 7.8-14.4) and individual prevalence for TV, NG, and CT was 5.9%, 5.4% and 0.9% respectively. Factors independently associated with STI were having primary or less education (OR= 2.3, 95% CI: 1.09 - 4.85) having a spouse of primary or less education (OR= 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6 - 6.78) and muslim faith (OR= 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04 - 0.78). Conclusion STI prevalence was 11.1%. TV and NG were the commonest STIs in this population. Having primary or less education for both participant and spouse was associated with increased risk while being of muslim faith was associated with reduced risk of STI. PMID:25859659

  5. HIV and Syphilis Infection among Men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Coln-Lpez, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Banerjee, Geetanjoli; Gertz, Alida M.; Garca, Hermes

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors associated with HIV and syphilis infection among a sample of men attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic during 2009 to 2010 in San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR). Methods A sample of 350 clinical records from men visiting the clinic for the first time during 2009 to 2010 was reviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample, and bivariate analyses were performed separately for HIV and syphilis to identify factors associated with these infectious diseases. Variables that were significantly associated (p<0.05) with HIV and syphilis in the bivariate analysis were considered for inclusion in the logistic regression models. Results Overall, 11.2% and 14.1% of the men were infected with HIV and syphilis, respectively, and 5.1% were coinfected with HIV and syphilis. In multivariate logistic regression models, ever injecting drugs (POR = 8.1; 95%Cl 3.0, 21.8) and being a man who has sex with men (MSM) (POR = 5.3; 95%CI 2.3, 11.9) were positively associated with HIV infection. Being a man older than 45 years (POR = 4.0; 95%CI: 1.9, 8.9) and being an MSM (POR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.3, 4.9) were both significantly associated with syphilis infection. Conclusion These findings reinforce the need for greater education and prevention efforts for HIV and other STIs among men in PR, particularly those who are MSM. However, there is a need to make an a priori assessment of the level of health literacy in the members of this group so that a culturally sensitive intervention can be provided to the men who attend this STI clinic. PMID:23556260

  6. Patterns of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Joesoef, M R; Linnan, M; Barakbah, Y; Idajadi, A; Kambodji, A; Schulz, K

    1997-09-01

    Sex workers and their clients as core groups of high frequency transmitters play a dominant role in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In Surabaya, Indonesia, little is known about the prevalence of STDs in various sex establishments. We conducted an STD prevalence survey of 1873 female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia. We did not find any sex workers with HIV infection. Prevalence rates of other STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, serological test for syphilis positive, and/or trichomoniasis) in female sex workers were 48% in brothels (n = 696), 42% on the streets (n = 192), 16% in massage parlours (n = 344), 25% in barber shops (n = 150), 17% at call-girl houses (n = 73), and 10% in nightclubs (n = 418). Sex workers from the brothels had the highest prevalence rates of gonorrhoea (24%) and trichomoniasis (8%), while sex workers from the streets and the barber shop had the highest rates of serological test for syphilis (STS) positive (30%) and chlamydia (18%). STD rates decreased with an increase in age (except for STS positive), an increase in education, a decrease in the number of sex partners, and condom use in the previous week. Condom use in the previous week was universally low among sex workers, especially among sex workers from the brothels (14%). Sex workers from the brothels had STD rates about 4 times higher than sex workers from the nightclubs (adjusted odds ratio of 4.4). Although the HIV seroprevalence rate is currently low, widespread prostitution and high rates of STDs in sex workers warrant programmes to avert a potential explosion of HIV transmission. Because sex workers from the brothels in Surabaya have high rates of STDs and low use of condoms but good cooperation with local authorities, STD preventive measures should focus on this group. PMID:9292347

  7. Diagnosing Genital Ulcer Disease in a Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Bruisten, S. M.; Cairo, I.; Fennema, H.; Pijl, A.; Buimer, M.; Peerbooms, P. G. H.; Van Dyck, E.; Meijer, A.; Ossewaarde, J. M.; van Doornum, G. J. J.

    2001-01-01

    The most common etiologic agents of genital ulcer disease (GUD) are herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, Treponema pallidum, and Haemophilus ducreyi. In an outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, specimens from 372 patients with GUD were collected from February to November 1996. Sera were collected at the time of the symptoms and, for most patients, also during follow-up visits. Swabs in viral transport medium were used for HSV culture and for detection of DNA. The most prevalent pathogen found was HSV-2, which was detected by culture in 35% of the patients and by PCR in 48% of the patients. Also, HSV-1 infection was more often detected by PCR (7.8%) than by culture (5.6%). Evidence for an active infection with T. pallidum was found in 1.9% of the patients, using serological tests. A multiplex PCR for simultaneous T. pallidum and H. ducreyi DNA detection was positive for T. pallidum in 3.3% of the samples and for H. ducreyi in only 0.9% (3 out of 368) of the samples. The sensitivity of the PCR was superior to that of culture for HSV detection and to that of serology for T. pallidum detection. Specific H. ducreyi immunoglobulin G antibodies were detected in sera of 5.2% of the patients, with no concordance between serology and PCR. In 37% of the cases, none of the tested microorganisms was detected. Performance of PCR in addition to conventional techniques significantly improved the diagnosis of GUD. PMID:11158114

  8. The slippery slope: Lubricant Use and Rectal Sexually Transmitted Infections: a newly identified risk

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Pamina M.; Weiss, Robert E.; Fuchs, Edward; Jeffries, Robin A.; Hezerah, Marjan; Brown, Stephen; Voskanian, Alen; Robbie, Edward; Anton, Peter; Cranston, Ross D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Use of lubricant products is extremely common during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) yet has not been assessed as a risk for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods From 2006–2008 a rectal health and behavior study was conducted in Baltimore and Los Angeles as part of the UCLA Microbicide Development Program (NIAID IPCP# #0606414). Participants completed questionnaires and rectal swabs were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis with the Aptima Combo 2 assay and blood was tested for syphilis (for RPR and TPHA with titer) and HIV. Of those reporting lubricant use and RAI, STI results were available for 380 participants. Univariate and multivariate regressions assessed associations of lubricant use in the past month during RAI with prevalent STIs. Results Consistent lubricant use during RAI in the past month was reported by 36% (137/380) of participants. Consistent past month lubricant users had a higher prevalence of STI than inconsistent users (9.5% vs. 2.9%; p=0.006). In a multivariable logistic regression model testing positive for STI was associated with consistent use of lubricant during RAI in the past month (adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 2.98 (95%CI 1.09, 8.15) after controlling for age, gender, study location, HIV status, and numbers of RAI partners in the past month. Conclusions Findings suggest some lubricant products may increase vulnerability to STIs. Because of wide use of lubricants and their potential as carrier vehicles for microbicides, further research is essential to clarify if lubricant use poses a public health risk. PMID:22183849

  9. Risk Factors of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections in China: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William Chi Wai

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are a global challenge. China, once said to have eradicated STIs, is now facing a rapid rise in the prevalence of HIV/STIs. This review of reviews aims to map HIV/STI risk factors among the Chinese population, with the objective of identifying risk factors to inform the formulation of effective prevention strategies. Methods A systematic search using key terms related to HIV/STIs, risk factors and the Chinese population in both English and Chinese databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library; Wanfang data, CNKI, VIP and SINOMED) was conducted, and peer-reviewed systematic reviews on the topic from 1991 to 2014 were selected. Identified risk factors were grouped into different level determinants based on the HIV Social Epidemiology Model, and then evaluated and reported based on the PRISMA checklist. Findings Of the twenty-eight reviews included, the majority were focused on well-established, individual level risk factors within key populations, with some highlighting the complexity of interacting factors (e.g., alcohol use and higher income in male migrants). While twenty-two reviews covered individual factors, only ten mentioned social factors and five had contents on structural factors. There are gaps in the evidence on social and structural level impacts of HIV/STIs, such as on stigma, discrimination, health policy, access to care, and illicit drug control policies. Migration and social expectation appear to pose a significant threat in aggravating the HIV/STI situation in China; for example, incarceration patterns indicated a significant risk of HIV/STIs for female sex workers. Conclusions Since international guidelines recommend an integrated and multi-level approach to HIV/STI prevention, a comprehensive approach targeting interventions at all levels along the continuum of care is needed to effectively curtail HIV/STI transmission in China. More research is needed to better understand the impact of socio-political interventions within a Chinese context. PMID:26468650

  10. Awareness and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Secondary School Adolescents in Ado Ekiti, South Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Amu, E. O.; Adegun, P. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among adolescents in Ado, South Western Nigeria. Methods. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional design. Five hundred and fifty adolescents selected from public and private secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State were recruited using a multistage sampling technique. Results. Four hundred and ninety-nine (92.4%) respondents had heard about sexually transmitted infections before, the three most important sources of information being electronic media (68.7%); teachers (68.1%); and print media (44.9%). Eighty percent of the respondents knew only one STI and the two most commonly mentioned ones were HIV/AIDS (78.0%) and gonorrhea (23.0%). More than 75% of the respondents knew the modes of transmission of STIs while some of them equally had misconceptions. The most important symptoms mentioned were weight loss (77.4%), painful micturition (68.9%), and genital ulcer (54.1%). On the whole, only 6.9% of the respondents had good knowledge of STIs; the rest had fair and poor knowledge. Conclusion. Secondary school adolescents in Ado Local Government Area have only a fair knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases. STI studies should be inculcated into the school curriculum and media publicity/enlightenment campaigns about them should be intensified. PMID:26345225

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754

  13. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey regarding Sex, Contraception and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Commerce College Students in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Mutha, Sonali A; Baghel, Paritosh J; Patil, Ramanand J; Bhagat, Sagar B; Patel, Sadiq B; Watsa, Mahinder C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One in four Indians is a juvenile. Sexual crimes, pre marital sex, sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are on the rise. It has been shown that lack of sexuality education can significantly contribute to the above. Aim: We conducted this study to determine the knowledge and awareness of college students regarding sex and related matters and the factors affecting the prevalent outlook and practices of youth towards the same. Methodology: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 500 students of the K.P.B. Hinduja College of Commerce from December 2012 to March 2013 as per the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Main Outcome Measures: 1. Sex knowledge scores of males and females regarding contraception, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2. Percentage response of males and females to questions depicting attitudes and perceptions regarding premarital sex and promiscuity, sexual fantasy and masturbation, unwanted pregnancies and contraception. 3. Responses depicting participant’s premarital and high risk sexual activities. Results: The mean age was 18.6 ±1.6 years, 46% of participants were female. The total sex related knowledge scores of males and females were 8.2±1.2 and 6.2±2.4 (p<0.0001), respectively. 84% males and 72% females disagree that virginity should be preserved till marriage. Premarital sex was reported by 48% males and 18% females. Out of those who had premarital sex, 68% males and none of the females had more than one sex partner and 21% males and 12% females had used a contraceptive during their sexual encounter. 87% males and 82% females disagree that sex education in secondary schools will cause a rise in premarital intercourse. 40% males and 13% females are of the view that birth control is primarily a female’s responsibility. 14% of males and 21% of females (p = 0.2) reported being forced to have sex. Conclusion: Participants, especially females, lacked basic information about sexuality and related concepts. Male participants had a very casual attitude towards having sex with multiple partners. Premarital sex is more common than once believed. In the light of our finds and the current scenario, sexuality education is indispensable in order to guide the youth to develop and adopt healthy and appropriate sexual practices. PMID:25302214

  14. Prior HIV Testing among STD Patients in Guangdong Province, China: Opportunities for Expanding Detection of Sexually Transmitted HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D; Yang, Li-Gang; Yang, Bin; Young, Darwin; Henderson, Gail E; Huang, Shu-Jie; Lu, He-Kun; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Cohen, Myron S

    2011-01-01

    Background Expanding HIV testing is important among individuals at increased risk for sexual HIV transmission in China, but little is known about prior HIV testing experiences among sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients. Methods This cross-sectional study of 1792 outpatients from six public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Guangdong Province recorded detailed information about ever having been tested for HIV infection in addition to socio-demographic variables, health seeking, clinical STD history, and HIV stigma using a validated survey instrument. Results 456 (25.4%) of the STD patients in this sample had ever been tested for HIV infection. STD patients who were male, had higher income, more education, were at City A and City C, received STD services at public facilities, had used intravenous drugs, and had a history of an STD were more likely to ever receive an HIV test in multivariate analysis. Low perceived HIV risk was the most common reason for not receiving an HIV test. Only 7.7% of the sample reported fear of discrimination or loss of face as influencing their lack of HIV testing. Conclusion Incomplete prior HIV screening among STD patients in China suggests the need for broadening HIV testing opportunities at STD clinics and similar clinical settings attended by those with increased sexual risk. PMID:22337103

  15. Commit and Transmit: Molecular Players in Plasmodium Sexual Development and Zygote Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Guttery, David S; Roques, Magali; Holder, Anthony A; Tewari, Rita

    2015-12-01

    During each cycle of asexual endomitotic division in erythrocytes, the malaria parasite makes a fundamental and crucial decision: to continue to invade and proliferate or to differentiate into gametocytes ready for continuation of sexual development. The proteins and regulatory pathways involved in Plasmodium sexual development have been of great interest in recent years as targets for blocking malaria transmission. However, the 'Holy Grail', the master switch orchestrating asexual-to-sexual commitment and further differentiation, has remained elusive - until now. Here we highlight the recent studies identifying the epigenetic and transcriptional master regulators of sexual commitment and discuss the key players in reversible phosphorylation pathways involved in sexual and zygote differentiation. PMID:26440790

  16. [Transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection of a apheresis platelet concentrate with Streptococcus gallolyticus: Analysis of one case].

    PubMed

    Le Niger, C; Dalbies, F; Narbonne, V; Hery-Arnaud, G; Virmaux, M; Léostic, C; Hervé, F; Liétard, C

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial infections are uncommon complications of the blood products transfusion but they are potentially serious. Many advances have been done over the past few years to guarantee the microbiological security of blood products as the donors selection with a medical talk, the derivation of the first 30 millilitres blood during the donation, the deleucocytation of blood products… But in spite of these advances, cases of bacterial infection always remain. The purpose of this study was to point out the platelet concentrate's transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection with Streptococcus gallolyticus and the unusual consequence for the donor by uncovering an asymptomatic rectal neoplastic tumor. This study as raised as to whether the usefulness of systematic bacterial inactivation in the platelets concentrates. PMID:24934685

  17. School-based condom education and its relations with diagnoses of and testing for sexually transmitted infections among men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby

    2009-12-01

    An intense social and political debate continues in the United States regarding sexuality education. Included in the debate are those who favor comprehensive approaches, those who favor abstinence-only approaches, and those who favor no sexuality education. In this study, we showed that men who received school-based condom education were less likely to have been diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and were more likely to ever have been tested for sexually transmitted infections than were men without such education. School-based condom education is associated with less, rather than more, STI risk. PMID:19833985

  18. Systematic Review of Interventions to Prevent Spread of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV, Among Young People in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Sihvonen-Riemenschneider, Henna; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich; Wong, Fiona; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    Aim To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV, among young people in the European Union. Methods For this systematic review, we examined interventions that aimed at STI risk reduction and health promotion conducted in schools, clinics, and in the community for reported effectiveness (in changing sexual behavior and/or knowledge) between 1995 and 2005. We also reviewed study design and intervention methodology to discover how these factors affected the results, and we compiled a list of characteristics associated with successful and unsuccessful programs. Studies were eligible if they employed a randomized control design or intervention-only design that examined change over time and measured behavioral, biologic, or certain psychosocial outcomes. Results Of the 19 studies that satisfied our review criteria, 11 reported improvements in the sexual health knowledge and/or attitudes of young people. Ten of the 19 studies aimed to change sexual risk behavior and 3 studies reported a significant reduction in a specific aspect of sexual risk behavior. Two of the interventions that led to behavioral change were peer-led and the other was teacher-led. Only 1 of the 8 randomized controlled trials reported any statistically significant change in sexual behavior, and then only for young females. Conclusion The young people studied were more accepting of peer-led than teacher-led interventions. Peer-led interventions were also more successful in improving sexual knowledge, though there was no clear difference in their effectiveness in changing behavior. The improvement in sexual health knowledge does not necessarily lead to behavioral change. While knowledge may help improve health-seeking behavior, additional interventions are needed to reduce STIs among young people. PMID:20162748

  19. Avatars using computer/smartphone mediated communication and social networking in prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among North-Norwegian youngsters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Chlamydia trachomatis bacterial infection, a common cause of infertility, are highly prevalent in developed countries, and a worrying problem in North Norway, where the incidence of chlamydia twice the Norwegian average. Seventy percent of reported chlamydia cases are found in people below 25 years of age, and although its spread could be controlled with proper prevention, young people are more aware of the risks of unwanted pregnancy than their risk of acquiring a STD. Information and Communication Technologies, including, the Internet, social media and/or smartphones, should be valued for sexual health promotion for their potential to engage young audiences. And in these media, avatars guarantee anonymity to users when handling sensitive information. The main objective of this project is to achieve that North Norwegian youngsters become more aware of STDs through the use of popular technologies among young people. Methods A Virtual Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (VCSTD) will be developed. The VCSTD will provide early guidance and reliable information sources concerning reproductive health, delivered in a novel and innovative way to the younger population. The VCSTD consists of an “avatar” supported intervention in a serious gaming and e-learning environment, which will bypass direct physical access (in person) to reliable medical information, as well as allowing the youngsters to share that information in social media, and thus helping the VCSTD to be disseminated to more people. Data analyses will be conducted on publically available health data relevant to STDs in Troms and Finnmark, like the absolute number of chlamydia tests, the amount of emergency contraception medication sold, and the number of abortions. Also, usage data of the system and experiences of usefulness will be explored through participants’ voluntary responses to a feedback form available in the VCSTD. Discussion This study will examine the usefulness of an online public health intervention that aims to promote healthy sexual practices among North-Norwegian youngsters. If shown to be effective, the intervention could prove to be an affordable and widely accessible intervention to decrease risky sexual practices in younger population. PMID:23110684

  20. Issues in the management of sexually transmitted diseases in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Passey, M

    1996-09-01

    This paper outlines three important issues in the clinical management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Papua New Guinea which have, until now, gone unrecognized or been neglected. Suggestions for possible solutions are made. The high prevalence of both chlamydial and trichomonal infections in women cannot be ignored. Both of these infections have been shown to increase the transmission of HIV. The current algorithm for the treatment of vaginal discharges does not include treatment for trichomonal infection in the first instance, yet trichomoniasis has been shown to be the most common STD in community studies both here and elsewhere. Trichomoniasis is usually asymptomatic in men, but still increases the risk of HIV transmission; furthermore, it causes illness in their female partners and thus needs to be treated. The current recommended regimens for the treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infection are complex due to the number of drugs recommended for gonorrhoea to combat the problem of drug resistance, and the length of therapy for chlamydia. Compliance with such a regimen is likely to be poor, particularly in asymptomatic partners. We need to consider the relative advantages provided by a drug which could be given as a single oral dose for chlamydia, and perhaps for both infections. Azithromycin is one possibility, as it has been shown to be effective for chlamydial infection in numerous studies, and has been found satisfactory for gonorrhoea where local isolates were susceptible. Testing of a small number of isolates from Papua New Guinea has shown that azithromycin may be suitable for use here, but further susceptibility testing needs to be performed. Utilization of services for STDs, particularly by women, is extremely low. This is due to a combination of factors involving limited knowledge of symptomatology and its significance, the asymptomatic nature of many infections, the structure of the services, health worker behaviour, and social attitudes. To address these issues we must make modifications to STD service provision, as well as provide widespread information about the potentially serious consequences of contracting STDs, including both infertility and AIDS. Possible modifications to the services are discussed, and include making routine screening available for women through currently existing services such as family planning and antenatal clinics and considering the possibility of establishing Women's Health Clinics which would provide all primary reproductive health services in an integrated manner. PMID:9795576

  1. High Prevalence of Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Patricia Carr; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Results: Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women <26 years of age (p=0.06) and those reporting sex while intoxicated/high on alcohol or drugs (p=0.05). For rectal CT, only age <26 years was associated with prevalent infection in unadjusted models; this association strengthened after multivariable adjustment (prevalence ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.2915.90). Conclusion: Nearly one in five women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have missed 14% of rectal infections. Standardized guidelines would increase rectal GC/CT testing in women and help detect missed infections. PMID:25692800

  2. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in an HIV testing clinic; uptake and prevalence.

