Sample records for bacterial sexually transmitted

  1. Human Ecology and Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    King K. Holmes

    1994-01-01

    The three direct determinants of the rate of spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are sexual behaviors, the mean duration of infectiousness, and the mean efficiency of sexual transmission of each STD. Underlying ecological and behavioral factors that operate through one or more of these direct determinants lie on a continuum, ranging from those most proximate back to those more

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes ... is no cure. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  3. Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the bacterial species causing most sexually transmitted infections. It is of high importance for the public health

    E-print Network

    Uppsala Universitet

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the bacterial species causing most sexually transmitted infections. It is of high importance for the public health since it causes reproductive tract diseases and epidemiology in sexual networks affected by Lymphogranuloma vene- reum, i.e. invasive chlamydia strains causing

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Travelers.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Noreen A

    2005-03-01

    International travelers engaging in casual sex are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. The frequency of international travel emphasizes the need for a travel sexual activity history to be included in the clinical assessment of any returned traveler. When formulating a differential diagnosis, the STD prevalence rates at the travel destination and the risk profile of the traveler and the sexual partner need to be considered. Casual sex with host country nationals residing in tropical and subtropical areas of the developing world increases the traveler's risk for acquiring STDs rarely seen in industrialized countries, particularly bacterial genital ulcer diseases. Pretravel counseling needs to include education on STD prevention. A post-travel STD diagnostic evaluation is indicated when casual sexual activity has occurred during travel, regardless of whether symptoms are present. PMID:15727741

  5. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...

  6. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Schultz

    2010-10-27

    Find links to various topics below: CDC = Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC- A-Z Index CDC- Diesease and Conditions writeInsertLink('projectBody','CDC- Diesease and Conditions'); CDC - HIV/AIDS STDs CDC - HIV Basic Information CDC - HIV - LInks to other resources CDC - STD Picture Cards Herpes-Coldsores Kids Health MedlinePlus - Sexually Transmitted Diseases Teen Health Wellness real life real answers ...

  7. Sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Mark A; Trout, Wayne

    2015-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) continue to be a global epidemic with significant risk of morbidity/mortality for the fetus. STDs with prominent cutaneous findings including condylomata acuminata, genital herpes infections, and syphilis are reviewed. Important clinical cutaneous findings help aid early diagnosis and facilitate treatment. Condylomata acuminata have the potential of causing cervical cancer, anogenital cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Significant advances have been made in human papilloma virus vaccinations and treatment. Genital herpes infection can produce significant physical and emotional distress to the patient and significant potential harm to the fetus. Early clinical recognition of STDs and their appropriate management is critical. PMID:25565081

  8. Are social organizational factors independently associated with a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection among urban adolescents and young adults?

    PubMed

    Jennings, Jacky M; Hensel, Devon J; Tanner, Amanda E; Reilly, Meredith L; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2014-10-01

    This study explored the relationship between the social organization of neighborhoods including informal social control and social cohesion and a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among adolescents and young adults in one U.S. urban setting. Data for the current study were collected from April 2004 to April 2007 in a cross-sectional household study. The target population included English-speaking, sexually-active persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years who resided in 486 neighborhoods. The study sample included 599 participants from 63 neighborhoods. A current bacterial STI was defined as diagnosis of a chlamydia and/or gonorrhea infection at the time of study participation. Participants reported on informal social control (i.e. scale comprised of 9 items) and social cohesion (i.e. scale comprised of 5 items) in their neighborhood. In a series of weighted multilevel logistic regression models stratified by gender, greater informal social control was significantly associated with a decreased odds of a current bacterial STI among females (AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34, 0.84) after controlling for individual social support and other factors. The association, while in a similar direction, was not significant for males (AOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.48, 1.12). Social cohesion was not significantly associated with a current bacterial STI among females (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.61, 1.19) and separately, males (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.67, 1.44). Greater individual social support was associated with an almost seven-fold increase in the odds of a bacterial STI among males (AOR 6.85, 95% CI 1.99, 23.53), a finding which is in contrast to our hypotheses. The findings suggest that neighborhood social organizational factors such as informal social control have an independent relationship with sexual health among U.S. urban youth. The causality of the relationship remains to be determined. PMID:25089964

  9. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…

  10. [Sexually transmitted coinfections. HIV coinfections].

    PubMed

    Marschalkó, Márta; Pónyai, Katinka; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2015-01-01

    Coinfections of sexually transmitted infections are frequent due to the same transmission routes which may facilitate the transmission of other sexually transmitted infections. Sexually transmitted coinfections are associated with atypical and generally more severe clinical features, more complications, resistency to treatment, unfavourable outcome, and worse prognosis. Sexually transmitted infections may increase the likelihood of acquiring and transmission of HIV infection. The authors summarize the most important characteristics of sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV and hepatitis B virus, HIV and hepatitis C virus, HIV and syphilis, HIV and gonorrhoeae, HIV and chlamydia coinfections). These infections are more frequent in HIV infected patients than in the normal population. The shared transmission routes, impairment of the immune response, elevated cytokine levels and the associated inflammatory milieu produce local tissue damage, breaches in mucosal epithelium, which increases the risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Regular screening for sexually transmitted infections, use of more sensitive diagnostic methods, improved reporting and avoidance of unsafe sexual behaviour among certain subpopulations as well as education are essential in the prevention of sexually transmitted coinfections. PMID:25544048

  11. Sexually transmitted organisms in sexually abused children

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A; Watkeys, J; Ridgway, G

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To establish the prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms and other genital organisms in potentially sexually abused children.?DESIGN—Prospective study of children attending an inner London department of community paediatrics for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.?SUBJECTS—Children under 16 referred for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.?OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms in relation to age, symptoms, and type of abuse.?RESULTS—Swabs were taken from 159 of 242 girls evaluated. The overall prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms was 3.7%: three girls were infected with gonorrhoea, four with Trichomonas vaginalis, and two with Chlamydia trachomatis. One girl had all three infections plus mycoplasmas. Mycoplasmas were identified in 22% of girls swabbed. Of 30 boys swabbed, none yielded a sexually transmitted organism.?CONCLUSIONS—There is a low prevalence of definitely sexually transmitted organisms in children who might have been abused. Other organisms possibly associated with sexual activity can be identified in this population. Screening for infection should be mandatory in presumed sexually abused girls with vaginal discharge and ideally should be undertaken in all children attending for evaluation of sexual abuse.?? PMID:9875049

  12. About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? ... doctor if you ever have questions about your sexual health. More Information For more information about the signs, ...

  13. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabíola Araújo Oliveira; Viola Pfleger; Katrin Lang; Jörg Heukelbach; Iracema Miralles; Francisco Fraga; Anastácio Queiroz Sousa; Marina Stoffler-Meilicke; Ralf Ignatius; Ligia Franco Sansigolo Kerr; Hermann Feldmeier

    2007-01-01

    Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases in Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Harahap, M

    1980-01-01

    Epidemiological factors and changing ecological conditions have greatly facilitated the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and led to their rising incidence in Indonesia. Gonorrhoea is at present very prevalent, and drug resistance among circulating strains of gonococci is a contributing factor. Despite medical advances in both diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, these are becoming commoner; unlike other communicable diseases they have so far defied efforts to control them. PMID:6893569

  15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program reviews the different types of STDs (viral, bacterial, and parasitic) and their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  16. Sexually transmitted disease among homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Landis, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    During the last 10 years the health care needs of homosexuals have been receiving increasing attention. However, in their attempts to provide health care to this group, physicians must be familiar with the various lifestyles of homosexuals and the types of infection to which they are susceptible. This paper summarizes the results of recent studies and proposes guidelines for the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted disease among homosexuals. PMID:6546356

  17. Sexually transmitted diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Pandhi, R K; Khanna, N; Sekhri, R

    1995-01-01

    Fifty eight (16%) of the 362 patients, who reported to Dermatology and STD Department with symptoms pertaining to their genitourinary system were below 14 years of age. Fifty four (93.1%) of these children belonged to families of lower socio-economic strata. All the children were slum dwellers and none of them had studied beyond the third class. Syphilis was seen in 27.6%, gonorrhea in 24.1%, chancroid in 22.4%, candidiasis in 10.3%, condylomata acuminata in 6.9% and herpes genitalis in 6.9% of these children. The probable reasons for the increased prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in children as ascertained by this study were sexual promiscuity and probably sexual assault. PMID:8617530

  18. Bacterial Colonization In Suspected Sexually Abused Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Kohlberger; Dagmar Bancher-Todesca

    2007-01-01

    ObjectivePrevious studies concluded that symptomatic prepubertal children with Gardnerella vaginalis infection should be investigated for child sexual abuse. Gardnerella vaginalis is only one out of a group of organism that cause bacterial vaginosis. The aim of the study was to report the frequency of bacterial colonization as well as sexually transmitted diseases and to correlate these data with patient characteristics.

