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Sample records for bacterial sexually transmitted

  1. Antibiotic resistance in prevalent bacterial and protozoan sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are “largely inevitable” and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI. PMID:26392647

  2. Antibiotic resistance in prevalent bacterial and protozoan sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are "largely inevitable" and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI. PMID:26392647

  3. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Sexually transmitted diseases STDs Sexually transmitted infections STIs Medical or Scientific Names Sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted infections Last Reviewed: ...

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States, as well as the

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    87 Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease the epithelial cells of the genital tract and conjunctivae. It can cause diseases that range from salpingitis and conjunctivitis to pelvic inflammatory disease, the blinding disease trachoma and the systemic infection

  5. Sexually transmitted proctitis.

    PubMed

    Sigle, Gavin W; Kim, Rebekah

    2015-06-01

    There are many different sexually transmitted infections that can cause proctitis. Recognition of the common symptoms with anoscopic examination is crucial in accurate diagnosis of the pathogen. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of more than one inciting pathogen. Treatment should be prompt and extended to sexual partners who have been exposed to the disease. Effective treatment can alleviate the discomfort and potentially serious complications associated with sexually transmitted proctitides. This article illustrates and discusses the clinical presentations, diagnostic pearls, and treatments of sexually transmitted proctitides. PMID:26034402

  6. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... D., M.P.H., FACOG, Commander, U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Medical Officer, Sexually Transmitted Diseases Branch, Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases,National Institute of Allergy and ...

  7. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes ... is no cure. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  8. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enabling JavaScript. Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Sexually Transmitted Diseases STDs are an important global health priority because of their devastating impact on women and infants and their inter-relationships with HIV/AIDS. STDs and HIV are linked ...

  9. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...

  10. Are social organizational factors independently associated with a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection among urban adolescents and young adults?

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Jacky M.; Hensel, Devon J.; Tanner, Amanda E.; Reilly, Meredith L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the social organization of neighborhoods including informal social control and social cohesion and a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among adolescents and young adults in one U.S. urban setting. Data for the current study were collected from April 2004 to April 2007 in a cross-sectional household study. The target population included English-speaking, sexually-active persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years who resided in 486 neighborhoods. The study sample included 599 participants from 63 neighborhoods. A current bacterial STI was defined as diagnosis of a chlamydia and/or gonorrhea infection at the time of study participation. Participants reported on informal social control (i.e. scale comprised of 9 items) and social cohesion (i.e. scale comprised of 5 items) in their neighborhood. In a series of weighted multilevel logistic regression models stratified by gender, greater informal social control was significantly associated with a decreased odds of a current bacterial STI among females (AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34, 0.84) after controlling for individual social support and other factors. The association, while in a similar direction, was not significant for males (AOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.48, 1.12). Social cohesion was not significantly associated with a current bacterial STI among females (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.61, 1.19) and separately, males (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.67, 1.44). Greater individual social support was associated with an almost seven-fold increase in the odds of a bacterial STI among males (AOR 6.85, 95% CI 1.99, 23.53), a finding which is in contrast to our hypotheses. The findings suggest that neighborhood social organizational factors such as informal social control have an independent relationship with sexual health among U.S. urban youth. The causality of the relationship remains to be determined. PMID:25089964

  11. Sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Mark A; Trout, Wayne

    2015-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) continue to be a global epidemic with significant risk of morbidity/mortality for the fetus. STDs with prominent cutaneous findings including condylomata acuminata, genital herpes infections, and syphilis are reviewed. Important clinical cutaneous findings help aid early diagnosis and facilitate treatment. Condylomata acuminata have the potential of causing cervical cancer, anogenital cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Significant advances have been made in human papilloma virus vaccinations and treatment. Genital herpes infection can produce significant physical and emotional distress to the patient and significant potential harm to the fetus. Early clinical recognition of STDs and their appropriate management is critical. PMID:25565081

  12. Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsay; Angarone, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a significant burden on public health in the United States. Primary prevention counseling with early diagnosis and treatment remain the best methods to decrease the incidence of STIs. Through significant public heath interventions, the incidence of gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and trichomoniasis is decreasing; however, the incidence of primary and secondary syphilis is increasing. Human papilloma virus remains the most common STI, but new vaccinations have the possibility of having a significant impact on this virus's disease potential. This review discusses the most common STIs in the United States, focusing on clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:26475947

  13. Association of Bacterial vaginosis and other Sexually Transmitted Infections with HIV among pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Imade, Godwin E.; Musa, Jonah; Sagay, Atiene S.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sankale, Jean-Louis; Idoko, John; Kanki, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Jos, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross- sectional study of pregnant women who participated in the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV program of the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria, between April 2002 and July 2004, at the Jos University Teaching Hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Blood, high vaginal and endocervical samples were obtained for diagnosis of HIV, BV and other STIs. Data were analyzed for prevalence of HIV, BV and other STIs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models generated unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) as well as 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association of BV and other STIs with HIV prevalence. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 4,046 pregnant women were studied and 97.6% (3,950/4,046) had complete laboratory records for analysis. The prevalence of HIV was 8.2% (CI: 7.4–9.1); BV 11.9% (CI: 10.9–12.9); Candida 10.7% (CI: 9.7–11.7); mixed infection of BV and Candida 2.8% (CI: 2.3–3.4); Trichomonads 0.6% (CI: 0.3–0.8) and syphilis 0.35% (0.16–0.54). BV, Candida, mixed BV and Candida; and Trichomonads were independently associated with HIV infection [adjusted OR (95% CI), 2.9 (CI: 2.2–3.9); 2.0 (CI: 1.5–2.9); 3.4 (CI: 2.0–5.6), and 3.3 (CI: 1.1–9.7) respectively]. Conclusion HIV prevalence is higher among pregnant women who have BV, Candida and Trichomonads vaginal infections compared with women who have no evidence of infection. The practice of routine screening for BV and other STIs among pregnant women as a strategy for identifying women at risk for prevalent HIV infection should be sustained/ encouraged and the syndromic management of STIs should be integrated into all antenatal care management protocols in antenatal clinics in order to curb the epidemic of heterosexual HIV transmission.

  14. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…

  15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Teens at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascola, Laurene

    1987-01-01

    Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)

  16. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Syphilis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in 2012. P&S Syphilis by Sex and Sex Behavior The male-to-female rate ratio for P&S ... SK, et al. Continuing increases in sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted diseases among men who have ...

  17. The impact of meeting locations for men having sex with men on the risk for bacterial sexually transmitted infections: analyses from a cross-sectional online survey

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, U; an der Heiden, M; Gassowski, M; Kruspe, M; Drewes, J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Opportunities for men having sex with men (MSM) to meet each other have very much improved by new communication technologies. Meeting venue-based characteristics can impact how many partners are met and how much sexual risk is taken. We analysed the association between physical and virtual venues and the risk for bacterial sexually transmitted infections (bSTIs) among participants in an MSM online survey. Methods Data were collected during 2013/2014 with a survey targeting MSM living in Germany. The impact of the meeting place with the last non-steady anal sex partner on diagnosis with a bSTI in the previous year was analysed using bivariate and multivariate regression analysis, taking into account self-reported HIV status, serostatus communication, condom use, partner number, age and city size. Results The study sample consisted of 8878 respondents (7799 not diagnosed with HIV; 1079 diagnosed with HIV). Meeting partners online was most common (62% HIV?/51% HIV+), followed by sex venues (11% HIV?/25% HIV+); other venues were each reported by 2–6% of the respondents. Venue-dependent proportions reporting bSTIs in the recent year were 2–4 folds higher among men diagnosed with HIV. In multivariate analysis, HIV status was the strongest predictor for bSTIs (OR=5.0; 95% CI 2.8 to 8.7). Compared with meeting partners online, sex (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5) and social venues (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.6) were associated with increased bSTI risk for men not diagnosed with HIV, but the risk when meeting partners by smartphone apps was only of borderline significance (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9 to 2.3). For men diagnosed with HIV, bSTI risk increased for sex venues (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1), and was lower for non-gay/other venues (OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5). Conclusions Venues are connected to social-behavioural facets of corresponding sexual encounters, and may be important arenas for differential HIV and STI education, treatment and prevention. PMID:26537499

  18. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by pathogens that are transmitted

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by pathogens that are transmitted through sexual on worldwide public health and mortality. These include infectious diseases that are not sexually transmitted-health and financial burden on society worldwide. There are many types of sexually transmitted pathogens, and each

  19. Sexually transmitted diseases in Sabah and Sarawak.

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, R D

    1981-01-01

    Despite being part of one of the few remaining primitive areas of the world, both Sabah and Sarawak are provided with adequate, though simple, urban and rural general medical services. At present no reliable data on the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in these areas have been collected and no organised treatment services are available. Gonorrhoea appears to be the commonest notifiable infectious disease in Sarawak, and beta-lactamase-producing strains have been isolated. Because of the rapidly expanding economy and the encouragement of the tourist trade, sexually transmitted disease is likely to prove an increasing problem, for which a specialised service for diagnosis and treatment is badly needed. PMID:6895709

  20. Adolescent Sexuality: Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…

  1. Survey of Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This survey covers periodical literature published in the field of research on sexually transmitted diseases during 1985. The articles cover the following diseases: (1) genital chlamydial infection; (2) gonorrhea; (3) genital herpes infection; (4) human papillomavirus infection; (5) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); (6) genital…

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This document contains a reference sheet and an annotated bibliography concerned with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The reference sheet provides a brief, accurate overview of STDs which includes both statistical and background information. The bibliography contains 83 entries, listed alphabetically, that deal with STDs. Books and articles…

  3. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in female clinic attendees in Honiara, Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kako, H; Butcher, R; Lauri, B; Puiahi, E; Pitakaka, R; Sokana, O; Kilua, G; Roth, A; Solomon, A W; Mabey, D C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine the prevalence of common bacterial sexually transmitted infections, including Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in women attending clinics in the Solomon Islands. Methods We conducted a sexual health survey among women attending three nurse-led community outpatient clinics in August 2014, to establish the prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in female clinic attenders in Honiara, Solomon Islands. Vaginal swab samples were tested for infection with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae using a commercial strand displacement amplification assay. Serum samples were tested for syphilis. Results We enrolled 296 women, aged 16–49, attending three clinics. Knowledge of safe sexual practices was high but reported condom usage was low. The prevalence of infection with C. trachomatis was 20%. The prevalence of infection with N. gonorrhoeae and syphilis were 5.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Conclusions Bacterial sexually transmitted infections are a major health problem in the Solomon Islands. Interventions are urgently needed. PMID:25922103

  4. Measuring the transmission dynamics of a sexually transmitted disease

    E-print Network

    Knell, Rob

    Measuring the transmission dynamics of a sexually transmitted disease Jonathan J. Ryder* , K. Mary, and approved August 28, 2005 (received for review June 18, 2005) Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occur individuals increase with population density. In con- trast, classic sexually transmitted disease (STD) models

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases of insects: distribution, evolution, ecology and host

    E-print Network

    Knell, Rob

    Sexually transmitted diseases of insects: distribution, evolution, ecology and host behaviour) ABSTRACT Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of insects are known from the mites, nematodes, fungi on these subjects are lacking. Key words: sexually transmitted disease, STD, insect, host-pathogen, parasite

  6. Sexually transmitted infections and older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Beverly K

    2013-11-01

    Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:24066789

  7. High School Dropouts and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark; Pörtner, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    People who drop out of high school fare worse in many aspects of life. We analyze the relationship between dropping out of high school and the probability of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Previous studies on the relationship between dropout status and sexual outcomes have not empirically addressed unobserved heterogeneity at the individual level. Using fixed effects estimators, we find evidence supporting a positive relationship between dropping out of high school and the risk of contracting an STI for females. Furthermore, we present evidence that illustrates differences between the romantic partners of dropouts versus enrolled students. These differences suggest that female dropouts may be more susceptible to contracting STIs because they partner with significantly different types of people than non-dropouts. Our results point to a previously undocumented benefit of encouraging those at risk of dropping out to stay in school longer. PMID:25705058

  8. Sexually transmitted infections manifesting as proctitis

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Chris A; Lamb, Elizabeth Iris Mary; Mansfield, John C; Sankar, K Nathan

    2013-01-01

    There is a rising incidence of several sexually transmitted infections (STIs), many of which can present with proctitis. Causative organisms include Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Giardia lamblia (giardiasis) and Entamoeba histolytica (amoebiasis). This paper outlines important clinical discriminators and key investigations to distinguish these organisms from non-infective pathology that include inflammatory bowel disease, solitary rectal ulcer syndrome and Behçet's syndrome. Management of these infections is described and suggestions are made for successful gastroenterology clinical consultation when an STI is suspected. PMID:23914292

  9. Screening and prevention of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Paul; Dalby, Jessica; Marks, Jaime; Swain, Geoffrey R; Schrager, Sarina

    2014-06-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common and costly, in part because they are asymptomatic and result in serious complications. Primary care clinicians can easily diagnose and effectively treat most STIs. Clinicians should screen patients for STIs based on high-risk behaviors, and consult with local public health officials to adapt national screening guidelines to local epidemiology. Clinical encounters involving STI screening are opportunities to counsel patients on risk behaviors, and vaccinate against human papillomavirus and hepatitis B. Electronic health records and mobile phone apps show promise for improving the clinical care of STIs. PMID:24830606

  10. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  11. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015.

    PubMed

    Workowski, Kimberly A; Bolan, Gail A

    2015-06-01

    These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30-May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR-12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs. PMID:26042815

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases in sexually abused children: medical and legal implications

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may be transmitted during sexual assault. In children, the isolation of a sexually transmitted organism may be the first indication that abuse has occurred. Although the presence of a sexually transmissible agent from a child beyond the neonatal period is suggestive of sexual abuse, exceptions do exist. In this review I discuss the issues of the transmissibility and diagnosis of STDs in the context of child sexual abuse. Rectal or genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis among young children may be the result of perinatally acquired infection and may persist for as long as 3 years. A major problem with chlamydia testing in the context of suspected sexual abuse in children has been the inappropriate use of non-culture tests. Although the new generation of nucleic acid amplification tests have shown high sensitivity and specificity with genital specimens from adults, data on use of these tests on any site in children are practically non-existent. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been identified among children who have been abused and among those who have not been abused. However, many of the methods used to diagnose BV in adults have not been evaluated in children. Recent studies of perinatal infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) have been inconclusive. HPV DNA has been detected at various sites in children who have not been abused. The relation to the development of clinically apparent genital warts is unclear. Although HIV can be acquired through sexual abuse in children, the exact risk to the child and which children should be screened is still controversial. ??? PMID:9849550

  13. Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Bipartite Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Luo-Sheng; Zhong, Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Fan

    2009-01-01

    We study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model on bipartite graph. According to the difference of sex conception in western and oriental nations, we construct the Barabási Albert-Barabási Albert (BA-BA) model and Barabási-Albert Homogeneity (BA-HO) model for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Applying the rate equation approach, the positive equilibria of both models are given analytically. We find that the ratio between infected females and infected males is distinctly different in both models and the infected density in the BA-HO model is much less than that in the BA-BA model. These results explain that the countries with small ratio have less infected density than those with large ratio. Our numerical simulations verify these theoretical results.

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases: a neglected public health priority.

    PubMed

    Yankauer, A

    1994-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases remain uncontrolled although millions of cases occur annually in the United States. The advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is also a sexually transmitted disease, has not altered this situation. The major portion of federal funding for sexually transmitted diseases is allocated to a search for an AIDS vaccine or cure. State health department funding for sexually transmitted diseases, although only a small fraction of the $1.3 billion AIDS research budget of the National Institutes of Health, is largely consumed by AIDS. A single adequately funded sexually transmitted disease control program that applies well-established public health principles for the control of communicable diseases would make sense. However, a consensus to develop and support such a program does not exist in the United States. PMID:7998625

  15. Engineering immunity in the mucosal niche against sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Renuka; Woodrow, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of the genital tract are the site of entry to over 30 different bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens that are the cause of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. Women and adolescent girls are more severely impacted by STIs than men due in part to a greater biological susceptibility for acquiring infections and differences in disease sequelae. While it is widely accepted that preventative vaccines against the most commonly transmitted STIs would have a major impact on decreasing the global health burden of STIs for women worldwide, several challenges preclude their development. The female genital tract is a complex niche of microflora, hormonal influences, and immune tissues and cells that result in a mucosal immune system that is distinct from other mucosal sites and from our systemic immune system. An appreciation of these differences and their effect on shaping mucosal immunity to sexually transmitted pathogens is an important determinant for the design of effective STI vaccines. Here we describe the anatomy and mucosal immune system of the female reproductive tract, and discuss bioengineering strategies to design mucosal vaccines that overcome delivery challenges and coordinate the presentation kinetics and compartmentalization of antigens and adjuvants to relevant mucosal immune cell subsets. In particular, we describe recent progress in understanding the role of specific mucosal dendritic cell subsets in facilitating immune responses to pathogenic microbes in the genital mucosa. We also discuss the development of pathogen-mimicking materials that may be useful for engineering protective immunity in this mucosal niche. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 8:107-122. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1359 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26153141

  16. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children. Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David L.

    1998-01-01

    This commentary on a paper (EC 619 276) about the transmissiblity of sexually transmitted diseases in sexually abused children discusses two issues: (1) determining if a child is infected with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) agent; and (2) determining if the child's STD was acquired from the mother before or during the birth process through…

  17. Marital Status and Sexually Transmitted Infections among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eboni M.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the relationship between low marriage rates and racial disparities in sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates. Data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth was used to examine the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors by marital status. Logistic regression was used to examine whether racial differences in marriage…

  18. Impact of adolescents awareness on perception of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Seremet, Jasmina; Laginja, Stanislava; Radovi?, Endi; Muzi?, Vedrana; Janci?, Ervin

    2014-12-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diseases transmitted by direct contact during sexual intercourse. Because of high incidence and possibility of development severe consequences on general and reproductive health, STIs are a major problem among young people in the world. Lack of information is one of the major risk factors for STI transmission. Most of young people (53.3%) had their first sexual intercourse at the age of 18 years, 67.7% of students have no knowledge about STI, 53.3% of students have already entered into sexual relations and 13% of them with more than 4partners. 31.1% of students who are sexually active was not examined by a gynecologist because of shame and fear. Most sexually active adolescents did not use contraceptives and they are not satisfied with the available information about STI. There is also continuing problem of teen pregnancy. The main goal of this research is to examine whether there is relationship between level of information and awareness of surveyed adolescents and their perception of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:25842768

  19. Sexually transmitted infections in Switzerland: return of the classics.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    Recent trends in western Europe show an increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Available surveillance data in Switzerland confirm this rising trend. Gonorrhoea rates more than doubled between 1996 and 2003, and for Chlamydia there was a 64% increase from 1999 to 2003. Notifications of syphilis cases almost doubled in the year 2002 and rose to 174% compared to the period of 1998-2001. The resurgence of syphilis in 2002 and 2003 was most important in Zurich and Geneva with 54 and 24% of all cases, respectively. Eighty-four percent occurred in males, 40% affecting males who had sex with males, and at least 17% were HIV co-infected. For 2004, further increases in these bacterial STIs are expected. Increased awareness of the symptoms and signs of acute infections is needed as well as considering the diagnosis of STIs in patients with vague symptoms. In addition, laboratory reporting or mandatory disease notifications are needed to monitor syphilis trends in Switzerland. PMID:15724096

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  1. Spreading of sexually transmitted diseases in heterosexual populations

    E-print Network

    Gómez-Gardenes, J; Moreno, Y; Profumo, E V

    2007-01-01

    Disease spreading is a topical issue in a variety of fields ranging from computer viruses in the Internet to air-borne (e.g. influenza) diseases in societies. In particular, the description of the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (Chlamydia, Syphilis, Gonorrhea, AIDS) across population constitutes a major concern for scientists and health agencies. In this context, both data collection on sexual contact networks and the modeling of disease spreading are intensively contributing to the search for effective immunization policies. Here, the spread of sexually transmitted diseases on bipartite scale-free graphs, representing heterosexual contact networks, is considered. We analytically derive the expression for the epidemic threshold and its dependence with the system size in finite populations. The results indicate that in finite bipartite populations with degree distribution as those found in national surveys of sexual attitudes, the onset of the epidemic outbreak takes place for larger spreading rates t...

  2. Sexually-transmitted disease risk in a Micronesian atoll population.

    PubMed

    Brewis, A A

    1992-10-01

    The potential health threat of AIDS to the native island-based populations in the Pacific is now widely appreciated by those working in the public-health sector throughout the region. Although several countries in the region are yet to identify any cases of AIDS or HIV seropositivity, there is reason to suspect that heterosexual contact may emerge as a predominant mode of spread of HIV infection into native Pacific island populations. Sexual networks and their relationship to potentially 'risky behaviours' are described for a single native Micronesian atoll community on the basis of ethnographic observation and interviewing. This description is combined with the investigation of historic-demographic dimensions of the epidemiology of sexually-transmitted diseases in the same population to draw some conclusions about the opportunities for HIV transmission and acquisition among the sexually-active portions of this community. Although sexually-transmitted diseases have not had an appreciable epidemiological or demographic impact on the population in the past, the sexual networks within the community and beyond provide ample opportunity for the introduction and spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and its sequel AIDS. PMID:10148657

  3. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted infections among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsuami, M. Jacques; Sanders, Ladatra S.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has not been determined conclusively whether greater knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is associated with lower rates of STIs. Purpose: This study sought to determine STI knowledge among high school students and factors associated with such knowledge, and to determine whether poor STI knowledge is associated with…

  4. Sexually Transmitted Disease Services at US Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumans, Emilia H.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Motamed, Cathy; Kohl, Katrin; Schillinger, Julia A.; Markowitz, Lauri E.

    2005-01-01

    The authors' objectives in this study were to describe the proportion of schools providing and the percentage of students with access to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) education, treatment, and prevention services at 2-year and 4-year US colleges and universities. The authors mailed self-administered questionnaires to a stratified…

  5. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  6. Sexually transmitted diseases in polygynous mating systems: prevalence and impact

    E-print Network

    Antonovics, Janis

    Sexually transmitted diseases in polygynous mating systems: prevalence and impact on reproductive (e.g. mortality rates). Male reproductive success can be reduced substantially by a sterilizing STD debate about evolutionary impacts of disease on animal and plant reproductive systems has centred almost

  7. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1981-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

  8. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic places to identify and prevent intimate partner violence. PMID:25741656

  9. VERTICAL TRANSMISSION IN EPIDEMIC MODELS OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES WITH ISOLATION

    E-print Network

    Luther, Ken

    VERTICAL TRANSMISSION IN EPIDEMIC MODELS OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES WITH ISOLATION FROM to a mild life- long sexually transmitted disease, i.e. without significant increased mortality among] to incorporate a sexually transmitted disease without recovery that does not increase mortality. It has been

  10. Microbicides for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted HIV Infections

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Onkar; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 34 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) at the end of 2011. From the last two decades, researchers are actively involved in the development of an effective HIV-1 treatment, but the results intended are still doubtful about the eradication of HIV. The HIV-1 virus has gone from being an “inherently untreatable” infectious agent to the one liable to be affected by a range of approved therapies. Candidate microbicides have been developed to target specific steps in the process of viral transmission. Microbicides are self-administered agents that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the aim of preventing, or reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV-1. The development of efficient, widely available, and low-cost microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted HIV infections should be given high priority. In this review, we studied the various forms of microbicides, their mechanism of action, and their abundant approaches to control the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). PMID:26556193

  11. Management of sexually transmitted infections in pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Manikam, Logan; Rogstad, Karen; Singh, Gurdeep; Lakhanpaul, Monica

    2012-08-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) comprise a variety of infections transmissible through sexual contact. Mutually consenting sexual relationships have become commonplace in adolescence and sexual abuse or exploitation awareness has risen, resulting in increased presentations of children with sexual health concerns. Difficulties persist in diagnosing and managing STIs in children. With increased emphasis on paediatrician's involvement in transitional care, competence in sexual history taking and clinical presentation recognition remains essential. Additionally, an awareness of strengths and limitations of diagnostic modalities needs to be present. Furthermore, specific additional issues in this age group such as independent consent for diagnosis and treatment, fear of pregnancy and privacy and confidentiality concerns should be addressed carefully. Failure to address these issues may lead to disengagement with health services resulting in potentially adverse short- and long-term health and social consequences in young persons. This review aims to provide an overview of an approach to diagnosing and managing a pubertal child with an STI and the consideration of the unique issues surrounding children's care. PMID:22036714

  12. A social model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2004-10-01

    We have introduced recently a model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a key factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population. The social behavior is taking into account by means of two parameters: the fraction of singles ?s and the promiscuity p. The promiscuity parameter defines the per individual daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In this contribution we show that the interaction between this two parameters give rise to a non-trivial epidemic threshold condition, when going from the homogeneous case ( ?s=1) to heterogeneous cases ( ?s<1). These results can have profound implication in the interpretation of real epidemic data.

  13. Promiscuity and the evolution of sexual transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2003-09-01

    We study the relation between different social behaviors and the onset of epidemics in a model for the dynamics of sexual transmitted diseases. The model considers the society as a system of individual sexuated agents that can be organized in couples and interact with each other. The different social behaviors are incorporated assigning what we call a promiscuity value to each individual agent. The individual promiscuity is taken from a distribution and represents the daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In terms of this parameter we find a threshold for the epidemic which is much lower than the classical SIR model prediction, i.e., R0 (basic reproductive number)=1. Different forms for the distribution of the population promiscuity are considered showing that the threshold is weakly sensitive to them. We study the homosexual and the heterosexual case as well.

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases in the history of Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, M

    1994-01-01

    First noticed in Uganda in 1863 by a European explorer, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were cited as a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout this century. In 1908 the venereal diseases campaign was launched marking the real introduction of western medicine. By the mid-1920s, the campaign was combined with the medical service but throughout the colonial period (1901-1962) venereal diseases were considered intractable. A 1991 survey revealed alarming incidence rates and in light of the importance of STDs as a co-factor in the transmission of HIV, it is of paramount importance to implement more effective control measures. PMID:8206475

  15. Mathematical Tools for Planning Effective Intervention Scenarios for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    E-print Network

    Helsinki, University of

    Mathematical Tools for Planning Effective Intervention Scenarios for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. MATHEMATICAL MODELS are being increasingly used for de- scription and control of sexually transmitted of the disease, and these in turn depend on differences in sexual behavior. An effective way to study

  16. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…

  17. Sexual Relationship Power as a Mediator between Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…

  18. Sexualization of the female foot as a response to sexually transmitted epidemics: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Colapietro, G; Slaby, A E; Melemis, S M; Bowman, R K

    1998-10-01

    The authors reviewed historical literature and hypothesized a relationship between epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases and foot fetishism. They tested this hypothesis by quantifying foot-fetish depictions in the mass-circulation pornographic literature during a 30-yr. interval. An exponential increase was noted during the period of the current AIDS epidemic. The authors offer reasons for this possible relationship. PMID:9819924

  19. Sexual Assault and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adults, Adolescents, and Children.

    PubMed

    Seña, Arlene C; Hsu, Katherine K; Kellogg, Nancy; Girardet, Rebecca; Christian, Cindy W; Linden, Judith; Griffith, William; Marchant, Anne; Jenny, Carole; Hammerschlag, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated treatment regimens; vaccinations for human papillomavirus (HPV) among previously unvaccinated patients aged 9-26 years; and consideration for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis using an algorithm to assess the timing and characteristics of the exposure. For child sexual assault (CSA) survivors, recommendations include targeted diagnostic testing with increased use of NAATs when appropriate; routine follow-up visits within 6 months after the last known sexual abuse; and use of HPV vaccination in accordance with national immunization guidelines as a preventive measure in the post-sexual assault care setting. For CSA patients, NAATs are considered to be acceptable for identification of gonococcal and chlamydial infections from urine samples, but are not recommended for extragenital testing due to the potential detection of nongonococcal Neisseria species. Several research questions were identified regarding the prevalence, detection, and management of STI/HIV infections among adult, adolescent, and pediatric sexual assault survivors. PMID:26602623

  20. The social behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2003-10-01

    We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.

  1. Recreational urethral sounding is associated with high risk sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. RESULTS There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED. CONCLUSIONS Urethral sounding is a sexual practice that is associated with higher risk sexual behaviour and carries the potential for morbidity. Research on means for risk reduction for men who choose to engage in recreational sounding requires further study. PMID:22221824

  2. STI-GMaS: an open-source environment for simulation of sexually-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexually-transmitted pathogens often have severe reproductive health implications if treatment is delayed or absent, especially in females. The complex processes of disease progression, namely replication and ascension of the infection through the genital tract, span both extracellular and intracellular physiological scales, and in females can vary over the distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. The complexity of these processes, coupled with the common impossibility of obtaining comprehensive and sequential clinical data from individual human patients, makes mathematical and computational modelling valuable tools in developing our understanding of the infection, with a view to identifying new interventions. While many within-host models of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) are available in existing literature, these models are difficult to deploy in clinical/experimental settings since simulations often require complex computational approaches. Results We present STI-GMaS (Sexually-Transmitted Infections – Graphical Modelling and Simulation), an environment for simulation of STI models, with a view to stimulating the uptake of these models within the laboratory or clinic. The software currently focuses upon the representative case-study of Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common sexually-transmitted bacterial pathogen of humans. Here, we demonstrate the use of a hybrid PDE–cellular automata model for simulation of a hypothetical Chlamydia vaccination, demonstrating the effect of a vaccine-induced antibody in preventing the infection from ascending to above the cervix. This example illustrates the ease with which existing models can be adapted to describe new studies, and its careful parameterisation within STI-GMaS facilitates future tuning to experimental data as they arise. Conclusions STI-GMaS represents the first software designed explicitly for in-silico simulation of STI models by non-theoreticians, thus presenting a novel route to bridging the gap between computational and clinical/experimental disciplines. With the propensity for model reuse and extension, there is much scope within STI-GMaS to allow clinical and experimental studies to inform model inputs and drive future model development. Many of the modelling paradigms and software design principles deployed to date transfer readily to other STIs, both bacterial and viral; forthcoming releases of STI-GMaS will extend the software to incorporate a more diverse range of infections. PMID:24923486

  3. Challenges to the management of curable sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Chen, Marcus Y; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2015-01-01

    Each year, hundreds of millions of new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur worldwide resulting in reproductive and other serious sequelae, as well as enhanced transmission of HIV. The clinical management and control of these STIs should include as a minimum access to services that provide timely and accurate diagnostic testing together with effective treatment. The provision of appropriate treatment is challenged by the development of increasing antimicrobial resistance, in particular with gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, requiring new treatments and management algorithms. In addition, infections such as chlamydia, syphilis and trichomoniasis, which show few signs of resistance, are nevertheless highly prevalent and require better public health control measures. While these may be achievable in high income countries, they are still beyond the reach of many low and middle income countries, making substantial improvements in STI management and reductions in STI prevalence challenging. PMID:26306415

  4. Sexually transmitted diseases in modern China: a historical survey.

    PubMed Central

    Dikötter, F

    1993-01-01

    This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attitudes have also structured medical responses to venereal disease. From the reform movements between the two World Wars to the more recent communist health campaigns, medical theory has often been confused with moral prescription. PMID:8244349

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases in Canada, 1800-1992.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, H

    1994-01-01

    The history of sexually transmitted diseases in Canada from 1800 to the present reflects the changing views and values of citizens, medical experts, politicians and bureaucrats. During the colonial period, the military devoted attention to the problem but strict moral codes and social conventions prevented public discussion. Although middle class reformers began to pressure the federal government for funding and direction after 1900, World War I was the catalyst for involvement. Health education through a voluntary group and federal-provincial cost-shared funding for treatment facilities across Canada were introduced to control STDs. Public perception of STD patients as marginalised or deviant limited the impact of these efforts. Social changes during the 1960s, new STDs appearing in the 1970s and the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s have redirected the STD campaign to focus on high risk groups and prevention rather than the moralistic curative efforts of the past. PMID:8300103

  6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  7. Sexual practices and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among hairdressers in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omokhodion, F O; Balogun, M O; Klemetti, M M; Olaolorun, F M

    2015-10-01

    The environment in salons provides hairdressers the opportunity to discuss sexual exploits which may promote unhealthy sexual behaviour and increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of the study was to determine sexual practices and knowledge and experience of STIs among hairdressers. The study was carried out in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. A total of 1700 hairdressers were selected by cluster sampling technique. Predictors of risky sexual behaviour, knowledge and experience of STIs were identified. Their mean age was 27.0 ± 8.1 years, 860 (50.6%) were single. Majority of them, 1453(85.5%) had ever had sex. The mean age at sexual debut was 15.9 years. Mean knowledge score of STIs was 14.0 out of 25. Only 158(9.3%) experienced symptoms of STIs in the last 12 months. Among singles, senior secondary education was a predictor of ever had sex (odds ratio [OR]: 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53-3.13), good knowledge of STIs (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.45-2.83) and experience of STIs in the last 12 months (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.53-3.13). Hairdressers, especially singles, are a vulnerable group at risk of reproductive health morbidities. There is a need to focus reproductive health interventions on this occupational group. PMID:25642818

  8. Gender Role Discrepancy Stress, High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gentile, Brittany; Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies. PMID:25564036

  9. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    PubMed

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas. PMID:23480474

  10. HIV testing and sexually transmitted infection care among sexually active youth in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Delva, Wim; Wuillaume, Françoise; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Claeys, Patricia; Verstraelen, Hans; Broeck, Davy Vanden; Temmerman, Marleen

    2008-10-01

    In light of the imminent threat of a growing HIV epidemic in east and southeast Europe, optimal accessibility of primary and secondary HIV preventative interventions, including HIV testing and sexually transmitted infection (STI) care, are fast becoming public health priorities. We surveyed 2150 high school students in Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYR of Macedonia, Serbia, and Montenegro to examine the uptake of HIV testing and associated predictors. Among sexually active youth (n = 651), 5.9% had already been tested for HIV. In marginal logistic regression, country of origin, type of high school, knowing a friend or relative with HIV, poor self-assessed health status, suspicion of having had an STI, and not having used a condom at first sex were independently associated with HIV testing. Fear of the diagnosis, fear of violation of confidentiality, and not knowing where to go for HIV testing were reported as barriers to HIV testing. Of sexually active adolescents who thought they might have contracted an STI, only 42% had subsequently visited a doctor or health facility. The main reasons for not doing so were spontaneous disappearance of the complaints, fear of the diagnosis and being ashamed of discussing the problem. In conclusion, the uptake of HIV testing among this population of sexually active, urban high school students was found to be low, although a higher prevalence of HIV testing history was observed among students showing evidence of risky sexual behavior. Practical and psychological factors seem to challenge the accessibility of facilities for HIV testing and STI care. PMID:18847388

  11. Point of care diagnostics for sexually transmitted infections: perspectives and advances

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte; Hardick, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) tests are urgently needed to control sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics, so that patients can receive immediate diagnoses and treatment. Current POC assays for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae perform inadequately and require better assays. Diagnostics for Trichomonas vaginalis rely on wet preparation, with some notable advances. Serological POC assays for syphilis can impact resource-poor settings, with many assays available, but only one available in the U.S. HIV POC diagnostics demonstrate the best performance, with excellent assays available. There is a rapid assay for HSV lesion detection; but no POC serological assays are available. Despite the inadequacy of POC assays for treatable bacterial infections, application of technological advances offers the promise of advancing POC diagnostics for all STIs. PMID:24484215

  12. DNA Microarray Characterization of Pathogens Associated with Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Boyang; Wang, Suwei; Tian, Zhenyang; Hu, Pinliang; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study established a multiplex PCR-based microarray to detect simultaneously a diverse panel of 17 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)-associated pathogens including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 54 and 58. The target genes are 16S rRNA gene for N. gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium, M. hominism, and Ureaplasma, the major outer membrane protein gene (ompA) for C. trachomatis, the glycoprotein B gene (gB) for HSV; and the L1 gene for HPV. A total of 34 probes were selected for the microarray including 31 specific probes, one as positive control, one as negative control, and one as positional control probe for printing reference. The microarray is specific as the commensal and pathogenic microbes (and closely related organisms) in the genitourinary tract did not cross-react with the microarray probes. The microarray is 10 times more sensitive than that of the multiplex PCR. Among the 158 suspected HPV specimens examined, the microarray showed that 49 samples contained HPV, 21 samples contained Ureaplasma, 15 contained M. hominis, four contained C. trachomatis, and one contained N. gonorrhoeae. This work reports the development of the first high through-put detection system that identifies common pathogens associated with STDs from clinical samples, and paves the way for establishing a time-saving, accurate and high-throughput diagnostic tool for STDs. PMID:26208181

  13. Sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections in student population.

    PubMed

    Dijani?, Tomislav; Kozul, Karlo; Miskulin, Maja; Medi?, Alan; Jurcev-Savicevi?, Anamarija; Burazin, Jelena

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the differences in sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections (STI) between the first-year and the last-year students. Data were collected by filling anonymous and consented questionnaire in June of 2011 at University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer in Osijek, Croatia. Out of 857 students in the planned sample, 462 (53.9%) filled out the questionnaire, and 353/462 (76.4%) were sexually active. Data from sexually active students were processed and statistically significant results between first-year and the last-year students were presented. Studied sample consisted of 192/353 (54.4%) first-year students and 161/353 (45.6%) last-year students. Average age of sexual initiation for the first-year students was 17.28 +/- 1.29 years, a for the last-year students 18.45 +/- 2.14 years, and the difference is significant (Man-Whitney test = 10335.00, p < 0.01). First-year students have lower number of sexual partners (chi2 = 28.005, p < 0.01), during relationship they had lower number of intercourses with the third person (2 = 17.947, p < 0.01), and feel that lower number of their friends were already sexually active at the time of their own sexual initiation (chi2 = 18.350, p < 0.01). First-year students more often inform their partners about existing or previous STI (chi2 = 14.476, p < 0.01) and curiosity significantly influenced their decision regarding sexual initiation (chi2 = 8.689, p < 0.05). First-year students more often used condom at their first sexual intercourse (chi2 = 7.275, p < 0.01), and more rarely used withdrawal (chi2 = 6.380, p < 0.05). At their last sexual intercourse, first-year students more often used any kind of protection (chi2 = 3.853, p < 0.05),more often used condom (chi2 = 11.110, p < 0.01) and withdrawal (chi2 = 5.156, p < 0.05), and more rarely used contraceptive pills (chi2 = 4.405, p < 0.05). First-year students more often use condom in a permanent relationship (chi2 = 13.384, p < 0.05), and also plan to use it during following intercourse in the permanent relationship (chi2 = 17.575, p < 0.01). Growing condom use and decreasing risky sexual behaviour among students, as well as other adolescents and young adults needs to be maintained. Youth should learn before sexual initiation that only correct condom use at every sexual intercourse protects them against STI and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sexual education and STI/HIV prevention programmes, positive role of media (television) and civil organisations that communicate with the youth can help that. Such changes among adolescents and young adults should have to be seen in student population as well. PMID:24851594

  14. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Function in Relation to Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Brookings, Claire; Goldmeier, David

    2013-01-01

    Infertility affects about 8% to 12% of couples, with male infertility being responsible for about 30% of cases. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are known to cause complications of pregnancy and are associated with tubal infertility in females, but the association with male fertility is still controversial. The prevalence of curable STIs has risen to an estimated 448 million a year with the number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at 34 million. This review looks at the evidence available to date, regarding the effect of STIs and male accessory gland infections on markers of male fertility and the evidence that STIs negatively affect sexual functioning, thus adversely affecting the ability to conceive. The review will also cover new developments in the use of medications and fertility treatments as an aid to conception in couples serodiscordant for HIV. PMID:23526114

  15. A surveillance model for sexually transmitted infections in India.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Partha; Morineau, Guy; Das, Anjana; Mehendale, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The strategy for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in India is based on syndromic case management delivered through designated STI/reproductive tract infection (RTI) centers (DSRCs) situated in medical colleges, district hospitals, and STI-clinics of targeted interventions programs. Laboratory tests for enhanced syndromic management are available at some sites. To ensure country-level planning and effective local implementation of STI services, reliable and consistent epidemiologic information is required on the distribution of STI cases, rate and trends of newly acquired infections, and STI prevalence in specific population groups. The present STI management information system is inadequate to meet these requirements because it is based on syndromic data and limited laboratory investigations on STIs reported passively by DSRCs and laboratories. Geographically representative information on the etiology of STI syndromes and antimicrobial susceptibility of STI pathogens although essential for optimizing available treatment options, is deficient. Surveillance must provide high quality information on: (a) prevalence of STIs such as syphilis, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among high-risk groups; syphilis in the general population and pregnant antenatal women; (b) demographic characteristics such as age, sex, new/recurrent episode, and type of syndromically diagnosed STI cases; (c) proportion of acute infections such as urethral discharge (UD) in men and nonherpetic genital ulcer disease (GUD) in men and women; (d) etiology of STI syndromes; and (e) gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility. We describe here a framework for an STI sentinel surveillance system in India, building on the existing STI reporting systems and infrastructure, an overview of the components of the proposed surveillance system, and operational challenges in its implementation. PMID:26584168

  16. Improving sexually transmitted infection results notification via mobile phone technology

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Jennifer L.; Huppert, Jill S.; Taylor, Regina G.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Byczkowski, Terri L.; Kahn, Jessica A.; Alessandrini, Evaline A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To improve adolescent notification of positive sexually transmitted infection (STI) tests using mobile phone technology and STI information cards. Methods A randomized intervention among 14-21 year-olds in a pediatric emergency department (PED). A 2×3 factorial design with replication was used to evaluate the effectiveness of six combinations of two factors on the proportion of STI-positive adolescents notified within 7 days of testing. Independent factors included: method of notification (call, text message, or call + text message) and provision of an STI information card with or without a phone number to obtain results. Covariates for logistic regression included age, empiric STI treatment, days until first attempted notification and documentation of confidential phone number. Results Approximately half of the 383 females and 201 males enrolled were ? 18 years. Texting only or type of card was not significantly associated with patient notification rates, and there was no significant interaction between card and notification method. For females, successful notification was significantly greater for call + text message (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.4, 6.9]), and documenting a confidential phone number was independently associated with successful notification (OR 3.6 [95% CI 1.7, 7.5]). We found no significant predictors of successful notification for males. Of patients with a documented confidential phone number who received a call + text message, 94% of females and 83% of males were successfully notified. Conclusions Obtaining a confidential phone number and using call + text message improved STI notification rates among female but not male adolescents in a PED. PMID:24962503

  17. Molecular methods in the laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Muralidhar, Sumathi

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a public health problem, and their prevalence is rising even in developed nations, in the era of HIV/AIDS. While the consequences of STIs can be serious, the good news is that many of these complications are preventable if appropriate screening is done in high-risk individuals, when infection is strongly suspected. The diagnostic tests for STIs serve many purposes. Apart from aiding in the diagnosis of typical cases, they help diagnose atypical cases, asymptomatic infections and also multiple infections. But, the test methods used must fulfill the criteria of accuracy, affordability, accessibility, efficiency, sensitivity, specificity and ease of handling. The results must be rapid, cost-effective and reliable. Most importantly, they have to be less dependent on collection techniques. The existing diagnostic methods for STIs are fraught with several challenges, including delay in results, lack of sensitivity and specificity. With the rise of the machines in diagnostic microbiology, molecular methods offer increased sensitivity, specificity and speed. They are especially useful for microorganisms that cannot be, or are difficult to cultivate. With the newer diagnostic technologies, we are on the verge of a major change in the approach to STI control. When diagnostic methods are faster and results more accurate, they are bound to improve patient care. As automation and standardization increase and human error decreases, more laboratories will adopt molecular testing methods. An overview of these methods is given here, including a note on the point-of-care tests and their usefulness in the era of rapid diagnostic tests. PMID:26392648

  18. Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…

  19. Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the United States may be even higher than estimated. When calculating the number of prevalent and incident ... were sexually transmitted were counted. In general, CDC estimated the total number of infections in the calendar ...