    PubMed Central

    Madge, S; Elford, J; Lipman, M C; Mintz, J; Johnson, M A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the acceptability of STD screening among people seeking an HIV antibody test in an established free standing HIV testing clinic. DESIGN: A 9 month period prevalence study conducted between August 1993 and April 1994. SETTING: The Same Day Testing Clinic (SDTC) for HIV antibodies at the Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust Hospital, London. SUBJECTS: 242 males and 160 females attending the Same Day Testing Clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of STDs including gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis and hepatitis B and the percentage of clinic attenders accepting an STD screen. RESULTS: Of those invited to take part in the study 69% of the males (242/350) and 59% (160/269) of the females agreed to be screened although for a variety of reasons not everyone agreed to a full screen. Two cases of untreated syphilis, no cases of gonorrhoea and six cases of chlamydia were detected. Four people had active, previously undiagnosed herpes while three had genital warts. Evidence of previously unknown hepatitis B infection was found in 26 people. Despite a high level of previous contact with genitourinary medicine services, uptake of hepatitis B vaccination among those homosexual men eligible for immunisation was low (28%; 23/83). Nine (4%) of the males, but none of the females screened for STD were found to be HIV antibody positive. CONCLUSION: Among people seeking an HIV antibody test in an established free standing HIV testing clinic, the prevalence of acute STDs was low. However, evidence of previously undiagnosed hepatitis B infection was found in a number of subjects and uptake of vaccination among those most at risk had been low. While opportunistic screening for STD was acceptable to almost two thirds of HIV testing clinic attenders, a substantial minority nonetheless declined this offer. Selective STD screening could be offered to those people seeking an HIV test who report never having been screened before, as both cases of positive syphilis serology and all those of chlamydia were in people who had not previously been screened. All those at risk for hepatitis B infection should be encouraged to establish their infection status and be immunised where appropriate. PMID:8976852

  3. Obtaining Self-Samples to Diagnose Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Systematic Review of Patients’ Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Paudyal, Priyamvada; Llewellyn, Carrie; Lau, Jason; Mahmud, Mohammad; Smith, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine screening is key to sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and control. Previous studies suggest that clinic-based screening programmes capture only a small proportion of people with STIs. Self-sampling using non- or minimally invasive techniques may be beneficial for those reluctant to actively engage with conventional sampling methods. We systematically reviewed studies of patients’ experiences of obtaining self-samples to diagnose curable STIs. Methods We conducted an electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, BNI, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant articles published in English between January 1980 and March 2014. Studies were included if participants self-sampled for the diagnosis of a curable STI and had specifically sought participants’ opinions of their experience, acceptability, preferences, or willingness to self-sample. Results The initial search yielded 558 references. Of these, 45 studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-six studies assessed patients’ acceptability and experiences of self-sampling. Pooled results from these studies shows that self-sampling is a highly acceptable method with 85% of patients reporting the method to be well received and acceptable. Twenty-eight studies reported on ease of self-sampling; the majority of patients (88%) in these studies found self-sampling an “easy” procedure. Self-sampling was favoured compared to clinician sampling, and home sampling was preferred to clinic-based sampling. Females and older participants were more accepting of self-sampling. Only a small minority of participants (13%) reported pain during self-sampling. Participants were willing to undergo self-sampling and recommend others. Privacy and safety were the most common concerns. Conclusion Self-sampling for diagnostic testing is well accepted with the majority having a positive experience and willingness to use again. Standardization of self-sampling procedures and rigorous validation of outcome measurement will lead to better comparability across studies. Future studies need to conduct rigorous economic evaluations of self-sampling to inform policy development for the management of STI. PMID:25909508

  4. Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in a City of Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Pallavi; Masood, Jamal; Singh, J. V.; Singh, V. K.; Gupta, Abhishek; Krishna, Asuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Reproductive tract infections RTIs are important public health problems in India. The prevalence of these infections is considerably higher among high risk groups (HRGs) ranging from 20-30%. It is high time that a study should be conducted to explore different factors and conditions responsible for the practice of unsafe sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and the impact of this on social life and health of FSWs. As Lucknow provides a comprehensive opportunity in terms of tourism, occupation, and economy, it becomes a potential hub for sex work. Studying FSW in Lucknow can thus be considered as a yardstick for the entire FSW population of UP population. The present study was thus planned with the objective of knowing the STI prevalence and its determinants among FSWs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on FSWs registered with Targeted Intervention-Non-government Organization (TI-NGO), registered with Uttar Pradesh State Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Control Society (UPSACS) of Lucknow city. Total 288 subjects were studied. Results: The average age of FSWs was 31 years. FSWs were mostly Hindus and illiterate. The overall prevalence of STI as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. However, the percentage of FSWs with STI was higher in street-based (50.6%) than home-based (29.8%). Majority (42.7%) of sex workers with STI had non-regular partners only while majority (52.4%) of sex workers without any STI had only regular partners. Condom usage with regular partners was poor. However, with the non-regular partners the condom usage was better. On multivariate analysis being single, having sex work as a sole means of earning, duration of sex work > 2 years, having pallor, and giving in to client's demand for unsafe sex were found to be significant in causing STI. Conclusions: Prevalence of STI among the female sex workers as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. Unemployment, anemia, and having sex without condom for extra money, failure to persuade the client and not doing anything were found to be important predictors for presence of STI. PMID:25861174

  5. Sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infections and attitudes to chlamydia testing among a unique national sample of young Australians: baseline data from a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia infection is the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Australia and mostly affects young people (15 25 years). This paper presents baseline data from a randomised controlled trial that aimed to increase chlamydia testing among sexually active young people. The objectives were to identify associations between sexual behaviour, substance use and STI history and explore attitudes to chlamydia testing. Methods This study was conducted in cyberspace. Study recruitment, allocation, delivery of interventions and baseline and follow up data collection all took place online. Participants were 16 25 years old and resided in Australia. Substance use correlates of sexual activity; predictors of history of STIs; barriers to and facilitators of chlamydia testing were analysed. Results Of 856 participants (79.1% female), 704 had experienced penetrative intercourse. Sexually active participants were more likely to smoke regularly or daily, to drink alcohol, or to have binge drunk or used marijuana or other illicit substances recently. Risk factors for having a history of any STI were 3 or more sexual partners ever, 6 or more partners in the past 12 months, condom non-use and being 20 years or older. Almost all sexually active participants said that they would have a chlamydia test if their doctor recommended it. Conclusions Sexually active young people are at risk of STIs and may engage in substance use risk behaviours. Where one health risk behaviour is identified, it is important to seek information about others. Chlamydia testing can be facilitated by doctors and nurses recommending it. Primary care providers have a useful role in chlamydia control. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Trials Registry ACTRN12607000582459 PMID:24400743

  6. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of an HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk-Reduction Intervention for South African Men

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, Loretta S.; O’Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry D.; Heeren, G. Anita; Mtose, Xoliswa; Carty, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the efficacy of a sexual risk-reduction intervention for men in South Africa, where heterosexual exposure is the main mode of HIV transmission. Methods. Matched-pairs of neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, were randomly selected and within pairs randomized to 1 of 2 interventions based on social cognitive theory and qualitative research: HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction, targeting condom use, or attention-matched control, targeting health issues unrelated to sexual risks. Sexually active men aged 18 to 45 years were eligible. The primary outcome was consistent condom use in the past 3 months. Results. Of 1181 participants, 1106 (93.6%) completed the 12-month follow-up. HIV and STI risk-reduction participants had higher odds of reporting consistent condom use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.71) and condom use at last vaginal intercourse (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.82) than did attention-control participants, adjusting for baseline prevalence. No differences were observed on unprotected intercourse or multiple partnerships. Findings did not differ for sex with steady as opposed to casual partners. Conclusions. Behavioral interventions specifically targeting men can contribute to efforts to reduce sexual risk behaviors in South Africa. PMID:24432923

  7. Prevalence of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Kisumu, Western Kenya, 1997 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Vandenhoudt, Hilde M.; Langat, Lilian; Menten, Joris; Odongo, Fredrick; Oswago, Simon; Luttah, Geoffrey; Zeh, Clement; Crucitti, Tania; Laserson, Kayla; Vulule, John; Buve, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1997, a survey in Kisumu found a prevalence of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSW) of 75%. Only 50% reported using a condom with the last client. In 2008, we conducted another survey to collect data to inform an intervention targeting FSW in Kisumu. Methods In 2008 FSW were recruited by respondent-driven sampling. Women completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to explore factors associated with HIV-infection, and with condom use. Prevalence of HIV infection was compared in the two surveys from 1997 and 2008. Multivariate analysis was used to assess whether a change in HIV prevalence between the two surveys could be explained by changes in socio-demographic characteristics and/or behavioral factors. Results 481 FSW participated in the 2008 study. HIV prevalence was 56.5% (95% CI 52.0–61.6). Factors independently associated with HIV were age older than 29 years; being a widow; STI treatment in the past year; herpes simplex virus Type-2 infection; bacterial vaginosis; and trichomoniasis. Condom use with last client was reported by 75.0% (95% CI 70.9–78.9). Predictors of condom use with the last client were age older than 29 years; higher price paid by last client; ever having been tested for HIV. Predictors of unprotected sex were being drunk during last sex act; usually having sex during menses; and STI treatment in the past year. The odds ratio of HIV infection associated with year of survey was 0.49 (95% CI 0.33–0.75) after adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Conclusions The prevalence of HIV among FSW in Kisumu was found to be lower in 2008 than in 1997, while reported condom use was higher. However, access to HIV/STI prevention and care services needs to improve to further decrease HIV transmission between FSW and their clients. PMID:23372801

  8. [Characteristics of a population of sex workers and their association with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Dal Pogetto, Mara Rodrigues Baldin; Marcelino, Larissa Doddi; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Rall, Vera Lcia Mores; da Silva, Mrcia Guimares; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe a population of sex workers considering their sociodemographic characteristics, gyneco-obstetric history and behavioral factors, and to verify the association of these characteristics with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases. This epidemiological cross-sectional study was performed with 102 female sex workers. Data were collected using structured interviews and gold-standard exams for diagnosis of the diseases of interest. The women's mean age was 26.1 years. Most of them had attended school for nine years or more, were single and reported becoming sexually active before 15 years of age. Performing oral sex on partners was cited by 90.2% of women, and 99% reported the use of condoms at work; only 26.3% used condoms with permanent partners, and 42.2% used illicit drugs. No association was observed between sociodemographic factors, gyneco-obstetric history or behavioral factors and sexually transmitted diseases, which may have been due to their educational status and the fact that the population had very similar characteristics, thus making it difficult to determine such associations. PMID:23018397

  9. Family Influences on Adolescents’ Birth Control and Condom Use, Likelihood of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Manczak, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among personal factors, family structure and family function, adolescents’ self-efficacy for safe sex, and sexual behaviors among sexually active adolescents. A subset sample from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was selected for this exploratory…

  10. Family Influences on Adolescents Birth Control and Condom Use, Likelihood of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Manczak, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among personal factors, family structure and family function, adolescents self-efficacy for safe sex, and sexual behaviors among sexually active adolescents. A subset sample from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was selected for this exploratory

  11. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population. PMID:24986914

  12. Conceptualising quality of life outcomes for women participating in testing for sexually transmitted infections: A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Louise J; Roberts, Tracy E

    2015-10-01

    Many public health interventions have aims which are broader than health alone; this means that there are difficulties in using outcome measures that capture health effects only, such as Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are a major public health concern both in the UK and globally, with Chlamydia trachomatis being the most common bacterial STI worldwide. There is scope for the wider use of qualitative syntheses in health-related research; in this study we highlight their potential value in informing outcome identification, particularly for public health interventions where a broad range of outcomes may need to be considered. This article presents a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies that investigated women's experiences of thinking about and participating in testing for chlamydia. The meta-ethnography highlights issues relating to beliefs about STIs and testing, assessing risk and interpreting symptoms, emotional responses to testing, coping with diagnosis, relationship with sex partners(s), informal support, and interaction with health care services. The study findings suggest that women can experience a range of impacts on their health and quality of life. It is important that this range of effects is taken into account within evaluations, to ensure that decision makers are fully informed about the outcomes associated with screening interventions, and ultimately, to make sure that appropriate interventions are available to support women in maintaining good sexual health. PMID:26360418

  13. Feasibility of Providing Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment in Off-Campus, Nonclinic Settings for Adolescents Enrolled in a School-Based Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Mariam R.; Markham, Christine; Thiel, Melanie; Crandall, Stacy M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Shegog, Ross; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the acceptability and feasibility of using a biological outcome measure to evaluate a school-based sexuality education program. Confidential field-delivered sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing by nonmedical field staff and STI treatment by medically trained field staff was assessed in off-campus and

  14. Feasibility of Providing Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment in Off-Campus, Nonclinic Settings for Adolescents Enrolled in a School-Based Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Mariam R.; Markham, Christine; Thiel, Melanie; Crandall, Stacy M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Shegog, Ross; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the acceptability and feasibility of using a biological outcome measure to evaluate a school-based sexuality education program. Confidential field-delivered sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing by nonmedical field staff and STI treatment by medically trained field staff was assessed in off-campus and…

  15. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    PubMed

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs. PMID:16794556

  16. Male Circumcision Rates in Patients From a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Southern Florida and Acceptability of Circumcision Among Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Jose G.; Jones, Deborah L.; López, Maria R.; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were assessment of the prevalence of male circumcision (MC) among patients attending the Miami-Dade County (MDC) sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) clinic and exploration of attitudes of MC among Hispanic STD clinic attendees. Prevalence of MC was assessed by a review of 500 clinic records. Attitudes toward MC were explored during focus group sessions. The overall rate of MC was 27%. Men associated acceptability of MC with sexual performance, their partner’s anticipated responses to MC, and scientific proof of STD protection; whereas women focused on experiences with previous partners and hygiene. We found a low rate of circumcision in males attending the MDC STD clinic. Approximately half of the Hispanic men and women in focus groups also found MC acceptable or desirable. PMID:25152700

  17. Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women. PMID:25204565

  18. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  19. Preaching to the choir: preference for female-controlled methods of HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, S T; Miller, L C; Moore, J; Clark, L F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed interest in female-controlled methods of HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention. METHODS: Surveys were conducted with 168 African American women, aged 18 to 32 years, who had had unprotected sex and at least 3 sexual partners in the last 2 years. RESULTS: Of 44 potential features, "female control" (where women control the method by either wearing or applying it) ranked 22nd in average importance. Women who rated female control as highly important had fewer sex partners and fewer STDs and were more likely to use existing prevention methods frequently. CONCLUSIONS: Female control may be of less interest to women most at risk for HIV and other STDs. This underscores the need to take the priorities and preferences of women into consideration when developing new prevention methods. PMID:10897194

  20. Comment on The Origins of Sexually Transmitted HIV Among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Laura; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Foley, Brian T.; Mullins, James I.

    2016-01-01

    Whether HIV from seminal cells or free HIV in semen is the origin of transmitted virus has important implications for the design of transmission prevention strategies. We found that a recent claim that HIV originates from seminal plasma and not from seminal cells was erroneous, because it was based on biological specimens that had been mislabeled, mixed-up, or contaminated. The origin of transmitted virus from semen therefore remains an open question. PMID:20861507

  1. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers' Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Matthew B; Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  2. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers’ Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B.; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  3. Perceptions of barriers to discussing and testing for sexually transmitted infections in a convenience sample of general practice patients.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joanne R; Arnold-Reed, Diane E; Brett, Tom; Hince, Dana A; O'Ferrall, Ilse; Bulsara, Max K

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to identify patient perceptions of barriers to discussing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at the primary care level. An anonymous questionnaire was available to patients (16-70 years) in the waiting room of four metropolitan Perth general practices. Results are based on 370 participant views (9.5% of the potential target population). Patients felt comfortable discussing STIs with their general practitioner (GP) and their level of comfort would be enhanced if they knew their GP had a special interest or qualification in sexual health. Willingness to discuss issues increased or remained unchanged if the GP took time to explain it to them or was a good listener. Patients were willing to discuss STIs if they were a new patient and irrespective of the GP's gender and age. Fewer patients were willing to discuss STIs if they knew the GP socially. Patients who had sex with a new partner were willing to request a STI test from their GP. Patients were not embarrassed if discussion was initiated in a consultation unrelated to sexual health and did not mind discussing the topic in the presence of a partner or parent, though this depended on circumstances. Waiting room STI test advertising did not affect patient comfort level. Patients would involve their GP when seeking information about STIs. Patients have fewer barriers to discussing sexual health matters than perceived by GPs. PMID:22950952

  4. Patterns of sexually transmitted infections in patients presenting in special treatment clinic in Ibadan south western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Olusanya, Olawale; Anaedobe, Gloria Chinenye; Kalu, Iche; Ojide, Kingsley Chiedozie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that are often transferred from one person to another during sexual activity. In developing countries, an increase in the incidence of STIs is attributed to increasing urbanization, modernization, travel, education and exposure to Western media which has led to increased sexual activity, especially among young people. Methods This is a retrospective study carried out in the University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan, Nigeria. The records of a total of 506 patients who attended the clinic between Jan 2010-Dec 2011 were retrieved. The records of the patients complaints were taken. Detailed demographic data and history of genital symptoms was taken. Results The records of 506 patients were used 43.7% (221) were males and 56.3% (285) were females. The patient's age ranged from one to eighty, the 1-10 age groups and the 71-80 ages were the least represented age group. Age, sex, level of education, presenting complaints, presence of yeast cells, VDRL positivity were variables that were looked at. Of these only sex and occupation were risk factors for transmission of STI. Conclusion Good clinical care for patients with STIs should extend beyond therapy and include help to avoid future infections. Control activities should focus on the primary prevention of infection through safer sexual practices. Strategies for improving secondary prevention (health care-seeking behavior and case management) should include identification of people at risk and targeting them for intervention. PMID:26523165

  5. Screening wild and semi-free ranging great apes for putative sexually transmitted diseases: Evidence of Trichomonadidae infections.

    PubMed

    Rushmore, Julie; Allison, Andrew B; Edwards, Erin E; Bagal, Ujwal; Altizer, Sonia; Cranfield, Mike R; Glenn, Travis C; Liu, Hsi; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Mugisha, Lawrence; Muller, Martin N; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Wrangham, Richard; Yabsley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can persist endemically, are known to cause sterility and infant mortality in humans, and could have similar impacts in wildlife populations. African apes (i.e., chimpanzees, bonobos, and to a lesser extent gorillas) show multi-male mating behavior that could offer opportunities for STD transmission, yet little is known about the prevalence and impact of STDs in this endangered primate group. We used serology and PCR-based detection methods to screen biological samples from wild and orphaned eastern chimpanzees and gorillas (N = 172 individuals, including adults, and juveniles) for four classes of pathogens that either commonly cause human STDs or were previously detected in captive apes: trichomonads, Chlamydia spp., Treponema pallidum (syphilis and yaws), and papillomaviruses. Based on results from prior modeling and comparative research, we expected STD prevalence to be highest in females versus males and in sexually mature versus immature individuals. All samples were negative for Chlamydia, Treponema pallidum, and papillomaviruses; however, a high percentage of wild chimpanzee urine and fecal samples showed evidence of trichomonads (protozoa). Analysis revealed that females were more likely than males to have positive urine-but not fecal-samples; however, there was no evidence of age (sexual maturity) differences in infection status. Sequence analysis of chimpanzee trichomonad samples revealed a close relationship to previously described trichomonads within the genus Tetratrichomonas. Phylogenetic comparisons to archived sequences from multiple vertebrate hosts suggests that many of the chimpanzee parasites from our study are likely transmitted via fecal-oral contact, but the transmission of some Tetratrichomonas sequence-types remains unknown and could include sexual contact. Our work emphasizes that only a fraction of infectious agents affecting wild apes are presently known to science, and that further work on great ape STDs could offer insights for the management of endangered great apes and for understanding human STD origins. PMID:26119266

  6. Association of hepatitis B virus infection with other sexually transmitted infections in homosexual men. Omega Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Remis, R S; Dufour, A; Alary, M; Vincelette, J; Otis, J; Msse, B; Turmel, B; LeClerc, R; Parent, R; Lavoie, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among men who have sex with men. METHODS: At the baseline visit of an HIV study among men who have sex with men, we asked about HBV vaccination status and tested for HBV markers. RESULTS: Of 625 subjects, 48% had received at least 1 dose of HBV vaccine. Of 328 unvaccinated men, 41% had 1 or more HBV markers. HBV prevalence increased markedly with age and was associated with many sexual and drug-related behaviors. In a multivariate model, 7 variables were independently associated with HBV infection: ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 10.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6, 54); injection drug use (OR = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.2, 26); gonorrhea or chlamydia (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.9, 8.9); sexual partner with HIV/AIDS (OR = 3.6; 95% CI = 1.8, 7.1); 50 or more casual partners (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.6, 7.1); received money for sex (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.2, 7.8); and 20 or more regular partners (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 6.1). CONCLUSIONS: In Montreal, men who have sex with men are at risk for HBV infection, but a substantial proportion remain unvaccinated; new strategies are required to improve coverage. Men who have sex with men and who have a sexually transmitted infection, especially a genito-ulcerative infection, appear to be at particularly high risk for HBV infection. PMID:11029990

  7. Extensive Genetic Diversity, Unique Population Structure and Evidence of Genetic Exchange in the Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Melissa D.; Gorman, Andrew W.; Schillinger, Julia A.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Arroyo, Rossana; Malla, Nancy; Dubey, Mohan Lal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Blank, Susan; Secor, William E.; Carlton, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we utilize a panel of T. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2) differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor the T. vaginalis virus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages. Conclusions/Significance Our study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of global T. vaginalis genetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understanding T. vaginalis pathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease. PMID:22479659