  19. Sexually transmitted infections in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fontenot, Holly B; George, Emily R

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) occur during pregnancy and can have serious consequences for women and infants. National guidelines include recommendations for STI screening in all pregnant women; however women continue to be underscreened, and risks related to infection during pregnancy persist. Nurses caring for women of childbearing age should be aware of screening guidelines and approaches for testing. This column reviews two recent studies: The first examines compliance with recommended prenatal STI testing and the second highlights a novel concept to reduce the female-gender-specific approach to STI testing during pregnancy. PMID:24548498

  20. Mycoplasma genitalium: An emerging sexually transmitted pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Samanta, Palash; Sharma, Meera

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a member of genital mycoplasmas, which is emerging as an important causative agent of sexually transmitted infections both in males and females. The advent of polymerase chain reaction and other molecular methods have made studies on M. genitalium more feasible, which is otherwise a difficult organism to isolate. Besides Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium is now an important and established cause of non gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men, more so in persistent and recurrent NGU. Multiple studies have also shown a positive association of M. genitalium with mucopurulent cervicitis and vaginal discharge in females as well. The evidences for M. genitalium pelvic inflammatory diseases and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that this organism has potential to cause ascending infection. Lack of clear association with M. genitalium has been reported for bacterial vaginosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diagnosis of M. genitalium infections is performed exclusively using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), owing to poor or slow growth of bacterium in culture. Although there are no guidelines available regarding treatment, macrolide group of antimicrobials appear to be more effective than tetracyclines. The present review provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of sexually transmitted infections due to M. genitalium. PMID:23391789

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases and the mobility explosion

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The very great increase in the tourist industry during the past 20 years is described. This has occurred at a time when there has been an unprecedented rise in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases. Evidence is presented that there is a relationship between the number of tourists and other travellers and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Case histories from three different categories of tourist are described and the impact of tourism on the spread of disease is stressed. It is suggested that health authorities throughout the world should give further consideration to plans to meet the challenge of the mobility explosion. PMID:1243165

  2. Semen-Derived Enhancer of Viral Infection (SEVI) Binds Bacteria, Enhances Bacterial Phagocytosis by Macrophages, and Can Protect against Vaginal Infection by a Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Easterhoff, David; Ontiveros, Fernando; Brooks, Lauren R.; Kim, Yoel; Ross, Brittany; Silva, Jharon N.; Olsen, Joanna S.; Feng, Changyong; Hardy, Dwight J.; Dunman, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI) is a positively charged amyloid fibril that is derived from a self-assembling proteolytic cleavage fragment of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286). SEVI efficiently facilitates HIV-1 infection in vitro, but its normal physiologic function remains unknown. In light of the fact that other amyloidogenic peptides have been shown to possess direct antibacterial activity, we investigated whether SEVI could inhibit bacterial growth. Neither SEVI fibrils nor the unassembled PAP248-286 peptide had significant direct antibacterial activity in vitro. However, SEVI fibrils bound to both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) bacteria, in a charge-dependent fashion. Furthermore, SEVI fibrils but not the monomeric PAP248-286 peptide promoted bacterial aggregation and enhanced the phagocytosis of bacteria by primary human macrophages. SEVI also enhanced binding of bacteria to macrophages and the subsequent release of bacterially induced proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-1?). Finally, SEVI fibrils inhibited murine vaginal colonization with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These findings demonstrate that SEVI has indirect antimicrobial activity and that this activity is dependent on both the cationic charge and the fibrillar nature of SEVI. PMID:23507280

  3. Survey of Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This survey covers periodical literature published in the field of research on sexually transmitted diseases during 1985. The articles cover the following diseases: (1) genital chlamydial infection; (2) gonorrhea; (3) genital herpes infection; (4) human papillomavirus infection; (5) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); (6) genital…

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This document contains a reference sheet and an annotated bibliography concerned with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The reference sheet provides a brief, accurate overview of STDs which includes both statistical and background information. The bibliography contains 83 entries, listed alphabetically, that deal with STDs. Books and articles…

  5. The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis in relation to sexual behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Verstraelen; Rita Verhelst; Mario Vaneechoutte; Marleen Temmerman

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been most consistently linked to sexual behaviour, and the epidemiological profile of BV mirrors that of established sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It remains a matter of debate however whether BV pathogenesis does actually involve sexual transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms from men to women. We therefore made a critical appraisal of the literature on BV in

  6. Sexually transmitted infections and older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Beverly K

    2013-11-01

    Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:24066789

  7. High School Dropouts and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark; Pörtner, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    People who drop out of high school fare worse in many aspects of life. We analyze the relationship between dropping out of high school and the probability of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Previous studies on the relationship between dropout status and sexual outcomes have not empirically addressed unobserved heterogeneity at the individual level. Using fixed effects estimators, we find evidence supporting a positive relationship between dropping out of high school and the risk of contracting an STI for females. Furthermore, we present evidence that illustrates differences between the romantic partners of dropouts versus enrolled students. These differences suggest that female dropouts may be more susceptible to contracting STIs because they partner with significantly different types of people than non-dropouts. Our results point to a previously undocumented benefit of encouraging those at risk of dropping out to stay in school longer. PMID:25705058

  8. Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases in women.

    PubMed

    Hollier, Lisa M; Workowski, Kimberly

    2003-12-01

    Guidelines for the treatment of patients with sexually transmitted infection are developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field. This article briefly introduces various infections, reviews new diagnostic information, and presents the latest guidelines for therapy. All recommended and alternative regimens are drawn from the most recent treatment guidelines. Although this article focuses primarily on therapy, it also emphasizes the importance of counseling and prevention. Clinicians have the opportunity and obligation to provide education and counseling to patients. Prevention messages should be tailored to the individual patient with consideration given to her specific risk behaviors. PMID:14719849

  9. Screening and prevention of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Paul; Dalby, Jessica; Marks, Jaime; Swain, Geoffrey R; Schrager, Sarina

    2014-06-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common and costly, in part because they are asymptomatic and result in serious complications. Primary care clinicians can easily diagnose and effectively treat most STIs. Clinicians should screen patients for STIs based on high-risk behaviors, and consult with local public health officials to adapt national screening guidelines to local epidemiology. Clinical encounters involving STI screening are opportunities to counsel patients on risk behaviors, and vaccinate against human papillomavirus and hepatitis B. Electronic health records and mobile phone apps show promise for improving the clinical care of STIs. PMID:24830606

  10. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  11. Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ???) STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) ??? ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Chancroid English Murmuraa - Afaan Oromo (Oromo) PDF Minnesota Department of ...

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases in sexually abused children: medical and legal implications

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may be transmitted during sexual assault. In children, the isolation of a sexually transmitted organism may be the first indication that abuse has occurred. Although the presence of a sexually transmissible agent from a child beyond the neonatal period is suggestive of sexual abuse, exceptions do exist. In this review I discuss the issues of the transmissibility and diagnosis of STDs in the context of child sexual abuse. Rectal or genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis among young children may be the result of perinatally acquired infection and may persist for as long as 3 years. A major problem with chlamydia testing in the context of suspected sexual abuse in children has been the inappropriate use of non-culture tests. Although the new generation of nucleic acid amplification tests have shown high sensitivity and specificity with genital specimens from adults, data on use of these tests on any site in children are practically non-existent. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been identified among children who have been abused and among those who have not been abused. However, many of the methods used to diagnose BV in adults have not been evaluated in children. Recent studies of perinatal infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) have been inconclusive. HPV DNA has been detected at various sites in children who have not been abused. The relation to the development of clinically apparent genital warts is unclear. Although HIV can be acquired through sexual abuse in children, the exact risk to the child and which children should be screened is still controversial. ??? PMID:9849550

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Pham-Kanter, G B; Steinberg, M H; Ballard, R C

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To review the epidemiology of and data collection for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in South Africa. METHODS: Literature published since 1980 on STDs in South Africa were complied and evaluated. Historical reports and salient unpublished literature were also used in the literature review. Studies were critically reviewed in the light of sample populations and study methods, and a baseline picture of the patterns of STD burden was developed. RESULTS: The STD burden in apparently asymptomatic study populations is significant. Ulcerative infections, primarily caused by syphilis and chancroid, are present in 5-15% of asymptomatic clinic attenders; prevalence rates of gonorrhoea average 8%, with up to 13% of gonococcal isolates resistant to penicillin antibiotics. In addition, on average, chlamydia and vaginal infections are detected in 16% and 20-49%, respectively, of antenatal and family planning clinic attenders. HIV seroprevalence rates have reached 7.6% in antenatal clinic attenders. Most South African STD data are derived from ad hoc surveys which have traditionally focused only on several major infections and particular urban centres. Almost all STD studies have been facility-based, with many studies based at STD clinics, thus reporting only relative frequencies and not population-based prevalences of STDs. With the possible exception of HIV, systematic surveillance data for STDs are conspicuously lacking. CONCLUSION: The disease burden of classic sexually transmitted infections has historically been heavy, and continues to be a serious public health problem in South Africa. Morbidity from both ulcerative and non-ulcerative infections, particularly in women, is significant. The body of STD data, although mostly sound, remains incomplete, and with the rapid emergence of HIV in South Africa, surveillance of STDs and focused STD policies will be critical. PMID:8707316

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases: a neglected public health priority.

    PubMed Central

    Yankauer, A

    1994-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases remain uncontrolled although millions of cases occur annually in the United States. The advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is also a sexually transmitted disease, has not altered this situation. The major portion of federal funding for sexually transmitted diseases is allocated to a search for an AIDS vaccine or cure. State health department funding for sexually transmitted diseases, although only a small fraction of the $1.3 billion AIDS research budget of the National Institutes of Health, is largely consumed by AIDS. A single adequately funded sexually transmitted disease control program that applies well-established public health principles for the control of communicable diseases would make sense. However, a consensus to develop and support such a program does not exist in the United States. PMID:7998625

  15. Are adolescents being screened for sexually transmitted diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Ellen, Jonathan M; Lane, Margo A; McCright, Jacque

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine the proportion of sexually experiencedAfrican American adolescents who report having been screened for sexually transmitted diseases and to determine the proportion who report having been screened for these diseases among adolescents who have had a preventive primary health care visit in the past 2 years. Methods A telephone survey of a population-based sample of African American adolescents aged 12 to17 years residing in a low-income neighborhood in San Francisco with a high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Results Of the 302adolescents surveyed, 118 (39.1%) reported a history of sexual intercourse. Of these, 17 (26.2%) of 65 males and 31 (58.5%) of 53 females had been screened for a sexually transmitted disease in the previous 12 months. Twenty (30.8%)of the males and 32 (60.4%) of the females had been screened for a sexually transmitted disease in the previous 24 months. Of the 93 participants who had a preventive primary care visit since their first episode of sexual intercourse, 14 (26.4%) of the 53 males and 24 (60.0%) of the 40 females had been screened for a sexually transmitted disease in the previous 24 months.Conclusions Sexually experienced African American adolescents in SanFrancisco are being screened for sexually transmitted diseases at rates well below those recommended by current clinical guidelines. A low rate of screening was found even in adolescents who had been seen for a preventive primary care visit since they had first had sex. This suggests that the preventive primary care visit is not being used to its full potential as an opportunity to screen and treat adolescents for sexually transmitted diseases.Capitalizing on this opportunity to screen may increase the number of cases of sexually transmitted diseases diagnosed and, thus, decrease rates of these diseases in this population. PMID:10924432

