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The three direct determinants of the rate of spread of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) are sexual behaviors, the mean duration of infectiousness, and the mean efficiency of sexual transmission of each STD. Underlying ecological and behavioral factors that operate through one or more of these direct determinants lie on a continuum, ranging from those most proximate back to those more remote (in time or mechanism) from the direct determinants. Most remote and least modifiable are the historical stages of economic development that even today conspicuously influence patterns of sexual behavior. Next are the distribution and changing patterns of climate, hygiene, and population density; the global population explosion and stages of the demographic transition; and ongoing changes in human physiology (e.g., menarche at younger age) and culture (e.g., later marriage). More proximate on the continuum are war, migration, and travel; and current policies for economic development and social welfare. Most recent or modifiable are technologic and commercial product development (e.g., oral contraceptives); circumcision, condom, spermicide, and contraception practices; patterns of illicit drug use that influence sexual behaviors; and the accessibility, quality, and use of STD health care. These underlying factors help explain why the curable bacterial STDs are epidemic in developing countries and why the United States is the only industrialized country that has failed to control bacterial STDs during the AIDS era. Images
Bacterial infections of the genital tract (gonorrhea, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis) are common and cause significant morbidity. Their importance is heightened by recent appreciation of their roles in facilitation of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Each is capable of causing repeated infections, suggesting lack of permanent broadly effective immunity. An effective vaccine has yet to be developed for any
P. Frederick Sparling; Christopher Elkins; Priscilla B. Wyrick; Myron S. Cohen
... of this website will be limited. Search Help? SexuallyTransmitted Diseases Share this page: Was this page helpful? Overview | Related Pages Also known as: STDs; Sexuallytransmitted infections; STIs; Venereal diseases What are sexuallytransmitted diseases? ...
Bacterial infections of the genital tract (gonorrhea, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis) are common and cause significant morbidity. Their importance is heightened by recent appreciation of their roles in facilitation of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Each is capable of causing repeated infections, suggesting lack of permanent broadly effective immunity. An effective vaccine has yet to be developed for any of these diseases. Rapid progress in understanding the molecular basis for pathogenesis of infection, including mechanisms for escape from otherwise effective immune surveillance and mechanisms for causing injury to host cells, has stimulated renewed efforts to make vaccines for some of these infections. Progress has been greatest for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Present emphasis is on the major or principal outer membrane proteins of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, based on evidence for neutralizing antibodies directed against surface-exposed variable domains of each of these proteins. Other surface-exposed proteins, including the iron-repressible transferrin receptor in gonococci and certain heat-shock proteins in chlamydia, also may be targets for vaccines. Although much remains to be learned, cautious optimism is warranted.
BackgroundSexuallytransmitted infections (STI) are a significant public health problem both worldwide and in Europe. This article reviews trends in the epidemiology of the major bacterial STI in eastern European countries, their key determinants, as well as challenges and opportunities for enhancing STI control in the region.Search strategyPublications were sought through computerised searches in PubMed from 1995 to 2008 using
\\u000a Sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) constitute a major burden of disease for women globally and include bacterial infections\\u000a (syphilis, gonorrheal infection, chlamydial infection, and chancroid) and viral infections [herpes simplex virus (HSV), human\\u000a papillomavirus (HPV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV)]. Rates of STIs in developing countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan\\u000a Africa, far exceed those found in industrialized countries and STIs have
Sexuallytransmitted infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus and syphilis commonly present with rectal symptoms. Recent outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum among homosexual men throughout Europe highlight the need to consider sexuallytransmitted infections in the differential diagnosis of proctitis. This article examines the causative organisms, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of sexuallytransmitted proctitis.
Sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexuallytransmitted diseases, remain a growing worldwide problem and public health issue. This article covers the epidemiology of STIs, the history and physical findings, screening guidelines, and the general plan to combat STIs. Prevention is discussed using the latest information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other references. Infections discussed from the standpoint of cause, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical disease, diagnosis, and treatment include gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, chancroid, Herpes simplex, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, Herpes papilloma virus, Molluscum contagiosum, and pubic lice. PMID:23958358
This January, the Minnesota Department of Health released new figures indi - cating an alarming increase in HIV infections among young Minnesotans. The number of new HIV cases in the state increased by 13 percent in 2009, mark- ing a 17-year high 1 . This news comes on the heels of annual increases in the rates of sexuallytransmitted infections
... 3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Resurgent bacterialsexuallytransmitted disease among men who have sex ... Syphilis Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics Interactive STD Data - 1996-2009 STD Health Equity ...
We hypothesized that neighborhoods with drug markets, as compared to those without, have a greater concentration of infected sex partners, i.e. core transmitters, and that in these areas, there is an increased risk environment for STIs. This study determined if neighborhood drug markets were associated with a high-risk sex partnership and, separately, with a current bacterial STI (chlamydia and/or gonorrhea) after controlling for individual demographic and sexual risk factors among a household sample of young people in Baltimore City, MD. Analyses also tested whether links were independent of neighborhood socioeconomic status. Data for this study were collected from a household study, systematic social observations and police arrest, public health STI surveillance and U.S. census data. Nonlinear multilevel models showed that living in neighborhoods with household survey-reported drug markets increased the likelihood of having a high-risk sex partnership after controlling for individual level demographic factors and illicit drug use and neighborhood socioeconomic status. Further, living in neighborhoods with survey-reported drug markets increased the likelihood of having a current bacterial STI after controlling for individual level demographic and sexual risk factors and neighborhood socioeconomic status. The results suggest that local conditions in neighborhoods with drug markets may play an important role in setting-up risk environments for high-risk sex partnerships and bacterial STIs. Patterns observed appeared dependent on the type of drug market indicator used. Future studies should explore how conditions in areas with local drug markets may alter sexual networks structures and whether specific types of drug markets are particularly important in determining STI risk.
Jennings, Jacky M.; Taylor, Ralph B.; Salhi, Rama A.; Furr-Holden, C.Debra M.; Ellen, Jonathan M.
In this study we investigated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-I), human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in 200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the University Hospital of the West Indies. 19% of the women had at least one pathogen: C. trachomatis was found in 16%, HTLV-1 in 2%, HIV-1, HBV and N. gonorrhoeae each in 0.5% C. trachomatis infection was more prevalent in women less than 20 years of age (31%) than in those 20 years and older (16%; OR = 0.43; chi 2 = 5.66; p < 0.05). The study demonstrates the need for identification of sexuallytransmitted pathogens in antenatal women for syndromic management of genital infections as part of the strategy for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in Jamaica. PMID:9619092
Dowe, G; King, S D; Smikle, M F; Wynter, H H; Chout, R; Klaskala, W
Sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) are known to promote the transmission of HIV. Diagnosing these infections can identify patients engaging in high-risk behaviors and provides an opportunity for intervention and education. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends STI screening as part of routine HIV care. Ninety HIV-infected inpatients admitted to the University of Maryland Hospital were screened for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. None of the nucleic acid amplification probes were positive for gonorrhea, and 1 was positive for chlamydia. A total of 8 rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests were positive, 2 of which are believed to be associated with new infection or treatment failure. Rapid plasma reagin positivity was found to be associated with men who have sex with men (MSM), low CD4 count, and high HIV viral load. Routine inpatient screening for asymptomatic STIs in HIV-infected patients may be beneficial, particularly patients not engaged in routine outpatient care. PMID:21876216
In developing countries, sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) account for 10% to 20% of adult patients attending government health facilities. A young population, with 36% younger than 15 years, unbalanced male/female ratio(1000:933), increasing urbanization, illiteracy, poverty, sexual promiscuity, and lack of health education account for a high prevalence of STIs. Epidemiologic surveillance system and laboratory diagnostic facilities, especially point-of-care diagnosis, are inadequate in India. Antibiotic resistance in causative pathogens is an important hurdle in their control. Currently, syndromic management is the most common approach in India. PMID:22726996
Find links to various topics below: CDC = Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC- A-Z Index CDC- Diesease and Conditions writeInsertLink('projectBody','CDC- Diesease and Conditions'); CDC - HIV/AIDS STDs CDC - HIV Basic Information CDC - HIV - LInks to other resources CDC - STD Picture Cards Herpes-Coldsores Kids Health MedlinePlus - SexuallyTransmitted Diseases Teen Health Wellness real life real answers ...
\\u000a Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) affect an estimated 19 million people a year in the United States. Clinicians who may\\u000a encounter patients with STDs need to be aware of treatment guidelines and recent changes in treatment recommendations. For\\u000a example, due to increased resistance, fluoroquinolones are no longer recommended for the treatment of infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Recent new approaches also
Alice C. Thornton; Bojana Stevich; Janet N. Arno; Barbara Van Der Pol
This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexuallytransmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…
|This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexuallytransmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…
Population-based data on sexuallytransmitted infections (STI), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from
Fabíola Araújo Oliveira; Viola Pfleger; Katrin Lang; Jörg Heukelbach; Iracema Miralles; Francisco Fraga; Anastácio Queiroz Sousa; Marina Stoffler-Meilicke; Ralf Ignatius; Ligia Franco Sansigolo Kerr; Hermann Feldmeier
Adolescents and young adults continue to have the highest rates of sexuallytransmitted diseases. New chlamydia and gonorrhea\\u000a diagnostic tests are being used in innovative ways to increase the number of infections that are detected. Nevertheless, challenges\\u000a such as gonorrhea resistance and partner notification and treatment continue to hinder efforts to reduce the prevalence of\\u000a these two bacterial infections. Although
... Fighting Germs Your sexuality Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Why waiting makes sense Talking to your parents about sex Birth control Straight talk about sexuallytransmitted infections Types of STIs Getting help with your health ...
Objective: Sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) remain a public health problem of major significance in most parts of the world. This study aimed to detect the most prevalent pathogens in patients with signs and symptoms of STI referring to a group of university clinics in Tehran. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study using randomized cluster sampling, 507 consecutive male and
The association of adverse pregnancy outcome with Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex infections is well known and specific recommendations for management have been formulated. However, other agents that are not so well known can be transmittedsexually and threaten an otherwise healthy pregnancy. These agents are discussed in order to make the nurse more aware of related maternal and fetal diseases. PMID:6366321
Prevention of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) is a low priority among travel clinic services, despite increasing evidence that travelers have an increased risk of acquiring such infections. A proportion of 5%-50% of short-term travelers engage in casual sex while abroad, and this rate is even higher among long-term travelers. Few publications are available on STD preventive interventions among travelers. Education
Adolescents and young adults continue to have the highest rates of sexuallytransmitted diseases. New chlamydia and gonorrhea diagnostic tests are being used in innovative ways to increase the number of infections that are detected. Nevertheless, challenges such as gonorrhea resistance and partner notification and treatment continue to hinder efforts to reduce the prevalence of these two bacterial infections. Although recent surveillance data suggest a decreasing trend of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) incidence among adolescents and young adults, the incidence of sexuallytransmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) in adolescent and young adult females remains high. Progress has been made toward the development of vaccines that may become available in the future to prevent infection with and sequelae from HSV-2 and HPV. PMID:15023277
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in children are not uncommon in India, though systematic epidemiological studies to determine the exact prevalence are not available. STDs in children can be acquired via sexual route or, uncommonly, via non-sexual route such as accidental inoculation by a diseased individual. Neonatal infections are almost always acquired intrauterine or during delivery. Voluntary indulgence in sexual activity is also an important factor in acquisition of STDs in childhood. Sexual abuse and sex trafficking remain the important problems in India. Surveys indicate that nearly half of the children are sexually abused. Most at risk children are street-based, homeless or those living in or near brothels. Last two decades have shown an increase in the prevalence of STDs in children, though most of the data is from northern part of the country and from major hospitals. However, due to better availability of antenatal care to majority of women, cases of congenital syphilis have declined consistently over the past two-three decades. Other bacterial STDs are also on decline. On the other hand, viral STDs such as genital herpes and anogenital warts are increasing. This reflects trends of STDs in the adult population. Concomitant HIV infection is uncommon in children. Comprehensive sex education, stringent laws to prevent sex trafficking and child sexual abuse, and antenatal screening of all the women can reduce the prevalence of STDs in children. PMID:20826987
This paper presents a brief review of historical developments in women's health care. It describes the current campaign against sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) and assesses the campaign's success in light of its history and the reality of women's lives. The authors suggest that women are forced into a double-bind in which they are expected to take responsibility for the prevention of STDs although they may not have the ability to do so. Modifications are suggested which take into account gender-role socialization and social group norms. PMID:1462599
This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 17 tribal villages of the Kundam block of the Jabalpur district\\u000a of India. Individuals with sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) syndromes were enumerated and the specimens were collected for\\u000a the laboratory diagnosis of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). Trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea, bacterial vaginosis and syphilis\\u000a sero-reactivity were diagnosed by standard microbiological techniques. Chlamydia infection was
Sexuallytransmitted diseases are the most common infectious diseases in the United States. Physicians, nurses, and other health care providers are uncomfortable discussing sexual issues with their clients. Therefore many health care needs are not addressed, and many opportunities for education aimed at preventing STDs are missed. In the periodic health history, the health care provider must elicit information about sexual practices (vaginal,oral, or anal intercourse), sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual), sexual risk behaviors (ie, unprotected intercourse with multiple partners), contraceptive use (particularly condoms), and prior STDs. Based on this information, the health care practitioner moves to more specific questions regarding sexual health. The health care practitioner asks about sores on the penis, dripping or discharge from the penis, staining of the underwear, testicular pain, and scrotal swelling. For the client who engages in oral sex, the health care practitioner asks about sore throat. For the client who engages in anal intercourse ask about diarrhea, rectal bleeding, anal itching, and pain. Probe the desire phase, the arousal phase (erection), and the ejaculation phase. Ask about the desire for fatherhood and concerns about fatherhood. An important part of health care is prevention. Culturally specific and sensitive information should be available for patients. Patient education should not consist of simply handing a brochure to a man. Using the brochure as a guide for including all the necessary information and ascertaining the man's understanding may be a very effective method of patient education. For men who are at increased risk for STDs or who present with symptoms of STDs, offering diagnostic testing is necessary. Men who have multiple sexual partners especially need diagnostic testing and prevention counseling. The CDC recommends annual HIV and hepatitis C testing for men who have sex with men and other men who have increased risk for contracting HIV. Another important consideration at the periodic screening examination is the vaccinations that are to be recommended. Men who have sex with men should receive hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine. Additionally, it is recommended that all adolescents should receive hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:15159185
Phillips, Kenneth D; Dudgeon, Wesley D; Becker, Joel; Bopp, Christopher M
Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexuallytransmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)
|Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexuallytransmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)|
Background Interpersonal violence has increasingly been identified as a risk factor for sexuallytransmitted infections. Understanding the pathways between violence and sexuallytransmitted infections is essential to designing effective interventions. Objective To examine dissociative symptoms, alcohol use, and intimate partner physical violence and sexual coercion as mediators of child sexual abuse and lifetime sexuallytransmitted infection diagnosis among a sample of women. Method A convenience sample of 202 women was recruited from health care settings, with 189 complete cases for analysis. A multiple mediation model tested the proposed mediators of child sexual abuse and lifetime sexuallytransmitted infection diagnosis. Bootstrapping, a resampling method, was used to test for mediation. Key variables included child sexual abuse, dissociative symptoms, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence. Results Child sexual abuse was reported by 46% of the study participants (n = 93). Child sexual abuse was found to have an indirect effect on lifetime sexuallytransmitted infection diagnosis, with the effect occurring through dissociative symptoms (95% CI = 0.0033, 0.4714) and sexual coercion (95% CI = 0.0359, 0.7694). Alcohol use and physical violence were not found to be significant mediators. Discussion This study suggests dissociation and intimate partner sexual coercion are important mediators of child sexual abuse and sexuallytransmitted infection diagnosis. Therefore, interventions that consider the roles of dissociative symptoms and interpersonal violence may be effective in preventing sexuallytransmitted infections among women.
Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexuallytransmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid–producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexuallytransmitted infections. Longitudinal studies of the vaginal microbiome using molecular techniques such as 16S ribosomal DNA analysis may lead to interventions that shift the vaginal microbiota toward more protective states.
Mycoplasma genitalium is a member of genital mycoplasmas, which is emerging as an important causative agent of sexuallytransmitted infections both in males and females. The advent of polymerase chain reaction and other molecular methods have made studies on M. genitalium more feasible, which is otherwise a difficult organism to isolate. Besides Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium is now an important and established cause of non gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men, more so in persistent and recurrent NGU. Multiple studies have also shown a positive association of M. genitalium with mucopurulent cervicitis and vaginal discharge in females as well. The evidences for M. genitalium pelvic inflammatory diseases and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that this organism has potential to cause ascending infection. Lack of clear association with M. genitalium has been reported for bacterial vaginosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diagnosis of M. genitalium infections is performed exclusively using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), owing to poor or slow growth of bacterium in culture. Although there are no guidelines available regarding treatment, macrolide group of antimicrobials appear to be more effective than tetracyclines. The present review provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of sexuallytransmitted infections due to M. genitalium.
Since the beginning of the third millennium the incidence of SexuallyTransmitted Infections (STIs) is rising in Europe and in Belgium, and this after a steady decline in the second half of last century. It concerns new or lesser known diseases such as Hepatitis C and Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and 'old' diseases such as gonorrhoea and syphilis, occurring in specific risk groups. In this article we give an update of the diagnostic means and therapeutic challenges that are of interest for the clinician. Besides these (re)-emerging diseases we touch on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Herpes Simplex (HSV). This selection of diseases is based on the daily experience of the clinicians working in the STI clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp. Data and clinical guidelines are derived from the Scientific Institute of Public Health in Brussels, the European and American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Guidelines of the Flemish Agency for Care and Health. New evolutions in diagnostics, prevention and treatment options make it necessary to regularly update the knowledge of this group of diseases, especially when they are complicated by HIV co-infection. As the incidence of neither HIV nor STIs seem to decrease in Belgium and Europe, it remains necessary to stay aware of the state-of-the-art management. PMID:22897062
Apers, L; Crucitti, T; Verbrugge, R; Vandenbruaene, M
\\u000a \\u000a Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the major sexuallytransmitted bacteria worldwide. Genital mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma genitalium, are thought to be important causes of sexuallytransmitted non-gonococcal, non-chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis, more\\u000a commonly termed, non-specific genital infection (NSGI). In tropical countries sexuallytransmitted infections also include\\u000a lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1, L2 and L3,
Few good strategies exist for preventing the spread of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). Indeed, women currently have no way to protect themselves from STDs that does not require male cooperation. Topical microbicides could change this. If you have no...
This set of recommendations for condom use in efforts to prevent sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) covers efficacy of condoms based on laboratory or epidemiologic evidence, quality control standards used in the U.S., and 10 recommendations for proper use of condoms. Condoms will reduce the risk of acquiring infections from exposure to cervical, vaginal, vulvar or rectal secretions or lesions, or from transmitting infections via semen, urethral discharged or penile lesions, but will not protect skin areas from lesions not covered by condoms. Latex condoms have been shown to prevent bacterial and viral exposure, while natural "skin" condoms may not prevent transmission of viral agents. Neither oral nor anal use of condoms has been studied. Use of vaginal spermicide is suggested to decrease risks in case of leakage or breakage. The U.S. Food and Drug Agency has tested 430 batches of domestic and foreign condoms as of 1988, and rejects all shipments with a failure rate, in the water test, of 4/1000 or more, a standard known as the Acceptable Quality Level (AQL). So far, 4 domestic and 7 foreign producers have had their products detained. A set of recommendations on storage and practical use of condoms is presented, with details such as use of water-based lubricants, and allowance of room at the tip without an air space. PMID:3247488
The U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) health objectives for the nation in 1990 (established in 1979) included 11 goals relating to the control of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD's). Control of STD's is now focused on prevention of all sexually transmitt...
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) are among the first ten causes of unpleasant diseases in young adult males in developing countries and the second major cause of unpleasant diseases in young adult women. Adolescents and young adults (15–24 years old) make up only 25% of the sexually active population, but represent almost 50% of all new acquired STDs. In general, STDs
The HIV epidemic has dramatically altered the field of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). HIV infection is unique among sexuallytransmitted diseases because it can modify the clinical presentation and features of other STDs. Conversely, other STDs can affect the transmission of HIV. This review is the third part of a series that has provided a general overview of STDs. In
Adam Czelusta; Angela Yen-Moore; Melody Van der Straten; Daniel Carrasco; Stephen K. Tyring
The structures of sexual networks are essential for understanding the dynamics of sexuallytransmitted infections. Standard epidemiological models largely disregard the complex patterns of intimate contacts. Social network analysis offers important insight into how to conceptualize and model social interaction and has the potential to greatly enhance the understanding of disease epidemics.
Fredrik Liljeros; Christofer R. Edling; Luis A. Nunes Amaral
|Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexuallytransmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…
|This document contains an educational resource guide designed to help educators provide relevant education about sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) to secondary school students in compliance with the Texas State Board of Education Rules for Curriculum. The guide, taking a pragmatic approach that emphasizes a prevention/intervention strategy,…
|This document contains a reference sheet and an annotated bibliography concerned with sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD). The reference sheet provides a brief, accurate overview of STDs which includes both statistical and background information. The bibliography contains 83 entries, listed alphabetically, that deal with STDs. Books and articles…
Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.
This survey covers periodical literature published in the field of research on sexuallytransmitted diseases during 1985. The articles cover the following diseases: (1) genital chlamydial infection; (2) gonorrhea; (3) genital herpes infection; (4) human papillomavirus infection; (5) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); (6) genital…
Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.
This document contains a reference sheet and an annotated bibliography concerned with sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD). The reference sheet provides a brief, accurate overview of STDs which includes both statistical and background information. The bibliography contains 83 entries, listed alphabetically, that deal with STDs. Books and articles…
Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.
|This survey covers periodical literature published in the field of research on sexuallytransmitted diseases during 1985. The articles cover the following diseases: (1) genital chlamydial infection; (2) gonorrhea; (3) genital herpes infection; (4) human papillomavirus infection; (5) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); (6) genital…
Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.
AIM: To review the epidemiology of and data collection for sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in South Africa. METHODS: Literature published since 1980 on STDs in South Africa were complied and evaluated. Historical reports and salient unpublished literature were also used in the literature review. Studies were critically reviewed in the light of sample populations and study methods, and a baseline
Sexuallytransmitted infections other than HIV are important global health issues. They have, however, been neglected as a public-health priority and control efforts continue to fail. Sexuallytransmitted infections, by their nature, affect individuals, who are part of partnerships and larger sexual networks, and in turn populations. We propose a framework of individual, partnership, and population levels for examining the effects of sexuallytransmitted infections and interventions to control them. At the individual level we have a range of effective diagnostic tests, treatments, and vaccines. These options are unavailable or inaccessible in many resource-poor settings, where syndromic management remains the core intervention for individual case management. At the partnership level, partner notification and antenatal syphilis screening have the potential to prevent infection and re-infection. Interventions delivered to whole populations, or groups in whom the risks of infection and onward transmission are very high, have the greatest potential effect. Improvements to the infrastructure of treatment services can reduce the incidence of syphilis and gonorrhoea or urethritis. Strong evidence for the effectiveness of most other interventions on population-level outcomes is, however, scarce. Effective action requires a multifaceted approach including better basic epidemiological and surveillance data, high quality evidence about effectiveness of individual interventions and programmes, better methods to get effective interventions onto the policy agenda, and better advocacy and more commitment to get them implemented properly. We must not allow stigma, prejudice, and moral opposition to obstruct the goals of infectious disease control. PMID:17141708
In this article, we review recent evidence indicating that people over the age of 50 years are increasingly at risk of HIV\\u000a and sexuallytransmitted infections, and that—thanks to the success of highly active antiretroviral therapies—those infected\\u000a with HIV are now living into older age. We show that health professionals and society in general have been reluctant to acknowledge\\u000a sexuality in
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been most consistently linked to sexual behaviour, and the epidemiological profile of BV mirrors that of established sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). It remains a matter of debate however whether BV pathogenesis does actually involve sexual transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms from men to women. We therefore made a critical appraisal of the literature on BV in
Hans Verstraelen; Rita Verhelst; Mario Vaneechoutte; Marleen Temmerman
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) may be transmitted during sexual assault. In children, the isolation of a sexuallytransmitted organism may be the first indication that abuse has occurred. Although the presence of a sexually transmissible agent from a child beyond the neonatal period is suggestive of sexual abuse, exceptions do exist. In this review I discuss the issues of the
Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 39(11), 53-60.]. PMID:24066789
Increases in sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have coincided with recent increases\\u000a in sexual risk behaviors across the United States and Europe. The identification of same-sex sexual risk behavior in men and\\u000a the subsequent risk for certain bacterial and viral infections requires competency in taking a sexual history. Recent advances\\u000a in the diagnosis
As adolescents progress through puberty, many biological changes occur and, for young women, this includes the onset of menses and the capability for reproduction. During this time, sexual identity is developed and expressions of sexuality become more frequent. Adolescent women engage in a variety of sexual behaviours, both non-coital and coital. As teens begin dating relationships, they are at risk
There is a rising incidence of several sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs), many of which can present with proctitis. Causative organisms include Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Giardia lamblia (giardiasis) and Entamoeba histolytica (amoebiasis). This paper outlines important clinical discriminators and key investigations to distinguish these organisms from non-infective pathology that include inflammatory bowel disease, solitary rectal ulcer syndrome and Behçet's syndrome. Management of these infections is described and suggestions are made for successful gastroenterology clinical consultation when an STI is suspected.
Lamb, Chris A; Lamb, Elizabeth Iris Mary; Mansfield, John C; Sankar, K Nathan
The spread of sexuallytransmitted diseases (e.g., chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV, etc.) across populations is a major concern for scientists and health agencies. In this context, both the data collection on sexual contact networks and the modeling of disease spreading are intensive contributions to the search for effective immunization policies. Here, the spreading of sexuallytransmitted diseases on bipartite scale-free
Jesús Gómez-Gardeñes; Vito Latora; Yamir Moreno; Elio V. Profumo
|Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…
The incidence of sexuallytransmitted infections is rising in Europe and in Switzerland since the beginning of the third millenium. Many organisms may affect the perianal skin and the anorectum. While some of these infections are a result of contigous spread from genital infection, most result from receptive anal intercourse affecting males who have sex with males but is seen increasingly in females as well since there is evidence of the increasing popularity of anal sex among heterosexuals. The symptoms of specific infections are largely dependent on the route and site of inoculation. Organisms that cause typical genital symptoms - such as syphilis, chancroid, herpes simplex or HPV-infection - result in similar symptoms when the perianal skin, the anoderm or the distal anal canal are the site of infection. Patients with proctitis may have unspecific signs in various degrees including mucous discharge, rectal bleeding, anorectal pain, superficial ulcers and sometimes generalized lymphadenopathy and fever. It is of utmost importance to include STIs (e. g. lymphogranuloma venereum, gonorrhea, non-LGV-chlamydia and herpes simplex) in the differential diagnosis in these patients. Unfortunately rectal infection with chlamydia and gonorrhea is asymptomatic in the majority of cases of men having sex with men and in high-risk females. A careful history and physical examination is essential in establishing a correct diagnosis, usually supported by proctoscopy, culture, PCR, serology and histology. Certain organisms, more commonly thought of as food- or water-borne disease may be sexuallytransmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact from various sexual practices. PMID:23798024
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) are a major cause of ill health in women and their sexual partners and children. Contraceptive methods alter in various ways the risk of acquiring STD but assessment of the odds ratio is difficult due to the many confounding factors. Spermicides have been reported to kill a wide range of bacteria and viruses including HIV in vitro and to protect in vivo from infection by gonorrhoea, chlamydia and pelvic inflammatory disease (organisms unspecified). Spermicides will not cure pre-existing infections. Condoms and diaphragms will give some protection from bacterial and viral infections in all parts of the genital tract. Hormonal contraception and tubal ligation give protection to the upper genital tract but not the cervix. Carcinoma of the cervix follows the same pattern as STDs. The risk of pelvic infection in intrauterine device users is discussed in the chapter by Bromham (pp 100-123, this issue). PMID:8324607
The article analyzes the questionnaire data concerning the issues of awareness of sexuallytransmitted infections in students' milieu exemplified by specialized secondary educational institutions of Ryazan. PMID:23634604
Objectives: To describe the prevalence of sexuallytransmitted infection (STIs) in a sample of women who have sex with women (WSW) and to identify risk factors for the acquisition of STI.Method: Cross sectional survey. Questionnaire for demographic, sexual history, and sexual practice data linked with the results of genitourinary examination. 708 new patients attending two sexual health clinics for lesbians
We study an SIS epidemiological model for a sexuallytransmitted infection in a monogamous population where the formation and breaking of couples is governed by individual preferences. The mechanism of couple recombination is based on the so-called bar dynamics for the marriage problem. We compare the results with those of random recombination - where no individual preferences exist - for which we calculate analytically the infection incidence and the endemic threshold. We find that individual preferences give rise to a large dispersion in the average duration of different couples, causing substantial changes in the incidence of the infection and in the endemic threshold. Our analysis yields also new results on the bar dynamics, that may be of interest beyond the field of epidemiological models.
The distribution of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in 500 patients coming to the Department of Skin and VD, Government Medical College, Patiala, India, from 1983-1988 is listed. The patients were 70% male, aged 15-58, mostly aged 21-30, and 85% were of low income or unemployed. 17.2% were teens. The diagnoses from most to least frequent were: syphilis 29.6%, vaginitis 15%, condylomata accuminata 12%, genital herpes 11.6%, gonorrhea 10%, chancroid 8.8%, balanoposthitis 5.4%, non-gonococcal urethritis 5.2%, and lymphogranuloma venereum, Moluscum contagiosum and donovanosis each 0.2%. 12% were mixed infections. Most men cited prostitutes as the source of their illness, while women reported spouses. PMID:12343557
We study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model on bipartite graph. According to the difference of sex conception in western and oriental nations, we construct the Barabási Albert-Barabási Albert (BA-BA) model and Barabási-Albert Homogeneity (BA-HO) model for sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). Applying the rate equation approach, the positive equilibria of both models are given analytically. We find that the ratio between infected females and infected males is distinctly different in both models and the infected density in the BA-HO model is much less than that in the BA-BA model. These results explain that the countries with small ratio have less infected density than those with large ratio. Our numerical simulations verify these theoretical results.