  8. Risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases among women attending family planning clinics in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Gertig, D M; Kapiga, S H; Shao, J F; Hunter, D J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) assists in development of treatment algorithms, which are potentially important components of STD control when microbiologic facilities are limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed to assess STD and HIV risk factors of 2285 women attending three family planning clinics in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania during 1991-92. Women were interviewed and examined for signs of STDs. Specimens were taken for laboratory diagnosis of HIV, other sexually transmitted organisms, and Candida albicans. RESULTS: The prevalence of gonorrhoea was found to be 4.2%, prevalence of trichomoniasis was 14.3%, and positive syphilis serology was found in 2.5% of women. Unmarried women were at increased risk of trichomoniasis (age-adjusted OR = 1.48 95% CI [1.12, 1.95]), gonorrhoea (age-adjusted OR = 1.81 95% CI [1.14, 2.86]) and syphilis (age-adjusted OR 1.5 [0.84, 2.68]). An increasing number of sexual partners in the past five years was associated with an increased risk of all STDs. Current use of the oral contraceptive pill was positively associated with gonorrhoea, multivariate OR = 1.75 95% CI [1.05, 2.93]. The prevalence of candidiasis was 11.5% and was not associated with any of the demographic or behavioural risk factors examined. Clinical diagnostic algorithms for STDs in this study population had relatively low sensitivity and low positive predictive value. CONCLUSION: Being unmarried and having a higher number of sexual partners were consistently associated with each STD, while the associations for other risk factors varied between STDs, emphasising the complexity of STD distribution. Further development of diagnostic algorithms and other methods for screening women for STDs are needed to reduce the impact of STDs and HIV in developing countries. PMID:9155554

  9. Focus-on-Teens, sexual risk-reduction intervention for high-school adolescents: impact on knowledge, change of risk-behaviours, and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B

    2008-10-01

    A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n=1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards 'safer' sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (P<0.05). Proportion of students with complete correct knowledge of STDs/HIV increased to 88% at time 4 from 80% at baseline after adjusting for age, gender and sexual activity (P<0.05). High prevalence of STDs was detected in 875 participants who reported for urine testing at time 1: trichomonas, 11.8%; chlamydia, 10.1% and gonorrhoea, 4.1%. Prevalence decreased significantly for 310 participants who re-tested; chlamydia: 27.4% to 6.1% and gonorrhoea: 11.3% to 3.2%. FOT was successfully implemented as an STDs/HIV risk-reduction intervention. Sustained improvements of knowledge about STDs/HIV/condom usage, decreases in sexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention. PMID:18824625

  10. Self-administered sample collection for screening of sexually transmitted infection among reservation-based American Indian youth

    PubMed Central

    Tingey, Lauren; Strom, Rachel; Hastings, Ranelda; Parker, Anthony; Barlow, Allison; Rompalo, Anne; Gaydos, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Background American Indians suffer a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infection, particularly adolescents. Screening access barriers in rural and reservation-based communities necessitate alternatives to clinic-based options. Methods Self-administered screening for three sexually transmitted infections was piloted among 32 American Indian adolescents aged 18 to 19. Participants self-collected in a private location; specimens were processed by trained, American Indian paraprofessionals and analysis was conducted by an outside laboratory. Participants testing positive were treated by a Public Health Nurse from the Indian Health Service. Results Results suggest high overall acceptability: 69% preferred a self-administered method over clinic-based screening, 75% would encourage their friends to use this method and 100% would use it again. Conclusions A self-administered screening method has the ability to reach this and other high-risk populations that might not otherwise access screening, with added potential within the Indian Health Services system for uptake and dissemination in rural, reservation communities facing significant screening barriers. PMID:25228666

  11. Efficacy of an Adapted HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Intervention for Incarcerated Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Catherine I.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Neevel, A. M.; Parker, Sharon D.; Carry, Monique; White, Becky L.; Fasula, Amy M.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Gelaude, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We tested the efficacy of an adapted evidence-based HIV–sexually transmitted infection (STI) behavioral intervention (Providing Opportunities for Women′s Empowerment, Risk-Reduction, and Relationships, or POWER) among incarcerated women. Methods We conducted a randomized trial with 521 women aged 18 to 60 years in 2 correctional facilities in North Carolina in 2010 and 2011. Intervention participants attended 8 POWER sessions; control participants received a single standard-of-care STI prevention session. We followed up at 3 and 6 months after release. We examined intervention efficacy with mixed-effects models. Results POWER participants reported fewer male sexual partners than did control participants at 3 months, although this finding did not reach statistical significance; at 6 months they reported significantly less vaginal intercourse without a condom outside of a monogamous relationship and more condom use with a main male partner. POWER participants also reported significantly fewer condom barriers, and greater HIV knowledge, health-protective communication, and tangible social support. The intervention had no significant effects on incident STIs. Conclusions POWER is a behavioral intervention with potential to reduce risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV and STIs among incarcerated women returning to their communities. PMID:25211714

  12. Changes in human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections-related sexual risk taking among young Croatian adults: findings from the 2005 and 2010 population-based surveys

    PubMed Central

    Landripet, Ivan; tulhofer, Aleksandar; Ba?ak, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine changes in sexual behaviors and other relevant characteristics related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) risks among young Croatian adults. Method We surveyed adults aged 18-24 in 2005 (n?=?1092) and 18-25 in 2010 (n?=?1005). Both samples were probabilistic and stratified by county, settlement size, age, and gender. The samples were non-matched. Trained interviewers conducted structured face-to-face interviews in participants households. The part of the questionnaire assessing sensitive information was self-administered. Results A majority of participants at both survey points (85.2%-86.2%) were sexually active. Median age at sexual debut (17 years) remained unchanged. Lifetime number of sexual partners was also stable. More women than men reported only one lifetime sexual partner. The prevalence of condom use at first intercourse increased (from 62.6 to 70%, P?=?0.002), while the prevalence of condom use at most recent sexual intercourse remained stable (54% in 2005 and 54.7% in 2010). Consistent condom use also remained unchanged. About one fifth of participants (19.2% in 2005 and 20% in 2010) reported consistent condom use in the past year. At both survey points for both genders, consistent condom use was associated with age (odds ratio [OR] Women2005?=?0.74, P?=?0.004; ORWomen2010?=?0.72, P?sexual practices remain common among young Croatian adults. Given the recently reported STI prevalence rates in this age cohort, introduction of school-based sex education that would focus on protective behavioral and communication skills seems to be of crucial epidemiological importance. PMID:21853540

  13. Random Behaviour or Rational Choice? Family Planning, Teenage Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, David

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice models of teenage sexual behaviour lead to radically different predictions than do models that assume such behaviour is random. Existing empirical evidence has not been able to distinguish conclusively between these competing models. I use regional data from England between 1998 and 2001 to examine the impact of recent increases in

  14. Random Behaviour or Rational Choice? Family Planning, Teenage Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, David

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice models of teenage sexual behaviour lead to radically different predictions than do models that assume such behaviour is random. Existing empirical evidence has not been able to distinguish conclusively between these competing models. I use regional data from England between 1998 and 2001 to examine the impact of recent increases in…

  15. EXPERIENCE OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AS A PREDICTOR OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AMONG MARRIED WOMEN IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Sigbeku, O.A.; Fawole, O.I.; Ogunniyan, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue that is associated with adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs have recently gained more recognition worldwide because they increase the risk for HIVinfection. However, there is dearth of information on the association between IPV and STIs particularly among married women in Nigeria. Objective: To determine the association between IPV and STIs among married women in Nigeria. Method: This was a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) dataset. A total of 18,402 married women aged between 15 and 49 years were included. Questions about intimate partner violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale (CTS). Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine relationship between IPV and self-reported STIs. Results: The prevalence of IPV among married women in Nigeria was 29.3%. Majority of the women experienced emotional violence (22.1%), 17.3% of the women experienced physical violence while the least experienced form of violence was sexual IPV (4.4%). Majority (60.1%) of the women experienced just one type of IPV, 30.0% two types, 9.9% all three types. The prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections was 7.2%. Logistic regression demonstrated that after controlling for other covariates, women who experienced any form of IPV were found to be more likely to report STI than women who did not [OR 1.357 (95% CI 1.188-1.551)]. In addition, experience of physical and sexual IPV was significantly associated with history of STIs [OR 1.699 (95% CI 1.420-2.034); OR 1.414 (95% CI 1.085-1.843) respectively]. Experiencing two or more types of IPV was significantly associated with history of STIs [OR 1.759 (95% CI 1.446-2.139); OR 2.193 (95% CI 1.636-2.941) respectively]. Conclusion: There is a need to incorporate IPV screening and services in STI clinics. Also, it is important to screen for STIs among women who present with IPV particularly those with multiple types of violence. PMID:26807081

  16. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Hctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodrguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Baha Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population. PMID:25683522

  17. Knowledge of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases among women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Garland, M; Maggwa, B N; Mati, J K; Kihoro, J; Mbugua, S; Achola, P; Hunter, D J

    1993-01-01

    We interviewed 1,716 women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi between January 1990 and May 1991 about their knowledge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). When participants in the study were asked to name spontaneously the STDs they knew, more than 90% of the women named gonorrhea and AIDS, and 75.0% named syphilis; 65.4% could name two or more signs of AIDS; and 96.9%, 66.5%, and 58.3% mentioned sexual transmission, transmission via blood transfusion, and perinatal transmission, respectively, as routes of transmission of AIDS. Knowledge of most symptoms and routes of transmission of AIDS, as well as knowledge of gonorrhea and syphilis, was significantly positively associated with level of education. Unmarried women were significantly less likely to know symptoms and routes of transmission of AIDS than were married women. Level of knowledge of gonorrhea and syphilis was significantly positively associated with number of lifetime sexual partners. Although awareness of AIDS was very high, detailed knowledge of signs of AIDS and routes of transmission was deficient, particularly among less educated women. This positive association of detailed AIDS knowledge with level of education suggests a need to design AIDS prevention activities that are more accessible to, and better understood by, women who have little education. PMID:8439431

  18. Silencing sexually transmitted infections: topical siRNA-based interventions for the prevention of HIV and HSV.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Lee Adam

    2014-01-01

    The global impact of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is significant. The sexual transmission of viruses such as herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) and the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), has been especially difficult to control. To date, no effective vaccines have been developed to prevent the transmission of these STIs. Although antiretroviral drugs have been remarkably successful in treating the symptoms associated with these viral infections, the feasibility of their widespread use for prevention purposes may be more limited. Microbicides might provide an attractive alternative option to reduce their spread. In particular, topically applied small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs) have been shown to not only block transmission of viral STIs to mucosal tissues both in vitro and in vivo, but also confer durable knockdown of target gene expression, thereby circumventing the need to apply a microbicide around the time of sexual encounter, when compliance is mostly difficult. Despite numerous clinical trials currently testing the efficacy of siRNA-based therapeutics, they have yet to be approved for use in the treatment of viral STIs. While several obstacles to their successful implementation in the clinic still exist, promising preclinical studies suggest that siRNAs are a viable modality for the future prevention and treatment of HSV and HIV. PMID:24526828

  19. The relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three contrasting approaches to partner notification for curable sexually transmitted infections: a cluster randomised trial in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Cassell, Jackie A; Dodds, Julie; Estcourt, Claudia; Llewellyn, Carrie; Lanza, Stefania; Richens, John; Smith, Helen; Symonds, Merle; Copas, Andrew; Roberts, Tracy; Walters, Kate; White, Peter; Lowndes, Catherine; Mistry, Hema; Rossello-Roig, Melcior; Smith, Hilary; Rait, Greta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Partner notification is the process of providing support for, informing and treating sexual partners of individuals who have been diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is traditionally undertaken by specialist sexual health services, and may involve informing a partner on a patient's behalf, with consent. With an increasing proportion of STIs diagnosed in general practice and other community settings, there is a growing need to understand the best way to provide partner notification for people diagnosed with a STI in this setting using a web-based referral system. OBJECTIVE We aimed to compare three different approaches to partner notification for people diagnosed with chlamydia within general practice. DESIGN Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING General practices in England and, within these, patients tested for and diagnosed with genital chlamydia or other bacterial STIs in that setting using a web-based referral system. INTERVENTIONS Three different approaches to partner notification: patient referral alone, or the additional offer of either provider referral or contract referral. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES (1) Number of main partners per index patient treated for chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea/non-specific urethritis/pelvic inflammatory disease; and (2) proportion of index patients testing negative for the relevant STI at 3 months. RESULTS As testing rates for chlamydia were far lower than expected, we were unable to scale up the trial, which was concluded at pilot stage. We are not able to answer the original research question. We present the results of the work undertaken to improve recruitment to similar studies requiring opportunistic recruitment of young people in general practice. We were unable to standardise provider and contract referral separately; however, we also present results of qualitative work aimed at optimising these interventions. CONCLUSIONS External recruitment may be required to facilitate the recruitment of young people to research in general practice, especially in sensitive areas, because of specific barriers experienced by general practice staff. Costs need to be taken into account together with feasibility considerations. Partner notification interventions for bacterial STIs may not be clearly separable into the three categories of patient, provider and contract referral. Future research is needed to operationalise the approaches of provider and contract partner notification if future trials are to provide generalisable information. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN24160819. FUNDING This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 19, No. 5. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. PMID:25619445

  20. Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions for Patients Attending Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in the United States: A Meta-Analytic Review, 1986 to Early 2009

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients are more likely to experience a future STD including HIV. Purpose To examine the efficacy of behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior and incident STDs among patients attending STD clinics in the United States. Methods Meta-analysis of 32 studies with 48 separate interventions targeting STD patients (N = 67,538). Independent raters coded study, sample, and intervention characteristics. Effect sizes, using both fixed- and random-effects models, were calculated. Potential moderators of intervention efficacy were assessed. Results Relative to controls, intervention participants increased their condom use and had fewer incident STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), across assessment intervals (d+s ranging from 0.05 to 0.64). Several sample (e.g., age, ethnicity) and intervention features (e.g., targeting intervention to a specific group) moderated the efficacy of the intervention. Conclusions Behavioral interventions targeted to STD clinic patients reduce sexual risk behavior and prevent HIV/STDs. Widespread use of behavioral interventions in STD clinics should be a public health priority. PMID:20652778

  1. Use of a risk quiz to predict infection for sexually transmitted infections: a retrospective analysis of acceptability and positivity

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Jett-Goheen, Mary; Barnes, Mathilda; Dize, Laura; Barnes, Perry; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals who are sexually active may want to make a decision as to whether they are at risk for having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis. Our goal was to develop and evaluate a simple self-taken sexual risk quiz for participants, ordering an online STI self-collection test kit to determine whether the score predicted infection status. Methods As part of the IWantTheKit programme for home sample self-collection for STIs, 20102013, the programme asked male and female users to voluntarily take a risk quiz. The six-question quiz was about risk behaviour and included an age question. Data analyses were stratified by gender as determined a priori. Scores 010 were stratified into risk groups for each gender based on similar risk score-specific STI prevalence. Retrospective analyses were performed to assess whether risk group predicted aggregate STI positivity. Urogenital/rectal mailed samples were tested by nucleic acid amplification tests. Results More females (N=836) than males (N=558) provided voluntary risk scores. The percentage of eligible participants who submitted scores was 43.9% for both females and males. There was a higher STI infection rate in females (14.0%) than in males (7.0%) for having any STI (p<0.001). Multivariate logistic analysis for females, which controlled for age and race, demonstrated that a higher risk score group independently predicted risk for having an STI (OR of 2.2 for risk scores 57 and 4.2 OR for scores of 810). For males, the multivariate model, which controlled for race, indicated that no risk score group was associated having an STI. Conclusions Results of a participants own sexual risk quiz score independently predicted STI positivity for women, but not for men. Further study of this simple risk quiz is required. PMID:26285773

  2. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Kerr, Thomas; Shoveller, Jean A; Montaner, Julio SG; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. Methods Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS). We examined structural factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression. Results At baseline, 415 (78.4%) were sexually active, of whom 253 (61.0%) reported multiple sex partners and 288 (69.4%) reported inconsistent condom use in the past six months. In multivariate analysis, self-reported barriers to health services were inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.25 – 1.07). Structural factors that were associated with greater numbers of sex partners included homelessness (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.11 – 2.14) and having an area restriction that affects access to services (aIRR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.28 – 4.18). Being searched or detained by the police was significant for males (aIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.02 – 1.81). Conclusion Although limited by its cross-sectional design, our study found several structural factors amenable to policy-level interventions independently associated with sexual risk behaviours. These findings imply that the criminalization and displacement of street-involved youth may increase the likelihood that youth will engage in sexual risk behaviours and exacerbate the negative impact of resultant health outcomes. Moreover, our findings indicate that environmental-structural interventions may help to reduce the burden of these diseases among street youth in urban settings. PMID:19134203

  3. [The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among Polish soldiers serving in U.N. military forces in the Middle East and south-east Asia].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Olsza?ski, Romuald

    2006-01-01

    The results of own studies concerning the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in the population of Polish soldiers serving in U.N. Military Forces in Lebanon (UNIFIL) and Cambodia (UNTAC) are presented in the article. The epidemiological analysis was based on the medical documentation of the patients treated in UNIFIL Hospital from 1993 to 2000 and in UNTAC medical centers from 1992 to 1993. The research showed that among the military personnel of U.N. peace mission in Lebanon sexually transmitted diseases caused no epidemiological problem. On the other hand, venereal diseases in Cambodia made up one of the main causes of morbidity in the population of Polish soldiers. The main reason of treatment of sexually transmitted diseases in the analyzed period was gonorrhea. PMID:16964690

  4. [Prevention of genito-anal and bucco-laryngo-esophageal cancers caused by sexually transmitted viruses].

    PubMed

    Math, G

    1985-01-01

    Whilst some viruses of the Papilloma family cause warts on the skin, others infect mucosal cells. The types called 6 and 11 produce benign papillomas, called condylomata acuminata, visible to the naked eye, not only on the vulva, vagina, penis (cockscomb), but also in the anus, and occasionally the larynx, mouth (tongue) and oesophagus. Types 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer (generally called in situ) and especially very small flat lesions that can only be seen through the colposcope in women and a lens in men. These flat micro-lesions can also be found on the vulva, vaginal walls and on the glans and, balano-preputial area and shaft in males, the distal urethra, anus, larynx (especially the vocal cords), the mouth and oesophagus. These flat micro-lesions are either early cancers (here the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the virus 16 and/or 18 is integrated into the cell genome), or precancerous lesion in which case the viral DNA is not integrated. Their malignant transformation is much more frequent at the junction of the glandular and squamous parts of the cervix, than in the vulva or vagina. Co-carcinogenic factors appear to have an important role in the malignant transformation;--as for instance sexually transmissible infections including chlamydiae, bacteria that produce carcinogens such as nitrosamines, herpes virus which is known to cause mutations predisposing to the integration of the Papova viruses, chemical substances applied to the genitalia. The role of low hygiene standards in male sexual partners is the major cause (such men can carry simultaneously several sexually transmissible diseases (STD], who are never examined in search for flat lesions, who do not seek medical advice and have multiple sexual contacts with many women among whom some are more dangerous than prostitutes, especially since the wide use of hormone contraceptives and abortion that has multiplied the incidence of cervical cancer by 3 among the 20 year-old females, by 4 among the 25 year-old ones and by 2.5 among the 30 year-old ones, between 1961-65 and 1982-83. These changes in contraception have now made intra-vaginal ejaculation the rule (this not only carries viruses and other micro-organisms into the female genital tract, but also deposits sperm that contains some thirty factors that suppress local immunity). This with the rise of multiple partners, early sexual activity in particular in girls (hardly post-puberty) explains the increase of the frequency of cervical cancer in younger and younger women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3002511

  5. High prevalence of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections amongst the inmates of a district jail in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Prasad, R; Mohanty, A

    1999-07-01

    Two hundred and forty male and 9 female jail inmates confined for various crimes in a district jail near Delhi were screened for sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases including HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C viral infections, skin diseases etc. The inmates were aged 15-50 years with a mean of 24.8+/-0.11. Their alleged criminal background, period of stay in the jail, drug addiction, education, birth place, marital status, sexual activity, and clinical complaints were recorded by an anonymous questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against HIV (1+2), hepatitis C (HCV), Treponema pallidum and for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Sputum examination was done for acid-fast bacilli. Out of the 240 men, 115 were married and 125 unmarried. One hundred and eighty-four (76.6%) men gave history of penetrative sex. Of the 184, 53 (28.8%) were homosexuals or bisexuals and 131 (71.2%) had sex with women only. Sixty of the 131 (45.8%) were faithful to their partners while 124 gave a history of having multiple sexual partners and 100 of them (80.6%) had unprotected sex. Eighty-three of these 100 also had had sex with commercial sex workers (CSWs). One hundred and twenty-six were addicted for alcohol, 44 for smack/charas and 8 had a history of intravenous drug abuse. One hundred and seventy-four were not aware of AIDS. On examination 28 of the 240 (11.6%) had active hepatitis with or without a history of jaundice in the last 2 years, 25 (10.4%) active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and 11 (4.6%) had syphilitic ulcers on the penis. Four-fifths of the teenagers confined to a particular barrack had moderate to severe scabies. Three males (1.3%) were found to be Western blot confirmed HIV-1 positive while 28 (11.1%) men and 2 (22.2%) women were positive for HBsAg. Twelve (5.0%) men but no women, were found to be positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Out of the 3 HIV-positive persons, one was an intravenous drug user (IVDU), second was a drug addict and frequent CSW visitor while the third was a homosexual. This pilot study gives an indication that sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections are highly prevalent in jail premises and pose a threat of rapid spread of these infections through IVDU and homosexuality. PMID:10454185