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases: priorities outlined for Africa.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) cause infertility in nearly half of all women in parts of Africa. In addition to the personal cost of divorce and ostracism that African women may face, the public health repercussions are both serious and widespread. To deal with this problem, 16 STD experts from Africa, Europe, and the US met to develop a priority list for research and control of STDs in Africa. The most common STDs in Africa are gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Other problems are papillomavirus, chancroid, lymphogranuloma, venereum, and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Africa's STD victims frequently do not go to doctors for treatment but instead buy antibiotics or get injections at a pharmacy. The infections often persist even though the symptoms may disappear. This self-treatment has contributed to the emergence of new strains of gonorrhea that resist penicillin and are difficult and expensive to treat. Additionally, the governments of Africa cannot afford to buy the more expensive antibiotics needed to combat the resistant strains of gonorrhea and require the assistance of international agencies to identify, treat, and control penicillin-resistant gonorrhea. Other costs are related to individuals' reduced ability to work. The magnitude of the problem is unknown because many STD victims are unaware they are infected and do not enter into official health care systems and statistics. The conference participants identified the need to integrate STD and family planning services as a priority. PMID:12268488

  17. Characteristic Male Urine Microbiomes Associate with Asymptomatic Sexually Transmitted Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David E.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Dong, Qunfeng; Revanna, Kashi V.; Fan, Baochang; Easwaran, Shraddha; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Diao, Lixia; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Background The microbiome of the male urogenital tract is poorly described but it has been suggested that bacterial colonization of the male urethra might impact risk of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Previous cultivation-dependent studies showed that a variety of non-pathogenic bacteria colonize the urethra but did not thoroughly characterize these microbiomes or establish links between the compositions of urethral microbiomes and STI. Methodology/Findings Here, we used 16S rRNA PCR and sequencing to identify bacteria in urine specimens collected from men who lacked symptoms of urethral inflammation but who differed in status for STI. All of the urine samples contained multiple bacterial genera and many contained taxa that colonize the human vagina. Uncultivated bacteria associated with female genital tract pathology were abundant in specimens from men who had STI. Conclusions Urine microbiomes from men with STI were dominated by fastidious, anaerobic and uncultivated bacteria. The same taxa were rare in STI negative individuals. Our findings suggest that the composition of male urine microbiomes is related to STI. PMID:21124791

  18. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in College Men: A Preliminary Clinical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Robin G.; Moss, Donald J.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined sexual behavior, perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and pathology of 66 males attending a college health center's sexually transmitted disease clinic. Data from patients' charts indicated a group of men who, despite high-risk behaviors, perceived their risk of contracting HIV as being extremely low. (SM)

  19. Marital Status and Sexually Transmitted Infections among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eboni M.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the relationship between low marriage rates and racial disparities in sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates. Data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth was used to examine the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors by marital status. Logistic regression was used to examine whether racial differences in marriage…

  20. Sexually transmitted diseases: epidemiological and clinical aspects in adults.

    PubMed

    Siracusano, Salvatore; Silvestri, Tommaso; Casotto, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the first 10 causes of unpleased diseases in young adult women in the world. The concept of STDs includes a series of syndromes caused by pathogens that can be acquired by sexual intercourse or sexual activity.Adolescents and young adults are responsible for only 25% of the sexually active population and they represent almost 50% of all newly acquired STDs.In this way, we evaluated the epidemiological and clinical aspects of most relevant pathogens as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus Ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus (HPV) with the exception of hepatitis, and HIV infections for which we suggest specific guidelines.To attain this objective, we analyzed the results of epidemiological and clinical aspects of STDs through a review of the literature using MEDLINE and PubMed database for original articles published using the terms "sexual transmitted disease, epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy" from 2005 to 2014. PMID:25532465

  1. Sexually transmitted Escherichia coli urethritis and orchiepididymitis.

    PubMed

    Dan, Michael; Gottesman, Tamar; Schwartz, Orna; Tsivian, Alexander; Gophna, Uri; Rokney, Assaf

    2012-01-01

    We describe herein a case of uropathogenic Escherichia coli urethritis and orchiepididymitis in a heterosexual man, which he had acquired sexually from his girlfriend. The identity of the genital isolates from both partners was confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. PMID:22183838

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  3. Monogamous networks and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Eames, Ken T D; Keeling, Matt J

    2004-06-01

    Patterns of sexual mixing and heterogeneity in the number of sexual partners can have a huge effect on the spread of a sexually transmitted disease (STD). The sexual mixing network identifies all partnerships within a population over a given period and is a powerful tool in the study of such infections. Previous models assumed all links within the network to be concurrent active partnerships. We present a novel modelling approach in which we adapt the notion of a sexual contact network to a monogamous population by allowing the nature of the links to change. We use the underlying network to represent potential sexual partnerships, only some of which are active at any one time. Thus serial monogamy can be modelled while maintaining the patterns of mixing displayed by the population. PMID:15094315

  4. Sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: Maximizing opportunities for optimal care.

    PubMed

    Allen, Upton D; MacDonald, Noni E

    2014-10-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a growing public health concern in Canada, with rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, gonorrhea and syphilis increasing among adolescents and young adults. The present practice point outlines epidemiology, risk factors, laboratory testing and management for C trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Treponema pallidum, with a lesser focus on HIV. The need for test-of-cure and indications for further investigations are also discussed. The importance of maximizing opportunities to screen for and treat sexually transmitted infections in this age group is highlighted. PMID:25383001

  5. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  6. The association between sexually transmitted pathogens and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in a developing community.

    PubMed Central

    Kharsany, A B; Hoosen, A A; Moodley, J; Bagaratee, J; Gouws, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the association of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). SETTING--An urban tertiary referral hospital serving a large indigent developing community. PARTICIPANTS--48 women attending a colposcopy clinic and 49 women attending a family planning clinic. METHODS--Vaginal, endocervical, rectal swab specimens and sera were collected for the detection of sexually transmitted pathogens. Cervical cytology was performed on all patients. Women attending the colposcopy clinic had confirmation of abnormal cervical cytology by colposcopic directed biopsy. RESULTS--The mean age of women with CIN (33 years) was significantly greater than that of the women without CIN (28 years) and that of the family planning group (26 years). There was a high prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in all women. A significantly higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was found in women with CIN compared to those without (50% vs 20%; p = 0.034). The human papilloma virus (HPV) was detected in 46% of women with CIN and 65% of those without CIN. Chlamydia trachomatis (21%) and Trichomonas vaginalis (39%) were detected frequently in women with CIN. C. trachomatis (14%-21%) was detected more frequently than Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3-5%) in all asymptomatic women studied. CONCLUSION--This study demonstrates a high prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with and without CIN as well as family planning clinic attenders. Bacterial vaginosis was a significant finding in women with CIN. C. trachomatis was detected in a high proportion of all women studied and found more commonly than N. gonorrhoeae. We therefore recommend that all women attending gynaecological services in a developing community be investigated and treated for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:8244352

  7. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by pathogens that are transmitted

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    different sexually transmitted pathogens, namely, HIV, human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis, and we illustrate the public-health issues that are associated with infection by these pathogens. HPV associated with HPV infection is cervical cancer, which is caused by transformation of HPV-infected cells

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Sexually Transmitted Pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Carlton; R. P. Hirt; J. C. Silva; A. L. Delcher; Michael Schatz; Qi Zhao; J. R. Wortman; S. L. Bidwell; U. C. M. Alsmark; Sébastien Besteiro; Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten; C. J. Noel; J. B. Dacks; P. G. Foster; Cedric Simillion; Y. Van de Peer; Diego Miranda-Saavedra; G. J. Barton; G. D. Westrop; S. Muller; Daniele Dessi; P. L. Fiori; Qinghu Ren; Ian Paulsen; Hanbang Zhang; F. D. Bastida-Corcuera; Augusto Simoes-Barbosa; M. T. Brown; R. D. Hayes; Mandira Mukherjee; C. Y. Okumura; Rachel Schneider; A. J. Smith; Stepanka Vanacova; Maria Villalvazo; B. J. Haas; Mihaela Pertea; Tamara V. Feldblyum; T. R. Utterback; Chung-Li Shu; Kazutoyo Osoegawa; P. J. de Jong; Ivan Hrdy; Lenka Horvathova; Zuzana Zubacova; Pavel Dolezal; Shehre-Banoo Malik; J. M. Logsdon; Katrin Henze; Arti Gupta; Ching C. Wang; R. L. Dunne; J. A. Upcroft; Peter Upcroft; Owen White; S. L. Salzberg; Petrus Tang; Cheng-Hsun Chiu; Ying-Shiung Lee; T. M. Embley; G. H. Coombs; J. C. Mottram; Jan Tachezy; C. M. Fraser-Liggett; P. J. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the ~160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction with the shaping of metabolic pathways that likely transpired through lateral gene transfer from bacteria, and amplification of specific gene families implicated

  9. Problems in specimen collection for sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Larsen, B

    1985-03-01

    Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are continuously undergoing improvement. It remains the responsibility of the clinician to become familiar with the tests available for the diagnosis of STDs. Those tests depend on obtaining clinical specimens from the proper site and on transporting them to the laboratory under satisfactory conditions. PMID:3894659

  10. Introduction to HIV, AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infection Surveillance

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Dyche

    in collaboration with: The World Health Organization (WHO), Department of HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland the World Diseases, AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (ASD) Unit, Cairo, Egypt the World Health Organization (WHO), Regional Office of Africa (AFRO) the World Health Organization (WHO), Regional Office of South

  11. Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Day; H Ward

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time

  12. Sexually Transmitted Disease Services at US Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumans, Emilia H.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Motamed, Cathy; Kohl, Katrin; Schillinger, Julia A.; Markowitz, Lauri E.