  20. Sexual assault history and risks for sexually transmitted infections among women in an African township in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, S C; Simbayi, L C

    2004-08-01

    Sexual violence is associated with women's risks for HIV infection. The current study investigated factors related to risks for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among South African women with a history of sexual assault. An anonymous street intercept survey of women (N = 272) living in an African township in the Western Cape, South Africa assessed demographic characteristics, history of sexual assault, HIV risk behaviours, substance use and non-sexual relationship abuse. Surveys were completed by 90% of women approached. Forty-four per cent (N = 119) of women reported a history of sexual assault. Multiple logistic regressions, controlling for participant age, education, marital status and survey venue, showed that women who had been sexually assaulted were significantly more likely to have shared injection drug equipment, exchanged sex to meet survival needs, and used alcohol compared to women who had not been sexually assaulted. Women with a history of sexual assault were also significantly more likely to have multiple male sex partners, greater rates of unprotected vaginal intercourse, lower rates of condom protected anal intercourse, more sexual contacts involving blood, more STIs and genital ulcers. Finally, women who had been sexually assaulted were more likely to have been non-sexually abused by relationship partners and were more likely to fear asking partners to use condoms. There is a close connection between sexual assault and women's risks for STIs and HIV. Structural and behavioural interventions are needed to simultaneously reduce the prevalence of sexual assault against women and prevent the transmission of HIV. PMID:15370057

  1. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Howe, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

  2. Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual) and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. Method This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15–49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence. Conclusion Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease among currently married women. PMID:24470776

  3. A Study of the Awareness of Selected College Students Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Gregory H.; Klein, Daniel

    Changes in sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates among adolescents and young adults may depend on changes in sexual activity, accessibility of referral and treatment services, and education. To assess the knowledge and attitudes of college students toward various aspects of STD's, a 45-item Likert inventory focusing on symptoms, prevalence,…

  4. Urban Men's Knowledge and Perceptions regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…

  5. Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections among Adolescents: An Assessment of Ecological Approaches and Study Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoveller, Jean A.; Johnson, Joy L.; Savoy, Daphne M.; Pietersma, W. A. Wia

    2006-01-01

    Most primary prevention research has attempted to explain sexual health outcomes, such as sexually transmitted infections, by focusing on individual characteristics (e.g. age), qualities (e.g. knowledge levels), and risk behaviour (e.g. unprotected intercourse). Emerging evidence indicates that population-level health outcomes are unlikely to be…

  6. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  7. School Health Education To Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. WHO AIDS Series 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide provides a framework within which education authorities can work with teachers, parents, and community leaders to help young people learn the facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). It emphasizes the importance of education about human behavior and sexuality that is appropriate to…

  8. Increase in Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men, England, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Holly; Sile, Bersabeh; Duffell, Stephen; Nardone, Anthony; Hughes, Gwenda

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance data from sexual health clinics indicate recent increases in sexually transmitted infections, particularly among men who have sex with men. The largest annual increase in syphilis diagnoses in a decade was reported in 2014. Less condom use may be the primary reason for these increases. PMID:26689861

  9. Increase in Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men, England, 2014.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Hamish; Mitchell, Holly; Sile, Bersabeh; Duffell, Stephen; Nardone, Anthony; Hughes, Gwenda

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance data from sexual health clinics indicate recent increases in sexually transmitted infections, particularly among men who have sex with men. The largest annual increase in syphilis diagnoses in a decade was reported in 2014. Less condom use may be the primary reason for these increases. PMID:26689861

  10. Affective Factors Which Influence Learning about Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Mary F.; McKirnan, David

    This study investigated the role that emotional factors play in learning about sexual health and in adopting sexually healthy behaviors. Learning about health and adopting healthy behaviors hinges on two variables: the desire to avoid illness and a belief that one can avoid threats to health through personal action. This paper reports on…

  11. Sexually transmitted infections in travelers: implications for prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Abu Saleh M; Ebrahim, Shahul H; Fielding, Richard; Morisky, Donald E

    2004-08-15

    Sexually transmissible diseases (STDs), the most common notifiable infectious conditions, remain major threats to reproductive and public health worldwide. Travelers are particularly vulnerable to STDs, because of voluntary or involuntary sexual behavior while abroad, and are significant vectors who introduce new pathogens and resistant strains to unaffected parts of the world. This article outlines some key issues that travel medicine specialists and other clinicians should revisit when providing services to travelers. We discuss obstacles to promoting sexual health, including the diversity of the target group, unanticipated opportunities for sexual risk, ambivalent cooperation by the travel and tourism industries, poorly developed travel health sectors, illegal migration and sex tourism, and lack of research about the association between travel and STDs. We also outlined some programmatic aspects of public health that should be identified and addressed for the promotion of sexual health among travelers. PMID:15356817

  12. Insights in public health: The hidden epidemic: sexually transmitted diseases in 2014.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    Diseases caused by sexually transmitted agents are among the most common infectious diseases in the United States. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have serious sequelae including physical pain, emotional distress, adverse reproductive outcomes, and cancer. They also pose an economic burden on society. STDs are challenging to prevent and control due to a general reluctance to address sexual health issues in an open manner. Human papillomavirus infection, chlamydia, and gonorrhea have recently been addressed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in their Grand Rounds series reflecting their high-profile status on the national prevention and control agenda. This Insights column will focus on these three STDs. PMID:25157329

  13. Transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection: risks, sources and interventions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, S J

    2004-04-01

    Records of the transmission of bacterial infections by transfusion date back to the beginning of organized blood banking. Despite tremendous strides in preventing viral infection through careful donor screening and viral testing, there has been little improvement in reducing the risk of bacterial sepsis since the introduction of closed collection systems. Based on the French Haemovigilance study, the British Serious Hazards of Transmission (SHOT) study and fatality reports to the United States Food and Drug Administration, the risk of clinically apparent sepsis exceeds the risk of HIV, HBV, and HCV transmission. Sources of contamination include the skin, blood, disposables, and the environment. Potential interventions to reduce transfusion-associated bacterial sepsis include improvements to donor arm preparation, diversion of the first aliquot of whole blood, introduction of bacterial testing and/or implementation of pathogen reduction methods. PMID:15078249

  14. Tweet Content Related to Sexually Transmitted Diseases: No Joking Matter

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie YS

    2014-01-01

    Background Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of “tweeters” (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of “tweet” messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. Objective The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDs—chlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. Methods We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words “chlamydia” or “HIV”, and the hashtags “#chlamydia” or “#HIV”. Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. Results A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words “chlamydia” and/or “HIV”. Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20.6%, 128/620), using a logo avatar (66.9%, 415/620), and with identifiable accounts (85.2%, 528/620). No government departments, non-governmental organizations, scientific media, or academic institutions posted a joke on STDs. A total of 104 of these analyzed tweets were re-tweeted messages, belonging to 68 unique tweets. The content was serious (99%, 67/68), factual (90%, 52/58), and about HIV (85%, 58/68). Conclusions Social media such as Twitter may be an important source of information regarding STDs provided that the topic is presented appropriately. Reassuringly, the study showed that almost 9/10 of tweets on STDs (chlamydia and HIV) were of serious content, and many of the tweets that were re-tweeted were facts. The jokes that were tweeted were mainly about chlamydia, and posted by non-identifiable emitters. We believe social media should be used to an even larger extent to disseminate correct information about STDs. PMID:25289463

  15. DEPRESSION, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTION, AND SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Maria R; Kaufman, Jay S; Pence, Brian Wells; Gaynes, Bradley N; Adimora, Adaora A; Weir, Sharon S; Miller, William C

    2009-01-01

    Objective To measure associations among depression, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) among white and black youth in the United States. Design Analysis of prospective cohort study data. Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health occurred in 1995 when participants were in grades 7 through 12. Six years later, all Wave I participants who could be located were invited to participate in Wave III and provide a urine specimen for STI testing. Setting In-home interviews in the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. Participants Population-based sample. Wave I (adolescence) and Wave III (adulthood) white and black respondents with sample weight variables (N=10,783). Main Exposures Chronic depression (adolescence and adulthood) and recent depression (adulthood only) versus no adult depression. Outcome Measures Multiple sexual partnerships and inconsistent condom use in the past year and a current positive test result for C trachomatis, N gonorrhoeae, or T vaginalis (adulthood). Results Recent or chronic depression in adulthood was more common among blacks (women: 19%, men: 12%) than whites (women: 13%, men: 8%). Among all groups, adult depression was associated with multiple partnerships but not with condom use. Among black men, depression was strongly associated with STI (recent: adjusted Prevalence Ratio (PR): 2.36, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.26–4.43; chronic: adjusted PR: 3.05 95% CI: 1.48–6.28); multiple partnerships did not mediate associations between depression and STI. Conclusions Integration of youth mental health and STI programs is warranted. Further research is needed to elucidate how depression may influence infection among black men. PMID:19581548

  16. Commentary: methods women can use that may prevent sexually transmitted disease, including HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, M J; Gollub, E L

    1992-01-01

    Although sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are a major concern for women, few prevention messages are targeted specifically to women. Those that are generally stress abstaining, altering the number or selection of partners, and urging partners to use condoms. But these behaviors may be unrealistic for many women, particularly women who are at highest risk for sexually transmitted diseases, because they require significant changes in life-style or depend on male-controlled condom use. Recommendation of contraceptives for prevention of sexually transmitted diseases depends largely on how well specific methods perform under controlled conditions, either in the laboratory or in clinical trials. Observational studies, which better reflect day-to-day use, indicate that condoms, barriers, and spermicides, used properly and consistently, can provide substantial protection against various sexually transmitted diseases. Condoms can similarly help protect against HIV, but studies of barriers and spermicides are scant and currently inconclusive. Finally, those methods that are controlled by women are consistently more effective in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. Thus, although condoms used well are still the best choice, the imperative for female-controlled methods indicates that diaphragms and spermicides should receive greater emphasis in prevention messages. PMID:1443295

  17. Rapid screening and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases in arrestees: a feasible control measure.

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, J F; Cohen, D A; Hamrick, J T; Farley, T A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and usefulness of rapid screening and immediate presumptive treatment for sexually transmitted diseases among arrestees at a county jail. METHODS: The rapid plasma reagin test (for syphilis) and the urine leukocyte esterase test (for urethritis) were used in establishing routine screening and presumptive treatment for sexually transmitted diseases among arrestees. RESULTS: Of 4757 arrestees screened, 82 (1.7%) had untreated syphilis, and, of 4174 male arrestees screened, 541 (13%) had a positive leukocyte esterase test. The syphilis prevalence rate was higher among women than among men (3.1% vs 1.5%), and the rate was higher among Blacks than among Whites (2.3% vs 0.7%). Although leukocyte esterase test positivity was higher among persons reporting a urethral discharge (57% vs 12%), 88% of persons with a positive test result did not report such symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The program described here has reached persons with sexually transmitted diseases who are unlikely to use traditional health care services and thus are likely to remain untreated. Rapid screening and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases among arrestees is feasible and should be considered in areas with high sexually transmitted disease rates. PMID:9314791

  18. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: from HPV to HTLV - clinical profile and associated factors*

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Fabíola Suris; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends the performance of serological tests in patients with clinical signs of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. However, data are lacking to affirm the necessity of testing these patients for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 or type 2. This is a cross-sectional study with 120 patients seen at the Sexually Transmitted Diseases unit of the Sanitary Dermatology Outpatient Clinic of Rio Grande do Sul. The serum from none of the patients was positive for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 or type 2. Viral warts were the most frequent diagnosis. Drug use was confirmed as a risk factor and high educational levels were found to be a protective factor against Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  19. A Vicarious Experience of the Actions of Contraceptive Devices in Birth Control and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2002-01-01

    Describes how self-constructed models of the male and female reproductive systems are used to simulate sexual intercourse and the actions of contraceptive devices in preventing conception and sexually transmitted diseases. (Author/YDS)

  20. Legal Barriers to Adolescent Participation in Research About HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Moore, Quianta L; Paul, Mary E; McGuire, Amy L; Majumder, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Whether adolescents can participate in clinical trials of pharmacologic therapies for HIV prevention, such as preexposure prophylaxis, without parental permission hinges on state minor consent laws. Very few of these laws explicitly authorize adolescents to consent to preventive services for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Unclear state laws may lead to research cessation. We have summarized legal, ethical, and policy considerations related to adolescents' participation in HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention research in the United States, and we have explored strategies for facilitating adolescents' access. PMID:26562103

  1. Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Update: A Review of the CDC 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines and Epidemiologic Trends of Common STDs in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Maria Veneranda C; Wasserman, Glenn M

    2012-01-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated its recommendations for treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In this review we highlight new treatment recommendations for mitigating the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the emergence of azithromycin-resistant Treponema pallidum, and treatment options for bacterial vaginosis and venereal warts. We also cover epidemiologic trends for common STDs in Hawai‘i. PMID:22454816

  2. Male rats transmit Brucella abortus biotype 1 through sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Ariful; Khatun, Mst Minara; Baek, Byeong-Kirl

    2013-08-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate transmission of Brucella abortus biotype 1 via sexual intercourse in rats. Male and female virgin Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were experimentally infected intraperitoneally with 1×10(9)colony forming units (CFU) of B. abortus biotype 1, a Korean bovine isolate. At 14 days after infection, infected male rats (n=10) were housed with uninfected female rats (n=10) and infected female rats (n=10) were housed with uninfected male rats (n=10) for a period of one month. During this period all uninfected female rats became pregnant and 6 of 10 infected female rats became pregnant. Serum from two out of 10 female uninfected rats had positive reactions in the Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPAT), Tube Agglutination Test (TAT) or the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA); whereas none of the uninfected male rat had positive reactions in these tests. Using bacteriological culture and AMOS-PCR assay, B. abortus biotype 1 was isolated and identified from two uninfected female rats and all of the uninfected male rats were found negative for B. abortus biotype 1. It was concluded that transmission of B. abortus biotype 1 from infected male to uninfected female rats resulted from sexual intercourse. PMID:23664185

  3. Education on Sexually Transmitted Infections: Finding Common Ground among Youth, Parents, Providers and Policy Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Joan R.

    2008-01-01

    Outcomes from sex education are shaped not only by the knowledge and attitudes of youth but also by groups influential in young people's lives. American youth bear one of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the industrialized world. Four constituencies with important roles in communicating about STIs are youth, parents,…

  4. Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their…

  5. Patterns of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Reported among Students in a Federal University in Midwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omobude-Idiado, S. N.; Bazuaye, G. N.

    2009-01-01

    The study analysed the patterns of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) among students in a Nigerian University. It is a retrospective study of 38,933 students who attended the University Health Centre from 2001 to 2005. The results showed that 1.8% of all the students who attended the clinic had STIs. The study also revealed that 85.26% of the…

  6. Why Sexually Transmitted Infections Tend to Cause Infertility: An Evolutionary Hypothesis

    E-print Network

    Müller, Viktor

    Opinion Why Sexually Transmitted Infections Tend to Cause Infertility: An Evolutionary Hypothesis infections (STIs) to cause infertility is likely to reflect an evolutionary adaptation of the patho- gens. We-induced infertility in other species. STIs are a common cause of human infertility worldwide (Box 1). While several

  7. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, covering the following topics (1) Health Education; and…

  8. Recruitment Strategies and Motivations for Sexually Transmitted Disease Testing among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Zenilman, Jonathan; Nanda, Joy P.; Mark, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated procedures for recruiting college students for sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing as part of a research study examining the impact of HSV serologic testing. Participants: A convenience sample of 100 students was drawn from students aged 18 to 35 years enrolled at one university in a mid-Atlantic state…

  9. An attributional analysis of stigma associated with sexually transmitted diseases and its relationship with communication efficacy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jina H; Jang, Suahn

    2012-07-01

    People typically attribute more responsibility to those individuals who are infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) than other diseases. This study tested how different routes (i.e., sexually transmitted or foodborne) of transmission have an impact on individuals' general perception on stigma/shame and the attributions of responsibility, when controlling for symptoms/conditions of the hypothetical virus infection. Two hundreds and ninety eight college students were recruited for the study. As predicted, people who were attributed with control over contracting the virus (i.e., sexually transmitted route) were likely to be assigned a greater level of personal responsibility and were more likely to receive blame from others than people who were attributed relatively less control over contracting the virus (i.e., foodborne). The relationship between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy was also assessed. The results supported our prediction that there was a significant association between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy, in that the perceived controllability of the situation, perceived responsibility for the situation, and blame were all significantly correlated with communication efficacy in a negative direction. Practical applications by evaluating the effectiveness of the actual Merck's Gardasil advertisement were discussed that the Gardasil advertisement appears to reduce the perceived shame and stigma associated with the sexually transmitted nature of the virus by not revealing the true nature of the virus upfront. PMID:22980337

  10. Impact of Introducing Triage Criteria for Express Testing at a Canadian Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, Jennifer; Bergman, Joshua; Brandley, Judith; Parker, Penny; Smyczek, Petra; Singh, Ameeta E

    2015-11-01

    The implementation of express testing in an sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic reduced the length of visit time compared with other visit types and increased the proportion of STIs diagnosed at clinic visits. Express testing did not impact the time to treatment for asymptomatic patients diagnosed as having an STI. PMID:26457490

  11. Likelihood of Condom Use When Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Suspected: Results from a Clinic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Charnigo, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the event-level associations between perceived risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition/transmission and condom use during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) among STD clinic attendees. Method: A convenience sample (N = 622) completed daily electronic assessments. Two questions were proxies of perceived risk:…

  12. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…

  13. Commentary: Methods Women Can Use That May Prevent Sexually Transmitted Disease, Including HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Michael J.; Gollub, Erica L.

    1992-01-01

    Ten observational studies indicate that condoms help prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but research on barriers and spermicides is lacking. Given the effectiveness of female-controlled methods in preventing other sexually transmitted diseases, more research into protection from HIV infection by use of diaphragms and spermicides…

  14. Teaching About Sexually Transmitted Diseases; A Curriculum Guide and Resources For Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This curriculum guide provides school districts that already have VD education programs with up-to-date information about research and epidemiology relating to sexually transmitted diseases. For districts wishing to implement a program for the first time, it offers both a structured framework and the resources and materials needed for a complete…

  15. Does Funding for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Matter? Evidence from Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Harrison, Paul; Scotton, Carol R.; Varghese, Beena

    2005-01-01

    Since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has allocated several billion dollars for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. Using state-level data from 1981 to 1998, the authors found that greater amounts of prevention funding in a given year are…

  16. American College Health Association Annual Pap Test and Sexually Transmitted Infection Survey: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Davis; Roberts, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results: Almost…

  17. Spermicide acceptability among patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Zambia.

    PubMed Central

    Hira, S K; Spruyt, A B; Feldblum, P J; Sunkutu, M R; Glover, L H; Steiner, M J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study assessed the acceptability of three nonoxynol-9 spermicides among persons attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS. Spermicidal foam, suppositories, and foaming tablets were evaluated. Women (n = 114) and men (n = 150) attending an sexually transmitted disease clinic were enrolled. After each participant used two products, each for 2 weeks, consistency of use and acceptability were evaluated. RESULTS. At admission, most women (74%) and men (58%) were not using any family planning method. Moreover, most women (85%) and men (98%) had at least one sexually transmitted disease or genital infection. During the study, the proportion of coital episodes protected by spermicide use was high, yet loss to follow-up and discontinuation were also substantial. Discontinuation was frequently unrelated to acceptability. Women and men rated all three products positively along several acceptability parameters. Foam was the least desirable delivery system due to excess messiness. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this study suggest that it is feasible to distribute spermicides to women and men at increased risk for sexually transmitted disease and that the products will be used. Further research should be done among different populations and include other spermicidal delivery mechanisms. PMID:7625503

  18. An Intervention to Promote the Female Condom to Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…

  19. Behavioral Convergence: Implications for Mathematical Models of Sexually Transmitted Infection Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Aral, Sevgi O.; Ward, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends in the behaviors of some groups with high sexual activity and of the general population in some countries suggest that sexual behavior profiles of high and low sexual activity categories may be converging and may call into question the assumptions around sexual mixing that are built into theoretical models of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission dynamics. One category of high sexual activity, sex work, has been undergoing modification in many societies, becoming more acceptable, more dispersed, and larger in volume in some societies and shrinking in others. Concurrent with changes in the characteristics of sex work, the accumulating data on the sexual behaviors of the general population suggest a shift toward those of sex workers, including large numbers of sex partners and short-duration partnerships. The closing of the gap between behaviors associated with high and low sexual activity may have important implications for theories of sexual structure and models of transmission dynamics for STIs, including HIV infection. PMID:25381381

  20. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in rural Haitian men.

    PubMed

    Downey, Robert F; Hammar, Donna; Jobe, Kathleen A; Schmidt, Terri A; Slyke, Lori Van; Yassemi, Yassi; Zive, Dana

    2015-09-01

    The study attempts to determine the prevalence of organisms associated with urethritis in men in rural southwestern Haiti and to determine the association with demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. A standardised verbal interview was conducted; genital examinations were done; urethral swabs were collected for nucleic acid amplification testing, and first void urine was obtained for urinalysis. The mean participant age was 54; 88.8% lived in a rural area. Swabs were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis in 13.7% (28/205), Mycoplasma genitalium in 6.3% (13/205), Chlamydia trachomatis in 4.4% (9/205) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 0% (0/205). Subjects who never reported using condoms were nearly 3.5 times more likely to have any positive swab result (OR: 3.46, 95% CI 1.31-9.14). Subjects who reported their partners had other sexual partners or were unsure were more than three times likely to have any positive swab result (OR: 3.44, 95% CI 1.33-8.92). Infections with Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium were the most common. PMID:25228665

  1. [Sexually transmitted diseases among the elderly: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Dornelas Neto, Jader; Nakamura, Amanda Sayuri; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri; Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda

    2015-12-01

    The prolongation of an active sexual life in addition to unsafe practices are reflected in the possibility of the occurrence of STDs among the elderly. The scope of this study is to analyze the evolving trend of STDs among the elderly in Brazil and in the world and also to identify the main issues addressed in the literature, providing data that can support public policies that address the health of the elderly. A systematic search was performed in the Lilacs, IBECS, Cochrane Library, Medline, SciELO and PubMed databases. Of a total of 979 studies found, 44 matched the inclusion criteria and comprised the sample of the review. Six main themes were identified: risk factors for infection (34 studies); the influence of Sildenafil as a possible factor (18); diagnosis of STDs in general (20); HIV treatment (24); comorbidities related to HIV (24); and the prevention of STDs (20). More than one theme can be found in each study. The conclusion drawn is that this age group remains out of the focus of public policies of health promotion in the STD context. Therefore, there is a need for awareness about the changes in behavior and the epidemiological profile of this population group. PMID:26691809

  2. Private sexual behavior, public opinion, and public health policy related to sexually transmitted diseases: a US-British comparison.

    PubMed Central

    Michael, R T; Wadsworth, J; Feinleib, J; Johnson, A M; Laumann, E O; Wellings, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to characterize sexual behavior and opinions about sex in the United States and Britain; implications are discussed for effective public health policy regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. METHODS: Large-scale national probability surveys conducted in the 2 countries detailed sexual behavior, opinions, and the prevalence of STDs. RESULTS: In comparison with that of Britain, the US population has greater variability in sexual behavior, less tolerant opinions about sexual behavior, and a higher STD prevalence and lower condom usage among men. CONCLUSIONS: The survey data show compelling evidence from both countries of a strong association between number of sex partners and STD risk. In the United States relative to Britain, there is both greater dispersion in sexual behavior and a greater incidence of unconditional opposition to certain sexual practices. The former implies a need for strong public health policy to address the risks of STDs, but the latter implies strong opposition to that policy. This disjuncture between public health need and feasibility may contribute to the high US rate of STDs. PMID:9585739

  3. Alcohol Abuse, Sexual Risk Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women in Moshi Urban District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods 2,019 women aged 20–44 were randomly selected in a two-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Results Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.06–3.98) and sexual violence (OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.05–2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.01–2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.08–2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.46–4.00) compared to women with one sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.55–1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. Conclusions The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs. PMID:19060779

  4. The Influence of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Perceived Susceptibility Patterns on Sexual Risk Reduction for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2005-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibility…

  5. Update on pregnancy, condom use, and prevalence of selected sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cromer, B A; Brown, R T

    1992-12-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and its consequences continue as major sources of morbidity in the United States. A teenager who becomes a parent is at a significant disadvantage in becoming a contributing adult, both psychosocially and economically. The physician who cares for adolescents has the responsibility of helping parenting teens to find needed support so that they will be able to overcome this significant hurdle. Attention from public agencies has focused on increasing condom use as one approach to adolescent pregnancy prevention. The major advantage of using condoms is that they also prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Of note is that level of knowledge about condoms is not related to their use, and engaging in high-risk behaviors is related to a decreased likelihood of condom use. With rates of condom use estimated at less than 50%, rates of sexually transmitted disease remain high, as reported in recent surveys. PMID:1450350

  6. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors and Risk Determinants Among Sexually Active Adolescent Males: Results From a School-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Rosario, Margaret; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined disparities in risk determinants and risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) between gay-identified, bisexual-identified, and heterosexual-identified young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and heterosexual-identified young men who have sex with women (YMSW) using a school-based sample of US sexually active adolescent males. Methods We analyzed a pooled data set of Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2005 and 2007 that included information on sexual orientation identity, sexual behaviors, and multiple STI risk factors. Results Bisexual-identified adolescents were more likely to report multiple STI risk behaviors (number of sex partners, concurrent sex partners, and age of sexual debut) compared with heterosexual YMSW as well as heterosexual YMSM and gay-identified respondents. Gay, bisexual, and heterosexual YMSM were significantly more likely to report forced sex compared with heterosexual YMSW. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that sexual health disparities emerge early in the life course and vary by both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. In particular, they show that bisexual-identified adolescent males exhibit a unique risk profile that warrants targeted sexual health interventions. PMID:24825214

  7. Dynamic analysis of a sexually transmitted disease model on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xin-Peng; Xue, Ya-Kui; Liu, Mao-Xing

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a sexually transmitted disease model is proposed on complex networks, where contacts between humans are treated as a scale-free social network. There are three groups in our model, which are dangerous male, non-dangerous male, and female. By mathematical analysis, we obtain the basic reproduction number for the existence of endemic equilibrium and study the effects of various immunization schemes about different groups. Furthermore, numerical simulations are undertaken to verify more conclusions.

  8. Behavioral Prevention Regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections and its Predictors in Women

    PubMed Central

    Farshbaf-khalili, Azizeh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Salehi-pourmehr, Hanieh; Faridvand, Fatemeh; Asgarloo, Zoleikha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have a major negative impact on sexual and reproductive health globally. The most effective way to avoid STIs is to abstain from sexual contact or having sex only in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner. Objectives: This study aimed to determine behavioral prevention regarding STIs. Patients and Methods: This analytic cross-sectional study was performed on 584 women aged 15-49 referring to health care centers of Tabriz-Iran in 2013 through multistage cluster sampling. Data collecting tool was a questionnaire which its validity and reliability were determined previously. Descriptive and inferential statistics (independent T-test, One-way ANOVA, and univariate and multivariate analyses) were used to analyze the data using SPSS 17. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean ± SD score of behavioral prevention was 20.57 ± 2.8 ranging from 0 to 24. The weakest behavioral prevention was lack of consistent use of condom by husband during sex. The mean ± SD score of individuals’ awareness about STIs was as low as 17.08 ± 7.42. Multivariate analysis adjusting potential confounders showed a significant association between behavioral prevention and awareness, education, sex only with husband, anal, oral, and anal-oral sex. Conclusions: Prevention and care of sexually transmitted diseases are interventions able to promote public health. It is necessary to solve different factors affecting rapid spread of STDs and their transmission through an effective behavioral preventive plan. PMID:25389485

  9. Medical and Legal Implications of Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Guillén, Christina D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child can have, in addition to medical implications, serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse, and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possible abuse. The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of child sexual abuse, including the epidemiology of major STIs including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus, and the current recommendations for diagnostic testing in this population. PMID:20610820

  10. Dual protection against sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morroni, Chelsea; Smit, Jennifer; McFadyen, Lynn; Mqhayt, Mmabatho; Beksinska, Mags

    2003-08-01

    Promotion of simultaneous protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy, referred to as dual protection, represents an important public health intervention. We investigated its prevalence and correlates in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey of 929 sexually active women, aged 15-49 years, was conducted in 89 public primary health care clinics, with dual method use and use of condom alone at last sexual intercourse as outcomes. At last intercourse, 12% of women were protected from both STIs and pregnancy. In multivariate analysis, higher education, being unmarried, and multiple sex partnership in the past year were predictors of dual method use, while younger age, higher education and awareness of the dual function of condoms were predictors of condom use alone. Dual protection is low in this population. The predominance of hormonal contraceptive use in South Africa means that increasing barrier method use among hormonal contraceptive users is an important strategy for increasing dual protection. PMID:14677295

  11. Cannabis Use Disorders Predispose to the Development of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Kirisci, Levent; Clark, Duncan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional studies involving adults suggest that sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as cocaine use disorders and opioid use disorders are associated with the development of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). However, it is less clear whether cannabis use disorders (CUD) are associated with the development of STDs, or whether those associations extend to adolescent populations. Longitudinal studies examining those associations are particularly scarce. The current report provides findings from a longitudinal study that examined the relationship between STD and CUD among youth transitioning to young adulthood. Method The subjects in this longitudinal study were initially recruited when the index sons of these fathers were 10-12 years of age, and subsequent assessments were conducted at age 12-14, 16, 19, and 22. Multivariate logistic regression and path analyses were conducted. Results At age 22, of the 345 subjects, 30 subjects were diagnosed with one or more STD, and 105 were diagnosed with a CUD. STDs were almost four times as common among those with a CUD as among those without a CUD, which was a significant difference. Path analyses demonstrated that peer deviance mediated the association between a measure of risk for SUD knows as the TLI and CUD, and that peer deviance mediated the association between TLI and STD. Risky sexual behaviors were common. Conclusions These finding suggest that cannabis use disorders (CUD) predispose to the development of sexually transmitted disorders (STD) among youth. These findings also suggest that peer deviance mediates the development of STD and of CUD among teenagers making the transition to young adulthood. PMID:25328372

  12. Diagnostic classification, viral sexually transmitted infections and discourses of femininity: limits of normalisation to erase stigma.

    PubMed

    Cook, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians in the field of women's sexual health typically classify the two most common viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the human papilloma virus and the herpes simplex virus, as relatively innocuous infections. Teaching interventions include 'normalising' adult sexual activity and the epidemiological ordinariness of infection. Normalising is intended to disarm the potential stigma of the diagnosis. In this study, in-depth email interviews were conducted with 26 women with a viral STI diagnosis and 12 sexual health clinicians. Data were analysed thematically using a feminist, poststructuralist approach. Normalising is contextualised as an example of the workings of western philosophical thought whereby dualistic classifications privilege certain terms and subordinate other terms. In this instance, the relative medical normalcy of viral STIs is given primacy compared to the social abnormality experienced by women. Although these viral STIs infect women and men, this research concentrates on women's learning about viral STIs. For women, beliefs about femininity, sexuality, health, morality and responsibility influence effects of a viral STI diagnosis. These discourses are clinically significant because beliefs that specifically link to ideas about how to be a woman are overlooked when clinicians devise educational interventions. PMID:22333002

  13. Patterns of uptake of treatment for self reported sexually transmitted infection symptoms in rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, J; Garnett, G; Nyamukapa, C; Donnelly, C; Mason, P; Gregson, S

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the extent of self reported symptoms perceived to be related to sexually transmitted infections and the patterns of subsequent treatment seeking behaviour in a predominantly rural population of Zimbabwe. Methods: A population based survey of 4331 men and 5149 women was conducted in rural Zimbabwe during 1998–2000. Structured confidential interviews collected data on self reported sexually transmitted infection symptoms, treatment seeking behaviour, sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual behaviour. Results: 25% of men aged 17–54 years report experiencing genital sores and 25% of men report experiencing urethral discharge; 30% of women aged 15–44 years report experiencing vaginal discharge. The lifetime number of sexual partners, age, and years of sexual activity were all significant predictors of symptoms for both men and women (all p values <0.001). 92% of men and 62% of women had sought treatment for their symptoms in the past year (p value <0.001). Men and women were equally likely to have sought treatment at a local hospital or clinic, but women were much less likely than men to have sought treatment at a different hospital or clinic. Among those who had sought treatment, men sought treatment faster than women and were more likely to report being "very satisfied" with their treatment than women. Conclusions: The gender differences in treatment seeking are of major concern for control efforts and further work on determining the reasons for these should be a priority. This would inform the likely impact of both increasing availability of local services and further reducing the stigma faced by those wishing to access such services. PMID:16061541

  14. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Meghan D.; Grayson, Cary T.; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction.…

  15. Gender Differences in Associations between Exposure to School HIV Education and Protective Sexual Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Disease/HIV Diagnosis among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Murray, Jessica E.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess associations between school HIV education and protective sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV diagnosis with a representative sample of male and female high school students. Data from male and female adolescent participants in the 1999, 2001 and 2003 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n =…

  16. Using Process Data to Understand Outcomes in Sexual Health Promotion: An Example from a Review of School-Based Programmes to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Barnett-Page, E.; Kavanagh, J.; Picot, J.; Frampton, G. K.; Cooper, K.; Hartwell, D.; Clegg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible…

  17. Heterogeneous population effects of an alcohol excise tax increase on sexually transmitted infections morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Staras, Stephanie A S; Livingston, Melvin D; Christou, Alana M; Jernigan, David H; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Alcohol taxes reduce population-level excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, yet little is known about the distribution of the effects of alcohol taxation across race/ethnicity and age subgroups. We examined the race/ethnicity- and age group-specific effects of an excise alcohol tax increase on a common and routinely collected alcohol-related morbidity indicator, sexually transmitted infections. Methods We used an interrupted time series design to examine the effect of a 2009 alcohol tax increase in Illinois, USA on new cases of two common sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia and gonorrhea) reported to the US National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System from January 2003 to December 2011 (n = 108 repeated monthly observations). We estimated the effects of the tax increase on infection rates in the general population and within specific race/ethnicity and age subgroups using mixed models accounting for temporal trends and median income. Results Following the Illinois alcohol tax increase, state-wide rates of gonorrhea decreased 21% [95% confidence Interval (CI) = ?25.7, ?16.7] and chlamydia decreased 11% [95% CI = ?17.8, ?4.4], resulting in an estimated 3506 fewer gonorrhea infections and 5844 fewer chlamydia infections annually. The null hypothesis of homogenous effects by race/ethnicity and age was rejected (P < 0.0001). Significant reductions were observed among non-Hispanic blacks: gonorrhea rates decreased 25.6% (95% CI = ?30.0, ?21.0) and chlamydia rates decreased 14.7% (95% CI = ?20.9, ?8.0). Among non-Hispanics, point estimates suggest decreases were highest among 25–29-year-olds. Conclusions Increased alcohol taxes appear to reduce sexually transmitted infections, especially among subpopulations with high disease burdens, such as non-Hispanic blacks. PMID:24450730

  18. Dynamic modeling and analysis of sexually transmitted diseases on heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuping; Jin, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Considering homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts in the course of sexual contacts, double degrees which describe the numbers of homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts are introduced, correlation coefficients about degrees based on the joint probability distribution are given, and an SIS mean-field model about sexually transmitted diseases is presented when degrees are uncorrelated. The basic reproduction number of diseases is studied by the method of next generation matrix. Results show that, when homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts all exist, once the disease is epidemic in the interior of male (female) population which is caused by male (female) homosexual transmissions, or the disease is epidemic between the two species which is caused by heterosexual transmissions, the disease must be epidemic in the whole population. Numerical simulations confirm the theoretical results.

  19. Modelling the spread of sexually transmitted diseases on scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mao-Xing; Ruan, Jiong

    2009-06-01

    In this paper a new model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is presented. The dynamic behaviors of the model on a heterogenous scale-free (SF) network are considered, where the absence of a threshold on the SF network is demonstrated, and the stability of the disease-free equilibrium is obtained. Three immunization strategies, uniform immunization, proportional immunization and targeted immunization, are applied in this model. Analytical and simulated results are given to show that the proportional immunization strategy in the model is effective on SF networks.

  20. Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Plorde, D S

    1981-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to the education and employment of women--and improved medical services are essential for the long-term control of STD. PMID:6895708

  1. Clinical applications of an automatic data handling system for sexually-transmitted diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, G; Persson, L; Wessman, J

    1975-01-01

    An automatic data handling system for the storage and evaluation of data from investigations on sexually-transmitted diseases has been developed. Among the clinical applications are epidemiological investigations, evaluation of diagnostic procedures, and evaluation of treatment regimens. One of the main features of the system is its flexibility, which allows the inclusion of an unlimited number of further evaluation programs. After a running-in period of about 3 years, during which time a number of changes were found to be necessary, the method has been found to satisfy medical and data processing requirements. PMID:1093632

  2. Risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection in black female attendees of a sexually transmitted disease clinic.

    PubMed

    Baddour, L M; Bucak, V A; Somes, G; Hudson, R

    1988-01-01

    Although recent data have supported the role of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in women, studies generating these data have enrolled few black women. We therefore examined black female participants attending our local health department's sexually transmitted disease clinic for the treatment of presumed uncomplicated gonorrhea in serologic and risk-factor surveys of hepatitis B virus infection. Twenty-four (17.6%) of 136 subjects tested had evidence of prior hepatitis B infection. Serologic evidence of hepatitis B infection was significantly associated with three different barometers of sexual activity that included: (1) years of sexual activity (P less than 0.005); (2) history of sexually transmitted disease (P less than 0.02); and (3) number of lifetime heterosexual partners (P less than 0.001). These data provide further support that the quantity of sexual exposure seems to be an important risk factor for hepatitis B infection in heterosexually active females. PMID:3227474

  3. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Jordan R; Roberts, Sally A; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU) that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA), serum resistance protein (dsrA), and a collagen adhesin (ncaA) contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts. PMID:25774793

  4. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including HIV in street-connected adolescents in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Susanna E; Chirchir, Amon K; Muthoni, Lauryn N; Ayuku, David; Koech, Julius; Nyandiko, Winstone; Carter, E Jane; Braitstein, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to characterise the sexual health of street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya, analyse gender disparity of risks, estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and identify factors associated with STIs. Methods A cross-sectional study of street-connected adolescents ages 12–21?years was conducted in Eldoret, Kenya. Participants were interviewed and screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus-2, syphilis and HIV. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with having any STI. Results Of the 200 participants, 81 (41%) were female. 70.4% of females and 60.5% of males reported sexual activity. Of those that participated in at least one STI test, 28% (55/194) had ?1 positive test, including 56% of females; 14% (28/194) had >1 positive test. Twelve females and zero males (6% overall, 14.8% of females) were HIV positive. Among females, those with HIV infection more frequently reported transactional sex (66.7% vs 26.1%, p=0.01), drug use (91.7% vs 56.5%, p=0.02), and reported a prior STI (50.0% vs 14.7%, p<0.01). Having an adult caregiver was less likely among those with HIV infection (33.3% vs 71.0%, p=0.04). Transactional sex (AOR 3.02, 95% CI (1.05 to 8.73)), a previous STI (AOR 3.46 95% CI (1.05 to 11.46)) and ?2 sexual partners (AOR 5.62 95% (1.67 to 18.87)) were associated with having any STI. Conclusions Street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya are engaged in high-risk sexual behaviours and females in particular have a substantial burden of STIs and HIV. There is a need for STI interventions targeted to street-connected youth. PMID:25714102

  5. Multiple Abortions and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Young Migrant Women Working in Entertainment Venues in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yongyang; Tao, Haidong; Xu, Song; Xia, Junrui; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Zaller, Nickolas; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of 358 young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with two indicators of sexual and reproductive health: (1) multiple abortions and (2) the dual risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and abortion history. One quarter (25.4 percent) of the women in this sample had multiple abortions during their lifetime and, of those with any abortion history, 18.3 percent had had an abortion outside of a regulated health clinic. One-third (33.0 percent) of the sample had had an STI during the past year, and approximately one-fourth (23.7 percent) of those women did not receive STI treatment in a public hospital. Approximately one-fourth (23.5 percent) of the sample reported both a history of abortion and an STI during the past year. Women with a history of multiple abortions had significantly lower income levels, were more likely to have sex with clients and with husbands, and tended more to use alcohol before sex. Women who experienced both abortion and STI risks were more likely to report having had unprotected sex, genitourinary tract infections symptoms, anxiety, illicit drug use, and suicidal ideation. Enhanced efforts are needed to improve reproductive and sexual health for female migrants in urban China, particularly those working in entertainment venues. PMID:25902189

  6. Young men's risk behaviors for HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases, 1988 through 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Ku, L; Sonenstein, F L; Pleck, J H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This paper analyzes age- and period-related changes in risk behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted diseases among young men in the United States between 1988 and 1991. METHODS. Data were from the 1988 and 1991 waves of the National Survey of Adolescent Males. The 1988 survey was a nationally representative survey of 1880 males aged 15 through 19 years. The 1991 survey was a longitudinal follow-up of 1676 males aged 17 through 22 years. RESULTS. As they aged, the young men increased their levels of sexual activity and decreased their condom use. Period-related changes between 1988 and 1991 were examined by comparing similar cohorts of 17.5- through 19-year-old men: there were signs that sexual activity and intravenous drug injection increased, but condom use did not change significantly. In 1991 51% of the young men said they were occasionally "high" during sex, a state that is related to reduced condom use. CONCLUSIONS. Early progress in fostering safer behaviors among young men slowed and possibly stopped as the nation entered the 1990s. Prevention efforts need to be renewed and should focus on older youth and young adults. PMID:8238687

  7. Male Circumcision: A Globally Relevant but Under-Utilized Method for the Prevention of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Kacker, Seema; Quinn, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    Randomized trials have demonstrated that male circumcision (MC) reduces heterosexual acquisition of HIV, herpes simplex virus type-2, human papillomavirus (HPV), and genital ulcer disease (GUD) among men, and reduces HPV, GUD, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis among female partners. The pathophysiology behind these effects is multifactorial, relying on anatomic and cellular changes. MC is cost-effective and potentially cost saving in both the US and Africa. The WHO and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS proposed reaching 80% MC coverage in HIV endemic countries, but current rates fall far behind targets. Barriers to scale-up include supply-side and demand-side challenges. In the US, neonatal MC rates are decreasing, but the American Academy of Pediatrics now recognizes the medical benefits of MC and supports insurance coverage. While MC is a globally valuable tool to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, it is under-utilized. Further research is needed to address barriers to MC uptake. PMID:24111891

  8. Risk perception of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage sexual behaviour: attitudes towards in a sample of Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Guidi, E; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Lupi, S; Gregorio, P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study is to determine awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their prevention in people aged 14-19 of Ferrara and province. The study was carried out using a self-administered standardised anonymous questionnaire in a sample of students attending to three upper secondary schools. Total number of collected questionnaires was 2695, the average age of interviewed was 17.1. Only 52.3% of respondents correctly recognized STD definition. Over 95% of subjects identified acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), while properly classification of Hepatitis B increased with age and lowest degree of knowledge concerned herpes infection and Candidiasis. Sex without condom (95.97%) and needle exchange in drugs abusers (94.9%) are considered high risk behaviours. 80.3% of interviewed, without distinction of school attendance, sex, and age considered lack of information as a situation of high risk. Condoms are not used by 46.4% of the subjects in case of sex with a regular partner and by 9.5% with casual partner. Majority of students declared condoms very safe in preventing STDs but an important percentage indicated also contraception methods; correct answers were higher among females and increased with age. Main sources of information were TV (21.6%), school (21.1%) and friends (14.8%) and a few sought information from family doctor (7.4%) and web (4.8%). The study suggests, as priority, to improve teenagers' awareness about risk behaviours and prevention of STDs. School can play an important role in reinforcement of sexual education programmes and directing young people to general practitioners and primary sexual health care services. PMID:24396993

  9. Sex, birth control and sexually transmitted diseases: teens voice their beliefs.

    PubMed

    1996-11-01

    The Kaiser Family Foundation conducted a telephone survey of US teenagers in the spring of 1996 to gather information about what teenagers believe they need in terms of sex education and who they would like to teach them. It was found that although 55% of the teenagers believed their parents to be their most complete and reliable source of information about contraception and sex, they actually received more information from school sources. The respondents indicated that 54% of their parents had failed to discuss contraception with them, and 45% of the parents had not discussed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In many cases, parents waited until "too late" to broach these subjects. Information about contraception was usually too general to be of practical use. The survey also revealed that the teenagers exhibited inconsistent use of contraception. While 55% of the sexually active teens indicated that they worry about pregnancy, only 48% stated that they always use contraception. When asked why teenagers had unplanned pregnancies, most responded that the teenagers felt immune from pregnancy, indicating a need for more information about the specific risks of pregnancy. About half of the young people believe that teenagers have sexual intercourse because they think they are ready. The other reason cited by more than half of the respondents was to increase popularity. Teenagers, thus, need specific information about how to prevent pregnancy and STDs and about how to resist pressure to have sex (and avoid situations, such as alcohol or drug use, which are conducive to sexual behavior). While 69% of the respondents recognize teen pregnancy as a "big" problem, they have unrealistic expectations about their ability (should they become pregnant) to finish high school or to marry the mother/father of the child, and they underestimate their potential need for public assistance or their willingness to resort to abortion. PMID:12291812

  10. Association Between Body Mass Index, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Contraceptive Compliance

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Andrea L.; Lugo, Jonathan M.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pyles, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies have examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sexual behaviors, but little information exists on this relationship among racially diverse, low-income women using objectively measured clinical data. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BMI and sexual behaviors, rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy, and contraceptive adherence among adolescent and young adult women. Methods As part of a larger study, 1,015 Hispanic (54.2%), Black (18.6%) and White (24.8%) women aged 16 to 24 years seeking family planning services at publicly funded reproductive health clinics provided data on their baseline sexual behaviors, and contraceptive use and pregnancy history over 12 months. Objective clinical data were available from medical records at baseline (i.e., height, weight, and Papanicolaou [Pap] smear results), and over a 12-month period (i.e., STI results). Multivariable analyses were used to compare sexual behaviors, STI rates, contraceptive compliance, and unintended pregnancy rates between obese, overweight, and normal weight participants after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and other confounders. Results Overall, 423 (36.6%), 304 (26.3%), and 288 (24.9%) participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, and obese, respectively. No statistically significant association was observed between BMI and sexual behaviors, STI rates (overweight odds ratio [OR] 0.67; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] [0.4, 1.08]; obese OR 0.68; 95% CI [0.42, 1.10]); contraceptive compliance (overweight OR 0.89; 95% CI [0.69, 1.16]; obese OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.68, 1.16]), or unintended pregnancy (overweight OR 1.08 95% CI [0.73, 1.60]; obese OR 1.09; 95% CI [0.72, 1.63]). Conclusion STI history and contraceptive compliance did not vary by BMI. Therefore, all women should receive equal contraceptive counseling (including condoms) to reduce the risk of unplanned pregnancy and STIs. PMID:24093760

  11. Sexually-Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Cannot Be Directly Predicted from Plasma or PBMC-Derived Viral Quasispecies in the Transmitting Partner

    PubMed Central

    Frange, Pierre; Meyer, Laurence; Jung, Matthieu; Goujard, Cecile; Zucman, David; Abel, Sylvie; Hochedez, Patrick; Gousset, Marine; Gascuel, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Chaix, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Objective Characterization of HIV-1 sequences in newly infected individuals is important for elucidating the mechanisms of viral sexual transmission. We report the identification of transmitted/founder viruses in eight pairs of HIV-1 sexually-infected patients enrolled at the time of primary infection (“recipients”) and their transmitting partners (“donors”). Methods Using a single genome-amplification approach, we compared quasispecies in donors and recipients on the basis of 316 and 376 C2V5 env sequences amplified from plasma viral RNA and PBMC-associated DNA, respectively. Results Both DNA and RNA sequences indicated very homogeneous viral populations in all recipients, suggesting transmission of a single variant, even in cases of recent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in donors (n?=?2) or recipients (n?=?3). In all pairs, the transmitted/founder virus was derived from an infrequent variant population within the blood of the donor. The donor variant sequences most closely related to the recipient sequences were found in plasma samples in 3/8 cases and/or in PBMC samples in 6/8 cases. Although donors were exclusively (n?=?4) or predominantly (n?=?4) infected by CCR5-tropic (R5) strains, two recipients were infected with highly homogeneous CXCR4/dual-mixed-tropic (X4/DM) viral populations, identified in both DNA and RNA. The proportion of X4/DM quasispecies in donors was higher in cases of X4/DM than R5 HIV transmission (16.7–22.0% versus 0–2.6%), suggesting that X4/DM transmission may be associated with a threshold population of X4/DM circulating quasispecies in donors. Conclusions These suggest that a severe genetic bottleneck occurs during subtype B HIV-1 heterosexual and homosexual transmission. Sexually-transmitted/founder virus cannot be directly predicted by analysis of the donor’s quasispecies in plasma and/or PBMC. Additional studies are required to fully understand the traits that confer the capacity to transmit and establish infection, and determine the role of concomitant STIs in mitigating the genetic bottleneck in mucosal HIV transmission. PMID:23874894

  12. [Sexually transmitted diseases and other risks in the adult film industry].