Objective: To examine the relationship between childhood experiences of sexual abuse, sexual coercion during adolescence, and the acquisition of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) in a population of homeless adolescents.Method: Homeless adolescent females (N = 216) from a northwestern United States city were recruited by street outreach workers for a longitudinal study of STI epidemiology. Baseline data on childhood abuse and
Various sexual practices like fellatio, cunnilingus, or anilingus (rimming) can cause both symptomatic and asymptomatic oral infections in both sexes. Clinically apparent lesions are found in primary, secondary, and tertiary syphilis, in acute HIV infection and the subsequent stage of immunodeficiency (opportunistic infections), as well as in herpes and human papilloma virus infections. Genital candidiasis also can be transmitted to the oral cavity. Depending on the infective agent transmitted, ulcerative, inflammatory or papillomatous lesions of the lips, tongue, mucous membranes and pharynx occur. Oropharyngeal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis (Serovar D-K) can cause pharyngitis and tonsillitis with sore throat, but are completely asymptomatic in most cases. Asymptomatic infections are an important, but frequently overlooked reservoir for new infections. Systemic treatment of oral STI's usually is the same as that for anogenital infections. It can be accompanied by symptomatic topical therapy. When the tonsils and other difficult to reach tissues are infected, higher doses and an antibiotic with good tissue penetration are recommended. PMID:22895675
Trichomoniasis is the most common, sexuallytransmitted infection. It is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Symptoms include vaginitis and infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality, as well as predisposing to HIV\\/AIDS and cervical cancer. Trichomoniasis has the highest prevalence and incidence of any sexuallytransmitted infection. The 5-nitroimidazole drugs,
Rebecca L DUNNE; Linda A DUNN; Peter UPCROFT; Peter J O'DONOGHUE; Jacqueline A UPCROFT
A condom skills educational program emphasizing how to use a condom was presented to groups of patients waiting to be seen in a public health sexuallytransmitted disease clinic. Compared to controls, patients exposed to the intervention were approximately half as likely to return within the subsequent 12 months with a new sexuallytransmitted disease. Other predictors of reinfection included
Syphilis appeared in Sweden in 1497. It was recognized as a sexuallytransmitted disease that rapidly spread in the upper classes and later to the poor. It ravaged the country in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. At that time the concept of venereal disease included all sexuallytransmitted diseases. Preventive measures were introduced. They were based on information, medical intervention
Abstract Objective To investigate whether women aged 13–35 who were victims of interpersonal violence were more likely than nonvictims to experience incident sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). Methods We examined 542 women aged 13–35 enrolled in Project PROTECT, a randomized clinical trial that compared two different methods of computer-based intervention to promote the use of dual methods of contraception. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included questions about their history of interpersonal violence and were followed for incident STIs over the 2-year study period. We compared the incidence of STIs in women with and without a history of interpersonal violence using bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. Results In the bivariate analyses, STI incidence was found to be significantly associated with African American race/ethnicity, a higher number of sexual partners in the past month, and a lower likelihood of avoidance of sexual partners who pressure to have sex without a condom. In both crude and adjusted regression analyses, time to STI incidence was faster among women who reported physical or sexual abuse in the year before study enrollment (HRRadj?=?1.68, 95% CI 1.06, 2.65). Conclusions Women with a recent history of abuse are at significantly increased risk of STI incidence than are nonvictims.
Anand, Mallika; Redding, Colleen A.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.
More than 42 million people worldwide are now infected with HIV, in spite of sustained prevention activities. Although the spread of HIV has been primarily sexual, epidemiological studies have indicated that the efficiency of the spread of HIV is poor, perhaps as infrequently as 1 in every 1,000 episodes of sexual intercourse. However, sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) that cause ulcers
Summary Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates are increasing rapidly in Asia, a full understanding of the extent of other sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in many of these areas is lacking. There have been anecdotes of rising rates of STDs in Mongolia, a country thus far relatively unaffected by HIV. To further the understanding of STDs, a prevalence study was conducted in the STD clinic in Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city in Mongolia. Among 260 patients, the prevalence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and syphilis was 31.1%, 8.1% and 8.6% respectively for males and 10.3%, 9.9% and 6.0% for females. Sixty-seven per cent of females had trichomoniasis and 19.7% of males had non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). Forty-two per cent of gonococcal isolates had plasmid mediated resistance to penicillin, and chromosomal resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin was documented. No patients were infected with HIV. STDs are a significant problem in Mongolia. Improved control efforts are urgently needed to prevent the emergence of HIV.
Schwebke, J R; Aira, T; Jordan, N; Jolly, P E; Vermund, S H
Purpose: To explore associations of self-reported condom use with sexual risk knowledge and behaviors, perceptions of peer condom use, and communication with sexual partners about condom use among adolescent girls with sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs).Methods: Adolescent girls with cervicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) completed a 62-item self-administered questionnaire on sexual risk knowledge and behaviors, condom use, perceptions of peer
This cross-sectional study examined the odds of being diagnosed with a sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) or a sexual dysfunction disorder (SDD) among Operation Enduring Freedom\\/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF\\/OIF) American veterans receiving care in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in relation to whether or not they have experienced military sexual trauma (MST). Among those veterans who experienced MST, the influence of
Jessica A. Turchik; Joanne Pavao; Deborah Nazarian; Samina Iqbal; Caitlin McLean; Rachel E. Kimerling
The bacterialsexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia can all be cured with a single dose of antibiotic. Unfortunately, however, these infections often remain undiagnosed as many infected individuals have few if any symptoms. Diagnostic tests with high sensitivity and specificity are available for all three infections but, owing to their expense and the lack of laboratory capacity,
David Mabey; Alan Herring; Edward W. Hook; Rosanna W. Peeling
This commentary on a paper (EC 619 276) about the transmissiblity of sexuallytransmitted diseases in sexually abused children discusses two issues: (1) determining if a child is infected with a sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) agent; and (2) determining if the child's STD was acquired from the mother before or during the birth process through…
The report presents statistics and trends of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States through 1999. This annual publication is intended as a reference document for policy makers, program managers, health planners, researchers, and others ...
Provision of sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) care for sexually active adolescents has been neglected in developing countries, although this is changing. Available evidence indicates that STDs are a serious problem among adolescents (10–19 years), especially in rural areas where services are limited for any age group. Curative care is hampered by the inadequacy of the syndromic approach for identifying adolescents
|This article assesses the relationship between low marriage rates and racial disparities in sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) rates. Data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth was used to examine the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors by marital status. Logistic regression was used to examine whether racial differences in marriage…
Taylor, Eboni M.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) are a significant health problem for adolescents. Each year approximately 3 million adolescents acquire an STD (Cates, 1999). Of adolescents who are sexually active, one in four will get an STD before the age of 18 (Cates, 1999). In general, adolescents have higher rates of STDs than adults. More specifically, adolescent girls have the highest rates
BETH A. AUSLANDER; MARY B. SHORT; SUSAN L. ROSENTHAL
Several vaccines for sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) are presently in development and the eventual availability of such vaccines is expected to result in the prevention of a significant number of burdensome conditions. Young adolescents are presumed to be likely targets for these vaccines since adolescents’ risk for STI increases as they age and become sexually active. It is unclear, however,
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently published updated guide- lines that provide new strategies for the prevention and treatment of sexuallytransmit- ted diseases (STDs). Patient education is the first important step in reducing the number of persons who engage in risky sexual behaviors. Information on STD prevention should be individualized on the basis of the patient's
KARL E. MILLER; DAVID E. RUIZ; J. CHRISTOPHER GRAVES
Objectives: We evaluated the prevalence of the sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) chlamydia and gonorrhea in clients at a methadone maintenance program and a residential detoxification program. Methods: We collected urine specimens for chlamydia and gonorrhea ligase chain reaction testing and assessed sexual, substance abuse and STI histories. Results: Of 700 subject assessments, 490 occurred among detoxification clients and 210 in
Jane M. Liebschutz; Erin P. Finley; Phillip G. Braslins; Demian Christiansen; Nicholas J. Horton; Jeffrey H. Samet
We examined the association between sexual risk behaviors and sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) testing in a sample of homeless youth. Of 261 youth interviewed, 50% had been sexually active in the past 3 months. Gender variation in sexual behaviors and risk were found. Boys were more likely than girls to engage in anal sex (46% vs. 15%), to have 3
M. Rosa Solorio; Norweeta G. Milburn; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Chandra Higgins; Lillian Gelberg
Sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) are a significant health issue for lesbian and bisexual women. Older age and having a history of sexual intercourse with males are primary risk factors for STIs among this population. However, little research has been conducted to assess sexual risk among lesbian and bisexual college women exclusively. A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted with 230 self-identified
Lisa L. Lindley; Molly B. Kerby; Thomas J. Nicholson; Ning Lu
|Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.
Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexuallytransmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (ARISA) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.
White, Joel; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Herve; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Philipp; Wagner, Richard H.
|Assessed adolescent females' perceptions of control over acquisition of a sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) and its emotional impact. No differences were found in coping strategies by age group or STD history. Subjects used numerous coping strategies--those viewing the future acquisition of a STD more negatively used more strategies. (RJM)|
|One-quarter of the 3 million new cases of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) each year occur in teenagers. Teens are at high risk because of biological, age, and behavioral factors. Education is the best weapon against STDs. As their children's first sex educators, parents must make every effort to promote STD education at home and school. (SM)|
The prevalence of sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) in adolescent girls aged 15-19 attending a department of genitourinary medicine was compared for the years 1972 and 1982. Data were obtained from the confidential register using the coding of the clinic returns to the Department of Health (form SBH 60). There were 1373 patients in 1972 and 1799 in 1982, 6.4% and
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are gaining significant importance at present due to rapid spread of the diseases, high cost of treatment, and the increased risk of transmission of other STDs and AIDS. Current therapies available for symptomatic treatment of STDs and AIDS are quite expensive beyond the reach of common man and are associated with
Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexuallytransmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…
Fertility regulation and prevention of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) are recognized pillars in fertility health work. The HIV epidemic has made it clear that there are people at risk for STDs all over the world. Both STDs and unwanted pregnancies are negative consequences of the same behavior, i.e., unprotected intercourse. From the perspective of the individual the risks with unprotected
A heterosexually active population is exposed to two competing strains or two distinct sexuallytransmitted pathogens. It is assumed that a host cannot be invaded simultaneously by both disease agents and that when symptoms appear, a function of the pathogen or strain virulence, individuals recover. We conclude that in a behaviorally and genetically homogeneous population coexistence is not possible except
Recent trends in western Europe show an increase in sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). Available surveillance data in Switzerland confirm this rising trend. Gonorrhoea rates more than doubled between 1996 and 2003, and for Chlamydia there was a 64% increase from 1999 to 2003. Notifications of syphilis cases almost doubled in the year 2002 and rose to 174% compared to the
Many sexuallytransmitted infections are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends screening all pregnant women for human immunodeficiency virus infection as early as possible. Treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy can reduce transmission to the fetus. Chlamydia screen- ing is recommended for all women at the onset of prenatal care, and again in
Syphilis appeared in Sweden in 1497. It was recognized as a sexuallytransmitted disease that rapidly spread in the upper classes and later to the poor. It ravaged the country in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. At that time the concept of venereal disease included all sexuallytransmitted diseases. Preventive measures were introduced. They were based on information, medical intervention and elimination of risk factors. Registration of hospitalised patients was introduced in the eighteenth century. The highest incidence of syphilis occurred during the First World War. In the last decade the incidence of sexuallytransmitted disorders has abruptly decreased. Thus the yearly incidence of gonorrhoea has decreased from 40,000 to 500 cases. The law demands contact tracing with obligatory testing. People who deliberately expose others to risk may be condemned to isolation for an unrestricted time. This legislation has probably contributed less to the successful containment than the fact that information on aids and sexuallytransmitted diseases has reached all the population, and made it aware of the risks and produced changed behaviour, especially among prostitutes, homosexual men and drug addicts.
OBJECTIVE:To assess compliance with practice guidelines and to determine the extent of missed opportunities for sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) prevention by describing screening practices of a national sample of obstetricians and gynecologists and comparing them to the practices of other specialists.METHODS:Physicians (n = 7300) in five specialties that diagnose 85% of STDs in the United States were surveyed. Obstetrics and
Matthew Hogben; Janet S St. Lawrence; Danuta Kasprzyk; Daniel E Montano; George W Counts; Donna H McCree; William Phillips; Marianne Scharbo-DeHaan
Objectives. We measured and compared the concentration of primary and sec- ondary syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, and genital herpes in a large county with urban, suburban, and rural settings. Methods. We geocoded sexuallytransmitted infections reported to King County, Washington health department in 2000-2001 to census tract of residence. We used a model-based approach to measure concentration with Lorenz curves
Roxanne P. Kerani; Mark S. Handcock; H. Hunter Handsfield; King K. Holmes
A cross-sectional prevalence survey of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) was conducted among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. A total of 505 FSWs participated in the survey. All eligible participants gave informed consent. Demographic, be- havioral, and clinical information of the participants was gathered by direct structured inter- views. Tampon swabs were collected to test for Chlamydia
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) are known to exist in wild and domesticated animals, but little is know about behavioural defences that animals use to reduce the risk of acquiring STDs. Using comparative data and a phylogeny of primates, I investigated whether behaviours hypothesized to reduce STD transmission are correlated with measures of STD risk involving mating promiscuity and life-history traits.
Compared with both industrialized countries and other less developed parts of the world, most of sub-Saharan Africa suffers inordinately from sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). It has high prevalence rates of traditional STDs, such as gonorrhea and syphilis, and if accurate seroprevalence surveys were to be done it would probably prove to have the highest HIV serropositive incidence in the world.
During the past two decades, an explosive growth in both the prevalence and types of sexuallytransmitted diseases has occurred. Up to 55 percent of homosexual men with anorectal complaints have gonorrhea; 80 percent of the patients with syphilis are homosexuals. Chlamydia is found in 15 percent of asymptomatic homosexual men, and up to one third of homosexuals have active
Sexuallytransmitted infections have long been associated with stigma and stereotypes due to their very nature. Throughout history sexuallytransmitted infections have been associated with female prostitution and deviant immoral behaviour making women who contract these infections particularly vulnerable to being stigmatised and stereotyped. Although the stigma attached to such infections has previously been documented in the literature, the aim of this research was to gain in depth insight into young Australian women's experiences of having a sexuallytransmitted infection from a feminist perspective. Findings from this study provide insight into the onerous effects stigma can have on women with these infections and sheds light on how these effects can influence self-perceptions, fear of rejection and feelings of unworthiness. These findings can provide nurses with greater understanding and insight into the effects of stigma on women's experiences of having a sexuallytransmitted infection. Having this understanding and insight has the potential to promote therapeutic care and minimise the stigma that may be felt among women who have contracted this type of infection. PMID:22482278
In sub-Saharan African countries where AIDS is established, HIV transmission is primarily by means of heterosexual intercourse. A major co-factor in such transmission is the presence of other, sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). Efforts to limit the heterosexual transmission of HIV in Africa must therefore address the high prevalence of other, standard STDs. The present study attempts to establish a preliminary
... Data Related Links Accessibility NCHS Home FastStats Home SexuallyTransmitted Diseases (STD) (Data are for the U.S.) Morbidity Number of ... Hepatitis National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention Email page link Print page ...
Context: Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) are responsible for a variety of health problems, and can have especially serious consequences for adolescents and young adults. An interna- tional comparison of levels and trends in STDs would be useful to identify countries that are rel- atively successful in controlling the incidence of STDs, as a first step toward improving policies and programs
Christine Panchaud; Susheela Singh; Dina Feivelson; Jacqueline E. Darroch
|The authors' objectives in this study were to describe the proportion of schools providing and the percentage of students with access to HIV and sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) education, treatment, and prevention services at 2-year and 4-year US colleges and universities. The authors mailed self-administered questionnaires to a stratified…
Koumans, Emilia H.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Motamed, Cathy; Kohl, Katrin; Schillinger, Julia A.; Markowitz, Lauri E.
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) have been shown to increase the costs of multiple mating and therefore favor relatively monogamous mating strategies. We examine another way in which STDs can influence mating systems in species in which female choice is important. Because more popular males are more likely to become infected, STDs can counteract any selective pressure that generates strong mating
Hanna Kokko; Esa Ranta; Graeme Ruxton; Per Lundberg
Background: To estimate the relative risk of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) among children identified as having learning disabilities through the special education system. Methods: This cross-sectional study used special education data and Medicaid data from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for calendar year 2002. The sample comprised 51,234…
Mandell, David S.; Eleey, Catharine C.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Noll, Elizabeth; Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Blank, Michael B.
OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time
Background: Prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm of American men and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Research suggests that infection and subsequent inflamma- tion may be an important risk factor in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. In this meta-analysis, we examine the current epidemiological evidence for the association between specific sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) and prostate
Women in abusive relationships are at risk for sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs), but the strategies they use to protect themselves from such infections have not been studied. Using the descriptive qualitative approach of thematic analysis, I explored those strategies among formerly abused women and examined the role of pregnancy as a protective factor for both STIs and intimate partner violence
Concerns have been voiced in the national press that the surge in migrant construction workers leading up to the 2012 Olympics Games would increase the levels of sexual ill health in East London. Between 2009 and 2011, we sent a sexual health outreach team to the Olympic Park and Village. A total of 614 clients were tested, of whom 91% were men and 46% reported English/Scottish/Welsh ethnicity. The age range was 17-73 years and median age 30 years. Reported sexual risk factors were low, including use of commercial sex workers. Prevalence of sexuallytransmitted infections was low, with Chlamydia trachomatis found in 20 clients (3%), and hepatitis B diagnosed in one client. This study, although small, did not support the image of construction workers presenting a higher than average sexual health risk. PMID:23033522
BACKGROUND: Sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) care in the Netherlands is primarily provided by general practitioners (GPs) and specialized STI centers. STI surveillance is based on data from STI centers, which show increasing numbers of clients. Data from a GP morbidity surveillance network were used to investigate the distribution in the provision of STI care and the usefulness of GP data
Ingrid VF van den Broek; Robert A Verheij; Christel E van Dijk; Femke DH Koedijk; Marianne AB van der Sande; Jan EAM van Bergen
Many sexuallytransmitted infections are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends screening all pregnant women for human immunodeficiency virus infection as early as possible. Treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy can reduce transmission to the fetus. Chlamydia screening is recommended for all women at the onset of prenatal care, and again in the third trimester for women who are younger than 25 years or at increased risk. Azithromycin has been shown to be safe in pregnant women and is recommended as the treatment of choice for chlamydia during pregnancy. Screening for gonorrhea is recommended in early pregnancy for those who are at risk or who live in a high-prevalence area, and again in the third trimester for patients who continue to be at risk. The recommended treatment for gonorrhea is ceftriaxone 125 mg intramuscularly or cefixime 400 mg orally. Hepatitis B surface antigen and serology for syphilis should be checked at the first prenatal visit. Benzathine penicillin G remains the treatment for syphilis. Screening for genital herpes simplex virus infection is by history and examination for lesions, with diagnosis of new cases by culture or polymerase chain reaction assay from active lesions. Routine serology is not recommended for screening. The oral antivirals acyclovir and valacyclovir can be used in pregnancy. Suppressive therapy from 36 weeks' gestation reduces viral shedding at the time of delivery in patients at risk of active lesions. Screening for trichomoniasis or bacterial vaginosis is not recommended for asymptomatic women because current evidence indicates that treatment does not improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:17695573
PurposeTo explore whether patterns of sexual relationships, such as sequential (nonoverlapping in time) or concurrent (overlapping in time), are more important indicators of sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) risk among adolescents than number of sexual partners.
Stephanie S Kelley; Elaine A Borawski; Susan A Flocke; Kevin J Keen
Two thirds of the people who have been infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world live in Sub-Saharan African countries. The results of a study measuring the degree distribu- tion of the network of sexual contacts in Burkina Fasoaredescribed.Suchanetworkisresponsible for the spread of sexuallytransmitted diseases, and in particular of HIV. It has been found that the number
Vito Latora; André Nyamba; Jacques Simpore; Bahiré Sylvette; Sandwidi Diane; Bukiki Sylvére; Salvatore Musumeci
Effective interventions to reduce sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) risk behaviors are most potent in the short term and are not uniformly effective for all people. The present study examined patterns of sexual behavior change among 238 men and 104 women who received risk reduction counseling in a public STI clinic and were followed for 9 months with a 1-year retrospective
Seth C. Kalichman; Demetria Cain; Joanna Knetch; Justin Hill
PurposeTo determine the rates of sildenafil (Viagra) use among different populations, primarily among men who have sex with men, and to measure the association of sildenafil use with increased sexual risk behavior and sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
PURPOSE: To determine the rates of sildenafil (Viagra) use among different populations, primarily among men who have sex with men, and to measure the association of sildenafil use with increased sexual risk behavior and sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: The National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed was searched using a variety of terms for
Sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) have occupied a central place in public health agendas for at least the past 500 years, but have been the subject of opinions, decrees and “moral positions” for much longer. Societies have long tried to control the sexual behaviors of their populations, not only for reasons of social control, but also with the objective of controlling
We conducted a qualitative study to explore the pathways by which traditional gender roles may ultimately affect Vietnamese women's interpretation of sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) symptoms and health-seeking strategies. Data on gender roles, perceptions of types of sexual relationships, perceptions of persons with STDs, and STD patient experiences were gathered through in-depth interviews and focus groups with 18 men and
Vivian Fei-ling Go; Vu Minh Quan; A Chung; Jonathan Zenilman; Vu Thi Minh Hanh; David Celentano
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the association between douching (douching agents and timing) and sexuallytransmitted disease. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of sexuallytransmitted diseases and habits of vaginal douching was performed on 599 pregnant women who visited a prenatal clinic in Surabaya, Indonesia. RESULTS: Of the 599 pregnant women, 115 (19.2%) had at least one sexuallytransmitted
M. R. Joesoef; H. Sumampouw; M. Linnan; S. Schmid; A. Idajadi; M. E. St. Louis
The development of new, safe, topical microbicides for intravaginal use for the prevention of sexuallytransmitted diseases is imperative. Previous studies have suggested that bile salts may inhibit human immu- nodeficiency virus infection; however, their activities against other sexuallytransmitted pathogens have not been reported. To further explore the potential role of bile salts in preventing sexuallytransmitted diseases, we
BETSY C. HEROLD; RISA KIRKPATRICK; DANIEL MARCELLINO; ANNA TRAVELSTEAD; VALENTINA PILIPENKO; HOLLY KRASA; JAMES BREMER; LI JIN DONG
Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging pathogen that has been detected in the male and female reproductive tracts. It is an established cause of\\u000a nongonococcal urethritis and evidence linking it to cervicitis, endometritis, and tubal factor infertility is accumulating.\\u000a Whether a pathogen is sexuallytransmitted has important implications for clinical management because partner management strategies\\u000a are an essential part of the
We are living in a world that is suffering a pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, continued high levels\\u000a of other sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs), and an unsustainable population explosion. In the last 40 years, the number\\u000a of humans on this planet has doubled. The youth of the world’s population today ensures that all STIs will continue to increase
The prevalence of sexuallytransmitted diseases was determined among 370 prostitutes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Chlamydial cervicitis (26.5%) was detected more frequently than gonorrhoea (14.25%) and was associated more often with pelvic inflammatory disease. Concurrent infections and asymptomatic infections were common. Seropositivity to hepatitis B and syphilis were 66.3% and 13.6% respectively. Women under 20 years of age had significantly higher rates of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and hepatitis B virus than older women.
OBJECTIVE--To compare the incidence of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) in British troops in the tropics with that in a standard population. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of STD clinic records over one calendar year. SETTING--A British Military Hospital in the Tropics serving 1441 resident personnel. SUBJECTS--All patients attending a STD clinic. MAIN FINDINGS--815 cases of STD were recorded during the study period, giving
The prevalence of sexuallytransmitted diseases was determined among 370 prostitutes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Chlamydial cervicitis (26.5%) was detected more frequently than gonorrhoea (14.25%) and was associated more often with pelvic inflammatory disease. Concurrent infections and asymptomatic infections were common. Seropositivity to hepatitis B and syphilis were 66.3% and 13.6% respectively. Women under 20 years of age had significantly
IntroductionMore new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples.MethodsHIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected
Brandon L. Guthrie; James N. Kiarie; Susan Morrison; Grace C. John-Stewart; John Kinuthia; William L. H. Whittington; Carey Farquhar; Etienne Joly
Hungarian Preconceptional Care includes the preconceptional screening of sexuallytransmitted infections\\/disorders (STD) and\\u000a vaginal candidosis of potential mothers and pyospermia of potential fathers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect\\u000a of this screening and treatment for the rate of preterm births. Clinical and subclinical vaginal candidiasis (asymptomatic\\u000a candida colonisation), combination of STD and vaginal candidiasis, STD without
Health care providers who evaluate persons who have or are at risk for sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) should be aware\\u000a of current national guidelines for STD treatment and should provide assessment and treatment according to these recommendations.\\u000a The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention STD Treatment Guidelines were developed by using an evidence-based approach\\u000a incorporating available scientific evidence, specialist knowledge,
The gastrointestinal mucosa is a target of many sexuallytransmitted infections, and major advances have increased our understanding of the consequences of such infections within the gastrointestinal system. HIV-1 is associated with a marked loss of mucosal CD4+ T cells that express CC-chemokine receptor 5. This process seems to be more rapid and more severe in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue than
The social dynamics of some communities are affected by the loss of significant numbers of people to prison and by the release\\u000a of others who encounter the challenge of coping with the negative effects of the incarceration experience. The effects on\\u000a communities are evident, in part, in the high rates of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) in North Carolina (NC) counties
James C. Thomas; Brooke A. Levandowski; Malika Roman Isler; Elizabeth Torrone; George Wilson
High rates of gonorrhea have been shown to be associated with high rates of incarceration in the prior year. One hypothesized\\u000a chain of events is that there is a negative effect of incarceration on neighborhood social characteristics, which in turn\\u000a affect behaviors facilitating transmission of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). This study examined whether neighborhood\\u000a characteristics were associated with the incidence
James C. Thomas; Elizabeth A. Torrone; Christopher R. Browning
This study investigated the influence of sexual double standards on perceptions of targets experiencing illness. Sexual transmission\\u000a was predicted to result in greater stigmatization. A Target Gender X Illness Transmission interaction was hypothesized, such\\u000a that female targets with sexuallytransmitted illness (e.g., STI) would be stigmatized and social rejected more than male\\u000a STI targets or targets with nonsexual illness (e.g.,
We have introduced recently a model for the spread of sexuallytransmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a key factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population. The social behavior is taking into account by means of two parameters: the fraction of singles ?s and the promiscuity p. The promiscuity parameter defines the per individual daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In this contribution we show that the interaction between this two parameters give rise to a non-trivial epidemic threshold condition, when going from the homogeneous case (?s=1) to heterogeneous cases (?s<1). These results can have profound implication in the interpretation of real epidemic data.
Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo
African Americans carry the largest disease burden for bacterialsexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. These infections can have a devastating impact on sexual and reproductive health if they are not diagnosed and treated. Traditionally, public health efforts to prevent and control bacterial STDs have been through surveillance, clinical services, partner management, and behavioral intervention strategies. However, the persistence of disparities in STDs indicates that these strategies are not achieving sufficient impact in African American communities. It may be that factors such as limited access, acceptability, appropriateness, and affordability of services reduce the efficacy of these strategies for African American communities. In this article we describe the STD prevention strategies and highlight the challenges and implications of these strategies in addressing disparities in African American communities.
Barrow, Roxanne Y.; Berkel, Cady; Brooks, Lesley C.; Groseclose, Samuel L.; Johnson, David B.; Valentine, Jo A.
First noticed in Uganda in 1863 by a European explorer, sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) were cited as a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout this century. In 1908 the venereal diseases campaign was launched marking the real introduction of western medicine. By the mid-1920s, the campaign was combined with the medical service but throughout the colonial period (1901-1962) venereal diseases were considered intractable. A 1991 survey revealed alarming incidence rates and in light of the importance of STDs as a co-factor in the transmission of HIV, it is of paramount importance to implement more effective control measures.
Objectives Surveillance of sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) among HIV patients in AIDS Reference Centers aims at identifying risk\\u000a groups and detecting specific STI emerging in this population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Seven of the nine AIDS Reference Centers in Belgium participate in this surveillance. The reported STI include Chlamydia,\\u000a gonorrhea, syphilis, Lymphogranuloma venereum, hepatitis B virus and newly acquired hepatitis C in men who have
We study the relation between different social behaviors and the onset of epidemics in a model for the dynamics of sexualtransmitted diseases. The model considers the society as a system of individual sexuated agents that can be organized in couples and interact with each other. The different social behaviors are incorporated assigning what we call a promiscuity value to each individual agent. The individual promiscuity is taken from a distribution and represents the daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In terms of this parameter we find a threshold for the epidemic which is much lower than the classical SIR model prediction, i.e., R0 (basic reproductive number)/=1. Different forms for the distribution of the population promiscuity are considered showing that the threshold is weakly sensitive to them. We study the homosexual and the heterosexual case as well.
Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo
This thesis describes three important determinants of HIV\\u000aspread in Kenya:\\u000a 1. Sexual behaviour of female sex workers, their clients, and young adults\\u000a 2. Health care seeking behaviour for sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD)\\u000a 3. Quality of STD care in the public and private health sector\\u000aThe first determinant was studied in urban and rural areas of Nyanza, the\\u000aprovince in
Intercourse during menses is an acceptable sexual behavior that is practiced by 3–30% of sexually active women. This pattern\\u000a of sexual behavior may contribute to transmission of some sexuallytransmitted disease. Yet, intercourse during menses is\\u000a probably not associated with increased risk for pelvic inflammatory disease. The above-mentioned susceptibility for increased\\u000a risk for sexuallytransmitted disease in women engaged in
Objective To determine the effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention in reducing the incidence of sexuallytransmitted infections among gay men. Design Randomised controlled trial with 12 months' follow up. Setting Sexual health clinic in London. Participants 343 gay men with an acute sexuallytransmitted infection or who reported having had unprotected anal intercourse in the past year. Main
John Imrie; Judith M. Stephenson; Frances M. Cowan; Shamil Wanigaratne; Andrew J. P. Billington; Andrew J. Copas; Lesley French; Patrick D. French
Sexuallytransmitted infections are diseases provoking a great social and economic burden as well as health-related problems,\\u000a and with the aging of society and the extension of life expectancy sexuallytransmitted infections in the elderly have drawn\\u000a more attention these days. For the management of sexuallytransmitted infections in this population, basic epidemiological\\u000a data need to be established. In this
Hyun-Sop Choe; Seung-Ju Lee; Chul Sung Kim; Yong-Hyun Cho
Sexual compulsivity, defined by sexual preoccupation and lack of sexual impulse control, is related to high?risk sexual behaviors. However, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of sexual compulsivity in people at high risk for contracting sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). In the current study, patients receiving diagnostic and treatment services (85% African American) at an urban STI clinic completed
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world and important cause of morbidity and mortality. Especially STDs of viral etiology are difficult to cure. In many cases the antiviral therapy can relieve the symptoms but not eliminate the virus. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of antiviral drugs. One of the oldest antiviral medications is acyclovir (ACV). It is approved to treat initial and recurrent genital herpes and as a suppressive therapy in severe recurrent genital infections as well. Drug resistance to ACV and related drugs is seen among immunocompromised hosts, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV-infected patients. Resistant infections can be managed by second-line drugs - foscarnet or cidofovir- but they are more toxic than ACV. In case of HPV there is not known specific target for the medication and that is why the substances used in human papilloma virus HPV infection therapy are either antimitotics or immunomodulators. The Part I review focuses on mechanisms of actions and mechanisms of resistance to antiviral agents used in a treatment of the genital herpes and genital HPV infection. In Part II we will show the therapeutic options in other sexuallytransmitted infections: hepatitis B, C and HIV. PMID:24032509
|Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer
|This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…
Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.