    2005-01-01

    The authors' objectives in this study were to describe the proportion of schools providing and the percentage of students with access to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) education, treatment, and prevention services at 2-year and 4-year US colleges and universities. The authors mailed self-administered questionnaires to a stratified…

  13. The rise and fall of sexually transmitted diseases in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Cronberg, S

    1993-01-01

    Syphilis appeared in Sweden in 1497. It was recognized as a sexually transmitted disease that rapidly spread in the upper classes and later to the poor. It ravaged the country in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. At that time the concept of venereal disease included all sexually transmitted diseases. Preventive measures were introduced. They were based on information, medical intervention and elimination of risk factors. Registration of hospitalised patients was introduced in the eighteenth century. The highest incidence of syphilis occurred during the First World War. In the last decade the incidence of sexually transmitted disorders has abruptly decreased. Thus the yearly incidence of gonorrhoea has decreased from 40,000 to 500 cases. The law demands contact tracing with obligatory testing. People who deliberately expose others to risk may be condemned to isolation for an unrestricted time. This legislation has probably contributed less to the successful containment than the fact that information on aids and sexually transmitted diseases has reached all the population, and made it aware of the risks and produced changed behaviour, especially among prostitutes, homosexual men and drug addicts. PMID:8335310

  14. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  15. Competitive exclusion in gonorrhea models and other sexually transmitted diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Castillo-Chavez; Wenzhang Huang; Jia Li

    1996-01-01

    A heterosexually active population is exposed to two competing strains or two distinct sexually transmitted pathogens. It is assumed that a host cannot be invaded simultaneously by both disease agents and that when symptoms appear, a function of the pathogen or strain virulence, individuals recover. We conclude that in a behaviorally and genetically homogeneous population coexistence is not possible except

  16. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted infections among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsuami, M. Jacques; Sanders, Ladatra S.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has not been determined conclusively whether greater knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is associated with lower rates of STIs. Purpose: This study sought to determine STI knowledge among high school students and factors associated with such knowledge, and to determine whether poor STI knowledge is associated with…

  17. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1981-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

  18. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic places to identify and prevent intimate partner violence. PMID:25741656

  19. Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in-depth look at the severe human and economic burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the ... would have resulted in a substantially higher estimated economic burden. CDC’s estimates of sexually transmitted infections: Annual ...

  20. Gender gaps, gender traps: sexual identity and vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases among women in Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivian Fei-ling Go; Vu Minh Quan; A Chung; Jonathan Zenilman; Vu Thi Minh Hanh; David Celentano

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to explore the pathways by which traditional gender roles may ultimately affect Vietnamese women's interpretation of sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms and health-seeking strategies. Data on gender roles, perceptions of types of sexual relationships, perceptions of persons with STDs, and STD patient experiences were gathered through in-depth interviews and focus groups with 18 men and

  1. Advances in sexually transmitted infections of the gastrointestinal tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siew C. Ng; Brian Gazzard

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is a target of many sexually transmitted infections, and major advances have increased our understanding of the consequences of such infections within the gastrointestinal system. HIV-1 is associated with a marked loss of mucosal CD4+ T cells that express CC-chemokine receptor 5. This process seems to be more rapid and more severe in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue than

  2. Reappraisal of sexually transmitted infections in children: A hospital-based study from an urban area

    PubMed Central

    Mendiratta, Vibhu; Agarwal, Soumya; Chander, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in children can be acquired either by sexual, or non-sexual route. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) in children reflect the pattern of STI in adult population and the knowledge, attitude and practices of the society. They also serve as an indicator of STI control strategies. Aims: A retrospective study spanning over a period of 5 years from 2007 to 2011) was undertaken to make a detailed analysis of demographic, behavioral, epidemiological and clinical profile of STD among children (<19 years). Materials and Methods: The medical records of children attending the STI clinic of Smt. Sucheta Kriplani Hospital from year 2007 to 2011 were studied. Results of Gram's staining, KOH examination, Tzanck smear, culture and serological tests like Venereal Disease Research Laboratory for syphilis and ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) wherever performed were recorded along with the final diagnosis. Results: The study showed a steady rise in the prevalence of STIs from 1% to 4.9% in the initial 4 years. STIs were more commonly observed in girls (M:F ratio - 1:1.13) and in adolescents >16 years of age. Homosexuality was present in 33.3% of males. History of sexual abuse was given by 4 children. 2 children were seropositive for HIV by ELISA technique. Viral STIs (Cyanea acuminata, molluscum contagiosum, herpes genitalis) were 1.5 times more common than bacterial infections. Conclusion: The societal sexual practices have undergone tremendous changes, which is reflected in a steady rise in STIs (predominantly viral), sexual abuse and homosexuality in children. There is an urgent need for strengthening of school health programs aiming at adolescent sexual health. PMID:24958982

  3. Romantic love and sexually transmitted infection acquisition: hypothesis and review.

    PubMed

    Goldmeier, David; Richardson, Daniel

    2005-09-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the UK continue to increase. A discrepancy between knowledge and awareness of STIs, and sexual behaviour appears to be ubiquitous throughout the world. We hypothesize that human beings are biologically programmed to fall in love and bond in powerful relationships, which, at least in the short term, prevents them from using knowledge and cognitive strategies to prevent STI acquisition. We compare this with obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviours seen in obsessive-compulsive disorders. We suggest how romantic love might overwhelm logical thought processes to cause a deterministic and non-logical response to have sex and thus acquire STIs. An understanding of this concept may help us humans to be more insightful and thoughtful about STI acquisition. PMID:16176620

  4. Risk of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases by cryopreserved semen.

    PubMed

    Glander, H J; Rytter, M; Baumann, L; Schönborn, C

    1986-01-01

    The increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) involves the risk of the transmission of these diseases by the artificial insemination. Therefore the cryotolerance of several microorganisms causing STD and the efficiency of penicillin of the cryoprotective medium (CMP) against Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N.g.) were investigated. The results have shown that penicillinase-producing N.g. (PPNG), genital mycoplasmas and Candida species survive the cryopreservation. Trichomonas vaginalis could not be recultivated after our temperature-time-regimen of the cryopreserving process. CPM with penicillin was unable to prevent a transmission of penicillin-sensitive N.g. PMID:3090904

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases in the history of Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, M

    1994-01-01

    First noticed in Uganda in 1863 by a European explorer, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were cited as a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout this century. In 1908 the venereal diseases campaign was launched marking the real introduction of western medicine. By the mid-1920s, the campaign was combined with the medical service but throughout the colonial period (1901-1962) venereal diseases were considered intractable. A 1991 survey revealed alarming incidence rates and in light of the importance of STDs as a co-factor in the transmission of HIV, it is of paramount importance to implement more effective control measures. PMID:8206475

  6. Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed Central

    Day, S; Ward, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time to another, together with the risk of sexually transmitted disease. A broad social definition of prostitution rather than a narrow reference to levels of sexual activity is important for effective disease control, as an understanding of the relation between social disadvantage and sexual activity enables the provision of occupational services that sex workers actually want and use. Social prejudice and legal sanctions cause some sex workers and their partners to avoid even the most appropriate and accessible specialist services. Therefore targeted programmes can only complement, and not replace, general measures to control STDs, which are developed for other social groups or the local population as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Sex workers and sex work differ from one place to another and so a single model for STD control is inappropriate. None the less, occupational health risks suggest a general need for specialist services. Where these do not compound the disadvantages that sex workers already suffer, medical services are likely to offer significant benefits in prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of STDs. As the stigma of prostitution leads many people to remain invisible to services, a general health infrastructure and anti-discriminatory measures will be equally important to effective disease control. PMID:9306894

  7. A Cognitive Behavioural Intervention To Reduce Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Gay Men: Randomised Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Imrie; Judith M. Stephenson; Frances M. Cowan; Shamil Wanigaratne; Andrew J. P. Billington; Andrew J. Copas; Lesley French; Patrick D. French

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention in reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections among gay men. Design Randomised controlled trial with 12 months' follow up. Setting Sexual health clinic in London. Participants 343 gay men with an acute sexually transmitted infection or who reported having had unprotected anal intercourse in the past year. Main

  8. Rapid tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the way forward

    PubMed Central

    Peeling, R W; Holmes, K K; Mabey, D

    2006-01-01

    In the developing world, laboratory services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are either not available, or where limited services are available, patients may not be able to pay for or physically access those services. Despite the existence of national policy for antenatal screening to prevent congenital syphilis and substantial evidence that antenatal screening is cost?effective, implementation of syphilis screening programmes remains unacceptably low because of lack of screening tools that can be used in primary health care settings. The World Health Organization Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diagnostics Initiative (SDI) has developed the ASSURED criteria as a benchmark to decide if tests address disease control needs: Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User?friendly, Rapid and robust, Equipment?free and Deliverable to end?users. Rapid syphilis tests that can be used with whole blood approach the ASSURED criteria and can now be deployed in areas where no previous screening has been possible. Although rapid tests for chlamydia and gonorrhoea lack sensitivity, more tests are in development. The way forward for STI diagnostics requires a continuing quest for ASSURED tests, the development of a road map for test introduction, sustainable programmes for quality assurance, and the creation of a robust infrastructure linked to HIV prevention that ensures sustainability of STI control efforts that includes viral STIs. PMID:17151023

  9. Sexually transmitted disease epidemics in a natural insect population.

    PubMed

    Webberley, K Mary; Buszko, Jaros?aw; Isham, Valerie; Hurst, Gregory D D

    2006-01-01

    1. The epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in human and domesticated populations is well documented. However, there has been less study of STDs in natural populations. 2. We investigated STD dynamics in the model system involving a host from the most speciose group of animals: the insects. We investigated temporal variation in the prevalence of the sexually transmitted mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae on its ladybird host, Adalia bipunctata. 3. Field surveys over two seasons showed a repeated pattern of a profound epidemic in the overwintered cohort and a later prevalence decline. 4. In order to understand the key factors in the dynamics of this system we studied the phenology of the host and simulated parasite dynamics in the overwintered cohort using a model with within-sex homogeneity in mating rate and field-measured parameter values. The similarity of natural and simulation prevalence levels allowed us to carry out sensitivity analysis and hence to identify the key determinants of the dynamics. 5. The observed pattern of periodic extreme prevalence combined with system persistence probably results from time lags in host recruitment and widespread promiscuity. 6. Our findings improve our understanding of STDs in natural populations and illustrate the importance of examining seasonality and time delays in population dynamics in order to fully understand the characteristics of natural populations and their parasites. PMID:16903041

  10. A survey of sexually transmitted disease centres in Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, D L; Philpot, C R