  6. Syphilis serology in patients with primary syphilis and non-treponemal sexually transmitted diseases in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Sischy, A; da L'Exposto, F; Dangor, Y; Fehler, H G; Radebe, F; Walkden, D D; Miller, S D; Ballard, R C

    1991-04-01

    The reactivity of a non-specific reagin (RPR) test and a specific treponemal (FTA-ABS) test were determined in 21 patients with primary syphilis, 430 patients with proven non-treponemal genital ulcerations and 719 patients with acute urethritis presenting at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in southern Africa. Excluding those 21 cases of primary syphilis, 358 of 1149 tests performed (31%) were found to be reactive by at least one test. The rate of false positive RPR tests was very low (0.02%). Significantly higher rates of seropositivity were detected in patients with genital ulcerations than in patients with acute urethritis. The highest rates were detected among patients with proven lymphogranuloma venereum (34% RPR positive, FTA-ABS positive; 19% RPR negative, FTA-ABS positive). The geometric mean titres (GMT) of positive RPR tests in non-treponemal infections were found to be lower than in darkfield positive cases of genital ulcer disease. PMID:2032706

  7. Meta-Analysis of Single-Session Behavioral Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections: Implications for Bundling Prevention Packages

    PubMed Central

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Sagherian, Michael J.; Warren, Michelle; Popat, Ami R.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based, single-session behavioral interventions are urgently needed for preventing the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To estimate the efficacy of single-session, behavioral interventions for STI prevention, we collected data from 29 single-session interventions (20 studies; n = 52 465) with an STI outcome. Infection with an STI was 35% less likely (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.55–0.77) among intervention group participants than among control group participants. Single-session interventions offer considerable benefits in terms of disease prevention and create minimal burden for both the patient and the provider. Brief and effective STI prevention interventions are a valuable tool and can be readily adapted to bolster the benefits of biomedical technologies focusing on the prevention of HIV and other STIs. PMID:22994247

  8. Evaluation of Sexually Transmitted Diseases/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Intervention Programs for Sex Workers in Calcutta, India

    PubMed Central

    GANGOPADHYAY, DWIJENDRA NATH; CHANDA, MITRA; SARKAR, KAMALESH; NIYOGI, SWAPAN KUMAR; CHAKRABORTY, SEKHAR; SAHA, MALAY KUMAR; MANNA, BYOMKESH; JANA, SMARAJIT; RAY, PRATIM; BHATTACHARYA, SUJIT KUMAR; DETELS, ROGER

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective The Sonagachi Project in Calcutta, India, organized sex workers to improve working conditions. Goal To compare rates of sexually transmitted diseases between the Sonagachi Project and other areas in which only the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) interventions were implemented. Study A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected female sex workers. Results There was no difference in the prevalence of all STDs between the 2 areas; both were lower than reported in other surveys in 1992. Analysis using propensity scores also failed to demonstrate any difference. The number of preventive activities was similar in the Sonagachi and NACO-only areas but was more prevalent than in 1992. Sex workers in the Sonagachi area had better treatment-seeking behavior and attitudes. Both the Sonagachi and NACO strategies have resulted in lower STD rates, but the Sonagachi Project also increased the proportion who had an optimistic attitude and increased prevention and treatment-seeking behavior. PMID:16254542

  9. Screening Juvenile Justice-Involved Females for Sexually Transmitted Infection: A Pilot Intervention for Urban Females in Community Supervision

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Abigail A.; Burns, Jessica; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Maehr, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) rates in community-supervised juvenile justice-involved (CSJJI) females, or how to best provide screening for sexually transmitted infections in this population. A pilot intervention allowed case managers to offer optional CT/GC screening to CSJJI females during mandated visits. Anonymous satisfaction surveys and discussion groups assessed intervention acceptability. Case managers met with 514 CSJJI females; 102 (20%) agreed to screening and 117 tests were completed. Among those screened, 21 (18%) had CT and 3 (3%) had GC. Intervention feedback from case managers and clients was positive, but there were barriers to recruitment. Lessons learned from this case manager-facilitated intervention may increase the acceptability and effectiveness of future screening methods in this setting. PMID:23983235

  10. No evidence that presence of sexually transmitted infection selects for reduced mating rate in the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sophie L.; Pastok, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in animals and plants, and frequently impair individual fertility. Theory predicts that natural selection will favour behaviours that reduce the chance of acquiring a STI. We investigated whether an STI, Coccipolipus hippodamiae has selected for increased rejection of mating by female Adalia bipunctata as a mechanism to avoid exposure. We first demonstrated that rejection of mating by females did indeed reduce the chance of acquiring the mite. We then examined whether rejection rate and mating rate differed between ladybirds from mite-present and mite-absent populations when tested in a common environment. No differences in rejection intensity or remating propensity were observed between the two populations. We therefore conclude there is no evidence that STIs have driven the evolution of female mating behaviour in this species. PMID:26290801

  11. On the pathway to better birth outcomes? A systematic review of azithromycin and curable sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Chico, R Matthew; Hack, Berkin B; Newport, Melanie J; Ngulube, Enesia; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The WHO recommends the administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to all pregnant women living in areas of moderate (stable) to high malaria transmission during scheduled antenatal visits, beginning in the second trimester and continuing to delivery. Malaria parasites have lost sensitivity to SP in many endemic areas, prompting the investigation of alternatives that include azithromycin-based combination (ABC) therapies. Use of ABC therapies may also confer protection against curable sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs). The magnitude of protection at the population level would depend on the efficacy of the azithromycin-based regimen used and the underlying prevalence of curable STIs/RTIs among pregnant women who receive preventive treatment. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy data of azithromycin against curable STIs/RTIs. PMID:24191955

  12. Reducing alcohol use, sex risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections among Filipina female bar workers: effects of an ecological intervention.

    PubMed

    Morisky, Donald E; Chiao, Chi; Ksobiech, Kate; Malow, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of a quasi-experimental community-based research intervention initiative targeting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) testing and condom use among Filipina female bar workers (FBWs). Established at the peer, organizational, and policy levels, bar managers and peer educators from 110 different establishments, in 4 southern Philippines regions, were trained. Only FBWs in the combination peer educator and manager training intervention condition significantly increased STI testing from baseline to follow-up. STI testing was significantly associated with higher HIV/AIDS knowledge, lower probability of contracting HIV, and increased condom use. Based on the findings, future research on the adaptability of this intervention to FBWs residing in HIV epicenters is warranted. PMID:20391058

  13. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M.; Cohen, Elijah L.; LeClerc, M.; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12–29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD = 2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p = 0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p = 0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p = 0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p = 0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p < 0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to understanding sexual risk in transgender adolescents and young adults. HIV and STI prevention efforts, including early intervention efforts, are needed in community-based settings serving transgender youth that attend to sex-specific (biological) and gender-related (social) pathways. PMID:25790139

  14. The mucosal adjuvant effect of alpha-galactosylceramide for induction of protective immunity to sexually transmitted viral infection.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Madelene; Persson, Josefine; Thörn, Karolina; Harandi, Ali M

    2009-05-15

    Development of mucosal adjuvants to generate immunity in the female genital tract may have important implications for the development of vaccines to counter sexually transmitted infections. alpha-Galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) is presented by CD1d molecule on APCs to invariant Valpha14(+) NKT (iNKT) cells, which upon activation rapidly produce large amounts of immunomodulatory cytokines, leading to activation of a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells. Here, we assessed whether alpha-GalCer could act as a mucosal adjuvant for induction of protective immunity against genital herpes. We found that intranasal immunization with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) in combination with alpha-GalCer elicits strong systemic gD-specific IgG Ab response as well as lymphoproliferative response with a mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine profile in the spleen, mediastinal lymph nodes, and genital lymph nodes. Importantly, such an immunization scheme conferred complete protection against an otherwise lethal vaginal HSV-2 challenge. We could also show that intravaginal immunization with gD plus alpha-GalCer generates potent gD-specific lymphoproliferative and IFN-gamma responses in the genital lymph nodes and spleen. Furthermore, the vaginally immunized mice developed a strong systemic and mucosal IgG Ab response and protection against vaginal HSV-2 challenge. The mucosal adjuvant effect of alpha-GalCer was found to be mediated via CD1d molecule and appeared to be independent of the usage of the adaptor molecule MyD88. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the mucosal adjuvant effect of alpha-GalCer for induction of protective immunity against a sexually transmitted pathogen. PMID:19414797

  15. Retention of clinical trial participants in a study of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), a sexually transmitted infection in men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Lensing, Shelly Y; Schwebke, Jane R

    2012-07-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), an inflammation of the urethra not caused by gonorrhea, is the most common urethritis syndrome seen in men in the United States. It is a sexually transmitted infection commonly caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, a pathogen which occurs more frequently in African-American men compared to white men. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to retention of study participants in a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial that evaluated four treatment regimens for the treatment of NGU. After the one-week treatment period, follow-up visits were scheduled during days 15-19 and days 35-45. Participants were phoned prior to scheduled appointments to encourage attendance, and contacted after missed appointments to reschedule their clinic visits. Of the 305 male study participants, 298 (98%) were African-American, 164 (54%) were 25 years of age or younger, and 80 (31%) had a post-secondary school education. The overall retention rate was 75%. Factors associated with study completion were educational level attained and clinical center. Participants with higher levels of education were more likely to complete the study. Clinical centers with the highest retention rates also provided the highest monetary incentives for participation. The retention rate for this study suggests that strategies are needed for improving the proportion of study participants that complete a clinical trial among young men with a sexually transmitted disease. These strategies may include increasing contacts with study participants to remind them of scheduled study visits using text messaging or social media and the use of financial incentives. PMID:22261236

  16. Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Guinea-Bissau: A Sexually Transmitted Genotype 2 with Parenteral Amplification?

    PubMed Central

    Plamondon, Mireille; Labb, Annie-Claude; Frost, Eric; Deslandes, Sylvie; Alves, Alfredo Claudino; Bastien, Nathalie; Pepin, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa is the continent with the highest prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Genotype 2 HCV is thought to have originated from West Africa several hundred years ago. Mechanisms of transmission remain poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To delineate mechanisms for HCV transmission in West Africa, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of individuals aged ?50 years in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Dried blood spots were obtained for HCV serology and PCR amplification. Prevalence of HCV was 4.4% (47/1066) among women and 5.0% (27/544) among men. In multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for HCV infection were age (baseline: 5059 y; 6069 y, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.67, 95% CI: 0.913.06; ?70 y, AOR: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.896.39), belonging to the Papel, Mancanha, Balanta or Mandjako ethnic groups (AOR: 2.45, 95% CI:1.324.53), originating from the Biombo, Cacheu or Oio regions north of Bissau (AOR: 4.16, 95% CI: 1.1814.73) and having bought or sold sexual services (AOR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.886.89). Of 57 isolates that could be genotyped, 56 were genotype 2. Conclusions Our results suggest that transmission of HCV genotype 2 in West Africa occurs through sexual intercourse. In specific locations and subpopulations, medical interventions may have amplified transmission parenterally. PMID:17440608

  17. HIV, Hepatitis C, and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Male Sex Workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Colby, Donn J; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Nguyen, Thi; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    There is little data on the burden of HIV and other infections that affect male sex workers (MSW) in Vietnam. We conducted behavioral and biological sexual health surveys with 300 MSW in Ho Chi Minh City. Generalized estimating equation models were built to assess factors associated with HIV, hepatitis C, and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Of 300 MSW, 19 (6.3 %) were diagnosed seropositive for HIV, 11 (3.7 %) had hepatitis C, and 26 (8.7 %) had at least one prevalent STI. In a multivariable model, opiate use was significantly associated with HIV infection (aOR 6.46, 95 % CI 1.28-32.7) and hepatitis C (aOR = 19.6, 95 % CI 2.35-163.6). Alcohol dependency was associated with increased odds of hepatitis C (aOR = 4.79, 95 % CI 1.02-22.5) and decreased odds of other STI (aOR = 0.30, 95 % CI 0.10-0.97). These findings suggest that MSW in Vietnam would benefit from regular HIV and STI testing, as well as linkage to care and substance use rehabilitation services. PMID:26563761

  18. Social marketing to promote HPV vaccination in pre-teenage children: talk about a sexually transmitted infection.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joan R; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2015-01-01

    A significant barrier to the delivery of HPV vaccine is reluctance by both healthcare providers and parents to vaccinate at age 11 or 12, which may be considered a young age. This barrier has been called "vaccine hesitancy" in recent research. In this commentary, we suggest using social marketing strategies to promote HPV vaccination at the recommended preteen ages. We emphasize a critical public health message of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) as preventable and vaccination against HPV as a way to protect against its consequences. The message tackles the issue of vaccine hesitancy head on, by saying that most people are at risk for HPV and there is a way to prevent HPV's serious consequences of cancer. Our approach to this conversation in the clinical setting is also to engage the preteen in a dialog with the parent and provider. We expect our emphasis on the risk of STI infection will not only lead to increased HPV vaccination at preteen ages but also lay important groundwork for clinical adoption of other STI vaccines in development (HIV, HSV, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea) as well as begin conversations to promote sexual health. PMID:25692313

  19. Social marketing to promote HPV vaccination in pre-teenage children: Talk about a sexually transmitted infection

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Joan R; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2015-01-01

    A significant barrier to the delivery of HPV vaccine is reluctance by both healthcare providers and parents to vaccinate at age 11 or 12, which may be considered a young age. This barrier has been called “vaccine hesitancy” in recent research. In this commentary, we suggest using social marketing strategies to promote HPV vaccination at the recommended preteen ages. We emphasize a critical public health message of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) as preventable and vaccination against HPV as a way to protect against its consequences. The message tackles the issue of vaccine hesitancy head on, by saying that most people are at risk for HPV and there is a way to prevent HPV's serious consequences of cancer. Our approach to this conversation in the clinical setting is also to engage the preteen in a dialog with the parent and provider. We expect our emphasis on the risk of STI infection will not only lead to increased HPV vaccination at preteen ages but also lay important groundwork for clinical adoption of other STI vaccines in development (HIV, HSV, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea) as well as begin conversations to promote sexual health. PMID:25692313

  20. Eating sweets without the wrapper: perceptions of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among street youth in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Embleton, Lonnie; Wachira, Juddy; Kamanda, Allan; Naanyu, Violet; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-03-01

    Street-connected youth in Kenya are a population potentially at risk of HIV transmission, yet little is known about their perceptions and experiences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), despite their living in an HIV endemic region. We sought to elucidate the language and sociocultural factors rooted in street life that impact on street-connected young people's knowledge of and perceptions about the prevention and transmission of STIs, and their diagnosis and treatment, using qualitative methods in western Kenya. We conducted a total of 25 in-depth interviews and 5 focus-group discussions with 65 participants aged 11-24 years in Eldoret, Kenya. Thematic analysis was conducted and data were coded according to themes and patterns emergent until saturation was reached. In general, street-connected young people knew of STIs and some of the common symptoms associated with these infections. However, there were many misconceptions regarding transmission and prevention. Gender inequities were prominent, as the majority of men described women as individuals who spread STIs due to unhygienic practices, urination and multiple partners. Due to misconceptions, gender inequity and lack of access to youth-friendly healthcare there is an urgent need for community-based organisations and healthcare facilities to introduce or augment their adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes for vulnerable young people. PMID:26394208

  1. Structural approaches for prevention of sexually transmitted HIV in general populations: definitions and an operational approach

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Justin O

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although biomedical HIV prevention efforts have seen a number of recent promising developments, behavioural interventions have often been described as failing. However, clear lessons have been identified from past efforts, including the need to address influential social, economic and legal structures; to tailor efforts to local contexts; and to address multiple influencing factors in combination. Despite these insights, there remains a pervasive strategy to try to achieve sexual behaviour change through single, decontextualized, interventions or sets of activities. With current calls for structural approaches to HIV as part of combination HIV prevention, though, there is a unique opportunity to define a structural approach to HIV prevention as one which moves beyond these past limitations and better incorporates our knowledge of the social world and the lessons from past efforts. Discussion A range of interlinked concepts require delineation and definition within the broad concept of a structural approach to HIV. This includes distinguishing between “structural factors,” which can be seen as any number of elements (other than knowledge) which influence risk and vulnerability, and “structural drivers,” which should be reserved for situations where an empirically established relationship to a target group is known. Operationalizing structural approaches similarly can take different paths, either working to alter structural drivers or alternatively working to build individual and community resilience to infection. A “structural diagnostic approach” is further defined as the process one undertakes to develop structural intervention strategies tailored to target groups. Conclusions For three decades, the HIV prevention community has struggled to reduce the spread of HIV through sexual risk behaviours with limited success, but equally with limited engagement with the lessons that have been learned about the social realities shaping patterns of sexual practices. Future HIV prevention efforts must address the multiple factors influencing risk and vulnerability, and they must do so in ways tailored to particular settings. Clarity on the concepts, terminology and approaches that can allow structural HIV prevention efforts to achieve this is therefore essential to improve the (social) science of HIV prevention. PMID:25204872

  2. NYC condom use and satisfaction and demand for alternative condom products in New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ryan C; Wilson, Juliet; Kowalski, Alexis; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica; Begier, Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, via a high-profile media campaign, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) introduced the "NYC Condom," the first specially packaged condom unique to a municipality. We conducted a survey to measure NYC Condom awareness of and experience with NYC Condoms and demand for alternative male condoms to be distributed by the DOHMH. Trained interviewers administered short, in-person surveys at five DOHMH-operated sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Spring 2008. We systematically sampled eligible patients: NYC residents aged ≥18 years waiting to see a physician. We approached 539; 532 agreed to be screened (98.7% response rate); 462 completed the survey and provided NYC zip codes. Most respondents were male (56%), non-Hispanic black (64%), aged 18-24 years (43%) or 25-44 years (45%), employed (65%), and had a high school degree/general equivalency diploma or less (53%). Of those surveyed, 86% were aware of the NYC Condom, and 81% of those who obtained the condoms used them. NYC Condom users were more likely to have four or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-3.8), use condoms frequently (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and name an alternative condom for distribution (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9). The most frequently requested condom types respondents wanted DOHMH to provide were larger size (28%), ultra thin/extra sensitive (21%), and extra strength (16%). We found high rates of NYC Condom use. NYC Condom users reported more sexual partners than others, suggesting the condom initiative successfully reached higher-risk persons within the STD clinic population. Study results document the condom social marketing campaign's success. PMID:21792691

  3. Contribution of transmission in HIV-positive men who have sex with men to evolving epidemics of sexually transmitted infections in England: an analysis using multiple data sources, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Malek, R; Mitchell, H; Furegato, M; Simms, I; Mohammed, H; Nardone, A; Hughes, G

    2015-01-01

    HIV seroadaptive behaviours may have contributed to greater sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission in HIV-positive men who have sex with men(MSM) and to the global increase in STIs. Using multiple national surveillance data sources and population survey data, we estimated the risk of STIs in HIV-positive MSM and assessed whether transmission in HIV-positive MSM has contributed to recent STI epidemics in England. Since 2009, an increasing proportion of STIs has been diagnosed in HIV-positive MSM, and currently, the population rate of acute bacterial STIs is up to four times that of HIV-negative or undiagnosed MSM. Almost one in five of all diagnosed HIV-positive MSM in England had an acute STI diagnosed in 2013. From 2009 to 2013, the odds of being diagnosed with syphilis increased from 2.71 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.413.05, p<0.001) to 4.05 (95%CI 3.70-4.45, p<0.001) in HIV-positive relative to HIV negative/undiagnosed MSM. Similar trends were seen for gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Bacterial STI re-infection rates were considerably higher in HIV-positive MSM over a five-year follow-up period, indicative of rapid transmission in more dense sexual networks.These findings strongly suggest that the sexual health of HIV-positive MSM in England is worsening, which merits augmented public health interventions and continued monitoring. PMID:25953130

  4. Case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in male without presentation of sexually transmitted disease

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Haram; Shim, Chan Sup; Kim, Gyu Won; Kim, Jung Seok; Choi, In Zoo

    2015-01-01

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is a type of perihepatitis that causes liver capsular infection without infecting the hepatic parenchyma or pelvis. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is known to occur commonly in women of childbearing age who do not use oral contraceptives and have sexual partners older than 25 years of age. However, the syndrome has been reported to occur rarely in males. The clinical symptoms are right upper quadrant pain and tenderness, and pleuritic right sided chest pain. The clinical presentation is similar in male and female. We experienced a case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in a 60-year-old man with the chief complaint of right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Despite a previous history of gonorrhea, we have also described our experiences of improved symptoms and recovery with allopathic medicines and have thereby reported the present case with a literature review. PMID:26601101

  5. Case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in male without presentation of sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Yi, Haram; Shim, Chan Sup; Kim, Gyu Won; Kim, Jung Seok; Choi, In Zoo

    2015-11-16

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is a type of perihepatitis that causes liver capsular infection without infecting the hepatic parenchyma or pelvis. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is known to occur commonly in women of childbearing age who do not use oral contraceptives and have sexual partners older than 25 years of age. However, the syndrome has been reported to occur rarely in males. The clinical symptoms are right upper quadrant pain and tenderness, and pleuritic right sided chest pain. The clinical presentation is similar in male and female. We experienced a case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in a 60-year-old man with the chief complaint of right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Despite a previous history of gonorrhea, we have also described our experiences of improved symptoms and recovery with allopathic medicines and have thereby reported the present case with a literature review. PMID:26601101

  6. Tinea genitalis: a new entity of sexually transmitted infection? Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Isabelle; Bosshard, Philipp Peter; Kasper, Romano Silvio; Reinhardt, Dominic; Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Investigation on recent cases of tinea genitalis after travelling to South East Asia. Methods Patients with tinea in the genital region, which emerged after sex in South East Asia, underwent further assessment including microscopy, cultures and DNA analyses. Results The case series includes seven patients. In six patients, Trichophyton interdigitale (former Trichophyton mentagrophytes) was detected. Three patients suffered from a severe inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue and two of them needed hospitalisation due to severe pain. In four patients, cicatrising healing was noticed. Five patients were declared incapacitated for work. Conclusions Sexual activity should be considered as a potentially important and previously underappreciated means of transmission of T. interdigitale. To avoid irreversible scarring alopecia, prompt initiation of antifungal treatment is essential and adequate isolation and identification of the pathogen is mandatory. PMID:26071391

  7. Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal.