OBJECTIVES. This study examined the prevalences of antibodies to Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 in a sample of Peruvian adults. METHODS. Among adults seeking health certification in Lima, Peru, 600 were randomly selected to undergo interviews and serologic testing. RESULTS. Men's reported mean lifetime number of partners (10.6) far exceeded women's (1.1), yet antibody to sexuallytransmitted infection pathogens among sexually experienced participants was 2.8 times more prevalent among women than among men. Among men, female sex workers accounted for 37% of recent partners, and only sex with female sex workers while using condoms less than half of the time was independently associated with antibody (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 8.8). among women, number of partners was associated with any sexuallytransmitted infection antibody, while intercourse before 18 years of age was associated with C trachomatis antibody. At every level of perceived risk, sexuallytransmitted infection antibody was more frequent among women. CONCLUSIONS. Men having unprotected sex with female sex workers had the greatest risk of acquiring infections and (by inference) of transmitting them to women.
Sanchez, J; Gotuzzo, E; Escamilla, J; Carrillo, C; Phillips, I A; Barrios, C; Stamm, W E; Ashley, R L; Kreiss, J K; Holmes, K K
For over 20 years, demographic analyses have shown female education associated with decreased fertility and infant\\/child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Far less studied are the pathways and overall effects of female education upon SexuallyTransmitted Infections (STIs). An earlier 1996 study of one community of Ariaal Rendille pastoralists in Marsabit District of northern Kenya, suggested that female education may reduce
Eric A. Roth; Elliot M. Fratkin; Elizabeth N. Ngugi; Barry W. Glickman
Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis results for recent cocaine and marijuana use, and
Richard Dembo; Steven Belenko; Kristina Childs; Paul E. Greenbaum; Jennifer Wareham
Sexual violence is associated with women's risks for HIV infection. The current study investigated factors related to risks for sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among South African women with a history of sexual assault. An anonymous street intercept survey of women (N=272) living in an African township in the Western Cape, South Africa assessed demographic characteristics, history of sexual
Purpose: To explore whether patterns of sexual rela- tionships, such as sequential (nonoverlapping in time) or concurrent (overlapping in time), are more important indicators of sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) risk among adolescents than number of sexual partners. Methods: Data from 4707 sexually active adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed based on reported heterosexual relationships during
STEPHANIE S. KELLEY; ELAINE A. BORAWSKI; SUSAN A. FLOCKE; KEVIN J. KEEN
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is worldwide, but the clinical and epidemiological pattern of the disease in Africa is different from that in developed areas. "Type 1 AIDS" occurs in industrialized North America and Europe; it has a distinctive sex ratio (16:1) and risk pattern of IV drug use and sexual practices. "Type 2 AIDS" occurs in Third World countries, particularly in eastern, southern, and central Africa. It is characterized by an entirely different sex ratio (1:1) and by distinctively different risk patterns. Both epidemics are caused by the HIV-1 virus. The key concept for understanding the origins of the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 AIDS is the migratory labor system in eastern, central, and southern Africa. This system causes long absences, increased family breakdown, and increased numbers of sexual partners. Historically the organization of this labor market has created a population which suffers from epidemics of sexuallytransmitted diseases. These historical patterns are presented as evidence for the contemporary transmission of AIDS. When contemporary AIDS and HIV-1 seropositivity prevalence data are examined, a systematic temporal and geographic pattern emerges for the AIDS epidemic in Africa. Despite a paucity of good data, the prevalence data from eastern, central, and southern Africa support the thesis of migrant labor's role in the transmission of AIDS. PMID:2689507
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently published updated guidelines that provide new strategies for the prevention and treatment of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). Patient education is the first important step in reducing the number of persons who engage in risky sexual behaviors. Information on STD prevention should be individualized on the basis of the patient's stage of development and understanding of sexual issues. Other preventive strategies include administering the hepatitis B vaccine series to unimmunized patients who present for STD evaluation and administering hepatitis A vaccine to illegal drug users and men who have sex with men. The CDC recommends against using any form of nonoxynol 9 for STD prevention. New treatment strategies include avoiding the use of quinolone therapy in patients who contract gonorrhea in California or Hawaii. Testing for cure is not necessary if chlamydial infection is treated with a first-line antibiotic (azithromycin or doxycycline). However, all women should be retested three to four months after treatment for chlamydial infection, because of the high incidence of reinfection. Testing for herpes simplex virus serotype is advised in patients with genital infection, because recurrent infection is less likely with the type 1 serotype than with the type 2 serotype. The CDC guidelines also include new information on the treatment of diseases characterized by vaginal discharge. PMID:12751653
Miller, Karl E; Ruiz, David E; Graves, J Christopher
We introduce a model for the evolution of sexuallytransmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess presumptive sexuallytransmitted disease treatment on pregnancy outcome and HIV transmission. Study Design: In a randomized trial in Rakai District, Uganda, 2070 pregnant women received presumptive sexuallytransmitted disease treatment 1 time during pregnancy at varying gestations, and 1963 control mothers received iron\\/folate and referral for syphilis. Maternal-infant sexuallytransmitted disease\\/HIV
Ronald H. Gray; Fred Wabwire-Mangen; Godfrey Kigozi; Nelson K. Sewankambo; David Serwadda; Lawrence H. Moulton; Thomas C. Quinn; Katherine L. O’Brien; Mary Meehan; Carlos Abramowsky; Merlin Robb; Maria J. Wawer
OBJECTIVE--Evaluation of teenagers' knowledge and understanding about sexuallytransmitted disease, conception and contraception. DESIGN--A questionnaire study. SETTING--Schools SUBJECTS--1025 teenagers aged 15\\/16 years (mean 16.00). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Scores attained in response to questions about sexuallytransmitted disease related to the sources of information given as most helpful. RESULTS--Teenagers have an incorrect understanding of the risks of sexuallytransmitted diseases. CONCLUSIONS--Teenagers may
A detailed appraisal of the British seafarer and his way of life is described and the prevailing management of sexuallytransmitted disease in the seafarer is outlined. It is shown that the available statistics on the incidence of sexuallytransmitted disease among seafarers are inadequate. Management at sea and ashore remains generally unsatisfactory. Suggestions are made to improve the management of venereal disease in foreign ports and a simple method is described of managing sexuallytransmitted disease at sea with trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole.
OBJECTIVE To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. RESULTS There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED. CONCLUSIONS Urethral sounding is a sexual practice that is associated with higher risk sexual behaviour and carries the potential for morbidity. Research on means for risk reduction for men who choose to engage in recreational sounding requires further study.
The history of sexuallytransmitted diseases in Canada from 1800 to the present reflects the changing views and values of citizens, medical experts, politicians and bureaucrats. During the colonial period, the military devoted attention to the problem but strict moral codes and social conventions prevented public discussion. Although middle class reformers began to pressure the federal government for funding and direction after 1900, World War I was the catalyst for involvement. Health education through a voluntary group and federal-provincial cost-shared funding for treatment facilities across Canada were introduced to control STDs. Public perception of STD patients as marginalised or deviant limited the impact of these efforts. Social changes during the 1960s, new STDs appearing in the 1970s and the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s have redirected the STD campaign to focus on high risk groups and prevention rather than the moralistic curative efforts of the past.
We evaluated whether use of a short- or longer-term recall period for condom use was superior for assessing risk of acquisition of incident sexuallytransmitted infection (STI). Female sex workers (n = 1000) in Madagascar took part in a randomized trial comparing counselling strategies for male and female condom promotion. We explored associations between women's self-reported condom use with clients and non-paying partners and incident STI, examining both short-term recall (last sex act) and longer-term recall (over the past month and year). Self-reported condom use was generally not associated with reduced STI risk, whether measured at the last act or over longer time periods; with clients or non-paying partners; and through unadjusted and adjusted modelling. No condom use measure (short versus longer time periods, with one or both partner types) was strongly predictive of STI, suggesting poor validity. PMID:21998174
Most people in the United States who are infected with sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) do not attend STD clinics for treatment in spite of the low-cost efficacious treatment. We asked a clinic and a community sample about perceived benefits and problems of attending an STD clinic. Analyses yielded two treatment-oriented and two socially oriented, factors, which were also expressed in qualitative interviews. Further analyses suggested that treatment-oriented factors were more strongly associated with clinic attendance than were social factors, although respondents were more positive about expected quality of treatment than they were about retaining confidentiality. We suggest that implications of the results favor integrating STD care with other health care. PMID:15476764
Hogben, Matthew; Bloom, Fred; McFarlane, Mary; St Lawrence, Janet S; Malotte, C Kevin
The Division of STD Prevention of the US Centers for Disease Control has recently released this update (MMWR 1998;47(No. RR-1)) to the 1993 set of guidelines with the same title. The guidelines were developed by CDC staff after consultation with a "group of invited experts" in early 1997. Included are sections on various sexuallytransmitted diseases, including HIV, Genital Ulcers, Epididymitis, Human Papillomavirus Infection, and vaccine preventable STDs, among others. Guideline evidence is briefly discussed in each section of the report, and the CDC is committed to providing "more comprehensive, annotated discussions of such evidence...in background papers that will be published in 1998." Note that in the HTML version of the report, some of the interior links within chapters are inaccurate. In those cases, it is prudent to click on the section headings to find the relevant information.
This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attitudes have also structured medical responses to venereal disease. From the reform movements between the two World Wars to the more recent communist health campaigns, medical theory has often been confused with moral prescription.
China has been experiencing pronounced changes in its sex ratio, but little research has explored the consequences of these changes for sexual behavior and health. We merge data from the 1999-2000 Chinese Health and Family Life Survey with community-level data from the 1982, 1990, and 2000 Chinese censuses to examine the relationship between the local sex ratio and several dimensions of men's sexual behavior and sexual health. Multilevel logistic regression models show that, when faced with a relative abundance of age-matched women in their community, Chinese men are slightly less likely to have intercourse with commercial sex workers, but are more likely to engage in premarital noncommercial intercourse and to test positive for a sexuallytransmitted infection. These findings are consistent with hypotheses derived from demographic-opportunity theory, which suggests that an abundance of opposite-sex partners will increase the risk of early, frequent, and multi-partner sex and, through this, sexuallytransmitted infection risk. PMID:21131616
Sexual health and sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) testing is typically portrayed as a women's issue amid men's estrangement from healthcare services. While the underreporting of men's STIs has been linked to masculinities, little is known about how women interpret and respond to heterosexual men's sexual health practices. The findings drawn from this qualitative study of 34 young women reveal how femininities can be complicit in sustaining, as well as being critical of and disrupting masculine discourses that affirm sexual pleasure and resistance to health help-seeking as men's patriarchal privileges. Our analysis revealed three patterns: looking after the man's libido refers to women's emphasised femininity whereby the man's preference for unprotected sex and reticence to be tested for STIs was accommodated. Negotiating the stronger sex refers to ambivalent femininities, in which participants strategically resist, cooperate and comply with men's sexual health practices. Rejecting the patriarchal double standard that celebrates men as 'studs' and subordinates women as 'sluts' for embodying similar sexual practices reflects protest femininities. Overall, the findings reveal that conventional heterosexual gender relations, in which hegemonic masculinity is accommodated by women who align to emphasised femininity, continues to direct many participants' expectations around men's sexual health and STI testing. PMID:22497206
Oliffe, John L; Chabot, Cathy; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy; Bungay, Vicky; Shoveller, Jean A
This cross-sectional study describes the baseline prevalence and correlates of common bacterial and viral sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) and risk behaviors among individuals at high risk for HIV recruited in five low- and middle-income countries. Correlations of risk behaviors and demographic factors with prevalent STDs and the association of STDs with HIV prevalence are examined. Between 2,212 and 5,543 participants
David D. Celentano; Kenneth H. Mayer; Willo Pequegnat; Nadia Abdala; Annette M. Green; H. Hunter Handsfield; Tyler D. Hartwell
|Context: The prevalence of sexuallytransmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…
Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail
Over a 12 month period, 32 teenage girls attended the sexuallytransmitted disease clinic in the Mater Misericordiae Hospital,\\u000a Dublin for the first time, accounting for 17.8% of all first visits. Their mean age was 18.2 years (range 15-19 years). Twenty-four\\u000a (75%) were from social class V. Five (15.6%) were abusing drugs. The mean age of first coitus was 16.1
Objectives We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls, age 15 - 19 years-old, currently infected with a sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women, age 20 - 41 years-old, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Study Design Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone (SAFE), a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Results Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (p < 0.05) to be infected with any STI at intake. Men partnered with teens were younger and had significantly more sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was “really important” for the teen to have their baby (p = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (p = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Conclusions Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention.
THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra T.
Summary This study examines the knowledge of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas. PMID:23480474
Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun
Several vaccines for sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) are presently in development and the eventual availability of such vaccines is expected to result in the prevention of a significant number of burdensome conditions. Young adolescents are presumed to be likely targets for these vaccines since adolescents' risk for STI increases as they age and become sexually active. It is unclear, however, to what extent parents will agree to having adolescents receive STI vaccines. Inasmuch as acceptance is the foundation for effective immunization programs, an understanding of parental perspectives about this issue is required to inform future STI vaccine program strategies. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that used in-depth interviews to elicit attitudes from 34 parents about accepting vaccines for genital herpes, human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus and gonorrhea for their children (aged 8-17). Data were collected from parents bringing their children for care at an urban clinic and a suburban private office. Content analysis of the responses revealed that most parents (>70%) approved the administration of all four of the STI vaccines proposed. Parents' reasons for acceptance included wanting to protect their children, being concerned about specific disease characteristics, and previous experience with the infections. Parents who declined the vaccines did so primarily because they perceived their children to be at low risk for the infections or they had low concern about features of the diseases. Most parents thought they should be the decision-maker regarding children receiving an STI vaccine. Results from this study will be used to plan subsequent investigations of the determinants of STI vaccine acceptance by parents. PMID:14759685
To determine association between acquisition of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) over a nine-month period among sexually experienced adolescents attending an urban, general HMO teen clinic and African American race, use of marijuana more than once or twice a week, and having had relationships with a sexual partner who is more than four years older. PMID:16857543
The present study reports sexual risk factors associated with HIV infection among men attending two sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinics in Pune, India and compares these behaviours between young and older men. Between April 1998 and May 2000, 1,872 STD patients were screened for HIV infection. Data on demographics, medical history and sexual behaviour were collected at baseline. The overall
R. G. Brahme; S. Sahay; R. Malhotra-kohli; A. D. Divekar; R. R. Gangakhedkar; A. P. Parkhe; M. P. Kharat; A. R. Risbud; R. C. Bollinger; S. M. Mehendale; R. S. Paranjape
Most important news are the reimbursement of post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, change in treatment of gonococcal infections, increase of syphilis and sexuallytransmitted hepatitis C infections among HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Vaccination against papillomavirus (HPV) is not discussed here. Animal and human studies have shown that 28 days post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV initiated within 72 hours after the contact at risk could reduce the risk of HIV acquisition. This prophylaxis is now reimbursed in Belgium if it is prescribed by a HIV reference center, based on the Belgian consensus for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis. A single intramuscular dose of ceftriaxone 125 mg is now the best choice for the treatment of gonococcal infection, due to the resistance more and more frequent to penicillin, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone. If a concomitant infection with Chlamydia trachomatis has not been ruled out, a single dose of azithromycin 1 g or doxycycline for 7 days will be added. Syphilis is shortly reviewed and addresses of few very useful Internet sites are given. PMID:19899384
Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS), a polysaccharide composed of alternating uronic acid and glucosamine residues, represents a common link that many sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) require for infection. Variable modifications within the monomeric units of HS chains together with their unique structural conformations generate heterogeneity, which expands the ability of HS to bind a diverse array of host and microbial proteins. Recent advances made in the field of glycobiology have critically enhanced our understanding of HS and its interactions with microbes and their significance in important human diseases. The role of HS has been elaborated for several STIs to include those caused by herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, and Chlamydia. In addition, gonorrhea, syphilis, and yeast infections are also dependent on the presence of HS on human target cells. Critical steps such as pathogen adhesion or binding to host cells followed by internalization to enhance intracellular survival and possible spread to other cells are mediated by HS. In addition, HS guided cell signaling plays a role in the development of angiogenesis and inflammation associated with many STIs. Past and ongoing investigations are providing new push for the development of HS-mimetics and analogs as novel prevention strategies against many different STIs. This review article summarizes the significance of HS in STIs and describes how emerging new products that target HS can be used to control the spread of STIs. PMID:22773448
Tiwari, Vaibhav; Maus, Erika; Sigar, Ira M; Ramsey, Kyle H; Shukla, Deepak
BACKGROUND AND METHODS--The absence of any official statistics on the prevalence of STD in homosexual men in Spain induced us to carry out a prospective study of new homosexual patients who consulted the STD Clinic of the School of Medicine in Seville, between January 1988 and December 1989. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in this group of patients. RESULTS--1805 patients were seen during the study period; 318 patients were homosexual of whom 309 agreed to participate in the study. Of the 309 homosexual men, 108 (35%) had symptoms and the remaining 201 (65%) were asymptomatic. In the symptomatic group the diagnoses were: syphilis 28 (25.9%); urethritis 40 (37%) (of these 40, 11 had Neisseria gonorrhoeae, five had Chlamydia trachomatis, five had Ureaplasma urealyticum, one had Herpes simplex virus and in 18 no pathogen was detected); genital herpes seven (6.4%). Eleven (10%) had concomitant infections. The following infections were found in the asymptomatic group: syphilis 23 (11.4%), N gonorrhoeae six (3%), C trachomatis two (1%), Herpes simplex virus one (0.5%). Antibodies against HIV were detected in 30 (9.6%) of the total group. CONCLUSIONS--Sexuallytransmitted diseases are common amongst homosexual men in Seville and many of these are asymptomatic.
Rodriguez-Pichardo, A; Aznar, J; Camacho, F; Borobio, M V; Perea, E J
At present there are no reliable statistics on the relative prevalences of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in Spain. In a report of the first three years' experience in an STD diagnostic centre between 1977 and 1979 a total of 879 patients (534 men adn 345 women) were seen. They mainly consisted of university students and the mean age was 22 years in 1977 and 23 years in the following two years. All the patients were examined for syphilis and all women for gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis. Investigations for Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Candida albicans, and Herpesvirus hominis infections were carried out according to the presenting symptoms. Non-specific genital infections occurred most commonly (25.7%); chlamydia were isolated from 30% of the patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). The second commonest infection was candidosis (13.5%). Gonorrhoea, which was found in 10.6% of the patients, was diagnosed more frequently in men (13.5%) than in women (6%). No strains of beta-lactamase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae were detected and all were sensitive to penicillin. Syphilis was diagnosed in 4.4% of patients (2% women and 5% men). Condylomata acuminata were diagnosed in 2.8% of patients and more frequently in men (4%). Herpes genitalis and venereophobia were uncommon (1.9% and 1.2% respectively) and were diagnosed only in men.
Perea, E J; Alvarez-Dardet, C; Borobio, M V; Bedoya, J M; Escudero, J; Gallardo, R M; Gonzalez-Gabaldon, B; de Miguel, C; Moreno, J C; Perez-Bernal, A; Rodriguez-Pichardo, A
The goal of this study was to explore gender difference in HIV-related perceptions according to a social cognitive theory and sexual risk behaviors and to examine associations between mobility, sexual risk, and history of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) among male and female migrants visiting STD clinics. A cross-sectional study among migrants visiting STD clinics in three large cities in China assessed HIV-related perceptions, sexual activity, condom use, and history of STDs was used. Among participants, 20% of women had ever sold sex and 33% of men had paid for sex. Women and men were similar in multiple partnerships in the last month (23% versus 22%), consistent condom use during last three sexual encounters (14% versus 15%), and a history of STDs (57% versus 53%). However, more women who reported a history of STD had contracted at least two STDs than men (55% versus 36%, p < 0.001). Increased sexual risk was associated with increased perception of extrinsic rewards for both genders, but was associated with increased perceptions of intrinsic rewards and response cost in women only, and with decreased perceptions of vulnerability and response efficacy in men only. High mobility was associated with increased sexual risk in women. Self-reported history of STD was associated with a high rate of past multiple partnership and low education among both genders, but was associated with high mobility and commercial sex in women only. Fifty-four percent of women with a history of STDs informed their partners about their infections, compared to 36% of men (p < 0.001). Married women, both women and men who did not engage in commercial sex, and women and men who used condoms were more likely to inform their partners about their STD infections. Gender differences in HIV-related perceptions and sexual behaviors underscore the importance of gender-specific intervention efforts to prevent the spread of HIV/STD in China.
The goal of this study was to explore gender difference in HIV-related perceptions according to a social cognitive theory and sexual risk behaviors and to examine associations between mobility, sexual risk, and history of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) among male and female migrants visiting STD clinics. A cross-sectional study among migrants visiting STD clinics in three large cities in China assessed HIV-related perceptions, sexual activity, condom use, and history of STDs was used. Among participants, 20% of women had ever sold sex and 33% of men had paid for sex. Women and men were similar in multiple partnerships in the last month (23% versus 22%), consistent condom use during last three sexual encounters (14% versus 15%), and a history of STDs (57% versus 53%). However, more women who reported a history of STDs had contracted at least two STDs than men (55% versus 36%, p < 0.001). Increased sexual risk was associated with increased perception of extrinsic rewards for both genders, but was associated with increased perceptions of intrinsic rewards and response cost in women only, and with decreased perceptions of vulnerability and response efficacy in men only. High mobility was associated with increased sexual risk in women. Self-reported history of STDs was associated with a high rate of past multiple partnership and low education among both genders, but was associated with high mobility and commercial sex in women only. Fifty-four percent of women with a history of STDs informed their partners about their infections, compared to 36% of men (p < 0.001). Married women, both women and men who did not engage in commercial sex, and women and men who used condoms were more likely to inform their partners about their STD infections. Gender differences in HIV-related perceptions and sexual behaviors underscore the importance of gender-specific intervention efforts to prevent the spread of HIV/STD in China. PMID:17263658
In light of the imminent threat of a growing HIV epidemic in east and southeast Europe, optimal accessibility of primary and secondary HIV preventative interventions, including HIV testing and sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) care, are fast becoming public health priorities. We surveyed 2150 high school students in Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYR of Macedonia, Serbia, and Montenegro to examine the uptake of HIV testing and associated predictors. Among sexually active youth (n = 651), 5.9% had already been tested for HIV. In marginal logistic regression, country of origin, type of high school, knowing a friend or relative with HIV, poor self-assessed health status, suspicion of having had an STI, and not having used a condom at first sex were independently associated with HIV testing. Fear of the diagnosis, fear of violation of confidentiality, and not knowing where to go for HIV testing were reported as barriers to HIV testing. Of sexually active adolescents who thought they might have contracted an STI, only 42% had subsequently visited a doctor or health facility. The main reasons for not doing so were spontaneous disappearance of the complaints, fear of the diagnosis and being ashamed of discussing the problem. In conclusion, the uptake of HIV testing among this population of sexually active, urban high school students was found to be low, although a higher prevalence of HIV testing history was observed among students showing evidence of risky sexual behavior. Practical and psychological factors seem to challenge the accessibility of facilities for HIV testing and STI care. PMID:18847388
Objective To determine prevalences and predictors of sexuallytransmitted and reproductive tract infections among men and women seeking care at pharmacies. Methods Men and women with urethral discharge or dysuria and vaginal discharge were enrolled at 12 central and 52 smaller pharmacies in Lima, Peru. All participants answered a questionnaire. Men provided urine for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Neisseriagonorrhoeae and Chlamydiatrachomatis, and for leucocyte esterase testing. Women provided self?obtained vaginal swabs for PCR testing for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis culture and bacterial vaginosis and Candida. Results Among 106 symptomatic men, N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis were detected in 34% and were associated with urethral discharge compared with dysuria only (odds ratio (OR) 4.3, p?=?0.003), positive urine leucocyte esterase testing (OR 7.4, p?=?0.009), less education (OR 5.5, p?=?0.03), and with symptoms for <5?days (OR 2.5, p?=?0.03). Among 121 symptomatic women, 39% had bacterial vaginosis or T vaginalis, and 7.7% had candidiasis. N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis were detected in 12.4% of the women. Overall, 48.8% had one or more of these infections. No factors were associated with vaginal infection, and only symptoms of vaginal discharge for <5?days were associated with N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis (OR 4.0, p?=?0.02). The main reason reported for seeking advice at pharmacies by both men and women was trust in pharmacy workers. Conclusions Among men and women presenting to pharmacies with urethral and vaginal symptoms, rates of urethral and vaginal infections were comparable to those found in other clinical settings. Pharmacies can contribute to the care and prevention of sexuallytransmitted infection in developing countries.
Garcia, P J; Carcamo, C P; Chiappe, M; Holmes, K K
A detailed appraisal of the British seafarer and his way of life is described and the prevailing management of sexuallytransmitted disease in the seafarer is outlined. It is shown that the available statistics on the incidence of sexuallytransmitted disease among seafarers are inadequate. Management at sea and ashore remains generally unsatisfactory. Suggestions are made to improve the management of venereal disease in foreign ports and a simple method is described of managing sexuallytransmitted disease at sea with trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. PMID:946784
Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been most consistently linked to sexual behaviour, and the epidemiological profile of BV mirrors that of established sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). It remains a matter of debate however whether BV pathogenesis does actually involve sexual transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms from men to women. We therefore made a critical appraisal of the literature on BV in relation to sexual behaviour. Discussion G. vaginalis carriage and BV occurs rarely with children, but has been observed among adolescent, even sexually non-experienced girls, contradicting that sexual transmission is a necessary prerequisite to disease acquisition. G. vaginalis carriage is enhanced by penetrative sexual contact but also by non-penetrative digito-genital contact and oral sex, again indicating that sex per se, but not necessarily coital transmission is involved. Several observations also point at female-to-male rather than at male-to-female transmission of G. vaginalis, presumably explaining the high concordance rates of G. vaginalis carriage among couples. Male antibiotic treatment has not been found to protect against BV, condom use is slightly protective, whereas male circumcision might protect against BV. BV is also common among women-who-have-sex-with-women and this relates at least in part to non-coital sexual behaviours. Though male-to-female transmission cannot be ruled out, overall there is little evidence that BV acts as an STD. Rather, we suggest BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease (SED), with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor. This may relate to two distinct pathogenetic mechanisms: (1) in case of unprotected intercourse alkalinisation of the vaginal niche enhances a shift from lactobacilli-dominated microflora to a BV-like type of microflora and (2) in case of unprotected and protected intercourse mechanical transfer of perineal enteric bacteria is enhanced by coitus. A similar mechanism of mechanical transfer may explain the consistent link between non-coital sexual acts and BV. Similar observations supporting the SED pathogenetic model have been made for vaginal candidiasis and for urinary tract infection. Summary Though male-to-female transmission cannot be ruled out, overall there is incomplete evidence that BV acts as an STI. We believe however that BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease, with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor.
This study describes associations of partner?specific relationship characteristics with consistent condom use among 297 young people (ages 13–24) with sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD). Relationship?specific variables were relationship quality, reasons for sex, relationship duration, duration of sexual relationship, coital frequency, “established” versus “new” sexual partner, cohabitation, children, sexual coercion, and drug or alcohol use associated with coitus. Relationship characteristics associated with
Barry P. Katz; J. Dennis Fortenberry; Gregory D. Zimet; Margaret J. Blythe; Donald P. Orr
Background Data on sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC overall, among pregnant women, and among women ?25 years. Methods During October 2004–September 2006, HIV-infected women at 3 obstetrics and gynecology clinics were asked about sexual behaviors and STI symptoms, physically examined, and screened for chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify correlates of infections. NNS was calculated using standard methods. Results Among 1,124 women, 526 (47.0%) had STI symptoms or signs, 469 (41.7%) had CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, and 133 (11.8%) had an STI. Correlates of having an STI included pregnancy and having STI signs. Among 469 women and 655 women with vs. without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, respectively, 43 (9.2%) vs. 31 (4.7%), 2 (0.4%) vs. 9 (1.4%), and 45 (9.6%) vs. 38 (5.8%) had CT, GC, or “CT or GC”, respectively; correlates included receiving care at university hospitals and having sex with a casual partner within 3 months. NNS for women overall and women ?25 years old were 18 (95% CI, 13-25) and 11 (95% CI, 6-23), respectively; and for pregnant and non-pregnant women, 8 (95% CI, 4-24) and 19 (95% CI, 14-27), respectively. Conclusions STI prevalence among HIV-infected women, including CT and GC among those without symptoms or signs, was substantial. Screening for CT and GC, particularly for pregnant women, should be considered.
Objective: To determine whether adolescents' perceived social support predicts future utilisation of sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) related health care. Methods: A longitudinal study of African-American adolescents ages 12–18 recruited from a random sample of households in the San Francisco Bay area in which baseline data were collected by telephone and follow up data were collected by telephone or in-home audio computer assisted self interview. At baseline, participants were asked about their sexual behaviours, STD history, and social support. At follow up 14–18 months later, participants were asked whether they, while asymptomatic, had sought STD related medical care within the past year. Results: Asymptomatic sexually experienced adolescents who talked to their closest friend almost every day were more likely to have had STD related health care in the past year (odds ratio (OR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 1.76). Closeness to female and male parents/guardians and participation in extracurricular activities were not associated with utilisation of STD related health care within the past year. After controlling for age and sex, sexually experienced adolescents who talked to or saw their closest friend almost every day were more likely to have had STD related health care within the past year (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.70). Conclusions: These findings suggest that friends have an impact on the seeking of confidential healthcare services, such as care for STDs.