    1983-01-01

    In a nationwide survey carried out in 1981 centres offering free treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) were located and the facilities available to the public were assessed. At least one special centre was located in each of the eight states and territories of Australia, but not in all cases did the clinics meet the basic requirements recommended by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. The STD clinics were almost exclusively found in capital cities, leaving large populations with no locally available specialist advice. The major centres, with one or two notable exceptions, were open only during routine office hours. In several centres staffing levels were barely adequate to cope with patient loads let alone deal with other important work required of reference centres--the training of health care workers, education of high risk groups, and institution of STD control programmes. In several respects the sexually transmitted diseases services in Australia were found to be inadequate to meet the needs of the population. PMID:6688541

  11. The Role of Sequential and Concurrent Sexual Relationships in the Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHANIE S. KELLEY; ELAINE A. BORAWSKI; SUSAN A. FLOCKE; KEVIN J. KEEN

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether patterns of sexual rela- tionships, such as sequential (nonoverlapping in time) or concurrent (overlapping in time), are more important indicators of sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk among adolescents than number of sexual partners. Methods: Data from 4707 sexually active adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed based on reported heterosexual relationships during

  12. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…

  13. Sexual Relationship Power as a Mediator between Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…

  14. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic places to identify and prevent intimate partner violence.OBJETIVO Analisar a prevalência e fatores associados à violência por parceiro íntimo após diagnóstico de doença sexualmente transmissível. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal realizado em Fortaleza, CE, em 2012, com 221 pessoas (40,3% do sexo masculino e 59,7% do feminino) atendidas em serviços de referência para tratamento de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário aplicado face a face aos participantes. Realizou-se análise multivariada com modelo de regressão logística, utilizando-se a técnica de stepwise. Para análise ajustada, permaneceram as variáveis que tiveram o valor de p < 0,05. Como medida de efeito, usou-se a razão de chances (OR) com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS Referiram ter sofrido violência após o diagnóstico de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis 30,3% dos participantes (27,6% psicológica, 5,9% física e 7,2% sexual). Na análise multivariada ajustada para sofrer violência por parceiro íntimo após a revelação do diagnóstico de doença sexualmente transmissível, mantiveram significância estatística: ter tido relações extraconjugais (OR = 3,72; IC95% 1,91;7,26; p = 0,000), parceiro usar álcool (OR = 2,16; IC95% 1,08;4,33; p = 0,026), sofrer violência antes do diagnóstico (OR = 2,87; IC95% 1,44;5,69; p = 0,003) e ter receio de revelar o diagnóstico ao parceiro (OR = 2,66; IC95% 1,32;5,32; p = 0,006). CONCLUSÕES Pessoas que tiveram relações extraconjugais, que sofreram violência antes do diagnóstico e que tiveram receio de revelar o diagnóstico ao parceiro, bem como o parceiro fazer uso de álcool, tiveram as chances aumentadas para sofrer violência. A prevalência elevada de violência por parceiro íntimo sugere que pessoas com diagnóstico de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis é uma população crítica para a qual devem ser direcionados esforços de intervenção, e que os serviços de referência para atendimento das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis podem ser locais estratégi

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases in postpubertal female rape victims.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J B; Schachter, J; Benes, S; Cummings, M; Frances, C A; McCormack, W M

    1991-10-01

    Seventy-six postpubertal women were referred from a municipal hospital emergency room within 60 h of sexual assault for evaluation. Of the 76 victims, 20 (26%) had active Chlamydia trachomatis infection detected by culture (11 subjects), a fourfold serologic titer rise (6), or both (3). The risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection after sexual assault was 3%-16%. Pelvic inflammatory disease was detected in 8 (11%) of the 76 victims. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 38 women (50%), at least 8 of whom appeared to have been infected during the assault. Trichomoniasis was found in 17 victims (22%), at least 5 of whom may have acquired the infection at the time of the assault. In view of the high rates of these infections and the poor compliance with follow-up (76% [58/76] kept their appointments), all postpubertal victims of sexual assault should be offered treatment with ceftriaxone, 250 mg intramuscularly, followed by 100 mg of oral doxycycline and 500 mg of oral metronidazole twice daily for 7 days. PMID:1894934

  16. Sexually transmitted infections of the anus and rectum

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Roland; Hashim, Peter W; Reddy, Vikram B; Einarsdottir, Hulda; Longo, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a significant public health concern. Several STIs, once thought to be on the verge of extinction, have recently reemerged. This change is thought to be partially related to an increase in STIs of the anus and rectum. Importantly, the global human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic has contributed to the emergence of particular anorectal lesions that require specialized approaches. In this report, we review common anorectal STIs that are frequently referred to colorectal surgeons in the United States. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management are summarized, including the latest treatment recommendations. The particularity of anorectal diseases in HIV/AIDS is addressed, along with recent trends in anal cytology and human papillomavirus vaccination. PMID:25386074

  17. Sexually transmitted diseases in Lithuania: some epidemiological and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Lapinskaitè, G S; Bingham, J S

    1999-10-01

    With political, economical and social changes in Lithuania following the break-up of the Soviet Union, the health-care system has changed. The old Soviet system has been abandoned and it has taken time to re-establish a system under the new government. Resources are limited in most aspects of health care, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This has, also limited the development of education packages on STIs which are so important when trying to combat the spread of HIV infection. Notifications of syphilis, in Lithuania, have increased 52 fold between 1990 and 1996 although, since then, the incidence has started to decrease. Syphilis has been more reliably notified than other STIs and serves as the most reliable indicator of STI trends. PMID:10582636

  18. Guide to sexually transmitted disease resources on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Andreas; Davies, Stephen C; Moran, John S

    2004-05-01

    The Internet provides patients, clinicians, teachers, and researchers with immediate access to reliable information, authoritative recommendations, and the latest research findings and statistics, but quickly finding the best sources while avoiding the unreliable and obsolete can be a problem. We searched the Internet for the most useful English-language Web sites on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), with annotations, in 4 tables: sites for patients, for clinicians and teachers, and for researchers, and sites dedicated to a single STD. In the process, we found that government-sponsored sites tended to have the most reliable information. This held true regardless of the kind of information we were seeking. Several university-sponsored sites contained information that was outdated or erroneous. Commercial and nonprofit sites sometimes evinced a bias that could mislead some readers. Both health care professionals and laypersons seeking information about STDs on the World Wide Web should generally start their search at government-sponsored sites. PMID:15127345

  19. 1998 Guidelines for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The Division of STD Prevention of the US Centers for Disease Control has recently released this update (MMWR 1998;47(No. RR-1)) to the 1993 set of guidelines with the same title. The guidelines were developed by CDC staff after consultation with a "group of invited experts" in early 1997. Included are sections on various sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, Genital Ulcers, Epididymitis, Human Papillomavirus Infection, and vaccine preventable STDs, among others. Guideline evidence is briefly discussed in each section of the report, and the CDC is committed to providing "more comprehensive, annotated discussions of such evidence...in background papers that will be published in 1998." Note that in the HTML version of the report, some of the interior links within chapters are inaccurate. In those cases, it is prudent to click on the section headings to find the relevant information.

  20. Sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected people in Switzerland: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Katharina; Evison, John Marc; Zwahlen, Marcel; Vogt, Cedric M.; Elzi, Maria Verena; Hauser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) in HIV-infected people are of increasing concern. We estimated STI prevalence and sexual healthcare seeking behaviour in 224 sexually active HIV-infected people, including men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 112), heterosexual men (n = 65) and women (n = 47). Laboratory-diagnosed bacterial STI were more common in MSM (Chlamydia trachomatis 10.7%; 95% CI 6.2, 18.0%, lymphogranuloma venereum 0.9%; 95% CI 0.1, 6.2%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 2.7%; 95% CI 0.9, 8.0%, syphilis seroconversion 5.4%; 95% CI 2.0, 11.3%) than heterosexual men (gonorrhoea 1.5%; 95% CI 0.2, 10.3%) or women (no acute infections). Combined rates of laboratory-diagnosed and self-reported bacterial STI in the year before the study were: MSM (27.7%; 95% CI 21.1, 36.7%); heterosexual men (1.5%; 95% CI 0.2, 10.3%); and women (6.4%; 95% CI 2.1, 21.0%). Antibodies to hepatitis C virus were least common in MSM. Antibodies to herpes simplex type 2 virus were least common in heterosexual men. Most MSM, but not heterosexual men or women, agreed that STI testing should be offered every year. In this study, combined rates of bacterial STI in MSM were high; a regular assessment of sexual health would allow those at risk of STI to be offered testing, treatment and partner management. PMID:25237598

  1. STI-GMaS: an open-source environment for simulation of sexually-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexually-transmitted pathogens often have severe reproductive health implications if treatment is delayed or absent, especially in females. The complex processes of disease progression, namely replication and ascension of the infection through the genital tract, span both extracellular and intracellular physiological scales, and in females can vary over the distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. The complexity of these processes, coupled with the common impossibility of obtaining comprehensive and sequential clinical data from individual human patients, makes mathematical and computational modelling valuable tools in developing our understanding of the infection, with a view to identifying new interventions. While many within-host models of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) are available in existing literature, these models are difficult to deploy in clinical/experimental settings since simulations often require complex computational approaches. Results We present STI-GMaS (Sexually-Transmitted Infections – Graphical Modelling and Simulation), an environment for simulation of STI models, with a view to stimulating the uptake of these models within the laboratory or clinic. The software currently focuses upon the representative case-study of Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common sexually-transmitted bacterial pathogen of humans. Here, we demonstrate the use of a hybrid PDE–cellular automata model for simulation of a hypothetical Chlamydia vaccination, demonstrating the effect of a vaccine-induced antibody in preventing the infection from ascending to above the cervix. This example illustrates the ease with which existing models can be adapted to describe new studies, and its careful parameterisation within STI-GMaS facilitates future tuning to experimental data as they arise. Conclusions STI-GMaS represents the first software designed explicitly for in-silico simulation of STI models by non-theoreticians, thus presenting a novel route to bridging the gap between computational and clinical/experimental disciplines. With the propensity for model reuse and extension, there is much scope within STI-GMaS to allow clinical and experimental studies to inform model inputs and drive future model development. Many of the modelling paradigms and software design principles deployed to date transfer readily to other STIs, both bacterial and viral; forthcoming releases of STI-GMaS will extend the software to incorporate a more diverse range of infections. PMID:24923486