    PubMed

    Flegr, J; Klapilov, K; Ka?kov, S

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects about 30% of the human population. Common sources of infection are oocysts in cat faeces contaminating drinking water or unwashed vegetables, undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, and organ transplants from infected donors containing tissue cysts. However, very often, it is not possible to identify any potential source of infection in mothers of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Here we present a hypothesis suggesting that toxoplasmosis is transmitted from infected men to noninfected women during unprotected sexual intercourse, which can result in the most serious form of disease, congenital toxoplasmosis. Arguments for the hypothesis: (1) Toxoplasma tachyzoites are present in the seminal fluid and tissue of the testes of various animals including humans. In some species infection of females by artificial insemination with semen from infected males has been observed. (2) Up to two thirds of Toxoplasma infections in pregnant women cannot be explained by the known risk factors. (3) Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in women in child-bearing age covaries with the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in particular countries. (4) In some countries, an increased incidence of toxoplasmosis has been reported in women (but not men) aged 25-35 years. This second peak of infection could be associated with women having regular unprotected sex after marriage. (5) Toxoplasmosis triggers schizophrenia in predisposed subjects. Onset of schizophrenia is about 2-3 years earlier in men than in women. However, this difference in the onset can be found only between Toxoplasma-infected patients. The increased onset of schizophrenia in infected women could be associated with the already mentioned second peak of toxoplasmosis incidence. (6) The prevalence of toxoplasmosis decreases in developed countries in last 20 years. This trend could be a result of decrease in promiscuity and increase in safe sex practices, both associated with the AIDS pandemics. (7) In women, probability of being Toxoplasma-infected correlates positively with the amount of unprotected sex with the child's father before the conception. Evidence against the hypothesis: Questionnaire study showed negative association between Toxoplasma infection and the number of earlier partners with whom the woman had unprotected sex. If our hypothesis turns out to be true, then sexual route of transmission, even if rare, could be responsible for a large part of cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. Women should be warned that having unprotected sex with men of positive or unknown toxoplasmosis status should be avoided during pregnancy. PMID:24986706

  8. Triggers of self-conscious emotions in the sexually transmitted infection testing process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-conscious emotions (shame, guilt and embarrassment) are part of many individuals' experiences of seeking STI testing. These emotions can have negative impacts on individuals' interpretations of the STI testing process, their willingness to seek treatment and their willingness to inform sexual partners in light of positive STI diagnoses. Because of these impacts, researchers have called for more work to be completed on the connections between shame, guilt, embarrassment and STI testing. We examine the specific events in the STI testing process that trigger self-conscious emotions in young adults who seek STI testing; and to understand what it is about these events that triggers these emotions. Semi-structured interviews with 30 adults (21 women, 9 men) in the Republic of Ireland. Findings Seven specific triggers of self-conscious emotions were identified. These were: having unprotected sex, associated with the initial reason for seeking STI testing; talking to partners and peers about the intention to seek STI testing; the experience of accessing STI testing facilities and sitting in clinic waiting rooms; negative interactions with healthcare professionals; receiving a positive diagnosis of an STI; having to notify sexual partners in light of a positive STI diagnosis; and accessing healthcare settings for treatment for an STI. Self-conscious emotions were triggered in each case by a perceived threat to respondents' social identities. Conclusion There are multiple triggers of self-conscious emotions in the STI testing process, ranging from the initial decision to seek testing, right through to the experience of accessing treatment. The role of self-conscious emotions needs to be considered in each component of service design from health promotion approaches, through facility layout to the training of all professionals involved in the STI testing process. PMID:20716339

  9. Impact of sexually transmitted infections, lifetime sexual partner count and recreational drug use on lower urinary tract symptoms in men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men are a source of considerable morbidity, distress and medical expense. We investigate the relationship of LUTS to urinary tract infection (UTI), prostatitis, sexually transmitted infection (STI), lifetime sexual partner count, and recreational drug use in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, internet-based survey of urinary quality of life outcomes in MSM. The main outcome was the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) classified as none/mild (IPSS 07) or moderate/severe (835) or severe (2035). Participants were also asked if they ever sought medical attention for urinary problems. Results The survey website was accessed by 2783 men, of whom 2348 (84.3%) completed the questionnaire. The median age was 39 (range 1881). Age, depression, HIV infection, gonorrhea, syphilis, prostatitis, and prescription drug abuse were all associated with LUTS. Men who sought medical attention for LUTS were more likely to report older age, diabetes, depression, gonorrhea, UTI history, and prostatitis. Conclusion Specific infectious conditions of the urinary tract and depressive symptoms are independent predictors of LUTS in MSM. While LUTS are often multi-factorial, a common unifying explanation for our finding could be the effects of local and systemic inflammation on the lower urinary tract. PMID:21962880

  10. Relationship Dynamics and Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies Among Heterosexual Young Adults: A Qualitative Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Attendees at an Urban Chicago Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Anna L; French, Audrey L; Hosek, Sybil G; Kendrick, Sabrina R; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L; Mehta, Supriya D

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October-December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n = 13) and women (n = 20) aged 18-29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:26588197

  11. Risk behaviors of 15–21 year olds in Mexico lead to a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections: results of a survey in disadvantaged urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Juan-Pablo; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Sanchez-Aleman, Miguel-Angel

    2006-01-01

    Background Due to the fact that adolescents are more likely to participate in high-risk behaviors, this sector of the population is particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and resultant health problems. Methods A survey was carried out among adolescents from poor homes in 204 small-urban areas of Mexico. Information was collected in relation to risk behaviors and socio-economic environment. A sub-group of the participants also provided blood and urine samples which were analyzed to detect sexually transmitted infections. Results The presence of Chlamydia was detected in nearly 8% of participants who had stated that they were sexually active (18%) and approximately 12% were positive for herpes type 2-specific antibodies. For both, a greater proportion of girls resulted positive compared to boys. The presence of these biological outcomes of sexual risk behavior was associated with other risk behaviors (smoking), but not with self-reported indicators of protected sex (reported use of condom during most recent sexual activity). Conclusion The results presented in this study show a startlingly high prevalence of HSV-2 among sexually active Mexican adolescents in poor urban areas, suggesting that this group has participated to a great extent in risky sexual practices. The relationships between socioeconomic environment and adolescent risk behavior need to be better understood if we are to design preventive interventions that modify the determinants of risk behaviors. PMID:16504147

  12. Demographic and Behavioral Determinants of Self-Reported History of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among Young Migrant Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The

  13. Effectiveness of Health Education Teachers and School Nurses Teaching Sexually Transmitted Infections/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Knowledge and Skills in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borawski, Elaine A.; Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Trapl, Erika S.; Hayman, Laura L.; Yoder, Laura D.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We examined the differential impact of a well-established human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, when taught by school nurses and health education classroom teachers within a high school curricula. Methods: Group-randomized intervention study of 1357 ninth and

  14. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and

  15. Effectiveness of Health Education Teachers and School Nurses Teaching Sexually Transmitted Infections/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Knowledge and Skills in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borawski, Elaine A.; Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Trapl, Erika S.; Hayman, Laura L.; Yoder, Laura D.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We examined the differential impact of a well-established human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, when taught by school nurses and health education classroom teachers within a high school curricula. Methods: Group-randomized intervention study of 1357 ninth and…

  16. Source Preferences and the Displacement/Supplement Effect between Internet and Traditional Sources of Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV/AIDS Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines the source preferences and the displacement/supplement effect of traditional and new channel usage as Taiwanese college students search for information about sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS from the Internet. The study involved 535 junior and senior college students from four universities. Analytical results…

  17. Source Preferences and the Displacement/Supplement Effect between Internet and Traditional Sources of Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV/AIDS Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines the source preferences and the displacement/supplement effect of traditional and new channel usage as Taiwanese college students search for information about sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS from the Internet. The study involved 535 junior and senior college students from four universities. Analytical results

  18. Demographic and Behavioral Determinants of Self-Reported History of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among Young Migrant Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The…

  19. The Role of Condom Motivation Education in the Reduction of New and Reinfection Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Inner-City Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. B.; Weinman, M. L.; Parrilli, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of small group condom motivation education in reducing new and reinfection rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among urban female teenagers was evaluated. Teens (N=205) were followed for six months. Findings are presented and health education opportunities are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  20. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  1. Health-seeking behaviour of patients with sexually transmitted diseases in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Faxelid, E; Ahlberg, B M; Ndulo, J; Krantz, I

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe health-seeking behaviour, time with symptoms and sexual activity during symptom period among patients attending the public health sector in urban and rural Zambia for treatment of an STD. The study was conducted at two urban health centres and at one rural mission hospital during four months in 1994 and 1995. Four hundred and seventy nine patients seeking health care for STD symptoms were interviewed. The patients had experienced STD symptoms for one to two weeks before they came to the clinic. During this period two thirds in the urban and one third in the rural setting had had sex. Sixty per cent of the patients in the urban and 50% in the rural setting had taken some kind of medicine before they came to the clinic. More people had used modern compared to traditional medicine, especially in the urban area. Market places, other clinics and doctors, friends, and relatives were common treatment sources. Ten per cent had received medicine from a traditional healer. Thus, a majority of the patients had received medication from other sources before they came to the clinic. Sex during periods with STD symptoms was common. This has serious implications for STD as well as HIV transmission. PMID:9745841

  2. Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections in female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Shethwala, Nimisha D; Mulla, Summaiya A; Kosambiya, J K; Desai, Vikas K

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs) from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, BV was detected in 40 (13.33%), trichomoniasis in six (2%), candidiasis in 31 (10.33%), HIV seropositivity in 35 (11.66%), HBsAg reactivity in 10 (3.33%) and rapid plasma regain (RPR) reactivity in 20 (6.66%) cases. RPR-positive serum samples were confirmed by the treponema pallidum hemaglutination test. Gonococcal infection was not found in any of the FSWs. Of the total of 35 HIV-positive patients, 20 patients had associated coinfection. Of the 35 HIV-seropositive FSWs, BV was detected in six (17.14%), candidiasis in six (17.14%), syphilis in five (14.28%) and HBsAg in two (5.71%). One (2.85%) HIV-positive FSW was positive for both candidiasis and syphilis. PMID:19332911

  3. Sexual behavior and knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus/aids and sexually transmitted infections among women inmates of Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and STIs, sexual behaviors, and adoption of preventive measures among women inmates. Methods This was a survey conducted between July 1, 2012 and July 29, 2012 among women inmates at Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The author gave an educational lecture on STIs in a conference room at the prison. Educational material was distributed to the attendees after the lecture, and the survey was conducted one week later. All the participants were asked to complete an anonymous 40-item self-administered questionnaire in the presence of a professional health assistant and a translator, for non-Arabic speakers. Data collected included the personal data of the respondent, her alleged criminal background, penal status, accumulative time in prison, history of smoking, alcohol or drug addiction, knowledge about the seven most common STIs, symptoms, modes of transmission, prevention, sexual activity, addiction, and means of protection. Descriptive analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. Results We interviewed 204 women aged 16-60 years (mean, 33.3 years). Most of the respondents (n = 170; 83 · 0%) were not aware of STIs; 117 respondents (57 · 4%) did not undergo screening for STIs before marriage or intercourse, while only 59 (28 · 9%) did. Over half of the respondents (n = 107; 52.5%) thought they knew how to protect themselves from STIs. Nevertheless, 87 (42.6%) were uncertain about the role of condoms in protection from STIs and (n = 41; 20.1%) thought condoms provide 100% protection against STIs, while 72 respondents (35.3%) thought condoms did not confer 100% protection against STIs. Only 10 respondents (4.9%) used condoms to protect themselves from STIs. Saudi women (P = 0.033) and those with a higher level of education (P < 0.01) were significantly more likely to have better knowledge. Conclusion Women inmates at Briman Prison have poor knowledge of STIs as well as risky sexual behaviors. Campaigns aimed at increasing awareness of STIs should also target prison inmates, who in general constitute high-risk populations. PMID:24884734

  4. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in short-term correctional institutions: summary of evidence reviewed for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Anne C; Miller, Jamie; Trigg, Bruce G; Braverman, Paula; Lincoln, Thomas; Reams, Patricia N; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Sumbry, Anitra; Rice, Dana; Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Young persons entering US jails and youth detention facilities have high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention added STD screening guidelines specific to correctional settings to the 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines. This article summarizes published evidence from 1990 to 2009 used to develop the recommendations. The literature supports routine screening of adolescents and young women (aged ?35 years, or on the basis of local institutional prevalence data) for chlamydia and gonorrhea because of high prevalence and the subsequent risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. Chlamydia positivity among young women (aged <20 years) in juvenile detention facilities and adult facilities is more than 14%. Men in correctional settings are also at high risk for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Among boys in juvenile detention facilities, chlamydia positivity is estimated at 6.6%; among young men in adult facilities, positivity is 16.6%. Screening men (to reduce sequelae among women) should be considered based on local epidemiology and resource availability. Syphilis screening is not strongly supported in published literature because of low prevalence and is not routinely recommended; however, some screening may be warranted based on local prevalence. Although there is a great diversity in the organization of correctional facilities, implementation of screening recommendations is possible owing to improvements in test technology (urine specimens) and through integration of a standard screening protocol. Based on the high burden of disease and substantial opportunities to reach a high-risk population, correctional facilities are important venues to target efforts to control STDs. PMID:23945422

  5. Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Swendeman, Dallas; Basu, Ishika; Das, Sankari; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-10-01

    The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women's empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program. We previously demonstrated significant condom use increases among female sex workers in a 16 month replication trial of the Sonagachi empowerment intervention (n=110) compared to a control community (n=106) receiving standard care of STD clinic, condom promotion, and peer education in two randomly assigned rural towns in West Bengal, India (Basu et al., 2004). This article examines the intervention's impacts on 21 measured variables reflecting five common factors of effective HIV/STD prevention programs to estimate the impact of empowerment strategies on HIV/STD prevention program goals. The intervention which was conducted in 2000-2001 significantly: 1) improved knowledge of STDs and condom protection from STD and HIV, and maintained STD/HIV risk perceptions despite treatment; 2) provided a frame to motivate change based on reframing sex work as valid work, increasing disclosure of profession, and instilling a hopeful future orientation reflected in desire for more education or training; 3) improved skills in sexual and workplace negotiations reflected in increased refusal, condom decision-making, and ability to change work contract, but not ability to take leave; 4) built social support by increasing social interactions outside work, social function participation, and helping other sex workers; and 5) addressed environmental barriers of economic vulnerabilities by increasing savings and alternative income, but not working in other locations, nor reduced loan taking, and did not increase voting to build social capital. This study's results demonstrate that, compared to narrowcast clinical and prevention services alone, empowerment strategies can significantly impact a broader range of factors to reduce vulnerability to HIV/STDs. PMID:19716639

  6. Mobile Phone Applications for the Care and Prevention of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Emily C; LeGrand, Sara; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile phone applications (apps) provide a new platform for delivering tailored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and care. Objective To identify and evaluate currently available mobile phone apps related to the prevention and care of HIV and other STDs. Methods We searched the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores for HIV/STD-related apps, excluding apps that exclusively targeted industry, providers, and researchers. Each eligible app was downloaded, tested, and assessed for user ratings and functionality as well as 6 broad content areas of HIV prevention and care: HIV/STD disease knowledge, risk reduction/safer sex, condom promotion, HIV/STD testing information, resources for HIV-positive persons, and focus on key populations. Results Search queries up to May 2012 identified 1937 apps. Of these, 55 unique apps met the inclusion criteria (12 for Android, 29 for iPhone, and 14 for both platforms). Among these apps, 71% provided disease information about HIV/STDs, 36% provided HIV/STD testing information or resources, 29% included information about condom use or assistance locating condoms, and 24% promoted safer sex. Only 6 apps (11%) covered all 4 of these prevention areas. Eight apps (15%) provided tools or resources specifically for HIV/STD positive persons. Ten apps included information for a range of sexual orientations, 9 apps appeared to be designed for racially/ethnically diverse audiences, and 15 apps featured interactive components. Apps were infrequently downloaded (median 100-500 downloads) and not highly rated (average customer rating 3.7 out of 5 stars). Conclusions Most available HIV/STD apps have failed to attract user attention and positive reviews. Public health practitioners should work with app developers to incorporate elements of evidence-based interventions for risk reduction and improve app inclusiveness and interactivity. PMID:23291245

  7. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers in Barcelona: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine in detail the risk perception of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, and the contextual circumstances, in Nigerian commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Barcelona. Design A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Setting Raval area in Barcelona. Participants 8 CSWs working in Barcelona. Methods A phenomenological study was carried out with Nigerian CSWs in Barcelona. Sampling was theoretical, taking into account: different age ranges; women with and without a partner; women with and without children; and women participating or not in STI/HIV-prevention workshops. Information was obtained by means of eight semistructured individual interviews. An interpretative content analysis was conducted by four analysts. Results Illegal immigrant status, educational level, financial situation and work, and cultural context had mixed effects on CSW knowledge of, exposure to, and prevention and treatment of STI and HIV. CSWs were aware of the higher risk of STI associated with their occupation. They identified condoms as the best preventive method and used them during intercourse with clients. They also implemented other preventive behaviours such as personal hygiene after intercourse. Control of sexual services provided, health education and healthcare services had a positive effect on decreasing exposure and better management of STI/HIV. Conclusions Nigerian CSWs are a vulnerable group because of their poor socioeconomic status. The perception of risk in this group and their preventive behaviours are based on personal determinants, beliefs and experiences from their home country and influences from the host country. Interventions aimed at CSWs must address knowledge gaps, risk behaviours and structural elements. PMID:26078307

  8. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  9. A controlled trial of nonoxynol 9 film to reduce male-to-female transmission of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Roddy, R E; Zekeng, L; Ryan, K A; Tamouf, U; Weir, S S; Wong, E L

    1998-08-20

    The potential of nonoxynol-9 to reduce women's susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted among 1170 HIV-negative sex workers in Cameroon. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a film containing 70 mg of nonoxynol-9 (n = 595) or a placebo film (n = 575). Women in both groups were provided with latex condoms for their male partners. At monthly follow-up visits during the 12-month study period, colposcopy was used to examine women for genital lesions, endocervical smears were tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia, HIV testing was performed, and curable STDs were treated. Nonoxynol-9 film failed to confer any additional protection against infection with HIV, gonorrhea, or chlamydia beyond that provided by condoms alone and STD treatment. The rates of genital lesions were 42.2 cases per 100 woman-years in the nonoxynol-9 group and 33.5 in the placebo group (rate ratio (RR), 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-1.6). The majority of genital lesions in the nonoxynol-9 group were external. The rates of gonorrhea were 33.3 and 31.1 cases per 100 woman-years in the nonoxynol-9 and placebo groups, respectively (RR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4), while those of chlamydia were 20.6 and 22.2 cases per 100 woman-years, respectively (RR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.7-1.3). Finally, there were 6.7 cases of HIV infection per 100 woman-years in the nonoxynol-9 group and 6.6 in the placebo group (RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.5). Condoms were used during 90% of sexual acts. PMID:9709043