The factors associated with the rising incidence of sexuallytransmitted diseases in adolescents in England and Wales are both social and medical. Among the social factors is the large part played by sex in periodicals, advertisements, the theater, radio, and television. Also playing their part are increased mobility of populations, particularly moves from rural to urban areas, increased affluence, increased alcohol comsumption and leisure time together with greater personal freedom. The medical factors include the prevalence of asymptomatic infection mainly in women but also in men, the high incidence in homosexual men who may be asymptomatic and very promiscuous, and the fact that modern treatment is simple and effective reduces the fear of infection. Furthermore, modern contraceptive techniques such as the IUD and oral contraceptives (OCs) offer no barriers to infection unlike the condom and diaphragm. Syphilis is no longer a problem in the UK, as the incidence has remained at a low level of 2-3 cases/100,000 population for the past 20 years. Gonorrhea has become a problem in its place reaching almost epidemic proportions by 1975, although the incidence is now showing some sign of leveling off. Nonspecific urethritis in men and nonspecific genital infection in women, and the virus condition of herpes genitalis and genital warts have all continued to increase in incidence. In most clinics 40-50% of female patients with gonorrhea are under the age of 20. Changing patterns of sexual behavior have altered the pattern of disease. Oral coitus, both fellatio and cunnilingus, have become more prevalent and can lead to pharyngeal gonorrhea which can be symptomless in both heterosexuals and homosexuals. Rectal gonorrhea occurs in women as well as in male homosexuals and can be a cause of failure of initial treatment. The diagnosis of gonorrhea is a bacteriological diagnosis, and smears and cultures must be taken from the urethra and cervix in the female. It is gradually becoming routine pratice in many clinics to swab the rectum and pharynx as well as the genital tract to exclude gonorrhea in those areas. Complications of gonorrhea have become common again. Salpingitis has increased in incidence. Gonococcal arthritis has reappeared. Nonspecific genital infection in both sexes is a considerable problem. In men, the incidence of nonspecific urethritis is greater than that of gonorrhea. In women, nonspecific vaginitis, cervicitis, and salpingitis increases in incidence year by year and can be difficult to treat. As many as 40% of all women suffering from gonorrhea also have an infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, which will cause symptoms. Virus infection continues to be on the increase. This is particularly the case with genital warts and herpes genitalis, which have doubled in incidence over the past 10 years. It is always important when dealing with these conditions to examine the sexual partner, or partners, for evidence of a similar infection. PMID:582209
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) are an increasing public health problem in Djibouti. The authors have attempted to obtain basic information on the level of knowledge concerning STDs and on the sexual behavior of highly sexually promiscuous individual...
H. H. Wassef E. Fox E. A. Abbatte J.-F. Toledo G. Rodier
A survey was conducted in four major urban centres in Somalia in 1983 to determine the etiology and distribution of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). Results a serosurvey oof 1923 STD clinic patients and 553 healthy controls revealed positive serologi...
Objectiveto investigate gender differences in high school students with respect to sexual risk behaviours, and their perceptions of the effect of an educational programme on sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). In addition, this study aimed to investigate differences between students in programmes preparing for university compared with vocational programmes.
|This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…
Sexuallytransmitted diseases have often been suggested as a potential cost of multiple mating and as playing a major role in the evolution of mating systems. Yet there is little empirical data relating mating strategies to sexuallytransmitted microorganisms in wild populations. We investigated whether mating behaviour influences the diversity and composition of cloacal assemblages by comparing bacterial communities in the cloaca of monandrous and polyandrous female common lizards Zootoca vivipara sampled after the mating period. We found that polyandrous females harboured more diverse communities and differed more in community composition than did monandrous females. Furthermore, cloacal diversity and variability were found to decrease with age in polyandrous females. Our results suggest that the higher bacterial diversity found in polyandrous females is due to the sexual transmission of bacteria by multiple mates. The impact of mating behaviour on the cloacal microbiota may have fitness consequences for females and may comprise a selective pressure shaping the evolution of mating systems.
Chlamydia, with its Chlamydia trachomatis etiology, is the most common bacterialsexuallytransmitted infection in the United States and is often transmitted via asymptomatic individuals. This review summarizes traditional and molecular-based diagnostic modalities specific to C. trachomatis. Several commercially available, FDA-approved molecular methods to diagnose urogenital C. trachomatis infection include nucleic acid hybridization, signal amplification, polymerase chain reaction, strand displacement amplification, and transcription-mediated amplification. Molecular-based methods are rapid and reliable genital specimen screening measures, especially when applied to areas of high disease prevalence. However, clinical and analytical sensitivity for some commercial systems decreases dramatically when testing urine samples. In vitro experiments and clinical data suggest that transcription-mediated amplification has greater analytical sensitivity than the other molecular-based methods currently available. This difference may be further exhibited in testing of extragenital specimens from at-risk patient demographics. The development of future molecular testing could address conundrums associated with confirmatory testing, medicolegal testing, and test of cure.
Critical donor selection and testing increases the safety of blood transfusion by excluding donors at risk of transmitting infections. This study investigated the seroprevalence of and risk factors for sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) among accepted and deferred blood donors in Jamaica. A total of 1015 blood donors consisting of 794 (78%) accepted donors and 221 (22%) deferred donors presenting at
Data were collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This paper reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths’ sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis results for recent cocaine and marijuana use, and self-reported engaging in risky sexual behavior. The across gender, multiple group model involved: (1) a confirmatory factor analysis of these variables, reflecting a latent variable labeled Risk, (2) a regression of Risk on the youths’ age, and (3) an examination of the covariance between Risk and the youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charge. Results indicate the youths’ STD status, drug use, and reported risky sexual behavior are interrelated phenomena, similarly experienced across gender. Age was the only correlate of Risk status that demonstrated a significant gender group difference. The youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charges did not significantly affect Risk, regardless of gender. Research and policy implications of the findings are discussed.
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer
The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of hetero- sexual young adults' knowledge and beliefs about sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use for STI prevention. Data came from
|Examined risk factors associated with acquisition of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) among adolescents. Found that demographic factors were associated with being sexually experienced, but few demographics were associated with specific STD-related risk behaviors. Knowledge was not associated with any risk behaviors. Use of alcohol and drugs…
Boyer, Cherrie B.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Shafer, Mary-Ann
In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexuallytransmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…
Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul
The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexuallytransmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…
Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.
Purpose: To examine the sexual behaviors and related risk factors for sexuallytransmitted diseases and HIV among young adults who seek sex partners on the Inter- net. Methods: Study staff recruited participants in online chat rooms, bulletin boards, and other online venues. A total of 4507 participants responded to a 68-item, self- administered, online survey of Internet sex-seeking prac- tices.
Sexually transmissible diseases (STDs), the most common notifiable infectious conditions, remain major threats to repro- ductive and public health worldwide. Travelers are particularly vulnerable to STDs, because of voluntary or involuntary sexual behavior while abroad, and are significant vectors who introduce new pathogens and resistant strains to unaffected parts of the world. This article outlines some key issues that travel
Abu Saleh M. Abdullah; Shahul H. Ebrahim; Richard Fielding; Donald E. Morisky
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) occur often among sexually active persons with HIV infection. Incident STDs may complicate\\u000a the course of HIV infection and potentiate HIV transmission in the coinfected individual by mucosal disruption and an increase\\u000a in HIV concentration in ulcers and involved mucous membranes. Conducting ongoing periodic sexual risk assessments in HIV-positive\\u000a patients in routine medical care is critical
Sexuallytransmitted diseases are frequent in adolescence and facilitates HIV contamination. The early age limit of the first sexual intercourse, the diversity of partners, the habit of not using condoms and illicit drug abuse are pointed out as risk factors for sexualtransmitted disease. We interviewed 356 adolescents who sought medical attendance at the Adolescent Health Study Center of The
Stella R. Taquette; Marília Mello de Vilhena; Mariana Campos de Paul
During the past 30 years, there has been re- markable progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. It is now accepted that anal cancer is a sexu- ally transmitted disease, which can be cured using a combination of chemo- and radiotherapy. The biology of anal cancer remains to be elucidated, as do the
Pascal Gervaz; Abdelkarim S. Allal; Peter Villiger; Léo Bühler; Philippe Morel
OBJECTIVES--To determine the sexual risk behaviour and the incidence of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) among Dutch marines and naval personnel during a United Nations (UN) deployment. METHODS--Surveillance by post deployment questionnaire, administered to 2289 persons in three successive battalions who served for 6 months on a UN deployment in Cambodia during June 1992-November 1993. On site the medical history of
A P Hopperus Buma; R L Veltink; E J van Ameijden; C H Tendeloo; R A Coutinho
Objectives. This article explores the social context of the migration-related HIV epidemic in western Mexico. Methods. Data collection involved life histories and participant observation with mi- grant women in Atlanta and their sisters or sisters-in-law in Mexico. Results. Both younger and older women acknowledged that migrant men's sexual be- havior may expose them to HIV and other sexuallytransmitted diseases.Younger
Jennifer S. Hirsch; Jennifer Higgins; Margaret E. Bentley; Constance A. Nathanson
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess health professionals' adherence to Western Australian sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) management guidelines and to document the outcomes of contact tracing in a remote Indigenous setting.\\u000aMethods: This article comprises 2 parts: a retrospective clinical audit of quality of clinical ST1 management and outcomes of contact tracing and an analysis of completeness
Health-care seeking behaviour for sexuallytransmitted infection (STI)-related symptoms is not well known in the Netherlands. Within the framework of a large representative study, the second National Survey of General Practice (NIVEL 2001), 9687 persons aged 18 years and older were interviewed about their STI and STI-related health-care seeking behaviour. In total, 1.2% of the interviewees reported STI-related symptoms in
Jan EAM van Bergen; Jan J Kerssens; Francois G Schellevis; Theo G Sandfort; Ton T Coenen; Patrick J Bindels
Describes how self-constructed models of the male and female reproductive systems are used to simulate sexual intercourse and the actions of contraceptive devices in preventing conception and sexuallytransmitted diseases. (Author/YDS)
|Describes how self-constructed models of the male and female reproductive systems are used to simulate sexual intercourse and the actions of contraceptive devices in preventing conception and sexuallytransmitted diseases. (Author/YDS)|
\\u000a Introduction Adolescents are often seen in Emergency departments (ED) for urgent care. Rates of treatable sexuallytransmitted diseases\\u000a (Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis) are highest in this age group. This study examines the prevalence of these sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) and the\\u000a health seeking characteristics of adolescents presenting to an urban pediatric ED.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Participants were enrolled between January 2000 and July
Kathy W. Monroe; Marga Jones; Renee Desmond; Edward W. Hook
The Harvard University Asia Center hosted a symposium in October 2010 focused on sex work and sexuallytransmitted infections in Asia, engaging a biosocial approach to promote sexual health in this region. Asia has an estimated 151 million cases of curable sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs; eg, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia) each year, with commercial sex interactions playing a large role in ongoing transmission. Substantial human movement and migration, gender inequalities, and incipient medical and legal systems in many states stymie effective STI control in Asia. The articles in this supplement provide theoretical and empirical pathways to improving the sexual health of those who sell and purchase commercial sex in Asia. The unintended health consequences of various forms of regulating commercial sex are also reviewed, emphasizing the need to carefully consider the medical and public health consequences of new and existing policies and laws.
Kaufman, Joan; Bhabha, Jacqueline; Kleinman, Arthur
Delinquent girls are at elevated risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexuallytransmitted diseases when compared with non-delinquent peers. Participants—234 incarcerated female juveniles—completed demographic, individual, partner, peer, and family measures and were tested for sexuallytransmitted diseases. Disease rates were as follows: chlamydia (20%), gonorrhea (4%), and syphilis (1%). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis assessed the relationship of the predictor variable sets with sexual risk. Demographic and individual variables had the strongest associations with risk. Peer, partner, or family variables did not account for significant additional variance. The results suggest that an intervention could be delivered during the window of opportunity during the girls’ incarceration, changing their knowledge, attitudes, and skills that are implicated in risky sexual behavior before they are released back into the community.
ST LAWRENCE, JANET S.; SNODGRASS, C. EDWARD; ROBERTSON, ANGELA; BAIRD-THOMAS, CONNIE
The impetus for, and efforts in the past 20 years toward a women-initiated method for preventing sexual transmission of HIV has been previously well described. To date, four classes of topical agents categorized by mechanism of action as: surfactants, buffers, cell entry blockers and antiretroviral agents have undergone advanced clinical testing. Thus far, only coitally linked use of 1% tenofovir gel has demonstrated moderate effectiveness in preventing HIV and HSV-2 infection and has generated renewed hope for microbicide development. Studies of new antiviral agents, novel delivery mechanisms and combination/multipurpose products that address challenges of adherence and enhance the effectiveness of tenofovir gel are already underway to further enhance sexual and reproductive health needs of men and women and efforts to prevent HIV infection. PMID:23428099
In contrast to the extensively studied sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) of humans, little is known of the ecology or evolutionary biology of sexuallytransmitted parasites in natural systems. This study of a sexuallytransmitted parasite on an insect host augments our understanding of both the parasite's population dynamics and virulence effects. The impact of overwintering was assessed on the prevalence of the parasitic mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae on the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata. First, the effect of infection on host survival was examined during the stressful overwintering period. Box experiments in the field revealed that the infected ladybirds, especially males, are less likely to survive overwintering. The study provides the first evidence that the parasite harms males and suggests revisions of theories on the adaptive virulence of sexuallytransmitted parasites. It also indicates the importance of using a range of experimental conditions because virulence can be dependent on host condition and sex. Box experiments were also used to examine whether transmission of the parasite occurs within overwintering aggregations. These revealed that substantial transmission does not occur in aggregations and that transmission is predominantly sexual. Overall, the virulence effects and the lack of transmission mean that the overwintering period acts to diminish parasite prevalence and will retard the spring epidemic associated with host reproductive activity. PMID:12197118
Objective: To study the incidence and distribution of adherent Gardnerella vaginalis. Methods: Bacteria adherent to desquamated epithelial cells in the urine were detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Urine from patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV, n = 20), their partners (n = 10) and different control populations (n = 344) including pregnant women and their partners, randomly selected populations
Alexander Swidsinski; Yvonne Doerffel; Vera Loening-Baucke; Sonja Swidsinski; Hans Verstraelen; Mario Vaneechoutte; Vesna Lemm; Johannes Schilling; Werner Mendling
Objective: To examine the longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and self-reported sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) diagnosis among adolescents. Setting and Participants: National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data were analyzed for 7th through 12th graders who reported having sexual intercourse be- tween baseline (Wave 1) and 1-year follow-up (Wave 2) in-home interviews (N=4738 (2232 boys, 2506 girls)). The association between
Lydia A. Shrier; Sion Kim Harris; William R. Beardslee
Sexual contact is thought to be an inefficient mode of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission. However, reports of sexually\\u000a transmitted HCV infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) began to appear in 2004. The patients were of\\u000a early middle age with well-controlled HIV infection, participated in unprotected receptive sex, and frequently used noninjection\\u000a recreational drugs. Molecular studies
ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and other sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) in female sex workers (FSW) in Tunisia.Methods188 prostitutes from three Tunisian towns were enrolled at their weekly medical visit. Demographic and sexual behaviour data were collected. C trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) were
OBJECTIVE--To examine surveillance data for evidence of changing sexual behaviour and continuing transmission of HIV-1 among men who have sex with men. DESIGN--Analytic study of surveillance data on sexuallytransmitted diseases. SETTING--England and Wales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of cases of rectal gonorrhoea and newly diagnosed HIV infection in homosexual men. RESULTS--New cases of gonorrhoea among men attending genitourinary medicine clinics
B G Evans; M A Catchpole; J Heptonstall; J Y Mortimer; C A McCarrigle; A G Nicoll; P Waight; O N Gill; A V Swan
Summary Background There has been an increase in high-risk sexual behaviour and sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) during the time period when highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became widely available. We examined whether taking HAART increased the risk of acquiring an STD—an epidemiological marker of unsafe sex—in people with AIDS. Methods We did a computerised match of people in the San
Susan Scheer; Priscilla Lee Chu; Jeffrey D Klausner; Mitchell H Katz; Sandra K Schwarcz
ABSTRACT. Objective. Previous studies demonstrate significant associations between dating-violence victim- ization and sexual risk behaviors among adolescent girls; however, a relationship between dating violence and actual sexuallytransmitted disease (STD)\\/HIV testing and diagnosis has yet to be investigated among a repre- sentative sample. The present study assesses associations between dating violence and STD\\/HIV testing and diag- nosis among a representative
Michele R. Decker; Mph Jay G. Silverman; Anita Raj
BACKGROUND: Sexuallytransmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health
Eleuse MB Guimarães; Mark DC Guimarães; Maria Aparecida S Vieira; Nádia M Bontempo; Mirian SS Seixas; Mônica SD Garcia; Lyana ES Daud; Rejane LM Côrtes; Maria deFátima C Alves
Most STD cases in the United States are managed in health sectors dominated by commercial and Medicaid MCOs. To sustain the recent declines in bacterial STD incidence in the United States and to control expansion of the prevalent viral STD, MCOs will need to contribute substantially to control efforts. Applied researchers and quality improvement specialists must work with clinicians, patients, and health systems to develop and scale-up interventions to improve STD prevention and control. PMID:15963885
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated its recommendations for treating sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). In this review we highlight new treatment recommendations for mitigating the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the emergence of azithromycin-resistant Treponema pallidum, and treatment options for bacterial vaginosis and venereal warts. We also cover epidemiologic trends for common STDs in Hawai‘i.
|EveryBody is a curriculum that emphasizes prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) among early adolescents. It fosters active learning and facilitates communication about HIV/STD prevention and promotes safer behaviors. EveryBody incorporates current research on adolescent development so it…
|Adolescent male prostitutes have variable backgrounds; blend of different psychological, behavioral, social, and economic factors. Study of these factors forms basis for understanding potential risks they may be exposed to, including sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Reported high…
This study evaluated the prevalence of sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) in adolescents presenting to a primary pediatric care clinic (PPCC) for the diagnosis of pregnancy and our ability to eradicate identified infections. We followed 168 pregnant adolescents of low socioeconomic status from their original pregnancy diagnosis until their first prenatal clinic visit. We collected screening cervical cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Steven C. Matson; Albert J. Pomeranz; Kathleen A. Kamps
Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results: Almost…
Objective: The authors evaluated procedures for recruiting college students for sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) testing as part of a research study examining the impact of HSV serologic testing. Participants: A convenience sample of 100 students was drawn from students aged 18 to 35 years enrolled at one university in a mid-Atlantic state…
Williams, Jessica Roberts; Zenilman, Jonathan; Nanda, Joy P.; Mark, Hayley
The objective of this study was to compare sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) occurrence and STD complaints in women using intrauterine device (IUD) with women who are not using any modern contraceptive method in a family planning setting in Trabzon, Turkey. A great majority of all women in both groups were housewives and all indicated their husbands as the first and
Nuriye Nalan Sahin Hodoglugil; Dilek Aslan; Munevver Bertan
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) are an important contraindication for intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. Nevertheless, laboratory testing for STD is not possible in many settings. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of risk assessment algorithms to predict STD and subsequent IUD-related complications among IUD candidates. Among 615 IUD users in Kenya, the following algorithms were evaluated: 1)
Charles S Morrison; Christine Sekadde-Kigondu; William C Miller; Debra H Weiner; Samuel K Sinei
This study presents the perspective of vulnerable Canadian (Quebecker) adolescents defined as such on account of their numerous experiences with potential or actual fatherhood or exposure to sexuallytransmitted infection. The interviews allowed youth to talk about their experiences with paternity, their sex lives and their views on sex education.…
Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…
Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.
OBJECTIVE. This study assessed the acceptability of three nonoxynol-9 spermicides among persons attending a sexuallytransmitted disease clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS. Spermicidal foam, suppositories, and foaming tablets were evaluated. Women (n = 114) and men (n = 150) attending an sexuallytransmitted disease clinic were enrolled. After each participant used two products, each for 2 weeks, consistency of use and acceptability were evaluated. RESULTS. At admission, most women (74%) and men (58%) were not using any family planning method. Moreover, most women (85%) and men (98%) had at least one sexuallytransmitted disease or genital infection. During the study, the proportion of coital episodes protected by spermicide use was high, yet loss to follow-up and discontinuation were also substantial. Discontinuation was frequently unrelated to acceptability. Women and men rated all three products positively along several acceptability parameters. Foam was the least desirable delivery system due to excess messiness. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this study suggest that it is feasible to distribute spermicides to women and men at increased risk for sexuallytransmitted disease and that the products will be used. Further research should be done among different populations and include other spermicidal delivery mechanisms.
Hira, S K; Spruyt, A B; Feldblum, P J; Sunkutu, M R; Glover, L H; Steiner, M J
Objective To examine the effectiveness of methods to improve partner notification by patient referral (index patient has responsibility for informing sex partners of their exposure to a sexuallytransmitted infection).Design Systematic review of randomised trials of any intervention to supplement simple patient referral.Data sources Seven electronic databases searched (January 1990 to December 2005) without language restriction, and reference lists of
Sven Trelle; Aijing Shang; Linda Nartey; Jackie A Cassell; Nicola Low
An etiological study of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) was conducted among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Endocervical swab and blood samples from 269 street-based FSWs were examined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis as well as for antibodies to Treponema pallidum and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Sociodemographic data and data regarding behavior were also collected.
MOTIUR RAHMAN; ASHRAFUL ALAM; KHAIRUN NESSA; ANOWAR HOSSAIN; SHAMSUN NAHAR; DILIP DATTA; SHAHNEWAZ ALAM KHAN; RUHUL AMIN MIAN; M. JOHN ALBERT
Although it seems possible in a developing country context such as Kenya, given appropriate inputs and a sound approach, to shift a sexuallytransmitted disease (STI) epidemic from phase II to III, it is not entirely clear how to go beyond this stage, to low levels of endemicity or even elimination. Perhaps the most important challenge now is to expand
S Moses; E N Ngugi; A Costigan; C Kariuki; I Maclean; R C Brunham; F A Plummer
An extensive review of what is known about efforts to integrate prevention and treatment services for sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) into family planning services found that all too little empirical evidence is available. This paper summarises the key findings of the review, discusses the need for additional information on forms of integration and how they are working, and makes recommendations
Sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asympto- matic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking
D. Wilkinson; S. S. Abdool Karim; A. Harrison; M. Lurie; M. Colvin; C. Connolly; A. W. Sturm
The prevalence of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among hotel-based sex workers (HBSWs) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, was studied. A total of 400 HBSWs were enrolled in the study during April to July 2002. Endocervical swabs, high vaginal swabs, and blood samples from 400 HBSWs were examined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (by culture), Chlamydia trachomatis (by PCR), Trichomonas
The evidence that hepatitis B virus is transmitted between heterosexuals as a result of sexual contact is indirect, incomplete, and depends on definitions. In developed western countries, the highest attack rate for endemic hepatitis B is found in sexually active young adults. Compared to the prevalence among "controls," the prevalences of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and/or its antibody are significantly higher in female prostitutes, in women with venereal diseases, and in spouses of patients with hepatitis B. Prospective studies of serosusceptible spouse contacts of persons infected with hepatitis B virus have established secondary attack rates of 20-27%. No study has determined what types of heterosexual contact lead to infection or the risk of infection from a single sexual encounter. The highest concentration of HBsAg is found in blood, but HBsAg also appears in saliva, semen, menstrual discharge, vaginal secretions, feces, urine, and tears. Although HBsAg-positive blood transmits infection to humans when given by mouth and injections of HBsAg-positive human saliva will transmit hepatitis B virus to gibbons or chimpanzees, the epidemiologic importance of saliva and other secretions and excretions in transmitting hepatitis B virus during sexual contact is unknown. Hepatitis B vaccine may be indicated for preexposure prophylaxis of serosusceptible heterosexuals at high risk hepatitis B. PMID:6895799
A wide range of communicable human diseases can be considered as spreading through a network of possible transmission routes. The implied network structure is vital in determining disease dynamics, especially when the average number of connections per individual is small as is the case for many sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). Here we develop an intuitive mathematical framework to deal with
Sexuallytransmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to
The incidence and subsequent rise of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) is an important public health problem in Turkey, as it is in other parts of the world. Since the mid-1980s, the incidence of STIs among the Turkish population has increased dramatically, particularly in the major urban areas. One hundred and fifty registered sex trade workers were interviewed to examine their
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge of sexuallytransmitted dis- eases (STDs) and condom use in a population of young female street sex workers from eastern Europe and other non-EU countries based in the Padua area (north-eastern Italy). To assess whether any aspects of their behavior might foster the spread of STDs. Study design: Street
C. Veller Fornasa; F. Gai; M. Tarantello; P. Gallina
This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…
Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene
CONTEXT: Each year, millions of U.S. youth acquire sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). Estimates of the economic burden of STDs can help to quantify the impact of STDs on the nation's youth and on the payers of the cost of their medical care. METHODS: We synthesized the existing literature on STD costs to estimate the lifetime medical cost per case of
Harrell W. Chesson; John M. Blandford; Thomas L. Gift; Guoyu Tao; Kathleen L. Irwin
|This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…
Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene
|Objective: The authors evaluated procedures for recruiting college students for sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) testing as part of a research study examining the impact of HSV serologic testing. Participants: A convenience sample of 100 students was drawn from students aged 18 to 35 years enrolled at one university in a mid-Atlantic state…
Williams, Jessica Roberts; Zenilman, Jonathan; Nanda, Joy P.; Mark, Hayley
|Since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has allocated several billion dollars for the prevention of HIV and other sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. Using state-level data from 1981 to 1998, the authors found that greater amounts of prevention funding in a given year are…
Chesson, Harrell W.; Harrison, Paul; Scotton, Carol R.; Varghese, Beena
|Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…
Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.
Outcomes from sex education are shaped not only by the knowledge and attitudes of youth but also by groups influential in young people's lives. American youth bear one of the highest rates of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) in the industrialized world. Four constituencies with important roles in communicating about STIs are youth, parents,…
The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and the direct medical cost of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) among young persons in California and each of its 58 counties, and to better inform discussions about statewide policies and local resources needed for STI prevention and control efforts. Methods: On the basis of the methods developed at the
Petra Jerman; Norman A. Constantine; Carmen R. Nevarez
The persistent endemicity in the U.S. of infectious syphilis and gonorrhea, together with increasing diagnoses of gonococcal-related pelvic inflammatory disease in women and genital herpes infections, have intensified pressures on state and local VD control programs to measure, analyze, and interpret the distribution and transmission of these and other sexuallytransmitted diseases. In response, the Division of Venereal Disease Control
Ronald R. Fichtner; Joseph H. Blount; Jack N. Spencer
Introduction and BackgroundAt the time of incarceration, women have a high prevalence of sexuallytransmitted infections (STI). In the months after community release, women remain at high risk for new infections. This study assessed the rates and predictors of incident chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis in a sample of hazardously drinking women after incarceration.
Michael D. Stein; Celeste M. Caviness; Bradley J. Anderson
Disparities in health status and health outcomes exist among subpopulations of women; these disparities may be related to socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and country of birth. In this paper, we use surveillance data from 2003 and earlier to examine racial and ethnic dif- ferences among women in sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and
C. Brooke Steele; Valerie Richmond-Reese; Sherry Lomax
BACKGROUND: Prison populations are known to be at high risk of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) and blood borne viruses (BBVs). In accordance with State health guidelines, the Western Australian Department of Correctional Services' policy is to offer testing for STIs and BBVs to all new prison entrants. This audit was undertaken to assess the completeness and timeliness of STI and
BACKGROUND: The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. METHODS: The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of
Nazmul Alam; Eric Chamot; Sten H Vermund; Kim Streatfield; Sibylle Kristensen
Aims. This article argues that sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) and HIV\\/AIDS in Vanuatu are a cause for concern and that a strong response is needed to stem an epidemic. Methods. Three sources of data are used: studies and policy documents on STIs and HIV\\/AIDS in Vanuatu; analysis of reported STI cases from public health facilities; and key informant interviews with
The HIV epidemics in some areas of Yunnan Province, southwestern China, are close to be- coming generalized, demanding the need for a better understanding of sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) and heterosexual HIV risk. While female heterosexual risk is captured by sen- tinel surveillance, less is known about clients of commercial sex workers and other subsets of men at increased risk
Ruiying Zhao; Hongcai Gao; Xiaoming Shi; Joseph D. Tucker; Zhongmin Yang; Xiangdong Min; Hanzhu Qian; Qinyu Duan; Ning Wang
THE AWARENESS THAT HIV transmission is facilitated by the presence of other sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) has helped focus public HIV prevention efforts for the past several years. However, a persistent reservoir of asymptomatic STDs could stymie these efforts, and the National Institute of Medicine has reported on the dangers of the \\
James W. Dilley; Lisa Loeb; Shannon Casey; Barbara Adler; Joanna Rinaldi; Jeffrey D. Klausner
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) and the acceptability of STD screening among people seeking an HIV antibody test in an established free standing HIV testing clinic. DESIGN: A 9 month period prevalence study conducted between August 1993 and April 1994. SETTING: The Same Day Testing Clinic (SDTC) for HIV antibodies at the Royal Free Hampstead
S Madge; J Elford; M C Lipman; J Mintz; M A Johnson
BACKGROUND: The incidence and prevalence of sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) in China has been on the rise in the past decade. Delineation of epidemiologic pattern is often hampered by its uneven distribution. Spatial distribution is often a neglected aspect of STI research, the description of which may enhance epidemiologic surveillance and inform service development. METHODS: Over a one month-period, all
People typically attribute more responsibility to those individuals who are infected with sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) than other diseases. This study tested how different routes (i.e., sexuallytransmitted or foodborne) of transmission have an impact on individuals' general perception on stigma/shame and the attributions of responsibility, when controlling for symptoms/conditions of the hypothetical virus infection. Two hundreds and ninety eight college students were recruited for the study. As predicted, people who were attributed with control over contracting the virus (i.e., sexuallytransmitted route) were likely to be assigned a greater level of personal responsibility and were more likely to receive blame from others than people who were attributed relatively less control over contracting the virus (i.e., foodborne). The relationship between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy was also assessed. The results supported our prediction that there was a significant association between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy, in that the perceived controllability of the situation, perceived responsibility for the situation, and blame were all significantly correlated with communication efficacy in a negative direction. Practical applications by evaluating the effectiveness of the actual Merck's Gardasil advertisement were discussed that the Gardasil advertisement appears to reduce the perceived shame and stigma associated with the sexuallytransmitted nature of the virus by not revealing the true nature of the virus upfront. PMID:22980337
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania and to compare the occurrence of STIs\\/RTIs among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women. METHODS: Pregnant women in their 3rd trimester (N = 2654) were recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March
Sia E Msuya; Jacqueline Uriyo; Akhtar Hussain; Elizabeth M Mbizvo; Stig Jeansson; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen
Objective. Indirect data collection methods, or approaches which disturb usual practice, are generally used in health care evaluation. We have compared what doctors report at interview what is observed by an identified researcher with an unobtrusive measure of their usual practice.Design. Private practitioners who provide a service to sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) patients were interviewed regarding their usual case management.
Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) offer enhanced sensitivity and excellent specificity for many sexuallytransmitted\\u000a diseases. For some pathogens for which a practical diagnostic test does not exist, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), NAAT\\u000a are also useful. Further, most NAAT can be applied to less \\
This paper reviews the scientific basis for trials exploring the relation between sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Mwanza in the United Republic of Tanzania and Rakai and Masaka in the Republic of Uganda. The importance of a study's location and explanations for the divergent results of these trials are discussed. The modest effect on
Sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health problem, and controlling their spread is a priority. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are 340 million new cases of treatable STIs among 15–49 year olds that occur yearly around the world (1). Infection with STIs can lead to several complications such as pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID), cervical cancer,
Objective. Adverse childhood experi- ences (ACEs) may have long-term consequences on at- risk behaviors that lead to an increased risk of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) during adulthood. There- fore, we examined the relationship between ACEs and subsequent STDs for both men and women. Methods. A total of 9323 (4263 men and 5060 women) adults >18 years of age participated in
Susan D. Hillis; Robert F. Anda; Vincent J. Felitti; Dale Nordenberg; Polly A. Marchbanks
This document presents the positive negative news coverage of the April 28 edition of the MMWR on Alcohol Policy and SexuallyTransmitted Disease Rates. The news stories analyzed were found by searching Lexis-Nexis and monitoring news Web sites r tough an...
|Outcomes from sex education are shaped not only by the knowledge and attitudes of youth but also by groups influential in young people's lives. American youth bear one of the highest rates of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) in the industrialized world. Four constituencies with important roles in communicating about STIs are youth, parents,…
Outcomes from sex education are shaped not only by the knowledge and attitudes of youth but also by groups influential in young people's lives. American youth bear one of the highest rates of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) in the industrialized world. Four constituencies with important roles in communicating about STIs are youth, parents, healthcare providers and policy advocates of sex
|Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results:…
|This study presents the perspective of vulnerable Canadian (Quebecker) adolescents defined as such on account of their numerous experiences with potential or actual fatherhood or exposure to sexuallytransmitted infection. The interviews allowed youth to talk about their experiences with paternity, their sex lives and their views on sex…
A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from February 2008 to December 2009 at the largest Highway Terminal, Yangon, Myanmar to determine the prevalence of curable STIs (syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infections, and trichomoniasis), to find out the associated factors for STIs, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of gonococcal infection among highway drivers. Urine and blood specimens were collected from 601 male highway coach drivers after an interview about their behavior. Standard laboratory tests were carried out to detect STIs. Multivariate analysis was used to ascertain potential risk factors for STIs. The prevalence rates of syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infections, and trichomoniasis were 4.8, 4.3, 5.7, and 9.8%, respectively. One hundred and two (17.0%) were infected with at least one of the tested four STIs, and 34 (5.7%) had STI co-infections (2STIs). Those who had multiple sexual contacts were likely to be infected with at least one STI, and those who had a history of inconsistent condom use within past two weeks and multiple sexual contacts were more likely to have STI co-infections (p < 0.05). Antimicrobial susceptibility of 21 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates showed that 85.7% were susceptible to azithromycin, 80.9% to spectinomycin, 66.7% to cefixime, 61.9% to ceftriaxone, and 38.1% to ciprofloxacin. The high prevalence of STIs in this study and the decreased susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone highlighted the role of periodic screening in early diagnosis and effective treatment of STIs among high-risk populations. PMID:24050075
OBJECTIVES.Previous research suggests that male circumcision may be a protective factor against the acquisition of sexuallytransmitted infections; however, studies examining this question have produced mixed results. The aim of this study was to examine the association between circumcision status and sexuallytransmitted infection risk using a longitudinal birth cohort study. METHODS.Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health
David M. Fergusson; Joseph M. Boden; L John Horwood
The notification of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) is a prime component of well-designed public health policy. However, peculiar aspects of STD must be taken into account for the correct management of surveillance activities. Here, we describe the distribution of the most common sexuallytransmitted diseases among patients attended by the gynecological clinics of the principal public hospitals of Brasilia and
Augusto Simões-Barbosa; Joaquim Xavier da Silva; Tânia Wanderley; Paes Barbosa
Objectives. We examined associations between childhood abuse and neglect and the risk in adulthood for sexuallytransmitted diseases. Methods. In a prospective cohort design, we matched children aged 0 to 11 years with documented cases of abuse or neglect during 1967 to 1971 with a control group of children who had not been maltreated (754 participants in all) and followed them into adulthood. Information about lifetime history of sexuallytransmitted diseases was collected as part of a medical status examination when participants were approximately 41 years old. Results. Childhood sexual abuse increased risk for any sexuallytransmitted disease (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00, 3.77; P = .05) and more than 1 type of sexuallytransmitted disease (OR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.33, 8.22; P = .01). Physical abuse increased risk for more than 1 type of sexuallytransmitted disease (OR = 3.61; 95% CI = 1.39, 9.38; P = .009). Conclusions. Our results provided the first prospective evidence that child physical and sexual abuse increases risk for sexuallytransmitted diseases. Early screening and interventions are needed to identify and prevent sexuallytransmitted diseases among child abuse victims.
In order to determine the prevalence of sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) in recluse women of Chorrillos Penitentiary I in the city of Lima, Peru, a cross-sectional study was performed, including a simple random sample of women between ages 18 and 54, from whom 180 serum samples and 168 samples of cervical and vaginal discharge were analyzed. The most prevalent etiologic agents identified from cervical and vaginal discharge samples were Chlamydia trachomatis in 42.3%, Gardnerella vaginalis in 24.4% and Trichomonas vaginalis in 10.1% and for serum samples the most prevalent were syphilis and HIV, both in 2.2%. We conclude that there is a high prevalence of sexuallytransmitted infections in recluse women of Chorrillos Penitentiary I in the city of Lima, Peru. There should be routine screenings established for diagnosis and treatment of STIs within the prison system and this population should be included in the sexual and reproductive health programs. PMID:24100816
Garaycochea, María Del Carmen; Pino, Raquel; Chávez, Imelda; Portilla, José L; Miraval, María L; Arguedas, Evelyn; Linares, Pamela; Cabezudo, Edwin; Romero, Soledad; Espinoza, Manuel
BACKGROUND Health care providers may be concerned that prescribing erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD) will contribute to risky sexual behavior.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVES To identify characteristics of men who received EDD prescriptions, determine whether EDD receipt is associated with risky\\u000a sexual behavior and sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs), and determine whether these relationships vary for certain sub-groups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN Cross-sectional study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS Two thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven sexually-active,
Robert L. Cook; Kathleen A. McGinnis; Jeffrey H. Samet; David A. Fiellin; Maria C. Rodriquez-Barradas; Kevin L. Kraemer; Cynthia L. Gibert; R. Scott Braithwaite; Joseph L. Goulet; Kristin Mattocks; Stephen Crystal; Adam J. Gordon; Krisann K. Oursler; Amy C. Justice
Background. We have undertaken a cross-sectional study that investigates the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and sexual practices in sexually experienced and inexperienced women. Methods. Participants were 17-21-year-old females who attend Melbourne University, Australia. Study kits that contained an information and consent form, questionnaire, swab, and slide were distributed. Information regarding demographic characteristics and a broad range of sexual practices
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to characterize sexual behavior and opinions about sex in the United States and Britain; implications are discussed for effective public health policy regarding sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. METHODS: Large-scale national probability surveys conducted in the 2 countries detailed sexual behavior, opinions, and the prevalence of STDs. RESULTS: In comparison with that of Britain, the US population has greater variability in sexual behavior, less tolerant opinions about sexual behavior, and a higher STD prevalence and lower condom usage among men. CONCLUSIONS: The survey data show compelling evidence from both countries of a strong association between number of sex partners and STD risk. In the United States relative to Britain, there is both greater dispersion in sexual behavior and a greater incidence of unconditional opposition to certain sexual practices. The former implies a need for strong public health policy to address the risks of STDs, but the latter implies strong opposition to that policy. This disjuncture between public health need and feasibility may contribute to the high US rate of STDs.
Michael, R T; Wadsworth, J; Feinleib, J; Johnson, A M; Laumann, E O; Wellings, K
|Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived…
Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibility…
Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Background To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). Methods 2,019 women aged 20–44 were randomly selected in a two-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Results Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.06–3.98) and sexual violence (OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.05–2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.01–2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.08–2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.46–4.00) compared to women with one sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.55–1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. Conclusions The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs.
Our study objective was to determine the prevalence and pattern of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) and to study sexual lifestyles of long-distance truck drivers and their assistants in south India. For this, a total of 263 truck drivers/assistants were recruited from the highway clinic from October 1999 to March 2001. All of them were sexually active and heterosexual contact was the predominant mode (99.2%). Two-thirds of them had contact with commercial sex workers (CSWs) and roughly 60% admitted alcohol consumption. One hundred and two participants (38.7%) had various STDs. The positivity rates of HIV, VDRL and HBsAg were 15.9%, 13.3% and 21.2% respectively. The higher median age, education less than primary school level, longer duration of occupation, longer duration of each trip and a previous history of genital ulcer disease were significant risk factors for the acquisition of HIV infection. PMID:12230925
The incidence of trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis) in the United States is estimated at 5 million cases annually; chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) at 3 million; gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), 650,000; and syphilis (Treponema pallidum), 70,000. However, most sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) are asymptomatic-contributing to underdiagnosis estimated at 50% or more. Diagnosis of an STI signals sexual health risk because an STI facilitates the transmission and acquisition of other STIs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In fact, comorbid STIs increase patients' susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV by two- to fivefold. Several studies have shown that aggressive STI prevention, testing, and treatment reduces the transmission of HIV. The authors discuss common clinical presentations, screening, diagnosis, and treatment for trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus. PMID:15653780
Nusbaum, Margaret R H; Wallace, Robin R; Slatt, Lisa M; Kondrad, Elin C
One hundred and ninety three consecutive pregnant women attending peripheral antenatal clinics attached to Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, Kwa-Zulu, were examined for evidence of sexuallytransmitted pathogens. The following incidences were found: Trichomonas vaginalis 49.2% (95), Candida spp 38.3% (74), Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4% (22), Gardnerella vaginalis 6.2% (12), Neisseria gonorrhoeae 5.7% (11), positive syphilis serology results 11.9% (23), hepatitis B surface antigen 4.1% (eight). No woman had antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Dyskaryotic smears were found in 20 (10.4%). Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected cytologically in 11 (5.7%). The range of sexuallytransmitted pathogens found in this rural community was similar to that found in urban groups studied in South Africa.
O'Farrell, N; Hoosen, A A; Kharsany, A B; van den Ende, J
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) leading to the diseased state Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other SexuallyTransmitted Diseases caused by various microorganisms are posing a major threat to humankind. Hence there is an urgent need for controlling its spread. In 2008, about 30 million people are living with HIV infection in the world. Heterosexual transmission particularly affecting woman is driving the epidemic today in many resource poor countries, where most of the infections are occurring. One of the biggest potential for prevention for HIV today lies in a method of using a topical microbicide. Microbicides are applied to vaginal or rectal microbicide surfaces with the goal of preventing or at least significantly reducing the transmission of sexuallytransmitted infections (STI's). This article is presented here as an overview of the various HIV transmission and prevention methods, microbicide development pipeline and other important aspects concerned with it. PMID:19442123
Health-care seeking behaviour for sexuallytransmitted infection (STI)-related symptoms is not well known in the Netherlands. Within the framework of a large representative study, the second National Survey of General Practice (NIVEL 2001), 9687 persons aged 18 years and older were interviewed about their STI and STI-related health-care seeking behaviour. In total, 1.2% of the interviewees reported STI-related symptoms in the past year (18-24 years: 5%). A (lifetime) history of STI was reported by 2.7% (18-44 years: 4%). In all, 63% of interviewees visited their general practitioner (GP) for these complaints; 20% went to an STI-clinic and/or municipal public health services and 8% to a different care-provider. A total of 9% did not undertake any action. The majority of persons with STI-related symptoms in the Netherlands visit the GP. Reported history of STI-related symptoms was twice lower in the Netherlands compared with the UK National Sexual Health Survey. Appropriate attention for sexual health in primary care is needed. PMID:17609024
van Bergen, Jan Eam; Kerssens, Jan J; Schellevis, Francois G; Sandfort, Theo G; Coenen, Ton T; Bindels, Patrick J
Introduction: Little information is available regarding the specific sexual practices of lesbians, and whether these activities may carry an associated health risk. Methods: Self-identified lesbians from all U.S. states (N = 6935) responded to a questionnaire that was printed in a national biweekly gay, lesbian and bisexual news magazine. Items included sexual practices engaged in with women during the past
BACKGROUND: HIV\\/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), where the adult HIV\\/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexuallytransmitted infection like HIV\\/AIDS. Religious leaders
High rates of infection for chlamydia and gonorrhea have been noted among youths involved in the juvenile justice system.\\u000a Although both individual and community-level factors have been found to be associated with sexuallytransmitted disease (STD)\\u000a risk, their relative importance has not been tested in this population. A two-level logistic regression analysis was completed\\u000a to assess the influence of individual-level
Richard Dembo; Steven Belenko; Kristina Childs; Jennifer Wareham; James Schmeidler
In this paper, a sexuallytransmitted disease model is proposed on complex networks, where contacts between humans are treated as a scale-free social network. There are three groups in our model, which are dangerous male, non-dangerous male, and female. By mathematical analysis, we obtain the basic reproduction number for the existence of endemic equilibrium and study the effects of various immunization schemes about different groups. Furthermore, numerical simulations are undertaken to verify more conclusions.
Knowledge of the rates and correlates of juvenile offenders’ sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) has been limited to samples\\u000a of incarcerated youths comprised mostly of males. Data collected on 442 female and 506 male youths processed at a centralized\\u000a intake facility enabled us to study this important public health problem among a sample of juvenile offenders at the front\\u000a end of
Richard Dembo; Steven Belenko; Kristina Childs; Jennifer Wareham
The Internet is a relatively new tool in the surveillance and prevention of sexuallytransmitted infections, and this review examines its global use in this regard. Much use has been made in the form of information collection and dissemination; targeted population engagement through chat rooms, partner notification and other mechanisms; and the provision of testing services and other products. Internet users may need education concerning reputable websites, and public health practitioners need proficiency in the use of social media and marketing. PMID:22207184
One hundred and ninety three consecutive pregnant women attending peripheral antenatal clinics attached to Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, Kwa-Zulu, were examined for evidence of sexuallytransmitted pathogens. The following incidences were found: Trichomonas vaginalis 49.2% (95), Candida spp 38.3% (74), Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4% (22), Gardnerella vaginalis 6.2% (12), Neisseria gonorrhoeae 5.7% (11), positive syphilis serology results 11.9% (23), hepatitis B surface
N OFarrell; A A Hoosen; A B Kharsany; J van den Ende
Streptococcus pyogenes is indigenous to the human pharynx and causes acute pharyngitis. Balanoposthitis is an inflammatory disease of the glans\\u000a and the foreskin. However, balanoposthitis caused by S. pyogenes is not widely recognized as a sexuallytransmitted disease. In addition, bacteriological features of the isolates causing\\u000a balanoposthitis are unclear. The four S. pyogenes strains isolated from adult balanoposthitis were examined. We performed emm
\\u000a Farmworkers in the United States (US) have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of tuberculosis\\u000a (TB), sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs), and HIV. Furthermore, farmworkers tend to be politically, socially, and economically\\u000a disenfranchised, which contributes to their increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. This chapter examines the epidemiology\\u000a of infectious diseases, specifically TB, STDs, and HIV, among farmworkers; explores the risks
We compared a directfluorescent monoclonal antibody (DFA) test with alternative enzymatic and fermen- tation tests for identifying presumptive gonococcal isolates in a systematic sample from patients attendingfive sexuallytransmitted disease clinics in five cities. Fourteen (2.5%) of 556 isolates from three clinics were nonreactive with the DFA confirmatory reagent and reactive by both the Quad-Ferm (BioMerieux Vitek Inc.) and the
Disparities in health status and health outcomes exist among subpopulations of women; these disparities may be related to socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and country of birth. In this paper, we use surveillance data from 2003 and earlier to examine racial and ethnic differences among women in sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and tuberculosis. We also describe prevention programs the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed to address the disparities. PMID:16536674
Steele, C Brooke; Richmond-Reese, Valerie; Lomax, Sherry
Objective: To evaluate the use of self-collected vaginal swabs to test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis, and to describe the acceptability of this technique to adolescents.Design: Comparison of a new protocol for sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) testing with the current standard of care, using the same subjects. Survey of attitudes regarding the self-collection technique.Setting: A juvenile correctional
Between 1977 and 1981, 3089 patients attended the sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Zaria, northern Nigeria. The male-to-female ratio of attenders was 6:1. Postpubertal gonorrhoea accounted for 28.1% of cases, non-specific genital infections for 22.4%, and syphilis for 1.2%. Illiteracy, polygamy, the purdah system, widespread prostitution, and inadequate facilities are factors aiding the spread of these diseases in northern
Objective:To examine associations between migration and sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) prevalence among Mexican female sex workers (FSW).Methods:FSW aged 18 years and older in Tijuana, Baja California (BC) underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Multivariate logistic regressions identified correlates of STI.Results:Of 471 FSW, 79% were migrants to BC. Among migrant FSW, prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia
V D Ojeda; S A Strathdee; R Lozada; M L A Rusch; M Fraga; P Orozovich; C Magis-Rodriguez; A De La Torre; H Amaro; W Cornelius; T L Patterson
. ?We develop a moment closure approximation (MCA) to a network model of sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) spread through a\\u000a steady\\/casual partnership network. MCA has been used previously to approximate static, regular lattices, whereas application\\u000a to dynamic, irregular networks is a new endeavour, and application to sociologically-motivated network models has not been\\u000a attempted. Our goals are 1) to investigate issues relating
BackgroundSearching the internet for information about sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) is common. The goal of the study was to discover which internet sites offer STI tests and obtain information about the services and their validity.MethodsUsing internet web-based search engines, information was collected from the sites about STI testing services, costs and types of tests offered, and tests were evaluated for
Sherria L Owens; Nick Arora; Nicole Quinn; Rosanna W Peeling; King K Holmes; Charlotte A Gaydos
Background. We aimed to assess the association between knowledge about sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) and consistent condom use among university students controlling for selected socio-demographic factors.Method. An anonymous questionnaire survey was carried out among 720 undergraduate students (76% women) at the University of Tirana, Albania, in October–November 2002. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data, 10 multiple-choice test questions on knowledge about
Objective: To assess the case-finding effectiveness of partner noti- fication (PN) and cluster investigation for sexuallytransmitted disease (STD)\\/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Study: Literature review and quantitative summary. Results: Since 1975, the median case-finding yield for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia PN reported in the literature is about 1 new case found for every 4 or 5 cases interviewed. The yield
OBJECTIVES--The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of sexuallytransmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in women with Bartholin's gland abscess. SETTING--Gynaecology Clinic of King Edward VIII Hospital, a large urban, referral hospital for the province of Kwa-Zulu Natal, serving an underprivileged population. METHODS--Thirty consecutive women presenting with unruptured Bartholin's gland abscesses were studied. Prior
OBJECTIVE--To assess the extent of the sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) problem in a rural area of Mozambique. METHODS--A cross sectional study among pregnant women and patients presenting with genital complaints. Laboratory confirmation was done for gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection, active syphilis, trichomoniasis and HIV infection. SETTING--A primary health care setting in Vilanculos, Inhambane province, Mozambique. RESULTS--Evidence of one or more of
B Vuylsteke; R Bastos; J Barreto; T Crucitti; E Folgosa; J Mondlane; T Dusauchoit; P Piot; M Laga
ObjectivesThis study evaluated the role of single session counselling on partner referral among index cases diagnosed as having sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) in Bangladesh.MethodsA quasirandomised trial was conducted in 1339 index cases with symptomatic STIs in 3 public and 3 non-government organisation operated clinics.ResultsOut of 1339 index cases, partner referral was achieved by 37% in the counselling group and 27%
Nazmul Alam; Peter Kim Streatfield; M. Shahidullah; Dipak Mitra; Sten H Vermund; Sibylle Kristensen
A large body of literature suggests that treatment of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) has a measurable effect on reducing\\u000a HIV infectiousness and susceptibility at both the individual and general population levels. Recent research includes biological\\u000a studies on genital herpes and genital shedding of HIV-1; two large-scale, community-based clinical trials in Africa; and the\\u000a use of mathematical modeling to further explore
Background:A syndromic approach has been advocated for identification and management of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in countries where diagnostic laboratory tests are not consistently available. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to discover the prevalence of STD syndromes in tribal population of central India.Methods:All married men and women in the age group of 15–49 years from selected villages were enumerated
V G Rao; A Anvikar; D Savargaonkar; J Bhat; R Yadav; B K Tiwary; A Abbad
ObjectivesTo propose a Bayesian approach to uncertainty analysis of sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) models, which can be used to quantify uncertainty in model assessments of policy options, estimate regional STI prevalence from sentinel surveillance data and make inferences about STI transmission and natural history parameters.MethodsPrior distributions are specified to represent uncertainty regarding STI parameters. A likelihood function is defined using
Leigh F Johnson; Leontine Alkema; Rob E Dorrington
Current clinical aspects of genital ulcer diseases, urethritis and genital warts are reviewed. In the first part we focus on the commonest sexuallytransmitted pathogens associated with urethritis, including Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea; and we provide an overview about human papilloma virus related genital infections. Diagnostic and treatment approaches are based on the most recent internationally published guidelines and should help practitioners managing their patients, preventing irreversible complications and further transmission. PMID:23823683
Objective To investigate the sexual and treatment?seeking behaviour for sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) in long?distance transport workers of East Africa. Methods A health?seeking behaviour survey was carried out at four sites on the Mombasa–Kampala trans?Africa highway (n?=?381). The questionnaires probed details of STI knowledge, symptoms and care?seeking behaviour. In one site at the Kenya–Uganda border, a sexual patterning matrix was used (n?=?202) to measure sexual behaviour in truck drivers and their assistants over the 12?month period before the interview. Results Over half of the sexual acts of long?distance transport workers over 12?months were with female sex workers, with an annual average of 2.8 sexual partners. Condom use was reported at 70% for liaisons with casual partners. 15% of truckers had had a self?reported STI and one?third exhibited high?risk sexual behaviour in the previous year. Of those with an STI, 85% had symptoms when on the road and 77.2% sought treatment within 1?week of onset of symptoms. 94% of drivers and 56% of assistants sought treatment for STI in a private health facility or pharmacy. The cost of private facilities and pharmacies was not significantly higher than in the public sector. Waiting times were three times longer in the public sector. Only 28.9% of patients completed their medication courses as prescribed. Conclusions Truck drivers and their assistants in East Africa have high rates of reported STIs and many continue to exhibit high?risk sexual behaviour. The transport workers studied here favoured private health facilities because of convenience and shorter waiting times.
Little is known about the incidence of bacterialsexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected adolescents. This secondary analysis of a national, multisite study included adolescents aged 12-18 years who were behaviourally HIV-infected (n = 346) or HIV-uninfected but at-risk (n = 182). Incidence rates of bacterial STIs (gonorrhoea, chlamydia [CT] and trichomonas [TV; women]) were calculated using Poisson modelling. Factors associated with incident STIs were explored using Cox proportional hazards modelling. HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected women had higher TV incidence (1.3 versus 0.6/100 person-months; P = 0.002). HIV-uninfected versus HIV-infected women had higher CT incidence (1.6 versus 1.1/100 person-months; P = 0.04). Among women, demographic, behavioural and HIV-related factors were associated with incident STIs. Among men, there were no differences in incident STIs. In this first analysis comparing STI incidence between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adolescents, bacterial STI incidence among women significantly differed by HIV status, and factors associated with incident STIs varied by STI and HIV status. PMID:23467290
Mullins, T L K; Rudy, B J; Wilson, C M; Sucharew, H; Kahn, J A
Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexuallytransmitted infection testing. The sexuallytransmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexuallytransmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexuallytransmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses. PMID:23117592
Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira
The use of condoms can reduce the risk of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We conducted this study to determine factors that impact condom use among patients attending an STI clinic in Montego Bay, Jamaica. A questionnaire containing sections on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of STIs and HIV, preventive measures for STI/HIV transmission and sexual practices including condom use was administered to 212 participants. Using logistic regression, we determined the relationship between the different factors and condom use during the last sexual episode. Approximately 43% of study participants reported condom use during the last sexual episode. Employment (OR=2.2; 95%CI=1.1–4.1) and greater knowledge of STIs (OR=1.9, 95%CI=1.02–3.6) were associated with increased likelihood of condom use during the last sexual episode. Having multiple sexual partners was associated with decreased likelihood to report condom use (OR=0.3, 95%CI=0.1–0.9). Also, persons belonging to a religious organization were less likely to report condom use (OR=0.5, 95%CI=0.2–0.9). The results of this study can be used in formulating effective strategies to increase condom use in Montego Bay. This would decrease the transmission of STIs and HIV.
Nnedu, Obinna N.; McCorvey, Staci; Campbell-Forrester, Sheila; Chang, Janice; Salihu, Hamisu M.; Jolly, Pauline E.
Sexual health services in primary care, known in the UK as local enhanced services in sexual health (LESSH), aim to increase access to sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) screening and treatment. Little is known about the characteristics, quality or public health impact of these services. We identified national standards for service provision, and evaluated LESSH against them using a structure, process and outcome approach. Clinical structure and process standards were generally well met, with the exception of partner notification provision. However, public health and outcome measures were largely unascertainable and often undefined in the standards. If the primary care STI services are to deliver public health benefit, improved outcome measures and data collection are required. PMID:20029064
Assessment of behaviour at risk of HIV-infection and other SexuallyTransmitted Diseases (STD) in high-risk subjects, such as illegal immigrants is the first step for successful prevention measures. In order to assess knowledge of AIDS, STDs, risk behaviour and condom use, a sexual behaviour questionnaire was administered to all illegal immigrants living in the Domitia area (north-west of naples) and coming to our ambulatory for several pathologies. The following risk markers identified were: low level of knowledge concerning HIV and STD transmission and prevention, multiple sexual partners, casual sex, low frequencies of condom use, drugs and alcohol use. Therefore prevention campaigns should include educational activities concerning AIDS and STD transmission and prevention, and condom promotion. Particular attention should be given to improve access to STD services that provide treatment and counselling. Moreover, commercial sex workers require counselling at each visit, screening and treatment. PMID:12087210
Cuniato, V; Bellitti, F; Di Martino, M; Nocera, E; Esposito, S; Noviello, S
Objectives: To review the epidemiology, research, and prevention programs for sexuallytransmitted diseases in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI\\/ANs). Study Design: We reviewed the current national and regional trends in sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) for AI\\/ANs from 1998 - 2004, peer-reviewed studies from January 1996, through May 2006, and reports, unpublished documents, and electronic resources ad- dressing AI\\/AN STD
Carol E. Kaufman; Laura Shelby; Debra J. Mosure; Jeanne Marrazzo; David Wong; Lori de Ravello; Stephanie Craig Rushing; Victoria Warren-Mears; Lisa Neel; Sara Jumping Eagle; Scott Tulloch; Francine Romero; Sarah Patrick; James E. Cheek
Delinquent girls are at elevated risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexuallytransmitted diseases when compared with non-delinquent peers. Participants—234 incarcerated female juveniles—completed demographic, individual, partner, peer, and family measures and were tested for sexuallytransmitted diseases. Disease rates were as follows: chlamydia (20%), gonorrhea (4%), and syphilis (1%). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis assessed the relationship of the predictor variable
Janet S. St. Lawrence; C. Edward Snodgrass; Angela Robertson; Connie Baird-Thomas
Clinicians in the field of women's sexual health typically classify the two most common viral sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs), the human papilloma virus and the herpes simplex virus, as relatively innocuous infections. Teaching interventions include 'normalising' adult sexual activity and the epidemiological ordinariness of infection. Normalising is intended to disarm the potential stigma of the diagnosis. In this study, in-depth email interviews were conducted with 26 women with a viral STI diagnosis and 12 sexual health clinicians. Data were analysed thematically using a feminist, poststructuralist approach. Normalising is contextualised as an example of the workings of western philosophical thought whereby dualistic classifications privilege certain terms and subordinate other terms. In this instance, the relative medical normalcy of viral STIs is given primacy compared to the social abnormality experienced by women. Although these viral STIs infect women and men, this research concentrates on women's learning about viral STIs. For women, beliefs about femininity, sexuality, health, morality and responsibility influence effects of a viral STI diagnosis. These discourses are clinically significant because beliefs that specifically link to ideas about how to be a woman are overlooked when clinicians devise educational interventions. PMID:22333002
Objectives: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of four sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) and to identify correlates of these infections among patients seeking care for a substance use disorder at a specialized DeAddictions unit in southern India. Methods: Consecutive inpatients (n = 361; 97% male; M age = 36.7 years) admitted to DeAddictions Unit of the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences in Bangalore, India, participated in a structured interview to obtain demographic, psychiatric, sexual behavior, and substance use data; and provided a blood sample for serologic testing for HIV, chlamydia, syphilis, and Hepatitis B. Results: One-quarter of all patients tested positive for at least one STI. Lifetime seroprevalence rates were 12.9% for syphilis, 10.3% for chlamydia, 3.1% for Hepatitis B, and 1.1% for HIV. Analyses did not reveal any consistent pattern of associations between STI status and sociodemographic, psychiatric, and sexual behavioral characteristics. Conclusions: All patients should receive a comprehensive sexual assessment during standard care; for those patients who report risky sexual practices, we recommend voluntary counseling and serologic testing for STIs. Although we do not recommend universal testing for STIs at this time, this should be revisited based upon national epidemiologic surveillance data.