  2. Sexually transmitted diseases among users of erectile dysfunction drugs

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Anupam B.; Goldman, Dana P.; Kamdar, Amee; Lakdawalla, Darius N.; Lu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmacologic treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED) have gained widespread popularity among middle-aged and older males in recent years. Increased sexual activity among users of these treatments raises concerns about sexually transmitted diseases(STDs). Objective To examine the association between STDs and ED drug s. Design Longitudinal analysis of users and non-users of ED drugs. Data sources Medical and drug claims from 1997 to 2006 of 1,410,806 male employees above the age of 40 with private insurance from 44 large companies. Results Users of ED drugs had higher baseline rates of STDs compared to non-users even prior to initiating ED drug therapy (288 v. 156 annually per 100,000 people, p < 0.005). Adjusting for these baseline rates, users of ED drugs had higher rates of STDs in the year after first ED drug use when compared to non-users in the same period (OR 2.06, p < 0.05). Within users of ED drugs, STD rates were higher in the year following first ED drug use compared to the year before (327 vs 289 annually per 100,000 people, p < 0.05). Limitations Selection bias precludes firm conclusions about whether use of ED treatments directly leads to increases in STDs. Conclusions Compared to non-users, users of ED drugs have higher rates of STDs both prior to initiation of treatment and one year after. At a minimum, this relationship suggests that men using ED drugs may benefit from early discussions about safe sexual practices and closer monitoring for STDs. It is also possible that availability of ED drugs may increase STD rates. PMID:20621899

  3. Sexually transmitted parasites and host mating behavior in the decorated cricket

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lien T. Luong; Harry K. Kaya

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases play a potentially important role in the ecology and evolution of host mating behavior. Here, we use a sexually transmitted nematode-cricket (Mehdinema alii--Gryllodes sigillatus) system to examine the effects of parasitism on host mating activity and female choice. Previous work has shown that infected male crickets produce a significantly smaller nuptial gift (spermatophylax) than uninfected males. This

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  5. Network of sexual contacts and sexually transmitted HIV infection in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Latora, Vito; Nyamba, André; Simpore, Jacques; Sylvette, Bahiré; Diane, Sandwidi; Sylvére, Bukiki; Musumeci, Salvatore

    2006-06-01

    Two thirds of the people who have been infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world live in Sub-Saharan African countries. The results of a study measuring the degree distribution of the network of sexual contacts in Burkina Faso are described. Such a network is responsible for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, and in particular of HIV. It has been found that the number of different sexual partners reported by males is a power law distribution with an exponent gamma = 2.9 (0.1). This is consistent with the degree distribution of scale-free networks. On the other hand, the females can be divided into two groups: the prostitutes with an average of 400 different partners per year, and females with a stable partner, having a rapidly decreasing degree distribution. Such a result may have important implications on the control of sexually transmitted diseases and in particular of HIV. Since scale-free networks have no epidemic threshold, a campaign based on prevention and anti-viral treatment of few highly connected nodes can be more successful than any policy based on enlarged but random distribution of the available anti-viral treatments. PMID:16628573

  6. Community sexually transmitted infection services are good enough: a qualitative study of clients' experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqui Evans; Jill Cross

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundLewisham in South East London, UK has high rates of sexually transmitted infection (STI), termination of pregnancy and teenage conception. Greater community provision of STI services has been proposed nationally to address the current sexual health crisis but concern has been expressed about their quality. Lewisham Community Sexual and Reproductive Health (S&RH) Department has been providing testing and treatment for

  7. Role of heparan sulfate in sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Maus, Erika; Sigar, Ira M; Ramsey, Kyle H; Shukla, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS), a polysaccharide composed of alternating uronic acid and glucosamine residues, represents a common link that many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) require for infection. Variable modifications within the monomeric units of HS chains together with their unique structural conformations generate heterogeneity, which expands the ability of HS to bind a diverse array of host and microbial proteins. Recent advances made in the field of glycobiology have critically enhanced our understanding of HS and its interactions with microbes and their significance in important human diseases. The role of HS has been elaborated for several STIs to include those caused by herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, and Chlamydia. In addition, gonorrhea, syphilis, and yeast infections are also dependent on the presence of HS on human target cells. Critical steps such as pathogen adhesion or binding to host cells followed by internalization to enhance intracellular survival and possible spread to other cells are mediated by HS. In addition, HS guided cell signaling plays a role in the development of angiogenesis and inflammation associated with many STIs. Past and ongoing investigations are providing new push for the development of HS-mimetics and analogs as novel prevention strategies against many different STIs. This review article summarizes the significance of HS in STIs and describes how emerging new products that target HS can be used to control the spread of STIs. PMID:22773448

  8. [Prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI)].

    PubMed

    Stoliaroff-Pépin, Anna; Speck, Roberto F; Vernazza, Pietro

    2014-08-01

    The number of new HIV-1 infections remains stable in Switzerland over the last years thanks to the effective prevention programs. However, the aim to halve the new HIV infection rate has not been reached. Early identification of patients at risk of acquiring HIV infection and counselling "safer sex" rules as well as treating HIV-infected patients plays a decisive role in this program. Studies are -ongoing to investigate additional preventive measures such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides and vaccines, but none of those approaches permit omitting "safer sex". Incidences of other sexual transmitted infections are increasing rapidly, in particular the incidence of Syphilis. Transmission occurs more often orally or rectally than vaginally and patients are often asymptomatic. Condoms provide only limited protection. In addition antibiotic resistance emerges complicating the therapy, as for example for gonorrhea. Testing and treatment of infected patients is primordial as well as contact tracing. In this work, we discuss the different elements for preventing STIs with major emphasis on HIV. PMID:25093318

  9. Point of care diagnostics for sexually transmitted infections: perspectives and advances

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte; Hardick, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) tests are urgently needed to control sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics, so that patients can receive immediate diagnoses and treatment. Current POC assays for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae perform inadequately and require better assays. Diagnostics for Trichomonas vaginalis rely on wet preparation, with some notable advances. Serological POC assays for syphilis can impact resource-poor settings, with many assays available, but only one available in the U.S. HIV POC diagnostics demonstrate the best performance, with excellent assays available. There is a rapid assay for HSV lesion detection; but no POC serological assays are available. Despite the inadequacy of POC assays for treatable bacterial infections, application of technological advances offers the promise of advancing POC diagnostics for all STIs. PMID:24484215

  10. On the evolution of the sexually transmitted bacteria Haemophilus ducreyi and Klebsiella granulomatis.

    PubMed

    Lagergård, Teresa; Bölin, Ingrid; Lindholm, Leif

    2011-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi and Klebsiella (Calymmatobacterium) granulomatis are sexually transmitted bacteria that cause characteristic, persisting ulceration on external genitals called chancroid and granuloma inguinale, respectively. Those ulcers are endemic in developing countries or exist, as does granuloma inguinale, only in some geographic "hot spots."H. ducreyi is placed in the genus Haemophilus (family Pasteurellacae); however, this phylogenetic position is not obvious. The multiple ways in which the bacterium may be adapted to its econiche through specialized nutrient acquisitions; defenses against the immune system; and virulence factors that increase attachment, fitness, and persistence within genital tissue are discussed below. The analysis of K. granulomatis phylogeny demonstrated a high degree of identity with other Klebsiella species, and the name K. granulomatis comb. nov. was proposed. Because of the difficulty in growing this bacterium on artificial media, its characteristics have not been sufficiently defined. More studies are needed to understand bacterial genetics related to the pathogenesis and evolution of K. granulomatis. PMID:22239475

  11. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Function in Relation to Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Brookings, Claire; Goldmeier, David

    2013-01-01

    Infertility affects about 8% to 12% of couples, with male infertility being responsible for about 30% of cases. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are known to cause complications of pregnancy and are associated with tubal infertility in females, but the association with male fertility is still controversial. The prevalence of curable STIs has risen to an estimated 448 million a year with the number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at 34 million. This review looks at the evidence available to date, regarding the effect of STIs and male accessory gland infections on markers of male fertility and the evidence that STIs negatively affect sexual functioning, thus adversely affecting the ability to conceive. The review will also cover new developments in the use of medications and fertility treatments as an aid to conception in couples serodiscordant for HIV. PMID:23526114

  12. Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Pregnant Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gittens, Lisa N.; Nichols, Rhonda R.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among pregnant adolescents. Methods: Charts of all patients (n = 735) who attended the Maternal and Infant Care Clinic at University Hospital, Newark, NJ, between July 1, 1991, and June 30, 1992, were reviewed for STDs which included gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). At the first prenatal visit, each registrant had endocervical specimens obtained to detect gonorrhea and chlamydia. A serum sample was obtained for syphilis screening. HIV testing was made available to all patients and testing was done on a voluntary basis. The same STD screening that was done at the initial visit was repeated at 28 and 36 weeks. Results: Twenty-five percent of patients tested positive for one or more STDs. The mean patient age was 17.3 years. The mean gestational age at first visit was 19.5 weeks. The mean number of visits was 7.3. The following STDs were identified: 4.8% of patients tested positive for gonorrhea, 20.9% tested positive for chlamydia, and 1.7% tested positive for syphilis. Twenty-one percent of patients had a positive STD diagnosed at the initial visit. Another 4.8% of patients had an STD diagnosed at some time after the initial visit when the initial screen was negative for STDs. An additional 1% of patients who initially tested positive for an STD had subsequent screening which revealed another STD (different organism). Seven patients tested HIV positive. Sixty-one percent of patients with STDs agreed to HIV testing. One patient had HIV coexistent with another STD. Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents are at risk for multiple STDs. HIV testing should be offered. STD screening should be repeated in the third trimester in adolescent patients. PMID:18472877