    PubMed

    Kluger, N

    2014-02-01

    The adult film industry nowadays represents a legal multi-billion dollar business. The main health risks of adult performers are well known. They mainly include the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, herpes and papillomavirus. However, despite regular follow-up, the frequency of STD remains significant in this high-risk population since a large part of the industry continues to reject systematic use of condoms. Besides, performers are also exposed to other physical and mental health issues often not known to the public. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known about STD and other risks among the community of performers in the adult film industry. PMID:24507206

  13. First, do no harm: the US sexually transmitted disease experiments in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Michael A; García, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Beginning in 1946, the United States government immorally and unethically-and, arguably, illegally-engaged in research experiments in which more than 5000 uninformed and unconsenting Guatemalan people were intentionally infected with bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases. Many have been left untreated to the present day. Although US President Barack Obama apologized in 2010, and although the US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues found the Guatemalan experiments morally wrong, little if anything has been done to compensate the victims and their families. We explore the backdrop for this unethical medical research and violation of human rights and call for steps the United States should take to provide relief and compensation to Guatemala and its people. PMID:24134370

  14. Sexually Transmitted Pathogens, Depression, and Other Manifestations Associated with Premenstrual Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Caroline; Swain, Walker A; Ewald, Holly A Swain; Cook, Christine L; Ewald, Paul W

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated whether sexually transmitted infections and lifestyle variables are associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) as well as particular manifestations commonly associated with PMS. Data were gathered from medical records of 500 regularly cycling women. The following infectious agents were investigated: human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicans, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Bivariate tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate whether these pathogens were associated with headache, pain, nausea, and depression. Chlamydia trachomatis was significantly associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and two common manifestations of PMS: depression and pain. Trichomonas vaginalis was significantly correlated with headache and Gardnerella vaginalis with nausea. None of the illness manifestations was significantly associated with the tested lifestyle variables: dietary calcium supplementation, alcohol and drug use, exercise, and smoking. These associations provide a basis for assessment of infectious causation of PMS and several manifestations of illness that are commonly associated with PMS. PMID:26272230

  15. Depression and Social Stigma Among MSM in Lesotho: Implications for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Mothopeng, Tampose; Taruberekera, Noah; Nkonyana, John; Baral, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Social stigma is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa, and may influence risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) via its association with depression. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 530 MSM in Lesotho accrued via respondent-driven sampling. Using generalized structural equation models we examined associations between stigma, social capital, and depression with condom use and testing positive for HIV/STIs. Depression was positively associated with social stigma experienced or perceived as a result of being MSM. In contrast, increasing levels of social cohesion were negatively associated with depression. Social stigma was associated with testing positive for HIV; however, this association did not appear to be mediated by depression or condom use. These data suggest a need for integrated HIV and mental health care that addresses stigma and discrimination and facilitates positive social support for MSM. PMID:25969182

  16. "They never tell you about the consequences": young people's awareness of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Garside, R; Ayres, R; Owen, M; Pearson, V A; Roizen, J

    2001-09-01

    Young people are at risk from sexually transmitted infections (STIs)--the incidence of chlamydia in the UK is highest among young women aged 16-19. Despite this, young people lack knowledge about STIs and are more aware of the risks of unwanted pregnancy than their risk of acquiring an STI. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to examine what teenagers know about STIs, their prevention, symptoms, treatment and services. Only one-third of respondents recognized chlamydia as an STI. The little knowledge of STIs that was revealed was superficial. Few were aware that special services existed for STIs. Condoms were seen as contraception, not as a method of preventing infection transmission. High teenage pregnancy rates have received much publicity but less attention has been paid to rising STI incidence. Programmes aimed at decreasing pregnancy rates through adoption of effective hormonal contraception not only fail to address STIs but may be detrimental to prevention efforts. PMID:11516367

  17. Diagnostic challenges of sexually transmitted infections in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Ronald, Allan

    2009-12-01

    The global burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is highest in the developing world where access to laboratory services is limited. Sophisticated laboratory diagnostic tests using noninvasive specimens have enabled developed countries to screen and diagnose curable STIs in a variety of settings, but control programs in resource-limited settings continue to struggle to find simple rapid tests that can provide adequate performance in the absence of laboratory services. While recent technological advances and investments in research and development may soon yield improved STI tests that can make an impact, these tests will need to be deployed within a health system that includes: regulatory oversight, quality assurance, good supply-chain management, effective training, information systems and a sound surveillance system to monitor disease trends, inform policy decisions and assess the impact of interventions. PMID:19995188

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis in Selected US Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics: Testing, Screening, and Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Meites, Elissa; Llata, Eloisa; Braxton, Jim; Schwebke, Jane R.; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Pathela, Preeti; Asbel, Lenore E.; Kerani, Roxanne P.; Mettenbrink, Christie J.; Weinstock, Hillard S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection in the United States, affecting 3.1% of women of reproductive age. Infection is associated with HIV acquisition and pelvic inflammatory disease. In the United States, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend testing all women with vaginal discharge for T. vaginalis, but except for HIV-infected women, there are no national guidelines for screening asymptomatic persons. The objective of this analysis is to assess testing and screening practices for T. vaginalis among symptomatic and asymptomatic women in the sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic setting. Methods We analyzed data on demographics, clinical presentation, and laboratory testing for all women visiting a clinician in 2010 to 2011 at any of 15 STD clinics participating in the STD Surveillance Network. Prevalence of laboratory-confirmed T. vaginalis infection was calculated among symptomatic women tested and among asymptomatic women screened. Results A total of 59,176 women visited STD clinicians: 39,979 were considered symptomatic and 19,197 were considered asymptomatic for T. vaginalis infection, whereas 211 were HIV-infected. Diagnostic practices varied by jurisdiction: 4.0% to 96.1% of women were tested or screened for T. vaginalis using any laboratory test. Among 17,952 symptomatic women tested, prevalence was 26.2%. Among 3909 asymptomatic women screened, prevalence was 6.5%. Among 92 HIV-infected women tested/screened, prevalence was 29.3%. Conclusions Trichomoniasis is common among STD clinic patients. In this analysis, most STD clinics tested symptomatic women seeking care, in accordance with national guidelines. All HIV-infected women should be screened annually. Additional evidence and national guidance are needed regarding potential benefits of T. vaginalis screening in other asymptomatic women. PMID:24113409

  19. Prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens associated with HPV infection in cervical samples in a Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Contreras, Mariana; Contreras-Paredes, Adriana; Chavez-Blanco, Alma; Lizano, Marcela; De la Cruz-Hernandez, Yanira; De la Cruz-Hernandez, Erick

    2015-12-01

    Cervical cancer development has been mainly associated with persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. However, HPV infection is unlikely to be sufficient to cause cervical cancer, and the contribution of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) could be the determining factor for cervical lesion-progression. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of STIs associated with HPV-positivity in 201 cervical samples from patients who underwent annual routine gynecological exams. The overall prevalence of STIs was 57.7%, and the most frequent infection was Ureaplasma spp (UP) (39.8%), followed by Gardnerella vaginalis (GV) (25.9%), ?-HPV (18.4%), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (1.5%), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) (0.5%). The highest prevalence rate of multiple non-HPV infections was observed for the age-range 31-40; for papillomavirus infection, the age-range was 21-30. In normal cervical samples, HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype (24.3%), followed by genotypes 58 (13.5%) and 52 (10.8%). Intriguingly, HPV18 was not detected in the study population, and genotypes 52 and 58 were found exclusively in samples with abnormal cytology. Papillomavirus infection with oncogenic types was significantly associated with GV (P?=?0.025) and strongly associated with multiple non-HPV pathogens (P?=?0.002). The following variables correlated significantly with cytological diagnosis of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL): GV (P?=?0.028), multiple non-HPV infections (P?=?0.001), and high-risk HPV positivity (P?=?0.001). Epidemiological data from this study will contribute to the molecular detection of sexually transmitted pathogens from screening programs to identify those women who are at risk for developing cervical lesions. PMID:26010580

  20. Transmission of sexually transmitted disease in complex network of the Penna model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Li, Chunguang

    2007-04-01

    The Penna model is a computational model which can encompass the inheritance, mutation, evolution and ageing phenomena of population successfully. Some researchers considered social interactions in an asexual Penna model, got a complex network and found some interesting properties. We consider a sexual Penna model to study the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our model can also generate a complex network and we observed some properties in real networks, such as small-world and assortative mixing. In the real world, the fatality of STD is changing with the advancing of medicine and it can affect our life. In this paper, we uncover the effect induced by the fatality of STD. We found that fatality plays an important role in the transmission of STD because whether the STD will disappear or continue to exist depends on the fatality of STD. Also, the fatality of STD can affect the evolution of inherited diseases and average life span. Some properties found in the model should be useful for the prevention and control of STD.

  1. Effects of adaptive protective behavior on the dynamics of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Michael A L; Eisenberg, Marisa C

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to present a complex and costly challenge to public health programs. The preferences and social dynamics of a population can have a large impact on the course of an outbreak as well as the effectiveness of interventions intended to influence individual behavior. In addition, individuals may alter their sexual behavior in response to the presence of STIs, creating a feedback loop between transmission and behavior. We investigate the consequences of modeling the interaction between STI transmission and prophylactic use with a model that links a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) system to evolutionary game dynamics that determine the effective contact rate. The combined model framework allows us to address protective behavior by both infected and susceptible individuals. Feedback between behavioral adaptation and prevalence creates a wide range of dynamic behaviors in the combined model, including damped and sustained oscillations as well as bistability, depending on the behavioral parameters and disease growth rate. We found that disease extinction is possible for multiple regions where R0>1, due to behavior adaptation driving the epidemic downward, although conversely endemic prevalence for arbitrarily low R0 is also possible if contact rates are sufficiently high. We also tested how model misspecification might affect disease forecasting and estimation of the model parameters and R0. We found that alternative models that neglect the behavioral feedback or only consider behavior adaptation by susceptible individuals can potentially yield misleading parameter estimates or omit significant features of the disease trajectory. PMID:26362102

  2. Race and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Women With and Without Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Feske, Ulrike; Angiolieri, Teresa; Gold, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with and without a lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) and to compare their histories to those of a group of women with a current nonpsychotic axis I disorder. Methods Two-hundred fifteen women completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I diagnoses (SCID-I), Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality for Axis II diagnoses (SIDP-IV), and a sexual health interview. African American women were oversampled because little is known about BPD in African American women and because they are at greater risk for STDs than non-African American women. Results Women with a lifetime SUD (especially cannabis use disorder) reported more STD risk factors and STDs than women without a lifetime SUD. BPD dimensional scores and African American race were predictors of STD, even after controlling for age, socioeconomic status (SES), SUDs, and participation in the sex trade. Conclusions Determining predictors of STDs within at-risk subpopulations may help reduce the spread of STDs and prevent HIV infection within these groups by helping providers identify women at the highest risk of infection. PMID:21219244

  3. Continuing Need for Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics After the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Parsell, Bradley W.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Habel, Melissa A.; Tao, Guoyu; Pearson, William S.; Gift, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the characteristics of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients, their reasons for seeking health services in STD clinics, and their access to health care in other venues. Methods. In 2013, we surveyed persons who used publicly funded STD clinics in 21 US cities with the highest STD morbidity. Results. Of the 4364 STD clinic patients we surveyed, 58.5% were younger than 30 years, 72.5% were non-White, and 49.9% were uninsured. They visited the clinic for STD symptoms (18.9%), STD screening (33.8%), and HIV testing (13.6%). Patients chose STD clinics because of walk-in, same-day appointments (49.5%), low cost (23.9%), and expert care (8.3%). Among STD clinic patients, 60.4% had access to another type of venue for sick care, and 58.5% had access to another type of venue for preventive care. Most insured patients (51.6%) were willing to use insurance to pay for care at the STD clinic. Conclusions. Despite access to other health care settings, patients chose STD clinics for sexual health care because of convenient, low-cost, and expert care. Policy Implication. STD clinics play an important role in STD prevention by offering walk-in care to uninsured patients. PMID:26447908

  4. Toward global prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the need for STI vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Low, Nicola; Newman, Lori M; Bolan, Gail; Kamb, Mary; Broutet, Nathalie

    2014-03-20

    An estimated 499 million curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs; gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and trichomoniasis) occurred globally in 2008. In addition, well over 500 million people are estimated to have a viral STI such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or human papillomavirus (HPV) at any point in time. STIs result in a large global burden of sexual, reproductive, and maternal-child health consequences, including genital symptoms, pregnancy complications, cancer, infertility, and enhanced HIV transmission, as well as important psychosocial consequences and financial costs. STI control strategies based primarily on behavioral primary prevention and STI case management have had clear successes, but gains have not been universal. Current STI control is hampered or threatened by several behavioral, biological, and implementation challenges, including a large proportion of asymptomatic infections, lack of feasible diagnostic tests globally, antimicrobial resistance, repeat infections, and barriers to intervention access, availability, and scale-up. Vaccines against HPV and hepatitis B virus offer a new paradigm for STI control. Challenges to existing STI prevention efforts provide important reasons for working toward additional STI vaccines. We summarize the global epidemiology of STIs and STI-associated complications, examine challenges to existing STI prevention efforts, and discuss the need for new STI vaccines for future prevention efforts. PMID:24581979

  5. Immune anticipation of mating in Drosophila: Turandot M promotes immunity against sexually transmitted fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Weihao; McClure, Colin D.; Evans, Cara R.; Mlynski, David T.; Immonen, Elina; Ritchie, Michael G.; Priest, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that mating increases the risk of infection, we do not know how females mitigate the fitness costs of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It has recently been shown that female fruitflies, Drosophila melanogaster, specifically upregulate two members of the Turandot family of immune and stress response genes, Turandot M and Turandot C (TotM and TotC), when they hear male courtship song. Here, we use the Gal4/UAS RNAi gene knockdown system to test whether the expression of these genes provides fitness benefits for females infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii under sexual transmission. As a control, we also examined the immunity conferred by Dorsal-related immunity factor (Dif), a central component of the Toll signalling pathway thought to provide immunity against fungal infections. We show that TotM, but not TotC or Dif, provides survival benefits to females following STIs, but not after direct topical infections. We also show that though the expression of TotM provides fecundity benefits for healthy females, it comes at a cost to their survival, which helps to explain why TotM is not constitutively expressed. Together, these results show that the anticipatory expression of TotM promotes specific immunity against fungal STIs and suggest that immune anticipation is more common than currently appreciated. PMID:24174107

  6. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and other sexually transmitted infections among MSM from three cities in Panama.

    PubMed

    Hakre, Shilpa; Arteaga, Griselda B; Núñez, Aurelio E; Arambu, Nelson; Aumakhan, Bulbulgul; Liu, Michelle; Peel, Sheila A; Pascale, Juan M; Scott, Paul T

    2014-08-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to conduct a biobehavioral survey among men who have sex with men (MSM) in three cities in the Republic of Panama. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors. Among 603 MSM recruited, RDS-adjusted seroprevalences (95 % confidence intervals) were: HIV-David 6.6 % (2.2-11.4 %), Panama 29.4 % (19.7-39.7 %), and Colon 32.6 % (18.0-47.8 %); active syphilis-David 16.0 % (8.9-24.2 %), Panama 24.7 % (16.7-32.9 %), Colon 31.6 % (14.8-47.5 %); resolved HBV infection-David 10.0 % (4.8-16.8 %), Panama 29.4 % (20.0-38.3 %), and Colon 40.6 % (21.9-54.4 %); herpes simplex virus type 2-David 38.4 % (27.9-48.9 %), Panama 62.6 % (52.8-71.0 %), and Colon 72.9 % (57.4-85.8 %). At least a third of MSM in each city self-identified as heterosexual or bisexual. HIV prevalence is concentrated among MSM. Preventive interventions should focus on increasing HIV and syphilis testing, and increasing promotion of condom awareness and use. PMID:24927712

  7. Incident sexually transmitted infection as a biomarker for high risk sexual behavior following diagnosis with acute HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Anna B.; Crooks, Amanda M.; Chin, Tammy; Kuruc, JoAnn D.; McGee, Kara S.; Eron, Joseph J.; Hicks, Charles B.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Gay, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis following diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI) indicates ongoing high-risk sexual behavior and possible risk of HIV transmission. We assessed predictors of STI acquisition and the effect of time since care entry on STI incidence in AHI patients in care and receiving consistent risk-reduction messaging. Methods Data on incident gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, primary/secondary syphilis, demographic, and clinical risk factors were abstracted from medical charts for patients diagnosed with AHI and engaged in care. Poisson regression models using generalized estimating equations were fit to estimate incidence rates (IR), incidence rate ratios (IRR), and robust 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 185 AHI patients, 26 (14%) were diagnosed with ?1 incident STI over 709.4 person-years; 46 STIs were diagnosed during follow-up (IR=6.8/100 person-years). The median time from HIV care entry to first STI diagnosis was 609 days (range=168–1681). Men who have sex with men (MSM) (p=0.03), a shorter time between presentation to medical care and AHI diagnosis (p=0.06), and STI diagnosis prior to AHI diagnosis (p=0.0003) were predictors of incident STI. STI IR >1 year after entering care was double that of patients in care ?1 year (IRR=2.0 95% CI 0.8–4.9). HIV viral load was above the limits of detection within 1 month of 11 STI diagnoses in 6 patients (23.1%) (median=15,898 copies/mL, range=244–152,000 copies/mL). Conclusions Despite regular HIV care, STI incidence was high among this primarily young, MSM AHI cohort. Early antiretroviral initiation may decrease HIV transmission given ongoing risk behaviors despite risk-reduction messaging. PMID:24922104

  8. Social Stigma and Negative Consequences: Factors that Influence College Students' Decisions To Seek Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Karen R.; Cook, Robert L.; Downs, Julie S.; Switzer, Galen E.; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2002-01-01

    Examined key factors that influenced college students to seek screening for sexually transmitted diseases. Data from student interviews indicated that social stigmas and negative consequences (particularly the negative consequences of testing and perceived vulnerability to infection) represented significant barriers to being tested. Many students…

  9. Behavioural Interventions for the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Young People Aged 13-19 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picot, Joanna; Shepherd, Jonathan; Kavanagh, Josephine; Cooper, Keith; Harden, Angela; Barnett-Page, Elaine; Jones, Jeremy; Clegg, Andrew; Hartwell, Debbie; Frampton, Geoff K.

    2012-01-01

    We systematically reviewed school-based skills building behavioural interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. References were sought from 15 electronic resources, bibliographies of systematic reviews/included studies and experts. Two authors independently extracted data and quality-assessed studies. Fifteen randomized…

  10. Vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in three provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Ning; Yue, Xiaoli; Gong, Xiangdong

    2015-05-01

    Though vaginal douching is a common practice among female sex workers that could increase the risk of HIV and adverse reproductive health outcomes, it has drawn limited attention. From November 2010 to January 2011, a convenience sample of female sex workers was recruited in three cities in China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather socio-demographic and behavioural information. Blood samples were collected for syphilis serological tests. Endo-cervical swabs were collected and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with vaginal douching and the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infection. A total of 1032 eligible female sex workers were enrolled. The overall prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and vaginal douching with disinfectant were 23.4% and 23.1%, respectively. Factors independently associated with douching practice included study sites, venue types, ethnicity, having regular partner and sexually transmitted infection history. No significant association was found between vaginal douching and current sexually transmitted infection. Vaginal douching with disinfectant after sex with clients seemed to be a prevalent practice among female sex workers in China. Prevention programmes targeting female sex workers should incorporate components about the adverse health outcomes associated with vaginal douching. PMID:25015933

  11. The Association of Early Substance Use with Lifetime/Past Year Contraction of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merianos, Ashley L.; Rosen, Brittany L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Fehr, Sara K.

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose is to examine the impact of early substance use on lifetime and past year contraction of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, and syphilis. A secondary analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 52,529) was conducted to determine if lifetime or past year STD…

  12. Sexually Transmitted Infections and the Use of Condoms in Biology Textbooks. A Comparative Analysis across Sixteen Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Sandie; Clement, Pierre; Carvalho, Graca; Gilda, Alves; Berger, Dominique; Thiaw, Seyni Mame; Sabah, Selmaoui; Salaheddine, Khzami; Skujiene, Grita; Abdelli, Sami; Mondher, Abrougui; Calado, Florbela; Bogner, Franz; Assaad, Yammine

    2008-01-01

    Our study focused on two topics, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and their control using condoms. For this, we analysed and compared 42 school textbooks from 16 countries on the general topic "Human Reproduction and Sex Education" using a specific grid designed by the BIOHEAD-Citizen project. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was a…

  13. Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Adults: Prevalence, Perceived Risk, and Risk-Taking Behaviors. Research Brief. Publication #2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Schelar, Erin; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States is among the highest in the western industrialized world. Nearly 19 million new STDs are diagnosed each year, and more than 65 million Americans live with an incurable STD, such as herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV). Young people, in particular, are at a heightened risk…

  14. The knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards patients with sexually transmitted infections: exploring changes to the curriculum.

    PubMed

    Bell, Amelia; Bray, Lucy

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests that nurses can struggle to care for patients with sexually transmitted infections in a non-judgemental way. It is unknown how targeted education can influence the knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards caring for patients with sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to investigate how a change in curriculum influenced the reported sexual health knowledge and attitudes of pre-registration adult student nurses in a University in the UK. A two phase mixed methods study, using a sequential explanatory strategy, collected quantitative questionnaire data (n = 117) followed by qualitative group data (n = 12). Data were collected from one cohort of students before a curriculum change and then from a subsequent cohort of students. Those students who had increased educational input in relation to sexual health reported higher degrees of knowledge and demonstrated a more positive attitude towards patients with a sexually transmitted infection. Both cohorts of students identified that education in this subject area was essential to challenge negative attitudes and positively influence patient care. Active learning approaches in the curriculum such as small group debates and service user involvement have the ability to allow students to express and challenge their beliefs in a safe and supportive environment. PMID:24875840

  15. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  16. Sexual Health Issues Related to College Students and the Use of on Campus Health Clinics for Treatment and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbreath, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Using the Health Belief Model as a conceptual framework, this study examined university students who may seek access to healthcare through an on-campus student clinic for screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data from students enrolled in a general health education…

  17. Relative Efficacy of a Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infection, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention--Focused Intervention on Changing Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at…

  18. HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of women involved in high risk sexual behaviour in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Vandepitte, J.; Bukenya, J.; Weiss, H. A.; Nakubulwa, S.; Francis, S. C.; Hughes, P.; Hayes, R.; Grosskurth, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Uganda has long been successful in controlling the HIV epidemic but there is evidence that HIV prevalence and incidence are increasing again. Data on the HIV/STI epidemic among sex workers are so far lacking from Uganda. This paper describes the baseline epidemiology of HIV/STI in a newly-established cohort of women involved in high risk sexual behaviour in Kampala, Uganda. Methods Women were recruited from red-light-areas in Kampala. Between April 2008-May 2009, 1027 eligible women were enrolled. Socio-demographic and behavioural information was collected; blood and genital samples were tested for HIV/STI. Risk factors for HIV-infection were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Results HIV seroprevalence was 37%. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoea (NG) was 13%, C. trachomatis (CT) 9%, T. vaginalis (TV) 17%, bacterial vaginosis (BV) 56% and 11% had candida infection. 80% had HSV-2 antibodies, 21% were TPHA -positive and 10% had active syphilis (RPR+TPHA+). In 3% of the genital ulcers, T. pallidum (TP) was identified, H. ducreyi (HD) in 6% and HSV-2 in 35%. Prevalent HIV was independently associated with older age, being widowed, lack of education, sex work as sole income, street based sex work, not knowing HIV-status, using alcohol and intravaginal cleansing with soap. HIV-infection was associated with NG, TV, BV, HSV-2 seropositivity and active syphilis. Conclusions Prevalence of HIV/STI is high among women involved in high risk sexual behaviour in Kampala. Targeted HIV prevention interventions including regular STI screening, VCT, condom promotion and counselling for reducing alcohol use are urgently needed in this population. PMID:23330152

  19. Serological test results of sexually transmitted diseases in patients with condyloma acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Çakmak, Seray; Yalç?nkaya Iyidal, Ay?egül; K?l?ç, Arzu; Gül, Ülker; Doner, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The incidence of condyloma acuminata (CA) has increased in recent years. Aim To determine demographical features and serological test results of STD in patients with CA. Material and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 94 patients presenting to a dermatology clinic in Ankara, Middle Anatolia, Turkey. Dermatological examinations were made and the patients completed a questionnaire which consisted of questions about their marital status, partners and condom use. In all cases, VDRL/RPR, anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HCV and in 57 cases – HSV type 1–2 IgM and IgG were studied. If the value of VDRL or RPR was positive, TPHA was conducted. Results In our study, 83 men and 11 women had CA. We could not analyze whether our cases had multiple partners and a habit of condom use as some of the patients did not answer questions about their sexual life. We observed VDRL and TPHA positivity in 3 (3.1%) cases, none of those cases had clinical findings of syphilis and they denied using any therapy for syphilis. HBsAg positivity was found in 3 cases. No anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibody positivity was detected. Conclusions The seroprevalence of HBsAg in our study was similar to that of the general population of Turkey. But as we found positive syphilis serology in 3 patients, we suggest that syphilis serology should be investigated in patients with CA. PMID:26366153

  20. A sexually transmitted infection screening algorithm based on semiparametric regression models.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuokai; Liu, Hai; Tu, Wanzhu

    2015-09-10

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis are among the most common infectious diseases in the United States, disproportionately affecting young women. Because a significant portion of the infections present no symptoms, infection control relies primarily on disease screening. However, universal STI screening in a large population can be expensive. In this paper, we propose a semiparametric model-based screening algorithm. The model quantifies organism-specific infection risks in individual subjects and accounts for the within-subject interdependence of the infection outcomes of different organisms and the serial correlations among the repeated assessments of the same organism. Bivariate thin-plate regression spline surfaces are incorporated to depict the concurrent influences of age and sexual partners on infection acquisition. Model parameters are estimated by using a penalized likelihood method. For inference, we develop a likelihood-based resampling procedure to compare the bivariate effect surfaces across outcomes. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the model fitting performance. A screening algorithm is developed using data collected from an epidemiological study of young women at increased risk of STIs. We present evidence that the three organisms have distinct age and partner effect patterns; for C. trachomatis, the partner effect is more pronounced in younger adolescents. Predictive performance of the proposed screening algorithm is assessed through a receiver operating characteristic analysis. We show that the model-based screening algorithm has excellent accuracy in identifying individuals at increased risk, and thus can be used to assist STI screening in clinical practice. PMID:25900920

  1. Knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and sources of information amongst men.

    PubMed

    Mason, Linda

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate men's awareness of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sexual health services, together with the best ways of providing information about them. Information was collated via a self-administered questionnaire, which was answered by 429 men, giving a response rate of 31%. Men aged 16+ living in two primary care trusts (PCTs) in the north-west of England were accessed through a range of different sources, including social, educational, health, work and religious facilities. Despite the high rates of STIs in the north-west, approximately one in five men had not heard of herpes, syphilis or chlamydia. One in ten had not heard of gonorrhoea. The majority of men were unaware that many STIs could be asymptomatic. Only 13% knew where their local genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic was. The main deterrents to accessing the clinic were embarrassment and not knowing where it was. Men's knowledge of STIs is limited, particularly in relation to the symptoms. The best way of providing information, according to the respondents, was through their general practitioner (GP). However, in practice this might be difficult, as men are reluctant users of GP services in general. Knowledge of the whereabouts of the local GUM clinics is also limited. Although most men thought that they would visit their GP if they thought they might have an STI, this may result from them not knowing the alternatives, rather than having a real choice. More information, targeted wisely, is thus necessary in order to educate men about STIs and service provision. PMID:16353457

  2. One size fits all? Promoting condom use for sexually transmitted infection prevention among heterosexual young adults.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Richard

    2005-10-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults' knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use for STI prevention. Data came from a qualitative study that used 11 group discussions with 53 heterosexual men and women aged 18-25. Respondents thought that STI infection and unplanned pregnancy were equally likely, but were less concerned about STIs than unplanned pregnancy. Respondents gave several reasons for their low levels of concern about STIs. They also suggested several means to promote condom use for STI prevention. They supported multi-faceted condom promotion campaigns, using multiple styles of communication and a variety of media. The range of suggestions given by participants suggests that rather than employing a 'one size fits all' strategy, a variety of different approaches are needed to promote condom use for STI prevention. PMID:15708866

  3. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among women attending antenatal clinics in Tanga, north eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chiduo, M; Theilgaard, Z P; Bakari, V; Mtatifikolo, F; Bygbjerg, I; Flanholc, L; Gerstoft, J; Christiansen, C B; Lemnge, M; Katzenstein, T L

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Tanga, Tanzania. Retrospective data on syphilis and HIV status during 2008-2010 were collected from antenatal clinic (ANC) records. Prospective data were collected from HIV-infected (n = 105) and HIV-uninfected pregnant women (n = 100) attending ANCs between April 2009 and August 2010. Syphilis prevalence showed a declining trend (3.1%, 1.4% and 1.3%), while HIV prevalence was stable (6.1%, 6.4% and 5.4%) during 2008-2010. HIV-infected women had significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis (18.8% versus 5.0%; P < 0.003) and candidiasis (16.5% versus 2.0%; P < 0.001) while the higher rate of gonorrhoea (3.5% versus 0%; P = 0.095) was not statistically significant when compared with HIV-uninfected women. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence of chlamydial infection (0% versus 3.0%; P = 0.156) or syphilis (2.4% versus 3.0%; P = 1) between HIV-infected and uninfected women. Other STIs were common in both HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women. PMID:22648885

  4. Approaches to control sexually transmitted diseases in Haiti, 1992-95.

    PubMed Central

    Behets, F. M.; Génécé, E.; Narcisse, M.; Liautaud, B.; Cohen, M.; Dallabetta, G. A.

    1998-01-01

    Despite major obstacles, activities to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were initiated in Haiti in 1992 in collaboration with local nongovernmental organizations. The approaches included review of available local data, assessment of STD case management practices and constraints, and development of specific STD control activities at the primary health care level, such as systematic screening of all pregnant women for syphilis and improved comprehensive syndrome-based STD case management. The activities included conduct of local studies, presentation and dissemination of results to key audiences, training of health care providers, improvement of local capacities, and consensus-building on implementation of STD control approaches. STD awareness and case management improved considerably; for example, 69% of the clinicians interviewed reported correct STD treatments in the north-eastern primary health care centres in 1995, compared with < 10% in 1992. At the end of the project, national STD case management guidelines were developed by consensus between the various organizations and the Ministry of Health. Lessons learned included the importance of local data generation and of communication and collaboration with various institutions for consensus-building, the need for continued training, and field supervision to ensure behaviour change among STD care providers. A national STD control programme should be implemented as soon as possible in both the public and private sector. External funding will remain critical to control this important public health problem in Haiti. PMID:9648360

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases and native Americans: trends in reported gonorrhea and syphilis morbidity, 1984-88.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, K E; Oberschelp, A G; Greenspan, J R

    1989-01-01

    Native Americans experienced higher reported gonorrhea and syphilis morbidity than did non-Native Americans from 1984 through 1988 in 13 States with large Native American populations. Gonorrhea rates among American Indians and Alaska Natives were approximately twice the rates for non-Indians. The highest gonorrhea rate was reported among Alaska Natives, with a 5-year average of 1,470 cases per 100,000, more than five times the average non-Native rate in Alaska. The average primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis rate from 1984 through 1988 was more than two times higher among Native Americans, largely due to high syphilis morbidity in Arizona and New Mexico. In Arizona the average American Indian P&S syphilis case rate was seven times higher than the non-Indian rate. True rates for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among Native Americans may be higher than those reported due to racial misclassification of Native American cases, particularly in nonreservation areas. Improved recognition and reporting of STD cases among Native Americans are needed to target STD prevention and education more effectively. PMID:2511589

  6. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n?=?763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. PMID:25070945

  7. Sexually transmitted infections and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Caini, Saverio; Gandini, Sara; Dudas, Maria; Bremer, Viviane; Severi, Ettore; Gherasim, Alin

    2014-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most incident cancer and the sixth cause of death by cancer in men worldwide. Despite extensive research efforts, no modifiable risk factors have been consistently identified for PC risk. A number of studies have focused on possible relationships between sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and PC. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between infection caused by Neisseria gonorrheae, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Herpes Simplex Virus types 1 and 2, Human Herpes Virus 8 and Cytomegalovirus, and PC. We conducted a comprehensive, systematic bibliographic search of medical literature to identify relevant studies. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between each STI and PC through random effect models. Subgroup, meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were carried out to detect between-study heterogeneity and bias. We included 47 studies published between 1971 and 2011. Men who reported having ever had any STI in lifetime had an increased PC (SRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.19-1.92). We found a significantly increased PC risk in men having had gonorrhoea (SRR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37). No other single STI was significantly associated with PC. Due to high incidence of both STIs and PC worldwide, prevention of STIs may help preventing a considerable number of PC cases. PMID:24986642

  8. Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Offenders Following Arrest or Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Marc B.; Aalsma, Matthew C.; Scanlon, Michael L.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to estimate rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among criminal offenders in the 1 year after arrest or release from incarceration. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study of risk of having a positive STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis) or incident-positive HIV test in the 1 year following arrest or incarceration in Marion County (Indianapolis), Indiana. Participants were 247?211 individuals with arrest or incarceration in jail, prison, or juvenile detention between 2003 and 2008. Results. Test positivity rates (per 100?000 and per year) were highest for chlamydia (2968) and gonorrhea (2305), and lower for syphilis (278) and HIV (61). Rates of positive STI and HIV were between 1.5 and 2.8 times higher in female than male participants and between 2.7 and 6.9 times higher for Blacks than Whites. Compared with nonoffenders, offenders had a relative risk of 3.9 for chlamydia, 6.6 for gonorrhea, 3.6 for syphilis, and 4.6 for HIV. Conclusions. The 1-year period following arrest or release from incarceration represents a high-impact opportunity to reduce STI and HIV infection rates at a population level. PMID:26469659

  9. Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D; Abdool Karim, S S; Harrison, A; Lurie, M; Colvin, M; Connolly, C; Sturm, A W

    1999-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored. PMID:10063657

  10. Treating curable sexually transmitted infections to prevent HIV in Africa: Still an effective control strategy?

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard G.; Orroth, Kate K.; Glynn, Judith R.; Freeman, Esther E.; Bakker, Roel; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Buvé, Anne; Hayes, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the effectiveness of sexually transmitted infection(STI) treatment for HIV prevention in Africa is equivocal, leading some policy-makers to question whether it should continue to be promoted for HIV control. We explore whether treating curable STIs remains a cost-effective HIV control strategy in Africa. Methods The model STDSIM was fitted to the characteristics of four populations in East and West Africa. Over the simulated HIV epidemics, the population-attributable fractions(PAFs) of incident HIV attributable to STIs, the impact of syndromic STI management on HIV incidence and the cost per HIV-infection-averted were evaluated, and compared to an estimate of lifetime HIV treatment costs(US$3,500). Results Throughout the HIV epidemics in all cities, the total PAF for all STIs remained high, with ?50% of HIV transmission attributed to STIs. The PAF for HSV-2 increased during the epidemics, while the PAF for curable STIs and the relative impact of syndromic management decreased. However, the models showed that absolute impact of syndromic management remains high in generalized epidemics, and it remained cost-saving in three of the four populations where the cost per-HIV-infection-averted ranged between US$321-1,665. Conclusions Curable STI interventions may remain cost-saving in populations with generalised HIV epidemics, particularly populations with high-risk behaviours or low male circumcision rates. PMID:18176323

  11. Perceived Everyday Racism, Residential Segregation, and HIV Testing Among Patients at a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mark; Earp, Jo Anne L.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Golin, Carol E.; Miller, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. More than one quarter of HIV-infected people are undiagnosed and therefore unaware of their HIV-positive status. Blacks are disproportionately infected. Although perceived racism influences their attitudes toward HIV prevention, how racism influences their behaviors is unknown. We sought to determine whether perceiving everyday racism and racial segregation influence Black HIV testing behavior. Methods. This was a clinic-based, multilevel study in a North Carolina city. Eligibility was limited to Blacks (N = 373) seeking sexually transmitted disease diagnosis or screening. We collected survey data, block group characteristics, and lab-confirmed HIV testing behavior. We estimated associations using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Results. More than 90% of the sample perceived racism, which was associated with higher odds of HIV testing (odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval = 1.07, 2.52), after control for residential segregation, and other covariates. Neither patient satisfaction nor mechanisms for coping with stress explained the association. Conclusions. Perceiving everyday racism is not inherently detrimental. Perceived racism may improve odds of early detection of HIV infection in this high-risk population. How segregation influences HIV testing behavior warrants further research. PMID:19218186

  12. Response of religious groups to HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Genrich, Gillian L; Brathwaite, Brader A

    2005-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA). Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002–2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support group located in Port of Spain based upon their perceived willingness to discuss religious affiliation and describe how living with a terminal infection has affected their spiritual lives. The interviewer, a United States Fulbright Scholar, explained the nature and purpose of the study to all participants. Relevant ethical procedures associated with the collection of interview data were adopted: interviews were conducted in a non-coercive manner and confidentiality was assured. All participants provided verbal consent, and agreed to be interviewed without financial or other incentive. Ethics approval was granted on behalf of the Caribbean Conference of Churches Ethics Committee. Interview questions followed a guideline, and employed an open-ended format to facilitate discussion. All interviews were recorded and transcribed by the interviewer. Results Religious representatives' opinions were grouped into the following categories: rationale for the spread of HIV/AIDS, abstinence, condom use, sexuality and homosexuality, compassion, experiences with PWHA, recommendations and current approach to addressing HIV/AIDS in congregations. Religious representatives expressed a measure of acceptance of HIV/AIDS and overwhelmingly upheld compassion for PWHA. Some statements, however, suggested that HIV/AIDS stigma pervades Trinidad's religious organizations. For many representatives, HIV/AIDS was associated with a promiscuous lifestyle and/or homosexuality. Representatives had varying levels of interaction with PWHA, but personal experiences were positively associated with current involvement in HIV/AIDS initiatives. All 4 PWHA interviewed identified themselves as belonging to Christian denominations. Three out of the 4 PWHA described discriminatory experiences with pastors or congregation members during gatherings for religious services. Nonetheless, PWHA expressed an important role for faith and religion in coping with HIV. Conclusion Religious groups in Trinidad are being challenged to promote a clear and consistent response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic; a response that may reflect personal experien

  13. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754

  15. Desire to father a child and condom use: a study of young black men at risk of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; Graham, Cynthia A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sanders, Stephanie A; Yarber, William L; Salazar, Laura F; Terrell, Ivy; Pasternak, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether men's reported desire to father a child or their perception that someone wanted to have their child was associated with elevated rates of unprotected vaginal sex, we studied a sample of young Black men at high risk of sexually transmitted infection acquisition. Data were collected in clinics treating sexually transmitted infections in three southern U.S. cities. Men 15-23 years of age who identified as Black/African American and reported recent (past two months) penile-vaginal sex were eligible (N?=?578). Logistic regression was used to examine whether desire to conceive a child (self and perception of partners' desire) predicted condom use, adjusting for age and whether they had previously impregnated someone. Their own level of desire to conceive a child was not significantly associated with unprotected vaginal sex or the proportion of times a condom was used. However, those who perceived higher level of someone wanting to conceive their child were 1.73 times more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex (P?=?.006) and 1.62 times more likely to report a lower proportion of times condoms were used (P?=?.019). Young Black men attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in the USA may forego condom use based on a perceived desire of their partners to become pregnant, putting themselves at risk for sexually transmitted infection acquisition and unplanned pregnancy. Findings provide initial support for the relevance of the idea that perceptions of women partners' desire to conceive may be a critical determinant of condomless sex. PMID:25505038

  16. Awareness and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Secondary School Adolescents in Ado Ekiti, South Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Amu, E. O.; Adegun, P. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among adolescents in Ado, South Western Nigeria. Methods. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional design. Five hundred and fifty adolescents selected from public and private secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State were recruited using a multistage sampling technique. Results. Four hundred and ninety-nine (92.4%) respondents had heard about sexually transmitted infections before, the three most important sources of information being electronic media (68.7%); teachers (68.1%); and print media (44.9%). Eighty percent of the respondents knew only one STI and the two most commonly mentioned ones were HIV/AIDS (78.0%) and gonorrhea (23.0%). More than 75% of the respondents knew the modes of transmission of STIs while some of them equally had misconceptions. The most important symptoms mentioned were weight loss (77.4%), painful micturition (68.9%), and genital ulcer (54.1%). On the whole, only 6.9% of the respondents had good knowledge of STIs; the rest had fair and poor knowledge. Conclusion. Secondary school adolescents in Ado Local Government Area have only a fair knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases. STI studies should be inculcated into the school curriculum and media publicity/enlightenment campaigns about them should be intensified. PMID:26345225

  17. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections among HIV Positive Women Opting for Intrauterine Contraception

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) are a high risk group for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, the majority of women with STIs are asymptomatic. Data on prevalence of STIs among WLHA in Uganda are limited. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence and factors associated with STIs among WLHA opting for intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). Methods Three hundred fifty one WLHA deemed free of STIs using a syndromic logarithm were enrolled into the study. Endo-cervical swabs were taken before IUD insertion and PCR test for Nisseria gonorrhea (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections conducted. Results Participants’ mean age was 29.4 ± 6.2 years, 83% were under 35years, 50% had secondary education and 73% were married. The majority (69%) had disclosed their HIV sero status to their spouses, 82% used Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, 70% were on antiretroviral therapy, 90% had CD4 count greater than 350, about 60% reported condoms use and 70% were of parity 2-4. Over 50% of the participants’ spouses were older than 35 years and 72% had attained secondary education. STIs prevalence was 11.1%, (95% CI 7.8-14.4) and individual prevalence for TV, NG, and CT was 5.9%, 5.4% and 0.9% respectively. Factors independently associated with STI were having primary or less education (OR= 2.3, 95% CI: 1.09 - 4.85) having a spouse of primary or less education (OR= 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6 - 6.78) and muslim faith (OR= 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04 - 0.78). Conclusion STI prevalence was 11.1%. TV and NG were the commonest STIs in this population. Having primary or less education for both participant and spouse was associated with increased risk while being of muslim faith was associated with reduced risk of STI. PMID:25859659

  18. The slippery slope: Lubricant Use and Rectal Sexually Transmitted Infections: a newly identified risk

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Pamina M.; Weiss, Robert E.; Fuchs, Edward; Jeffries, Robin A.; Hezerah, Marjan; Brown, Stephen; Voskanian, Alen; Robbie, Edward; Anton, Peter; Cranston, Ross D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Use of lubricant products is extremely common during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) yet has not been assessed as a risk for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods From 2006–2008 a rectal health and behavior study was conducted in Baltimore and Los Angeles as part of the UCLA Microbicide Development Program (NIAID IPCP# #0606414). Participants completed questionnaires and rectal swabs were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis with the Aptima Combo 2 assay and blood was tested for syphilis (for RPR and TPHA with titer) and HIV. Of those reporting lubricant use and RAI, STI results were available for 380 participants. Univariate and multivariate regressions assessed associations of lubricant use in the past month during RAI with prevalent STIs. Results Consistent lubricant use during RAI in the past month was reported by 36% (137/380) of participants. Consistent past month lubricant users had a higher prevalence of STI than inconsistent users (9.5% vs. 2.9%; p=0.006). In a multivariable logistic regression model testing positive for STI was associated with consistent use of lubricant during RAI in the past month (adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 2.98 (95%CI 1.09, 8.15) after controlling for age, gender, study location, HIV status, and numbers of RAI partners in the past month. Conclusions Findings suggest some lubricant products may increase vulnerability to STIs. Because of wide use of lubricants and their potential as carrier vehicles for microbicides, further research is essential to clarify if lubricant use poses a public health risk. PMID:22183849

  19. Intravaginal Cleansing among Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Kingston, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Carter, M; Gallo, M; Anderson, C; Snead, MC; Wiener, J; Bailey, A; Costenbader, E; Legardy-Williams, J; Hylton-Kong, T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although common worldwide, intravaginal cleansing is associated with poor health outcomes. We sought to describe intravaginal cleansing among women attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Jamaica. Methods We examined intravaginal cleansing (“washing up inside the vagina”, douching, and products or materials used) among 293 participants in a randomized trial of counselling messages at an STI clinic in Kingston. We focussed on information on intravaginal cleansing performed in the 30 days and three days preceding their baseline study visit. We describe reported cleansing behaviours and used logistic regression to identify correlates of intravaginal cleansing. Results Fifty-eight per cent of participants reported intravaginal cleansing in the previous 30 days, and 46% did so in the three days before baseline. Among those who cleansed in the previous 30 days, 88% reported doing so for hygiene unrelated to sex, and three-fourths reported generally doing so more than once per day. Soap (usually with water) and water alone were the most common products used for washing; commercial douches or detergents were reported infrequently. Intravaginal cleansing in the three days before the baseline visit was positively associated with having more than one sex partner in the previous three months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1, 3.2), and negatively associated with experiencing itching in the genital area at baseline (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4, 1.0). Conclusions A large proportion of women attending STI clinics in Jamaica engage in frequent intravaginal cleansing, indicating a need for clinicians to discuss this topic with them accordingly. PMID:24171329