Carey, Michael P.; Ravi, V.; Chandra, Prabha S.; Desai, Anita; Neal, Dan J.
Objectives: To determine the extent of self reported symptoms perceived to be related to sexuallytransmitted infections and the patterns of subsequent treatment seeking behaviour in a predominantly rural population of Zimbabwe. Methods: A population based survey of 4331 men and 5149 women was conducted in rural Zimbabwe during 1998–2000. Structured confidential interviews collected data on self reported sexuallytransmitted infection symptoms, treatment seeking behaviour, sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual behaviour. Results: 25% of men aged 17–54 years report experiencing genital sores and 25% of men report experiencing urethral discharge; 30% of women aged 15–44 years report experiencing vaginal discharge. The lifetime number of sexual partners, age, and years of sexual activity were all significant predictors of symptoms for both men and women (all p values <0.001). 92% of men and 62% of women had sought treatment for their symptoms in the past year (p value <0.001). Men and women were equally likely to have sought treatment at a local hospital or clinic, but women were much less likely than men to have sought treatment at a different hospital or clinic. Among those who had sought treatment, men sought treatment faster than women and were more likely to report being "very satisfied" with their treatment than women. Conclusions: The gender differences in treatment seeking are of major concern for control efforts and further work on determining the reasons for these should be a priority. This would inform the likely impact of both increasing availability of local services and further reducing the stigma faced by those wishing to access such services.
Background Sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) are among the frequent risks encountered by travelers. Efficient interventions are needed to improve the understanding of the risks of STIs. We investigated the potential benefits of a motivational brief intervention (BI) and the provision of condoms on the engagement in unprotected casual sex. Methods 3-arm randomized controlled trial performed among single travelers aged 18-44 years visiting a travel clinic in Switzerland. The main outcomes were the prevalence of casual unprotected sexual intercourse and their predictors. Results 5148 eligible travelers were seen from 2006 to 2008. 1681 agreed to participate and 1115 subjects (66%) completed the study. 184/1115 (17%) had a casual sexual relationship abroad and overall 46/1115 (4.1%) had inconsistently protected sexual relations. Women (adjusted OR 2.7 [95%CI 1.4-5.6]) and travelers with a history of past STI (adjusted OR 2.8 [95%CI 1.1-7.4]) had more frequent casual sexual relationships without consistent protection. Regarding the effect of our intervention, the prevalence of subjects using condoms inconsistently was 28% (95%CI16-40) in the motivational BI group, 24% (95%CI10-37) in the condoms group and 24% (95%CI14-33) in the control group (p = 0.7). Conclusion This study showed that a motivational brief intervention and/or the provision of free condoms did not modify risky sexual behavior of young travelers. The rate of inconsistently protected sexual relationships during travel was however lower than expected Trial Registration Number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01056536
OBJECTIVE: Self-reported behavior has been the cornerstone of sexual health research and clinical practice, yet advances in sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) screening provide researchers with the opportunity to objectively quantify sexual risk behaviors. However, the extent to which young adults' laboratory-confirmed STD results and self-reported sexual behaviors are consistent has not been assessed in a nationally representative sample. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data are derived from participants who completed wave 3 in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young adults (N = 14 012) completed an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey and provided a urine specimen to detect the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect Trichomonas vaginalis. RESULTS: More than 10% of young adults with a laboratory-confirmed positive STD result reported abstaining from sexual intercourse in the 12 months before assessment and STD testing. After controlling for several sociodemographic factors, self-reported sex (versus those who reported abstinence) in the previous 12 months was significantly associated with testing positive, but the odds of testing positive were only slightly more than twofold (adjusted odds ratio: 2.11 [95% confidence interval: 2.097–2.122]). CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate discrepancy between young adults' positive STD status and self-reported sexual behavior. No significant correlates of discrepant reporting were identified. From a clinical standpoint, the discrepancies between STD positivity and self-reported sexual behavior observed in this nationally representative sample suggest that routine STD screening may be beneficial and necessary to reduce STD morbidity among young adults.
DiClemente, Ralph J.; Danner, Fred; Crosby, Richard A.
Objective: To determine the incidence of sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) among decriminalised and regulated sex workers in Victoria.Methods: The incidence of STI was calculated for individuals who attended the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre on more than one occasion. Results of initial screen specimens were not included. Follow up time was calculated in person months and used as the denominator with
Forty million people are infected with HIV worldwide; twenty-five million of them are in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper addresses the question of why Africa has been so heavily affected by HIV, and what explains the variation within Africa. I present a model that decomposes epidemic level into differences in sexual behavior and differences in viral transmission rates. I argue, using
Background.?Sexuallytransmittedbacterial rectal infections are objective markers of HIV risk behavior. Quantifying HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) who have had these infections can inform prevention efforts. We measured HIV risk among MSM who have and those who have not been diagnosed with rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and/or rectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). Methods.?HIV incidence among a cohort of 276 HIV-negative MSM diagnosed with rectal CT and/or GC in New York City sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinics was compared to HIV incidence among HIV-negative MSM without these infections. Matches against the citywide HIV/AIDS registry identified HIV diagnoses from STD clinics, and by other providers. Cox proportional hazards models were used to explore factors associated with HIV acquisition among MSM with rectal infections. Results.?HIV-negative MSM with rectal infections (>70% of which were asymptomatic) contributed 464.7 person-years of follow-up. Among them, 31 (11.2%) were diagnosed with HIV, of whom 14 (45%) were diagnosed by non-STD clinic providers. The annual HIV incidence was significantly higher among MSM with rectal infections (6.67%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.61%-9.35%) than among MSM without rectal infections (2.53%; 95% CI, 1.31%-4.42%). Black race (hazard ratio, 4.98; 95% CI, 1.75-14.17) was associated with incident HIV among MSM with rectal CT/GC. Conclusions.?One in 15 MSM with rectal infections was diagnosed with HIV within a year, a higher risk than for MSM without rectal infections. Such data have implications for screening for rectal STD, and may be useful for targeting populations for risk-reduction counseling and other HIV prevention strategies, such as preexposure prophylaxis. PMID:23800942
Pathela, Preeti; Braunstein, Sarah L; Blank, Susan; Schillinger, Julia A
Objectives: To document the prevalence of reproductive tract infections (RTI) and sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) among women attending a basic healthcare clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to identify risk factors associated with the diseases and to estimate the incidence of syphilis, hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection. Methods: A cross sectional sample of 2335 consecutive women was examined during 1996–8. Women were interviewed about risk factors for RTI/STI and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, HIV, HCV, HBV, HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection as well as vaginal candidosis and bacterial vaginosis. Women with antibodies to T pallidum were retested at regular intervals. One year after ending the study seroconversion for syphilis, HBV, HCV, and HSV-2 infection was detected among women initially negative for the respective diseases. Results: The overall prevalence rate of N gonorrhoeae, C trachomatis, T vaginalis, and T pallidum infection was 0.5%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 2.9% respectively. Overall, 35% of the women had antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, 0.9% had HCV, and 12% HSV-2 infection. Risk factors for gonorrhoea/C trachomatis infection were a husband not living at home or suspected of being unfaithful. HSV-2 infection was associated with the same risk factors and with a polygamous marriage. The prevalence of HSV-2 infection among women "at risk" was 23%. HIV infection was not diagnosed. Repeated serological examination indicated that only 32% of women with serological evidence of syphilis had active disease. The seroincidences of HBV, HCV, and HSV-2 were 0.03, 0.007, and 0.009 per person year. Seroconversion for syphilis was not observed. Key Words: sexuallytransmitted infections; genital herpes; Bangladesh
Bogaerts, J; Ahmed, J; Akhter, N; Begum, N; Rahman, M; Nahar, S; Van Ranst, M; Verhaegen, J
|This study aimed to assess associations between school HIV education and protective sexual behaviors and sexuallytransmitted disease (STD)/HIV diagnosis with a representative sample of male and female high school students. Data from male and female adolescent participants in the 1999, 2001 and 2003 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n =…
Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Murray, Jessica E.; Silverman, Jay G.
This paper reports on an exploratory, qualitative content analysis of the portrayal of the risk of sexuallytransmitted infections or diseases (STIs or STDs) and sexuality in the United States (US) versions of the most popular women's magazines in the world, the English language magazines for young women Cosmopolitan (Cosmo) and Glamour from 2000–2007. The data studied here demonstrate contradictory
This study aimed to assess associations between school HIV education and protective sexual behaviors and sexuallytransmitted disease (STD)/HIV diagnosis with a representative sample of male and female high school students. Data from male and female adolescent participants in the 1999, 2001 and 2003 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n =…
Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Murray, Jessica E.; Silverman, Jay G.
Data are presented from an investigation designed to study market of medical services delivered to patients with sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD). A model of the purchaser's behaviour of consumers of medical services is developed, decisive factors affecting the choice of a medical institution when applying for a profile medical advice are determined. Submitted in the paper is also an algorythm of analysis of expediency of segmentation of market of medical services delivered to STD patients. The most optimal principles of market segmentation include the following--economic (solvency), territorial (place of residence), social (belonging to one or another stratum of society). PMID:15311716
In this paper a new model for the spread of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) is presented. The dynamic behaviors of the model on a heterogenous scale-free (SF) network are considered, where the absence of a threshold on the SF network is demonstrated, and the stability of the disease-free equilibrium is obtained. Three immunization strategies, uniform immunization, proportional immunization and targeted immunization, are applied in this model. Analytical and simulated results are given to show that the proportional immunization strategy in the model is effective on SF networks.
Measurement of beliefs about sexuallytransmitted disease (STDs) is important to understanding sexual health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Representations of STDs (RoSTD) Scale. The RoSTD was developed to measure young women's representations of STDs, and it is intended to be used to measure beliefs about any of the seven most common STDs. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a four-factor structure for the 40-item RoSTD: Future Perspective, Cause, Psychosocial Consequence, and Identity. Internal consistency for the subscales (measured for each of 7 different STDs) ranged from .67- .93 and 2-week test-retest correlations ranged from .69-.90. The RoSTD shows evidence of reliability and validity in young women.
Objective: We investigated possible correlations between latent cervical human papillomavirus infection (CHPI) and other sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). Methods: Of 972 randomly selected women attending 2 family planning clinics and a youth clinic who had agreed to participate in a study concerning STDs, 66 (6.8%) had latent CHPI. Results: An association was found between latent CHPI on one hand and a history of genital chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, recurrent vaginal candidiasis, cervicitis, or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) on the other, while no correlation between latent CHPI and coexistent STDs was found. No correlation of latent CHPI to either current or past genital warts was noted. In multifactorial analyses, which included the lifetime number of sexual partners and age at first intercourse, we found that all significant associations except a history of gonorrhea vanished. Conclusions: In this study population, screening for other current STDs in women with latent CHPI would be of limited value.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of high-risk sexual behaviors and the prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhea among pregnant adolescents. Study Design: These analyses used data from 203 pregnant and 209 nonpregnant adolescents who were recruited from public health clinics. Data sources included interviewer-administered questionnaires, ligase chain reaction tests for chlamydia\\/gonorrhea in the third trimester
Linda M. Niccolai; Kathleen A. Ethier; Trace S. Kershaw; Jessica B. Lewis; Jeannette R. Ickovics
The effectiveness of a motivational and skills training HIV/AIDS group intervention designed for men in substance abuse treatment was evaluated. Men in methadone maintenance (n = 288) or outpatient psychosocial treatment (n = 302) completed assessments at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postintervention. Participants were randomly assigned to attend either Real Men Are Safe (REMAS; five sessions containing information, motivational exercises, and skills training) or HIV education (HIV-Ed; one session containing HIV prevention information). REMAS participants engaged in significantly fewer unprotected vaginal and anal sexual intercourse occasions (USO) during the 90 days prior to the 3- and 6-month follow-ups than HIV-Ed participants. Completing REMAS resulted in an even stronger effect: Completers reduced their number of USO by 21% from baseline to 6-month follow-up. In contrast, HIV-Ed completers increased the number of USO by 2%. A motivational and skills training HIV prevention intervention designed for men was associated with greater sexual risk reduction over standard HIV-Ed. Substance abuse treatment programs can therefore help reduce sexual risk among their clientele by providing a more intensive intervention than what is traditionally provided. PMID:19150206
Calsyn, Donald A; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Tross, Susan; Doyle, Suzanne R; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Song, Yong S; Harrer, Judy M; Lalos, Genise; Berns, Sara B
Introduction The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise repeat HIV testing for partners of HIV-infected persons; injection drug users and their sex partners; individuals with recent multiple partnerships and their sex partners; those involved in sex trade; and men who have sex with men. Additional social and behavioral variables may be useful for identifying priority populations. Methods We analyzed data collected during a social network study conducted in a Brooklyn, NY, neighborhood to identify social and behavioral characteristics of respondents (N = 343) involved in HIV-discordant, herpes simplex virus-2– discordant, and chlamydia-discordant partnerships. Results HIV partnership discordance was associated with injection drug use but was generally not associated with sexual behaviors including multiple partnerships and sex trade. herpes simplex virus-2 and chlamydia partnership discordance were associated with multiple partnerships, sex trade, and same sex partnership history. Additional correlates of sexuallytransmitted infection (STI)/HIV–discordant partnerships included older age (?25 years), noninjection drug use, and incarceration history. Analyses suggested that screening tools composed of CDC-recommended sexual risk and injection drug indicators plus indicators of older age, noninjection drug use, and incarceration were more effective in identifying STI/HIV priority populations than tools composed of CDC indicators alone. Conclusions Screening tools that include social and behavioral indicators may improve STI/HIV case-finding effectiveness.
Khan, Maria R.; Bolyard, Melissa; Sandoval, Milagros; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Krauss, Beatrice; Aral, Sevgi O.; Friedman, Samuel R.
We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine whether the time between two consecutive sexual partnerships (gap) is associated with sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) in Russia. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to STI clinic patients in St. Petersburg and participant’s STI data at the time of enrollment in the study was collected from medical charts. The length of the gap between partnerships was divided into four categories: overlapping (0 or negative gap), short gaps (1–90 days), mid-length gaps (91–365 days), and long gaps (366 days or more). Among the 659 respondents, 22.6% had overlapping partnerships, and 13.7, 4.2, and 59.5% had short, mid-length and long gaps, respectively. Short gaps (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.38–3.95), but not overlapping relationships, were independently associated with STIs when contrasted against long term gaps. HIV prevention programs for Russian STI clinic patients should therefore focus also on prolonging the gap between consecutive, monogamous sexual partnerships.
Objectives. This article explores the social context of the migration-related HIV epidemic in western Mexico. Methods. Data collection involved life histories and participant observation with migrant women in Atlanta and their sisters or sisters-in-law in Mexico. Results. Both younger and older women acknowledged that migrant men’s sexual behavior may expose them to HIV and other sexuallytransmitted diseases.Younger Mexican women in both communities expressed a marital ideal characterized by mutual intimacy, communication, joint decisionmaking, and sexual pleasure, but not by willingness to use condoms as an HIV prevention strategy. Conclusions. Migrant Mexican women’s commitment to an illusion of fidelity will hinder HIV prevention initiatives targeted toward them. Furthermore, the changing meanings of marital sex may make it harder to convince young couples to use condoms as an HIV prevention strategy. If the chain of heterosexual marital HIV transmission is to be interrupted in this community, prevention programs must target men. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1227–1237)
Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Higgins, Jennifer; Bentley, Margaret E.; Nathanson, Constance A.
As rates of HIV increase in Vietnam, there is a need for data on social relations and sexual risk and protective behaviors among Vietnamese adolescents in a context of rapid social and economic changes. The authors report results from qualitative interviews with 159 Vietnamese adolescents living in Hanoi, Nha Trang City, and Ninh Hoa District and a survey of 886 adolescents in these same three sites. In the qualitative interviews, youths report a strong adherence to ideals and values regarding abstinence outside of marriage. Youths reported low rates of engagement in vaginal, anal, and/or oral sex with a significant difference in reported behaviors between males (29/469, 6.2%) and females (7/416, 1.7%; p = .000). A total of 15 of 32 (46.9%) sexually active youths reported rarely or never using condoms. Females had significantly higher scores for perceived sexual stigma than males (t = -10.22 [95% confidence interval (CI); -3.72 to -2.52; p = .000) whereas males scored significantly lower than females on a scale of perceived self-efficacy for abstinence (t = 5.31 [95% CI; .27 to .59]; p = .000). The stigmatization of sexual relations outside of marriage particularly for young women reinforces abstinence; however, these same values decrease adolescents' ability to obtain accurate information about sexuality and HIV and sexuallytransmitted infections and engage in safer sex. PMID:17403496
Kaljee, Linda M; Green, Mackenzie; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Tho, Le Huu; Thoa, Le Thi Kim; Minh, Truong Tan
Sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) are, by definition, transmitted between sexual partners. For curable STIs an infected index case can potentially re-infect the same partner multiple times. Thus, R0, the average number of secondary infections one typical infected individual will produce during his or her infectious period is not necessarily the same as the average number of secondary cases (infected persons). Here we introduce the new concept of the case reproduction number (Rc). In addition, we define the partnership reproduction number (Rp) as the average number of secondary partnerships consisting of two infected individuals one typical infected individual will produce over his or her infectious lifetime. Rp takes into account clearance and re-infection within partnerships, which results in a prolongation of the duration of the infectious period. The two new reproduction numbers were derived for a deterministic pair model with serial monogamous partnerships using infection parameters for Chlamydia trachomatis, an example of a curable STI. We showed that re-infection within partnerships means that curable STIs can be sustained endemically even when the average number of secondary cases a person produces during his or her infectious period is below one. PMID:23608632
Heijne, Janneke C M; Herzog, Sereina A; Althaus, Christian L; Low, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Mirjam
The World Health Organization emphasizes an integrated primary care approach using syndromic management of sexuallytransmitted infections. The objective of our study was to evaluate the quality of care of the syndromic management of sexuallytransmitted disease in women in Rabta hospital in Tunisia. Algorithms have been developed for: cervicitis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia (algorithm 3a), vaginitis due to Trichomonas vaginalis or Chlamydia trachomatis (algorithm 3b) and vaginitis due to Candida (algorithm 3c). A total of 116 women were enrolled in the study during February 2003 to April 2004. The prevalence of each bacterium was Chlamydia (10%), N. gonorrhoeae (1%), Treponema pallidum (1%), T. vaginalis (5%) and Candida (21%). Algorithm '3a' had a sensitivity of 45%, a specificity of 42% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 11.9%. Algorithm '3b' had a sensitivity of 35.7%, a specificity of 68.9% and PPV of 20.8%. Algorithm '3c' had a sensitivity of 12%, a specificity of 88% and PPV of 33.3%. To improve the sensitivity of the syndromic approach, we suggest improving the quality of history taking. PMID:18334064
Zribi, M; Mansour, K Ben; Abid, F; Masmoudi, A; Fendri, C
Knowledge of the rates and correlates of juvenile offenders’ sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) has been limited to samples of incarcerated youths comprised mostly of males. Data collected on 442 female and 506 male youths processed at a centralized intake facility enabled us to study this important public health problem among a sample of juvenile offenders at the front end of the justice system. Female-male, multi-group latent class analyses identified two subgroups, High Risk and Lower Risk, of youths described by a latent construct of risk based on drug test results, STD test results, and a classification for the seriousness of arrest charge. The results found: (1) a similar classification distinguished High Risk and Lower Risk male and female youths, and (2) important gender group differences in sexual risk related factors (e.g., substance use during sexual encounters). Among the youths in this sample who tested positive for an STD, 66% of the girls and 57% of the boys were released back into the community after arrest. Overall, our findings raise serious public health and social welfare concerns, for both the youths and the community. Prevention and intervention implications of these findings are also discussed.
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Wareham, Jennifer
Using population-based and family structural data from a high HIV-prevalence district of southern India, this paper considers four suggested social scenarios used to explain the positive correlation between HIV prevalence and previously married status among Indian women: I) infection from and then bereavement of an infected husband; II) abandonment after husbands learn of their wives’ HIV status; III) economic instability after becoming previously married, leading women to seek financial support through male partners; IV) the social status of being previously married exposing women to sexual harassment and predation. By also considering seroprevalence of two other common sexuallytransmitted infections (STI), herpes and syphilis, in a combined variable with HIV, we limit the likelihood of the first two scenarios accounting for the greater part of this correlation. Through a nuanced analysis of household residences patterns (family structure), standard of living and education, we also limit the probability that scenario three explains a greater portion of the correlation. Scenario four emerges as the most likely explanation for this correlation, recognizing that other scenarios are also possible. Further, the interdisciplinary literature on the social position of previously married women in India strongly supports the suggestion that, as a population, previously married women are sexually vulnerable in India. Previously married status as an STI risk factor requires further biosocial research and warrants concentrated public health attention.
Walters, Kimberly; Dandona, Rakhi; Walters, Lawrence C.; Dandona, Lalit; Lakshmi, Vemu; Schneider, John A.
3H-thymidine uptake responses by synovial mononuclear cells to stimulation with sexuallytransmitted, enteric and mumps antigens were studied in 12 patients with "sexuallytransmitted Reiter's syndrome", 5 with "enteric Reiter's syndrome", 5 with rheumatoid arthritis, 4 with ankylosing spondylitis and 10 with "indolent arthritis of one knee." The "sexuallytransmitted" and salmonella cases were distinguishable by the responses. Synovial responses were sometimes marked when peripheral blood responses were negligible. PMID:6785434
Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16-44 years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling. PMID:22252417
Field, Nigel; Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam
Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16–44?years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling.
Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam
Research on interventions to prevent HIV and other sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) is heavily influenced by participant reporting of sexual behavior, despite uncertainty about its validity. Exclusive reliance on participant self-report often is based, overtly or by implication, on 4 assumptions: (1) no feasible alternatives exist; (2) misreporting can be minimized to levels that can be disregarded; (3) misreporting tends to underreport sensitive behaviors; and (4) misreporting tends to be nondifferential with respect to the groups being compared. The objective of this review are to evaluate these assumptions, including a review of studies using semen biomarkers to evaluate the validity of self-reported data, and to make recommendations for applying biological markers of semen exposure detectable in women to further strengthen research on HIV/STI prevention. Increasing evidence shows that semen biomarkers provide an important means of assessing and augmenting the validity of studies on HIV/STI prevention. Additional biomarkers are needed to assess male exposure to vaginal sex and both male and female exposure to anal sex. Methods and study designs that incorporate biomarkers into studies collecting self-reported behavioral data should be considered where possible. PMID:23677018
Gallo, Maria F; Steiner, Markus J; Hobbs, Marcia M; Warner, Lee; Jamieson, Denise J; Macaluso, Maurizio
This paper examines the reporting of sexual and other risk behaviors within a randomized experiment using a computerized versus face-to-face interview mode. Biomarkers for sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) were used to validate self-reported behavior by interview mode. As part of a parent study evaluating home versus clinic screening and diagnosis for STIs, 818 women aged 18?40 years were recruited in 2004 at or near a primary care clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, and were randomized to a face-to-face interview or audio computer-assisted self-interviewing. Ninety-six percent of participants were tested for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. Reporting of STI risk behavior was consistently higher with the computerized mode of interview. Stronger associations between risk behaviors and STI were found with the computerized interview after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These results were obtained by using logistic regression approaches, as well as statistical methods that address potential residual confounding and covariate endogeneity. Furthermore, STI-positive participants were more likely than STI-negative participants to underreport risk behavior in the face-to-face interview. Results strongly suggest that computerized interviewing provides more accurate and reliable behavioral data. The analyses also confirm the benefits of using data on prevalent STIs for externally validating behavioral reporting.
Mensch, Barbara S.; de A. Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S.; Jones, Heidi E.; Lippman, Sheri A.; Montgomery, Mark R.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.
Sex workers have high rates of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs), many of them easily curable with antibiotics. STIs as co-factors and frequent unprotected exposure put sex workers at high risk of acquiring HIV and transmitting STIs and HIV to clients and other partners. Eliminating STIs reduces the efficiency of HIV transmission in the highest-risk commercial sex contacts—those where condoms are
Background Sexuallytransmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6%) were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2) and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7). Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required.
Guimaraes, Eleuse MB; Guimaraes, Mark DC; Vieira, Maria Aparecida S; Bontempo, Nadia M; Seixas, Mirian SS; Garcia, Monica SD; Daud, Lyana ES; Cortes, Rejane LM; Alves, Maria de Fatima C
Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginitis, affecting over 3 million women in the United States annually. Depopulation of lactobacilli from the normal vaginal flora and overgrowth of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic species are the presumed etiology. To date, no scientific evidence shows that bacterial vaginosis is a sexuallytransmitted disease. Malodorous vaginal discharge is the most
Relationships influence sexual risk and maternal-child health. Few studies have assessed relationship dissolution and its\\u000a association with sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) among adolescent parents. Our study aimed to describe relationship dissolution\\u000a among 295 parenting and non-parenting adolescents over an 18-month period and how it related to STD incidence. Results showed\\u000a that nonparenting adolescents in a relationship with someone other than
Trace S. KershawKathleen; Kathleen A. Ethier; Linda M. Niccolai; Jessica B. Lewis; Stephanie Milan; Christina Meade; Jeannette R. Ickovics
An emerging alternative to traditional partner management for sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) is expedited partner therapy (EPT), which involves the delivery of medications or prescriptions to STD patients for their partners without the clinical assessment of the partners. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently recommended EPT nationally in limited circumstances; however, its implementation may raise legal concerns. We analyzed laws relevant to the distribution of medications to persons with whom clinicians have not personally treated or established a relationship. We determined that three fourths of states or territories either expressly permit EPT or do not expressly prohibit the practice. We recommend (1) expressly endorsing EPT through laws, (2) creating exceptions to existing prescription requirements, (3) increasing professional board or association support for EPT, and (4) supporting third-party payments for partners' medications. PMID:18172137
The global burden of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) is highest in the developing world where access to laboratory services is limited. Sophisticated laboratory diagnostic tests using noninvasive specimens have enabled developed countries to screen and diagnose curable STIs in a variety of settings, but control programs in resource-limited settings continue to struggle to find simple rapid tests that can provide adequate performance in the absence of laboratory services. While recent technological advances and investments in research and development may soon yield improved STI tests that can make an impact, these tests will need to be deployed within a health system that includes: regulatory oversight, quality assurance, good supply-chain management, effective training, information systems and a sound surveillance system to monitor disease trends, inform policy decisions and assess the impact of interventions. PMID:19995188
China has experienced an increasing epidemic of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. High risk groups likely to be infected include female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients, men who have sex with men (MSM), drug users and migrant workers. Prevention can be achieved through education of the population, condom promotion, early detection of symptomatic and asymptomatic people, and effective diagnosis and treatment of these patients and their partners. This article aims to describe the profile of the epidemic in high-risk groups in China as well as to detail the contributing factors and the implications for control. Programmes for the control of STIs should be immediate priorities in China, and primary and secondary prevention strategies are vital to this process.
Protection to sexuallytransmitted infections with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) such as type 16 is thought to be provided by neutralizing antibodies directed to the major outer capsid protein, the L1 protein. A DNA vaccine and an E1-deleted adenoviral recombinant human strain 5, both expressing the L1 protein of HPV-16, were developed and shown to express L1 protein able to assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs). The vaccines used in a prime-boost regimen, with the DNA given intramuscularly (i.m.) for priming, followed by an intranasal (i.n.) booster immunization with the viral recombinant, induced antibodies to L1 in sera and in vaginal secretions. PMID:11348726
The prevalence of female sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) in Japan is in the decreasing tendency after 2002, however it still actualizes as a social problem. Azithromycin, which is 15-member macrolide antimicrobial agent, has indication to treat the chlamydia STI in a single dose of 1 g. In April 2009, a single dose of 2 g of azithromycin extended release (ER) formulation, which is improved formulation by the viewpoint of pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics, was approved and has indications to treat not only chlamydial STI but also gonococcal STI. We considered the clinical application of azithromycin ER to treat female STI, including our new our own experiences because the clinical studies of azithromycin ER for STI had not been conducted. In conclusion, azithromycin ER was suggested theoretically becoming one of the choices of new treatment STI caused by not only chlamydia but also gonococcus, more clinical consideration to treat STI will be necessary in the future. PMID:20919495
This report summarizes incidence rates of the five most commonly diagnosed sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces during 2000 to 2012. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections were the most common, followed in decreasing order of frequency by infections associated with chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Compared to their counterparts, women, younger service members, soldiers, and enlisted members had higher incidence rates of each STI. Rates tended to be lower among married personnel. Rates of chlamydia, HPV, and gonorrhea diagnoses were notably higher among women during 2006 to 2008 but rates of the latter two infections have since declined sharply. The relatively recent introduction of STI screening among young service women and the HPV vaccine are discussed. PMID:23461303
This paper provides a brief history of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in Thailand. The presentation is divided into three main sections: the period up to the 1930s; the period from the 1930s until the end of the early 1980s; and the period from the early 1980s until the present, the so-called 'AIDS Era'. The discussion in each of these sections focuses, as far as sources permit, on the epidemiological picture, as well as describing public and official responses to these diseases. In the final part of the paper consideration is given to these findings in relation to the present situation in Thailand regarding the HIV/AIDS epidemic. PMID:8509097
In industrialised countries, there has been a drastic decrease in the number of reported cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, and tropical sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) since the introduction of antibiotics in the 1950s, whereas among the general population of non-industrialised countries, the number of cases of these diseases has remained extremely high. The World Health Organization has estimated that, worldwide, 333,000,000 new cases of curable STD occur every year and that 90% of these cases come from non-industrialised countries. Moreover, viral STD, such as genital herpes, condyloma, hepatitis B infection, and HIV-1 infection, represent an even greater problem in that they are not curable. STD are also a cause of serious complications in the genital and reproductive tracts of both genders, and curing these complications requires substantial economic resources. PMID:11367915
Carosi, G; Matteelli, A; Beltrame, A; Pizzocolo, C
Several western countries have reported increases of sexuallytransmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia since the mid-1990s, especially among teenagers 16-19 years old. We conducted a school-based survey to assess awareness and knowledge of STDs among students attending the 8th grade and above in Bremen and Bremerhaven, two cities in northern Germany. Between October and December 2011 students completed an anonymous questionnaire on awareness and knowledge of STDs in 8 different schools. To assess awareness of STDs, the students were asked to indicate which STDs they had heard of. Knowledge of STDs was assessed based on 4 general questions. Furthermore, comprehensive awareness of HPV was assessed based on 3 items. We assessed differences in HPV awareness and knowledge of STDs by key demographic variables such as age, gender and migrant background. A total of 1,148 students aged 12-20 years (response 28 %) completed the questionnaire. 31 % had a migrant background and 55 % were girls. Almost all students had heard of HIV/AIDS, but only 23 % of chlamydia and 13 % of HPV. Significantly more girls than boys had heard of HPV (18 vs. 8 %) and chlamydia (31 vs. 16 %). Generally, low levels of STD knowledge and awareness of HPV were observed. In multivariable analyses, age, gender, and ever having had sex were associated with both STD knowledge and awareness of HPV. HIV/AIDS remains the only sexuallytransmitted disease most students have heard of. Sex education at school needs to be broadened to include STDs other than HIV/AIDS. PMID:23001541
Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Zeeb, Hajo
The problem of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States has been growing, in both scope and complexity, at an alarming rate. As evidence of the emergence of these diseases as a primary national concern, the Surgeon General has designated them as 1 of 15 priority areas in which further actions are required to improve the health of the American people. The key targets for the 1990 objectives for the nation in the STD area include reducing the incidence of gonorrhea; gonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease; and primary, secondary, and congenital syphilis. This report updates progress toward these objectives. There is good news with respect to the continuing success of proven methods in preventing and controlling both gonorrhea and syphilis. However, the picture is less bright with respect to control of other STDs that have gained new prominence--Chlamydia, herpesvirus, human papillomavirus, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infections. Escalating interest in STDs reflects more recent appreciation of their relation to reproductive outcomes. STD organisms clearly have a far-reaching effect on the nation's population, including the capacity to reproduce, the rate of perinatal infection, the incidence of genital cancers, and the occurrence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Some major hurdles still must be faced before the 1990 objectives can be successfully met. The population at risk will remain large, fueling the STD epidemic and taxing existing resources. Public sector support may not keep up with inflation, much less keep pace with the expanding spectrum of sexuallytransmitted disease. From a public health vantage, however, the opportunities for further advances in controlling STDs have never been greater. PMID:3923531
Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the commonest viral sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of STIs among HSV positive patients at a tertiary hospital in Jeddah. Secondary objective of the study included the description of the demographic and clinical profile of patients with HSV and HIV co-infection. Methods A retrospective chart review of the medical records was performed for HSV positive women who presented to the emergency room and outpatient department of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 1, 2003 and August 30, 2011. Data were collected from the medical records of all the patients and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results Three hundred forty-three HSV positive patients were included in this study. Co-infection with HIV was documented in 45 patients (13.1%). Other STIs included chlamydia (n?=?43, 12.5%), gonorrhea (n?=?44, 12.8%), hepatitis B infection (n?=?8, 2.3%), and cytomegalovirus infection (n?=?37, 10.8%). Nineteen patients (5.5%) had a total of 47 term pregnancies and five abortions post HSV diagnosis. Genital ulcer disease was diagnosed in 11 (57.9%) of the cases during labor. One newborn developed neonatal herpes infection and subsequently showed delayed psychomotor development during follow up. Genital herpes was diagnosed in one patient’s partner; however, there was no documentation of screening for STIs in the partners of the other patients. Conclusions Sexuallytransmitted infections are relatively common among HSV positive patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Amongst these, HIV is the most common, with a prevalence of 13.1%. Further studies are warranted to evaluate STIs in Saudi Arabia. Health policy makers should adopt a protocol to screen for STIs in the partners of persons who are positive for any STI as early detection and appropriate treatment can improve the outcome.