  13. The changing pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Donald, W H

    1979-03-01

    The factors associated with the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents in England and Wales are both social and medical. Among the social factors is the large part played by sex in periodicals, advertisements, the theater, radio, and television. Also playing their part are increased mobility of populations, particularly moves from rural to urban areas, increased affluence, increased alcohol comsumption and leisure time together with greater personal freedom. The medical factors include the prevalence of asymptomatic infection mainly in women but also in men, the high incidence in homosexual men who may be asymptomatic and very promiscuous, and the fact that modern treatment is simple and effective reduces the fear of infection. Furthermore, modern contraceptive techniques such as the IUD and oral contraceptives (OCs) offer no barriers to infection unlike the condom and diaphragm. Syphilis is no longer a problem in the UK, as the incidence has remained at a low level of 2-3 cases/100,000 population for the past 20 years. Gonorrhea has become a problem in its place reaching almost epidemic proportions by 1975, although the incidence is now showing some sign of leveling off. Nonspecific urethritis in men and nonspecific genital infection in women, and the virus condition of herpes genitalis and genital warts have all continued to increase in incidence. In most clinics 40-50% of female patients with gonorrhea are under the age of 20. Changing patterns of sexual behavior have altered the pattern of disease. Oral coitus, both fellatio and cunnilingus, have become more prevalent and can lead to pharyngeal gonorrhea which can be symptomless in both heterosexuals and homosexuals. Rectal gonorrhea occurs in women as well as in male homosexuals and can be a cause of failure of initial treatment. The diagnosis of gonorrhea is a bacteriological diagnosis, and smears and cultures must be taken from the urethra and cervix in the female. It is gradually becoming routine pratice in many clinics to swab the rectum and pharynx as well as the genital tract to exclude gonorrhea in those areas. Complications of gonorrhea have become common again. Salpingitis has increased in incidence. Gonococcal arthritis has reappeared. Nonspecific genital infection in both sexes is a considerable problem. In men, the incidence of nonspecific urethritis is greater than that of gonorrhea. In women, nonspecific vaginitis, cervicitis, and salpingitis increases in incidence year by year and can be difficult to treat. As many as 40% of all women suffering from gonorrhea also have an infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, which will cause symptoms. Virus infection continues to be on the increase. This is particularly the case with genital warts and herpes genitalis, which have doubled in incidence over the past 10 years. It is always important when dealing with these conditions to examine the sexual partner, or partners, for evidence of a similar infection. PMID:582209

  14. Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…

  15. Gender gaps, gender traps: sexual identity and vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases among women in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Go, Vivian Fei-ling; Quan, Vu Minh; Chung, A; Zenilman, Jonathan; Hanh, Vu Thi Minh; Celentano, David

    2002-08-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to explore the pathways by which traditional gender roles may ultimately affect Vietnamese women's interpretation of sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms and health-seeking strategies. Data on gender roles, perceptions of types of sexual relationships, perceptions of persons with STDs, and STD patient experiences were gathered through in-depth interviews and focus groups with 18 men and 18 women in the general population of northern Vietnam. A framework integrating Andersen's behavioral model of health services use and Zurayk's multi-layered model was used to conceptualize women's health-seeking behavior for STD symptoms. Both men and women noted clear gender differences in sexual roles and expectations. According to participants, a woman's primary roles in northern Vietnam are socially constructed as that of a wife and mother-and in these roles, she is expected to behave in a faithful and obedient manner vis à vis her husband. It emerged that men's marital and sexual roles are less clearly defined by traditional norms and are more permissive in their tolerance of premarital and extramarital sex. For women, however, these activities are socially condemned. Finally, since STDs are associated with sexual promiscuity, both men and women expressed anxiety about telling their partners about an STD; women's expressions were characterized more by fear of social and physical consequences, whereas men expressed embarrassment. Community level interventions that work towards disassociating STDs from traditional social norms may enable Vietnamese women to report possible STD symptoms and promote diagnosis and care for STDs. PMID:12144153

  16. Associations of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors with sexual risk and sexually transmitted diseases in teen clinic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cherrie B Boyer; Mary-Ann Shafer; Charles J Wibbelsman; Donald Seeberg; Eileen Teitle; Nydia Lovell

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of sociodemographic characteristics, sexually transmitted disease (STD)\\/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, and psychosocial and behavioral risk factors on sexual risk and STDs in adolescents using constructs from the Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills model (IMB).Methods: A convenience sample of 303 sexually experienced, racially diverse adolescents (mean age 16.7 years, 57.9% female) who were seeking health care

  17. How Can Men Reduce the Risk of Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How can men reduce the risk of getting a sexually transmitted ... on social media links Share this: Page Content Men can take the following measures to avoid STDs: ...

  18. Molecular Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Harkins, April L.; Munson, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia, with its Chlamydia trachomatis etiology, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States and is often transmitted via asymptomatic individuals. This review summarizes traditional and molecular-based diagnostic modalities specific to C. trachomatis. Several commercially available, FDA-approved molecular methods to diagnose urogenital C. trachomatis infection include nucleic acid hybridization, signal amplification, polymerase chain reaction, strand displacement amplification, and transcription-mediated amplification. Molecular-based methods are rapid and reliable genital specimen screening measures, especially when applied to areas of high disease prevalence. However, clinical and analytical sensitivity for some commercial systems decreases dramatically when testing urine samples. In vitro experiments and clinical data suggest that transcription-mediated amplification has greater analytical sensitivity than the other molecular-based methods currently available. This difference may be further exhibited in testing of extragenital specimens from at-risk patient demographics. The development of future molecular testing could address conundrums associated with confirmatory testing, medicolegal testing, and test of cure. PMID:21822498

  19. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Howe, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

  20. Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual) and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. Method This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15–49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence. Conclusion Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease among currently married women. PMID:24470776

  1. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  2. One size fits all? Promoting condom use for sexually transmitted infection prevention among heterosexual young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard de Visser

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of hetero- sexual young adults' knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use for STI prevention. Data came from

  3. Urban Men's Knowledge and Perceptions regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…

  4. Hormonal contraception and risk of sexually transmitted disease acquisition: Results from a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jared M. Baeten; Patrick M. Nyange; Barbra A. Richardson; Ludo Lavreys; Bhavna Chohan; Harold L. Martin; Kishorchandra Mandaliya; Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola; Job J. Bwayo; Joan K. Kreiss

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. Study Design: Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. Results: When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased

  5. Sexually Transmitted Infections in Travelers: Implications for Prevention and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abu Saleh M. Abdullah; Shahul H. Ebrahim; Richard Fielding; Donald E. Morisky

    2004-01-01

    Sexually transmissible diseases (STDs), the most common notifiable infectious conditions, remain major threats to repro- ductive and public health worldwide. Travelers are particularly vulnerable to STDs, because of voluntary or involuntary sexual behavior while abroad, and are significant vectors who introduce new pathogens and resistant strains to unaffected parts of the world. This article outlines some key issues that travel

  6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Postpubertal Female Rape Victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordan B. Glaser; Julius Schachter; Solomon Benes; Marinella Cummings; Cathy A. Frances; William M. McCormack

    1991-01-01

    Seventy-six postpubertal women were referred from a municipal hospital emergency room within 60 h of sexual assault for evaluation. Of the 76 victims, 20 (26%) had active Chlamydia trachomatis infection detected by culture (11 subjects), a fourfold serologic titer rise (6), or both (3). The risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection after sexual assault was 3%-16%. Pelvic inflammatory disease was

  7. Insights in public health: The hidden epidemic: sexually transmitted diseases in 2014.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    Diseases caused by sexually transmitted agents are among the most common infectious diseases in the United States. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have serious sequelae including physical pain, emotional distress, adverse reproductive outcomes, and cancer. They also pose an economic burden on society. STDs are challenging to prevent and control due to a general reluctance to address sexual health issues in an open manner. Human papillomavirus infection, chlamydia, and gonorrhea have recently been addressed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in their Grand Rounds series reflecting their high-profile status on the national prevention and control agenda. This Insights column will focus on these three STDs. PMID:25157329

  8. Tweet Content Related to Sexually Transmitted Diseases: No Joking Matter

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie YS

    2014-01-01

    Background Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of “tweeters” (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of “tweet” messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. Objective The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDs—chlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. Methods We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words “chlamydia” or “HIV”, and the hashtags “#chlamydia” or “#HIV”. Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. Results A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words “chlamydia” and/or “HIV”. Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20.6%, 128/620), using a logo avatar (66.9%, 415/620), and with identifiable accounts (85.2%, 528/620). No government departments, non-governmental organizations, scientific media, or academic institutions posted a joke on STDs. A total of 104 of these analyzed tweets were re-tweeted messages, belonging to 68 unique tweets. The content was serious (99%, 67/68), factual (90%, 52/58), and about HIV (85%, 58/68). Conclusions Social media such as Twitter may be an important source of information regarding STDs provided that the topic is presented appropriately. Reassuringly, the study showed that almost 9/10 of tweets on STDs (chlamydia and HIV) were of serious content, and many of the tweets that were re-tweeted were facts. The jokes that were tweeted were mainly about chlamydia, and posted by non-identifiable emitters. We believe social media should be used to an even larger extent to disseminate correct information about STDs. PMID:25289463

  9. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV seropositive men and women

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, S.; Rompa, D.; Cage, M.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of identified STIs and recognised symptoms of STIs and their association with health status, substance use, and sexual risk behaviour in a sample of HIV seropositive men and women. Methods: 223 men, 112 women, and five transsexual people living with HIV infection completed confidential surveys. Participants were recruited through community based services, community health clinics, and snowball (chain) recruitment techniques in Atlanta, GA, USA in December 1999. Results: We found that (263) 78% of participants had been sexually active in the previous 3 months. For the entire sample, 42 (12%) participants reported an STI in the past 3 months and 40 (11%) experienced symptoms of an STI without indicating a specific diagnosis in that time. Gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis, and newly diagnosed herpes simplex virus (HSV) were identified at similar rates among men, whereas trichomonas, gonorrhoea, and newly diagnosed HSV occurred most often in women. STIs were associated with substance use in men and women, with "crack" cocaine users having the greatest likelihood of an STI relative to non-crack users. STIs were also associated with continued practice of sexual risk behaviours. Conclusions: This sample of people living with HIV-AIDS reported high rates of diagnoses and symptoms of STIs. There were significant associations between STIs, substance use, and continued high risk sexual practices in men and women. These findings support the need for studies that confirm prevalence of STIs using clinical laboratory tests. Key Words: HIV; sexual risk; HIV transmission PMID:11141850

  10. Sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in street-based female sex workers in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazrul Islam Mondal; Kamal Hossain; Rafiqul Islam; Abul Bashar Mian

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of street-based female sex workers (SFSWs) of Rajshahi city and examined their socio-demographic profiles. Among the SFSWs attending three drop- in centers (DIC) named PIACT, PROVA, and Suraksha Madhumita in Rajshahi, 150 self-motivated and willing individuals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to obtain obstetric histories and socio-demographic information. Among

  11. Sexually transmitted diseases in polygynous mating systems: prevalence and impact

    E-print Network

    Antonovics, Janis

    a simulation approach to investigate rates of STD spread in host mating systems ranging from permanent monogamy et al. 1997). In the context of STDs in human populations, it is well understood that disease spread & Sabelis 1995), is in£uenced by shifts in human sexual behaviour. It has even been speculated that human

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection transmitted sexually via oral-genital contact: a hypothetical model

    PubMed Central

    Eslick, G.