  10. Sexually Transmitted Infection Related Stigma and Shame Among African American Male Youth: Implications for Testing Practices, Partner Notification, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Philip, Susan; Bernstein, Kyle; Neilands, Torsten B.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A self-administered, street intercept survey was conducted in order to examine the relation of stigma and shame associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI) to STI testing practices, partner notification, and partner-delivered treatment among young African American men (n=108) in a low-income, urban community in San Francisco with high STI burden. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that increasing STI-related stigma was significantly associated with a decreased odds of STI testing, such that every standard deviation increase in stigma score was associated with 0.62 decreased odds of having been tested (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.38–1.00), controlling for age. STI stigma was also significantly associated with a decreased willingness to notify non-main partners of an STI (aOR: 0.64 95% CI: 0.41–0.99). Participants with higher levels of stigma and shame were also significantly less likely to be willing to deliver STI medication to a partner (stigma aOR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37–0.88; shame aOR 0.53 95% CI: 0.34–0.83). Findings suggest that STI-related stigma and shame, common in this population, could undermine STI testing, treatment, and partner notification programs. The medical establishment, one of the institutional factors to have reinforced this culture of stigma, must aid efforts to reduce its effects through providing integrated services, reframing sexual health in campaigns, educating clients, and providing wider options to aid disclosure and partner notification practices. PMID:25133501

  11. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Risk Factors for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in Female Sex Workers in Soc Trang, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, THUONG VU; VAN KHUU, NGHIA; LE, TRUC THANH THI; NGUYEN, ANH PHUONG; CAO, VAN; THAM, DUNG CHI; DETELS, ROGER

    2010-01-01

    Goal To determine the prevalence of selected STIs and correlates of chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (GC) infection among (FSWs) in Soc Trang province, Vietnam. Study Design Four hundred and six FSWs in Soc Trang province participated in a cross-sectional study between May and August, 2003. The study subjects were interviewed to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics and gynecologic and STI history, using a standardized interview. They underwent a physical examination during which cervical swabs were collected for GC and CT testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vaginal wet mount microscopy was performed to detect candidiasis and trichomoniasis (TV), and blood was drawn for testing for syphilis using rapid plasma reagin (RPR)+ Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations of GC, CT, and GC/CT with selected variables. Results Prevalences were 14.9% for GC, 48.4% for CT, 54.9% for GC/CT, 3.8% for syphilis, 8.9% for trichomoniasis, and 12.2% for candidiasis. Increased risk for CT was associated with sex work for more than 6 months (aOR = 2.40, 95% CI: 0.99–5.82), receiving $4 US or less per sexual transaction (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.13–3.23), and ever having terminated a pregnancy (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.00–2.82). Reduced likelihood of CT was associated with older age (aOR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93–1.00) and ever having douched in the past month (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.36–1.00). Only ever douching in the past month was associated with decreased risk for GC (aOR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.25–0.87). Higher likelihood of GC/CT was associated with having more than 4 clients per month (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.02–5.41) and receiving $4 US or less per sexual transaction (aOR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.04–2.93). Conclusions The prevalence of GC/CT is high amongst FSWs in Soc Trang. Therefore, periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) for cervicitis, together with World Health Organization-recommended periodic syndromic sexually transmitted disease management, for FSWs and further interventions should be considered, and a 100% condom use program should be promptly implemented. The existing STI health education program for FSWs should be strengthened, with special consideration of the correlates observed in this study. PMID:18685547

  12. Gender and risk behaviors for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among recently released inmates: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Binswanger, Ingrid A.; Mueller, Shane; Beaty, Brenda L.; Min, Sung-joon; Corsi, Karen F.

    2013-01-01

    Women in prison have a higher prevalence of HIV than men. After release from prison, former inmates have the opportunity to engage in risk behaviors for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We sought to assess change in risk behaviors over time and the association of gender with risk behavior in the post-release period. In this prospective cohort study, we interviewed 200 former inmates (51 women) approximately 2 weeks (baseline) and 3 months (follow-up) after release and tested them for HIV infection at follow-up. We examined the association of gender with unprotected vaginal or anal sex in the last seven days using chi-square and Fishers exact tests and multivariable logistic regression. At baseline, 22% of men and 41% of women reported unprotected vaginal sex (p<0.01) and 5% of men and 8% of women reported unprotected anal sex (p=0.51). Being younger (OR for each decade increase 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.80), being gay/lesbian or being bisexual (compared with being heterosexual, OR=4.74 95% CI 1.0122.17, OR=3.98, 95% CI 1.4111.26, respectively), or reporting a drug of choice of heroin/speedballs or cocaine/crack (compared with marijuana/no drug of choice, OR=24.00, 95% CI 5.15111.81 and OR=3.49, 95% CI 1.2010.18, respectively) were associated with unprotected vaginal or anal sex after adjusting for race, homelessness, and hazardous drinking. At follow-up, 21% of men and 44% of women reported unprotected sex (p=0.005), and female gender (OR=4.42, 95% CI 1.7910.94) and hazardous drinking (compared with not meeting criteria for hazardous drinking, OR=3.64, 95% CI 1.349.86) were associated with unprotected sex, adjusting for race and homelessness. In this population with a high prevalence of HIV, we demonstrated persistent engagement in sexual risk behavior during the post-release period. Enhanced efforts to promote sexual health and reduced risk behavior among both male and female current and former prison inmates are needed, including improved access to preventive care and HIV and STI screening, testing and treatment. PMID:24266415

  13. Short message service (SMS) interventions for the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) is rising, posing a challenge to its control and appropriate management. Text messaging has become the most common mode of communication among almost six billion mobile phone users worldwide. Text messaging can be used to remind patients about clinic appointments, to notify patients that it is time for STI re-testing, and to facilitate patient communication with their health professionals with any questions and concerns they may have about their sexual health. While there are a handful of systematic reviews published on short message service (SMS) interventions in a variety of health settings and issues, none are related to sexual health. We plan to conduct a systematic review to examine the impact text messaging might have on interventions for the prevention and care of patients with STIs. Methods/Design Eligible studies will include both quantitative and qualitative studies published after 1995 that discuss the efficacy and effectiveness of SMS interventions for STI prevention and management using text messaging. Data will be abstracted independently by two reviewers using a standardized pre-tested data abstraction form. Inter-rater reliability scores will be obtained to ensure consistency in the inclusion and data extraction of studies. Heterogeneity will be assessed using the I2 test and subgroup analyses. A nonhypothesis driven inductive reasoning approach as well as a coding framework will be applied to analyze qualitative studies. A meta-analysis may be conducted if sufficient quantitative studies are found using similar outcomes. Discussion For this protocol, we identified ten related systematic reviews. The reviews were limited to a particular disease or setting, were not exclusive to SMS interventions, or were out of date. This systematic review will be the first comprehensive examination of studies that discuss the effectiveness of SMS on multiple outcomes that relate to STI prevention and management, covering diverse settings and populations. Findings of the systematic review and any additional meta-analyses will be published and presented to our key knowledge users. This information will provide the evidence that is required to appropriately adopt text messaging into standard practice in STI care. PMID:24433348

  14. Prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and factors associated with syphilis among female sex workers in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Hakre, Shilpa; Arteaga, Griselda; Nez, Aurelio E; Bautista, Christian T; Bolen, Aimee; Villarroel, Maria; Peel, Sheila A; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Scott, Paul T; Pascale, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Biological and behavioural surveillance of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among populations at highest risk have been used to monitor trends in prevalence and in risk behaviours. Sex work in Panama is regulated through registration with the Social Hygiene Programme, Ministry of Health. We estimated prevalence of HIV and STIs, and factors associated with active syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods A cross-sectional study using venue-based, time-space sampling was conducted among FSWs in Panama from 2009 to 2010. FSWs were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviour, health history and drug use using an anonymous structured questionnaire. Blood was collected for serological testing of HIV and other STIs. Factors associated with active syphilis were studied using logistic regression analysis. Results The overall HIV-1 prevalence of 0.7% varied by FSW category; 1.6% in 379 unregistered, and 0.2% in 620 registered FSWs. Overall prevalence (and 95% CI) of STIs were: syphilis antibody, 3.8% (2.7% to 5.2%); herpes simplex virus type 2 antibody (anti-HSV-2), 74.2% (71.4% to 76.9%); hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.6% (0.2% to 1.3%); hepatitis B core antibody, 8.7% (7.0% to 10.6%); and hepatitis C antibody, 0.2% (0.0% to 0.7%). In multivariate analysis, registration (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.35; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.74), having a history of STI (AOR=2.37; 95% CI 1.01 to 5.58), forced sex (AOR=2.47; 95% CI 1.11 to 5.48), and anti-HSV-2 (AOR=10.05; 95% CI 1.36 to 74.38) were associated with active syphilis. Conclusions Although HIV prevalence is low among FSWs in Panama, unregistered FSWs bear a higher burden of HIV and STIs than registered FSWs. Programmes aimed at overcoming obstacles to registration, and HIV, STI and harm reduction among unregistered FSWs is warranted to prevent HIV transmission, and to improve their sexual and reproductive health. PMID:23002191

  15. High prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2 and other sexually transmitted infections among women attending two sexual health clinics in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mnsson, F; Camara, C; Biai, A; Monteiro, M; da Silva, Z J; Dias, F; Alves, A; Andersson, S; Feny, E M; Norrgren, H; Unemo, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to examine the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2 and 10 other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and to explore the relationship between HIV and those STIs in women attending two sexual health clinics in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. In all, 711 women with urogenital problems were included. Clinical examination was performed and HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1, HTLV-2 and syphilis were diagnosed by serology. Trichomonas vaginalis was examined using wet mount microscopy. Cervical samples (and swabs from visible ulcers, if present) were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Haemophilus ducreyi, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2, and culture diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection) was 9.5%, 1.8% and 1.1%, respectively. The prevalence of HTLV-1 was 2.8%, HTLV-2 0%, HSV-1 1.4%, HSV-2 7.7%, T. vaginalis 20.4%, syphilis 1.0%, N. gonorrhoeae 1.3%, H. ducreyi 2.7%, M. genitalium 7.7% and C. trachomatis 12.6%. HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infection was significantly associated with active HSV-2 and HIV-1 was significantly associated with M. genitalium infection. In conclusion, HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence was higher compared with previous studies of pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau. The prevalence of co-infection of HIV and other STIs is high. National evidence-based guidelines for the management of STIs in Guinea-Bissau are essential. PMID:21097735

  16. Bedtime stories: the effects of self-constructed risk scenarios on imaginability and perceived susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Meertens, Ree M; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schaalma, Herman P

    2012-01-01

    Various authors (e.g. Kahnemann, D., & Tversky, A. (1982). The simulation heuristic. In D. Kahnemann, P. Slovic, & A. Tversky (Eds.), Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases (pp. 201-208). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press) have suggested that imagining an event and its consequences influences the perceived likelihood that it might happen in reality (simulation heuristic). A scenario--a description of how a certain activity can lead to a certain outcome--may stimulate one to imagine the outcomes and may influence one's likelihood judgement. The present research studied the effect of risk scenarios on perceptions of susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and the role of imaginability therein. In a randomised experimental study, we examined the effects of a prefabricated risk scenario and a self-constructed risk scenario against a non-message condition on perceived susceptibility to get infected with Chlamydia. Participants considered themselves more susceptible to Chlamydia after writing their own risk scenario but not after reading the prefabricated risk scenario. The imaginability of the event seemed to mediate the effect of self-constructed scenario information on perceived susceptibility. Recommendations for health education practices are discussed. PMID:22263927

  17. Review of Clinical Trials Testing the Effectiveness of Clinician Intervention Approaches to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Adolescent Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Melinda A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify approaches for improving clinician provision of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) prevention services among outpatient adolescents. Methods Reviewed all peer-reviewed, published clinical trials identified through computerized searches (MEDLINE, PsychINFO) evaluating STD prevention services to outpatient adolescents by clinicians. Results Five trials were identified examining changes in clinician provision of STD prevention services. Two of these trials resulted in adolescent self-reported risk reduction but neither of these trials effectively demonstrated reductions in objectively measured STD incidence. Nine clinical trials were identified that compared clinician with non-clinician provision of STD prevention services. Four of these trials resulted in adolescent self-reported risk reduction, and one of these trials demonstrated a reduction in objectively measured STD incidence. Conclusions Trials indicate that improvement in outpatient adolescent STD incidence is possible with non-clinicians as interventionists, and perhaps clinicians as interventionists if clinicians are supported by other educational resources. Opportunities for personalized, interactive adolescent education appears key to intervention success. The clinician role that is tested in most trials is confined to a single brief encounter with little attention to: development of clinician skills, quality of psychosexual risk assessment and tailoring to meet individual adolescent need, systems-level resources and supports, the parental role, or the impact of incorporating prevention into an ongoing adolescent-clinician relationship. PMID:25657616

  18. Prevalence and associated factors of mental health problems among monogamous Chinese female patients with sexually transmitted diseases in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; You, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD) increases risk of HIV infection and has profound psychological consequences. The present study examined the mental health problems (poor emotional well-being, insomnia, probable depression) and their associated factors among monogamous Chinese female STD patients. A total of 537 Chinese female STD patients who self-reported having had only one male sex partner in the last 12 months were recruited from a STD clinic in Hong Kong. They completed a survey including measures of mental health, STD-related history, perceptions, feelings related to STD infection, and perceptions toward condom use. Results showed that 22% had poor emotional well-being, 25.7% had insomnia, and 43% were probable cases of depression. Unemployment, worsened relationship with partners after STD diagnosis, STD history in last three months, finding STD examinations embarrassing, and feelings of helplessness were significant risk factors for poor emotional well-being and insomnia. Also, unemployment, worsened relationships with partners after STD diagnosis, and perceived high chance of STD in the coming six months were significant risk factors for probable depression. Perceived efficacy of condom use for STD prevention was a significant protective factor against poor emotional well-being and probable depression. Findings suggest that interventions are warranted to improve the mental health among this population. PMID:25369553

  19. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obisesan, Oluranti J; Olowe, Olugbenga A; Taiwo, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31-45 and 16-30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere. PMID:26064140

  20. Quality of case management of sexually transmitted diseases: comparison of the methods for assessing the performance of providers.

    PubMed Central

    Franco, L. M.; Daly, C. C.; Chilongozi, D.; Dallabetta, G.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the reliability and validity of direct observation of patient-provider encounters, interviews with providers, and use of patients simulating sexually transmitted diseases (STD) as methods for assessing the quality of STD case management in developing countries. Data were collected during an STD health facility survey in Malawi; the performance of 49 providers was observed, and the providers were also interviewed; 20 of them were visited by a simulated patient complaining of urethral discharge. Agreement (based on the kappa statistic) was generally poor between direct observation and provider-interview data, and also between direct observation and simulated-patient data. In contrast, percentage agreements between direct observation and simulated-patient data were often high. Multiple observations on providers indicated that a provider's behaviour is not consistent across several patients. Simulated-patient data are probably the best in reflecting normal performance, but their feasibility for routine quality assessment is limited because the provider's behaviour is not consistent and would require multiple data points. Direct observation data are the best option for assessing quality if the results are assumed to reflect better than normal levels of quality of care. Data from interviews with providers should be viewed with caution, because they may reflect provider knowledge and not necessarily performance. PMID:9509624

  1. Sensitive Simultaneous Detection of Seven Sexually Transmitted Agents in Semen by Multiplex-PCR and of HPV by Single PCR

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, Andr Luelsdorf Pimenta; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natlia; Vasconcellos, Vincius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) ?1 and ?2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks. PMID:24921247

  2. One love: explicit monogamy agreements among heterosexual young adult couples at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jocelyn T; Harvey, S Marie; Agnew, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevention strategies among couples include condom use, mutual monogamy, and HIV testing. Research suggests that condom use is more likely with new or casual partners, and tends to decline as relationships become steady over time. Little is known, however, about explicit mutual monogamy agreements and HIV testing within heterosexual couples. This study used data from 434 young heterosexual couples at increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to assess (a) couple concordance on perceptions of a monogamy agreement, sustained monogamy, and HIV testing; and (b) the associations of relationship and demographic factors with monogamy agreement, sustained monogamy, and HIV testing. Results indicated only slight to fair agreement within couples on measures of monogamy agreement and sustained monogamy. Overall, 227 couples (52%) concurred that they had an explicit agreement to be monogamous; of those, 162 (71%) had sustained the agreement. Couples with greater health protective communication and commitment were more likely to have a monogamy agreement. Couples of Latino and Hispanic ethnicity and those with children were less likely to have a monogamy agreement. Only commitment was related to sustained monogamy. Having children, greater health protective communication, and perceived vulnerability to HIV and STIs were associated with HIV testing within the couple. PMID:21191869

  3. Seminal fluid of honeybees contains multiple mechanisms to combat infections of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Grassl, Julia; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-27

    The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted. We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future. PMID:26791609

  4. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obisesan, Oluranti J.; Olowe, Olugbenga A.; Taiwo, Samuel S.

    2015-01-01

    The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31–45 and 16–30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere. PMID:26064140

  5. Characteristics and predictors of women who obtain rescreening for sexually transmitted infections using the www.iwantthekit.org screening program

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Barnes, Mathilda; Jett-Goheen, Mary; Quinn, Nicole; Whittle, Pamela; Hogan, Terry; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Professional organizations recommend rescreening chlamydia-infected women. The iwantthekit Internet-screening program offered rescreening opportunities by using iwantthekit. Mailed, home-collected vaginal swabs were tested for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomonas by nucleic acid amplification tests. Demographics and risk behaviors of repeat users were determined from questionnaires. Predictors of repeat users were measured in a matched casecontrol study. Of 1747 women, 304 (17%), who used iwantthekit, indicated they had used the kit previously. Mean age was 24.7 5.7 year and 69% were African American. Repeat iwantthekit users were more likely to be ?20 years (OR = 2.10); were more likely to have been treated for a sexually transmitted infection (OR = 2.32); less likely to drink alcohol before sex (OR = 0.63); and to never use condoms (OR = 0.43). Of repeaters, 84.2% had a negative prior test and 15.8% had a positive. At current test, 13.2% were infected. Previous trichomonas was associated with current trichomonas (p < 0.05). The iwantthekit may offer rescreening opportunities for previously infected women. PMID:23970594

  6. Does Male Circumcision Protect against Sexually Transmitted Infections? Arguments and Meta-Analyses to the Contrary Fail to Withstand Scrutiny

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Brian J.; Hankins, Catherine A.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Krieger, John N.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    We critically evaluate a recent article by Van Howe involving 12 meta-analyses that concludes, contrary to current evidence, that male circumcision increases the risk of various common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Our detailed scrutiny reveals that these meta-analyses (1) failed to include results of all relevant studies, especially data from randomized controlled trials, (2) introduced bias through use of inappropriate control groups, (3) altered original data, in the case of human papillomavirus (HPV), by questionable adjustments for sampling bias, (4) failed to control for confounders through use of crude odds ratios, and (5) used unnecessarily complicated methods without adequate explanation, so impeding replication by others. Interventions that can reduce the prevalence of STIs are important to international health. Of major concern is the global epidemic of oncogenic types of HPV that contribute to the burden of genital cancers. Meta-analyses, when well conducted, can better inform public health policy and medical practice, but when seriously flawed can have detrimental consequences. Our critical evaluation leads us to reject the findings and conclusions of Van Howe on multiple grounds. Our timely analysis thus reaffirms the medical evidence supporting male circumcision as a desirable intervention for STI prevention. PMID:24944836

  7. Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women Participating in a Biomedical Intervention Trial in Durban: Prevalence, Coinfections, and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Abbai, Nathlee Samantha; Wand, Handan; Ramjee, Gita

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to be a significant public health problem especially among women of reproductive age in Africa. Methods. A total of 2236 women that had enrolled in the MDP301 vaginal microbicide trial were tested for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), Treponema pallidum, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Results. CT was identified as the most prevalent STI (11%) followed by TV (10%), NG, and Syphilis (3%). The highest prevalence of coinfection was reported between T. pallidum and TV (19.67%, P = 0.004), followed by CT and TV (13.52%, P ≤ 0.001). Risk factors that were significantly associated with STI acquisition were women of 23 years of age or younger (HR: 1.50, 95% CI 1.17, 1.93), baseline STI with CT (HR: 1.77, 95% CI 1.32, 2.35), TV (HR: 1.58, 95% CI, 1.20, 2.10), and T. pallidum (HR: 5.13, 95% CI 3.65, 7.22), and a low education level (HR: 1.30, 95% CI 1.02, 1.66). Conclusion. Young women with lower education and a history of STIs are at high risk of multiple STIs. Prevention programs should consider target approach to STI prevention among young women. This trial is registered with ISRCTN64716212. PMID:26316957

  8. Sexually transmitted diseases and condom use among female freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, M L; Chan, R K; Chua, W L; Wee, S

    1999-11-01

    This study compares the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), condom use, and health-screening behavior between freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore. A total of 111 female freelance sex workers arrested from November 1996 to March 1997 for illicit prostitution were interviewed; 333 brothel-based sex workers served as the comparison group for the analysis. STD test results revealed that freelance sex workers (34.8%) have higher STD rates than brothel-based sex workers (24%). The two most common STDs in both groups were chlamydial cervicitis and syphilis. Moreover, condom use was significantly lower among freelance sex workers than brothel-based sex workers and was associated with younger age (25 years old), decreasing number of clients, and perception of non-condom use among peers. In addition, freelance workers were more educated and had equally high knowledge on STDs and AIDS. Since most of these freelance workers practice high-risk behaviors and poor health screening behaviors such as not going for regular medical check-ups, STD services and education programs should target this group. PMID:10560725