Objectives The World Health Organization SexuallyTransmitted Diseases Diagnostics Initiative (SDI) website publication review seeks to provide health care providers in all geographic and economic settings with timely, critical, and concise information concerning new developments in laboratory and field diagnosis of sexuallytransmitted infections (STI). Methods Since 2003, the website (www.who.int/std_diagnostics/literature_reviews) has disseminated information in the form of annotated abstracts and commentaries on articles covering studies of STI laboratory?based and rapid assays that are commercially available or under development. Articles identified through searches of PubMed, specific journals, and by referrals from Editorial Board members are selected for inclusion if they meet pre?specified criteria. The objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for each article are summarised and board members are invited to prepare commentaries addressing study design and applicability of findings to end users. Results Currently, 91 STI diagnostics experts from 17 countries on six continents serve on the Editorial Board. Twelve quarterly issues have been posted that include summaries of 214 original and 17 review articles published from January 2002 through March 2005, with expert commentaries on 153 articles. Interest in the site has increased every year. In 2005, over 36?700 unique visitors from more than 100 countries viewed over 75?000 pages of information. Conclusions The SDI Publication Review series has the potential to contribute to SDI's goal of improving care for patients with STI by increasing knowledge and awareness of STI diagnostics. Given the proliferation of internet?based STI testing services, this website may be broadened to meet the needs of a wider range of users.
Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3%) completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners), multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexuallytransmitted disease (STD), partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.
Nucleic acid (NA) assays have been developed and commercialized for many sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). Solid phase, liquid phase or in situ hybridization of nucleic acids without amplification procedures have been successfully used for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and human papillomaviruses. Tests which use amplification procedures have provided better sensitivity and specificity than traditional tests. With special temperatures and
Objectives:To evaluate trends in the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco and the implications for HIV prevention.Methods:An ecological approach assessed temporal trends in sexual risk behaviour, sexuallytransmitted infections (STI), HIV incidence and prevalence from multiple data sources between 1998 and 2007.Results:By 2007, there were over 13 000 HIV-infected MSM living in San
S Scheer; T Kellogg; J D Klausner; S Schwarcz; G Colfax; K Bernstein; B Louie; J W Dilley; J Hecht; H-H M Truong; M H Katz; W McFarland
Sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) patients are more likely to experience a future STD including human immunodeficiency virus\\u000a (HIV). The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior and incident\\u000a STDs among patients attending STD clinics in the United States. A meta-analysis of 32 studies with 48 separate interventions\\u000a targeting STD patients
Lori A. J. Scott-Sheldon; Robyn L. Fielder; Michael P. Carey
BACKGROUND: Sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) are hypothesized to play a role in the development of prostate cancer, perhaps due to inflammation-induced oncogenesis. We assessed in a nationally representative population of middle-aged men whether sexual behavior indicators for an increased risk of genital infection were associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration, a marker of prostatic disease and inflammation. RESULTS: The
David M Werny; Mona Saraiya; Xiao Chen; Elizabeth A Platz
This study aimed to assess associations between school HIV education and protective sexual behaviors and sexuallytransmitted disease (STD)\\/HIV diagnosis with a representative sample of male and female high school students. Data from male and female adolescent participants in the 1999, 2001 and 2003 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 12,243) were analyzed. Adjusted regression analyses stratified by gender were conducted
Anita Raj; Michele R. Decker; Jessica E. Murray; Jay G. Silverman
Objectives. We assessed whether widowhood is associated with risk of diagnosis with a sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) among older adults in the United States and whether the associations observed in men differed before and after the introduction of sildenafil, the first oral erectile dysfunction medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Methods. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to analyze the time to first STI diagnosis in a random sample of married, Medicare-eligible couples aged 67 to 99 years in 1993 (N = 420 790 couples). Results. Twenty-one percent of male and 43% of female participants lost a spouse during the 9-year study period. Only 0.65% of men and 0.97% of women were diagnosed with an STI. Widowhood was associated with an increased risk of STI diagnosis for men only, with the largest effects found 0.5 to 1 year after a wife's death. Effects for men were larger after the introduction of sildenafil. Conclusions. Widowhood in older men, but not women, increased the risk for STIs, especially in the postsildenafil era. Clinicians should address sexual health issues with older patients, especially bereaved men taking erectile dysfunction medications.
Summary To assess the risk factors for casual sex and infections among the sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinic attendees in two disparate Chinese cities, an STD clinic-based cross-sectional study was conducted to provide demographic and sexual behaviour information. Participants were recruited from nine STD clinics selected by mapping strategy. STD prevalence was 69.4% (68.6% of men and 65.2% of women). The most common diagnoses were non-gonococcal urethritis (22.2%), genital warts (13.2%), syphilis (11.6%), gonorrhoea (8.4%), chlamydia (6.3%) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (5.8%). Of 536 participants, 22.5% reported having casual sex in the last three months, younger age, less education, unawareness of transmission routes and having had casual sex in the last three months were independent risk factors for acquisition of an STD. Single or separated marital status, non-local residency and STD diagnoses were independently associated with having had casual sex. After decades of exceedingly low STD rates in China, a full panoply of STD diagnoses are now evident. Both for reproductive health concerns and for stemming the expansion of HIV spread, STD control and prevention must be revitalized as a priority for China's public health and medical institutions. Effective training is a priority, given the dearth of STD-experienced health-care workers.
To assess the risk factors for casual sex and infections among the sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinic attendees in two disparate Chinese cities, an STD clinic-based cross-sectional study was conducted to provide demographic and sexual behaviour information. Participants were recruited from nine STD clinics selected by mapping strategy. STD prevalence was 69.4% (68.6% of men and 65.2% of women). The most common diagnoses were non-gonococcal urethritis (22.2%), genital warts (13.2%), syphilis (11.6%), gonorrhoea (8.4%), chlamydia (6.3%) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (5.8%). Of 536 participants, 22.5% reported having casual sex in the last three months, younger age, less education, unawareness of transmission routes and having had casual sex in the last three months were independent risk factors for acquisition of an STD. Single or separated marital status, non-local residency and STD diagnoses were independently associated with having had casual sex. After decades of exceedingly low STD rates in China, a full panoply of STD diagnoses are now evident. Both for reproductive health concerns and for stemming the expansion of HIV spread, STD control and prevention must be revitalized as a priority for China's public health and medical institutions. Effective training is a priority, given the dearth of STD-experienced health-care workers. PMID:19304968
Although it is well known that mating increases the risk of infection, we do not know how females mitigate the fitness costs of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). It has recently been shown that female fruitflies, Drosophila melanogaster, specifically upregulate two members of the Turandot family of immune and stress response genes, Turandot M and Turandot C (TotM and TotC), when they hear male courtship song. Here, we use the Gal4/UAS RNAi gene knockdown system to test whether the expression of these genes provides fitness benefits for females infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii under sexual transmission. As a control, we also examined the immunity conferred by Dorsal-related immunity factor (Dif), a central component of the Toll signalling pathway thought to provide immunity against fungal infections. We show that TotM, but not TotC or Dif, provides survival benefits to females following STIs, but not after direct topical infections. We also show that though the expression of TotM provides fecundity benefits for healthy females, it comes at a cost to their survival, which helps to explain why TotM is not constitutively expressed. Together, these results show that the anticipatory expression of TotM promotes specific immunity against fungal STIs and suggest that immune anticipation is more common than currently appreciated. PMID:24174107
Zhong, Weihao; McClure, Colin D; Evans, Cara R; Mlynski, David T; Immonen, Elina; Ritchie, Michael G; Priest, Nicholas K
Socioeconomic and health disadvantage is widespread within and across indigenous communities in the world, leading to differentials in morbidity and mortality between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, among indigenous populations are an emerging public health concern. The focus of this paper is on examining the STI epidemiology in indigenous communities in various parts of the world utilizing a range of data sources. Most of the STI research on global indigenous communities has concentrated on developed countries, neglecting more than half the world's indigenous people in the developing countries. This has resulted in major gaps in data at global level for STIs and HIV/AIDS among indigenous populations. Available data show that the prevalence of STIs is increasing among the indigenous communities and in several instances, the rates of these infections are higher than among non-indigenous populations. However, HIV still remains low when compared with the rates of other STIs. The paper argues that there is an urgent need to collect more comprehensive and reliable data at the global level across various indigenous communities. There is also an opportunity to reverse current trends in STIs through innovative, evidence-based and culturally appropriate targeted sexual health programmes. PMID:24052012
Objective To determine prospectively the relation between sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) diagnosis and depressive symptomatology. Methods Secondary data analyses were performed on 175 sexually active African?American female adolescents, who were recruited from high risk neighbourhoods in Birmingham, Alabama, United States. Results ANCOVA was used to compare adolescents who tested positive with adolescents who tested negative on three waves of depressive symptom scores, controlling for age. The STI positive group had higher depressive symptom levels at 6?months relative to the STI negative group. This result was moderated by baseline depressive symptom levels: for adolescents above the clinical threshold, the STI negative group experienced a decrease in symptoms at 6?months whereas the STI positive group maintained the same level. For adolescents below the clinical threshold, there were no changes in depressive symptom levels regardless of diagnosis. Conclusions Receiving an STI diagnosis may affect depressive symptomatology for those at risk for depression. Screening for depression in settings that provide STI testing and treatment may be warranted for this population.
Salazar, L F; DiClemente, R J; Wingood, G M; Crosby, R A; Lang, D L; Harrington, K
The Penna model is a computational model which can encompass the inheritance, mutation, evolution and ageing phenomena of population successfully. Some researchers considered social interactions in an asexual Penna model, got a complex network and found some interesting properties. We consider a sexual Penna model to study the transmission of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD). Our model can also generate a complex network and we observed some properties in real networks, such as small-world and assortative mixing. In the real world, the fatality of STD is changing with the advancing of medicine and it can affect our life. In this paper, we uncover the effect induced by the fatality of STD. We found that fatality plays an important role in the transmission of STD because whether the STD will disappear or continue to exist depends on the fatality of STD. Also, the fatality of STD can affect the evolution of inherited diseases and average life span. Some properties found in the model should be useful for the prevention and control of STD.
This study describes a community outreach project designed to increase access to reproductive health services to young African American men living in low-income urban neighborhoods. The project examined the effectiveness of providing community-based outreach and health education on increasing sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) screening. Outreach workers provided STD education and risk assessment in community settings, including street corners, parks, schools, and community centers. Data were recorded on outreach contacts, including client demographics, health education topics covered, and risk assessment results. Outreach workers conducted 9,701 contacts in a 176-week period. Most contacts (89%) were with African Americans, and most (84%) were with young men between 15 and 20 years old. Outreach workers discussed each health education item in their protocol at least 85% of the time and each risk assessment item at least 90% of the time. The majority of contacts (94%) reported being sexually active. Compared with the year prior to the project, actual STD testing of the target population doubled at the project clinics. This study suggests that going beyond traditional clinic-based testing to reach young, disenfranchised males constitutes a promising approach to reducing racial disparities in STD infections. PMID:19706672
A pilot study of cervical cytology was carried out on 500 new patients at the women's sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinic at this hospital. The aim was to discover the incidence of abnormal smears in order to gauge the worth of cervical cytology as a routine clinic procedure. Information was also gathered on each patient's age, sexual history, method of contraception used, previous smears, and genital infection. Smears showing carcinoma in situ, dysplasia, or warty atypia were regarded as abnormal, and the relevant patients were referred for colposcopy. Seventy-three (14.6%) had abnormal smears. Eight women (1.6%), average age 29.7 years, had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (CIN III) confirmed by histology. One third of the patients with abnormal smears had genital warts, and the incidence of abnormal smears was greater in patients with genital warts than in those without warts. We concluded that STD clinics are useful places in which to carry out cervical cytology screening, and we noted a positive association between infection with genital warts and abnormal smears.
Abstract Objective To examine the underreporting of sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) (i.e., no STI by self-report but have at least one STI through biological testing or clinical examination) and factors associated with underreporting among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. Methods A total of 454 FSWs were recruited from entertainment establishments in a rural county of Guangxi, China. Participants completed a self-administered survey about their demographic and working characteristics, history of STI (past or current infections), sexual history and practices, and HIV/STI-related knowledge and perceptions; 411 of the sample were also tested for syphilis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Chlamydia, Trichomonas, and genital warts. Results About 18% (79 of 411) of the sample reported a history of STI (past or current infections). Biological testing or clinical examination revealed at least one STI (acute STI) for 42% (171 of 411) of the sample. Only 9% (37 of 411) of FSWs with acute STI reported an STI through self-report, which resulted in 33% (134 of 411) of FSWs who were considered underreporting their STI. STI underreporting was independently associated with younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-0.99), a shorter duration of commercial sex (aOR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94-0.99), poorer knowledge of STI (aOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94), and less sexual risks (aOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.41-0.66). Conclusions Underreporting of STI was prevalent in FSWs, especially among women with perceived lower STI risks. The underreporting might be largely due to their perception of low risks for STI and unawareness of STI symptoms (including asymptomatic STIs). Future studies of FSWs should identify those new in commercial sex with lower STI awareness and perceived risks and encourage them to seek timely and appropriate testing and treatment.
We aimed to identify patient perceptions of barriers to discussing sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) at the primary care level. An anonymous questionnaire was available to patients (16–70 years) in the waiting room of four metropolitan Perth general practices. Results are based on 370 participant views (9.5% of the potential target population). Patients felt comfortable discussing STIs with their general practitioner
Joanne R Baker; Diane E Arnold-Reed; Tom Brett; Dana A Hince; Ilse OFerrall; Max K Bulsara
The incidence of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States is among the highest in the western industrialized world. Nearly 19 million new STDs are diagnosed each year, and more than 65 million Americans live with an incurable STD, such as herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV). Young people, in particular, are at a heightened risk…
Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Schelar, Erin; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer
Female reproductive tract (FRT) epithelial cells protect against potential pathogens and sexuallytransmitted infections. The purpose of this study was to determine if epithelial cells from the upper FRT secrete antimicrobials that inhibit reproductive tract pathogens that threaten women's health. Apical secretions from primary cultures of Fallopian tube, uterine, cervical, and ectocervical epithelial cells were incubated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida
C R Wira; M Ghosh; J M Smith; L Shen; R I Connor; P Sundstrom; G M Frechette; E T Hill; J V Fahey
Objective: To compare the risk of HIV and sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) among homeless Muslim (circumcised) and Hindu (uncircumcised) men in Kolkata, India. Background: Many observational studies and clinical trials in Africa have demon- strated that male circumcision provides protection against HIV acquisition, but there are sparse data on circumcision and HIV in India, which has the largest number of
Arunansu Talukdar; Mafafuzur R. Khandokar; Subir K. Bandopadhyay; Roger Detels
Our study focused on two topics, SexuallyTransmitted Infections (STIs) and their control using condoms. For this, we analysed and compared 42 school textbooks from 16 countries on the general topic "Human Reproduction and Sex Education" using a specific grid designed by the BIOHEAD-Citizen project. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was a…
We systematically reviewed school-based skills building behavioural interventions for the prevention of sexuallytransmitted infections. References were sought from 15 electronic resources, bibliographies of systematic reviews/included studies and experts. Two authors independently extracted data and quality-assessed studies. Fifteen randomized…
In Los Angeles County, the GIG intervention offers education to adolescents about pregnancy and sexuallytransmitted infections at a social event geared to the youth culture. Pre- and posttests completed by 609 Latino adolescents indicated an increase in knowledge and attitude changes. Use of peer educators was an important component of program…
This paper proposes that international sexuallytransmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention efforts might be enhanced by the application of social marketing principles. It first outlines the conceptual basis of social marketing approaches to health behaviour change generally and then explores key issues and opportunities for using these principles to improve current STD/HIV prevention efforts. PMID:9792356
OBJECTIVES: To determine demographic and behavioural factors and sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) associated with prevalent HIV-1 infection among brothel based and other female sex workers (FSWs) in Chiang Rai, northern Thailand. METHODS: Data were collected from questionnaires, physical examinations, and laboratory evaluations on Thai FSWs enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Chiang Rai, Thailand, from 1991 to the end
K. Limpakarnjanarat; T. D. Mastro; S. Saisorn; W. Uthaivoravit; J. Kaewkungwal; S. Korattana; N. L. Young; S. A. Morse; D. S. Schmid; B. G. Weniger; P. Nieburg
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV and sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. METHODS: Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study
Brandon DL Marshall; Thomas Kerr; Jean A Shoveller; Julio SG Montaner; Evan Wood
Examined key factors that influenced college students to seek screening for sexuallytransmitted diseases. Data from student interviews indicated that social stigmas and negative consequences (particularly the negative consequences of testing and perceived vulnerability to infection) represented significant barriers to being tested. Many students…
Summary: Syphilis testing guidelines in China are usually based on symptomatic criteria, overlooking risk assessment and ultimately opportunities for disease detection and control. We used data from 10,695 sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinic patients in Guangxi, China, to assess the efficacy of a potential screening tool inquiring about behavioural and health risk factors in identifying the STD patients who should
Y-P Yin; S P Y Wong; M-S Liu; W-H Wei; Y-H Yu; X Gao; Q Chen; Z-Z Fu; F Cheng; X-S Chen; M S Cohen
From December 1988 till April 1989 154 women who worked in clubs (120) and behind windows (34) in and around Ghent, Belgium, were interviewed about knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding SexuallyTransmitted Diseases (STD) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in their professional life. Television scored best (98%) as a source of information for AIDS. A leaflet posted in every
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the patients’ knowledge and awareness of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). Subjects and Methods: A face-to-face interview was conducted among the patients visiting the Venereal Diseases Outpatient Department of the General Hospital of Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). A 19-item questionnaire was used. A total of 116 patients participated in the study and 107
Mudassir Anwar; Syed A. Syed Sulaiman; Tahir M. Khan
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) remain a major public health challenge in the United States. CDC estimates that approximately 19 million new infections occur each year almost half of them among young people 15 to 24 years of age. In addition to the b...
Overview: This review presents the findings of published research in the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health (REACH) Project on sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) within the context of the project’s scientific agenda. Methods employed in the study for specimen collection, management, and laboratory analysis are presented. This review presents published analyses of cross-sectional data; longitudinal analyses are underway.
Sten H Vermund; Craig M Wilson; Audrey Smith Rogers; Cynthia Partlow; Anna-Barbara Moscicki
Sexuallytransmitted diseases are common among young women and effective self-management is foundational to improving health outcomes and preventing negative sequelae. Advances in technology create the opportunity for innovative delivery methods of self-management interventions. However, it is essential to conduct formative research with the target population to identify both the needs and the preferences for the content and delivery method of a sexuallytransmitted disease self-management intervention prior to intervention development. Eight focus groups were conducted with 35 young women between 18 and 24 years of age. We found that young women strongly support the use of a Web-based intervention to provide sexuallytransmitted disease self-management guidance. Women were interested in receiving comprehensive management information from the perspective of both clinicians and other women who have experienced a sexuallytransmitted disease. There was a clear interest in incorporating new media into the Web-based intervention to allow for communication with providers as well as to create opportunities for social networking between women. This formative research provides critical information about the content and delivery method of a self-management intervention and gives direction for intervention development that is inclusive of varying types of new media to allow for connectivity among users, their peers, and clinicians. PMID:24080752
Royer, Heather R; Fernandez-Lambert, Katherin M; Moreno, Megan A
Condom use remains important for sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) prevention. This analysis examined the prevalence of problems with condoms among 1,152 participants who completed a supplemental questionnaire as part of Project RESPECT, a counseling intervention trial conducted at five publicly funded STD clinics between 1993 and 1997. Altogether, 336 participants (41%, 95% confidence interval: 38, 45) reporting condom use indicated
Lee Warner; Daniel R. Newman; Mary L. Kamb; Martin Fishbein; John M. Douglas; Jonathan Zenilman; Gail Bolan; Judy Rogers; Thomas Peterman
|We systematically reviewed school-based skills building behavioural interventions for the prevention of sexuallytransmitted infections. References were sought from 15 electronic resources, bibliographies of systematic reviews/included studies and experts. Two authors independently extracted data and quality-assessed studies. Fifteen randomized…
From December 1988 to April 1989, 154 female prostitutes in and around Ghent, Belgium, were interviewed about their knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to the risks for sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in their profession. Thirty four women worked as window prostitutes, 120 picked up their clients in bars, clubs, and saunas. Blood samples
Background and Objective: The Sonagachi Project in Calcutta, India, organized sex workers to improve working conditions. Goal: To compare rates of sexuallytransmitted diseases between the Sonagachi Project and other areas in which only the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) interventions were implemented. Study: A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected female sex workers. Results: There was no difference in the
|The incidence of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States is among the highest in the western industrialized world. Nearly 19 million new STDs are diagnosed each year, and more than 65 million Americans live with an incurable STD, such as herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV). Young people, in particular, are at a heightened risk…
Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Schelar, Erin; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer
This paper shares some insights gained from undertaking a mixed methods study examining sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) in a rural community. The study specifically aimed to gain an understanding of syphilis notifications in relation to rurality and disadvantage as well as how an individual's construction of rurality shaped the way in which he or she accessed community-based health services for
Syndromic management of sexuallytransmitted diseases is now a widely accepted strategy for prevention of the spread of HIV in the developing world. Based on a project for HIV prevention undertaken in Kottayam Municipality in Kerala, the study concludes that, apart from the merits of syndromic management in terms of cost- effectiveness and usefulness in resource-poor settings, its adaptability to
|In Los Angeles County, the GIG intervention offers education to adolescents about pregnancy and sexuallytransmitted infections at a social event geared to the youth culture. Pre- and posttests completed by 609 Latino adolescents indicated an increase in knowledge and attitude changes. Use of peer educators was an important component of program…
BACKGROUND: Sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) prevention programs can mitigate the health and economic burden of STIs. A tool to estimate the economic benefits of STI programs could prove useful to STI program personnel. METHODS: We developed formulas that can be applied to estimate the direct medical costs and indirect costs (lost productivity) averted by STI programs in the United States.
Aims: This study investigates whether sexualtransmitted behaviors and infections (STIs) among injection drug users (IDUs) may promote the spread of HIV among and beyond IDUs in Russia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of behavior and tested for STIs in a convenience sample of 159 IDUs in St. Petersburg, Russia. Results: The median age was 27 and 57% were
N. Abdala; T. V. Krasnoselskikh; A. J. Durante; M. Y. Timofeeva; S. V. Verevochkin; A. P. Kozlov
|Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at…
Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.
Background: The disparity in rates of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…
Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.
Objectives To examine the prevalence and persistence of 20 HIV/sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) sexual and drug use risk behaviors and to predict their occurrence in 4 mutually exclusive diagnostic groups of delinquent youth: (1) major mental disorders (MMD); (2) substance use disorders (SUD); (3) comorbid MMD and SUD (MMD+SUD); and (4) neither disorder. Methods At the baseline interview, HIV/STI risk behaviors were assessed in 800 juvenile detainees, aged 10 to 18 years; youth were reinterviewed approximately 3 years later. The final sample (n = 689) includes 298 females and 391 males. Results The prevalence and persistence of HIV/STI risk behaviors was high in all diagnostic groups. Youth with SUD at baseline were over 10 times more likely to be sexually active and to have vaginal sex at follow-up than youth with MMD+SUD (AOR=10.86, 95% CI=1.43–82.32; AOR=11.63, 95% CI=1.49–90.89, respectively) and four times more likely to be sexually active and to have vaginal sex than youth with neither disorder (AOR=4.20, 95% CI=1.06–16.62; AOR=4.73, 95% CI=1.21–18.50, respectively). Youth with MMD at baseline were less likely to have engaged in unprotected vaginal and oral sex at follow-up compared with youth with neither disorder (AOR=0.11, 95% CI=0.02–0.50; AOR=0.07, 95% CI=0.01–0.34, respectively), and with youth with SUD (AOR=0.10, 95% CI=0.02–0.50; OR=0.10, 95% CI=0.02–0.47, respectively). Youth with MMD+SUD were less likely (AOR=0.28, 95% CI=0.09–0.92) to engage in unprotected oral sex compared with those with neither disorder. Conclusions Irrespective of diagnostic group, delinquent youth are at great risk for HIV/STIs as they age into adulthood. SUD increases risk. Because detained youth are released after approximately 2 weeks, their risk behaviors become a community health problem. Pediatricians and child psychiatrists must collaborate with corrections professionals to develop HIV/STI interventions and ensure that programs started in detention centers continue after youth are released.
Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.
All patients, who presented at the SexuallyTransmitted Disease clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, between the period of August 1996 and January 1998 were included in this study. They were examined for genital infections in order to determine the prevalence rate of Human papilloma virus genital infection (genital warts) among them. Out of the 1,373 patients seen in the clinic during the period, 861 (62.71%) had STD while the remaining 512 (37.29%) had other conditions. Out of these 861 cases, 69 (8.01%) had HPV genital infection, while the remaining 792 (91.9%) had other STDS. Of these 69 cases of genital warts, 35 (50.7%) were males while 34 (49.3%) were females. Their ages ranged between 17 and 74 years, with the peak incidence in the 20-29 years age group. 32 (46.4%) had concurrent genital infections with non-gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis 9(13%) constituting the most common type. The highest incidence (36.2%) of this condition was found among petty traders while the lowest was found among the business executives and applicants. In 67 (97%) of these patients, the nature of sexual intercourse was vaginal, while in 1 (1.5%) it was oral and another 1 (1.5%) both vaginal and oral. 26 (37.7%) of the patients had just one sexual partner, while 7 (8.1%) had 2 or more. Only 2 (2.9%) admitted to have had any sexual contact with commercial sex workers. The sites of warts in males include the shaft of the penis, the glans penis, perineum and intrameatum. In females, warts were found in the vulva, vagina, cervix, perineum and perianal regions. 42 (60.9%) of these patients were placed on 20% podophyllin on tincture of benzoin, 17 (24.6%) on cryotherapy and 1 (1.5%) on both. They all did well on the different treatment regimens except for 1 (1.5%) that had to change from podophyllin to cryotherapy when there was no reduction in size. 11 (15.9%) were however lost to follow up. PMID:11126083
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) are acquired mainly through sexual intercourse, being one of the most frequent groups of infectious diseases worldwide and consequently an important public health problem. The aim of this paper was to determine the current state of STD and to compare different diagnostic methods in the population studied. A total of 1060 samples from vaginal flows, endocervical material and urethral discharge were studied during 3 years. Of the total samples, 583 were positive, 493 in women and 90 in men. Microorganisms found in women were: Gardnerella vaginalis (39.3%), Candida albicans (21.1%), Trichomonas vaginalis (17.3%), Candida trachomatis (11.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3.2%): Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urelyticum (6.5%) and Treponema pallidum (1.4%), the associations found were, Gardnerella vaginalis with Trichomonas vaginalis 5.5%; Gardnerella vaginalis with Candida albicans 4.9%; Trichomonas vaginalis with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2.2%) and Gardnerella vaginalis with Chlamydia trachomatis (1.9%). In men, gonococcal urethritis (UG) represented 37.7% non UG 55.6% and Treponema pallidum 6.7%. These results indicate a decrease in sifilis and in UG when compared to previous studies showing that gonococcal cervicitis had also decreased. We found an important increase in the prevalence of urethritis and non gonococcal cervicitis in agreement with world statistics which consider these diseases as the most common venereal ones. It is necessary to increase the search for Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women due to vertical transmission. It should be noted that, in spite of certain fluctuations, the incidence of the STD in our area is still unacceptably high. PMID:9922478
Barberis, I L; Pájaro, M C; Godino, S; Pascual, L; Rodríguez, I; Agüero, M; Ordóñez, C
Background Sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) prevention remains a public health priority. Simple, practical interventions to reduce STD incidence that can be easily and inexpensively administered in high-volume clinical settings are needed. We evaluated whether a brief video, which contained STD prevention messages targeted to all patients in the waiting room, reduced acquisition of new infections after that clinic visit. Methods and Findings In a controlled trial among patients attending three publicly funded STD clinics (one in each of three US cities) from December 2003 to August 2005, all patients (n = 38,635) were systematically assigned to either a theory-based 23-min video depicting couples overcoming barriers to safer sexual behaviors, or the standard waiting room environment. Condition assignment alternated every 4 wk and was determined by which condition (intervention or control) was in place in the clinic waiting room during the patient's first visit within the study period. An intent-to-treat analysis was used to compare STD incidence between intervention and control patients. The primary endpoint was time to diagnosis of incident laboratory-confirmed infections (gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, syphilis, and HIV), as identified through review of medical records and county STD surveillance registries. During 14.8 mo (average) of follow-up, 2,042 patients (5.3%) were diagnosed with incident STD (4.9%, intervention condition; 5.7%, control condition). In survival analysis, patients assigned to the intervention condition had significantly fewer STDs compared with the control condition (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.99). Conclusions Showing a brief video in STD clinic waiting rooms reduced new infections nearly 10% overall in three clinics. This simple, low-intensity intervention may be appropriate for adoption by clinics that serve similar patient populations. Trial registration: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov (#NCT00137670).