  20. Pattern of sexually transmitted infections in a Muslim majority region of North India

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Iffat; Anwar, Parvaiz; Rather, Shagufta; Sameem, Farah; Majid, Imran; Jabeen, Yasmeen; Mubashir, Syed; Nisa, Nuzhatun; Masood, Qazi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing trends of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS has been noted in the literature over years, depending to some extent on the geographical and cultural factors of the region. In Kashmir Valley also, the pattern of STI may be different from the rest of the country. Aims of the Study: The aim was to present the experience with patterns of STI in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: Retrospective hospital-based study carried out by detailed analysis of case records of 5-year period. Results: A total of 184 patients, 100 males and 84 females, had specific STI. Genital ulcer disease was the presentation in 54 patients (29.35%), out of which herpes genitalis was found in 27 patients (50%), followed by chancroid in 13 (24.07%) and syphilis in 10 (18.52%) patients. 42 female patients (22.83%) presented with vaginal discharge, out of which, 24 (57.14%) had vaginal candidiasis. 24 males (13.04%) presented with urethral discharge, out of which, 15 (62.5%) had nongonococcal and 9 (37.5%) gonococcal urethritis. Genital molluscum contagiosum (MC) was found in 19 patients (10.33%), and warts in 15 (8.15%). HIV positive serology was detected in 3 patients (1.63%). Conclusion: The most common STI encountered in our study was genital ulcer, followed by vaginal discharge, urethritis, genital MC, and genital warts. Herpes genitalis was the commonest genital ulcer; candidiasis was the most common cause of vaginal discharge and nongonococcal urethritis the most common cause of urethritis. These findings are by and large similar to those noted in other parts of our country. PMID:26392651

  1. Partner notification uptake for sexually transmitted infections in China: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Alberta L; Peng, Rui-Rui; Tucker, Joseph D; Cohen, Myron S; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective China’s sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemic requires comprehensive control programmes. Partner services are traditional pillars of STI control but have not been widely implemented in China. This study was a systematic literature review to examine STI partner notification (PN) uptake in China. Methods Four English and four Chinese language databases were searched up to March 2011 to identify articles on PN of STIs including HIV in China. PN uptake was defined as the number of partners named, notified, evaluated or diagnosed per index patient. Results A total of 11 studies met inclusion criteria. For STI (excluding HIV) PN, a median 31.6% (IQR 27.4%–65.8%) of named partners were notified, 88.8% (IQR 88.4%–90.8%) of notified partners were evaluated and 37.9% (IQR 33.1%–43.6%) of evaluated partners were diagnosed. For HIV PN, a median 15.7% (IQR 13.2%–36.5%) of named partners were notified, 86.7% (IQR 72.9%–90.4%) of notified partners were evaluated and 27.6% (IQR 24.1%–27.7%) of evaluated partners were diagnosed. A mean of 80.6% (SD=12.6%) of patients attempted PN, and 72.4% (IQR 63.8%–81.1%) chose self-referral when offered more than one method of PN. Perceived patient barriers included social stigma, fear of relationship breakdown, uncertainty of how to notify and lack of partner contact information. Perceived infrastructure barriers included limited time and trained staff, mistrust of health workers and lack of PN guidelines. Conclusion PN programmes are feasible in China. Further research on STI PN, particularly among men who have sex with men and other high-risk groups, is an important public health priority. PN policies and guidelines are urgently needed in China. PMID:22427489

  2. Risk Factors of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections in China: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William Chi Wai

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are a global challenge. China, once said to have eradicated STIs, is now facing a rapid rise in the prevalence of HIV/STIs. This review of reviews aims to map HIV/STI risk factors among the Chinese population, with the objective of identifying risk factors to inform the formulation of effective prevention strategies. Methods A systematic search using key terms related to HIV/STIs, risk factors and the Chinese population in both English and Chinese databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library; Wanfang data, CNKI, VIP and SINOMED) was conducted, and peer-reviewed systematic reviews on the topic from 1991 to 2014 were selected. Identified risk factors were grouped into different level determinants based on the HIV Social Epidemiology Model, and then evaluated and reported based on the PRISMA checklist. Findings Of the twenty-eight reviews included, the majority were focused on well-established, individual level risk factors within key populations, with some highlighting the complexity of interacting factors (e.g., alcohol use and higher income in male migrants). While twenty-two reviews covered individual factors, only ten mentioned social factors and five had contents on structural factors. There are gaps in the evidence on social and structural level impacts of HIV/STIs, such as on stigma, discrimination, health policy, access to care, and illicit drug control policies. Migration and social expectation appear to pose a significant threat in aggravating the HIV/STI situation in China; for example, incarceration patterns indicated a significant risk of HIV/STIs for female sex workers. Conclusions Since international guidelines recommend an integrated and multi-level approach to HIV/STI prevention, a comprehensive approach targeting interventions at all levels along the continuum of care is needed to effectively curtail HIV/STI transmission in China. More research is needed to better understand the impact of socio-political interventions within a Chinese context. PMID:26468650

  3. Relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexually transmitted diseases in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Blashill, Aaron J.; Wall, Melanie M.; Balan, Ivan C.; Wang, Shuai; Lejuez, C. W.; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a significant public health concern. Numerous internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders have been found to be related to STD risk. However, to date, no studies have examined several psychiatric disorders simultaneously to account for STD risk. Given that psychiatric disorders often co-occur and can be explained by a limited number of latent dimensions of psychopathology, it is important to examine whether the relationship between STDs and psychiatric disorders is best explained by broad dimensions of psychopathology. Methods The current study examined the associations between a range of Axis I and II psychiatric disorders at baseline and rates of STDs at a three-year follow up in a large, nationally representative sample of adults in the United States (n = 34,434). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to fit three factors, two internalizing and one externalizing. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the relationships between and among the factors and STD status and to test for mediation. Results In bivariate analyses, most Axis I and II disorders were associated with STD diagnosis at Wave 2, whereas the results of the structural model showed that only the externalizing factor was significantly associated with STD diagnosis at Wave 2. Further, the externalizing factor mediated the relationship between one of the internalizing factors and STD diagnosis. Conclusion Findings suggest the unique contribution of externalizing psychopathology to STD risk and the importance of examining latent dimensions of disorders when understanding this relationship between psychiatric disorders and STDs. PMID:24630184

  4. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey regarding Sex, Contraception and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Commerce College Students in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Mutha, Sonali A; Baghel, Paritosh J; Patil, Ramanand J; Bhagat, Sagar B; Patel, Sadiq B; Watsa, Mahinder C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One in four Indians is a juvenile. Sexual crimes, pre marital sex, sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are on the rise. It has been shown that lack of sexuality education can significantly contribute to the above. Aim: We conducted this study to determine the knowledge and awareness of college students regarding sex and related matters and the factors affecting the prevalent outlook and practices of youth towards the same. Methodology: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 500 students of the K.P.B. Hinduja College of Commerce from December 2012 to March 2013 as per the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Main Outcome Measures: 1. Sex knowledge scores of males and females regarding contraception, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2. Percentage response of males and females to questions depicting attitudes and perceptions regarding premarital sex and promiscuity, sexual fantasy and masturbation, unwanted pregnancies and contraception. 3. Responses depicting participant’s premarital and high risk sexual activities. Results: The mean age was 18.6 ±1.6 years, 46% of participants were female. The total sex related knowledge scores of males and females were 8.2±1.2 and 6.2±2.4 (p<0.0001), respectively. 84% males and 72% females disagree that virginity should be preserved till marriage. Premarital sex was reported by 48% males and 18% females. Out of those who had premarital sex, 68% males and none of the females had more than one sex partner and 21% males and 12% females had used a contraceptive during their sexual encounter. 87% males and 82% females disagree that sex education in secondary schools will cause a rise in premarital intercourse. 40% males and 13% females are of the view that birth control is primarily a female’s responsibility. 14% of males and 21% of females (p = 0.2) reported being forced to have sex. Conclusion: Participants, especially females, lacked basic information about sexuality and related concepts. Male participants had a very casual attitude towards having sex with multiple partners. Premarital sex is more common than once believed. In the light of our finds and the current scenario, sexuality education is indispensable in order to guide the youth to develop and adopt healthy and appropriate sexual practices. PMID:25302214

  5. Commit and Transmit: Molecular Players in Plasmodium Sexual Development and Zygote Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Guttery, David S; Roques, Magali; Holder, Anthony A; Tewari, Rita

    2015-12-01

    During each cycle of asexual endomitotic division in erythrocytes, the malaria parasite makes a fundamental and crucial decision: to continue to invade and proliferate or to differentiate into gametocytes ready for continuation of sexual development. The proteins and regulatory pathways involved in Plasmodium sexual development have been of great interest in recent years as targets for blocking malaria transmission. However, the 'Holy Grail', the master switch orchestrating asexual-to-sexual commitment and further differentiation, has remained elusive - until now. Here we highlight the recent studies identifying the epigenetic and transcriptional master regulators of sexual commitment and discuss the key players in reversible phosphorylation pathways involved in sexual and zygote differentiation. PMID:26440790

  6. Knowledge of contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases and contraceptive practices amongst young people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa Ngan; Liamputtong, Pranee; Murphy, Gregory

    2006-05-01

    In this article, we examine knowledge of contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and contraceptive practices amongst young Vietnamese people. We conducted a qualitative study on sexuality and abortion with young people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Twelve female and 4 male young people were individually interviewed using an in-depth interview technique. We found that condoms and pills were contraceptives known by almost all young people, but their knowledge of condoms and pills was still inadequate. Fears of side effects of taking pills and rumors and beliefs regarding condoms were quite common among young people. The limitations in young people's knowledge of contraceptives and STDs were a reflection of limited sources of their knowledge. Sexual education provided by educational institutions and within families was very basic. It did not provide clear knowledge on the sensitive topics such as contraceptive methods, and other issues related to sexuality for unmarried people. From a gender perspective, there are two points to note here: While sex issues were discussed openly among unmarried men, most unmarried women felt uncomfortable or expressed difficulty when talking about these issues; and the passiveness of unmarried women in making the decision of using condoms as well as contraceptives was marked. Amongst young people, the use of contraceptives was based mainly on ineffective methods including withdrawal and periodic abstinence. Further, young people's understanding of these methods was neither clear nor adequate. For the young people who did not use any contraceptives, sexual relations occurred unexpectedly. We conclude that creating a climate in which sexual issues can be discussed openly is an important step for the improvement of sexual health for young people. This will inevitably improve knowledge and understanding of contraceptives and STDs and may lead to a safer sexual life among this group of young people. PMID:16877291

  7. Conceptualising quality of life outcomes for women participating in testing for sexually transmitted infections: A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Louise J; Roberts, Tracy E

    2015-10-01

    Many public health interventions have aims which are broader than health alone; this means that there are difficulties in using outcome measures that capture health effects only, such as Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are a major public health concern both in the UK and globally, with Chlamydia trachomatis being the most common bacterial STI worldwide. There is scope for the wider use of qualitative syntheses in health-related research; in this study we highlight their potential value in informing outcome identification, particularly for public health interventions where a broad range of outcomes may need to be considered. This article presents a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies that investigated women's experiences of thinking about and participating in testing for chlamydia. The meta-ethnography highlights issues relating to beliefs about STIs and testing, assessing risk and interpreting symptoms, emotional responses to testing, coping with diagnosis, relationship with sex partners(s), informal support, and interaction with health care services. The study findings suggest that women can experience a range of impacts on their health and quality of life. It is important that this range of effects is taken into account within evaluations, to ensure that decision makers are fully informed about the outcomes associated with screening interventions, and ultimately, to make sure that appropriate interventions are available to support women in maintaining good sexual health. PMID:26360418

  8. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of an HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk-Reduction Intervention for South African Men

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, Loretta S.; O’Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry D.; Heeren, G. Anita; Mtose, Xoliswa; Carty, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the efficacy of a sexual risk-reduction intervention for men in South Africa, where heterosexual exposure is the main mode of HIV transmission. Methods. Matched-pairs of neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, were randomly selected and within pairs randomized to 1 of 2 interventions based on social cognitive theory and qualitative research: HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction, targeting condom use, or attention-matched control, targeting health issues unrelated to sexual risks. Sexually active men aged 18 to 45 years were eligible. The primary outcome was consistent condom use in the past 3 months. Results. Of 1181 participants, 1106 (93.6%) completed the 12-month follow-up. HIV and STI risk-reduction participants had higher odds of reporting consistent condom use (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.03, 1.71) and condom use at last vaginal intercourse (OR?=?1.40; 95% CI?=?1.08, 1.82) than did attention-control participants, adjusting for baseline prevalence. No differences were observed on unprotected intercourse or multiple partnerships. Findings did not differ for sex with steady as opposed to casual partners. Conclusions. Behavioral interventions specifically targeting men can contribute to efforts to reduce sexual risk behaviors in South Africa. PMID:24432923

  9. Human Papillomavirus Infection in a Male Population Attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Service

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta Elena; Melón, Santiago; Junquera, Maria Luisa; Boga, Jose Antonio; Villa, Laura; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; de Oña, María

    2013-01-01

    Objective Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men may produce cancer and other major disorders. Men play an important role in the transmission of the virus and act as a reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the HPV-genotypes and their prevalence in a group of men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection service. Patients and Samples Between July 2002 and June 2011, 1392 balanopreputial, 435 urethral, 123 anal, and 67 condyloma lesions from 1551 men with a mean age of 35.8±11.3 years old (range: 17–87) were collected for HPV-DNA testing. Methods A fragment of the L1-gene and a fragment of the E6/E7-genes were amplified by PCR. Positive samples were typed by hybridization. Results The HPV genome was detected in 36.9% (486/1318) balanopreputial and in 24.9% (101/405) urethral (p<0.0001) swabs from 38.1% (538) of 1469 men. Co-infections were present in 5.4% (80/1469) of cases. HPV was found in 43.9% (373/850) of men younger than 35 vs. 31.7% (187/589) of men aged >35. HPV was found in 59.4% (104) of 165 men with lesions (macroscopic or positive peniscopy), and in 22.8% (61/267) without clinical alterations. HPV was also detected in 71.4% (40/56) men with condylomata and in 58.7% (64/109) of men with positive peniscopy. Conclusions HPV prevalence in men was high and decreased with age. HPV was found more frequently in balanopreputial than in urethral swabs. There was a low rate of co-infections. Low-risk HPV vaccine genotypes were the most recurrent especially in younger. Although HPV has been associated with clinical alterations, it was also found in men without any clinical presentation. Inclusion of men in the national HPV vaccination program may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease and reduce transmission of the virus to non-vaccinated women. PMID:23372715

  10. Obtaining Self-Samples to Diagnose Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Systematic Review of Patients’ Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Paudyal, Priyamvada; Llewellyn, Carrie; Lau, Jason; Mahmud, Mohammad; Smith, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine screening is key to sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and control. Previous studies suggest that clinic-based screening programmes capture only a small proportion of people with STIs. Self-sampling using non- or minimally invasive techniques may be beneficial for those reluctant to actively engage with conventional sampling methods. We systematically reviewed studies of patients’ experiences of obtaining self-samples to diagnose curable STIs. Methods We conducted an electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, BNI, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant articles published in English between January 1980 and March 2014. Studies were included if participants self-sampled for the diagnosis of a curable STI and had specifically sought participants’ opinions of their experience, acceptability, preferences, or willingness to self-sample. Results The initial search yielded 558 references. Of these, 45 studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-six studies assessed patients’ acceptability and experiences of self-sampling. Pooled results from these studies shows that self-sampling is a highly acceptable method with 85% of patients reporting the method to be well received and acceptable. Twenty-eight studies reported on ease of self-sampling; the majority of patients (88%) in these studies found self-sampling an “easy” procedure. Self-sampling was favoured compared to clinician sampling, and home sampling was preferred to clinic-based sampling. Females and older participants were more accepting of self-sampling. Only a small minority of participants (13%) reported pain during self-sampling. Participants were willing to undergo self-sampling and recommend others. Privacy and safety were the most common concerns. Conclusion Self-sampling for diagnostic testing is well accepted with the majority having a positive experience and willingness to use again. Standardization of self-sampling procedures and rigorous validation of outcome measurement will lead to better comparability across studies. Future studies need to conduct rigorous economic evaluations of self-sampling to inform policy development for the management of STI. PMID:25909508

  11. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population. PMID:24986914

  12. Feasibility of Providing Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment in Off-Campus, Nonclinic Settings for Adolescents Enrolled in a School-Based Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Mariam R.; Markham, Christine; Thiel, Melanie; Crandall, Stacy M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Shegog, Ross; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the acceptability and feasibility of using a biological outcome measure to evaluate a school-based sexuality education program. Confidential field-delivered sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing by nonmedical field staff and STI treatment by medically trained field staff was assessed in off-campus and…

  13. Family Influences on Adolescents’ Birth Control and Condom Use, Likelihood of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Manczak, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among personal factors, family structure and family function, adolescents’ self-efficacy for safe sex, and sexual behaviors among sexually active adolescents. A subset sample from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was selected for this exploratory…

  14. Mediators of the Relation Between Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Mona; Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes, including sexual risk behavior. This cross-sectional study explored mediators of the relationship between IPV and risky sexual behavior in 717 women recruited from an STD clinic. Methods Participants were recruited from a public STD clinic in upstate New York as part of a randomized control trial (RCT) that was designed to evaluate several sexual risk reduction interventions. They completed an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview in a private room. Results Among these women, 18% reported IPV in the past 3 months and 57% reported lifetime experience of IPV. Recent IPV was associated with greater sexual risk as measured by more episodes of unprotected sex (overall and with a steady partner). Although IPV was associated with depressive symptoms and drug use before sex, these variables did not mediate the relationship between IPV and sexual risk behavior. Conclusions The results indicate that IPV is common among women who attend an STD clinic and warrants increased attention. Research is needed to better understand the pathways linking IPV and HIV risk in women to optimize the design of effective interventions. PMID:21258269

  15. HIV and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in ethnic minorities in United Kingdom: is surveillance serving its purpose?

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, K. M.; Low, N.

    1997-01-01

    Experience of disease differs across ethnic groups, and ethnicity is a relevant personal characteristic for descriptive epidemiology. Information about ethnicity and country of birth is omitted from the routine notification of many diseases. HIV infection and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis have different incidence rates in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Omission of ethnic data from surveillance activities allows such differences in incidence to go undetected and unaddressed. Surveillance data that included ethnic details could guide interventions to reduce inequalities in health between different subpopulations. PMID:9202508

  16. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers’ Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B.; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  17. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers' Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Matthew B; Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  18. Patterns of sexually transmitted infections in patients presenting in special treatment clinic in Ibadan south western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Olusanya, Olawale; Anaedobe, Gloria Chinenye; Kalu, Iche; Ojide, Kingsley Chiedozie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that are often transferred from one person to another during sexual activity. In developing countries, an increase in the incidence of STIs is attributed to increasing urbanization, modernization, travel, education and exposure to Western media which has led to increased sexual activity, especially among young people. Methods This is a retrospective study carried out in the University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan, Nigeria. The records of a total of 506 patients who attended the clinic between Jan 2010-Dec 2011 were retrieved. The records of the patients’ complaints were taken. Detailed demographic data and history of genital symptoms was taken. Results The records of 506 patients were used 43.7% (221) were males and 56.3% (285) were females. The patient's age ranged from one to eighty, the 1-10 age groups and the 71-80 ages were the least represented age group. Age, sex, level of education, presenting complaints, presence of yeast cells, VDRL positivity were variables that were looked at. Of these only sex and occupation were risk factors for transmission of STI. Conclusion Good clinical care for patients with STIs should extend beyond therapy and include help to avoid future infections. Control activities should focus on the primary prevention of infection through safer sexual practices. Strategies for improving secondary prevention (health care-seeking behavior and case management) should include identification of people at risk and targeting them for intervention. PMID:26523165

  19. Barriers to preventing unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections as experienced by women in Fort Dauphin, southeast Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Robson, Laura; Morris, Jessica; Andriatsihosena, Mamy

    2015-12-01

    Objectives As part of a broader investigation into maternal and child health, this study aimed to explore barriers to preventing unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) for women in southeast Madagascar, in order to inform the development of interventions by a local non-governmental organisation. Methods A year-long mixed methods study was conducted. Qualitative information was obtained from 246 participants through focus groups, single-event and serial qualitative interviews. Quantitative data was collected through a closed-ended questionnaire with a sample of 373 women of reproductive age. Data was analysed using pre-determined and emerging themes. Results Family planning and sexual health services are not well integrated into other health services, nor routinely offered. Barriers to contraceptive use include actual or perceived side effects of hormonal methods, inaccurate information from health providers, and lack of support from partners or family members. STI prevalence is high, concurrent sexual relationships are common, and condom use is limited. Conclusions Women's ability to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs could be improved through measures aiming to dispel misconceptions about eligibility for and perceived risks of hormonal contraceptives, increase support for family planning among partners and families, and reframe the socio-cultural meaning of condom use in sexual relationships. Chinese Abstract ??? ??246??373?? ???????? ?????-? ???. PMID:26153656

  20. Extensive Genetic Diversity, Unique Population Structure and Evidence of Genetic Exchange in the Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Melissa D.; Gorman, Andrew W.; Schillinger, Julia A.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Arroyo, Rossana; Malla, Nancy; Dubey, Mohan Lal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Blank, Susan; Secor, William E.; Carlton, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we utilize a panel of T. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2) differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor the T. vaginalis virus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages. Conclusions/Significance Our study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of global T. vaginalis genetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understanding T. vaginalis pathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease. PMID:22479659

  1. Screening wild and semi-free ranging great apes for putative sexually transmitted diseases: Evidence of Trichomonadidae infections.

    PubMed

    Rushmore, Julie; Allison, Andrew B; Edwards, Erin E; Bagal, Ujwal; Altizer, Sonia; Cranfield, Mike R; Glenn, Travis C; Liu, Hsi; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Mugisha, Lawrence; Muller, Martin N; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Wrangham, Richard; Yabsley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can persist endemically, are known to cause sterility and infant mortality in humans, and could have similar impacts in wildlife populations. African apes (i.e., chimpanzees, bonobos, and to a lesser extent gorillas) show multi-male mating behavior that could offer opportunities for STD transmission, yet little is known about the prevalence and impact of STDs in this endangered primate group. We used serology and PCR-based detection methods to screen biological samples from wild and orphaned eastern chimpanzees and gorillas (N?=?172 individuals, including adults, and juveniles) for four classes of pathogens that either commonly cause human STDs or were previously detected in captive apes: trichomonads, Chlamydia spp., Treponema pallidum (syphilis and yaws), and papillomaviruses. Based on results from prior modeling and comparative research, we expected STD prevalence to be highest in females versus males and in sexually mature versus immature individuals. All samples were negative for Chlamydia, Treponema pallidum, and papillomaviruses; however, a high percentage of wild chimpanzee urine and fecal samples showed evidence of trichomonads (protozoa). Analysis revealed that females were more likely than males to have positive urine-but not fecal-samples; however, there was no evidence of age (sexual maturity) differences in infection status. Sequence analysis of chimpanzee trichomonad samples revealed a close relationship to previously described trichomonads within the genus Tetratrichomonas. Phylogenetic comparisons to archived sequences from multiple vertebrate hosts suggests that many of the chimpanzee parasites from our study are likely transmitted via fecal-oral contact, but the transmission of some Tetratrichomonas sequence-types remains unknown and could include sexual contact. Our work emphasizes that only a fraction of infectious agents affecting wild apes are presently known to science, and that further work on great ape STDs could offer insights for the management of endangered great apes and for understanding human STD origins. PMID:26119266

  2. Risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases: a comparison study of cocaine-dependent individuals in treatment versus a community-matched sample.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Strickland, Jaime R; Afful, Stephanie E; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2009-09-01

    Cocaine users routinely engage in high-risk sexual behaviors that place them at an elevated risk of contracting HIV and other blood-borne infections. The purpose of the present study was to compare trading sex for drugs and/or money, having 10 or more sexual partners in 1 year, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of cocaine-dependent individuals in treatment for their dependence across race and gender and against participants who live in their community. Cocaine-dependent individuals (n = 459) were identified through nine publicly and privately funded inpatient and outpatient chemical dependency treatment centers in the St. Louis area during 2001-2006. Community-based participants (n = 459) were matched to cocaine-dependent participants on age, ethnicity, gender, and zip code of residence. Mean age of the sample was 36 years old, 50% were Caucasians, 50% were African American, and 47% were male. Nearly half of cocaine-dependent participants in treatment had traded sex for drugs and/or money and over one-third had more than 10 sexual partners in 1 year with a risk concentrated among African Americans even after controlling for income and educational attainment. Participants recruited from the community with some exposure to cocaine reported similar rates of high risk sexual behaviors as the cocaine dependent subjects from treatment settings. It is important for clinicians to recognize that once released from treatment, cocaine-dependent individuals may be returning to high-risk environments where sexual risk behaviors are occurring in the context of cocaine use. PMID:19645618

  3. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents can help their adolescent make healthy choices Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health Public Health Reports ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

  4. Self-administered sample collection for screening of sexually transmitted infection among reservation-based American Indian youth.

    PubMed

    Tingey, Lauren; Strom, Rachel; Hastings, Ranelda; Parker, Anthony; Barlow, Allison; Rompalo, Anne; Gaydos, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    American Indians suffer a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infection, particularly adolescents. Screening access barriers in rural and reservation-based communities necessitate alternatives to clinic-based options. Self-administered screening for three sexually transmitted infections was piloted among 32 American Indian adolescents aged 18 to 19. Participants self-collected in a private location; specimens were processed by trained, American Indian paraprofessionals and analysis was conducted by an outside laboratory. Participants testing positive were treated by a Public Health Nurse from the Indian Health Service. Results suggest high overall acceptability: 69% preferred a self-administered method over clinic-based screening, 75% would encourage their friends to use this method and 100% would use it again. A self-administered screening method has the ability to reach this and other high-risk populations that might not otherwise access screening, with added potential within the Indian Health Services system for uptake and dissemination in rural, reservation communities facing significant screening barriers. PMID:25228666

  5. Behavioral Changes Associated With Testing HIV-Positive Among Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Patients In Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Demetria; Simbayi, Leickness C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to examine behavioral risks and behavior changes associated with testing HIV-positive among sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients, in order to inform HIV- and STI-prevention interventions. Methods. We performed a cohort study of 29 STI patients who seroconverted from HIV-negative to HIV-positive during 1 year of observation and 77 STI patients who persistently tested HIV-negative. Computerized behavioral interviews were collected at baseline and at 1 year, and STI clinic charts were abstracted over the same 1-year period. Results. The STI patients who reported genital bleeding during sexual activity at baseline were significantly more likely to test HIV-positive. Reductions in number of sexual partners and rates of unprotected intercourse occurred for all STI clinic patients regardless of whether they tested HIV-positive. Conclusions. Although risk reductions occurred, 5% of HIV-negative STI clinic patients subsequently tested HIV-positive over 1 year. Behavioral risk-reduction interventions are urgently needed for male and female STI clinic patients. PMID:20167895

  6. Silencing Sexually Transmitted Infections: Topical siRNA-Based Interventions for the Prevention of HIV and HSV

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Lee Adam

    2014-01-01

    The global impact of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is significant. The sexual transmission of viruses such as herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) and the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), has been especially difficult to control. To date, no effective vaccines have been developed to prevent the transmission of these STIs. Although antiretroviral drugs have been remarkably successful in treating the symptoms associated with these viral infections, the feasibility of their widespread use for prevention purposes may be more limited. Microbicides might provide an attractive alternative option to reduce their spread. In particular, topically applied small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs) have been shown to not only block transmission of viral STIs to mucosal tissues both in vitro and in vivo, but also confer durable knockdown of target gene expression, thereby circumventing the need to apply a microbicide around the time of sexual encounter, when compliance is mostly difficult. Despite numerous clinical trials currently testing the efficacy of siRNA-based therapeutics, they have yet to be approved for use in the treatment of viral STIs. While several obstacles to their successful implementation in the clinic still exist, promising preclinical studies suggest that siRNAs are a viable modality for the future prevention and treatment of HSV and HIV. PMID:24526828

  7. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Héctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population. PMID:25683522

  8. Relationship Dynamics and Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies Among Heterosexual Young Adults: A Qualitative Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Attendees at an Urban Chicago Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Anna L; French, Audrey L; Hosek, Sybil G; Kendrick, Sabrina R; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L; Mehta, Supriya D

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October-December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n?=?13) and women (n?=?20) aged 18-29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:26588197

  9. Knowledge about Reproduction, Contraception, and Sexually Transmitted Infections among Young Adolescents in American Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrera, Michael; Kaye, Jacqueline Williams; Philliber, Susan; West, Emily

    2000-01-01

    Reports the knowledge levels about reproduction, contraception, and sexuality of more than 600 young teenagers from 7 cities. Data show subgroup variations in knowledge levels and explore which variables predict greater knowledge among these adolescents. Findings show disturbingly low levels of information among adolescents. (SLD)

  10. Random Behaviour or Rational Choice? Family Planning, Teenage Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, David

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice models of teenage sexual behaviour lead to radically different predictions than do models that assume such behaviour is random. Existing empirical evidence has not been able to distinguish conclusively between these competing models. I use regional data from England between 1998 and 2001 to examine the impact of recent increases in…

  11. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Kerr, Thomas; Shoveller, Jean A; Montaner, Julio SG; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. Methods Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS). We examined structural factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression. Results At baseline, 415 (78.4%) were sexually active, of whom 253 (61.0%) reported multiple sex partners and 288 (69.4%) reported inconsistent condom use in the past six months. In multivariate analysis, self-reported barriers to health services were inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.25 – 1.07). Structural factors that were associated with greater numbers of sex partners included homelessness (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.11 – 2.14) and having an area restriction that affects access to services (aIRR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.28 – 4.18). Being searched or detained by the police was significant for males (aIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.02 – 1.81). Conclusion Although limited by its cross-sectional design, our study found several structural factors amenable to policy-level interventions independently associated with sexual risk behaviours. These findings imply that the criminalization and displacement of street-involved youth may increase the likelihood that youth will engage in sexual risk behaviours and exacerbate the negative impact of resultant health outcomes. Moreover, our findings indicate that environmental-structural interventions may help to reduce the burden of these diseases among street youth in urban settings. PMID:19134203

  12. Sexual behaviour and HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviours in the general population of Slovenia, a low HIV prevalence country in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L C; Wellings, K; Weiss, H A; Hayes, R

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe sexual and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk behaviours in Slovenia. Methods: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the general population aged 18–49 years in 1999–2001 was conducted. The data were collected by face-to-face interviews and anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Statistical methods for complex survey data were used. Results: 849 men and 903 women were interviewed. In the past 5 years, both men and women reported a median of one heterosexual partner (means 3.2, 1.5, respectively), concurrent heterosexual partnerships were reported by 24.4% of men and 8.2% of women, heterosexual sex with non-Slovenian partners by 12.6% of men and 12.2% of women, forced sex by 4.8% of women, paid heterosexual sex by 2.6% of men, sex with another man by 0.6% of men and heterosexual sex with an injecting drug user by 1.2% of men and 1.3% of women. In the past year, 22.7% of men and 9.5% of women reported forming at least one new heterosexual partnership. The mean numbers of episodes of heterosexual sex in the previous 4 weeks were 6.1 for men and 6.0 for women. Consistent and inconsistent condom use was reported more frequently among men reporting multiple female partners and those not married or cohabiting. Conclusions: Recent patterns of reported sexual behaviour are consistent with a low risk of HIV and STI transmission in Slovenia. The results will inform Slovenian sexual health policies including HIV/STI prevention, and are particularly valuable because population-based data on HIV/STI risk behaviour have not previously been available in low HIV prevalence countries of central Europe. PMID:19060036

  13. Screening for sexually transmitted infections in children and adolescents in the United Kingdom: British Co-operative Clinical Group.

    PubMed

    Williams, O; Forster, G; Robinson, A

    2001-08-01

    Our objectives were (1) to assess the number of young people aged under 16 years attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) departments in the UK in 1998; (2) to identify clinical activity and policy; (3) to determine the knowledge and training needs of healthcare professionals within GUM providing care for this client group. In July 1999 a questionnaire was circulated via the 18 regional British Co-operative Clinical Group (BCCG) representatives to the consultants in charge of all 197 main GUM departments in the UK. One hundred and sixty out of 197 (81%) completed questionnaires were returned and analysed. The reported number of under-16-year-olds attending in 1998 varied considerably between clinics; for females ranging from 0 to 256 and for males between 0 and 50, with a male to female ratio of 1:4.4. The majority of responding clinics, 139/160 (87%) had been involved in the screening of abused children/adolescents for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Most clinics were prepared to screen for STI (86%), HIV test (79%) and assess contraceptive needs (50%) in this age group. Staff involved in care included health advisers (74), nurses (59), and doctors (138) in the responding clinics. Only 31/160 clinics (19%) had a written policy for the management of children/adolescents attending their clinic. The majority of respondents were aware of their child protection policy [122/154 (79%)] and designated child sexual abuse doctor, [125/157 (80%)] in their district. When questioned on previous and current training needs, 134/160 (84%) respondents identified their need for further training in the area of adolescent sexual health and 124/160 (78%) in child sex abuse. The publication Physical Signs of Sexual Abuse in Children, was known to 112/160 (70%) respondents, of whom 58/112 (52%) who answered this question had read the publication. Genitourinary physicians in the UK are aware of the increasing number of children and adolescents accessing their services, and recognize the need to identify those in abusive situations. Written policies dealing with children and adolescents in GUM clinics in the UK are lacking. This needs to be rectified urgently. This survey identifies that further training in the field of child sexual abuse and adolescent sexual health would be welcomed by the respondents. PMID:11487387

  14. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M.; Cohen, Elijah L.; LeClerc, M.; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12–29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD = 2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p = 0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p = 0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p = 0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p = 0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p < 0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to understanding sexual risk in transgender adolescents and young adults. HIV and STI prevention efforts, including early intervention efforts, are needed in community-based settings serving transgender youth that attend to sex-specific (biological) and gender-related (social) pathways. PMID:25790139

  15. [Prevention of genito-anal and bucco-laryngo-esophageal cancers caused by sexually transmitted viruses].

    PubMed

    Mathé, G

    1985-01-01

    Whilst some viruses of the Papilloma family cause warts on the skin, others infect mucosal cells. The types called 6 and 11 produce benign papillomas, called condylomata acuminata, visible to the naked eye, not only on the vulva, vagina, penis (cockscomb), but also in the anus, and occasionally the larynx, mouth (tongue) and oesophagus. Types 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer (generally called in situ) and especially very small flat lesions that can only be seen through the colposcope in women and a lens in men. These flat micro-lesions can also be found on the vulva, vaginal walls and on the glans and, balano-preputial area and shaft in males, the distal urethra, anus, larynx (especially the vocal cords), the mouth and oesophagus. These flat micro-lesions are either early cancers (here the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the virus 16 and/or 18 is integrated into the cell genome), or precancerous lesion in which case the viral DNA is not integrated. Their malignant transformation is much more frequent at the junction of the glandular and squamous parts of the cervix, than in the vulva or vagina. Co-carcinogenic factors appear to have an important role in the malignant transformation;--as for instance sexually transmissible infections including chlamydiae, bacteria that produce carcinogens such as nitrosamines, herpes virus which is known to cause mutations predisposing to the integration of the Papova viruses, chemical substances applied to the genitalia. The role of low hygiene standards in male sexual partners is the major cause (such men can carry simultaneously several sexually transmissible diseases (STD], who are never examined in search for flat lesions, who do not seek medical advice and have multiple sexual contacts with many women among whom some are more dangerous than prostitutes, especially since the wide use of hormone contraceptives and abortion that has multiplied the incidence of cervical cancer by 3 among the 20 year-old females, by 4 among the 25 year-old ones and by 2.5 among the 30 year-old ones, between 1961-65 and 1982-83. These changes in contraception have now made intra-vaginal ejaculation the rule (this not only carries viruses and other micro-organisms into the female genital tract, but also deposits sperm that contains some thirty factors that suppress local immunity). This with the rise of multiple partners, early sexual activity in particular in girls (hardly post-puberty) explains the increase of the frequency of cervical cancer in younger and younger women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3002511

  16. Evaluation of Sexually Transmitted Diseases/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Intervention Programs for Sex Workers in Calcutta, India

    PubMed Central

    GANGOPADHYAY, DWIJENDRA NATH; CHANDA, MITRA; SARKAR, KAMALESH; NIYOGI, SWAPAN KUMAR; CHAKRABORTY, SEKHAR; SAHA, MALAY KUMAR; MANNA, BYOMKESH; JANA, SMARAJIT; RAY, PRATIM; BHATTACHARYA, SUJIT KUMAR; DETELS, ROGER

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective The Sonagachi Project in Calcutta, India, organized sex workers to improve working conditions. Goal To compare rates of sexually transmitted diseases between the Sonagachi Project and other areas in which only the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) interventions were implemented. Study A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected female sex workers. Results There was no difference in the prevalence of all STDs between the 2 areas; both were lower than reported in other surveys in 1992. Analysis using propensity scores also failed to demonstrate any difference. The number of preventive activities was similar in the Sonagachi and NACO-only areas but was more prevalent than in 1992. Sex workers in the Sonagachi area had better treatment-seeking behavior and attitudes. Both the Sonagachi and NACO strategies have resulted in lower STD rates, but the Sonagachi Project also increased the proportion who had an optimistic attitude and increased prevention and treatment-seeking behavior. PMID:16254542

  17. Comparison of Opt-In Versus Opt-Out Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Inmates in a County Jail.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Raees A; Simonsen, Kari A; O'Keefe, Anne; Earley, Mary; Foxall, Mark; Islam, K M; Person, Austin; Boyle, Cole; Sandkovsky, Uriel; Margalit, Ruth

    2015-10-01

    A majority of jails in the United States rely on an opt-in (voluntary) rather than opt-out (universal) approach to testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study compares an opt-out approach at intake to opt-in testing during incarceration and estimates the prevalence of common STIs among jail inmates. Data derive from a universal intake pilot testing program (n = 298) and an established, student-led voluntary testing program (n = 1,963), respectively. The adjusted prevalence as well as the odds of testing positive for chlamydia were significantly higher in the opt-out program (p = .025 and .008, respectively) than the opt-in program but not for gonorrhea (p = .402 and .300, respectively). These results demonstrate the potential public health benefit of implementation of universal STI testing of jail inmates. PMID:26285597

  18. No evidence that presence of sexually transmitted infection selects for reduced mating rate in the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sophie L.; Pastok, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in animals and plants, and frequently impair individual fertility. Theory predicts that natural selection will favour behaviours that reduce the chance of acquiring a STI. We investigated whether an STI, Coccipolipus hippodamiae has selected for increased rejection of mating by female Adalia bipunctata as a mechanism to avoid exposure. We first demonstrated that rejection of mating by females did indeed reduce the chance of acquiring the mite. We then examined whether rejection rate and mating rate differed between ladybirds from mite-present and mite-absent populations when tested in a common environment. No differences in rejection intensity or remating propensity were observed between the two populations. We therefore conclude there is no evidence that STIs have driven the evolution of female mating behaviour in this species. PMID:26290801

  19. On the pathway to better birth outcomes? A systematic review of azithromycin and curable sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Chico, R Matthew; Hack, Berkin B; Newport, Melanie J; Ngulube, Enesia; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The WHO recommends the administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to all pregnant women living in areas of moderate (stable) to high malaria transmission during scheduled antenatal visits, beginning in the second trimester and continuing to delivery. Malaria parasites have lost sensitivity to SP in many endemic areas, prompting the investigation of alternatives that include azithromycin-based combination (ABC) therapies. Use of ABC therapies may also confer protection against curable sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs). The magnitude of protection at the population level would depend on the efficacy of the azithromycin-based regimen used and the underlying prevalence of curable STIs/RTIs among pregnant women who receive preventive treatment. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy data of azithromycin against curable STIs/RTIs. PMID:24191955

  20. Patterns of risk behaviour for patients with sexually transmitted diseases and surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lye, M S; Archibald, C; Ghazali, A A; Low, B T; Teoh, B H; Sinniah, M; Rus, S C; Singh, J; Nair, R C

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of establishing a sentinel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance system involving patients with sexually transmitted diseases attending private clinics and a government sexually transmitted disease clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Information on risk behaviours for HIV infection were also collected. A total of 84 female and 91 male patients were interviewed and tested for HIV infection; 41.7% of the women reported working as prostitutes, other occupations included masseuses, hairdressers, waitresses, salesgirls, receptionists, factory workers, and others. The most common diagnosis was gonorrhoea. Other diagnoses included non-specific genital infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, genital herpes and syphilis. 58.3% of the women had a hundred or more sex partners during the previous month; 99% had 6 or more sex partners. Only 4.8% of female patients had their male partners using condoms most of the time, 11.9% hardly used condoms at all. Of the males, 93.3% were heterosexual, while 6.7% were bisexuals, 41.1% had between 6-20 different partners in the previous year. 78.0% of them had prostitutes as their sex partners most of the time. 41.8% had experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. 73.6% never used condoms, while 19.8% only used condoms rarely. Although all patients were tested negative for HIV antibodies, lot quality assurance sampling methods indicate that the upper limits of prevalences for females and males were 3.5% and 3.3% respectively, at a 5% type I error. The study has shown that it is feasible to carry out a sentinel surveillance programme among STD patients and provided useful baseline data for future comparisons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8031914

  1. Social marketing to promote HPV vaccination in pre-teenage children: talk about a sexually transmitted infection.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joan R; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2015-01-01

    A significant barrier to the delivery of HPV vaccine is reluctance by both healthcare providers and parents to vaccinate at age 11 or 12, which may be considered a young age. This barrier has been called "vaccine hesitancy" in recent research. In this commentary, we suggest using social marketing strategies to promote HPV vaccination at the recommended preteen ages. We emphasize a critical public health message of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) as preventable and vaccination against HPV as a way to protect against its consequences. The message tackles the issue of vaccine hesitancy head on, by saying that most people are at risk for HPV and there is a way to prevent HPV's serious consequences of cancer. Our approach to this conversation in the clinical setting is also to engage the preteen in a dialog with the parent and provider. We expect our emphasis on the risk of STI infection will not only lead to increased HPV vaccination at preteen ages but also lay important groundwork for clinical adoption of other STI vaccines in development (HIV, HSV, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea) as well as begin conversations to promote sexual health. PMID:25692313

  2. Genital hygiene practices of fishermen targeted for a topical microbicide intervention against sexually transmitted infections in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kwena, Z A; Bukusi, E A; Gorbach, P; Sharma, A; Sang, N M; Holmes, K K

    2010-06-01

    Research on hygiene has been relatively limited in the current era of rigorous observational studies and clinical trials. We set out to investigate the perception and practices of genital hygiene among fishermen working on the beaches along Lake Victoria, targeted for a topical male microbicide hygiene intervention. We conducted 12 focus group discussions involving fishermen (n = 130), recording the discussions in Dholuo (the local language) and transcribing them verbatim before translating into English. Transcripts were double-coded and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Despite easy access to lake water and recognition of a link that may exist between poor genital hygiene and the risk of penile infection and poor sexual relationships, few fishermen regularly washed their genitalia due to fear/embarrassment from cleaning their genitalia in public, traditional Luo beliefs such as that washing with soap would reduce the fish catch, lack of time because of their busy schedules, laziness and lack of responsibility, and excessive consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Hygiene practices of the fishermen were poor and could contribute to genital infections including sexually transmitted infections. Given the fishermen's poor genital hygiene practices, they may benefit from hygiene intervention, including that provided by penile microbicides, which can be applied in the privacy of their bedrooms. PMID:20606226

  3. Sexually transmitted infections among transgender people and men who have sex with men in Port Vila, Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Veronese, Vanessa; van Gemert, Caroline; Bulu, Siula; Kwarteng, Tamara; Bergari, Isabel; Badman, Steven; Vella, Alyce

    2015-01-01

    Despite high sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence in the Pacific, there are limited data on STIs and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG). In 2011, an Integrated Bio-Behavioural Survey recruited self-identified MSM and TG in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Descriptive findings were stratified by sexuality. Among 28 (55%) MSM and 23 (45%) TG, recent anal sex with male partners was more common among MSM (94% vs 71%; P < 0.1), including with casual (47% vs 35%), regular (59% vs 29%) and paying partners (28% vs 12%). MSM more commonly reported lifetime (P < 0.01) and recent sex with female partners (P < 0.01). Reported condom use with any partner type was low. More MSM (35%) than TG (24%) were diagnosed with an STI; previous treatment-seeking behaviour when symptomatic was lower among TG (P < 0.1). Tailored strategies acknowledging differences between MSM and TG are required to reduce STI vulnerability in Vanuatu. PMID:25960923

  4. Exploring knowledge and healthseeking behaviour related to sexually transmitted infections among the tribal population of Madhya Pradesh, central India.