  9. Medicine Sellers for Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections: Effect of a Quasi-Experimental Training Intervention in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Alam, Anadil; Fournier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental pre-post design to test whether short training can improve medicine sellers' (MSs) practices and skills for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Bangladesh. The training included lectures, printed materials, and identification of referral sites. Difference-in-differences estimation was used to determine the effects of intervention on key primary and secondary outcomes. Advice given by the MSs in intervention group for partner treatment and condoms use increased significantly by 11% and 9%, respectively, after adjusting for baseline differences in education, religion, age, duration of training, and study site. Referral of clients to qualified service providers increased by 5% in the intervention group compared to the comparison group, but this change was not found to be statistically significant. Significantly higher proportion of MSs in the intervention group recognized the recommended medications as per the national syndromic management guidelines in Bangladesh for treatment of urethral discharge and genital ulcer symptoms. Short training intervention was found to be effective in improving MSs' practice of promoting condom use and partner treatment to the clients. We anticipate the need for broad based training programs of MSs to improve their skills for the prevention and control of STI/HIV in Bangladesh. PMID:26491678

  10. Innovation in sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention: Internet and mobile phone delivery vehicles for global diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Efficacious behavioral interventions and practices have not been universally accepted, adopted, or diffused by policy makers, administrators, providers, advocates, or consumers. Biomedical innovations for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV prevention have been embraced but their effectiveness is hindered by behavioral factors. Behavioral interventions are required to support providers and consumers for adoption and diffusion of biomedical innovations, protocol adherence, and sustained prevention for other STDs. Information and communication technology such as the Internet and mobile phones can deliver behavioral components for STD/HIV prevention and care to more people at less cost. Recent findings Recent innovations in STD/HIV prevention with information and communication technology-mediated behavioral supports include STD/HIV testing and partner interventions, behavioral interventions, self-management, and provider care. Computer-based and Internet-based behavioral STD/HIV interventions have demonstrated efficacy comparable to face-to-face interventions. Mobile phone STD/HIV interventions using text-messaging are being broadly utilized but more work is needed to demonstrate efficacy. Electronic health records and care management systems can improve care, but interventions are needed to support adoption. Summary Information and communication technology is rapidly diffusing globally. Over the next 5–10 years smart-phones will be broadly disseminated, connecting billions of people to the Internet and enabling lower cost, highly engaging, and ubiquitous STD/HIV prevention and treatment support interventions. PMID:20087189

  11. Prevalence and Assessment of Clinical Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Two Cities of India

    PubMed Central

    Das, A.; Prabhakar, P.; Narayanan, P.; Neilsen, G.; Wi, T.; Kumta, S.; Rao, G.; Gangakhedkar, R.; Risbud, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) is an important strategy to reduce HIV transmission. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and assess the current clinical management of STIs in India. Methods. FSWs attending three clinics for regular checkups or symptoms were screened for study eligibility. A behavioral questionnaire was administered, clinical examination performed, and laboratory samples collected. Results. 417 study participants reported a mean number of 4.9 (SD 3.5) commercial clients in the last week. 14.6% reported anal sex in the last three months. Consistent condom use with commercial and regular partners was 70.1% and 17.5%, respectively. The prevalence of gonorrhea was 14.1%, chlamydia 16.1%, and trichomoniasis 31.1% with a third of all infections being asymptomatic. Syphilis seropositivity was 10.1%. Conclusions. At study sites, presumptive treatment for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis screening should continue. Presumptive treatment for trichomoniasis should be considered. Consistent condom use and partner treatment need to be reemphasized. PMID:21747642

  12. The prevalence of human retroviral infections in female patients attending a central London sexually transmitted disease clinic: 1985-1990.

    PubMed Central

    Loveday, C; Mercey, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of infection with HIV-1, HIV2, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in female attenders at a central London sexually transmitted disease clinic in an 8 week period in 1989-1990, and compare it with similar samples studied between 1985 and 1987. DESIGN--Anonymous testing of serum samples from consecutive female patients having routine serological investigation for syphilis. Testing was for clinically important retroviruses, Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc), and p24 and reverse transcriptase (RT) antigens. Age (in 5 year bands), nationality (in broad geographical zones), diagnosis on the day of presentation, and history of intravenous drug usage were recorded for each patient. Annual gonorrhoea rates were analysed from 1981 to 1990. SETTING--Outpatients of the department of genitourinary medicine. PATIENTS--A total of 850 females attending consecutively and having routine syphilis serology. MAIN RESULTS--The prevalence of anti-HIV-1 in female attenders in 1989-1990 was 0.35% (3/850). Prevalence in the same clinic has remained statistically unchanged since the first female cases were identified in 1986. No cases of HIV-2, HTLV-1 or HTLV-2 were identified, and no early HIV-1 infection evidenced by the presence of p24 or RT antigenaemia was found. Female gonorrhoea rates continued to decline but other STD monthly/annual rates have remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS--Over the last 5 years prevalence of HIV-1 infection in females in our clinic has remained unchanged and other retroviral infections have remained absent. However, the unaltered rates of other genital infections, their potential role in the heterosexual spread of HIV-1 infection, and the lack of evidence for any major changes in female sexual behaviour suggests there is a need to remain vigilant. This work complements the MRC multicentre, unlinked, genitourinary medicine clinic, anonymous testing programme, and our group will continue to apply this simple methodology to specimens from female attenders to contribute to the surveillance of the evolving HIV-1 epidemic. PMID:8444479

  13. Consultations for sexually transmitted infections in the general practice in the Netherlands: an opportunity to improve STI/HIV testing

    PubMed Central

    Trienekens, Suzan C M; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Donker, G A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; van der Sande, Marianne A B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In the Netherlands, sexually transmitted infection (STI) care is provided by general practitioners (GPs) as well as by specialised STI centres. Consultations at the STI centres are monitored extensively, but data from the general practice are limited. This study aimed to examine STI consultations in the general practice. Design Prospective observational patient survey. Setting General practices within the nationally representative Dutch Sentinel GP network (n=125?000 patient population), 20082011. Outcome measures GPs were asked to fill out a questionnaire at each STI consultation addressing demographics, sexual behaviour and laboratory test results. Patient population, testing practices and test positivity are reported. Participants Patients attending a consultation concerning an STI/HIV-related issue. Results Overall, 1 in 250 patients/year consulted their GP for STI/HIV-related problems. Consultations were concentrated among young heterosexuals of Dutch origin. Laboratory testing was requested for 83.3% of consultations. Overall consult positivity was 33.4%, highest for chlamydia (14.7%), condylomata (8.7%) and herpes (6.4%). 32 of 706 positive patients (4.5%) were diagnosed with multiple infections. Main high-risk groups were patients who were <25?years old (for chlamydia), >25?years old (syphilis), men who have sex with men (MSM; for gonorrhoea/syphilis/HIV) or having symptoms (for any STI). Adherence to guideline-recommendations to test for multiple STI among high-risk groups varied from 15% to 75%. Conclusions This study found that characteristics of patients who consulted a GP for STIs were comparable to those of patients attending STI centres regarding age and ethnicity; however, consultations of high-risk groups like MSM and (clients of) commercial sex workers were reported less by the general practice. Where the STI centres routinely test all patients for chlamydia/syphilis/HIV/gonorrhoea, GPs tested more selectively, even more restricted than advised by GP guidelines. Test positivity was, therefore, higher in general practice, although it is unknown how many STIs are missed (particularly among high-risk groups). Opportunities for a more proactive role in STI/HIV testing at general practices in line with current guidelines should be explored. PMID:24381253

  14. Biological impact of recurrent sexually transmitted infections on HIV seroconversion among women in South Africa: results from frailty models

    PubMed Central

    Wand, Handan; Ramjee, Gita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the impact of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV transmissibility is essential for effective HIV prevention programs. Investigating the impact of longitudinally measured recurrent STIs on HIV seroconversion is the interest of the current paper. Methods In this prospective study, data from a total of 1456 HIV-negative women who enrolled in a HIV biomedical trial were used. It was hypothesized that women who had recurrent STI diagnoses during the study share a common biological heterogeneity which cannot be quantified. To incorporate this “unobserved” correlation in the analysis, times to HIV seroconversion were jointly modelled with repeated STI diagnoses using Cox regression with random effects. Results and discussion A total of 110 HIV seroconversions were observed (incidence rate of 6.00 per 100 person-years). In a multivariable model, women who were diagnosed at least once were more likely to seroconvert compared to those who had no STI diagnosis [hazard ratio (HR): 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 2.57]; women who had recurrent STI diagnoses during the study were 2.5 times more likely to be at increased risk of HIV infection (95% CI: 1.35, 4.01) with an estimated frailty variance of 1.52, with p<0.001, indicating strong evidence that there is a significant correlation (heterogeneity) among women who had recurrent STIs. In addition to this, factors associated with incidence of STIs, namely not being married and having a new sexual partner during the study follow-up, were all significantly associated with increased risk for HIV seroconversion (HR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.01 and HR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.63, 3.83 respectively). Conclusions The results indicated that women who were at risk for STIs were also at risk of HIV infection. In fact, they share the similar risk factors. In addition to this, repeated STI diagnoses also increased women’s susceptibility for HIV infection significantly. Decreasing STIs by increasing uptake of testing and treatment and reducing partner change plays a significant role in the trajectory of the epidemic. PMID:25912181

  15. Internet-Based HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing in British Columbia, Canada: Opinions and Expectations of Prospective Clients

    PubMed Central

    Hottes, Travis Salway; Farrell, Janine; Bondyra, Mark; Haag, Devon; Shoveller, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Background The feasibility and acceptability of Internet-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing have been demonstrated; however, few programs have included testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In British Columbia, Canada, a new initiative will offer online access to chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV testing, integrated with existing clinic-based services. We presented the model to gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and existing clinic clients through a series of focus groups. Objective To identify perceived benefits, concerns, and expectations of a new model for Internet-based STI and HIV testing among potential end users. Methods Participants were recruited through email invitations, online classifieds, and flyers in STI clinics. A structured interview guide was used. Focus groups were audio recorded, and an observer took detailed field notes. Analysts then listened to audio recordings to validate field notes. Data were coded and analyzed using a scissor-and-sort technique. Results In total, 39 people participated in six focus groups. Most were MSM, and all were active Internet users and experienced with STI/HIV testing. Perceived benefits of Internet-based STI testing included anonymity, convenience, and client-centered control. Salient concerns were reluctance to provide personal information online, distrust of security of data provided online, and the need for comprehensive pretest information and support for those receiving positive results, particularly for HIV. Suggestions emerged for mitigation of these concerns: provide up-front and detailed information about the model, ask only the minimal information required for testing, give positive results only by phone or in person, and ensure that those testing positive are referred for counseling and support. End users expected Internet testing to offer continuous online service delivery, from booking appointments, to transmitting information to the laboratory, to getting prescriptions. Most participants said they would use the service or recommend it to others. Those who indicated they would be unlikely to use it generally either lived near an STI clinic or routinely saw a family doctor with whom they were comfortable testing. Participants expected that the service would provide the greatest benefit to individuals who do not already have access to sensitive sexual health services, are reluctant to test due to stigma, or want to take immediate action (eg, because of a recent potential STI/HIV exposure). Conclusions Internet-based STI/HIV testing has the potential to reduce barriers to testing, as a complement to existing clinic-based services. Trust in the new online service, however, is a prerequisite to client uptake and may be engendered by transparency of information about the model, and by accounting for concerns related to confidentiality, data usage, and provision of positive (especially HIV) results. Ongoing evaluation of this new model will be essential to its success and to the confidence of its users. PMID:22394997

  16. Potential impact and acceptability of Internet partner notification for men who have sex with men and transgender women recently diagnosed as having sexually transmitted disease in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jesse L; Segura, Eddy R; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; Peinado, Jesus; Salvatierra, Hector J; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the potential impact of Internet partner notification among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Peru recently diagnosed as having sexually transmitted disease. Use of Internet partner notification was anticipated for 55.9% of recent partners, including 43.0% of partners not currently expected to be notified, a 20.6% increase in anticipated notification outcomes. PMID:24326581

  17. Social Network Characteristics and Heavy Episodic Drinking Among Women at Risk for HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infections*

    PubMed Central

    Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A.; Chander, Geetanjali; Hester, Laura; Latkin, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Social networks can either negatively or positively influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use. This study examined social network characteristics that are risk factors for and protective factors against heavy episodic drinking among a sample of women at risk for HIV/sexually transmitted infections. Method: This was a cross-sectional study using baseline data from 567 impoverished women participating in an HIV prevention study in Baltimore, MD. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews at a community-based research clinic. Heavy episodic drinking was defined as six or more drinks per drinking episode on at least a weekly basis. We examined network characteristics, including structure and function and their association with heavy episodic drinking. Multivariate logistic regression was used, adjusting for individual-level factors, such as drug use, demographics, and depression. Results: Approximately 21% of the sample engaged in heavy episodic drinking at least weekly. Controlling for individual-level factors, women who engaged in heavy episodic drinking had fewer social network members (a) who were in drug treatment, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.65, 95% CI [0.49, 0.88]; (b) who were employed, AOR = 0.89, 95% CI [0.79, 0.99]; and (c) with whom the participant socialized, AOR = 0.74, 95% CI [0.63, 0.96]. Women who engaged in heavy episodic drinking had a significantly higher number of social network members with whom they drank alcohol, AOR = 1.71, 95% CI [1.43, 2.03]. Conclusions: Social network characteristics are both protective and risk factors for heavy episodic drinking among women. Interpersonal interventions, such as peer education, may be a useful strategy to decrease heavy episodic drinking and its subsequent outcomes among women. PMID:22051219

  18. Increasing sexually transmitted infection rates in young men having sex with men in the Netherlands, 20062012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Men having sex with men (MSM) remain the largest high-risk group involved in on-going transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV, in the Netherlands. As risk behaviour may change with age, it is important to explore potential heterogeneity in risks by age. To improve our understanding of this epidemic, we analysed the prevalence of and risk factors for selected STI in MSM attending STI clinics in the Netherlands by age group. Methods Analysis of data from the national STI surveillance system for the period 20062012. Selected STI were chlamydia, gonorrhoea, infectious syphilis and/or a new HIV infection. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with these selected STI and with overall STI positivity. Analyses were done separately for MSM aged younger than 25years and MSM aged 25years and older. Results In young MSM a significant increase in positivity rate was seen over time (p?

  19. Role of Community Group Exposure in Reducing Sexually Transmitted Infection-Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Diwakar; Ramanathan, Shreena; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Saggurti, Niranjan; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Background Empowering female sex workers (FSWs) to address structural barriers and forming community groups (CGs) through community mobilization are seen as essential components of HIV prevention programs in India. Taking the membership of a CG as an exposure intervention, we hypothesized whether participation in a CG lead to reduced sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased treatment-seeking behavior among FSWs in three selected states of India Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Methods and Findings The propensity score matching (PSM) approach examined the effect of CG membership, as against no membership, on STI-related risk, described as selected outcome measures presence of any STI, self-reported STI symptoms, and treatment-seeking behavior among FSWs. A cross sectional bio-behavioral survey was administered in 20092010 and covered 7,806 FSWs through two-stage probability-based conventional and time location cluster sampling in 23 administrative districts of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Only 2,939 FSWs were reported to be members of a CG and among them 4.5% had any STIs. A majority of FSWs were aged above 24 years (86.4%), had ever been married (73%), operated from a public place for solicitation (81.5%), and had ever received HIV test results (75.6%). The average effect of CG exposure was reduction in STI prevalence by 4%, while self-reported STI symptom treatment-seeking behavior increased by 13.7%. Conclusion FSWs who were exposed to a CG were at a substantially lower risk of STIs than those who were unexposed. The FSWs exposed to a CG had a higher chance of seeking STI treatment from public and private health facilities. Collectivization related challenges must be overcome to provide access to tailored STI prevention and care services. PMID:24205210

  20. KAP Study on Sexually Transmitted Infections/Reproductive Tract Infections (STIs/RTIs) among married women in rural Haryana

    PubMed Central

    Rizwan, SA; Rath, Rama S.; Vivek, Gupta; Nitika; Anant, Gupta; Farhad, Ahamed; Vijay, Silan

    2015-01-01

    Context: About 490 million cases of curable Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI) occur throughout the world, of which 79 million cases occur in India annually. Sexually Transmitted Infections/Reproductive Tract Infections (STI/RTI) confers a huge economic burden on the individual and the health system. Complications of RTI/STI are many, ranging from chronic pain syndrome to infertility. Most of these complications can be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment. Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices on STI/RTIs among married women aged 15-45 years in rural Haryana. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study, conducted in selected villages under the primary health centre Mandi, Sonepat, Haryana. Subjects and Methods: Systematic sampling was used to cover 10 villages. In each village, every tenth house was sampled, taking first house from the center of the village. Face-to-face interview was conducted using pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics and results were described in percentages. Results: A total of 344 women were interviewed. About 44% women had never heard of STI/RTI. The prevalence of self-reported symptoms of STI/RTI was very high (60%). Only 40% of them opted for treatment and most common cause for not opting for treatment was that they considered it as a minor problem. Advice for use of condom during the treatment was received by only 20% of patients and only 26.5% of their husbands also received treatment. Conclusions: Overall knowledge, attitude and practices relating to STI/RTI among married women in rural Haryana was poor. The prevalence of self-reported STI/RTI was found to be high and treatment seeking behavior was poor. PMID:25657909

  1. Retrospective Assessment of Transcription-Mediated Amplification-Based Screening for Trichomonas vaginalis in Male Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wenten, David; Phipps, Paula; Gremminger, Roger; Schuknecht, Mary Kay; Napierala, Maureen; Hamer, Deb; Olson, Robin; Schell, Ronald F.; Hryciuk, Jeanne E.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) enhances detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from rectal and pharyngeal sources. The utility of TMA for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis has recently been described. We report on the performance of TMA for detection of sexually transmitted infection (STI) agents from extraurogenital sources, with a focus on T. vaginalis. Within a 21-month interval, 1,314 consecutive male patient encounters at an STI clinic resulted in collection of 2,408 specimens for C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis TMA screening. A total of 471 encounters were managed with a single specimen collection (94.9% urine), with 12.7% positive for at least one STI agent. This detection percentage increased to 14.4% with collection of specimens from two sources and to 20.3% with collection from three sources (P = 0.03 versus single-source sampling). A total of 44.4% of encounters were managed by collection of urine and pharyngeal specimens and 19.1% by the addition of a third (rectal) collection. While procurement of urine and rectal specimens resulted in greater detection of C. trachomatis (6.1% and 11.3% rates, respectively) than of other STI agents, 858 pharyngeal specimens yielded a 2.9% T. vaginalis detection rate compared with 2.1% for N. gonorrhoeae and 1.6% for C. trachomatis. All T. vaginalis pharyngeal detections were confirmed by TMA-based alternative target testing. A total of 38.1% of T. vaginalis-positive pharyngeal specimens were derived from symptomatic patient encounters. A total of 85.7% of males with T. vaginalis-positive pharyngeal collections indicated strictly heterosexual preference. Additional specimen source sampling is necessary to make STI screening comprehensive. Incorporation of extraurogenital sources into assessment for T. vaginalis detection may identify additional symptomatic and asymptomatic male STI carriers. PMID:23554208

  2. A targetted intervention research on traditional healer perspectives of sexually transmitted illnesses in urban Zambia. Current research.