Warner, Lee; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A; Malotte, C. Kevin; O'Donnell, Lydia; Margolis, Andrew D; Greenwood, Gregory L; Richardson, Doug; Vrungos, Shelley; O'Donnell, Carl R; Borkowf, Craig B
Background and Objective Alcohol use has been suggested to interfere with condom use and to increase sexual risk behaviors. However, data on the prevalence of this practice among female sex workers and its association with condom use and sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) are limited. Methods Data were collected through the baseline survey of an HIV prevention project among 454 establishment-based female sex workers in Guangxi, China, in 2004. Both global association and situational analysis were performed using 2 measures of alcohol use (alcohol intoxication and drinking alcohol before having sex with a client). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association of alcohol use with women's condom use and STIs. Results One-third of women reported being intoxicated with alcohol at least once a month during the previous 6 months, and about 30% reported using alcohol before having sex with clients. In comparison with women who did not use alcohol before engaging in sex with clients, women who did so reported significantly less consistent condom use and higher rates of both current STIs and a history of STI. However, alcohol intoxication was not associated with condom use and STIs. These findings indicate event-specific rather than global associations of alcohol use with inconsistent condom use and STIs. Conclusion Alcohol use before commercial sex is associated with unprotected sex and increased risk for STIs. Interventions that address both alcohol use and HIV risk behaviors in the context of commercial sex may have a great impact in preventing the spread of HIV in China.
Background Adolescent offenders may be at high risk for sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs). With previous research and interventions focused on incarcerated adolescents, data are needed on STD prevalence and risk factors among newly arrested youth released to the community, a far larger subgroup. Methods Participants were recruited from all arrested youth processed at the Hillsborough County, Florida Juvenile Assessment Center during the last half of 2006 (506 males, 442 females). Participants voluntarily providing urine samples for drug testing as part of standard protocol were also consented to having their specimens split and tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, using an FDA-approved nucleic acid amplification test. Results STD prevalence was similar to those previously reported among incarcerated adolescents: 11.5% tested positive for chlamydia, 4.2% for gonorrhea, and 13.2% for either or both infections. Prevalence was significantly higher among females: 19.2% of females had either or both infections compared with 10.5% of males. Prevalence was higher for 17 to 18 year olds (15.2% of males, 25.5% of females), blacks, detained youths, drug users, and those engaged in sexual risk behaviors. Previous STD testing experience was limited. Conclusions The study indicated that a voluntary STD screening protocol is feasible for arrested youth entering the juvenile justice system, and these offenders are at high risk for STDs. Because most arrested youths are released back to the community, routine testing and treatment of recently arrested youths, and expanded access to risk reduction and prevention programs, can yield substantial public health benefits.
This article describes the nature and extent of sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in South Africa, the spread of STDs, and recommended STD prevention and control approaches. Gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and chancroid are in the top 25 causes of healthy days of life lost in sub-Saharan Africa. In South Africa, an estimated 40% of women attending family planning clinics were diagnosed with an STD. 15% of women attending prenatal clinics in urban areas had latent syphilis. The World Bank estimates that over 3 million in South Africa, are infected with at least 1 STD/year. 1 in 10 sexually active persons in South Africa, may be infected with an STD every year. STDs cause morbidity, infertility, abortions, ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, prematurity, and cervical cancer. The presence of a genital ulcer increases the risk of AIDS up to tenfold. The presence of a urethral or vaginal discharge increases the AIDS risk fivefold. An estimated 1200 HIV infections could be prevented over the next 10 years by curing or preventing 100 cases of syphilis. In 1995, 1 in 10 women who attended prenatal clinics was infected with HIV. The incidence of STDs among women are underestimates due to the greater chance that women are without STD symptoms or may be embarrassed to report symptoms. High rates of urbanization are linked to 9 factors that contribute to the spread of AIDS. STD prevention programs should create awareness, provide accessible and user-friendly services integrated within primary health care, provide simple and effective STD management, and detect/manage STD carriers. PMID:12178502
To generate insights into how migration shapes sexual risk and protection, we interviewed 36 female and 20 male West Indian (WI) immigrants attending a public sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinic in Brooklyn, NY between 2004 and 2005. Migration theory suggests that shifts in sexual partnership patterns, bi-directional travel, and changes in sexual norms may alter risk. We found evidence of sexual mixing across ethnic groups: a large proportion of participants’ partners were not born in the WIs, despite what is expected among first generation immigrants. Recent travel “home,” another potential source of risk, was uncommon. In open-ended interviews, two themes around sexual and social networks emerged. First, immigrants believed that access to wider, more anonymous sexual networks in NYC and the weakening of social controls that limit multiple partnerships (especially for women) promoted greater risk. Second, immigrants experienced greater opportunities for protection in NYC, both through exposure to safer sex messages and availability of condoms. Reported changes in their own condom use, however, were not attributed to migration. WI immigrants’ risk in NYC may be driven by access to wider sexual networks but failure to alter reliance on “networks of knowledge” for protection.
Objectives. We sought to investigate independent contributions of risky sexual behaviors and bleeding caused by intimate partner violence to prediction of HCV infection. Methods. We conducted a case–control study of risk factors among patients of a sexuallytransmitted disease clinic with and without HCV antibodies, group-matched by age. Results. Multivariate analyses indicated that Black race (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 4.4), injection drug use (OR = 20.3; 95% CI = 10.8, 37.8), sharing straws to snort drugs (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.01, 3.0), sharing razors (OR = 7.8; 95% CI = 2.0, 31.0), and exposure to bleeding caused by intimate partner violence (OR = 5.5; 95% CI = 1.4, 22.8) contributed significantly to the prediction of HCV infection; risky sexual behavior and exposure to blood or sores during sexual intercourse did not. Conclusions. HCV risk among patients of a sexuallytransmitted disease clinic can be explained by direct blood exposure, primarily through injection drug use. Exposure to bleeding caused by intimate partner violence may be a previously unrecognized mechanism for HCV transmission associated with risky sexual behavior.
Chen, Meng-Jinn; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Testa, Maria; Zimmerman, Scott J.; Hughes, Patricia S.
OBJECTIVE--To present recent trends in sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in France and to estimate the gonorrhoea incidence in 1990. METHODS--Trends were analysed from data of three surveillance systems: (1) STD clinics: number of diagnoses, (2) a sentinel voluntary General Practitioner (GP) network: mean number of acute male urethritis/week/GP, characteristics of the notified urethritis (age, presence of discharge, sexual orientation), (3) a sentinel voluntary laboratory network: mean number of gonorrhoea isolates/month/laboratory, characteristics of patients with positive isolates (sex, age, site of sampling) and of strains (PPNG and TRNG rates). To estimate the gonorrhoea incidence in France in 1990, results of a study held among a national sample of laboratories were used, combined with data from surveillance systems and specific studies. RESULTS--Decreasing trends in gonorrhoea in STD clinics and in the laboratory network as well as in acute male urethritis in the GP network have been observed since implementation of the networks in 1985. The rate of PPNG strains has regularly increased in the laboratory network to reach 14% in 1991. Data suggest that the incidence in some acute non recurrent STDs could have increased among homo/bisexual men since 1988. Chlamydia trachomatis is now the most frequent diagnosis in STD clinics. Estimation of male gonorrhoea incidence rate in France in 1990 of 74/100,000 inhabitants (15-59 years) is consistent with figures observed in England and Wales, where the age distribution is very similar. On the other hand, the estimated female gonorrhoea incidence rate of 14/100,000, which concerns only microbiologically ascertained cases, is one third in France than that observed in England and Wales. CONCLUSION--The consistency of the decreasing trends in gonorrhoea and acute male urethritis observed from the different networks reduces the possibility of a bias due to any change in notification or in prescription. Trends in Chlamydia trachomatis will be better appraised in the near future with the recent implementation of new systems. The French STD surveillance appears quite satisfactory for male infections and has been able to show a marked decrease in the incidence of some STDs in the last years. Surveillance of female STDs is to be improved, in terms of monitored diagnoses and selected health care facilities. Differences between the female gonorrhoea incidence rate observed in England and Wales and the one computed for France could be attributed to differences in contact tracing policies between the two countries or to differences in sexual lifestyles.
Meyer, L; Goulet, V; Massari, V; Lepoutre-Toulemon, A
Objectives: To assess the impact of scaled-up sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) intervention under National AIDS Control Program (NACP) III and to examine the profile of STI/RTI clinic (now named Suraksha Clinic) attendees. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study by data analysis was done from April 2008 to March 2010. The scaled-up intervention comprised of (i) adopting enhanced syndromic approach, (ii) capacity building by appointing counselors and trainings of staff, (iii) strengthening STI/RTI clinics by provision of logistics and privacy by civil works, and (iv) supervisory support. The outcome which directly influenced service delivery was evaluated within this framework. Results: Sixteen “Suraksha Clinics” have been remodeled, equipped with supplies and laboratory set up. A total of 64,554 clinic visits were reported of which 27,317 [42%] attended the clinics for index STI/RTI complaint(s). Majority of the clients (44%) were young, 25–44 years old. Male to female ratio was 1:1.8. In females, the commonest complaint was lower abdominal pain (25%) and vaginal discharge (33%), the commonest syndrome. Amongst laboratory-confirmed STIs, 305 (1.4%) attendees were positive for trichomoniasis, while bacterial vaginosis was corroborated in 230 (1.07%) patients with clue cells. Amongst antenatal women, 251 were reactive for syphilis (?1:8 dilutions). 10,579 partners of index STI/RTI patients were notified and partner management was attained to the level of 99%. Conclusion: Preliminary results show increased utilization of STI clinical services, though laboratory services need further strengthening. Continued supportive supervision and capacity building will enable skill development and quality monitoring.
The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network conducted this study to determine the availability of and factors associated with infection-related health services in substance abuse treatment settings. In a cross-sectional descriptive design, state policies, reimbursement for providers, state level of priority, and treatment program characteristics were studied via written surveys of administrators of substance abuse treatment programs and of state health and substance abuse departments. Data from health departments and substance abuse agencies of 48 states and from 269 substance abuse treatment programs revealed that human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related services are more frequent than hepatitis C virus or sexuallytransmitted infection-related services, and that nonmedical services are more frequent than medical services. While the availability of infection-related health services is associated with medical staffing patterns, addiction pharmacotherapy services, and state priorities, reimbursement was the most significant determining factor. These findings suggest that greater funding of these health services in substance abuse treatment settings, facilitated by supportive state policies, represents an effective response to the excess morbidity and mortality of these substance use-related infections. PMID:17639646
Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Robinson, Jim; Alderson, Donald; Rotrosen, John
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Tanga, Tanzania. Retrospective data on syphilis and HIV status during 2008-2010 were collected from antenatal clinic (ANC) records. Prospective data were collected from HIV-infected (n = 105) and HIV-uninfected pregnant women (n = 100) attending ANCs between April 2009 and August 2010. Syphilis prevalence showed a declining trend (3.1%, 1.4% and 1.3%), while HIV prevalence was stable (6.1%, 6.4% and 5.4%) during 2008-2010. HIV-infected women had significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis (18.8% versus 5.0%; P < 0.003) and candidiasis (16.5% versus 2.0%; P < 0.001) while the higher rate of gonorrhoea (3.5% versus 0%; P = 0.095) was not statistically significant when compared with HIV-uninfected women. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence of chlamydial infection (0% versus 3.0%; P = 0.156) or syphilis (2.4% versus 3.0%; P = 1) between HIV-infected and uninfected women. Other STIs were common in both HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women. PMID:22648885
Chiduo, M; Theilgaard, Z P; Bakari, V; Mtatifikolo, F; Bygbjerg, I; Flanholc, L; Gerstoft, J; Christiansen, C B; Lemnge, M; Katzenstein, T L
Aim To assess frequency and determine the factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and hepatitis B seropositivity among Pakistani pregnant women and their husbands in Norway. Methods All together 112 couples of Pakistani origin living in Norway participated in our study. Blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against C. trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and hepatitis B. Results Pakistani women had significantly lower age, education level, and years of residence in Norway compared to their male partners. Among the men, 12% had positive chlamydial IgG antibodies in contrast to 1% of the women. These couples were discordant, meaning that the 13 wives of positive men were not infected with C. trachomatis, and the husband of one positive woman was not infected either. Four percent of women and 2% of men were positive for herpes simplex type 2. Only one couple was concordantly positive for herpes simplex type 2, the remaining four couples were discordant. Twelve percent of women and 21% of men were, or had been, infected with hepatitis B. Conclusion Sexuallytransmitted infections did not seem to be prevalent in Pakistani immigrant couples in Norway. However, it was striking that most couples were discordant. Pakistani immigrants should be offered hepatitis B vaccine.
Bjerke, Soen Eng Yap; Holter, Ellen; Vangen, Siri; Stray-Pedersen, Babill
Sex-workers are considered as the high-risk population for sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs). Early diagnosis and treatment of curable STIs in this high-risk group have crucial importance in STI control and prevention of complications and transmission of infection. In this study, 146 registered female sex-workers in Ankara city were screened with rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for causative agents of curable STIs such as, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum. To identify gonorrhoea, Gram stained endocervical smears were examined microscopically for the presence of gram-negative intracellular diplococci. For the diagnosis of chlamydial infection, an optic immunoassay (OIA) (Chlamydia OIA, Biostar, USA) as a RDT was performed by using endocervical specimens. For the detection of T. vaginalis, direct smears of vaginal swabs were examined for the presence of motile trophozoites first directly and after being cultured in Diamond's media for 24-48 hours of incubation. Syphilis was screened in the serum specimens by RPR (Omega, UK) test. There was no positive test results for gonorrhoea and syphilis however, the frequency of C. trachomatis and T. vaginalis in the study population was 1.4% and 0.7%, respectively. To provide comprehensive policies and optimal control strategies, a reliable source of data about the frequency and spectrum of STIs among high-risk populations and optimized effective screening programmes are required. PMID:20455407
Sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored.
Wilkinson, D.; Abdool Karim, S. S.; Harrison, A.; Lurie, M.; Colvin, M.; Connolly, C.; Sturm, A. W.
Gender and racial differences in infection rates for chlamydia and gonorrhea have been reported within community-based populations, but little is known of such differences within juvenile offending populations. Moreover, while research has demonstrated that certain individual-level and community-level factors affect risky behaviors associated with sexuallytransmitted disease (STD), less is known about how multi-level factors affect STD infection, particularly among delinquent populations. The present study investigated gender and racial differences in STD infection among a sample of 924 juvenile offenders. Generalized linear model regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of individual-level factors such as age, offense history, and substance use and community-level factors such as concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity, and family disruption on STD status. Results revealed significant racial and STD status differences across gender, as well as interaction effects for race and STD status for males only. Gender differences in individual-level and community-level predictors were also found. Implications of these findings for future research and public health policy are discussed.
Dembo, Richard; Childs, Kristina; Belenko, Steven; Schmeidler, James; Wareham, Jennifer
This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexuallytransmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. PMID:22789462
Objective: To test the hypothesis that our inner city obstetric patients who have been infected with sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) will have a higher prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection than the general population and to identify specific risk factors and high-risk groups. Methods: All patients in our prenatal clinic (July 1997–April 1999) who tested positive for one or more STDs were asked to return for hepatitis C antibody testing. Medical charts of all patients who returned for hepatitis C testing were reviewed. Results: A total of 106 patients with STDs were tested for hepatitis C. Positive screening tests for anti-hepatitis C antibody were found in 6.6% (7/106) of the patients (95% CI = 2.7–13.1%). This frequency is significantly higher than the hepatitis C prevalence (1.8%) in the general United States population (p = 0.006). Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed only older age (p = 0.016) and positive HIV status (p = 0.023) to be significant predictors of hepatitis C infection. Conclusions: Inner city STD-infected obstetric patients are at high risk for hepatitis C infection compared with the general population. Increasing age and HIV-positive status are risk factors which are significantly associated with hepatitis C infection.
Choy, Youyin; Apuzzio, Joseph; Skurnick, Joan; Zollicoffer, Carl; McGovern, Peter G.
Objective Several epidemiologic studies have investigated sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) and later risk of genitourinary conditions with suggestive positive results. While these results may reflect causal associations, other possible explanations include confounding by factors possibly related to both STI acquisition and genitourinary condition risk, such as recognized STI risk factors/correlates, and other factors not typically considered in relation to STIs (e.g., general health-related behaviors or markers of such behaviors). Very few of these factors have been investigated in older populations in which STIs and genitourinary conditions are typically studied. Therefore, we investigated STI history correlates in one such population, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Methods We ascertained histories of potential correlates, and gonorrhea and syphilis by questionnaire (n=36,032), and performed serologic testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, human papillomavirus, and human herpesvirus type 8 infection in a subset (n=651). Results Positive correlations were observed for African-American race, foreign birth, southern residence, smoking, alcohol consumption, ejaculation frequency, vasectomy, and high cholesterol. Inverse correlations were observed for social integration and routine health-related examinations. Conclusions These findings provide useful information on potential confounders for epidemiologic investigations of STIs and chronic diseases, and interesting new hypotheses for STI prevention (e.g., STI counseling before vasectomy).
Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Alderete, John F.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Jenkins, Frank J.; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.
Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexuallytransmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen. Over 27,000 women from 48 published reports have been screened for M. genitalium urogenital infection in high- or low-risk populations worldwide with an overall prevalence of 7.3% and 2.0%, respectively. M. genitalium was present in the general population at rates between those of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Considering more than 20 studies of lower tract inflammation, M. genitalium has been positively associated with urethritis, vaginal discharge, and microscopic signs of cervicitis and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge in seven of 14 studies. A consistent case definition of cervicitis is lacking and will be required for comprehensive understanding of these associations. Importantly, evidence for M. genitalium PID and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that a significant proportion of upper tract inflammation may be attributed to this elusive pathogen. Collectively, M. genitalium is highly prevalent in high- and low-risk populations, and should be considered an etiologic agent of select reproductive tract disease syndromes in women.
Objective To assess user preferences for different aspects of sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) testing services. Design A discrete choice experiment. Setting 14 centres offering tests for STIs in East Sussex, England. Participants People testing for STIs. Main outcome measure (Adjusted) ORs in relation to preferred service characteristics. Results 3358 questionnaires were returned; mean age 26 (SD 9.4) years. 70% (2366) were recruited from genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics. The analysis suggested that the most important characteristics to users were whether ‘staff had specialist STI knowledge’ compared with ‘staff without it’ (OR 2.55; 95% CI 2.47 to 2.63) and whether ‘tests for all STIs’ were offered rather than ‘some’ (OR 2.19; 95% CI 2.12 to 2.25). They remained the most important two service characteristics despite stratifying the analysis by variables such as age and sex. Staff levels of expertise were viewed as particularly important by people attending CASH centres, women and non-men who have sex with men. A ‘text or call to a mobile phone’ and ‘dropping in and waiting’ were generally the preferred methods of results reporting and appointment system, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that people testing for STIs place particular importance on testing for all infections rather than some and staff with specialist STI knowledge. Thus, targets based purely on waiting up to 48?h for an appointment are misguided from a user perspective.
Objective To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of four sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected Russians reporting heavy alcohol use and recent unprotected sex. Methods This study was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the HERMITAGE study. The primary outcome was any current STI, based on urine tests for Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis and serum testing for infection with Treponema pallidum. Data on potential demographic and behavioral predictors of STI were obtained from surveys administered at study entry. Results Of 682 participants, 12.8% (95% CI 10.3, 15.3) tested positive for at least one STI. In a multivariable model adjusted for gender, age and marital status, only sex trade involvement over the last three months was significantly associated with an increased odds of STI (AOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.13, 3.55). Conclusions Given that STIs were common in this HIV-infected cohort, and that few patient characteristics predicted STI, the current practice of screening HIV-infected Russians for syphilis alone merits reevaluation.
PACE, Christine A.; LIOZNOV, Dmitry; CHENG, Debbie M.; WAKEMAN, Sarah E.; RAJ, Anita; WALLEY, Alexander Y.; COLEMAN, Sharon M.; BRIDDEN, Carly; KRUPITSKY, Evgeny; SAMET, Jeffrey H.
Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexuallytransmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA). Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexuallytransmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002–2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support group located in Port of Spain based upon their perceived willingness to discuss religious affiliation and describe how living with a terminal infection has affected their spiritual lives. The interviewer, a United States Fulbright Scholar, explained the nature and purpose of the study to all participants. Relevant ethical procedures associated with the collection of interview data were adopted: interviews were conducted in a non-coercive manner and confidentiality was assured. All participants provided verbal consent, and agreed to be interviewed without financial or other incentive. Ethics approval was granted on behalf of the Caribbean Conference of Churches Ethics Committee. Interview questions followed a guideline, and employed an open-ended format to facilitate discussion. All interviews were recorded and transcribed by the interviewer. Results Religious representatives' opinions were grouped into the following categories: rationale for the spread of HIV/AIDS, abstinence, condom use, sexuality and homosexuality, compassion, experiences with PWHA, recommendations and current approach to addressing HIV/AIDS in congregations. Religious representatives expressed a measure of acceptance of HIV/AIDS and overwhelmingly upheld compassion for PWHA. Some statements, however, suggested that HIV/AIDS stigma pervades Trinidad's religious organizations. For many representatives, HIV/AIDS was associated with a promiscuous lifestyle and/or homosexuality. Representatives had varying levels of interaction with PWHA, but personal experiences were positively associated with current involvement in HIV/AIDS initiatives. All 4 PWHA interviewed identified themselves as belonging to Christian denominations. Three out of the 4 PWHA described discriminatory experiences with pastors or congregation members during gatherings for religious services. Nonetheless, PWHA expressed an important role for faith and religion in coping with HIV. Conclusion Religious groups in Trinidad are being challenged to promote a clear and consistent response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic; a response that may reflect personal experien
This study examines the psychological factors linking childhood abuse and HIV/sexuallytransmitted infection outcomes among 190 single homeless women in New York City. Participants were assessed for mental health symptoms, sexuallytransmitted infections, and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Findings indicate that the relationship between childhood abuse and HIV/sexuallytransmitted infection diagnoses during adulthood is mediated by a combination of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Screening single homeless women who report childhood abuse histories for symptoms of both disorders may aid in the identification of individuals particularly vulnerable for HIV infection. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:23180873
Houston, Eric; Sandfort, Theo Gm; Watson, Kalycia T; Caton, Carol Lm
This article reports the findings of a qualitative research study carried out in Kabarole district, western Uganda. Knowledge of and perceptions about HIV/AIDS and pregnancy and how both relate to one another were elucidated from eight focus-group discussions with 38 female and 32 male secondary students from four different schools. Widespread misinformation and misconceptions about contraceptives still exist as previously found in this area. There was a serious gap in knowledge and understanding of ‘dual protection’ against sexuallytransmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, and against pregnancy. Fertility was very highly valued, and many girls stated that they would want a child even if they were HIV-positive. Responses of girls showed that they were quite assertive in making decisions to use contraceptives. The reasons for students not being able to understand the interconnectedness of sexuallytransmitted diseases and pregnancy may lie in the fragmented fashion in which relevant health education is delivered through two separate programmes.
BackgroundTrichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexuallytransmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the
Melissa D. Conrad; Andrew W. Gorman; Julia A. Schillinger; Pier Luigi Fiori; Rossana Arroyo; Nancy Malla; Mohan Lal Dubey; Jorge Gonzalez; Susan Blank; William E. Secor; Jane M. Carlton
An experimental components analysis of brief HIV risk-reduction counseling based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model was conducted with 432 men and 193 women receiving sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) clinic services. Following baseline assessments, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 90-min risk-reduction counseling sessions that deconstructed the IMB model within a full factorial design. Participants were followed for
Seth C. Kalichman; Demetria Cain; Lance Weinhardt; Eric Benotsch; Kelly Presser; Allan Zweben; Bonnie Bjodstrup; Geoffrey R. Swain
The distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars among 157 heterosexual male patients with urethritis and the presence of coinfections with other sexuallytransmitted\\u000a infections were studied. One hundred seventeen (74.5%) patients, with a mean age of 33.7 years, were Italians, whereas 40\\u000a (25.5%) were immigrants coming from eastern European countries, Africa, and South America. All the immigrants and 82 (70.0%)\\u000a Italian patients
M. Donati; A. Di Francesco; A. D’Antuono; S. Pignanelli; A. Shurdhi; A. Moroni; R. Baldelli; R. Cevenini
Sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD) are a public health issue in prison. As inmates are eventually released, it is also a\\u000a community concern. There are very few data on the entire spectrum of STDs, particularly condyloma among prisoners. To determine\\u000a the prevalence of all STDs: infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus\\u000a (HCV), herpes simplex
L. Verneuil; J.-S. Vidal; R. Ze Bekolo; A. Vabret; J. Petitjean; R. Leclercq; D. Leroy
Local health departments (LHDs) are an important source for screening and treating sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs) in\\u000a rural communities. Yet, they oftentimes lack the resources needed to adequately assess and monitor these conditions. The purpose\\u000a of this study was to (1) explore how rural LHDs assess and monitor STDs; (2) identify barriers to effective surveillance;\\u000a (3) examine STD patterns in
Angelia M. Paschal; Julie Oler-Manske; Tracy Hsiao
SummaryA randomised trial was done to evaluate the impact of improved sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) case management at primary health care level on the incidence of HIV infection in the rural Mwanza region of Tanzania. HIV incidence was compared in six intervention communities and six pair-matched comparison communities. A random cohort of about 1000 adults aged 15-54 years from each
H. Grosskurth; J. Todd; E. Mwijarubi; P. Mayaud; A. Nicoll; G. ka-Gina; J. Newell; D. Mabey; R. Hayes; F. Mosha; K. Senkoro; J. Changalucha; A. Klokke; K. Mugeye
Background:Primary care providers are well placed to control the spread of sexuallytransmitted infections (STI); however, care is likely to be influenced by their attitudes and beliefs. The present study investigates the relationship between general practitioner’s (GP) self-reported level of comfort in dealing with patients with STI and the care they deliver.Methods:A postal survey was conducted using a stratified random
The aim of this study is to elucidate and review the risk of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) among condom users. Men\\u000a and women of reproductive age are the subjects of this study. Data were extracted from the literature through the MEDLINE\\u000a service for the period 2000–2006. Female condoms (0.1%) were reported to be less liable to break than male condoms
The pharmaceutical industry is not supplying the penicillin preparations that are required for the treatment of syphilis. For those in whom penicillin hypersensitivity is suspected there is a need for a safe injectable alternative that is effective if given once daily or, preferably, at two- or three-day intervals. Existing treatments for chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale are described, but even collectively there are few cases and treatments for other sexuallytransmitted diseases merit priority. Treatments for scabies and pediculosis pubis, although not perfect, are reasonable. There is a need for better local treatment for condylomata acuminata and systemic immunological methods, including those that increase cell-mediated immunity, deserve attention. The same is true for molluscum contagiosum. There is an urgent need for an effective, safe treatment of herpes genitalis that is able to eradicate the virus from the host. If it is proved that the herpes virus is responsible for carcinoma of the cervix this could then be the most serious sexuallytransmitted disease as in many countries such carcinomas are responsible for approximate seven times more deaths in women than is syphilis in men and women together. The limitations of prophylactic methods in preventing all possibility of infection with one or more of the sexuallytransmitted diseases are discussed.
Background: The prevalence of sexuallytransmitted infections (STI) varies widely from region to region in our country. Aims: To highlight the pattern of STIs and the profile of patients with HIV infection in STD patients as seen at our hospital. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of clients attending STI clinic, JIPMER, Puducherry, from June 2004 to June 2006 was done. Results: A total of 866 clients attended our STI clinic, out of whom 435 (50.2%) had proven STI. STIs were more common in men, with a male (290): female (145) ratio of 2:1. Their age ranged from 1 year to 75 years (mean age = 32.38 years) with the maximum number of patients in the age group of 21-30 years, while children constituted only 2.8%. Herpes genitalis (107 patients, 32.8%) was the most common ulcerative STI, while genital wart was the most common nonulcerative STI (56 patients, 17.1%). Non-gonococcal urethritis (46 patients, 14.1%) was more common than gonococcal urethritis. HIV infection was the most common STI in our study, at an alarmingly high rate of 34.5% (151/435). HIV seropositivity was more common in patients who presented with ulcerative STIs than with nonulcerative STIs. Conclusions: Herpes genitalis was the most common ulcerative STD, while genital wart was the most common nonulcerative STI in our study. The prevalence of HIV among STI clients in India has been on the rise, but has quite alarmingly become the most common STI in our study.
Devi, S Abarna; Vetrichevvel, T P; Pise, Gajanan A; Thappa, Devinder Mohan