    PubMed

    Rao, V G; Saha, K B; Bhat, J; Tiwary, B K; Abbad, A

    2012-09-01

    This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the tribal population of randomly selected villages of Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh, central India. A total of 200 married men and women aged 15–49 years were interviewed to explore their knowledge, experience and health-seeking behaviour related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Though 91% of respondents were aware of STIs, the sexual route was mentioned by only 19%as the route of transmission. Around 18% reported a need for social isolation from persons with STIs. Though 88% of the respondents felt modern medicine was the best remedy for STIs, only a few of them used medical treatment while suffering from an STI. Twenty-seven per cent of respondents resorted to traditional healers, and 30% utilized home remedies for STI treatment. The study highlights a need for generating STI awareness amongst the tribal population of the region through a needs-based behaviour change communication (BCC)strategy. PMID:23016157

  5. NYC condom use and satisfaction and demand for alternative condom products in New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ryan C; Wilson, Juliet; Kowalski, Alexis; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica; Begier, Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, via a high-profile media campaign, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) introduced the "NYC Condom," the first specially packaged condom unique to a municipality. We conducted a survey to measure NYC Condom awareness of and experience with NYC Condoms and demand for alternative male condoms to be distributed by the DOHMH. Trained interviewers administered short, in-person surveys at five DOHMH-operated sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Spring 2008. We systematically sampled eligible patients: NYC residents aged ?18 years waiting to see a physician. We approached 539; 532 agreed to be screened (98.7% response rate); 462 completed the survey and provided NYC zip codes. Most respondents were male (56%), non-Hispanic black (64%), aged 18-24 years (43%) or 25-44 years (45%), employed (65%), and had a high school degree/general equivalency diploma or less (53%). Of those surveyed, 86% were aware of the NYC Condom, and 81% of those who obtained the condoms used them. NYC Condom users were more likely to have four or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-3.8), use condoms frequently (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and name an alternative condom for distribution (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9). The most frequently requested condom types respondents wanted DOHMH to provide were larger size (28%), ultra thin/extra sensitive (21%), and extra strength (16%). We found high rates of NYC Condom use. NYC Condom users reported more sexual partners than others, suggesting the condom initiative successfully reached higher-risk persons within the STD clinic population. Study results document the condom social marketing campaign's success. PMID:21792691

  6. The SPORTSMART study: a pilot randomised controlled trial of sexually transmitted infection screening interventions targeting men in football club settings

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sebastian S; Mercer, Catherine H; Copas, Andrew J; Saunders, John; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Cassell, Jackie A; Hart, Graham; Johnson, Anne M; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise J; Muniina, Pamela; Estcourt, Claudia S

    2015-01-01

    Background Uptake of chlamydia screening by men in England has been substantially lower than by women. Non-traditional settings such as sports clubs offer opportunities to widen access. Involving people who are not medically trained to promote screening could optimise acceptability. Methods We developed two interventions to explore the acceptability and feasibility of urine-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions targeting men in football clubs. We tested these interventions in a pilot cluster randomised control trial. Six clubs were randomly allocated, two to each of three trial arms: team captain-led and poster STI screening promotion; sexual health adviser-led and poster STI screening promotion; and poster-only STI screening promotion (control/comparator). Primary outcome was test uptake. Results Across the three arms, 153 men participated in the trial and 90 accepted the offer of screening (59%, 95% CI 35% to 79%). Acceptance rates were broadly comparable across the arms: captain-led: 28/56 (50%); health professional-led: 31/46 (67%); and control: 31/51 (61%). However, rates varied appreciably by club, precluding formal comparison of arms. No infections were identified. Process evaluation confirmed that interventions were delivered in a standardised way but the control arm was unintentionally ‘enhanced’ by some team captains actively publicising screening events. Conclusions Compared with other UK-based community screening models, uptake was high but gaining access to clubs was not always easy. Use of sexual health advisers and team captains to promote screening did not appear to confer additional benefit over a poster-promoted approach. Although the interventions show potential, the broader implications of this strategy for UK male STI screening policy require further investigation. PMID:25512674

  7. Impact of sexually transmitted infections, lifetime sexual partner count and recreational drug use on lower urinary tract symptoms in men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men are a source of considerable morbidity, distress and medical expense. We investigate the relationship of LUTS to urinary tract infection (UTI), prostatitis, sexually transmitted infection (STI), lifetime sexual partner count, and recreational drug use in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, internet-based survey of urinary quality of life outcomes in MSM. The main outcome was the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) classified as none/mild (IPSS 0–7) or moderate/severe (8–35) or severe (20–35). Participants were also asked if they ever sought medical attention for urinary problems. Results The survey website was accessed by 2783 men, of whom 2348 (84.3%) completed the questionnaire. The median age was 39 (range 18–81). Age, depression, HIV infection, gonorrhea, syphilis, prostatitis, and prescription drug abuse were all associated with LUTS. Men who sought medical attention for LUTS were more likely to report older age, diabetes, depression, gonorrhea, UTI history, and prostatitis. Conclusion Specific infectious conditions of the urinary tract and depressive symptoms are independent predictors of LUTS in MSM. While LUTS are often multi-factorial, a common unifying explanation for our finding could be the effects of local and systemic inflammation on the lower urinary tract. PMID:21962880

  8. Structural approaches for prevention of sexually transmitted HIV in general populations: definitions and an operational approach

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Justin O

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although biomedical HIV prevention efforts have seen a number of recent promising developments, behavioural interventions have often been described as failing. However, clear lessons have been identified from past efforts, including the need to address influential social, economic and legal structures; to tailor efforts to local contexts; and to address multiple influencing factors in combination. Despite these insights, there remains a pervasive strategy to try to achieve sexual behaviour change through single, decontextualized, interventions or sets of activities. With current calls for structural approaches to HIV as part of combination HIV prevention, though, there is a unique opportunity to define a structural approach to HIV prevention as one which moves beyond these past limitations and better incorporates our knowledge of the social world and the lessons from past efforts. Discussion A range of interlinked concepts require delineation and definition within the broad concept of a structural approach to HIV. This includes distinguishing between “structural factors,” which can be seen as any number of elements (other than knowledge) which influence risk and vulnerability, and “structural drivers,” which should be reserved for situations where an empirically established relationship to a target group is known. Operationalizing structural approaches similarly can take different paths, either working to alter structural drivers or alternatively working to build individual and community resilience to infection. A “structural diagnostic approach” is further defined as the process one undertakes to develop structural intervention strategies tailored to target groups. Conclusions For three decades, the HIV prevention community has struggled to reduce the spread of HIV through sexual risk behaviours with limited success, but equally with limited engagement with the lessons that have been learned about the social realities shaping patterns of sexual practices. Future HIV prevention efforts must address the multiple factors influencing risk and vulnerability, and they must do so in ways tailored to particular settings. Clarity on the concepts, terminology and approaches that can allow structural HIV prevention efforts to achieve this is therefore essential to improve the (social) science of HIV prevention. PMID:25204872

  9. Syphilis in renaissance Europe: rapid evolution of an introduced sexually transmitted disease?

    PubMed Central

    Knell, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    When syphilis first appeared in Europe in 1495, it was an acute and extremely unpleasant disease. After only a few years it was less severe than it once was, and it changed over the next 50 years into a milder, chronic disease. The severe early symptoms may have been the result of the disease being introduced into a new host population without any resistance mechanisms, but the change in virulence is most likely to have happened because of selection favouring milder strains of the pathogen. The symptoms of the virulent early disease were both debilitating and obvious to potential sexual partners of the infected, and strains that caused less obvious or painful symptoms would have enjoyed a higher transmission rate. PMID:15252975

  10. Case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in male without presentation of sexually transmitted disease

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Haram; Shim, Chan Sup; Kim, Gyu Won; Kim, Jung Seok; Choi, In Zoo

    2015-01-01

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is a type of perihepatitis that causes liver capsular infection without infecting the hepatic parenchyma or pelvis. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is known to occur commonly in women of childbearing age who do not use oral contraceptives and have sexual partners older than 25 years of age. However, the syndrome has been reported to occur rarely in males. The clinical symptoms are right upper quadrant pain and tenderness, and pleuritic right sided chest pain. The clinical presentation is similar in male and female. We experienced a case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in a 60-year-old man with the chief complaint of right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Despite a previous history of gonorrhea, we have also described our experiences of improved symptoms and recovery with allopathic medicines and have thereby reported the present case with a literature review. PMID:26601101

  11. Tinea genitalis: a new entity of sexually transmitted infection? Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Isabelle; Bosshard, Philipp Peter; Kasper, Romano Silvio; Reinhardt, Dominic; Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Investigation on recent cases of tinea genitalis after travelling to South East Asia. Methods Patients with tinea in the genital region, which emerged after sex in South East Asia, underwent further assessment including microscopy, cultures and DNA analyses. Results The case series includes seven patients. In six patients, Trichophyton interdigitale (former Trichophyton mentagrophytes) was detected. Three patients suffered from a severe inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue and two of them needed hospitalisation due to severe pain. In four patients, cicatrising healing was noticed. Five patients were declared incapacitated for work. Conclusions Sexual activity should be considered as a potentially important and previously underappreciated means of transmission of T. interdigitale. To avoid irreversible scarring alopecia, prompt initiation of antifungal treatment is essential and adequate isolation and identification of the pathogen is mandatory. PMID:26071391

  12. Demographic and Behavioral Determinants of Self-Reported History of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among Young Migrant Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The…

  13. Use of Expedited Partner Therapy for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in College and University Health Centers in the United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Ryan; Martinez, Nina; Roberts, Craig; Habel, Melissa A; Leino, E Victor; Leichliter, Jami S

    2015-10-01

    We examined expedited partner therapy for chlamydia and gonorrhea in college and university health centers by institutional and policy characteristics. Expedited partner therapy awareness and use was low (44.1% used), did not differ by institutional characteristics, and differed by policy environment. Our findings suggest missed opportunities for sexually transmitted disease prevention in college and university health centers. PMID:26366508

  14. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  15. Source Preferences and the Displacement/Supplement Effect between Internet and Traditional Sources of Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV/AIDS Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines the source preferences and the displacement/supplement effect of traditional and new channel usage as Taiwanese college students search for information about sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS from the Internet. The study involved 535 junior and senior college students from four universities. Analytical results…

  16. Effectiveness of Health Education Teachers and School Nurses Teaching Sexually Transmitted Infections/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Knowledge and Skills in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borawski, Elaine A.; Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Trapl, Erika S.; Hayman, Laura L.; Yoder, Laura D.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We examined the differential impact of a well-established human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, when taught by school nurses and health education classroom teachers within a high school curricula. Methods: Group-randomized intervention study of 1357 ninth and…

  17. The impact of sexual experiences of young minority group members in the United States, and the associated risks of sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission among adults in the United States and China 

    E-print Network

    Garcia, Ginny Elizabeth

    2006-08-16

    transmitted infections. Migration aside, the Chinese are experiencing problems related to the 13 implementation of their one-child policy and its subsequent increase in the number of males born to each female. A normal sex ratio at birth (SRB... this problem and its theoretical background. Attribution Theory as Applied to Stigmatization One of the many obstacles to successfully applying prevention and treatment strategies with regard to sexually transmitted infections is that of stigmatization...

  18. Sexual behavior and knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus/aids and sexually transmitted infections among women inmates of Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and STIs, sexual behaviors, and adoption of preventive measures among women inmates. Methods This was a survey conducted between July 1, 2012 and July 29, 2012 among women inmates at Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The author gave an educational lecture on STIs in a conference room at the prison. Educational material was distributed to the attendees after the lecture, and the survey was conducted one week later. All the participants were asked to complete an anonymous 40-item self-administered questionnaire in the presence of a professional health assistant and a translator, for non-Arabic speakers. Data collected included the personal data of the respondent, her alleged criminal background, penal status, accumulative time in prison, history of smoking, alcohol or drug addiction, knowledge about the seven most common STIs, symptoms, modes of transmission, prevention, sexual activity, addiction, and means of protection. Descriptive analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. Results We interviewed 204 women aged 16-60 years (mean, 33.3 years). Most of the respondents (n?=?170; 83?·?0%) were not aware of STIs; 117 respondents (57?·?4%) did not undergo screening for STIs before marriage or intercourse, while only 59 (28?·?9%) did. Over half of the respondents (n?=?107; 52.5%) thought they knew how to protect themselves from STIs. Nevertheless, 87 (42.6%) were uncertain about the role of condoms in protection from STIs and (n?=?41; 20.1%) thought condoms provide 100% protection against STIs, while 72 respondents (35.3%) thought condoms did not confer 100% protection against STIs. Only 10 respondents (4.9%) used condoms to protect themselves from STIs. Saudi women (P?=?0.033) and those with a higher level of education (P?sexual behaviors. Campaigns aimed at increasing awareness of STIs should also target prison inmates, who in general constitute high-risk populations. PMID:24884734

  19. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers in Barcelona: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine in detail the risk perception of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, and the contextual circumstances, in Nigerian commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Barcelona. Design A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Setting Raval area in Barcelona. Participants 8 CSWs working in Barcelona. Methods A phenomenological study was carried out with Nigerian CSWs in Barcelona. Sampling was theoretical, taking into account: different age ranges; women with and without a partner; women with and without children; and women participating or not in STI/HIV-prevention workshops. Information was obtained by means of eight semistructured individual interviews. An interpretative content analysis was conducted by four analysts. Results Illegal immigrant status, educational level, financial situation and work, and cultural context had mixed effects on CSW knowledge of, exposure to, and prevention and treatment of STI and HIV. CSWs were aware of the higher risk of STI associated with their occupation. They identified condoms as the best preventive method and used them during intercourse with clients. They also implemented other preventive behaviours such as personal hygiene after intercourse. Control of sexual services provided, health education and healthcare services had a positive effect on decreasing exposure and better management of STI/HIV. Conclusions Nigerian CSWs are a vulnerable group because of their poor socioeconomic status. The perception of risk in this group and their preventive behaviours are based on personal determinants, beliefs and experiences from their home country and influences from the host country. Interventions aimed at CSWs must address knowledge gaps, risk behaviours and structural elements. PMID:26078307

  20. Mobile Phone Applications for the Care and Prevention of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Emily C; LeGrand, Sara; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile phone applications (apps) provide a new platform for delivering tailored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and care. Objective To identify and evaluate currently available mobile phone apps related to the prevention and care of HIV and other STDs. Methods We searched the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores for HIV/STD-related apps, excluding apps that exclusively targeted industry, providers, and researchers. Each eligible app was downloaded, tested, and assessed for user ratings and functionality as well as 6 broad content areas of HIV prevention and care: HIV/STD disease knowledge, risk reduction/safer sex, condom promotion, HIV/STD testing information, resources for HIV-positive persons, and focus on key populations. Results Search queries up to May 2012 identified 1937 apps. Of these, 55 unique apps met the inclusion criteria (12 for Android, 29 for iPhone, and 14 for both platforms). Among these apps, 71% provided disease information about HIV/STDs, 36% provided HIV/STD testing information or resources, 29% included information about condom use or assistance locating condoms, and 24% promoted safer sex. Only 6 apps (11%) covered all 4 of these prevention areas. Eight apps (15%) provided tools or resources specifically for HIV/STD positive persons. Ten apps included information for a range of sexual orientations, 9 apps appeared to be designed for racially/ethnically diverse audiences, and 15 apps featured interactive components. Apps were infrequently downloaded (median 100-500 downloads) and not highly rated (average customer rating 3.7 out of 5 stars). Conclusions Most available HIV/STD apps have failed to attract user attention and positive reviews. Public health practitioners should work with app developers to incorporate elements of evidence-based interventions for risk reduction and improve app inclusiveness and interactivity. PMID:23291245

  1. Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Swendeman, Dallas; Basu, Ishika; Das, Sankari; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-10-01

    The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women's empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program. We previously demonstrated significant condom use increases among female sex workers in a 16 month replication trial of the Sonagachi empowerment intervention (n=110) compared to a control community (n=106) receiving standard care of STD clinic, condom promotion, and peer education in two randomly assigned rural towns in West Bengal, India (Basu et al., 2004). This article examines the intervention's impacts on 21 measured variables reflecting five common factors of effective HIV/STD prevention programs to estimate the impact of empowerment strategies on HIV/STD prevention program goals. The intervention which was conducted in 2000-2001 significantly: 1) improved knowledge of STDs and condom protection from STD and HIV, and maintained STD/HIV risk perceptions despite treatment; 2) provided a frame to motivate change based on reframing sex work as valid work, increasing disclosure of profession, and instilling a hopeful future orientation reflected in desire for more education or training; 3) improved skills in sexual and workplace negotiations reflected in increased refusal, condom decision-making, and ability to change work contract, but not ability to take leave; 4) built social support by increasing social interactions outside work, social function participation, and helping other sex workers; and 5) addressed environmental barriers of economic vulnerabilities by increasing savings and alternative income, but not working in other locations, nor reduced loan taking, and did not increase voting to build social capital. This study's results demonstrate that, compared to narrowcast clinical and prevention services alone, empowerment strategies can significantly impact a broader range of factors to reduce vulnerability to HIV/STDs. PMID:19716639

  2. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obisesan, Oluranti J; Olowe, Olugbenga A; Taiwo, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31-45 and 16-30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere. PMID:26064140

  3. Characteristics and predictors of women who obtain rescreening for sexually transmitted infections using the www.iwantthekit.org screening program

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Barnes, Mathilda; Jett-Goheen, Mary; Quinn, Nicole; Whittle, Pamela; Hogan, Terry; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Professional organizations recommend rescreening chlamydia-infected women. The iwantthekit Internet-screening program offered rescreening opportunities by using iwantthekit. Mailed, home-collected vaginal swabs were tested for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomonas by nucleic acid amplification tests. Demographics and risk behaviors of repeat users were determined from questionnaires. Predictors of repeat users were measured in a matched case–control study. Of 1747 women, 304 (17%), who used iwantthekit, indicated they had used the kit previously. Mean age was 24.7 ± 5.7 year and 69% were African American. Repeat iwantthekit users were more likely to be ?20 years (OR = 2.10); were more likely to have been treated for a sexually transmitted infection (OR = 2.32); less likely to drink alcohol before sex (OR = 0.63); and to never use condoms (OR = 0.43). Of repeaters, 84.2% had a negative prior test and 15.8% had a positive. At current test, 13.2% were infected. Previous trichomonas was associated with current trichomonas (p < 0.05). The iwantthekit may offer rescreening opportunities for previously infected women. PMID:23970594

  4. Sensitive Simultaneous Detection of Seven Sexually Transmitted Agents in Semen by Multiplex-PCR and of HPV by Single PCR

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) ?1 and ?2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks. PMID:24921247

  5. Innovation in sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention: Internet and mobile phone delivery vehicles for global diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Efficacious behavioral interventions and practices have not been universally accepted, adopted, or diffused by policy makers, administrators, providers, advocates, or consumers. Biomedical innovations for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV prevention have been embraced but their effectiveness is hindered by behavioral factors. Behavioral interventions are required to support providers and consumers for adoption and diffusion of biomedical innovations, protocol adherence, and sustained prevention for other STDs. Information and communication technology such as the Internet and mobile phones can deliver behavioral components for STD/HIV prevention and care to more people at less cost. Recent findings Recent innovations in STD/HIV prevention with information and communication technology-mediated behavioral supports include STD/HIV testing and partner interventions, behavioral interventions, self-management, and provider care. Computer-based and Internet-based behavioral STD/HIV interventions have demonstrated efficacy comparable to face-to-face interventions. Mobile phone STD/HIV interventions using text-messaging are being broadly utilized but more work is needed to demonstrate efficacy. Electronic health records and care management systems can improve care, but interventions are needed to support adoption. Summary Information and communication technology is rapidly diffusing globally. Over the next 5–10 years smart-phones will be broadly disseminated, connecting billions of people to the Internet and enabling lower cost, highly engaging, and ubiquitous STD/HIV prevention and treatment support interventions. PMID:20087189

  6. Medicine Sellers for Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections: Effect of a Quasi-Experimental Training Intervention in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Alam, Anadil; Fournier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental pre-post design to test whether short training can improve medicine sellers' (MSs) practices and skills for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Bangladesh. The training included lectures, printed materials, and identification of referral sites. Difference-in-differences estimation was used to determine the effects of intervention on key primary and secondary outcomes. Advice given by the MSs in intervention group for partner treatment and condoms use increased significantly by 11% and 9%, respectively, after adjusting for baseline differences in education, religion, age, duration of training, and study site. Referral of clients to qualified service providers increased by 5% in the intervention group compared to the comparison group, but this change was not found to be statistically significant. Significantly higher proportion of MSs in the intervention group recognized the recommended medications as per the national syndromic management guidelines in Bangladesh for treatment of urethral discharge and genital ulcer symptoms. Short training intervention was found to be effective in improving MSs' practice of promoting condom use and partner treatment to the clients. We anticipate the need for broad based training programs of MSs to improve their skills for the prevention and control of STI/HIV in Bangladesh. PMID:26491678

  7. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obisesan, Oluranti J.; Olowe, Olugbenga A.; Taiwo, Samuel S.

    2015-01-01

    The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31–45 and 16–30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere. PMID:26064140

  8. The Burden of Bacterial Vaginosis: Women’s Experience of the Physical, Emotional, Sexual and Social Impact of Living with Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Bilardi, Jade E.; Walker, Sandra; Temple-Smith, Meredith; McNair, Ruth; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Bellhouse, Clare; Fairley, Christopher K.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection, causing an abnormal vaginal discharge and/or odour in up to 50% of sufferers. Recurrence is common following recommended treatment. There are limited data on women’s experience of bacterial vaginosis, and the impact on their self-esteem, sexual relationships and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis on women. Methods A social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty five women with male and/or female partners participated in semi-structured interviews face-to-face or by telephone about their experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Results Recurrent bacterial vaginosis impacted on women to varying degrees, with some women reporting it had little impact on their lives but most reporting it had a moderate to severe impact. The degree to which it impacted on women physically, emotionally, sexually and socially often depended on the frequency of episodes and severity of symptoms. Women commonly reported that symptoms of bacterial vaginosis made them feel embarrassed, ashamed, ‘dirty’ and very concerned others may detect their malodour and abnormal discharge. The biggest impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis was on women’s self-esteem and sex lives, with women regularly avoiding sexual activity, in particular oral sex, as they were too embarrassed and self-conscious of their symptoms to engage in these activities. Women often felt confused about why they were experiencing recurrent bacterial vaginosis and frustrated at their lack of control over recurrence. Conclusion Women’s experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis varied broadly and significantly in this study. Some women reported little impact on their lives but most reported a moderate to severe impact, mainly on their self-esteem and sex life. Further support and acknowledgement of these impacts are required when managing women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis. PMID:24040236

  9. Brief Report: Recent Infection, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Transmission Clusters Frequently Observed Among Persons Newly Diagnosed With HIV in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Truong, Hong-Ha M; Pipkin, Sharon; O?Keefe, Kara J; Louie, Brian; Liegler, Teri; McFarland, Willi; Grant, Robert M; Bernstein, Kyle; Scheer, Susan

    2015-08-15

    There were 1311 newly diagnosed HIV cases in San Francisco between 2005 and 2011 that were linked to care at publicly funded facilities and had viral sequences available for analysis. Of the 214 cases characterized as recently infected with HIV at the time of diagnosis, 25% had a recent sexually transmitted infection diagnosis (vs. 10% among longer-standing HIV infections, P < 0.001) and 57% were part of a phylogenetic transmission cluster (vs. 42% among longer-standing HIV infection, P < 0.001). The association observed between recent HIV infection and having a sexually transmitted infection diagnosis during the interval overlapping likely HIV acquisition points to potential opportunities to interrupt HIV transmission. PMID:25967271

  10. Biological impact of recurrent sexually transmitted infections on HIV seroconversion among women in South Africa: results from frailty models

    PubMed Central

    Wand, Handan; Ramjee, Gita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the impact of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV transmissibility is essential for effective HIV prevention programs. Investigating the impact of longitudinally measured recurrent STIs on HIV seroconversion is the interest of the current paper. Methods In this prospective study, data from a total of 1456 HIV-negative women who enrolled in a HIV biomedical trial were used. It was hypothesized that women who had recurrent STI diagnoses during the study share a common biological heterogeneity which cannot be quantified. To incorporate this “unobserved” correlation in the analysis, times to HIV seroconversion were jointly modelled with repeated STI diagnoses using Cox regression with random effects. Results and discussion A total of 110 HIV seroconversions were observed (incidence rate of 6.00 per 100 person-years). In a multivariable model, women who were diagnosed at least once were more likely to seroconvert compared to those who had no STI diagnosis [hazard ratio (HR): 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 2.57]; women who had recurrent STI diagnoses during the study were 2.5 times more likely to be at increased risk of HIV infection (95% CI: 1.35, 4.01) with an estimated frailty variance of 1.52, with p<0.001, indicating strong evidence that there is a significant correlation (heterogeneity) among women who had recurrent STIs. In addition to this, factors associated with incidence of STIs, namely not being married and having a new sexual partner during the study follow-up, were all significantly associated with increased risk for HIV seroconversion (HR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.01 and HR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.63, 3.83 respectively). Conclusions The results indicated that women who were at risk for STIs were also at risk of HIV infection. In fact, they share the similar risk factors. In addition to this, repeated STI diagnoses also increased women’s susceptibility for HIV infection significantly. Decreasing STIs by increasing uptake of testing and treatment and reducing partner change plays a significant role in the trajectory of the epidemic. PMID:25912181

  11. Prevalences of sexually transmitted infections in young adults and female sex workers in Peru: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Cárcamo, César P; Campos, Pablo E; García, Patricia J; Hughes, James P; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background We assessed prevalences of seven sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Peru, stratified by risk behaviours, to help to define care and prevention priorities. Methods In a 2002 household-based survey of the general population, we enrolled randomly selected 18–29-year-old residents of 24 cities with populations greater than 50?000 people. We then surveyed female sex workers (FSWs) in these cities. We gathered data for sexual behaviour; vaginal specimens or urine for nucleic acid amplification tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis; and blood for serological tests for syphilis, HIV, and (in subsamples) herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) and human T-lymphotropic virus. This study is a registered component of the PREVEN trial, number ISRCTN43722548. Findings 15?261 individuals from the general population and 4485 FSWs agreed to participate in our survey. Overall prevalence of infection with HSV2, weighted for city size, was 13·5% in men, 13·6% in women, and 60·6% in FSWs (all values in FSWs standardised to age composition of women in the general population). The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was 4·2% in men, 6·5% in women, and 16·4% in FSWs; of T vaginalis infection was 0·3% in men, 4·9% in women, and 7·9% in FSWs; and of syphilis was 0·5% in men, 0·4% in women, and 0·8% in FSWs. N gonorrhoeae infection had a prevalence of 0·1% in men and women, and of 1·6% in FSWs. Prevalence of HIV infection was 0·5% in men and FSWs, and 0·1% in women. Four (0·3%) of 1535 specimens were positive for human T-lymphotropic virus 1. In men, 65·0% of infections with HIV, 71·5% of N gonorrhoeae, and 41·4% of HSV2 and 60·9% of cases of syphilis were in the 13·3% who had sex with men or unprotected sex with FSWs in the past year. In women from the general population, 66·7% of infections with HIV and 16·7% of cases of syphilis were accounted for by the 4·4% who had been paid for sex by any of their past three partners. Interpretation Defining of high-risk groups could guide targeting of interventions for communicable diseases—including STIs—in the general Peruvian population. Funding Wellcome Trust-Burroughs Wellcome Fund Infectious Disease Initiative and US National Institutes of Health. PMID:22878023

  12. Internet-Based HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing in British Columbia, Canada: Opinions and Expectations of Prospective Clients

    PubMed Central

    Hottes, Travis Salway; Farrell, Janine; Bondyra, Mark; Haag, Devon; Shoveller, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Background The feasibility and acceptability of Internet-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing have been demonstrated; however, few programs have included testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In British Columbia, Canada, a new initiative will offer online access to chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV testing, integrated with existing clinic-based services. We presented the model to gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and existing clinic clients through a series of focus groups. Objective To identify perceived benefits, concerns, and expectations of a new model for Internet-based STI and HIV testing among potential end users. Methods Participants were recruited through email invitations, online classifieds, and flyers in STI clinics. A structured interview guide was used. Focus groups were audio recorded, and an observer took detailed field notes. Analysts then listened to audio recordings to validate field notes. Data were coded and analyzed using a scissor-and-sort technique. Results In total, 39 people participated in six focus groups. Most were MSM, and all were active Internet users and experienced with STI/HIV testing. Perceived benefits of Internet-based STI testing included anonymity, convenience, and client-centered control. Salient concerns were reluctance to provide personal information online, distrust of security of data provided online, and the need for comprehensive pretest information and support for those receiving positive results, particularly for HIV. Suggestions emerged for mitigation of these concerns: provide up-front and detailed information about the model, ask only the minimal information required for testing, give positive results only by phone or in person, and ensure that those testing positive are referred for counseling and support. End users expected Internet testing to offer continuous online service delivery, from booking appointments, to transmitting information to the laboratory, to getting prescriptions. Most participants said they would use the service or recommend it to others. Those who indicated they would be unlikely to use it generally either lived near an STI clinic or routinely saw a family doctor with whom they were comfortable testing. Participants expected that the service would provide the greatest benefit to individuals who do not already have access to sensitive sexual health services, are reluctant to test due to stigma, or want to take immediate action (eg, because of a recent potential STI/HIV exposure). Conclusions Internet-based STI/HIV testing has the potential to reduce barriers to testing, as a complement to existing clinic-based services. Trust in the new online service, however, is a prerequisite to client uptake and may be engendered by transparency of information about the model, and by accounting for concerns related to confidentiality, data usage, and provision of positive (especially HIV) results. Ongoing evaluation of this new model will be essential to its success and to the confidence of its users. PMID:22394997

  13. A targetted intervention research on traditional healer perspectives of sexually transmitted illnesses in urban Zambia. Current research.

    PubMed

    Masauso Nzima, M; Romano, K; Anyangwe, S; Wiseman, J; Macwan'gi, M; Kendall, C; Green, E C

    1996-07-01

    Interviews with 81 traditional healers from 4 Copperbelt towns in Zambia (Chililabombwe, Chingola, Luanshya, and Mufulira) investigated healers' understanding of, attitudes toward, and management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In general, Zambian traditional healers had detailed constructs of the physiology and infective processes underlying syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid, and AIDS. STDs were considered to be caused by "dirt" or contamination residing in sperm or vaginal fluids and were closely linked to violations of moral codes. Healers shared complex nosologies based on distinctions between symptoms of different STD pathologies that were more inclusive than biomedical categories. Although condom use was not promoted, healers understood the importance of preventing an infective agent from passing from one person to another. Except for AIDS, STDs were considered curable by expelling the dirt through purgatives or emetics. Modern medicine was perceived as treating only STD symptoms, not curing. Most traditional healers insisted that the infected partner bring the other partner for consultation or treatment was withheld. Since these findings identified some areas of compatibility between indigenous and biomedical models of STDs, the Traditional Medicine Unit of the Ministry of Health and the HIV/AIDS Prevention Project of the Morehouse School of Medicine (Lusaka) established a program in which traditional healers receive AIDS training and learn to counsel clients on safer sex behaviors. Follow-up entails monthly meetings between health professionals and traditional healers. Since program initiation in June 1994, 800 traditional healers and 70 health professionals have participated. Traditional healers now sell condoms to their clients through a social marketing program. PMID:12179374

  14. Establishment of an HIV/sexually transmitted disease programme and prevalence of infection among incarcerated men in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Andrinopoulos, K; Kerrigan, D; Figueroa, J P; Reese, R; Gaydos, C A; Bennett, L; Bloomfield, B; Plunkett, L; Maru, C; Ellen, J M

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe the establishment of an HIV testing and treatment programme in the Jamaican correctional system and to estimate the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) among adult incarcerated men in this country. A demonstration project was implemented by the Jamaican Department of Correctional Services and Ministry of Health in the nation’s largest correctional centre. All inmates were offered HIV and syphilis testing, and a subset was offered chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis testing. Cross-sectional data from the project were reviewed to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV/STD. HIV test acceptance was 63% for voluntary testers (n = 1200). The prevalence of HIV was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.33–4.64) (n = 1017) and the prevalence syphilis was 0.7% (95% CI 0.29–1.49) (n = 967). Among the subset tested (n = 396) the prevalence of chlamydia was 2.5% (95% CI 1.22–4.49) and for trichomoniasis it was 1.8% (95% CI 0.01–3.60), but no cases of gonorrhoea were detected (n = 396). The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher at 25% (95% CI 13.64–39.60) for persons located in a separate section where individuals labelled as men who have sex with men (MSM) are separated. HIV/STD testing is important and feasible in Jamaica. A special focus should be placed on providing services to inmates labelled as MSM. Other Caribbean nations may also benefit from similar programmes. PMID:20089997

  15. Establishment of an HIV/sexually transmitted disease programme and prevalence of infection among incarcerated men in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Andrinopoulos, K; Kerrigan, D; Figueroa, J P; Reese, R; Gaydos, C A; Bennett, L; Bloomfield, B; Plunkett, L; Maru, C; Ellen, J M

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this study is to describe the establishment of an HIV testing and treatment programme in the Jamaican correctional system and to estimate the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) among adult incarcerated men in this country. A demonstration project was implemented by the Jamaican Department of Correctional Services and Ministry of Health in the nation's largest correctional centre. All inmates were offered HIV and syphilis testing, and a subset was offered chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis testing. Cross-sectional data from the project were reviewed to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV/STD. HIV test acceptance was 63% for voluntary testers (n = 1200). The prevalence of HIV was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.33-4.64) (n = 1017) and the prevalence syphilis was 0.7% (95% CI 0.29-1.49) (n = 967). Among the subset tested (n = 396) the prevalence of chlamydia was 2.5% (95% CI 1.22-4.49) and for trichomoniasis it was 1.8% (95% CI 0.01-3.60), but no cases of gonorrhoea were detected (n = 396). The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher at 25% (95% CI 13.64-39.60) for persons located in a separate section where individuals labelled as men who have sex with men (MSM) are separated. HIV/STD testing is important and feasible in Jamaica. A special focus should be placed on providing services to inmates labelled as MSM. Other Caribbean nations may also benefit from similar programmes. PMID:20089997

  16. Overdiagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection and Underdiagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infection in Adult Women Presenting to an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Myreen E; Getman, Damon; Donskey, Curtis J; Hecker, Michelle T

    2015-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are commonly diagnosed in emergency departments (EDs). Distinguishing between these syndromes can be challenging because of overlapping symptomatology and because both are associated with abnormalities on urinalysis (UA). We conducted a 2-month observational cohort study to determine the accuracy of clinical diagnoses of UTI and STI in adult women presenting with genitourinary (GU) symptoms or diagnosed with GU infections at an urban academic ED. For all urine specimens, UA, culture, and nucleic acid amplification testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis were performed. Of 264 women studied, providers diagnosed 175 (66%) with UTIs, 100 (57%) of whom were treated without performing a urine culture during routine care. Combining routine care and study-performed urine cultures, only 84 (48%) of these women had a positive urine culture. Sixty (23%) of the 264 women studied had one or more positive STI tests, 22 (37%) of whom did not receive treatment for an STI within 7 days of the ED visit. Fourteen (64%) of these 22 women were diagnosed with a UTI instead of an STI. Ninety-two percent of the women studied had an abnormal UA finding (greater-than-trace leukocyte esterase level, positive nitrite test result, or pyuria). The positive and negative predictive values of an abnormal UA finding were 41 and 76%, respectively. In this population, empirical therapy for UTI without urine culture testing and overdiagnosis of UTI were common and associated with unnecessary antibiotic exposure and missed STI diagnoses. Abnormal UA findings were common and not predictive of positive urine cultures. PMID:26063863

  17. Effect of public-private partnership in treatment of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Kokku, Suresh Babu; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Tucker, Saroj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Providing sexually transmitted infection (STI) services to female sex workers (FSWs) in rural and resource constrained settings is a challenge. This paper describes an approach to address this challenge through a partnership with government health facilities, and examines the effect of this partnership on the utilization of STI services by FSWs in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: Partnerships were formed with 46 government clinics located in rural areas for providing STI treatment to FSWs in 2007. Government health facilities were supported by local and State level non-government organizations (NGOs) through provision of medicines, training of medical staff, outreach in the communities, and other coordination activities. Data from programme monitoring and behaviour tracking survey were used to examine the accessibility and acceptability in utilization of STI services from partnership clinics. Results: The number of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics increased from 1627 in 2007 to over 15,000 in 2010. The average number of annual visits by FSWs to these clinics in 2010 was 3.4. In opinion surveys, the majority of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics expressed confidence that they would continue to receive effective services from the government facilities even if the programme terminates. The overall attitude of FSWs to visit government clinics was more positive among FSWs from partnership clinic areas compared to those from non-partnership clinic areas. Interpretation & conclusions: The partnership mechanism between the NGO-supported HIV prevention programme and government clinic facilities appeared to be a promising opportunity to provide timely and accessible STI services for FSWs living in rural and remote areas. PMID:24718405

  18. Project youth inform--a school-based sexually transmitted disease/acquired immune deficiency syndrome education programme.

    PubMed

    Soon, T; Chan, R K; Goh, C L

    1995-07-01

    A pilot project, ¿Youth Inform¿ endorsed by the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education, Singapore, was undertaken in 1992 for 2 years. It aims to enhance sexually transmitted disease (STDs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) control in Singapore by providing structured information for young people between the ages of 16 to 20 years in Polytechnics, Junior Colleges, Centralised Institutes and Pre-University Centres. Project Youth Inform comprises 8 components. They include a focus group discussion, a training seminar for teachers, a lecture/slide presentation cum question-and-answer session, an educational booklet/bookmark, exhibitions, a video, provisions for anonymous questions, and an evaluation. The programme is conducted during school hours at the premises of the institutions and the attendance per session is between 150 to 350 students. A total of 152 sessions have been completed for all the schools. It is ongoing and is currently administered by the School Health Service and Training and Health Education Department. Feedback from principals, teachers and students was gathered formally through surveys and informally through interviews and observations. One thousand students were randomly selected for the survey to assess their responses towards the programme. Eighty-six percent reported that they found it educational and informative. Indicators found to have an influence on the effectiveness of the programme were timing, vocabulary used (medical terms) and integration of the programme into the school's curriculum. In conclusion, Project Youth Inform was on the whole positively received. However, it is essential to constantly accommodate and adapt to new facts and methods of teaching and maintain close coordination with the Ministries and the schools. An effective STD/acquired immune deficiency syndrome programme is an important step towards the prevention, management and control of the epidemic. PMID:8849185

  19. Operational and economic evaluation of an NGO-led sexually transmitted infections intervention: north-western Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Verena; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Mayaud, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) services were offered by the nongovernmental organization Médecins Sans Frontières-Holland in Banteay Meanchey province, Cambodia, between 1997 and 1999. These services targeted female sex workers but were available to the general population. We conducted an evaluation of the operational performance and costs of this real-life project. METHODS: Effectiveness outcomes (syndromic cure rates of STIs) were obtained by retrospectively analysing patients' records. Annual financial and economic costs were estimated from the provider's perspective. Unit costs for the cost-effectiveness analysis included the cost per visit, per partner treated, and per syndrome treated and cured. FINDINGS: Over 30 months, 11,330 patients attended the clinics; of these, 7776 (69%) were STI index patients and only 1012 (13%) were female sex workers. A total of 15 269 disease episodes and 30 488 visits were recorded. Syndromic cure rates ranged from 39% among female sex workers with genital ulcers to 74% among men with genital discharge; there were variations over time. Combined rates of syndromes classified as cured or improved were around 84-95% for all syndromes. The total economic costs of the project were US 766,046 dollars. The average cost per visit over 30 months was US 25.12 dollars and the cost per partner treated for an STI was US 50.79 dollars. The average cost per STI syndrome treated was US 48.43 dollars, of which US 4.92 dollars was for drug treatment. The costs per syndrome cured or improved ranged from US 46.95-153.00 dollars for men with genital ulcers to US 57.85-251.98 dollars for female sex workers with genital discharge. CONCLUSION: This programme was only partly successful in reaching its intended target population of sex workers and their male partners. Decreasing cure rates among sex workers led to relatively poor cost-effectiveness outcomes overall despite decreasing unit costs. PMID:15976894

  20. An Interactive Internet-Based Continuing Education Course on Sexually Transmitted Diseases for Physicians and Midwives in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Canchihuaman, Fredy A.; Garcia, Patricia J.; Gloyd, Stephen S.; Holmes, King K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinicians in developing countries have had limited access to continuing education (CE) outside major cities, and CE strategies have had limited impact on sustainable change in performance. New educational tools could improve CE accessibility and effectiveness. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective of this study was to evaluate an interactive Internet-based CE course on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) management for clinicians in Peru. Participants included physicians and midwives in private practice drawn from a census of 10 Peruvian cities. The CE included a three-hour workshop for improving Internet skills, followed by a 22-hour online course on STD-syndrome-management, with subsequent educational support. The course used case-based clinical vignettes tailored to local STD problems. Knowledge and reported practices on STD management were assessed before, immediately after and at four months after completion of the course. Statistical analysis included parametric tests-linear regression multivariate analysis, paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS 14.0. Of 1,071 eligible clinicians, 510 agreed to participate, as did an additional 132 public sector clinicians. Of these 642 participants, 619 (96.4%) completed the course, and 596 (96.3%) took the four-month follow-up evaluation. Physician and midwife scores improved from 64.2% correct answers on the pre-test to 77.9% correct on the four-month follow-up test (p<0.001). Most participants (95%) found the online course useful for their work needs. Self reported STD management practices did not change. Conclusions/Significance Among physicians and midwives in Peru, an Internet-based CE course was feasible, acceptable with high participation rates, and led to sustained improvement in knowledge at four months. Further studies are needed to test it as a model for improving the training of physicians, midwives, and other health care providers. PMID:21573054

  1. Influencing risk behavior of sexually transmitted infection clinic visitors: efficacy of a new methodology of motivational preventive counseling.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, Lisette; de Wit, John; Heijman, Titia; Fennema, Han; van Bergen, Jan; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2009-06-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted at a Dutch sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic to compare the effects of educational counseling and motivational interviewing (MI)-based HIV/STI counseling on determinants of condom use and partner notification at 6-month follow-up. It also examined the feasibility of MI-based counseling in a busy real-life clinic. The counseling approaches were historically compared: respondents in the control condition were recruited between April and July 2005, those in the experimental condition between September and December 2005. The study involved 428 participants. These were all high-risk clients of the STI clinic. Their mean age was 33.7 years, and 39.6% were female. The study showed that MI-based counseling had a more positive effect on self-efficacy, intentions to use condoms with casual partners, and long-term condom use with steady partners. It had no adversarial outcomes on other social cognitions or behaviors compared to educational counseling. Furthermore, MI-based counseling is experienced as a more respectful and structured way of counseling. MI-based counseling was relatively easily implemented into the current clinic procedures. In addition to the implementation of the training, neither specialized staff nor additional or longer client visits were needed. However, some nurses indicated that the new method required more personal investment and effort. Limitations of the current study are the low response rates, the high educational level of most participants, and the small sample size regarding partner notification. Nonetheless, we conclude that MI-based counseling was a more effective approach to preventive counseling compared to educational counseling and feasible in the busy real-life setting. PMID:19415987

  2. 252 | APRIL 2002 | VOLUME 3 www.nature.com/reviews/genetics also introduces the risk of sexually transmitted diseases

    E-print Network

    Otto, Sarah

    , such as the infamous twofold cost of sex. In sexual reproduction, the unit of reproduction is the couple, whereas in asexual reproduction it is the individual. Unless the sexually reproducing couple can produce twice reproductive output per capita.At one extreme,if sexual couples and asexual individuals produce the same

  3. The impact of health education transmitted via social media or text messaging on adolescent and young adult risky sexual behavior: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather

    2014-07-01

    Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women. PMID:24922099

  4. Prevention of sexually transmitted infections in urban communities (Peru PREVEN): a multicomponent community-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J; Holmes, King K; Cárcamo, César P; Garnett, Geoff P; Hughes, James P; Campos, Pablo E; Whittington, William LH

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Previous community-randomised trials of interventions to control sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have involved rural settings, were rarely multicomponent, and had varying results. We aimed to assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on curable STIs in urban young adults and female sex workers (FSWs). Methods In this community-randomised trial, baseline STI screening was done between August, and November, 2002, in random household samples of young adults (aged 18–29 years) and in FSWs in Peruvian cities with more than 50?000 inhabitants. Geographically separate cities were selected, matched into pairs, and randomly allocated to intervention or control groups with an S-PLUS program. Follow-up surveys of random samples were done after 2 years and 3 years. The intervention comprised four modalities: strengthened STI syndromic management by pharmacy workers and clinicians; mobile-team outreach to FSWs for STI screening and pathogen-specific treatment; periodic presumptive treatment of FSWs for trichomoniasis; and condom promotion for FSWs and the general population. Individuals in control cities received standard care. The composite primary endpoint was infection of young adults with Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or syphilis seroreactivity. Laboratory workers and the data analyst were masked, but fieldworkers, the Peruvian study team, and participants in the outcome surveys were not. All analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN43722548. Findings We did baseline surveys of 15?261 young adults in 24 Peruvian cities. Of those, 20 geographically separate cities were matched into pairs, in each of which one city was assigned to intervention and the other to standard of care. In the 2006 follow-up survey, data for the composite primary outcome were available for 12?930 young adults. We report a non-significant reduction in prevalence of STIs in young adults, adjusted for baseline prevalence, in intervention cities compared with control cities (relative risk 0·84, 95% CI 0·69–1·02; p=0·096). In subgroup analyses, significant reductions were noted in intervention cities in young adult women and FSWs. Interpretation Syndromic management of STIs, mobile-team outreach to FSWs, presumptive treatment for trichomoniasis in FSWs, and condom promotion might reduce the composite prevalence of any of the four curable STIs investigated in this trial. Funding Wellcome Trust and Burroughs Wellcome Fund, National Institutes of Health, Center for AIDS Research, CIPRA, and USAID-Peru. PMID:22341824

  5. Building on the Resilience of Aboriginal People in Risk Reduction Initiatives Targeting Sexually Transmitted Infections and Blood-Borne Viruses: The Aboriginal Community Resilience to AIDS (ACRA).

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Shea, Bev; Archibald, Chris; Wong, Tom; Barlow, Kevin; Sioui, Georges

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal people may be at increased risk of HIV infection; they also experience higher rates of other blood-borne viral (BBV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI). This project will provide insights into the role of resilience and its impact on the health and well-being of Aboriginal youth, especially as it relates to sexual and injecting behaviour. The primary recipients of this information will be agencies that provide risk education related to BBVs and STIs.The project involves several phases. First, the framework for the research will be established, with Aboriginal leadership and involvement at every level. Next, both qualitative and quantitative methodologies will be used to identify factors that protect Aboriginal youth against blood-borne viral and sexually transmitted infections and their transmission within local communities. Finally, results from this project will be used to develop interventions and appropriate frameworks for their evaluation in Aboriginal communities.An important component of this project will involve the building of capacity within participating communities, with the goal of identifying strategies related to resilience that can be incorporated into public health and clinical practice. The project will run for five years. PMID:20862231

  6. Increasing condom use: evaluation of a theory-based intervention to prevent sexually transmitted diseases in young women.

    PubMed

    Bryan, A D; Aiken, L S; West, S G

    1996-09-01

    A multicomponent intervention to increase condom use in sexually active young women was designed, implemented, and evaluated in a randomized experiment. Participants were 198 unmarried female college students (mean age = 18.6 years) who received a 1-session condom promotion intervention or a control (stress management) intervention. The condom promotion intervention led to increased self-reported condom use up to 6 months following intervention as well as positive changes in perceived benefits of condom use, affective attitudes toward condom use and condom users, perceived acceptance of sexuality, control over the sexual encounter, perceived self-efficacy for condom use, and intentions to use condoms. Mediational analysis illustrated the mechanisms of the condom promotion intervention effects, linking psychological constructs affected by the intervention (perceived benefits, acceptance of sexuality, control over the sexual encounter, attitudes toward condoms, and self-efficacy for condom use) to condom use intentions. PMID:8891716

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Nicaragua: preliminary results from a competitive voucher scheme to prevent and treat sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS among sex workers.