    PubMed

    Masauso Nzima, M; Romano, K; Anyangwe, S; Wiseman, J; Macwan'gi, M; Kendall, C; Green, E C

    1996-07-01

    Interviews with 81 traditional healers from 4 Copperbelt towns in Zambia (Chililabombwe, Chingola, Luanshya, and Mufulira) investigated healers' understanding of, attitudes toward, and management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In general, Zambian traditional healers had detailed constructs of the physiology and infective processes underlying syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid, and AIDS. STDs were considered to be caused by "dirt" or contamination residing in sperm or vaginal fluids and were closely linked to violations of moral codes. Healers shared complex nosologies based on distinctions between symptoms of different STD pathologies that were more inclusive than biomedical categories. Although condom use was not promoted, healers understood the importance of preventing an infective agent from passing from one person to another. Except for AIDS, STDs were considered curable by expelling the dirt through purgatives or emetics. Modern medicine was perceived as treating only STD symptoms, not curing. Most traditional healers insisted that the infected partner bring the other partner for consultation or treatment was withheld. Since these findings identified some areas of compatibility between indigenous and biomedical models of STDs, the Traditional Medicine Unit of the Ministry of Health and the HIV/AIDS Prevention Project of the Morehouse School of Medicine (Lusaka) established a program in which traditional healers receive AIDS training and learn to counsel clients on safer sex behaviors. Follow-up entails monthly meetings between health professionals and traditional healers. Since program initiation in June 1994, 800 traditional healers and 70 health professionals have participated. Traditional healers now sell condoms to their clients through a social marketing program. PMID:12179374

  3. The risk of success: cultural determinants of chronic disease and sexually transmitted infections among urban Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Uretsky, Elanah

    2011-06-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, the People's Republic of China successfully waged a series of public health campaigns to control the infectious diseases that were ravaging them as a nation. This included a campaign that targeted the social roots of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). China is now facing a new disease profile that includes emerging epidemics of chronic disease as well as reemerging epidemics of STIs. Many of these diseases are strongly associated with gender and occupation, suggesting need for a critical model of health literacy that recognizes the role of social risk in promoting risky behaviors rather than focusing on a simple model that disseminates knowledge about biomedical risk. Such a model is useful for explaining why people armed with knowledge about biomedical risk continue to engage in risky behaviors. This article focuses on the social risks that wealthy Chinese businessmen and government officials negotiate on a daily basis. It highlights the concept of guanxi that is so central to building relationships in China and explains the traditional process of yingchou used to establish and maintain relationships among this cadre of men who depend on one another for political and economic success. This process, which has become pervasive in China's era of market reform, requires men to engage in frequent practices of smoking, drinking, eating and female-centered entertainment that are contributing both to their success and to their increasing vulnerability to chronic disease and STIs. The paper concludes by offering some alternative approaches to addressing this emerging disease pattern among this particular segment of China's population. PMID:21097473

  4. Overdiagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection and Underdiagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infection in Adult Women Presenting to an Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Tomas, Myreen E.; Getman, Damon; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are commonly diagnosed in emergency departments (EDs). Distinguishing between these syndromes can be challenging because of overlapping symptomatology and because both are associated with abnormalities on urinalysis (UA). We conducted a 2-month observational cohort study to determine the accuracy of clinical diagnoses of UTI and STI in adult women presenting with genitourinary (GU) symptoms or diagnosed with GU infections at an urban academic ED. For all urine specimens, UA, culture, and nucleic acid amplification testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis were performed. Of 264 women studied, providers diagnosed 175 (66%) with UTIs, 100 (57%) of whom were treated without performing a urine culture during routine care. Combining routine care and study-performed urine cultures, only 84 (48%) of these women had a positive urine culture. Sixty (23%) of the 264 women studied had one or more positive STI tests, 22 (37%) of whom did not receive treatment for an STI within 7 days of the ED visit. Fourteen (64%) of these 22 women were diagnosed with a UTI instead of an STI. Ninety-two percent of the women studied had an abnormal UA finding (greater-than-trace leukocyte esterase level, positive nitrite test result, or pyuria). The positive and negative predictive values of an abnormal UA finding were 41 and 76%, respectively. In this population, empirical therapy for UTI without urine culture testing and overdiagnosis of UTI were common and associated with unnecessary antibiotic exposure and missed STI diagnoses. Abnormal UA findings were common and not predictive of positive urine cultures. PMID:26063863

  5. Digital divide: variation in internet and cellular phone use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic.

    PubMed

    Samal, Lipika; Hutton, Heidi E; Erbelding, Emily J; Brandon, Elizabeth S; Finkelstein, Joseph; Chander, Geetanjali

    2010-01-01

    We sought to describe: (1) the prevalence of internet, cellular phone, and text message use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic, (2) the acceptability of health advice by each mode of information and communication technology (ICT), and (3) demographic characteristics associated with ICT use. This study is a cross-sectional survey of 200 English-speaking women presenting to a Baltimore City STI clinic with STI complaints. Participants completed a self-administered survey querying ICT use and demographic characteristics. Three separate questions asked about interest in receiving health advice delivered by the three modalities: internet, cellular phone, and text message. We performed logistic regression to examine how demographic factors (age, race, and education) are associated with likelihood of using each modality. The median age of respondents was 27 years; 87% were African American, and 71% had a high school diploma. The rate of any internet use was 80%; 31% reported daily use; 16% reported weekly use; and 32% reported less frequent use. Almost all respondents (93%) reported cellular phone use, and 79% used text messaging. Acceptability of health advice by each of the three modalities was about 60%. In multivariate analysis, higher education and younger age were associated with internet use, text messaging, and cellular phone use. Overall rate of internet use was high, but there was an educational disparity in internet use. Cellular phone use was almost universal in this sample. All three modalities were equally acceptable forms of health communication. Describing baseline ICT access and the acceptability of health advice via ICT, as we have done, is one step toward determining the feasibility of ICT-delivered health interventions in urban populations. PMID:19941085

  6. Delay in Seeking Care for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Young Men and Women Attending a Public STD Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Angela M.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Clark, Duncan B.; Cook, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Delay in seeking care for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has adverse consequences for both the individual and population. We sought to identify factors associated with delay in seeking care for STDs. Methods: Subjects included 300 young men and women (aged 15-24) attending an urban STD clinic for a new STD-related problem due to symptoms or referral for an STD screening. Subjects completed a structured interview that evaluated STD history, attitudes and beliefs about STDs, depression, substance use, and other factors possibly associated with delay. Delay was defined as waiting > 7 days to seek and obtain care for STDs. Results: Nearly one-third of participants delayed seeking care for > 7 days. Significant predictors for delay included self-referral for symptoms as the reason for visit (OR 5.3, 95% CI: 2.58 – 10.98), and the beliefs “my partner would blame me if I had an STD” (OR 2.44, 95% CI: 1.30 – 4.60) and “it’s hard to find time to get checked for STDs” (OR 3.62, 95% CI: 1.95 – 6.69), after adjusting for age, race, sex, and other factors. Agreeing with the statement “would use a STD test at home if one were available” was associated with a decrease in delay (OR 0.24, 95% CI: 0.09 – 0.60). Conclusions: Many young persons delay seeking care for STDs for a number of reasons. Strategies to improve STD care-seeking include encouragement of symptomatic persons to seek medical care more rapidly, reduction of social stigmas, and improved access to testing options. PMID:24078858

  7. The risk of success: cultural determinants of chronic disease and sexually transmitted infections among urban Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Uretsky, Elanah

    2011-01-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, the People's Republic of China successfully waged a series of public health campaigns to control the infectious diseases that were ravaging them as a nation. This included a campaign that targeted the social roots of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). China is now facing a new disease profile that includes emerging epidemics of chronic disease as well as reemerging epidemics of STIs. Many of these diseases are strongly associated with gender and occupation, suggesting need for a critical model of health literacy that recognizes the role of social risk in promoting risky behaviors rather than focusing on a simple model that disseminates knowledge about biomedical risk. Such a model is useful for explaining why people armed with knowledge about biomedical risk continue to engage in risky behaviors. This article focuses on the social risks that wealthy Chinese businessmen and government officials negotiate on a daily basis. It highlights the concept of guanxi that is so central to building relationships in China and explains the traditional process of yingchou used to establish and maintain relationships among this cadre of men who depend on one another for political and economic success. This process, which has become pervasive in China's era of market reform, requires men to engage in frequent practices of smoking, drinking, eating and female-centered entertainment that are contributing both to their success and to their increasing vulnerability to chronic disease and STIs. The paper concludes by offering some alternative approaches to addressing this emerging disease pattern among this particular segment of China's population. PMID:21097473

  8. Trends in sexually transmitted diseases and condom use patterns among commercial sex workers in Fukuoka City, Japan 1990-93.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, M; Nakayama, H; Sakumoto, M; Matsumoto, T; Akazawa, K; Kumazawa, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female commercial sex workers and in their condom use patterns during the period from 1990 to 1993 in Fukuoka, Japan. METHODS: The study group consisted of a total of 824 commercial sex workers who attended an STD clinic to undergo screening for STDs including chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis B and HIV-1 infection during the period from 1990 to 1993. For detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, endocervical smear specimens were taken from the women. Blood samples were obtained for serological diagnosis of syphilis, hepatitis B and HIV-1. Commercial sex workers who visited the clinic during the period from November to December of 1993 were interviewed concerning past (1990 and 1991) and recent (1992 and 1993) condom use patterns. RESULTS: The annual detection rates of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae declined significantly from 16.3% in 1990 to 12.2% in 1993 (P < 0.0001) and from 1.5% in 1990 to 0.8% in 1993 (P = 0.0096), respectively. There was a remarkable reduction in the annual syphilis infection rate, from 7.5% in 1990 to 0.5% in 1993 (P = 0.0011). The positive rate for the hepatitis B surface antigen in the women ranged from only 0.6% to 1.9% and none were found to be positive for HIV-1 during the 4-year period. During the same period, there was a significant increase in the proportion of commercial sex workers always using condoms from 6.3% in 1990-91 to 25.3% in 1992-93 (P = 0.0023). CONCLUSION: The prevalences of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and syphilis infections decreased significantly among commercial sex workers in Fukuoka from 1990 through 1993, and no commercial sex workers were HIV-1 seropositive. The reductions in the prevalence of major STDs may be related to the increased use of condoms. PMID:8976854

  9. Effect of public-private partnership in treatment of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Kokku, Suresh Babu; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Tucker, Saroj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Providing sexually transmitted infection (STI) services to female sex workers (FSWs) in rural and resource constrained settings is a challenge. This paper describes an approach to address this challenge through a partnership with government health facilities, and examines the effect of this partnership on the utilization of STI services by FSWs in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: Partnerships were formed with 46 government clinics located in rural areas for providing STI treatment to FSWs in 2007. Government health facilities were supported by local and State level non-government organizations (NGOs) through provision of medicines, training of medical staff, outreach in the communities, and other coordination activities. Data from programme monitoring and behaviour tracking survey were used to examine the accessibility and acceptability in utilization of STI services from partnership clinics. Results: The number of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics increased from 1627 in 2007 to over 15,000 in 2010. The average number of annual visits by FSWs to these clinics in 2010 was 3.4. In opinion surveys, the majority of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics expressed confidence that they would continue to receive effective services from the government facilities even if the programme terminates. The overall attitude of FSWs to visit government clinics was more positive among FSWs from partnership clinic areas compared to those from non-partnership clinic areas. Interpretation & conclusions: The partnership mechanism between the NGO-supported HIV prevention programme and government clinic facilities appeared to be a promising opportunity to provide timely and accessible STI services for FSWs living in rural and remote areas. PMID:24718405

  10. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

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  11. Sperm-mediated host-derived DNA transfer as a new mechanism for immune system evasion of sexually transmitted genital tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Landau, Eliahu Yuval; Wainrach, Bezalel

    2012-09-01

    Over one century of extensive efforts directed towards investigating the immune response and the immuno-protection associated with sexually transmitted infections have failed to produce any effective vaccines against most of the major pathogens, among them Neisseria gonorrhea, herpes simplex virus type 2, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Attempts to design and develop protective vaccines against them have also yielded disappointing results. It has long been felt that there might be another yet undiscovered complicating factor, in addition to the recognized difficulties, which might be impeding the development of successful vaccines. Unlike the other body organs and systems, the genital tract and the elements found within it (e.g., spermatozoa) are endowed with unique features, some of which are associated with inherent DNA transferability skills as physiologically required from such an environment. We hypothesize that there is a novel evasion mechanism that involves an unusual sperm-mediated host-derived DNA transfer by which sexually transmitted genital tract microorganisms can express brand new chimeric antigens and epitopes and, by doing so, thus evade the surveillance of the immune system. This hypothesis may describe what would be the long-awaited breakthrough in the search for a vaccine against sexually transmitted infections. It may also assist in developing better-designed vaccines in general, and may have implications on other microorganism-related challenges (e.g., antibiotic resistance). PMID:22795612

  12. UK national audit against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    PubMed

    McClean, H; Sullivan, A K; Carne, C A; Warwick, Z; Menon-Johansson, A; Clutterbuck, D

    2012-10-01

    A national audit of practice performance against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health Standards for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) was conducted in 2011. Approximately 60% and 8% of level 3 and level 2 services, respectively, participated. Excluding partner notification performance, the five lowest areas of performance for level 3 clinics were the STI/HIV risk assessment, care pathways linking care in level 2 clinics to local level 3 services, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs, information governance and receipt of chlamydial test results by clinicians within seven working days (the worst area of performance). The five lowest areas of performance for level 2 clinics were participating in audit, having an audit plan for the management of STIs for 2009-2010, the STI/HIV risk assessment, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs and information governance. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of the standards by commissioners of services because of their relevance to other national quality assurance drivers, and the need for development of a national system of STI management quality assurance measurement and reporting. PMID:23104750

  13. The impact of health education transmitted via social media or text messaging on adolescent and young adult risky sexual behavior: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather

    2014-07-01

    Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women. PMID:24922099

  14. Prevention of sexually transmitted infections in urban communities (Peru PREVEN): a multicomponent community-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J; Holmes, King K; Cárcamo, César P; Garnett, Geoff P; Hughes, James P; Campos, Pablo E; Whittington, William LH

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Previous community-randomised trials of interventions to control sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have involved rural settings, were rarely multicomponent, and had varying results. We aimed to assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on curable STIs in urban young adults and female sex workers (FSWs). Methods In this community-randomised trial, baseline STI screening was done between August, and November, 2002, in random household samples of young adults (aged 18–29 years) and in FSWs in Peruvian cities with more than 50 000 inhabitants. Geographically separate cities were selected, matched into pairs, and randomly allocated to intervention or control groups with an S-PLUS program. Follow-up surveys of random samples were done after 2 years and 3 years. The intervention comprised four modalities: strengthened STI syndromic management by pharmacy workers and clinicians; mobile-team outreach to FSWs for STI screening and pathogen-specific treatment; periodic presumptive treatment of FSWs for trichomoniasis; and condom promotion for FSWs and the general population. Individuals in control cities received standard care. The composite primary endpoint was infection of young adults with Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or syphilis seroreactivity. Laboratory workers and the data analyst were masked, but fieldworkers, the Peruvian study team, and participants in the outcome surveys were not. All analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN43722548. Findings We did baseline surveys of 15 261 young adults in 24 Peruvian cities. Of those, 20 geographically separate cities were matched into pairs, in each of which one city was assigned to intervention and the other to standard of care. In the 2006 follow-up survey, data for the composite primary outcome were available for 12 930 young adults. We report a non-significant reduction in prevalence of STIs in young adults, adjusted for baseline prevalence, in intervention cities compared with control cities (relative risk 0·84, 95% CI 0·69–1·02; p=0·096). In subgroup analyses, significant reductions were noted in intervention cities in young adult women and FSWs. Interpretation Syndromic management of STIs, mobile-team outreach to FSWs, presumptive treatment for trichomoniasis in FSWs, and condom promotion might reduce the composite prevalence of any of the four curable STIs investigated in this trial. Funding Wellcome Trust and Burroughs Wellcome Fund, National Institutes of Health, Center for AIDS Research, CIPRA, and USAID-Peru. PMID:22341824

  15. Gender Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, and HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Male-to-Female Transgender Persons: A Three-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined gender abuse and depressive symptoms as risk factors for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI) among male-to-female transgender persons (MTFs). Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study of factors associated with incident HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, chlamydia, and gonorrhea among 230 MTFs from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included Cox proportional hazards analysis with time varying covariates. Results. Among younger MTFs (aged 19–30 years), gender abuse predicted depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score ≥ 20), and gender abuse combined with depressive symptoms predicted both high-risk sexual behavior (unprotected receptive anal intercourse) and incident HIV/STI. These associations were independent of socioeconomic status, ethnicity, sexual orientation, hormone therapy, and sexual reassignment surgery. Conclusions. Gender abuse is a fundamental distal risk factor for HIV/STI among younger MTFs. Interventions for younger MTFs are needed to reduce the psychological impact of gender abuse and limit the effects of this abuse on high-risk sexual behavior. Age differences in the impact of gender abuse on HIV/STI suggest the efficacy of peer-based interventions in which older MTFs teach their younger counterparts how to cope with this abuse. PMID:22698023

  16. The Burden of Bacterial Vaginosis: Women’s Experience of the Physical, Emotional, Sexual and Social Impact of Living with Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Bilardi, Jade E.; Walker, Sandra; Temple-Smith, Meredith; McNair, Ruth; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Bellhouse, Clare; Fairley, Christopher K.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection, causing an abnormal vaginal discharge and/or odour in up to 50% of sufferers. Recurrence is common following recommended treatment. There are limited data on women’s experience of bacterial vaginosis, and the impact on their self-esteem, sexual relationships and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis on women. Methods A social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty five women with male and/or female partners participated in semi-structured interviews face-to-face or by telephone about their experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Results Recurrent bacterial vaginosis impacted on women to varying degrees, with some women reporting it had little impact on their lives but most reporting it had a moderate to severe impact. The degree to which it impacted on women physically, emotionally, sexually and socially often depended on the frequency of episodes and severity of symptoms. Women commonly reported that symptoms of bacterial vaginosis made them feel embarrassed, ashamed, ‘dirty’ and very concerned others may detect their malodour and abnormal discharge. The biggest impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis was on women’s self-esteem and sex lives, with women regularly avoiding sexual activity, in particular oral sex, as they were too embarrassed and self-conscious of their symptoms to engage in these activities. Women often felt confused about why they were experiencing recurrent bacterial vaginosis and frustrated at their lack of control over recurrence. Conclusion Women’s experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis varied broadly and significantly in this study. Some women reported little impact on their lives but most reported a moderate to severe impact, mainly on their self-esteem and sex life. Further support and acknowledgement of these impacts are required when managing women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis. PMID:24040236

  17. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases. The potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision.

    PubMed

    Dini, Catia

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB) propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC) confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed. PMID:21169666

  18. Stigma, sexually transmitted infections and attendance at the GUM Clinic: an exploratory study with implications for the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Ellen; Van Wersch, Anna

    2007-01-01

    A gap in the literature regarding understanding of people's health care seeking behaviours in relation to sexually transmitted infections is identified. Employing both deductive and inductive methods, 10 patients (five female, five male) were interviewed to explore the psychosocial, motivational and attitudinal factors associated with attendance at a Genito-Urinary Medicine (GUM) clinic in a close-knit community in the north of England. Seven stigma-related themes were identified as salient issues surrounding perceptions of sexual health screening and included: (1)prejudice surrounding STIs; (2)fear of exposure; (3)isolation; (4)reluctance to attend; (5)contamination; (6)relationship issues; and (7)perceived invulnerability. Within these themes distinct gender differences were identified. Implications for the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) are discussed against the factors identified. PMID:17158837

  19. Factors associated with sexually transmitted infection testing among men who utilize an internet-based men who have sex with men community.

    PubMed

    Stupiansky, Nathan W; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Novak, David S; Reece, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Public health messaging encourages men who have sex with men (MSM) to be tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV at least yearly, and more frequently depending on sexual behaviors. However, despite engaging in a range of sexual behaviors, many MSM do not participate in regular STI testing. The objective of this study was to understand factors associated with STI testing among a nonclinic-based population of men accessing an Internet-based social and sexual networking site. We asked 25,736 men to complete a comprehensive behavioral and health assessment after being recruited from an Internet site popular among men seeking social or sexual interactions with other men. Analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regression with effects significant at p < 0.05. Two separate predictive models were assessed: STI diagnosis within the past 2 years and STI testing within the past year. Regarding previous STI diagnosis, men who used a condom some of the time or never during both insertive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.72) and receptive (OR = 1.41) anal sex were significantly more likely to have had an STI in the past 2 years. For STI testing, men who never used condoms during receptive anal sex were more likely to have had an STI test within the past year (OR = 1.31), but men who had a STI history were less likely to have been tested (O  = 0.24). Public health efforts directed toward MSM should continue to emphasize screening for STI other than HIV, particularly among those men prioritized during condom promotion campaigns. In addition to the benefits of learning one's STI status, the STI screening and treatment environment itself may provide an important venue for encouraging a range of sexual health promoting behaviors. PMID:20969463

  20. Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Transgender Women and Men Undergoing Community-Based Screening for Acute and Early HIV Infection in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Green, Nella; Hoenigl, Martin; Morris, Sheldon; Little, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The transgender community represents an understudied population in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare risk behavior, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates between transgender women and transgender men undergoing community-based HIV testing. With this retrospective analysis of a cohort study, we characterize HIV infection rates as well as reported risk behaviors and reported STI in 151 individual transgender women and 30 individual transgender men undergoing community based, voluntary screening for acute and early HIV infection (AEH) in San Diego, California between April 2008 and July 2014. HIV positivity rate was low for both, transgender women and transgender men undergoing AEH screening (2% and 3%, respectively), and the self-reported STI rate for the prior 12 months was 13% for both. Although transgender women appeared to engage in higher rates of risk behavior overall, with 69% engaged in condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) and 11% engaged in sex work, it is important to note that 91% of transgender women reported recent sexual intercourse, 73% had more than 1 sexual partner, 63% reported intercourse with males, 37% intercourse with males and females, and 30% had CRAI. Our results indicate that in some settings rates of HIV infection, as well as rates of reported STIs and sexual risk behavior in transgender men may resemble those found in transgender women. Our findings support the need for comprehensive HIV prevention in both, transgender women and men. PMID:26469928