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Segura, Z E; Savelkoul, P H M; Morré, S A

    2006-03-01

    A donor-supported competitive voucher scheme in Nicaragua provides prevention and treatment services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS to high-risk populations such as sex workers and their partners and clients. Beyond detecting and treating STIs, HIV and AIDS, these health services can also raise awareness of risks and promote safer behavior, leading to widespread benefits. This review describes the voucher scheme, summarizes published data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Nicaragua and provides preliminary prevalence data on C. trachomatis obtained in 2003 through the voucher scheme. PMID:16683044

  8. Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Transgender Women and Men Undergoing Community-Based Screening for Acute and Early HIV Infection in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Green, Nella; Hoenigl, Martin; Morris, Sheldon; Little, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The transgender community represents an understudied population in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare risk behavior, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates between transgender women and transgender men undergoing community-based HIV testing. With this retrospective analysis of a cohort study, we characterize HIV infection rates as well as reported risk behaviors and reported STI in 151 individual transgender women and 30 individual transgender men undergoing community based, voluntary screening for acute and early HIV infection (AEH) in San Diego, California between April 2008 and July 2014. HIV positivity rate was low for both, transgender women and transgender men undergoing AEH screening (2% and 3%, respectively), and the self-reported STI rate for the prior 12 months was 13% for both. Although transgender women appeared to engage in higher rates of risk behavior overall, with 69% engaged in condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) and 11% engaged in sex work, it is important to note that 91% of transgender women reported recent sexual intercourse, 73% had more than 1 sexual partner, 63% reported intercourse with males, 37% intercourse with males and females, and 30% had CRAI. Our results indicate that in some settings rates of HIV infection, as well as rates of reported STIs and sexual risk behavior in transgender men may resemble those found in transgender women. Our findings support the need for comprehensive HIV prevention in both, transgender women and men. PMID:26469928

  9. Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Transgender Women and Men Undergoing Community-Based Screening for Acute and Early HIV Infection in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Green, Nella; Hoenigl, Martin; Morris, Sheldon; Little, Susan J

    2015-10-01

    The transgender community represents an understudied population in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare risk behavior, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates between transgender women and transgender men undergoing community-based HIV testing.With this retrospective analysis of a cohort study, we characterize HIV infection rates as well as reported risk behaviors and reported STI in 151 individual transgender women and 30 individual transgender men undergoing community based, voluntary screening for acute and early HIV infection (AEH) in San Diego, California between April 2008 and July 2014.HIV positivity rate was low for both, transgender women and transgender men undergoing AEH screening (2% and 3%, respectively), and the self-reported STI rate for the prior 12 months was 13% for both. Although transgender women appeared to engage in higher rates of risk behavior overall, with 69% engaged in condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) and 11% engaged in sex work, it is important to note that 91% of transgender women reported recent sexual intercourse, 73% had more than 1 sexual partner, 63% reported intercourse with males, 37% intercourse with males and females, and 30% had CRAI.Our results indicate that in some settings rates of HIV infection, as well as rates of reported STIs and sexual risk behavior in transgender men may resemble those found in transgender women. Our findings support the need for comprehensive HIV prevention in both, transgender women and men. PMID:26469928

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for sexually transmitted infections in a high-risk occupational group: the case of fishermen along Lake Victoria in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kwena, Z A; Bukusi, E A; Ng'ayo, M O; Buffardi, A L; Nguti, R; Richardson, B; Sang, N M; Holmes, K

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among fishermen along Lake Victoria, Kenya. This cross-sectional study surveyed 250 fishermen from beaches in Kisumu District using proportional-to-size sampling based on the number of registered boats per beach. Participants provided demographic and sexual behaviour information, blood for HIV-1 herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and syphilis serological tests urine for transcription-mediated amplification assays for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis and penile and scrotal swabs for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assay. Consistent condom use with the three most recent sexual partners was reported by 30%; 38% reported concurrent sexual partnerships and 65% reported ever having transactional sex. HIV seroprevalence was 26%, HSV-2 seroprevalence by Western blot assay was 58% and 9.5% were rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay positive. Genital HPV DNA of any type was detected in 57.2% with 74% of these having two or more HPV types. C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were detected in 3.2% and 1.2% respectively. Risk factors for syphilis seropositivity included working on multiple beaches during the past year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-11.28). HPV infection was associated with owning a radio which is a marker for higher socioeconomic status (AOR 6.33; 95% CI 2.94-7.14) and reporting transactional sex with the most recent sexual partner (AOR 3.03; 95% CI 1.23-7.69). In conclusion, 90% of fishermen had evidence of one or more STIs. This exceptionally high-risk occupational group represents a high priority for preventive interventions. PMID:21139150

  11. Reframing the Context of Preventive Health Care Services and Prevention of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections for Young Men: New Opportunities to Reduce Racial/Ethnic Sexual Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Yzette

    2013-01-01

    Young Black males, aged 13 to 29 years, have the highest annual rates of HIV infections in the United States. Young Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are the only subgroup with significant increases in HIV incident infections in recent years. Black men, particularly MSM, are also disproportionately affected by other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we must strengthen HIV and STI prevention opportunities during routine, preventive health care visits and at other, nontraditional venues accessed by young men of color, with inclusive, nonjudgmental approaches. The Affordable Care Act and National HIV/AIDS Strategy present new opportunities to reframe and strengthen sexual health promotion and HIV and STI prevention efforts with young men of color. PMID:23237172

  12. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  13. Effect of Risk-Reduction Counseling With Rapid HIV Testing on Risk of Acquiring Sexually Transmitted Infections: The AWARE Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Metsch, Lisa R.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Gooden, Lauren; Schackman, Bruce R.; Matheson, Tim; Das, Moupali; Golden, Matthew R.; Huffaker, Shannon; Haynes, Louise F.; Tross, Susan; Malotte, C. Kevin; Douaihy, Antoine; Korthuis, P. Todd; Duffus, Wayne A.; Henn, Sarah; Bolan, Robert; Philip, Susan S.; Castro, Jose G.; Castellon, Pedro C.; McLaughlin, Gayle; Mandler, Raul N.; Branson, Bernard; Colfax, Grant N.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE To increase HIV testing rates, many institutions and jurisdictions have revised policies to make the testing process rapid, simple, and routine. A major issue for testing scale-up efforts is the effectiveness of HIV risk-reduction counseling, which has historically been an integral part of the HIV testing process. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of brief patient-centered risk-reduction counseling at the time of a rapid HIV test on the subsequent acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS From April to December 2010, Project AWARE randomized 5012 patients of 9 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the US to either receive brief patient-centered HIV risk-reduction counseling with a rapid HIV test or the rapid HIV test with information only. Participants were assessed for multiple sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at both baseline and at 6-month follow-up. INTERVENTION Participants randomized to counseling received individual patient-centered risk-reduction counseling based on an evidence-based model. The core elements included a focus on the patient’s specific HIV/STI risk behavior and negotiation of realistic and achievable risk-reduction steps. All participants received a rapid HIV test. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The prespecified outcome was a composite endpoint of cumulative incidence of any of the measured STIs over 6 months. All participants were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Herpes Simplex Virus 2, and HIV. Women were also tested for Trichomonas vaginalis. RESULTS There was no significant difference in 6-month composite STI incidence by study group (aRR = 1.12, 95% CI (0.94–1.33). There were 250/2039 (12.3%) incident cases in the counseling group and 226/2032 (11.1%) in the information-only group. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE Risk-reduction counseling in conjunction with a rapid HIV test did not significantly affect STI acquisition among STD clinic patients, suggesting no added benefit from brief patient-centered risk-reduction counseling. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01154296 PMID:24150466

  14. Activation of an innate immune response in the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata by specific bacterial PAMPs.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John T; Belloir, Joseph A

    2014-02-01

    Injection of crude lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli into the hemocoel of Biomphalaria glabrata stimulates cell proliferation in the amebocyte-producing organ (APO). However, it is not known if mitogenic activity resides in the lipid A or O-polysaccharide component of LPS. Moreover, the possible role of substances that commonly contaminate crude LPS and that are known to stimulate innate immune responses in mammals, e.g., peptidoglycan (PGN), protein, or bacterial DNA, is unclear. Therefore, we tested the effects of the following injected substances on the snail APO: crude LPS, ultrapurified LPS (lacking lipoprotein contamination), two forms of lipid A, (diphosphoryl lipid A and Kdo2-lipid A), O-polysaccharide, Gram negative PGN, both crude and ultrapurified (with and without endotoxin activity, respectively), Gram positive PGN, PGN components Tri-DAP and muramyl dipeptide, and bacterial DNA. Whereas crude LPS, ultrapurified LPS, and crude PGN were mitogenic, ultrapurified PGN was not. Moreover, LPS components, PGN components, and bacterial DNA were inactive. These results suggest that it is the intact LPS molecule which stimulates cell division in the APO. PMID:24113288

  15. Population-based study of food insecurity and HIV transmission risk behaviors and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections among linked couples in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity has recently emerged as an important risk factor for HIV acquisition among women worldwide. No previous studies have used linked data that would permit investigation of the extent to which food insecurity may have differential associations with HIV transmission risk behaviors or symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men and women in the same households. We used nationally representative data on linked couples from the Nepal 2011 Demographic and Health Survey. The primary explanatory variable of interest was food insecurity, measured with the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. In multivariable logistic regression models, women in food insecure householdswere less likely to report recent condom use and more likely to report symptoms consistent with STIs. These patterns were absent among men. Interventions targeting food insecurity may have beneficial implications for both HIV prevention and gender equity in Nepal. PMID:24833522

  16. Human Papillomavirus and Genital Warts: A Review of the Evidence for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Park, Ina U; Introcaso, Camille; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-12-15

    To provide updates for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines on human papillomavirus (HPV) and anogenital warts (AGWs), a review of the literature was conducted in key topic areas: (1) epidemiology and burden of disease; (2) transmission and natural history; (3) diagnosis and management of AGWs; (4) occupational exposure of healthcare workers; (5) anal cancer screening among men who have sex with men (MSM); and (6) HPV vaccine recommendations. Most sexually active persons will have detectable HPV at least once in their lifetime; 14 million persons are infected annually, and 79 million persons have prevalent infection. HPV is transmitted frequently between partners; more frequent transmission has been reported from females to males than from males to females. A new formulation of imiquimod (3.75% cream) is recommended for AGW treatment. Appropriate infection control, including performing laser or electrocautery in ventilated rooms using standard precautions, is recommended to prevent possible transmission to healthcare workers who treat anogenital warts, oral warts, and anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias (eg, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). Data are insufficient to recommend routine anal cancer screening with anal cytology in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS or HIV-negative MSM. An annual digital anorectal examination may be useful for early detection of anal cancer in these populations. HPV vaccine is recommended routinely for 11- or 12-year-olds, as well as for young men through age 21 years and young women through age 26 years who have not previously been vaccinated. HPV vaccine is also recommended for MSM, people living with HIV/AIDS, and immunocompromised persons through age 26 years. PMID:26602622

  17. Modelling the Impact of Condom Distribution on the Incidence and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in an Adult Male Prison System

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Nick; McBryde, Emma; Kirwan, Amy; Stoové, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the effects of 1) a condom distribution program and 2) a condom distribution program combined with opt-out sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening on the transmission and prevalence of STIs in a prison system. Methods Using data from an implementation evaluation of a state-wide prison condom program and parameter estimates from available literature, a deterministic model was developed to quantify the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted HIV, hepatitis B, chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea across 14 Victorian prisons. The model included individual prison populations (by longer (>2 years) or shorter sentence lengths) and monthly prisoner transfers. For each STI, simulations were compared: without any intervention; with a condom distribution program; and with a combined condom and opt-out STI screening at prison reception intervention program. Results Condoms reduced the annual incidence of syphilis by 99% (N = 66 averted cases); gonorrhoea by 98% (N = 113 cases); hepatitis B by 71% (N = 5 cases); chlamydia by 27% (N = 196 cases); and HIV by 50% (N = 2 cases every 10 years). Condom availability changed the in-prison epidemiology of gonorrhoea and syphilis from self-sustaining to levels unlikely to result in infection outbreaks; however, condoms did not reduce chlamydia prevalence below a self-sustaining level due to its high infectiousness, high prevalence and low detection rate. When combined with a screening intervention program, condoms reduced chlamydia prevalence further, but not below a self-sustaining level. The low prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B in Australian prisons meant the effects of condoms were predicted to be small. Conclusion Condoms are predicted to effectively reduce the incidence of STIs in prison and are predicted to control syphilis and gonorrhoea transmission, however even combined with a screening on arrival program may be insufficient to reduce chlamydia prevalence below self-sustaining levels. To control chlamydia transmission additional screening of the existing prison population would be required. PMID:26658518

  18. Effectiveness of Health Education Teachers and School Nurses Teaching Sexually Transmitted Infections/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Knowledge and Skills in High School

    PubMed Central

    Borawski, Elaine A.; Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Trapl, Erika S.; Hayman, Laura L.; Yoder, Laura D.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND We examined the differential impact of a well-established human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, when taught by school nurses and health education classroom teachers within a high school curricula. METHODS Group-randomized intervention study of 1357 ninth and tenth grade students in 10 schools. Twenty-seven facilitators (6 nurses, 21 teachers) provided programming; nurse-led classrooms were randomly assigned. RESULTS Students taught by teachers were more likely to report their instructor to be prepared, comfortable with the material, and challenged them to think about their health than students taught by a school nurse. Both groups reported significant improvements in HIV/STI/condom knowledge immediately following the intervention, compared to controls. Yet, those taught by school nurses reported significant and sustained changes (up to 12 months after intervention) in attitudes, beliefs, and efficacy, whereas those taught by health education teachers reported far fewer changes, with sustained improvement in condom knowledge only. CONCLUSIONS Both classroom teachers and school nurses are effective in conveying reproductive health information to high school students; however, teaching the technical (eg, condom use) and interpersonal (eg, negotiation) skills needed to reduce high-risk sexual behavior may require a unique set of skills and experiences that health education teachers may not typically have. PMID:25611941

  19. Can a woman refuse sex if her husband has a sexually transmitted infection? Attitudes toward safer-sex negotiation among married women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2014-06-01

    In developing countries, HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy take an enormous toll on women's reproductive health, yet preventive programmes are lacking as married women's risks are frequently underestimated. We examined predictors of married Bangladeshi women's attitudes towards safer-sex negotiation using data on 15,178 currently married women aged 15-49 from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. Approximately 92% of women believed that a wife's refusal to have sex with her husband is justified if he has an STI. Multilevel logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of a woman holding this belief increased with her autonomy, as measured by the ability to go to a health centre/hospital without another adult, participation in household decision making and rejection of wife beating (p < 0.001). Other significant predictors were knowledge/awareness of STIs (p < 0.05), living in Dhaka division (p < 0.001) and younger age (p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that sexual health education programmes may be more effective if they include strategies to address social norms and cultural practices that limit women's autonomy in society. PMID:24735199

  20. Hepatitis B Infection and Association with Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lama, Javier R.; Agurto, Hellen S.; Guanira, Juan V.; Ganoza, Carmela; Casapia, Martin; Ojeda, Nora; Ortiz, Abner; Zamalloa, Victoria; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Cabezas, Cesar; Sanchez, Jose L.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    To assess the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru, we evaluated the prevalence and associated risk factors for HBV serologic markers among participants of a HIV sentinel surveillance conducted in 2002–2003. The standardized prevalences for total antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were 20.2% and 2.8%, respectively. Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection had significantly higher anti-HBc (44.3% versus 19.3%) and HBsAg (9.5% versus 2.3%) prevalences than uninfected men. Increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.06), versatile sexual role (AOR = 1.59), sex in exchange for money/gifts (AOR = 1.58), syphilis (AOR = 1.74), HIV-1 infection (AOR = 1.64), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, AOR = 2.77) infection were independently associated with anti-HBc positivity, whereas only HIV-1 infection (AOR = 3.51) and generalized lymph node enlargement (AOR = 3.72) were associated with HBsAg positivity. Pre-existing HBV infection is very common among Peruvian MSM and was correlated with sexual risk factors. MSM in Peru constitute a target population for further HBV preventive and treatment interventions. PMID:20595501

  1. Anal and dry sex in commercial sex work, and relation to risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Meru, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Schwandt, M; Morris, C; Ferguson, A; Ngugi, E; Moses, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the practices of anal intercourse and dry sex within a cohort of female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya, focusing on the prevalence and perceived risk of the practices, demographic and behavioural correlates, and association with sexually transmitted infections (STI). Methods A survey was conducted among FSWs in Meru, Kenya, with 147 participants randomly sampled from an existing cohort of self identified FSWs. Results 40.8% of participants reported ever practising anal intercourse and 36.1% reported ever practising dry sex. Although the majority of women surveyed believed anal intercourse and dry sex to be high risk practices for HIV infection compared with vaginal sex, about one third of women reported never or rarely using condoms during anal intercourse, and about 20% never or rarely using condoms during dry sex. Reported consistent condom use was lower with both of these practices than with penile?vaginal intercourse. Anal intercourse was associated with experience of recent forced sexual intercourse, while dry sex was not. Anal intercourse was almost always initiated by clients, whereas dry sex was likely to be initiated by the women themselves. Sex workers reported charging higher fees for both practices than for vaginal intercourse. Both practices were associated with reported symptoms and diagnoses of STI. Conclusions Both anal intercourse and dry sex were common in this sample, and although perceived as high risk practices, were not adequately protected with condom use. Education and other interventions regarding these high risk sexual behaviours need to be translated into safer practices, particularly consistent condom use, even in the face of financial vulnerability. PMID:16790563

  2. Risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in a group of Dominican gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Maximo O; Hodge, David; Donastorg, Yeycy; Khosla, Shaveta; Lerebours, Leonel; Pope, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate the point prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and to investigate the sexual practices and behaviours associated with STIs in a group of gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women (GMT) in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic. Design A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of GMT persons. Setting The study was conducted in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic, in June–July 2013. Participants Out of 117 GMT persons screened, a total of 100 completed the study. Participants had to be at least 18?years of age, reside in La Romana and have had sex with another man in the preceding 12?months. All participants were interviewed and tested for STI. Primary outcome measure The main outcome of interest was the detection of any STI (HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), syphilis, hepatitis B or C) by serology. Results Among 100 participants, the median age was 22?years (range 18–65). One-third had consumed illicit drugs the preceding year and only 43% consistently used condoms. Prevalence was 38% for HSV-2, 5% for HIV and 13% for syphilis. There were no cases of hepatitis B or C. Factors associated with the odds of a STI were age >22?years (OR=11.1, 95% CI 3.6 to 34.5), receptive anal intercourse (OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 13.6) and having ?2 male sexual partners during the preceding month (OR=4, 95% CI 1.3 to 12.5). Conclusions In this group of GMT persons, seroprevalence of STI was high, and a number of risk behaviours were associated with STI. These preliminary data will help inform policy and programmes to prevent HIV/STI in GMT persons in the region. PMID:25926151

  3. Teen Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sex puts you at risk of getting a sexually transmitted disease, such as herpes or genital warts, or HIV, ... however, latex condoms are the best protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Condoms are also a form of birth ...

  4. Cross-sectional assessment of prevalence and correlates of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections among Afghan National Army recruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few data are available in Afghanistan to shape national military force health practices, particularly with regard to sexually-transmitted infections (STIs). We measured prevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex 2 virus (HSV-2), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among Afghan National Army (ANA) recruits. Methods A cross-sectional sample of male ANA recruits aged 18–35 years were randomly selected at the Kabul Military Training Center between February 2010 and January 2011. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and serum-based rapid testing for syphilis and hepatitis C virus antibody on-site; HIV and HSV-2 screening, and confirmatory testing were performed off-site. Prevalence of each infection was calculated and logistic regression analysis performed to identify correlates. Results Of 5313 recruits approached, 4750 consented to participation. Participants had a mean age of 21.8 years (SD±3.8), 65.5% had lived outside Afghanistan, and 44.3% had no formal education. Few reported prior marijuana (16.3%), alcohol (5.3%), or opiate (3.4%) use. Of sexually active recruits (58.7%, N?=?2786), 21.3% reported paying women for sex and 21.3% reported sex with males. Prevalence of HIV (0.063%, 95% CI: 0.013- 0.19), syphilis (0.65%, 95% CI: 0.44 – 0.93), and HCV (0.82%, 95% CI: 0.58 – 1.12) were quite low. Prevalence of HSV-2 was 3.03% (95% CI: 2.56 - 3.57), which was independently associated with age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)?=?1.04, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.09) and having a television (socioeconomic marker) (AOR?=?1.46, 95% CI: 1.03 – 2.05). Conclusion Though prevalence of HIV, HCV, syphilis, and HSV-2 was low, sexual risk behaviors and intoxicant use were present among a substantial minority, indicating need for prevention programming. Formative work is needed to determine a culturally appropriate approach for prevention programming to reduce STI risk among Afghan National Army troops. PMID:22909128

  5. A systematic review of heterosexual anal intercourse and its role in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a high burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the highest adult HIV prevalence in the Pacific region. Despite this burden of disease, heterosexual anal intercourse (HAI) has rarely been considered. Given the increasing number of, and interest in, behavioural surveys in PNG and the changing nature of PNG’s HIV epidemic, it is timely to conduct a systematic review of HAI in PNG order to improve sexual health. Methods We performed a systematic review of HAI in PNG as reported in peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications for the period 1950–May 2012. The search strategy identified 475 publications. After screening by geographical location, topic and methodology, we identified 23 publications for full text review, following which 13 publications were included in the final review. Using data from the review, we performed a risk equation analysis to demonstrate the potential impact of HAI on HIV acquisition and incidence in PNG. Results There is a paucity of well-informed behavioural research on HAI in PNG. Inconsistency in key questions on HAI made it impossible to conduct a meta-analysis. The data available on HAI shows that it is practiced in all geographical areas and among all populations. Of those who reported HAI, rates varied from as low as 8% to as high as 77% depending on the recall period and partner type. Condom use during HAI was consistently low. Our risk equation analysis indicates that even if only 20% of females engage in HAI, and only 10% of sex acts involve HAI, the total number of new HIV infections among females would be 40% greater than if vaginal intercourse only occurred. Conclusions Our findings of indicate that HAI may be an important driver of the HIV epidemic in PNG. In order to improve the sexual health of Papua New Guineans, efforts are required to improve behavioural surveillance of HAI as well as develop national HIV/STI programing and policy to better address the risks associated with unprotected HAI. PMID:24289271

  6. Advancing the prevention agenda for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in South China: social science research to inform effective public health interventions

    PubMed Central

    Muessig, Kathryn E.; Smith, M. Kumi; Maman, Suzanne; Huang, Yingying; Chen, Xiang-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread biomedical advances in treatment, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) continue to affect a large portion of the world's population. The profoundly social nature of behaviorally driven epidemics and disparities across socioeconomic divides in the distribution of HIV/STI and care outcomes emphasize the need for innovative, multilevel interventions. Interdisciplinary approaches to HIV/STI control are needed to combine insights from the social and biological sciences and public health fields. In this concluding essay to a Special Issue on HIV/STI in south China, we describe the evolution of China's HIV/STI epidemics and the government response; then synthesize findings from the 11 studies presented in this issues to extend seven recommendations for future HIV/STI prevention and care research in China. We discuss lessons learned from forging international collaborations between social science and public health to inform a shared research agenda to better meet the needs of those most affected by HIV and other STI. PMID:24443101

  7. Fully Integrated e-Services for Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections: Results of a 4-County Study in California

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Vivian; Lensing, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Ishita; Venkatasubramanian, Lalitha; Acevedo, Nincoshka; Wolff, Peter; Callabresi, Debra; Philip, Susan; Lopez, Teresa P.; Padian, Nancy; Blake, Diane R.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the acceptability, feasibility, and cost of a fully integrated online system (eSTI) for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing, treatment, and linkage to care with 4 Northern California health departments. Methods. In April 2012, we implemented the eSTI system, which provided education; testing of self-collected vaginal swabs for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis; e-prescriptions; e-partner notification; and data integration with clinic electronic health records. We analyzed feasibility, acceptability, and cost measures. Results. During a 3-month period, 217 women aged 18 to 30 years enrolled; 67% returned the kit. Of these, 92% viewed their results online. STI prevalence was 5.6% (chlamydia and trichomoniasis). All participants with STIs received treatment either the same day at a pharmacy (62%) or within 7 days at a clinic (38%). Among participants completing follow-up surveys, 99% would recommend the online eSTI system to a friend, and 95% preferred it over clinic-based testing within a study. Conclusions. The fully integrated eSTI system has the potential to increase diagnosis and treatment of STIs with higher patient satisfaction at a potentially lower cost. PMID:25320878

  8. Self-reported ecstasy (MDMA) use and past occurrence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a cohort juvenile detainees in the USA.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Torrance; Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Jarboe, Jerriyauna

    2015-04-01

    The current study was designed to determine the extent to which self-reported ecstasy use in a population of juvenile adolescent detainees in a southern state is associated with high-risk health behaviors pertaining to sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptomology and past history of STI occurrence. Participants were 2,260 juvenile offenders housed at selected Youth Development Campuses in the state of Georgia. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) are presented. Juveniles who reported having used ecstasy previously were more likely to report that they had sore bumps of blisters near their sex organs before (OR 1.28, 95 % CI 0.74-2.21), with males who had used ecstasy prior incarceration being more than two times more likely to indicated that they had experienced having a drip or drainage from the penis (OR 1.76, 95 % CI 0.72-4.32), having vaginal discharge or odor from their vagina (OR 2.33, 95 % CI 1.16-4.65). PMID:25160467

  9. Knowledge and Practice of Clinicians regarding Syndromic Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Public Health Facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemayehu, Addisu; Godana, Wanzahun

    2015-01-01

    Background. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are the leading causes of morbidity among young adults. This study assessed the knowledge and practice of clinicians regarding syndromic management of STIs in public health facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study with mixed methods of data collection was conducted in public health facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone. The study included 250 clinicians and 12 health facilities, 26 mystery clients were hired, and 120 STI patient cards were reviewed. Data was entered in EPI info version 7.0.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results. Of the participated clinicians, 32 (12.8%) were trained on syndromic management of STIs. Highest knowledge of clinicians was for urethral discharge (27.2%). Professional category of clinicians and type of health facility (AOR = 0.194; 95% CI = 0.092, 0.412) were determinants of urethral discharge knowledge. Of the cards reviewed, only in 8.3% of cards and 19.23% of mystery clients did the clinicians correctly follow the guideline. Conclusion. Knowledge and practice of clinicians regarding syndromic management of STIs in study area were poor. Efforts should be made to increase the knowledge of clinicians by providing training on syndromic management of STIs and supportive supervision should be regular. PMID:26605102

  10. Integration of prevention and care of sexually transmitted infections with family planning services: what is the evidence for public health benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Dehne, K. L.; Snow, R.; O'Reilly, K. R.

    2000-01-01

    It has been widely believed that, by combining the services for preventing and treating sexually transmitted infections (STI) with those for family planning (FP), STI coverage would increase and the combined service would be of higher quality and more responsive to the needs of women. So far, there is little concrete evidence that integration has had such an impact. Besides the absence of documentation, a clear definition of integration is lacking. We therefore carried out a comprehensive review of concrete experiences with integrated services, and present a summary of our findings in this article. The results indicate that the tasks of STI prevention, such as education for risk reduction and counselling, have been integrated into family planning services much more frequently than the tasks of STI diagnosis and treatment. Some STI/FP integration efforts appear to have been beneficial, for instance when the integration of STI/HIV prevention had a positive impact on client satisfaction, and on the acceptance of family planning. Less clear is whether STI prevention, when concentrated among traditional FP clients, is having a positive impact on STI risk behaviours or condom use. A few projects have reported increases in STI caseloads following integration. In some projects, FP providers were trained in STI case management, but few clients were subsequently treated. PMID:10859857

  11. Development of a computer-based risk-reduction counseling intervention: acceptability and preferences among low-income patients at an urban sexually transmitted infection clinic.

    PubMed

    Weinhardt, Lance S; Mosack, Katie E; Swain, Geoffrey R

    2007-07-01

    In preparation for the development of an individually tailored, multimedia, computerized sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-risk reduction intervention software application for use in publicly funded STI clinics, we conducted a waiting-room survey among 583 inner-city patients (67% male; 79% African American; mean age = 30.3) at an STI clinic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin regarding their computer experience and opinions related to a computerized approach to HIV/STI-risk reduction counseling. A substantial minority of respondents indicated they would prefer having either a combined computerized and human counseling intervention (30%) or preferred a computerized intervention alone (13%). Perceived benefits of computerized counseling included impartiality of the response, privacy, accuracy of the information, convenience, and being able to control the dissemination of information. Perceived disadvantages included lack of human contact, inability to obtain necessary information, technical problems, threats to privacy, and failure to take information from a computer seriously. Despite their limited economic resources, participants reported relatively high levels of computer experience overall and a willingness to use an individually tailored computerized risk-reduction counseling approach. We discuss how participants' responses were used to inform the development of such an intervention. PMID:17028993

  12. Polymorphism in sexual versus non-sexual disease transmission

    E-print Network

    Antonovics, Janis

    transmitted diseases (STDs) often consist of related strains that cause non- sexually transmitted transmission modes. For example, out of 108 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) for which reasonable estimatesPolymorphism in sexual versus non-sexual disease transmission PETER H. THRALL AND JANIS ANTONOVICS

  13. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have or enjoy sex in both men and women. Factors that can affect sexual health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about infertility Sexually transmitted diseases Chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease Medicines that affect sexual desire or performance

  14. Bacterial Exposure at the Larval Stage Induced Sexual Immune Dimorphism and Priming in Adult Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-García, Miguel; Vargas, Valeria; Ramírez-Bello, Inci; Hernández-Martínez, Guadalupe; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in the immune response of insects are driven by natural selection for females and sexual selection for males. These natural forces entail a multitude of extrinsic and intrinsic factors involved in a genotype-environment interaction that results in sex-biased expression of the genes shared by males and females. However, little is known about how an infection at a particular ontogenetic stage may influence later stages, or how it may impact sexual immune dimorphism. Using Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a bacterial exposure at the larval stage on adult immunity in males and females. The parameters measured were phenoloxidase activity, nitric oxide production, antimicrobial activity, and the antimicrobial peptide transcript response. As a measure of the immune response success, the persistence of injected bacteria was also evaluated. The results show that males, as well as females, were able to enhance survival in the adult stage as a result of being exposed at the larval stage, which indicates a priming effect. Moreover, there was a differential gender immune response, evidenced by higher PO activity in males as well as higher NO production and greater antimicrobial activity in females. The greater bacterial persistence in females suggests a gender-specific strategy for protection after a previous experience with an elicitor. Hence, this study provides a primary characterization of the complex and gender-specific immune response of male and female adults against a bacterial challenge in mosquitoes primed at an early ontogenetic stage. PMID:26181517

  15. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this condition may be substantially underdiagnosed. 1,2 Human Papillomavirus In June 2006, a quadrivalent HPV vaccine was ... M, Lawson HW, Chesson H, Unger ER. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ...

  16. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs) in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media) and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves). The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination) contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma, discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are critical concerns of FSWs. This report demonstrates that it is possible to address these broader structural factors as part of large-scale HIV prevention programming. Although assessing the impact of the various components of a structural intervention on reducing HIV vulnerability is difficult, addressing the broader structural factors contributing to FSW vulnerability is critical to enable these vulnerable women to become sufficiently empowered to adopt the safer sexual behaviours which are required to respond effectively to the HIV epidemic. PMID:21962115

  17. Impact of a community sexually transmitted infection/HIV intervention project on female sex workers in five border provinces of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thuong, Nguyen Vu; Van Nghia, Khuu; Hau, Tran Phuc; Long, Nguyen Thanh; Van, Cao Thi Bao; Duc, Bui Hoang; Tram, Luong Thu; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Tien, Nguyen Thi Kim; Godwin, Peter; Fylkesnes, Knut; O'Farrell, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine changes in the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV in female sex workers (FSWs) after a community HIV prevention intervention project in five border provinces of Vietnam. Methods The project focused on providing user?friendly STI services for FSWs using mobile teams operating at multiple sites depending on local client preferences. 911 FSWs were enrolled at baseline and 982 in the exit survey. Study participants were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, history of STIs and selected features of their husbands or cohabiting partners, and were tested for STIs. Results The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV?2) antibodies, gonorrhoea (GC), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and GC and/or CT among FSWs in the five border provinces in 2004 were 3.6%, 12.9%, 24.9%, 2.9%, 9.1% and 11.3%, respectively. Compared with baseline values, GC and/or CT decreased significantly from 19.9% to 11.3%, GC from 10.7% to 2.9% and CT from 11.9% to 9.1%. HIV decreased from 4.5% to 3.6%, and HSV?2 antibodies from 27.7% to 24.9%. After adjustment for possible confounders, a significant overall decrease in having GC and/or CT (OR?=?0.46, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.65; p<0.001) and GC alone (OR?=?0.22, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.37; p<0.001) was found, and the overall prevalence of syphilis increased significantly (OR?=?1.55, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.17 p?=?0.011). A marked increase in syphilis from 1.0% to 14.1% was identified in the Lai Chau province. Conclusions Implementation of the project was associated with a reduction in GC and/or CT infections in FSWs, more so with GC than with CT. A notable increase in syphilis in Lai Chau was identified. HIV/STI interventions in FSWs can be implemented by government services and should be intensified and expanded to other provinces. PMID:17327262

  18. Recent trends in diagnoses of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in England and Wales among men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, N; Dougan, S; McGarrigle, C; Baster, K; Rice, B; Evans, B; Fenton, K

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine trends in rates of diagnoses of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men who have sex with men (MSM) in England and Wales between 1997 and 2002. Methods: Estimates of the MSM population living in England and Wales, London and the rest of England and Wales were applied to surveillance data, providing rates of diagnoses of HIV and STIs and age group specific rates for HIV and uncomplicated gonorrhoea. Results: Between 1997 and 2002, rates of diagnoses of HIV and acute STIs in MSM increased substantially. Rates in London were higher than elsewhere. Rises in acute STIs were similar throughout England and Wales, except for uncomplicated gonorrhoea and infectious syphilis, with greater increases outside London. Rates of gonorrhoea diagnoses doubled between 1999 and 2001 (661/100 000, 1271/100 000, p<0.001) in England and Wales followed by a slight decline to 1210/100 000 (p = 0.03) in 2002—primarily the result of a decline in diagnoses among men aged 25–34 (1340/100 000, 1128/100 000, p<0.001) and 35–44 (924/100 000, 863/100 000, p = 0.03) in London. HIV was the third most common STI diagnosed in MSM in England and Wales and the second in London, with the highest rate (1286/100 000) found among men aged 35–44 in London in 2002. Conclusions: Rates of diagnosis of HIV and other STIs have increased substantially among MSM in England and Wales. Increases show heterogeneity by infection, geography, and age over time. Rates in London were twice those seen elsewhere, with greatest changes over time. The observed changes reflect concomitant increases in high risk behaviour documented in behavioural surveillance survey programmes. PMID:15572622

  19. Talking about links between sexually transmitted infections and infertility with college and university students from SE England, UK: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea are largely symptomless diseases which, left untreated, can result in serious complications including infertility. Fertility problems currently affect approximately one in seven couples in the UK and there is increasing demand for couples seeking reproductive technologies. Young people are at greatest risk of contracting STIs, therefore this study aimed to identify young people’s knowledge and beliefs about the link between untreated STIs and infertility. Methods Focus groups were conducted with participants aged 16–24 years old inclusive in college or university settings in the SE of England. Groups were quota sampled on the basis of age and gender. A topic guide was used. The data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Results Ten single-sex focus groups were conducted with sixty participants: six groups of college students and four groups of university students. Participants were generally aware of the link between STIs and potential infertility and considered the discussion of this subject very relevant at their age. Knowledge about how and why STIs potentially lead to fertility complications was poor. The issues of blame relating to infertility following an STI emerged, although most participants did not think that access to free reproductive technologies after an untreated STI should be limited. Conclusions Young people would benefit from more education in order to improve their understanding of the long-term consequences of untreated STIs, such as infertility. Participants in our sample felt these were extremely relevant and important issues for them to understand alongside current education about STIs. PMID:24020982

  20. Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviours among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya: results of a respondent driven sampling study.

    PubMed

    Musyoki, Helgar; Kellogg, Timothy A; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Fisher Raymond, H; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7-34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25-38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8-17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4-18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at 'great risk' for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population. PMID:25428282

  1. Quality of sexually transmitted disease services in Jamaica: evaluation of a clinic-based approach. Collaborative Working Group on Indicators of STD Case Management.

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, J.; Vernon, A.; Brathwaite, A. R.; Perry, S.; Figueroa, J. P.; Emerson, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a larger strategy to develop global indicators of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection prevention programmes, a clinic-based method for the assessment of sexually transmitted disease (STD) service quality was developed and field tested by trained observers who visited a random sample of public-sector clinics in Jamaica in October 1991. The assessment included an inventory of equipment and drugs, interviews with clinic staff, and observations of 27 health workers in 15 clinics as they provided services to 115 patients presenting for STD care. This observation-based method provided Jamaican programme managers with descriptive data on STD case management in public clinics within a one-month study period at an approximate local cost of US+ 5000. Based on weighted estimates, 91% of public-sector STD patients in Jamaica were seen in clinics whose staff had received some training in STD case management during the preceding 12 months. The correct treatment rate was estimated to be 82% for those diagnosed with gonorrhoea, and 70% for those diagnosed with syphilis. Based on 98 observed encounters for first-time-for-episode patients, counselling included sex partner referral (57%), partner reduction (48%), and condom use (59%). Although 61% of STD patients were seen in clinics with condoms in stock on the day of the assessment, only 23% were offered condoms during their visit. The clinic-based assessment method can be adapted to the programme management and reporting needs of countries at all stages of STD service development, and can provide data needed to improve programme operations and meet international reporting standards. PMID:8205644

  2. The Epidemic of HIV, Syphilis, Chlamydia and Gonorrhea and the Correlates of Sexual Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Jiangsu, China, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Geng-Feng; Jiang, Ning; Hu, Hai-Yang; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yin, Yue-Ping; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Babu, Giridhar R.; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Ding, Ping; Qiu, Tao; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Hongxiong; Huan, Xi-Ping; Tang, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Background In China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is expanding among men who have sex with men (MSM). As independent risk factors of HIV infection, the epidemics of Chlamydia (CT) and Gonorrhea (NG) in MSM were not well studied, particular for the risk factors of these infectious. The objectives of current reported study were to understand the dynamics of HIV and other sexual transmitted infections (STIs) among MSM in Jiangsu, China, and to measure factors that correlated with STIs. Methods In order to gain more participants, a multisite cross-sectional study design was used in our study, by using convenience-sampling to recruit MSM in two Changzhou and Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China, between the July and October of 2009. Results In this comprehensive survey involving MSM in two cities of Jiangsu province of China, the prevalence of STIs of CT (6.54%), NG (3.63%), syphilis (20.34%) and HIV (11.62%) were measured. Overall, the STIs prevalence (CT, NG or syphilis) for the participants in our study was 26.39%, meanwhile, 3.4% (14 out of the 413) participants had at least two kinds of STIs. Meeting casual partners at parks, public restrooms or other public areas, having had anal sex with men in the past six months, having had STI symptoms in the past year were positively correlated with STIs positive, with adjusted ORs of 4.61(95%CI 1.03–20.75), 1.91(95%CI 1.14–3.21) and 2.36(95%CI 1.07,5.24). Conclusion Our study findings reiterate the fact that Chinese MSM are highly susceptible to acquiring syphilis, CT, NG and HIV, and there is an urgent need for intervention targeted towards this population. Behavioral measures should constitute an important part of the targeted intervention. Furthermore, the already implemented preventive and diagnostic services for HIV should be expanded to include syphilis CT and NG, too. PMID:25775451

  3. Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]?=?25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR?=?4.74; 95% CI?=? 2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR?=?4.29; 95% CI?=?2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR?=?2.80; 95% CI?=?1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR?=?0.53; 95% CI?=?0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

  4. High Rates of Sexually transmitted infections in HIV-positive patients in the Australian HIV Observational Database - a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mulhall, Brian P; Wright, Stephen; Allen, Debbie; Brown, Katherine; Dickson, Bridget; Grotowski, Miriam; Jackson, Eva; Petoumenos, Kathy; Read, Phillip; Read, Timothy; Russell, Darren; Smith, David J; Templeton, David J; Fairley, Christopher K; Law, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STI) may directly increase the risk of HIV infection, or may indicate sexual practices that increase the risk of HIV infection. In persons with HIV they probably also increase the infectiousness of HIV, even in the context of treatment with antiretroviral drugs (ARV). Estimating STI in this group has proved problematic, and there are few longitudinal studies able to accurately measure incidence. Methods In 2010, we established a cohort of individuals from ten widely dispersed sexual health clinics that were already enrolled in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD). We calculated retrospective diagnosis rates for four STI (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, infectious syphilis, anogenital warts) from 2005-2010, and prospective incidence rates from 2010-2011. Results At baseline (2010) , the patient characteristics (n=554) were similar to the rest of AHOD (n=1767), namely they were predominantly male, homosexual, middle-aged, and pre- treated with ARV. Overall, the incidence of any STI was 12.5/100 person years (py). There was a gradual increase in chlamydial infections , from 3.4/100 py (95% CI 1.9-5.7) in 2005 to 6.7/100py (95% CI 4.5-9.5) in 2011, with a substantial peak of 8.1/100py (95% CI 5.6-11.2) in 2010. The cases were distributed between rectal ( 61.9%), urethral (34%), and pharyngeal (6.3%) sites. Similarly, gonococcal infections increased, with a peak in 2010 of 4.7/100py (95% CI 5.6-11.2), (p value for trend=0.0099), distributed between rectal (63.9%), urethral (27.9%), and pharyngeal (14.8%) sites. Infectious syphilis showed several peaks, the largest in 2008 (5.3/100py , (95% CI 3.3-8.0), but the overall trend was not significant (p=0.113). Diagnoses of genital warts declined from 7.5/100py (95% CI 4.8-11.3) in 2005 (95% CI 4.8-11.3) to 2.4/100py (95% CI 1.1-4.5) in 2011 (p value for trend=0.0016). Conclusions The incidence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in this cohort was higher than previous estimates in Australia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), and increased during the 2005-2011 study period. Rectal infections greatly outnumbered infections at other sites. The incidence of infectious syphilis remained high, but did not increase, and the incidence of genital warts was lower, and decreased. These are the first measurements of STI incidence among persons being treated for HIV in Australia. They may underestimate the true incidence of these infections in the HIV-infected population. PMID:25109880

  5. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Program Evaluation Program Operations Guidelines STD Data Management & Information Technology Generic Information Technology BPMM Partner Services VCAmon CS Webinar Questions Projects & Initiatives Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) STD Health ...

  6. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Overview National Profile Chlamydia Figures Gonorrhea Figures Syphilis Figures Other STDs Figures Special Focus Profiles Women ... Case Definitions Case Definitions Part 2 Contributors Slides Syphilis Profiles GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD ...

  7. About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t get them if you have oral or anal sex. That's also wrong because the viruses or bacteria ... sex. This is true for all types of sex — oral, vaginal, and anal. And let the doctor know if you’ve ...

  8. Medications for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... School 5-12yrs. Teen 12-18yrs. Young Adult 18-21yrs. Healthy ... metronidazole Typically, two antibiotics are prescribed. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Topical Preparations (creams and solutions that the patient ...

  9. Barriers and facilitators of sexually transmissible infection testing in remote Australian Aboriginal communities: results from the Sexually Transmitted Infections in Remote Communities, Improved and Enhanced Primary Health Care (STRIVE) Study.

    PubMed

    Hengel, Belinda; Guy, Rebecca; Garton, Linda; Ward, James; Rumbold, Alice; Taylor-Thomson, Debbie; Silver, Bronwyn; McGregor, Skye; Dyda, Amalie; Knox, Janet; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

    2014-11-27

    Background Remote Australian Aboriginal communities experience high rates of bacterial sexually transmissible infections (STI). A key strategy to reduce STIs is to increase testing in primary health care centres. The current study aimed to explore barriers to offering and conducting STI testing in this setting. Methods: A qualitative study was undertaken as part of the STI in Remote communities, Improved and Enhanced Primary Health Care (STRIVE) project; a large cluster randomised controlled trial of a sexual health quality improvement program. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews in 22 participating health centres across four regions in northern and central Australia. Results: Participants identified barriers including Aboriginal cultural norms that require the separation of genders and traditional kinship systems that prevent some staff and patients from interacting, both of which were exacerbated by a lack of male staff. Other common barriers were concerns about client confidentiality (lack of private consulting space and living in small communities), staff capacity to offer testing impacted by the competing demands for staff time, and high staff turnover resulting in poor understanding of clinic systems. Many participants also expressed concerns about managing positive test results. To address some of these barriers, participants revealed informal strategies, such as team work, testing outside the clinic and using adult health checks. Conclusions: Results identify cultural, structural and health system issues as barriers to offering STI testing in remote communities, some of which were overcome through the creativity and enthusiasm of individuals rather than formal systems. Many of these barriers can be readily addressed through strengthening existing systems of cultural and clinical orientation and educating staff to view STI in a population health framework. However others, particularly issues in relation to culture, kinship ties and living in small communities, may require testing modalities that do not rely on direct contact with health staff or the clinic environment. PMID:25426563

  10. Bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, C A

    1991-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common of the vaginitides affecting women of reproductive age. It appears to be due to an alteration in the vaginal ecology by which Lactobacillus spp., the predominant organisms in the healthy vagina, are replaced by a mixed flora including Prevotella bivia, Prevotella disiens, Porphyromonas spp., Mobiluncus spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. All of these organisms except Mobiluncus spp. are also members of the endogenous vaginal flora. While evidence from treatment trials does not support the notion that BV is sexually transmitted, recent studies have shown an increased risk associated with multiple sexual partners. It has also been suggested that the pathogenesis of BV may be similar to that of urinary tract infections, with the rectum serving as a reservoir for some BV-associated flora. The organisms associated with BV have also been recognized as agents of female upper genital tract infection, including pelvic inflammatory disease, and the syndrome BV has been associated with adverse outcome of pregnancy, including premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and fetal loss; postpartum endometritis; cuff cellulitis; and urinary tract infections. The mechanisms by which the BV-associated flora causes the signs of BV are not well understood, but a role for H2O2-producing Lactobacillus spp. in protecting against colonization by catalase-negative anaerobic bacteria has been recognized. These and other aspects of BV are reviewed. PMID:1747864

  11. Certain attributes of the sexual ecosystem of high-risk MSM have resulted in an altered microbiome with an enhanced propensity to generate and transmit antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, C; Osbak, K

    2014-08-01

    Surveillance data from a number of countries have indicated that antibiotic resistance in Neisseriagonorrhoea is strongly associated with men who have sex with men (MSM). This manuscript advances the hypothesis that certain features of the MSM sexual ecosystem may be responsible for this association. It is argued that in comparison with heterosexuals, high-risk MSM (hrMSM) have a higher prevalence of oro-penile, oro-rectal and anal sex which facilitates an enhanced mixing of the pharyngeal, rectal and penile microbiomes. In addition, hrMSM have an increased number of sexual partners per unit time and an increased prevalence of sexual relationships overlapping in time. The increased flux of microbiomes between different body habitats between sexual partners, in combination with the increased connectivity of the sexual network, serve to create a novel high-risk MSM sexual ecosystem with important consequences for the genesis and spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24857261

  12. Factors Associated With Intention to Use Internet-Based Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Hottes, Travis Salway; Kerr, Thomas; Taylor, Darlene; Fairley, Christopher K; Lester, Richard; Wong, Tom; Trussler, Terry; Marchand, Rick; Shoveller, Jean; Ogilvie, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet-based testing programs are being increasingly used to reduce testing barriers for individuals at higher risk of infection, yet the population impact and potential for exacerbation of existing health inequities of these programs are not well understood. Objective We used a large online sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada to measure acceptability of Internet-based testing and perceived advantages and disadvantages of this testing approach. Methods We asked participants of the 2011/2012 Sex Now Survey (a serial online survey of gay and bisexual men in Canada) whether they intended to use Internet-based testing and their perceived benefits and disadvantages of use. We examined whether intention to use was associated with explanatory variables spanning (A) sociodemographics, (B) Internet and technology usage, (C) sexually transmitted infections (STI)/ human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and risk, and (D) health care access and testing, using multivariable logistic regression (variable selection using Bayesian information criterion). Results Overall, intention to use was high (5678/7938, 71.53%) among participants with little variation by participant characteristics. In our final model, we retained the variables related to (B) Internet and technology usage: use of Internet to cruise for sex partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.25-1.70), use of Internet to search for sexual health information (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.23-1.51), and mobile phone usage (AOR 1.19, 95% 1.13-1.24). We also retained the variables for (D) health care access and testing: not “out” to primary care provider (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.41), delayed/avoided testing due to privacy concerns (AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.49-2.11), and delayed/avoided testing due to access issues (AOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.40-1.95). Finally, we retained the variable being HIV positive (AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.46-0.68) or HIV status unknown (AOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.77-1.01), age <30 years (AOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.22-1.62), and identifying as bisexual (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.34) or straight/other (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50-0.90). The greatest perceived benefits of Internet-based testing were privacy (2249/8388, 26.81%), general convenience (1701/8388, 20.28%), and being able to test at any time (1048/8388, 12.49%). The greatest perceived drawbacks were the inability to see a doctor or nurse (1507/8388, 17.97%), wanting to talk to someone about results (1430/8388, 17.97%), not wanting online results (1084/8388, 12.92%), and low trust (973/8388, 11.60%). Conclusions The high and wide-ranging intention to use that we observed suggests Internet-based testing has the potential to reach into all subgroups of MSM and may be particularly appealing to those facing current barriers to accessing STI/HIV testing and who are more comfortable with technology. These findings will be used to inform the promotion and further evaluation of an Internet-based testing program currently under development in British Columbia, Canada. PMID:24240644

  13. Web GIS in practice II: interactive SVG maps of diagnoses of sexually transmitted diseases by Primary Care Trust in London, 1997 - 2003.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Russell, Chris; Smith, Michael

    2005-01-18

    BACKGROUND: The rates of Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in England have been rising steadily since the mid 1990s, making them a major public health concern. In 2003, 672,718 people were diagnosed with an STD in England, and around one third of those cases were diagnosed in London. RESULTS: Using GeoReveal v1.1 for Windows, we produced Web-based interactive choropleth maps of diagnoses of STDs by Primary Care Trust (PCT) in London for the years from 1997 to 2003 http://healthcybermap.org/PCT/STDs/. These maps are in Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format and require a freely available Adobe SVG browser plug-in to be displayed. They are based on data obtained from the House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 15 October 2004. They show steadily rising rates of STDs in London over the covered seven-year period. Also, one can clearly see on the maps that PCTs located in central London had the highest numbers of STD diagnoses throughout the mapped seven years. A companion bar chart allows users to instantly compare the STD figure of a given PCT for a given year against the average figure for all 25 mapped PCTs for the same year, and also compare those figures across all seven years. The maps offer users a rich set of useful features and functions, including the ability to change the classification method in use, the number of ranges in the map, and the colour theme, among others. CONCLUSIONS: Wizard-driven tools like GeoReveal have made it very easy to transform complex raw data into valuable decision support information products (interactive Web maps) in very little time and without requiring much expertise. The resultant interactive maps have the potential of further supporting health planners and decision makers in their planning and management tasks by allowing them to graphically interrogate data, instantly spot trends, and make quick and effective visual comparisons of geographically differentiated phenomena between different geographical areas and over time.SVG makes an ideal format for such maps. SVG is a World Wide Web Consortium non-proprietary, XML-based vector graphics format, and is an extremely powerful alternative to Macromedia(R) Flash and bitmap graphics. PMID:15655078

  14. Incidence and factors associated with the risk of sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-infected people seen for care in Italy: data from the Icona Foundation cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cingolani, A; Zona, S; Girardi, E; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Monno, L; Quiros Roldan, E; Guaraldi, G; Antinori, A; D’Arminio Monforte, A; Marcotullio, S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to identify temporal trends in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in a cohort of HIV-infected people and to evaluate factors associated with the risk of a new STD diagnosis. Methods All HIV-infected patients in the Icona Foundation Study cohort enrolled after 1998 were included in this study. STD incidence rates (IRs) were calculated and stratified by calendar period. Predictors of STDs were identified using a Poisson regression model with sandwich estimates for standard errors. Results Data for 9168 participants were analysed [median age 37.3 (range 18–81) years; 74% male; 30% men who have sex with men (MSM)]. Over 46?736 person-years of follow-up (PYFU), 996 episodes of STDs were observed [crude IR 21.3/1000 PYFU; 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.0–22.6/1000 PYFU]. In multivariable Poisson regression analysis, MSM [rate ratio (RR) 3.03; 95% CI 2.52–3.64 versus heterosexuals], calendar period (RR 1.67; 95% CI 1.42–1.97 for 2008–2012 versus 1998–2002), HIV RNA?>?50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL (RR 1.44; 95% CI 1.19–1.74 versus HIV RNA???50 copies/mL) and a current CD4 count ?500 cells/?L) were associated with an increased risk of STDs. In contrast, older age (RR 0.82 per 10 years older; 95% CI 0.77–0.89) and being currently on ART (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.33–0.45) compared with being ART-naïve or on a treatment interruption were associated with a lower risk of developing STDs. Conclusions An increase in the incidence of STDs was observed in more recent years. Interventions to prevent STDs and potential spread of HIV should target the younger population, MSM and people currently not receiving ART. PMID:25959419

  15. Global Estimates of the Prevalence and Incidence of Four Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections in 2012 Based on Systematic Review and Global Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lori; Rowley, Jane; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Wijesooriya, Nalinka Saman; Unemo, Magnus; Low, Nicola; Stevens, Gretchen; Gottlieb, Sami; Kiarie, James; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Quantifying sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and incidence is important for planning interventions and advocating for resources. The World Health Organization (WHO) periodically estimates global and regional prevalence and incidence of four curable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and syphilis. Methods and Findings WHO’s 2012 estimates were based upon literature reviews of prevalence data from 2005 through 2012 among general populations for genitourinary infection with chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and trichomoniasis, and nationally reported data on syphilis seroprevalence among antenatal care attendees. Data were standardized for laboratory test type, geography, age, and high risk subpopulations, and combined using a Bayesian meta-analytic approach. Regional incidence estimates were generated from prevalence estimates by adjusting for average duration of infection. In 2012, among women aged 15–49 years, the estimated global prevalence of chlamydia was 4.2% (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 3.7–4.7%), gonorrhoea 0.8% (0.6–1.0%), trichomoniasis 5.0% (4.0–6.4%), and syphilis 0.5% (0.4–0.6%); among men, estimated chlamydia prevalence was 2.7% (2.0–3.6%), gonorrhoea 0.6% (0.4–0.9%), trichomoniasis 0.6% (0.4–0.8%), and syphilis 0.48% (0.3–0.7%). These figures correspond to an estimated 131 million new cases of chlamydia (100–166 million), 78 million of gonorrhoea (53–110 million), 143 million of trichomoniasis (98–202 million), and 6 million of syphilis (4–8 million). Prevalence and incidence estimates varied by region and sex. Conclusions Estimates of the global prevalence and incidence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis in adult women and men remain high, with nearly one million new infections with curable STI each day. The estimates highlight the urgent need for the public health community to ensure that well-recognized effective interventions for STI prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment are made more widely available. Improved estimation methods are needed to allow use of more varied data and generation of estimates at the national level. PMID:26646541

  16. Web GIS in practice II: interactive SVG maps of diagnoses of sexually transmitted diseases by Primary Care Trust in London, 1997 – 2003

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Russell, Chris; Smith, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background The rates of Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in England have been rising steadily since the mid 1990s, making them a major public health concern. In 2003, 672,718 people were diagnosed with an STD in England, and around one third of those cases were diagnosed in London. Results Using GeoReveal v1.1 for Windows, we produced Web-based interactive choropleth maps of diagnoses of STDs by Primary Care Trust (PCT) in London for the years from 1997 to 2003 . These maps are in Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format and require a freely available Adobe SVG browser plug-in to be displayed. They are based on data obtained from the House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 15 October 2004. They show steadily rising rates of STDs in London over the covered seven-year period. Also, one can clearly see on the maps that PCTs located in central London had the highest numbers of STD diagnoses throughout the mapped seven years. A companion bar chart allows users to instantly compare the STD figure of a given PCT for a given year against the average figure for all 25 mapped PCTs for the same year, and also compare those figures across all seven years. The maps offer users a rich set of useful features and functions, including the ability to change the classification method in use, the number of ranges in the map, and the colour theme, among others. Conclusions Wizard-driven tools like GeoReveal have made it very easy to transform complex raw data into valuable decision support information products (interactive Web maps) in very little time and without requiring much expertise. The resultant interactive maps have the potential of further supporting health planners and decision makers in their planning and management tasks by allowing them to graphically interrogate data, instantly spot trends, and make quick and effective visual comparisons of geographically differentiated phenomena between different geographical areas and over time. SVG makes an ideal format for such maps. SVG is a World Wide Web Consortium non-proprietary, XML-based vector graphics format, and is an extremely powerful alternative to Macromedia® Flash and bitmap graphics. PMID:15655078

  17. Sex On-Demand: Geosocial Networking Phone Apps and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections among a Cross-Sectional Sample of Men who have Sex with Men in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Beymer, Matthew R; Weiss, Robert E; Bolan, Robert K; Rudy, Ellen T; Bourque, Linda B; Rodriguez, Jeffrey P; Morisky, Donald E

    2014-01-01

    Background Geosocial networking applications (GSN apps) used to meet sexual partners have become increasingly popular with men who have sex with men (MSM) since 2009. The current study aimed to determine if self-identified HIV negative, MSM clinic attendees who used GSN apps have an increased incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to self-identified HIV negative, MSM attendees who met sexual partners via in-person venues such as bars or clubs or through MSM-specific hook-up websites. Methods Data were collected between August 2011 and January 2013 on all self-identified HIV-negative, MSM clients visiting the L.A. Gay & Lesbian Center for STI screening. A total of 7,184 individuals tested for STIs and self-reported behaviours on drug use and social networking methods to meet sexual partners. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the results. Results Individuals who used GSN apps to meet sexual partners had greater odds of testing positive for gonorrhoea (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.06–1.48) and for chlamydia (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.13–1.65) compared to individuals who met partners through in-person methods only. There were no significant differences in syphilis and HIV incidence between those who met partners via in-person venues only, on the internet or through GSN apps. Conclusions The present study concludes that sexual health clinic MSM attendees who are meeting on GSN apps are at greater risk for gonorrhoea and chlamydia than MSM attendees who meet in-person or on the internet. Future interventions should explore the use of these novel technologies for testing promotion, prevention and education. PMID:24926041

  18. Bacterial genome reduction using the progressive clustering of deletions via yeast sexual cycling

    PubMed Central

    Assad-Garcia, Nacyra; Kostylev, Maxim; Noskov, Vladimir N.; Wise, Kim S.; Karas, Bogumil J.; Stam, Jason; Montague, Michael G.; Hanly, Timothy J.; Enriquez, Nico J.; Ramon, Adi; Goldgof, Gregory M.; Richter, R. Alexander; Vashee, Sanjay; Chuang, Ray-Yuan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Hutchison, Clyde A.; Gibson, Daniel G.; Smith, Hamilton O.; Glass, John I.; Venter, J. Craig

    2015-01-01

    The availability of genetically tractable organisms with simple genomes is critical for the rapid, systems-level understanding of basic biological processes. Mycoplasma bacteria, with the smallest known genomes among free-living cellular organisms, are ideal models for this purpose, but the natural versions of these cells have genome complexities still too great to offer a comprehensive view of a fundamental life form. Here we describe an efficient method for reducing genomes from these organisms by identifying individually deletable regions using transposon mutagenesis and progressively clustering deleted genomic segments using meiotic recombination between the bacterial genomes harbored in yeast. Mycoplasmal genomes subjected to this process and transplanted into recipient cells yielded two mycoplasma strains. The first simultaneously lacked eight singly deletable regions of the genome, representing a total of 91 genes and ?10% of the original genome. The second strain lacked seven of the eight regions, representing 84 genes. Growth assay data revealed an absence of genetic interactions among the 91 genes under tested conditions. Despite predicted effects of the deletions on sugar metabolism and the proteome, growth rates were unaffected by the gene deletions in the seven-deletion strain. These results support the feasibility of using single-gene disruption data to design and construct viable genomes lacking multiple genes, paving the way toward genome minimization. The progressive clustering method is expected to be effective for the reorganization of any mega-sized DNA molecules cloned in yeast, facilitating the construction of designer genomes in microbes as well as genomic fragments for genetic engineering of higher eukaryotes. PMID:25654978

  19. Exploring the costs and outcomes of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions targeting men in football club settings: preliminary cost-consequence analysis of the SPORTSMART pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Louise J; Roberts, Tracy E; Fuller, Sebastian S; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Saunders, John M; Copas, Andrew J; Mercer, Catherine H; Cassell, Jackie A; Estcourt, Claudia S

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare the costs and outcomes of two sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions targeted at men in football club settings in England, including screening promoted by team captains. Methods A comparison of costs and outcomes was undertaken alongside a pilot cluster randomised control trial involving three trial arms: (1) captain-led and poster STI screening promotion; (2) sexual health advisor-led and poster STI screening promotion and (3) poster-only STI screening promotion (control/comparator). For all study arms, resource use and cost data were collected prospectively. Results There was considerable variation in uptake rates between clubs, but results were broadly comparable across study arms with 50% of men accepting the screening offer in the captain-led arm, 67% in the sexual health advisor-led arm and 61% in the poster-only control arm. The overall costs associated with the intervention arms were similar. The average cost per player tested was comparable, with the average cost per player tested for the captain-led promotion estimated to be £88.99 compared with £88.33 for the sexual health advisor-led promotion and £81.87 for the poster-only (control) arm. Conclusions Costs and outcomes were similar across intervention arms. The target sample size was not achieved, and we found a greater than anticipated variability between clubs in the acceptability of screening, which limited our ability to estimate acceptability for intervention arms. Further evidence is needed about the public health benefits associated with screening interventions in non-clinical settings so that their cost-effectiveness can be fully evaluated. PMID:25512670

  20. Homophobia is associated with sexual behavior that increases risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection among black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, William L; Marks, Gary; Lauby, Jennifer; Murrill, Christopher S; Millett, Gregorio A

    2013-05-01

    We investigated whether the experience of homophobic events increases the odds of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among black men who have sex with men (MSM) and whether social integration level buffered the association. Participants (N = 1,154) reported homophobic events experienced in the past 12 months. Social integration measures included social support, closeness with family members and friends, attachment to the black gay community, openness about sexuality within religious communities, and MSM social network size. Logistic regression analyses indicated that experiencing homophobia was associated with (1) UAI among men not previously diagnosed with HIV and (2) sexual HIV transmission risk behavior among men who knew they were HIV-infected. None of the social integration measures buffered these associations. Homophobia may promote acquisition and transmission of HIV infection among black MSM. Interventions are needed to reduce homophobia experienced by black MSM. PMID:22569942

  1. Diagnosis and Management of Uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Adolescents and Adults: Summary of Evidence Reviewed for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Geisler, William M

    2015-12-15

    In preparation for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Treatment Guidelines, the CDC convened an advisory group in 2013 to examine recent abstracts and published literature addressing the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of STDs. This article summarizes the key questions, evidence, and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in adolescents and adults that were considered in development of the 2015 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines. The evidence reviewed primarily focused on CT infection risk factors in women, clinical significance of oropharyngeal CT detection, acceptability and performance of CT testing on self-collected specimens in men, performance of CT point-of-care tests, efficacy of recommended and investigational CT infection treatments, and timing of test of cure following CT infection treatment in pregnant women. PMID:26602617

  2. Detection of a sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor-resistance variant in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected homosexual man.

    PubMed

    Franco, Sandra; Tural, Cristina; Nevot, Maria; Moltó, José; Rockstroh, Jürgen Kurt; Clotet, Bonaventura; Martinez, Miguel Angel

    2014-09-01

    There is an international epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men who have sex with men. Transmission of HCV variants that are resistant to recently approved direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) could be an important clinical and public health problem. We document a case of transmission of a DAA-resistant variant of HCV from a patient who was treated with telaprevir to his sexual partner. The transmission of HCV DAA-resistant variants could impair therapeutic regimens that include DAAs. PMID:24859204

  3. “I AM PROUD OF MYSELF, JUST THE WAY I AM” (MWEN FYÈ DE TÈT MWEN, JAN MWEN YE YA): A QUALITATIVE STUDY AMONG YOUNG HAITIAN WOMEN SEEKING CARE FOR SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (STIS) IN HAITI

    PubMed Central

    Severe, Linda; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Deschamps, Marie M.; Reif, Lindsey; Post, Kendall; Johnson, Warren D.; Pape, Jean W.; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Haitian women are twice as likely as men to have HIV/AIDs. Factors underlying the feminization of HIV are complex. Self-esteem is an important correlate of sexual behavior. However, its meaning and impact on health behaviors may be influenced by cultural factors. This qualitative study took place in Haiti 4 months after the 2010 earthquake and examines the meaning of self-esteem among young Haitian women seeking treatment for a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI). The meaning of self-esteem was derived from a sense of gratitude and was rooted in their ability to provide for family. This may have led to behaviors such as not using condoms or having sex with partners in concurrent relationships. This article highlights the resilience and resourcefulness of Haitian women, provides insight into how women with apparent positive self-images were led to make choices that placed them at high risk for contracting HIV, and concludes with recommendations for future interventions. PMID:24694329

  4. Sexually transmitted infection screening and reproductive health counseling in adolescent renal transplant recipients: Perceptions and practice patterns. A study from the Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Ashoor, Isa F; Dharnidharka, Vikas R

    2015-11-01

    We wanted to identify practice patterns and perceived barriers among pediatric nephrologists regarding STI screening and reproductive health counseling in adolescent renal transplant recipients. We created an online Likert-scaled survey. Response rate was 54%. The majority (83%) believed STI risk in their patients was similar to or higher than healthy teens. Interestingly, while 67% felt moderately or very confident in asking about sexual activity and counseling about safer sex, only 43% routinely or always inquired about sexual activity, and only 42% routinely or always counseled about safer sex. Fifty-four percent routinely or always discussed contraceptive options and implications of unintentional pregnancy. Fifty-one percent routinely or always referred patients to a gynecologist or adolescent provider for contraception prescription. The most common counseling mechanism was informal discussions in clinic (87%). Ten percent had no mechanism in place. Major barriers included time limitations, adolescents' fear regarding confidentiality, and lack of professional training. This is the first report of perceptions and practice patterns of pediatric nephrologists regarding STI screening and reproductive health counseling. Providers seem to recognize the importance of counseling; however, translation into practice remains low. Professional training in this area and increased encounter time could improve counseling delivery and thereby reduce risk in this population. PMID:26260626

  5. An integrated model of care to counter high incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in men who have sex with men – initial analysis of service utilizers in Zurich

    PubMed Central

    Schwappach, David LB; Bruggmann, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background As other countries, Switzerland experiences a high or even rising incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM). An outpatient clinic for gay men ("Checkpoint") was opened in 2006 in Zurich (Switzerland) in order to provide sexual health services. The clinic provides counselling, testing, medical treatment and follow-up at one location under an "open-door-policy" and with a high level of personal continuity. We describe first experiences with the new service and report the characteristics of the population that utilized it. Methods During the 6-month evaluation period, individuals who requested counselling, testing or treatment were asked to participate in a survey at their first visit prior to the consultation. The instrument includes questions regarding personal data, reasons for presenting, sexual behaviour, and risk situations. Number and results of HIV/STI tests and treatments for STI were also recorded. Results During the evaluation period, 632 consultations were conducted and 247 patients were seen by the physician. 406 HIV tests were performed (3.4% positive). 402 men completed the entry survey (64% of all consultations). The majority of respondents had 4 and more partners during the last 12 months and engaged in either receptive, insertive or both forms of anal intercourse. More than half of the responders used drugs or alcohol to get to know other men or in conjunction with sexual activity (42% infrequently, 10% frequently and 0.5% used drugs always). The main reasons for requesting testing were a prior risk situation (46.3%), followed by routine screening without a prior risk situation (24.1%) and clarification of HIV/STI status due to a new relationship (29.6%). A fifth of men that consulted the service had no history of prior tests for HIV or other STIs. Conclusion Since its first months of activity, the service achieved high levels of recognition, acceptance and demand in the MSM community. Contrary to common concepts of "testing clinics", the Checkpoint service provides post-exposure prophylaxis, HIV and STI treatment, psychological support and counselling and general medical care. It thus follows a holistic approach to health in the MSM community with the particular aim to serve as a "door opener" between the established system of care and those men that have no access to, or for any reason hesitate to utilize traditional health care. PMID:18505556

  6. A group-based HIV and sexually transmitted infections prevention intervention for lesbian, bisexual, queer and other women who have sex with women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada: study protocol for a non-randomised cohort pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H; Navia, Daniela; Rwigema, Marie-Jolie; Tharao, Wangari; Este, David; Loutfy, Mona R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The limited research that exists suggests that lesbian, bisexual queer (LBQ) and other women who have sex with women are at similar risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) as heterosexual women. However, scant research has evaluated HIV and STI prevention strategies for LBQ women. The authors present the rationale and study protocol for developing and pilot testing a psychoeducational group-based HIV and STI prevention intervention with LBQ women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre non-randomised cohort pilot study. The target population is LBQ women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada. The authors aim to recruit 40 participants using purposive peer-driven recruitment methods. Participants will conduct a pretest followed by a 2-day group programme of six 2?h sessions addressing stigma, STI and HIV prevention, healthy relationships, safer sex self-efficacy, self-worth, social support and LBQ community engagement. Participants will conduct a post-test directly following the intervention and 6?weeks after the intervention. The primary outcome is safer sex practices; our prespecified index of clinically significant change is an effect size of 0.50. Secondary outcomes include: safer sex self-efficacy, STI testing frequency, STI knowledge, resilient coping, social support, sexual stigma, access to care, depression and self-esteem. We will conduct mixed-effects regression to calculate mean outcome pre–post test score change. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval was attained from the Office of Research Ethics (REB: 29291), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Trial results will be published according to the Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomised Designs (TREND) statement, regardless of the outcomes. Trial registration number This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT02067845. PMID:24760356

  7. Young Women Engaged in Sex Work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Have High Incidence of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Use: New Challenges to HIV Prevention and Risk

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sapphon, Vonthanak; Phal, Serey; Sichan, Keo; Stein, Ellen; Evans, Jennifer; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Vun, Mean Chhi; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate prevalence and incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and associated risk factors among young women working as sex workers (SWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods A prospective study of young (<29 years) women working as SWs in brothels, entertainment establishments, and freelance. Sociodemographics, sexual risk, and use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) (“yama” and “crystal”) were assessed by self-report. HIV and STI (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) testing were conducted on blood and urine specimens, respectively. Results Baseline prevalences of HIV, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae were 23%, 11.5%, and 7.8%, respectively. HIV incidence was 3.6 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2%– 11.1%); STI incidence was 21.2 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 12.6%– 35.8%). At baseline, 26.5% reported recent ATS use. HIV infection was associated with freelance SW (adjusted odds ratio, 5.85; 95% CI, 1.59–21.58) and younger age of first sex (?15 years; adjusted odds ratio, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.01–8.46). Incident STI was associated with duration (per year) of SW (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1–1.2) and recent yama use (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5–10.3). Conclusions HIV and STI infection rates were high among SWs working in various settings; freelancers had highest risk. ATS use was associated with incident STI. Venue of sex work and drug prevention should be considered in prevention programs. PMID:21085056

  8. latex condom is the single best method of reducing the risk of acquiring and transmitting STDs for

    E-print Network

    for patients at risk of acquiring or transmitting sexually trans- mitted diseases (STDs) is a challenging ended among male patients of an urban, public sexually transmitted disease clinic. Participants: condoms; men; sexually transmitted dis- eases; prevention From Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana

  9. Sexuality and the law.

    PubMed

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  10. what sexual scientists know about... a publication of

    E-print Network

    Control and Prevention. (2002). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002. Morbidity use errors and problems among college men. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 29, 552-557. Crosby,R.A). If the condom fits, wear it: A qualitative study of young African American men. Sexually Transmitted Infections

  11. How to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common STIs? • Chlamydia (see FAQ071 “Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis”) • Gonorrhea (see FAQ071 “Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis”) • Genital herpes (see FAQ054 “Genital Herpes”) • Human immunodeficiency ...

  12. Advice and facts about Sexually transmitted

    E-print Network

    11 Mycoplasma genitalium 16 Gonorrhoea 19 Syphilis 22 HIV 25 Condyloma/HPV 30 Herpes 33 Hepatitis 36 genitalium (bacteria) gonorrhoea (bacteria) syphilis (bacteria) HIV (virus) condyloma (virus) herpes disease is present. Condyloma, herpes and syphilis can also be present on the skin around the genitals

  13. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Committee for Quality Assurance. HEDIS 2013: technical specifications. Washington (DC): National Committee for Quality Assurance; 2012. p. 90- ... Quality Assurance. The state of healthcare quality 2012. Washington (DC): National Committee for Quality Assurance; 2011. p. 84- ...

  14. Diagnostic Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... Body HIV/AIDS Physical examination,, and thorough medical history, plus one or more of the following blood ...

  15. Ethical Information Transparency and Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Shared decision making is intended to help protect patient autonomy while satisfying the demands of beneficence. In shared decision making, information is shared between health care professional and patient. The sharing of information presents new and practical problems about how much information to share and how transparent that information should be. Sharing information also allows for subtle paternalistic strategies to be employed to "nudge" the patient in a desired direction. These problems are illustrated in two experiments. Experiment 1 (N = 146) suggested that positively framed messages increased the strength of judgments about whether a patient with HIV should designate a surrogate compared to a negatively framed message. A simple decision aid did not reliably reduce this effect. Experiment 2 (N = 492) replicated these effects. In addition, Experiment 2 suggested that providing some additional information (e.g., about surrogate decision making accuracy) can reduce tendencies to think that one with AIDS should designate a surrogate. These results indicate that in some circumstances, nudges (e.g., framing) influence judgments in ways that non-nudging interventions (e.g., simple graphs) do not. While non-nudging interventions are generally preferable, careful thought is required for determining the relative benefits and costs associated with information transparency and persuasion. PMID:26149163

  16. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Gonorrhea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... population were located in the South. Gonorrhea by Sex Gonorrhea rates among women have been slightly higher ... the Special Focus Profiles. Gonorrhea by Region and Sex During 2011–2012, gonorrhea rates among women and ...

  17. ICP, January 2005ICP, January 2005 NetworksofSexualInteractions

    E-print Network

    Harting, Jens

    Transmitted Diseases #12;Stuttgart, January 2005Stuttgart, January 2005 NetworksofSexualInteractions Sexually Transmitted Diseases #12;Stuttgart, January 2005Stuttgart, January 2005 NetworksofSexualInteractions ContactICP, January 2005ICP, January 2005 NetworksofSexualInteractions Model of mobile agents for

  18. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Page Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... been tested for HIV. * Sexual risk behaviors place adolescents at risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted ...

  19. Biosensors for Whole-Cell Bacterial Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rushworth, Jo V.; Hirst, Natalie A.; Millner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial pathogens are important targets for detection and identification in medicine, food safety, public health, and security. Bacterial infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In spite of the availability of antibiotics, these infections are often misdiagnosed or there is an unacceptable delay in diagnosis. Current methods of bacterial detection rely upon laboratory-based techniques such as cell culture, microscopic analysis, and biochemical assays. These procedures are time-consuming and costly and require specialist equipment and trained users. Portable stand-alone biosensors can facilitate rapid detection and diagnosis at the point of care. Biosensors will be particularly useful where a clear diagnosis informs treatment, in critical illness (e.g., meningitis) or to prevent further disease spread (e.g., in case of food-borne pathogens or sexually transmitted diseases). Detection of bacteria is also becoming increasingly important in antibioterrorism measures (e.g., anthrax detection). In this review, we discuss recent progress in the use of biosensors for the detection of whole bacterial cells for sensitive and earlier identification of bacteria without the need for sample processing. There is a particular focus on electrochemical biosensors, especially impedance-based systems, as these present key advantages in terms of ease of miniaturization, lack of reagents, sensitivity, and low cost. PMID:24982325

  20. Sexual Violence: Sexual assault

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    Medical Options · Medical Care/Treatment & Evidence Collection · Student Health Services Reporting SexualSexual Violence: Sexual assault Sexual harassment Stalking Intimate partner abuse/domestic violence Resources FOR VICTIMS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT INFORMATION TO ASSIST MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS

  1. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Snacking Losing Weight Safely Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For Guys > Sexual Harassment ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  2. Greater Exposure to Sexual Content in Popular Movies Predicts Earlier Sexual Debut and Increased Sexual Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence. PMID:22810165

  3. Greater exposure to sexual content in popular movies predicts earlier sexual debut and increased sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2012-09-01

    Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence. PMID:22810165

  4. Receive Transmit Telescope Telescope

    E-print Network

    Receive Transmit Telescope Telescope Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing Technology Development technologies. BRMS utilizes two optically coupled telescopes to relay a laser source from the ground telescope is attached to the spacecraft bus with navigation and attitude control subsystems. The BRMS

  5. VINCLOZOLIN (V) TREATMENT INDUCES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS AND INFERTILITY IN F1 MALE RATS WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL BUT NOT GONADAL DIFFERENTIATION. THE EFFECTS ARE NOT TRANSMITTED TO THE SUBSEQUENT GENERATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    V produces adverse reproductive effects in male rats when administered during sexual differentiation by acting as an androgen-antagonist. It was recently reported that four generations of SD rats, derived from dams dosed via ip injection GD8-15 with 100 mg V/kg/day, displayed pro...

  6. Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quincy, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted

  7. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual

  8. Beyond Risk: Examining College Students' Sexual Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Sara B.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual health education often focuses on prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies, but the decision to engage in sexual activity is equally important. This cross-sectional study examined the decisions of college students (n = 422) to engage in oral sex, vaginal sex, and other sexual behaviors. Regression analyses…

  9. Improving Sexuality Education: The Development of Teacher-Preparation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Elissa M.; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Russell, Susan; Seabert, Denise; Wallen, Michele; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teaching sexuality education to support young people's sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the…

  10. Is Risky Sexual Behavior Continuous or Categorical? A Taxometric Analysis of the Sexual Risk Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, David K.; Fulton, Jessica J.; Turchik, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviors are behaviors that involve the possibility of an adverse outcome, such as contracting a sexually transmitted infection or unwanted pregnancy. The question of whether risky sexual behavior exists as a discrete class (i.e., taxon) or as a dimensional construct has not previously been explored. The authors performed a set of…

  11. Sexual health and contraception.

    PubMed

    Straw, Fiona; Porter, Charlotte

    2012-10-01

    Sexual health encompasses 'sexual development and reproductive health, as well as the ability to develop and maintain meaningful interpersonal relationships; appreciate one's own body; interact with both genders in respectful and appropriate ways; express affection, love and intimacy in ways consistent with one's own values'. The 2008 WHO Consensus Statement additionally noted that 'responsible adolescent intimate relationships' should be 'consensual, non-exploitative, honest, pleasurable and protected against unintended pregnancy and STDs if any type of intercourse occurs'. Young people (YP) must, therefore, be able to access sexual health information and services that meet their needs. For most YP, interest in sexual activity begins with puberty, and this is associated with increasingly sexualised behaviour, including exploration of themselves and others. Most YP find this a confusing time, and so it is important that health professionals are able to offer advice regarding the wide range of sexual health issues, including sexuality, choice of partner, contraception, risk and management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a confident and approachable manner. YP have never had so much choice or information available to them, and this can be confusing for them. There is good evidence that YP who get information from their parents are likely to initiate sexual activity later than their peers who access information from their friends. However, there is also evidence that some YP would prefer to get sexual health information from health professionals. It is therefore imperative that all health professionals who see YP have an awareness of sexual health issues, and know where to signpost YP should they need more specialist sexual health advice and/or treatment. Where appropriate, one-to-one sexual health advice should be provided to YP on how to prevent and get tested for STIs, and how to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Advice should also be given on all methods of reversible contraception, including long-acting reversible contraception, emergency contraception and other reproductive issues. PMID:22983512

  12. Light transmitting window assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, D. L.

    1985-06-01

    This invention provides a light transmitting assembly that can, at will, be changed from a state of transparency to one of translucency. It comprises two parallel spaced apart panes of transparent material, such as glass, with a film of polytetrafluoroethane, which is inherently translucent or opaque, disposed between. The assembly is rendered transparent by introducing a fluid into the assembly to substantially cover a surface of the film; the liquid having a refractive index corresponding to the refractive index of the film. The translucency is restored by removing the fluid.

  13. DOT Transmit Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Gin, Jonathan W.; Sahasrabudhe, Adit; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2013-01-01

    The Deep Space Optical Terminal (DOT) transmit module demonstrates the DOT downlink signaling in a flight electronics assembly that can be qualified for deep space. The assembly has the capability to generate an electronic pulse-position modulation (PPM) waveform suitable for driving a laser assembly to produce the optical downlink signal. The downlink data enters the assembly through a serializer/ deserializer (SERDES) interface, and is encoded using a serially concatenated PPM (SCPPM) forward error correction code. The encoded data is modulated using PPM with an inter-symbol guard time to aid in receiver synchronization. Monitor and control of the assembly is via a low-voltage differential signal (LVDS) interface

  14. Sexually acquired hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Brook, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current knowledge of sexually transmitted viral hepatitis in relation to epidemiology, clinical presentation, management, and diagnosis with particular reference to resource-poor settings. Method: A search of published literature identified through Medline from 1966 to October 2001, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists taken from each article obtained. Textword and MeSH searches for hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G, delta, GB virus, GBV-C, and TT virus were linked to searches under the textword terms sex$, prevent$, and MeSH subheadings, microbiology, complications, drug therapy, therapy, diagnosis, epidemiology, transmission, and prevention and control. Conclusions: In heterosexual relationships, hepatitis B is readily transmitted sexually and hepatitis C and D less so, with no evidence for sexual transmission of hepatitis A. Hepatitis types A‘D are all transmissible sexually in male homosexual relationships under certain conditions. In resource-poor countries sexual transmission is generally only a significant route of transmission for hepatitis B. PMID:12181458

  15. On the sexual transmission dynamics of hepatitis B virus in China$ , Shigui Ruan b,n

    E-print Network

    Ruan, Shigui

    the incidence data of HBV and sexually transmitted diseases (including AIDS, HIV, syphilis and gonorrhea transmitted disease Sensitivity analysis a b s t r a c t In a previous study we noticed that there might be co and awareness about hepatitis B virus, particularly about the fact that hepatitis B is a sexually transmitted

  16. The dynamics of sexual contact networks: effects on disease spread and control

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ted

    are shared between many sexually transmitted infections, the prevalence of these diseases across differentThe dynamics of sexual contact networks: effects on disease spread and control Katy Robinson1, Ted Sexually transmitted pathogens persist in populations despite the availability of biomedical interven tions

  17. Sexual ornamentation reflects antibacterial activity of ejaculates in mallards

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Melissah; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; McGraw, Kevin J.; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria present in ejaculates can impair sperm function and reduce male reproductive success. Thus, selection should favour the evolution of antimicrobial defences to limit the detrimental effects of sperm-associated bacteria. Additionally, current hypotheses suggest that ornamental traits may signal information about the infection status of an individual or the ability of an individual to resist bacterial-induced sperm damage. However, despite the evolutionary implications of ejaculate antimicrobials, and the putative importance of pathogens for the evolution of male ornamentation, tests of these hypotheses are lacking. We examined the antibacterial activity of semen from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and tested whether the bactericidal capacity of semen was associated with bill coloration, a sexually selected trait. We show that mallard semen exhibits significant antibacterial activity, as measured by the in vitro capacity to kill Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that males with more colourful bills have semen with superior bacterial-killing ability. These results suggest that females could use male phenotypic traits to avoid sexually transmitted pathogens and acquire partners whose sperm suffer less bacteria-induced damage. PMID:21490006

  18. Demographic, psychosocial, and contextual factors associated with sexual risk behaviors among young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Amy; Kuhns, Lisa; Kinsky, Suzanne; Johnson, Amy; Garofalo, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Young sexual minority women are at risk for negative sexual health outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies, yet little is known about these risks. We examined factors that may influence sexual risk from a psychosocial and contextual perspective. Analyses were conducted to examine within group relationships between sexual behaviors, negative outcomes, and related factors in a sample of young sexual minority women. Participants (N = 131) were young (mean = 19.8) and diverse in terms of race/ethnicity (57% non-White). Sex under the influence, having multiple partners, and having unprotected sex were common behaviors, and pregnancy (20%) and sexually transmitted infection (12%) were common outcomes. Risk behaviors were associated with age, alcohol abuse, and older partners. Results support the need for further research to understand how these factors contribute to risk in order to target risk reduction programs for this population. PMID:24217447

  19. Teenage Sexual Health Needs: Asking the Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Carolyn; Allan, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In response to rising prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) among teenagers, this study was designed to examine teenage perceptions of sex education, access to services, and attitudes relevant to STI. Design/methodology/approach: A focus group study was conducted in three schools to discuss the sexual health needs of…

  20. Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Claudine; Robin, Emilie; Nhan, Tuxuan; Teissier, Anita; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually. PMID:25625872

  1. Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Musso, Didier; Roche, Claudine; Robin, Emilie; Nhan, Tuxuan; Teissier, Anita; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2015-02-01

    In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually. PMID:25625872

  2. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  3. Sexuality Education in India: Examining the Rhetoric, Rethinking the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Arpita

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) has been recognised globally as key to helping young people assert their sexual and reproductive rights. In India too, there is growing awareness of the importance of providing CSE not only to reduce sexually transmitted infections, unintended pregnancies and abortions but also to teach important life…

  4. The Need for School-Based Comprehensive Sexuality Education: Some Reflections after 32 Years Teaching Sexuality to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the last three decades in contraceptive technology and the treatment of sexually transmitted infections. However, education of the nation's youth about sexual health issues has been less successful. Most parents remain silent on the topic of sexuality while states argue over the curriculum. As a result, a…

  5. Diseases Transmitted by Cats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Abrahamian, Fredrick M

    2015-10-01

    Humans and cats have shared a close relationship since ancient times. Millions of cats are kept as household pets, and 34% of households have cats. There are numerous diseases that may be transmitted from cats to humans. General modes of transmission, with some overlapping features, can occur through inhalation (e.g., bordetellosis); vector-borne spread (e.g., ehrlichiosis); fecal-oral route (e.g., campylobacteriosis); bite, scratch, or puncture (e.g., rabies); soil-borne spread (e.g., histoplasmosis); and direct contact (e.g., scabies). It is also likely that the domestic cat can potentially act as a reservoir for many other zoonoses that are not yet recognized. The microbiology of cat bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial with a broad mixture of aerobic (e.g., Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and anaerobic (e.g., Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides) microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected cat bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the cat, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. PMID:26542039

  6. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    MedlinePLUS

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... the sickness. All types of food poisoning cause diarrhea . Other symptoms include: Abdominal cramps Abdominal pain Bloody ...

  7. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  8. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    PubMed

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid. PMID:24382700

  9. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  10. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Sexual Behavior of High-Risk Adolescents: Implications for Counseling and Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchert, Tim; Burnett, Kent F.

    1990-01-01

    Examined high-risk sexual behavior in adolescents (N=212) involved in juvenile justice system. Found that youth were at high risk for unintended pregnancy, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and other sexually transmitted disease. Compared to national norms, sample reported very early mean age at first intercourse and high rate of pregnancy. Most…

  11. Statistics, Uncertainty, and Transmitted Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth

    2014-11-05

    The field of Statistics provides methods for modeling and understanding data and making decisions in the presence of uncertainty. When examining response functions, variation present in the input variables will be transmitted via the response function to the output variables. This phenomenon can potentially have significant impacts on the uncertainty associated with results from subsequent analysis. This presentation will examine the concept of transmitted variation, its impact on designed experiments, and a method for identifying and estimating sources of transmitted variation in certain settings.

  12. Internet Sexualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  13. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  14. FastStats: Sexually Transmitted Diseases/STD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Functioning Exercise or Physical Activity Obesity and Overweight Smoking Injuries Accidents or Unintentional Injuries All Injuries Assault or Homicide Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  15. Teen Talk: Commonly Asked Questions about Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... provide some protection, but not as much as latex condoms. And “skin” condoms (made from animal membrane) ... best way to prevent infection is to USE LATEX CONDOMS the right way every single time you ...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Sexually Transmitted Pathogen

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    that likely transpired through lateral gene transfer from bacteria, and amplification of specific gene of the parasite during its transition to a urogenital environment. The genome sequence predicts previously unknown was identified (Table 1), endowing T. vaginalis with one of the highest coding capacities among eukaryotes (table

  17. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infections are caused by different species of parasitic worms. They are transmitted by eggs present in human ... is based on: periodical deworming to eliminate infecting worms health education to prevent re-infection improved sanitation ...

  18. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... form of non-consensual physical contact. It includes rape, molestation, or any sexual conduct with a person ... more? "Speaking the unspeakable: An interview about elder sexual assault with Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Ph.D" in nexus , ...

  19. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Snacking Losing Weight Safely Learn the facts about sexual health with articles about puberty, menstruation, infections, and just ...

  20. Adolescent's sexual problems in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, B S

    1990-07-01

    This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on sexual matters. Proposals needing implementation include family life education for parents and their children, sex education and counseling within the school systems, treatment centers for sexually transmitted diseases and pre/post natal care, and youth counseling centers. PMID:12316430

  1. Algorithmic approaches to distributed adaptive transmit beamforming

    E-print Network

    Beigl, Michael

    . INTRODUCTION By phase coherent superimpositioning of RF transmit signal components from wireless sensor nodesAlgorithmic approaches to distributed adaptive transmit beamforming Stephan Sigg and Michael Beigl- provements on distributed adaptive transmit beamforming in wireless sensor networks. These algorithms reduce

  2. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  3. Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates: pathogen detection and inactivation methods

    PubMed Central

    Védy, Dana; Robert, Daniel; Gasparini, Danielle; Canellini, Giorgia; Waldvogel, Sophie; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the reduction of transfusion related viral transmission has been a priority during the last decade, bacterial infection transmitted by transfusion still remains associated to a high morbidity and mortality, and constitutes the most frequent infectious risk of transfusion. This problem especially concerns platelet concentrates because of their favorable bacterial growth conditions. This review gives an overview of platelet transfusion-related bacterial contamination as well as on the different strategies to reduce this problem by using either bacterial detection or inactivation methods.

  4. Teens' use of digital technologies and preferences for receiving STD prevention and sexual health promotion messages: implications for the next generation of intervention initiatives.

    PubMed

    Buhi, Eric R; Klinkenberger, Natalie; Hughes, Shana; Blunt, Heather D; Rietmeijer, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teens' digital device ownership, online activities, and usage/frequency of communication modalities. Teens with a current sexually transmitted disease were more likely to report willingness to use a text messaging service to have sexual health questions answered. Next-generation sexually transmitted disease prevention initiatives must use newer communication technologies to maximize effectiveness. PMID:23250302

  5. Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

  6. Is Sexual Behavior Healthy for Adolescents? A Conceptual Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Physical, Mental, and Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Welsh, Deborah P.

    2014-01-01

    Although research has increasingly emphasized how adolescent sexual behavior may be associated with aspects of health beyond unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, no current theoretical or conceptual model fully explains associations between sexual behavior and multiple facets of health. We provide a conceptual model that…

  7. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  8. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  9. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual individuals; and (c) altered participants' attitudes toward premarital sex and monogamy. The program used diverse teaching methods, providing 6 sessions over a period of 9 weeks about sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes to college students (age 18-26 years) in Southwest China. Sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes of 80 comprehensive sexual education class students (education group) and 92 general mental health education class students (control group) were measured at baseline, the end of course (posttest), and 3 weeks after the end of course (follow-up). There were significant effects of the program on (a) sexual health knowledge, including reproductive health, contraception, condom use, and HIV/AIDS and (b) positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, although these changes may require further reinforcement. In contrast, the program did not alter students' attitudes about premarital sex or monogamy. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations of sex education in China and future directions for research. PMID:23417908

  10. Bacterial Chromosome Organization and Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Esteban; Shapiro, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are generally ?1000 times longer than the cells in which they reside, and concurrent replication, segregation, and transcription/translation of this crowded mass of DNA poses a challenging organizational problem. Recent advances in cell-imaging technology with subdiffraction resolution have revealed that the bacterial nucleoid is reliably oriented and highly organized within the cell. Such organization is transmitted from one generation to the next by progressive segregation of daughter chromosomes and anchoring of DNA to the cell envelope. Active segregation by a mitotic machinery appears to be common; however, the mode of chromosome segregation varies significantly from species to species. PMID:20182613

  11. [Adolescent's sexuality].

    PubMed

    Roynet, D

    2007-09-01

    Adolescence, period hinge between child and adulthood, is one period of great psychic and physiological vulnerability. The autonomisation, the sexualisation of feelings, the step to on active sexuality are potential situations of conflicts, dangers and various risks to reach and discover its own identity. Attacks against masculinity or femininity, sexual traumas, wounds in the relations (rejects, humiliation, abandon, ...) could have important consequences on sexual health of the adult in becoming. PMID:17958032

  12. Compulsory sexuality.

    PubMed

    Emens, Elizabeth F

    2014-02-01

    Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws. PMID:24654293

  13. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole; Grossi, Anette Blak; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Erneholm, Karin; Skytte, Christina; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2015-01-01

    Although the pig has been introduced as an advanced animal model of genital tract infections in women, almost no knowledge exists on the porcine vaginal microbiota, especially in barrier-raised Göttingen Minipigs. In women, the vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role for a healthy vaginal environment and the fate of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Therefore, knowledge on the vaginal microbiota is urgently needed for the minipig model. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of the anterior vagina by 16 s rRNA gene sequencing in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridiales Family XI Incertae Sedis, Paenibacillaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Syntrophaceae. We found a higher abundance of Lactobacillaceae in the prepubertal Göttingen Minipigs compared to sexually mature non-pregnant Göttingen Minipigs. However, correlation tests and diversity parameters revealed a very stable vaginal microbiota in the Göttingen Minipigs, both before and after sexual maturity and on different days throughout an estrous cycle. The vaginal microbiota in Göttingen Minipigs was not dominated by lactobacilli, as it is in women and according to our results the minipig vaginal microbiota is very stable, in opposite to women. These differences should be considered when using the minipig as a model of the genital tract in women. PMID:26510418

  14. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…

  15. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  16. Bacterial Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology. PMID:26488274

  17. Attitudes toward Sexuality and Sexual Behaviors of Asian-American Adolescents. Implications for Risk of HIV Infection. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Connie S.

    There has been a widespread perception that Asian Americans are at lower risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases than the population as a whole. This report assesses the knowledge of Asian American adolescents about AIDS and their sexual behaviors and explores whether there is a difference between a Cambodian group (half the…

  18. Communicating with School Nurses about Sexual Orientation and Sexual Health: Perspectives of Teen Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasberry, Catherine N.; Morris, Elana; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H.; Robin, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. This study informs school-centered strategies for connecting YMSM to health services by describing their willingness, perceived safety, and experiences in talking to school staff about sexual health.…

  19. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape, stalking or

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape, stalking inappropriate sexual materials in a location where others can view them. Sexual assault, rape, or attempted

  20. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  1. Hispanic and White College Students' Sexual Behavior: More Similar than Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Public health data have shown higher rates of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections for Hispanic individuals as compared with White individuals in the United States. This study compared sexual health behaviors and sexual outcomes between Hispanic and White college students (N = 1,008) at a Hispanic serving institution. Using…

  2. College Student Risky Sexual Behaviors and the Attaining of Academic Success a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the qualitative study was to explore college student sexual health choices from a 4-year undergraduate institution. The study could be used for future research into why the numbers of sexual risk choices including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain among college campuses, and how they affect academic success. Through…

  3. The Association of Childhood Personality on Sexual Risk Taking during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sexual risk taking during adolescence such as failure to use contraception or condoms is associated with premature parenthood and high rates of sexually transmitted infection. The relation of childhood personality to sexual risk taking during adolescence has been largely unexplored. Methods: Using data collected from participants in…

  4. The Influence of Sexual Scripts and the "Better than Average" Effect on Condom Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Bailey, Lindsey L.; Moring, John; Angiola, Julie; Bowen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Young adults attending college are especially susceptible to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to high rates of risky sexual behaviour. Many college students are aware of the disease risks involved in vaginal and anal intercourse with heterosexual partners; however, only 35% of sexually active students reported condom use. Data from this…

  5. Towards Supporting Communication in Relationship and Sexuality Education through a VLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Formal sex education is a key strategy to help prevent unplanned teenage pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, sexual abuse and social discrimination. However, research highlights human sexuality is a difficult issue for educators to communicate with young people in traditional class settings. The growing tendency for young adolescents to…

  6. First Time: Characteristics of Teens' First Sexual Relationships. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Manlove, Jennifer; Franzetta, Kerry

    Understanding characteristics of teens' sexual relationships may help us to better understand how to reduce teens' risk of early unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as the psychological and emotional problems that may be associated with teenage romantic relationships and sexual activity. Using data from the…

  7. A Pilot Project to Increase Parent Comfort Communicating with Their Children about Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Elissa M.; Johnson Moore, Michele; Howard, Alexandria

    2012-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviors among U.S. adolescents have resulted in epidemic rates of sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and unintended pregnancy. This article describes a community-developed pilot program for parents in a large South Florida county aimed at increasing parent comfort in discussing sexuality with their children to improve adolescent…

  8. Creative Contributory Contests to Spur Innovation in Sexual Health: 2 Cases and a Guide for Implementation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Kim, Julie A; Liu, Fengying; Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Weiming; Wei, Chongyi; Bayus, Barry L; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-11-01

    Sexual health campaigns are often designed "top-down" by public health experts, failing to engage key populations. Using the power of crowdsourcing to shape a "bottom-up" approach, this note describes 2 creative contributory contests to enhance sexual health campaigns. We provide guidance for designing creative contributory contests to improve HIV and other sexually transmitted disease testing. PMID:26462186

  9. The Effectiveness of Abstinence Education Programs in Reducing Sexual Activity among Youth. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rector, Robert

    Teenage sexual activity is a major problem confronting the nation and has led to a rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, emotional and psychological injuries, and out-of-wedlock childbearing. Abstinence education programs for youth have proven effective in reducing early sexual activity. They can also provide the foundation for…

  10. Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of…

  11. Parent and Family Influences on Young Women's Romantic and Sexual Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Parents can play an important role in reducing their children's risk for teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, and in promoting sexual health during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to explore communication between parents, family members and young people and how it influences their romantic and sexual behaviours.…

  12. Sexual risk behaviors among women with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. PMID:26564549

  13. Evolution of early male-killing in horizontally transmitted parasites.

    PubMed

    Bernhauerová, Veronika; Berec, Lud?k; Maxin, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Early male-killing (MK) bacteria are vertically transmitted reproductive parasites which kill male offspring that inherit them. Whereas their incidence is well documented, characteristics allowing originally non-MK bacteria to gradually evolve MK ability remain unclear. We show that horizontal transmission is a mechanism enabling vertically transmitted bacteria to evolve fully efficient MK under a wide range of host and parasite characteristics, especially when the efficacy of vertical transmission is high. We also show that an almost 100% vertically transmitted and 100% effective male-killer may evolve from a purely horizontally transmitted non-MK ancestor, and that a 100% efficient male-killer can form a stable coexistence only with a non-MK bacterial strain. Our findings are in line with the empirical evidence on current MK bacteria, explain their high efficacy in killing infected male embryos and their variability within and across insect taxa, and suggest that they may have evolved independently in phylogenetically distinct species. PMID:26538596

  14. Sexual molestation of men: interviews with 224 men attending a genitourinary medicine service.

    PubMed

    Coxell, A W; King, M B; Mezey, G C; Kell, P

    2000-09-01

    Prevalence studies of sexual molestation in men attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics have concentrated on experiences in adulthood or as a child, or on men who report male sexual partners only. Use of questionnaires in such studies can lead to under-reporting of 'sensitive' events. Our aim is to identify the lifetime prevalence of sexual molestation in men attending a GUM clinic using a self-administered, computerized interview via a cross-sectional survey. Eighteen per cent of respondents reported sexual molestation as an adult and 12% reported child sexual abuse (CSA). Sexual molestation in adulthood was more common in men who reported male sexual partners and in men reporting child sexual abuse. Fourteen per cent of victims reported being infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) after adult sexual molestation. In conclusion, a significant proportion of men attending GUM services report sexual molestation. Further research is required into effective ways of addressing this unmet need. PMID:10997498

  15. Team Packs: Addressing Human Sexuality Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. for Child Health Policy.

    This kit provides materials that teach about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy using group instructional methodology to actively engage students in the learning process. Using cooperative learning materials and videotape recordings, the program stresses…

  16. Exploring Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Risk Factors in Sexual Decision Making for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpleton, Asher M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…

  17. Transmitted Information of TLD Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Suguru; Inatsu, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    1980-06-01

    The performance of four types of very small thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) elements is evaluated by means of the entropy method which is considered to be the evaluation on the basis of the precision of measurements. Evaluation for four types of TLD elements is ranked by the amount of transmitted information (TI). A standard deviation of the measured data for each type of element is also calculated and compared with TI. The overlapping degree between the adjacent distributions of output data corresponding to each of the different inputs is evaluated by the entropy method and represents the uncertainty degree of the data.

  18. Young people's comparative recognition and recall of an Australian Government Sexual Health Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lim, Megan S C; Gold, Judy; Bowring, Anna L; Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, the Australian Government's National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program launched a multi-million dollar sexual health campaign targeting young people. We assessed campaign recognition among a community sample of young people. Individuals aged 16-29 years self-completed a questionnaire at a music festival. Participants were asked whether they recognised the campaign image and attempted to match the correct campaign message. Recognition of two concurrent campaigns, GlaxoSmithKline's The Facts genital herpes campaign (targeting young women) and the Drama Downunder campaign (targeting gay men) were assessed simultaneously. Among 471 participants, just 29% recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. This compared to 52% recognising The Facts and 27% recognising Drama Downunder. Of 134 who recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign, 27% correctly recalled the campaign messages compared to 61% of those recognising the Facts campaign, and 25% of those recognising the Drama Downunder campaign. There was no difference in National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign recognition by gender or age. Campaign recognition and message recall of the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign was comparatively low. Future mass media sexual health campaigns targeting young people can aim for higher recognition and recall rates than that achieved by the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. Alternative distribution channels and message styles should be considered to increase these rates. PMID:25006041

  19. BrdsNBz: Sexually Experienced Teens More Likely to Use Sexual Health Text Message Service.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-12-01

    Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual health educators was promoted in six public schools in one state in the Southeast. Students (n = 2,125) in four schools completed an online questionnaire assessing personal risk factors associated with negative sexual health outcomes and use of the text message service. Text message service users (n = 144) were more likely to have had sex, to have been in a relationship, and to come from a lower socioeconomic status background. Users also felt less connected to their schools and were slightly older than nonservice users. When all variables were entered into a logistic regression, only sexual experience was associated with service use. Sexual health text message services are designed to provide information to teens in an effort to prevent negative sexual outcomes. Such services seem to be reaching youth with increased risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. This study provides evidence that teens most likely to benefit are also those most likely to use a sexual health text message service. PMID:25889699

  20. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Sexual Health Basic Facts & Information All adults, including older people, ... the opportunity to enjoy a satisfying and fulfilling sex life. In fact, most of them do, even ...

  1. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... viewing this embedded video, please click here . Transcript Sex and sexuality are important issues for many people, regardless of their age, sex, or gender. Although many people are embarrassed or ...

  2. Teenage Sexuality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Sexuality Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ...

  3. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL STRESS ON BACTERIAL ADHESION

    E-print Network

    Ribot, Magali

    EFFECT OF MECHANICAL STRESS ON BACTERIAL ADHESION AND EARLY BIOFILM GROWTH Sigolène LECUYER-4. growth and maturation (h-days) 5. dispersion (days-months) #12;MECHANICAL STRESS DURING ADHESION stress can be transmitted: ·by the underlying substrate (adhesion, friction) time PART I PART II #12

  4. OIKOS 92: 91100. Copenhagen 2001 Sexually transmitted parasites and sexual selection in the

    E-print Network

    Dill, Lawrence M.

    in the milkweed leaf beetle, Labidomera cli7icollis Patrick Abbot and Larry M. Dill Abbot, P. and Dill, L. M. 2001 behaviour result from parasite manipulation. P. Abbot and L. M. Dill, Beha6ioural Ecology Research Group

  5. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial. PMID:26149165

  6. Toward a unified theory of sexual mixing and pair formation.

    PubMed

    Blythe, S P; Castillo-Chavez, C; Palmer, J S; Cheng, M

    1991-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, and AIDS are driven and maintained in populations by epidemiological and sociological factors that are not completely understood. One such factor is the way in which people mix sexually. In this paper, we outline a unified approach to modeling sexual mixing structures, where such structures are defined in terms of a set of axioms for a finite number of distinct groups of people. Theorems for homosexual, heterosexual, and arbitrary group mixing are presented, leading to a representation of all mixing structures defined by the axioms. The representation and its parameters are interpreted in terms of intergroup affinities for sexual mixing. The use of the approach in sexually transmitted disease modeling is discussed. PMID:1806124

  7. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. PMID:24877708

  8. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    Sexual Misconduct to seek assistance from counseling or mental health services and/or to seek medicalSEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY Office of Equal Opportunity Purpose: To establish a work and educational environment at Tufts University that is free from Sexual Misconduct, which includes sexual

  9. Comparison of Three Transmit Arrays for Parallel Transmit V. Alagappan1

    E-print Network

    Goyal, Vivek K

    in the homogenous excitation (RF shimming) experiment. The relative transmit efficiency was measured in the centerComparison of Three Transmit Arrays for Parallel Transmit V. Alagappan1 , E. Adalsteinsson2 , K Solutions, Charlestown, MA, United States Introduction:The inhomogeneous transmit B1 pattern in conventional

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Do feather-degrading bacteria affect sexually selected

    E-print Network

    Shawkey, Matthew

    ORIGINAL PAPER Do feather-degrading bacteria affect sexually selected plumage color? Matthew D surface bacteria are harmless or beneficial, feather-degrading bacteria may have detrimental effects. In this study, we examined the relationships between overall bacterial load, feather-degrading bacterial load

  11. Considerations for National Public Health Leadership in Advancing Sexual Health

    PubMed Central

    Ivankovich, Megan B.; Fenton, Kevin A.; Douglas, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Nations across the globe face significant public heath challenges in optimizing sexual health, including reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unintended pregnancies, and sexual violence, and mitigating the associated adverse social and economic impacts. In response, some countries have implemented national strategies and other efforts focused on promoting more holistic and integrated approaches for addressing these syndemics. This article describes opportunities for national leadership to use a more holistic approach to improve the sexual health of individuals and communities. PMID:23450891

  12. University Health Center Providers' Beliefs about Discussing and Recommending Sexual Health Prevention to Women College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual health concerns such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy remain substantial health problems faced by young adults, especially college women. University healthcare providers may be instrumental in increasing female patients' involvement in preventative sexual health behaviors, however little research has examined…

  13. Validation of the Worry about Sexual Outcomes Scale for Use in STI/HIV Prevention Interventions for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Jessica M.; Spitalnick, Josh; Milhausen, Robin R.; Wingood, Gina M.; Diclemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents' worry regarding outcomes of risky sexual behavior (i.e. sexually transmitted infections, including HIV [STI/HIV], and unintended pregnancy). The 10-item worry about sexual outcomes (WASO) scale, resulting in two subscales STI/HIV worry and pregnancy worry, was…

  14. Sexual Risk Behavior among African American College Women: Understanding Socio-Cultural Factors in the Context of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Maya A.

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at the center of the discussion on health disparities, specifically disparities regarding HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Though there has been substantial research examining sexual risk behavior among low income African American women, little has been done to understand sexual behavior…

  15. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  16. Pilot Study in the Development of an Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment for Sexual Health Interventions: A Focus Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goold, P. C.; Bustard, S.; Ferguson, E.; Carlin, E. M.; Neal, K.; Bowman, C. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the UK there are high rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies amongst young people. There is limited and contradictory evidence that current sexual health education interventions are effective or that they improve access to appropriate sexual health services. This paper describes the outcome of focus group work with…

  17. "Girl, You Better Go Get You a Condom": Popular Culture and Teen Sexuality as Resources for Critical Multicultural Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their…

  18. Childhood sexual abuse in males and subsequent risky sexual behavior: A potential alcohol use pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As part of a study on alcohol and sexual decision-making, 280 heterosexual men completed multiple background questionnaires pertaining to past and current sexual experiences and patterns of alcohol use. CSA history was obtained and severity ratings were made based on type of contact reported. Results: CSA was reported by 56 men (20%). Structural equation modeling revealed that CSA positively predicted number of sexual partners directly as well as indirectly, through its effect on alcohol use. Specifically, greater CSA severity predicted significantly lower age of first intoxication, which in turn predicted greater current alcohol consumption, followed by greater use of alcohol before sexual intercourse, leading to an increased number of reported sexual partners. The reported frequency of condom use was not predicted by CSA severity or the alcohol use pathway. Conclusions: These findings suggest that CSA influences risky sexual behavior via multiple pathways and that more severe CSA may lead to elevated sexual risk indices. Moreover, these results suggest that men may elevate their risk of sexually transmitted infections via high numbers of sexual partners versus irregular condom use. Practical implications: These results highlight the need for adequate assessment and early interventions in order to mitigate the effects CSA may have on subsequent alcohol use and risky sexual behavior. Secondly, ensuring that male CSA victims understand the inherent risks of high numbers of sexual partners may be an effective strategy to interrupt the path toward risk-taking. PMID:20359749

  19. Sexual perceptions and practices of young people in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Carmichael, Gordon; Banwell, Cathy; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Sleigh, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This study draws together survey and qualitative data on sexual practices among more than 1,750 young Northern Thai people aged 17-20 years. The survey data indicate that sexually active young people frequently engage in, or are subjected to, risk-taking behaviours that may expose them to sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies. These include having multiple sexual partners and quite frequent partner turnover. High percentages also engage in unprotected sexual intercourse with various types of sexual partner (steady, casual and paid), and young women especially had often experienced sexual coercion. Qualitative data revealed a mixture of perceptions and practices affecting sexual intercourse among the young, such as having unplanned sex, engaging in sexual relations to display love or cement committed relationships, and having serial relationships, both monogamous and non-monogamous. We conclude that condom use should be a central focus of activities aimed at preventing adverse sexual health outcomes, but that new intervention approaches to encourage use of other contraceptives are also needed. Changes in sexual norms among young people also need to be acknowledged and accepted by older Thai generations in order for programs and interventions to combat negative sexual and reproductive health consequences to be more effective. PMID:22319025

  20. Sexual Education and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Distinguishes five interpretations of sexual education including factual knowledge; self-control; stressing love; sexual training; and sexual morality. Suggests that sexual education should be understood as teaching children the moral tendencies relevant to sexual conduct. Argues that infantile sexual desire is based on a contradiction in terms…

  1. SEXUAL ASSAULT, SEXUAL HARASSMENT, STALKING OR RELATIONSHIP VIOLENCE POLICY

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    ,domestic or dating violence,stalking,sexual coercion and non-contact sexual abuse such as voyeurism,and sexual and other forms of sexual assault, sexual coercion and non- contact sexual abuse such as voyeurism

  2. Efficacy of Rifaximin Vaginal Tablets in Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis: a Molecular Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cruciani, Federica; Brigidi, Patrizia; Calanni, Fiorella; Lauro, Vittoria; Tacchi, Raffaella; Donders, Gilbert; Peters, Klaus; Guaschino, Secondo

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder characterized by an alteration of the vaginal bacterial morphotypes, associated with sexually transmitted infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of different doses of rifaximin vaginal tablets (100 mg/day for 5 days, 25 mg/day for 5 days, and 100 mg/day for 2 days) on the vaginal microbiota of 102 European patients with BV enrolled in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. An integrated molecular approach based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to investigate the effects of vaginal tablets containing the antibiotic. An increase in members of the genus Lactobacillus and a decrease in the BV-related bacterial groups after the antibiotic treatment were demonstrated by qPCR. PCR-DGGE profiles confirmed the capability of rifaximin to modulate the composition of the vaginal microbial communities and to reduce their complexity. This molecular analysis supported the clinical observation that rifaximin at 25 mg/day for 5 days represents an effective treatment to be used in future pivotal studies for the treatment of BV. PMID:22585228

  3. Review: The Important Bacterial Zoonoses in “One Health” Concept

    PubMed Central

    Cantas, Leon; Suer, Kaya

    2014-01-01

    An infectious disease that is transmitted from animals to humans, sometimes by a vector, is called zoonosis. The focus of this review article is on the most common emerging and re-emerging bacterial zoonotic diseases. The role of “One Health” approach, public health education, and some measures that can be taken to prevent zoonotic bacterial infections are discussed. Key points: A zoonotic bacterial disease is a disease that can be very commonly transmitted between animals and humans. Global climate changes, overuse of antimicrobials in medicine, more intensified farm settings, and closer interactions with animals facilitate emergence or re-emergence of bacterial zoonotic infections.The global “One Health” approach, which requires interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals, and the environment, will support public health in general.New strategies for continuous dissemination of multidisciplinary research findings related to zoonotic bacterial diseases are hence needed. PMID:25353010

  4. The sexual practices of adolescent virgins: genital sexual activities of high school students who have never had vaginal intercourse.

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, M A; Bell, R M; Kanouse, D E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether high school-aged virgins engage in sexual practices that can transmit sexually transmitted diseases, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Data were collected from an anonymous self-administered survey of 2026 urban students in 9th through 12th grades. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of adolescents were virgins (42% of male adolescents and 53% of female adolescents). Of those who were virgins, 29% and 31% reported that, during the prior year, they had engaged in heterosexual masturbation of a partner and masturbation by a partner, respectively. The corresponding rates for heterosexual fellatio with ejaculation, cunnilingus, and anal intercourse were 9%, 10%, and 1%. Homosexual sexual activities were rare. Condom use for fellatio was also rare. Level of risk of virgins' sexual activities was associated with illicit substance use and other non-sexual risk behaviors, even after demographic variables had been controlled. CONCLUSIONS: Few high school-aged virgins engaged in anal intercourse, but many engaged in other genital sexual activities. Some of these activities can transmit disease, and all can indicate a need for counseling about sexual decision making, risk, and prevention. PMID:8916522

  5. Sexually Explicit Cell Phone Messaging Associated With Sexual Risk Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Sanchez, Monica; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity. METHODS: A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62–29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01–10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86–4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07–2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.89). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to “real world” sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula. PMID:22987882

  6. The ecology of sexual health of sexual minorities in Guatemala City.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Andrade, Mario; Wilks, Cindy; Simán, Florence M; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

    2015-12-01

    Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender persons carry disproportionate burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections compared with other Guatemalan subgroups. However, little is known about the determinants of sexual health to inform health promotion and disease prevention interventions among these sexual minorities. We sought to explore sexual health and HIV risk among Guatemalan sexual minorities, using a community-based participatory research approach. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 87 participants total) and 10 individual in-depth interviews with gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we analyzed verbatim transcripts and identified 24 themes that we organized into five ecological factors influencing sexual health: intrapersonal (e.g. misconceptions about HIV transmission, low perceived susceptibility and lack of condoms use skills); interpersonal (e.g. family rejection and condom use as a barrier to intimacy); community (e.g. discrimination and stigma); institutional (e.g. limited access to health promotion resources); and public policy (e.g. perceived lack of provider confidentiality and anti-gay rhetoric). There is profound need for multiple-level interventions to ensure that Guatemalan sexual minorities have the knowledge and skills needed to reduce sexual risk. Interventions are warranted to increase social support among sexual minorities, reduce negative perspectives about sexual minorities, develop institutional resources to meet the needs of sexual minorities and reduce harmful anti-gay rhetoric. Understanding and intervening on the identified factors is especially important given that the health of Guatemalan sexual minorities has been to-date neglected. PMID:24688113

  7. Sexual Behavior and Risk Practices of HIV Positive and HIV Negative Rwandan Women.

    PubMed

    Adedimeji, Adebola A; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Gard, Tracy; Mutimura, Eugene; Sinayobye, Jean d'Amour; Cohen, Mardge H; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-07-01

    It is not well understood how infection with HIV and prior experience of sexual violence affects sexual behavior in African women. We describe factors influencing current sexual practices of Rwandan women living with or without HIV/AIDS. By design, 75 % of participants were HIV positive and ~50 % reported having experienced genocidal rape. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to describe demographic and clinical characteristics that influenced sexual behavior in the previous 6 months, condom use, history of transactional sex, and prior infection with a non-HIV sexually transmitted disease. Respondents' age, where they lived, whether or not they lived with a husband or partner, experience of sexual trauma, CD4 count, CES-D and PTSD scores were strongly associated with risky sexual behavior and infection with non-HIV STI. HIV positive women with a history of sexual violence in the contexts of war and conflict may be susceptible to some high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:25488169

  8. Harvard University Sexual Harassment and

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    , humiliating, or sexually offensive working environment. Workplace sexual harassment includes behavior or sexually suggestive comments, jokes, innuendoes or gestures; Displaying sexually suggestive objects

  9. Cross-cultural perspectives on sexuality education.

    PubMed

    Friedman, J

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands the discussion of sexuality has been open since the sexual revolution of the 1960s and includes heterosexuality, sex within marriage, sexuality of the elderly, and homosexuality. Formal sexuality education is lacking for young people despite the openness. 3/4 of teenage girls use the pill, and AIDS-motivated condom availability has increased. Teenage pregnancy and abortion rates are low. Belgium also lacks standardized sexuality education because of Catholic and state school systems influenced by local politics. Family planning organizations date back to 1955 despite a strong Catholic boycott. Abstinence and withdrawal was practiced by most until the 1970s. In 1990 abortion during the 1st trimester was legalized. High rates of teenage pregnancies induced sexuality education in the past 2 decades, although there is no universal program, and young people do not discuss sexuality with their parents. Contraceptives are readily available. In Czechoslovakia under communist rule puritanical views dominated, and sex education was virtually nonexistent. In the postcommunist state the Catholic Church strongly opposes sex education, family planning, and abortions that are still available free, although a charge is contemplated. Pill use is low, nonlubricated condoms are available, and the IUD and sterilization are available only for multiparas. In both Denmark and Sweden sexuality is open and natural from the youngest ages with official sex education, family planning clinics are numerous, abortion is available and the teenager rate is fairly high, pill use is high, the teenage pregnancy rate is low, extramarital childbirth is popular, and the divorce rate is high. In the former Soviet Union there is lack of birth control, increased sexual violence, the increase of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases, homophobia, high abortion rate (6.5 million reported and 3 million unreported in 1988), lack of contraceptives and knowledge about them (only 10-15% contraceptive prevalence rate), and practically nonexistent sex education until the early 1980s. PMID:12344001

  10. Sexual networks in contemporary Western societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljeros, Fredrik

    2004-07-01

    Sexually transmitted infections continue to be a severe health problem in contemporary Western societies, despite the considerable funds allocated for control programs. In this article, we present and discuss a variety of explanations that have been advanced on why this type of disease is so hard to eradicate, despite the fact that the contact by which it is spread is far less frequent than is the case with most other infectious diseases. We conclude that several processes and mechanisms facilitate the spread of sexually infected diseases, and that both broad and targeted intervention is therefore needed to eradicate such diseases.

  11. Men, Multiple Sexual Partners, and Young Adults’ Sexual Relationships: Understanding the Role of Gender in the Study of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Susie; Harrison, Abigail; Dolezal, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections has become a primary health concern worldwide. Gender roles for heterosexual interactions appear to sanction men’s sexual risk-taking, especially the pursuit of multiple sexual partners. Using measures developed in this study, the current study assessed the associations between men’s and women’s relationship attitudes and experiences and their sexual risk encounters. Participants were 104 men and 103 women (18–24 years) from a large, urban college located in a high HIV risk neighborhood of New York City. All completed a survey assessing HIV risk and the battery of relationship measures assessing traditional sexual roles, sexual conflicts, significance of sex, relationship investment, need for relationship, and unwanted sex. For men, greater sexual conflict in their primary relationships was associated with more sexual partners and fewer unprotected vaginal intercourse encounters with a primary partner and across sex partners overall. In addition, men’s endorsement of more traditional sexual roles and lower relationship investment were associated with higher numbers of sexual partners. Among women, compliance with men to engage in unwanted sex was associated with higher levels of participation in unprotected sex. For both men and women, greater significance given to sex in a relationship was associated with fewer extradyadic partners. This study demonstrates the utility of measures of relationship attitudes and experiences to characterize sexual risk, especially among men. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for prevention program targeting young urban adults. PMID:16758335

  12. Young adult sexual health: current and prior sexual behaviors among non-Hispanic white U.S. college students

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Trussell, James; Moore, Nelwyn B.; Davidson, J. Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Objective Less is known about the sexual health of young adults compared to adolescents, despite 20-24 year olds' greater risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This paper provides information on college students' prior and current sexual practices, including oral sex, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, and masturbation. Methods We analyzed data from a cross-sectional sexuality survey of students from two university campuses in the USA, one Midwestern and one Southwestern (N=1504). The sample consisted of non-Hispanic white, never-married students who identified as heterosexual. Results Of 16 possible combinations of four sexual activities (solitary masturbation, oral sex, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse), only four contained more than 5% of respondents: masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse (37%); oral sex and vaginal intercourse only (20%); all four (14%); and none (8%). Twenty percent had ever engaged in anal intercourse. Women were significantly less likely than men to have ever masturbated (48% versus 92%). Analyses exhibited several sexual health challenges, including lack of verbal sexual consent, alcohol use proximal to sex, and lack of contraceptive use. Conclusions Although few young adults are substituting it for vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse is increasingly common, and safer sex efforts should encourage condom use during both sexual activities. Masturbation should be encouraged as an alternative to higher risk sexual practices and an essential aspect of sexual well-being. Finally, practitioners should continue to address specific threats to college students' sexual health, including alcohol use and nonverbal consent. PMID:20152094

  13. Adolescents, sexual behaviour and implications for an epidemic of HIV/AIDS among the young.

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, N; Paul, C; Herbison, P

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the patterns of sexual behaviour, condom use and sexually transmitted diseases among young New Zealanders, and the characteristics of those with many sexual partners. SUBJECTS--A cohort of young people enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study, and followed up since age three. METHODS--Subjects were interviewed at age 18 years as part of a multidisciplinary health and development study. Questions about sexual behaviour were presented by computer. RESULTS--Overall 862/1027 (83.9%) surviving in the cohort was interviewed. Only 1.4% declined to answer the section on sexual behaviour. Sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months was reported by 57.6% of the young men and 67.9% of the young women. Amongst those who were sexually active more of the young men reported multiple partners than the young women (59.8% v 46.5% p < 0.001). There was a trend for increasing number of partners with indices of lower school achievement but no significant association with socio-economic status. Condom use decreased with increasing number of partners for the young women, and for the young men there was no association. Sexually transmitted diseases were reported more commonly with increasing number of sexual partners for both men and women. The rates of sexual activity were substantially higher than reported in a comparable survey 20 years ago. CONCLUSIONS--The pattern of sexual behaviour and condom use, and the occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases in this sample give cause for concern about the spread of sexually transmitted diseases including the possibility of an epidemic of HIV among heterosexual young people in New Zealand. The findings should help in targeting health promotional activities within this age group. PMID:8509095

  14. Everything But: Exploring Definitions of Sexual Outercourse Among Undergraduate Students 

    E-print Network

    Menn, Mindy Alison

    2011-02-22

    of ?Non-coital sexual expression sexually transmitted unintended pregnancy? might include mutual masturbation, infections.? ?Although (p.13). voyeurism, unshared sex toys, the completely consistent erotic bathing, external urination practice...?s thighs or buttocks (1), erotic bathing (1), external urination/defecation (1), role playing (1), sadomasochistic activity (1), stimulating or caressing any part of the body (1), voyeurism (1), and watching pornographic movies (1). Table 2...

  15. Do feather-degrading bacteria affect sexually selected plumage color?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    Models of parasite-mediated sexual selection propose that males with more elaborate sexual traits will have fewer parasites. These models have generally been tested using metazoan or protozoan parasites of the blood, gut, or integument. Fewer studies have examined sexual ornaments in relation to bacterial infections. While most surface bacteria are harmless or beneficial, feather-degrading bacteria may have detrimental effects. In this study, we examined the relationships between overall bacterial load, feather-degrading bacterial load, and sexually selected carotenoid-based plumage color in a wild population of house finches ( Carpodacus mexicanus). We found that males with the redder plumage preferred by females had similar overall bacterial loads, but lower feather-degrading bacterial loads, than males with less red plumage. These data suggest that plumage color can signal abundance of feather-degrading bacteria to potential mates. It remains unclear whether feather-degrading bacteria directly or indirectly affect plumage color, but the observed correlations suggest that feather-degrading bacteria may play some role in sexual selection.

  16. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  17. Brief sexual histories and routine HIV/STD testing by medical providers.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Yzette; Castellanos, Ted; Barrow, Roxanne Y; Jordan, Wilbert C; Caine, Virginia; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2014-03-01

    Clinicians who routinely take patient sexual histories have the opportunity to assess patient risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and make appropriate recommendations for routine HIV/STD screenings. However, less than 40% of providers conduct sexual histories with patients, and many do not receive formal sexual history training in school. After partnering with a national professional organization of physicians, we trained 26 (US and US territory-based) practicing physicians (58% female; median age=48 years) regarding sexual history taking using both in-person and webinar methods. Trainings occurred during either a 6-h onsite or 2-h webinar session. We evaluated their post-training experiences integrating sexual histories during routine medical visits. We assessed use of sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. All participating physicians reported improved sexual history taking and increases in documented sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. Four themes emerged from the qualitative evaluations: (1) the need for more sexual history training; (2) the importance of providing a gender-neutral sexual history tool; (3) the existence of barriers to routine sexual histories/testing; and (4) unintended benefits for providers who were conducting routine sexual histories. These findings were used to develop a brief, gender-neutral sexual history tool for clinical use. This pilot evaluation demonstrates that providers were willing to utilize a sexual history tool in clinical practice in support of HIV/STD prevention efforts. PMID:24564387

  18. Brief Sexual Histories and Routine HIV/STD Testing by Medical Providers

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Yzette; Castellanos, Ted; Barrow, Roxanne Y.; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Caine, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Clinicians who routinely take patient sexual histories have the opportunity to assess patient risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and make appropriate recommendations for routine HIV/STD screenings. However, less than 40% of providers conduct sexual histories with patients, and many do not receive formal sexual history training in school. After partnering with a national professional organization of physicians, we trained 26 (US and US territory-based) practicing physicians (58% female; median age=48 years) regarding sexual history taking using both in-person and webinar methods. Trainings occurred during either a 6-h onsite or 2-h webinar session. We evaluated their post-training experiences integrating sexual histories during routine medical visits. We assessed use of sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. All participating physicians reported improved sexual history taking and increases in documented sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. Four themes emerged from the qualitative evaluations: (1) the need for more sexual history training; (2) the importance of providing a gender-neutral sexual history tool; (3) the existence of barriers to routine sexual histories/testing; and (4) unintended benefits for providers who were conducting routine sexual histories. These findings were used to develop a brief, gender-neutral sexual history tool for clinical use. This pilot evaluation demonstrates that providers were willing to utilize a sexual history tool in clinical practice in support of HIV/STD prevention efforts. PMID:24564387

  19. Sexually compulsive/addictive behaviors in women: a women's healthcare issue.

    PubMed

    Roller, Cyndi Gale

    2007-01-01

    Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is a pattern of sexual behaviors that cause distress and/or impairment of social functioning. It is marked by obsessive thoughts, compulsive behaviors, and the individual's inability to stop the behaviors despite negative consequences. Women experiencing sexually compulsive/addictive behavior are preoccupied with sex not as a response to desire but rather as a behavior that serves the purpose of anxiety reduction. Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is associated with a number of health consequences, including sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and violence. It is important for providers to have an understanding of the addiction process, assessment, diagnosis, and interventions for these women. PMID:17826712

  20. Applying Ecological Perspectives to Adolescent Sexual Health in the United States: Rhetoric or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Laura F.; Bradley, Erin L. P.; Younge, Sinead N.; Daluga, Nichole A.; Crosby, Richard A.; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the perspective taken toward understanding adolescent sexual risk behaviors and related biological outcomes (i.e. pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases) since 1990. We content analyzed 324 abstracts representing observational research published between January 1990 and December 2007 for inclusion of ecological…

  1. Social Environment and Problem Behavior: Perceived School Safety, Gender, and Sexual Debut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Alice L.; Atav, A. Serdar

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, 48% of U.S. students of grades 9 to 12 had experienced sexual debut, 7% before the age of 13 years. Preventing early intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases, adolescent pregnancy, and the loss of educational opportunity are important concerns for nurses and educators. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)…

  2. Teachers' and Pupils' Perceptions of the School Nurse in Relation to Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Jo; Mullan, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The current government in the United Kingdom has made a commitment to reducing the high rates of teenage conceptions and sexually transmitted infections by implementing various sexual health strategies. It emphasises an increased public health role for school nurses by identifying that they have access to the school-age population and the…

  3. Difficulties in Diagnosing Sexual Abuse in Children with Condyloma Acuminata in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, Selda; Demirceken, Fulya; Cakir, Baris; Cakir, Elif Pinar; Unlu, Erdal; Soyer, Tutku

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is responsible for anogenital warts and could be regarded as an indicator of possible sexual abuse in children. A genital wart was detected during an investigation of anti-hepatitis C virus positivity in a four-year-old male patient. No pathological findings of another sexually transmitted disease were found except complete…

  4. A Survey of English Teenagers' Sexual Experience and Preferences for School-Based Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Katie; Wallace, Louise M.; Dunn, Orla; Brown, Katherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancy amongst the under-16s are causing increasing concern. There is limited evidence about the sexual behaviour and sex education preferences of this age group, especially of those from Black and minority ethnic groups. This study aimed to provide data on early heterosexual risk behaviour,…

  5. Contextual and Intrapersonal Predictors of Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as…

  6. Factors Associated with Sexual Activity among High-School Students in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The high level of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa has led to an increased interest in understanding the determinants of sexual activity among young people, who are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections. The present study examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with heterosexual activity among a…

  7. Effects of a School-Based Sexuality Education Program on Peer Educators: The Teen PEP Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May…

  8. Female Secondary School Adolescents' Sexual Behavior and School Based HIV/AIDS Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inyang, Mfrekemfon P.

    2013-01-01

    Most adolescents engage in indiscriminate sexual experimentations. This practice exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS) are among the deadly diseases that exist globally. Twice as many girls, compared to boys…

  9. Condom Use among Sexually Active Rural High School Adolescents: Personal, Environmental, and Behavioral Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Tammy; Puskar, Kathryn; Terhorst, Lauren; Terry, Martha Ann; Charron-Prochownik, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents who engage in unprotected intercourse are at risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although adolescents in rural areas participate in levels of sexual risk taking similar to that of nonrural youth, few data are available identifying factors that influence condom use among rural adolescents. The purpose of this…

  10. A Theater-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Sexual Behavior for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lisa D.; Berlin, Cydelle; Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a crucial period for preventing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This study evaluated STAR LO, a theater-based intervention designed to affect antecedents of sexual activity among urban early adolescents (N = 1,143). Public elementary/middle schools received the intervention or served as a wait-listed…

  11. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    MedlinePLUS

    Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Toddlers and Sexual Behavior Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... problem or sexual abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually nothing ...

  12. Sexuality and Down Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Down Syndrome Managing Behavior Sexuality Sexuality & Down Syndrome Social and Sexual Education Recreation & Friendship Education Education & Down Syndrome Schooling from Preschool to Age 21 Implementing Inclusion College & Postsecondary Options Looking for Postsecondary Education O' ...

  13. Your Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ072 WOMEN’S HEALTH Your Sexual Health • What causes sexual problems in women? • What are ... another term for interest in and desire for sex) and sexual activity sometimes decrease with age. This ...

  14. "I Make Sure I Am Safe and I Make Sure I Have Myself in Every Way Possible": African-American Youth Perspectives on Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Allison; Williams, Terrinieka T.; Veinot, Tiffany C.; Campbell, Bettina; Campbell, Terrance R.; Valacak, Mark; Kruger, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    High rates of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections play a major role in the physical, mental, and emotional health of young people. Despite efforts to provide sexuality education through diverse channels, we know little about the ways in which young people perceive school- and community-based efforts to educate them about sexual health.…

  15. The social context of sexual health and sexual risk for urban adolescent girls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, Anne M; Bohinski, Julia M; Boente, Alyssa

    2009-07-01

    Sexually transmitted infections including HIV and teenage pregnancy have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality among girls in the United States. There is a need to further strengthen prevention efforts against these persistent epidemics. In order to promote girls' sexual health and most effectively reduce sexual risk, it is important to understand the social factors that influence the development of a girl's sexuality. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill a void in the literature by exploring girls' perspectives about the social context in which they learn about sex, sexuality, and relationships. Coding and content analysis was used to identify patterns and themes in 33 individual interviews with African American and Euro-American girls. Participants identified family, friends/peers, partners, school, and the media as the most common sources for learning about sexual health. Girls sought out different types of information from each source. Many girls experienced conflicting messages about their sexual health and struggled to integrate the disparate cultural references to sex, sexuality, and relationships that emerged from these different spheres of social life. Girls often had to navigate the journey of their sexual development with little room for reflection about their own thoughts, feelings, desires, and decisions. Health care providers, especially those in mental health, are in an optimal position to promote girls' physical, developmental, and emotional sexual health. PMID:19544131

  16. The Social Context of Sexual Health and Sexual Risk for Urban Adolescent Girls in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Bohinski, Julia M.; Boente, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections including HIV and teenage pregnancy have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality among girls in the United States. There is a need to further strengthen prevention efforts against these persistent epidemics. In order to promote girls' sexual health and most effectively reduce sexual risk, it is important to understand the social factors that influence the development of a girl's sexuality. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill a void in the literature by exploring girls' perspectives about the social context in which they learn about sex, sexuality, and relationships. Coding and content analysis was used to identify patterns and themes in 33 individual interviews with African American and Euro-American girls. Participants identified family, friends/peers, partners, school, and the media as the most common sources for learning about sexual health. Girls sought out different types of information from each source. Many girls experienced conflicting messages about their sexual health and struggled to integrate the disparate cultural references to sex, sexuality, and relationships that emerged from these different spheres of social life. Girls often had to navigate the journey of their sexual development with little room for reflection about their own thoughts, feelings, desires, and decisions. Health care providers, especially those in mental health, are in an optimal position to promote girls' physical, developmental, and emotional sexual health. PMID:19544131

  17. Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y

    1996-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters of hydroxyalkanoates (HAs) synthesized by numerous bacteria as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds and accumulated as granules in the cytoplasm of cells. More than 80 HAs have been detected as constituents of PHAs, which allows these thermoplastic materials to have various mechanical properties resembling hard crystalline polymer or elastic rubber depending on the incorporated monomer units. Even though PHAs have been recognized as good candidates for biodegradable plastics, their high price compared with conventional plastics has limited their use in a wide range of applications. A number of bacteria including Alcaligenes eutrophus, Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, methylotrophs, pseudomonads, and recombinant Escherichia coli have been employed for the production of PHAs, and the productivity of greater than 2 g PHA/L/h has been achieved. Recent advances in understanding metabolism, molecular biology, and genetics of the PHA-synthesizing bacteria and cloning of more than 20 different PHA biosynthesis genes allowed construction of various recombinant strains that were able to synthesize polyesters having different monomer units and/or to accumulate much more polymers. Also, genetically engineered plants harboring the bacterial PHA biosynthesis genes are being developed for the economical production of PHAs. Improvements in fermentation/separation technology and the development of bacterial strains or plants that more efficiently synthesize PHAs will bring the costs down to make PHAs competitive with the conventional plastics. PMID:18623547

  18. Neighborhood socioeconomic environment and sexual network position.

    PubMed

    Fichtenberg, Caroline M; Jennings, Jacky M; Glass, Thomas A; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are strongly associated with neighborhood poverty; however, the mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear. Using a population-based study of sexual networks among urban African American adolescents, we tested the hypothesis that poverty, unemployment, and the sex ratio drive STI rates by affecting sexual network structure. Participants were categorized as being in one of three network positions that had previously been found to be strongly linked to infection with chlamydia and gonorrhea: being in a confirmed dyad (i.e., a monogamous pair), being connected to a larger network through one partner, and being in the center of a larger network. We found that only poverty was statistically significantly associated with sexual network position. Residing in the poorest third of neighborhoods was associated with 85% decreased odds of being in confirmed dyads. There was no association of sexual network position with neighborhood employment. Living in a neighborhood with an unequal number of young men and women appeared to be associated with a higher likelihood of being in a confirmed dyad; however, the differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that poverty may impact STI rates by shaping sexual network structure, but we did not find any evidence that this association operates through unemployment or the sex ratio. PMID:20140533

  19. of sexual harassment and discrimination

    E-print Network

    , Gender, Religion, Color, Nation Origin, Age, Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Gender Expressionof sexual harassment and discrimination Equal Opportunity & Title IX Office University of Nevada, Reno #12;Today's Conversation will Include the Following: Sexual Content Sexual Harassment Sexual

  20. What do sexually active adolescent females say about relationship issues?

    PubMed

    Bralock, Anita; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2009-04-01

    Many sexually active teenagers face risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. The purpose of our study was to gain an understanding about influences on condom use among sexually active adolescents in relationships. Data were collected through semi-structured openended interviews. The findings of this study suggest that many adolescents desired the love of a male partner, and were willing to concede to his request of practicing unprotected sex. Findings support the urgent need for interventions that will promote skill-building techniques to negotiate safer sex behaviors among youth who are most likely to be exposed to STIs through risky behaviors. PMID:19268234