    2000-01-01

    Note added at proof stage An updated search of the literature was made in August 2000. Objectives: To postulate that Helicobacter pylori infection may be transmitted sexually, using the human female vagina as a reservoir for transmission. Methods: A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase, Biological Abstracts, and Currents Contents (January 1983 to August 2000). Relevant keywords were used and additional manual searches were made using the reference lists from the selected articles to retrieve other papers relevant to the topic. Conclusions: Helicobacter pylori infection could be transmitted sexually with the vagina acting as a potential temporary/permanent reservoir given the right environmental conditions. Key Words: sexually transmitted infections; Helicobacter pylori; vagina; oral-genital contact PMID:11221134

  13. A Vicarious Experience of the Actions of Contraceptive Devices in Birth Control and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2002-01-01

    Describes how self-constructed models of the male and female reproductive systems are used to simulate sexual intercourse and the actions of contraceptive devices in preventing conception and sexually transmitted diseases. (Author/YDS)

  14. What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know about Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC Fact Sheet: What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know About Sexually Transmitted Diseases If ... an STD, sexually active gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at ...

  15. Associations between forced sex, sexual and protective practices, and sexually transmitted diseases among a national sample of adolescent girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn M. Upchurch; Yasamin Kusunoki

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveThe main objective of this study is to better understand the associations between forced sex history and history of sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. Three research questions are investigated. Is history of forced sex associated with risk-taking behaviors? Are these risk-taking behaviors associated with history of STD? Is history of forced sex independently associated with history of STD?

  16. The effect of aggregative overwintering on an insect sexually transmitted parasite system.

    PubMed

    Webberley, K Mary; Hurst, Gregory D D

    2002-08-01

    In contrast to the extensively studied sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of humans, little is known of the ecology or evolutionary biology of sexually transmitted parasites in natural systems. This study of a sexually transmitted parasite on an insect host augments our understanding of both the parasite's population dynamics and virulence effects. The impact of overwintering was assessed on the prevalence of the parasitic mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae on the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata. First, the effect of infection on host survival was examined during the stressful overwintering period. Box experiments in the field revealed that the infected ladybirds, especially males, are less likely to survive overwintering. The study provides the first evidence that the parasite harms males and suggests revisions of theories on the adaptive virulence of sexually transmitted parasites. It also indicates the importance of using a range of experimental conditions because virulence can be dependent on host condition and sex. Box experiments were also used to examine whether transmission of the parasite occurs within overwintering aggregations. These revealed that substantial transmission does not occur in aggregations and that transmission is predominantly sexual. Overall, the virulence effects and the lack of transmission mean that the overwintering period acts to diminish parasite prevalence and will retard the spring epidemic associated with host reproductive activity. PMID:12197118

  17. Hiv risk behavior in male and female russian sexually transmitted disease clinic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric G. Benotsch; Steven D. Pinkerton; Roman V. Dyatlov; Wayne DiFranceisco; Tatyana S. Smirnova; Valentina Y. Dudko; Andrei Kozlov

    2006-01-01

    Russia is experiencing one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world. Russian sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic\\u000a patients are at elevated risk for infection with HIV and other STDs due to unsafe sexual behaviors. Future risk reduction\\u000a intervention efforts for this group must be grounded in a solid understanding of the factors associated with risky behaviors.\\u000a We collected

  18. American College Health Association Annual Pap Test and Sexually Transmitted Infection Survey: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Davis; Roberts, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results: Almost…

  19. Sexually transmitted disease prevention services for female chronically mentally ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Coverdale; Timothy L. Bayer; Laurence B. McCullough; Frank A. Chervenak

    1995-01-01

    Chronically and variably impaired autonomy makes women with chronic mental illness particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. A lack of female controlled protective devices also adds to the vulnerability of these patients. In this context, the authors make recommendations for the design of clinically comprehensive and ethically justified programs to minimize the risk of mentally ill

  20. Diagnosing genital ulcer disease in a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Bruisten; H. Fennema; A. Pijl; M. Buimer; P. G. H. Peerbooms; E. Van Dyck; A. Meijer; J. M. Ossewaarde; Doornum van G. J. J

    2001-01-01

    The most common etiologic agents of genital ulcer disease (GUD) are herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, Treponema pallidum, and Haemophilus ducreyi. In an outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, specimens from 372 patients with GUD were collected from February to November 1996. Sera were collected at the time of the symptoms and, for most

  1. An Intervention to Promote the Female Condom to Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…

  2. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…

  3. AIDS risk behaviours and correlates in teenagers attending sexually transmitted diseases clinics in Los Angeles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A E Maxwell; R Bastani; K X Yan

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--Of all age groups, teenagers have the highest rates of sexually transmitted diseases. Therefore, it is particularly important to target interventions at this group. Teenagers attending STD clinics are at particularly high risk since behaviours that lead to an STD can also result in the transmission of HIV. The goal of this study was to collect information concerning the prevalence

  4. Integrating the Perspective of Vulnerable Heterosexual Male Adolescents to Prevent Premature Paternity and Sexually Transmitted Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manseau, Helene; Blais, Martin; Engler, Kim; Bosse, Marie-Andre

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the perspective of vulnerable Canadian (Quebecker) adolescents defined as such on account of their numerous experiences with potential or actual fatherhood or exposure to sexually transmitted infection. The interviews allowed youth to talk about their experiences with paternity, their sex lives and their views on sex education.…

  5. Likelihood of Condom Use When Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Suspected: Results from a Clinic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Charnigo, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the event-level associations between perceived risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition/transmission and condom use during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) among STD clinic attendees. Method: A convenience sample (N = 622) completed daily electronic assessments. Two questions were proxies of perceived risk:…

  6. Detection of sexually transmitted infection and human papillomavirus in negative cytology by multiplex-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyo-Sub Shim; Songmi Noh; Ae-Ran Park; Young-Nam Lee; Jong-Kee Kim; Hyun-Jae Chung; Keum-Soon Kang; Nam Hoon Cho

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and 15 species that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in negative cytology. In addition, we compared the diagnostic performance of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with widely available techniques used to detect HPV. METHODS: We recruited 235 women of reproductive age who had negative cytology

  7. Does Funding for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Matter? Evidence from Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Harrison, Paul; Scotton, Carol R.; Varghese, Beena

    2005-01-01

    Since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has allocated several billion dollars for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. Using state-level data from 1981 to 1998, the authors found that greater amounts of prevention funding in a given year are…

  8. Teaching About Sexually Transmitted Diseases; A Curriculum Guide and Resources For Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This curriculum guide provides school districts that already have VD education programs with up-to-date information about research and epidemiology relating to sexually transmitted diseases. For districts wishing to implement a program for the first time, it offers both a structured framework and the resources and materials needed for a complete…

  9. Education on Sexually Transmitted Infections: Finding Common Ground among Youth, Parents, Providers and Policy Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Joan R.

    2008-01-01

    Outcomes from sex education are shaped not only by the knowledge and attitudes of youth but also by groups influential in young people's lives. American youth bear one of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the industrialized world. Four constituencies with important roles in communicating about STIs are youth, parents,…

  10. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women with known HIV status in northern Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sia E Msuya; Jacqueline Uriyo; Akhtar Hussain; Elizabeth M Mbizvo; Stig Jeansson; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania and to compare the occurrence of STIs\\/RTIs among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women. METHODS: Pregnant women in their 3rd trimester (N = 2654) were recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March

  11. Behavioral Convergence: Implications for Mathematical Models of Sexually Transmitted Infection Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Aral, Sevgi O.; Ward, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends in the behaviors of some groups with high sexual activity and of the general population in some countries suggest that sexual behavior profiles of high and low sexual activity categories may be converging and may call into question the assumptions around sexual mixing that are built into theoretical models of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission dynamics. One category of high sexual activity, sex work, has been undergoing modification in many societies, becoming more acceptable, more dispersed, and larger in volume in some societies and shrinking in others. Concurrent with changes in the characteristics of sex work, the accumulating data on the sexual behaviors of the general population suggest a shift toward those of sex workers, including large numbers of sex partners and short-duration partnerships. The closing of the gap between behaviors associated with high and low sexual activity may have important implications for theories of sexual structure and models of transmission dynamics for STIs, including HIV infection. PMID:25381381

  12. Behavioral convergence: implications for mathematical models of sexually transmitted infection transmission.

    PubMed

    Aral, Sevgi O; Ward, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Recent trends in the behaviors of some groups with high sexual activity and of the general population in some countries suggest that sexual behavior profiles of high and low sexual activity categories may be converging and may call into question the assumptions around sexual mixing that are built into theoretical models of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission dynamics. One category of high sexual activity, sex work, has been undergoing modification in many societies, becoming more acceptable, more dispersed, and larger in volume in some societies and shrinking in others. Concurrent with changes in the characteristics of sex work, the accumulating data on the sexual behaviors of the general population suggest a shift toward those of sex workers, including large numbers of sex partners and short-duration partnerships. The closing of the gap between behaviors associated with high and low sexual activity may have important implications for theories of sexual structure and models of transmission dynamics for STIs, including HIV infection. PMID:25381381

  13. Compliance With Hepatitis B Vaccination Among Adult Males With Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Reza; Mellat Ardekani, Ali; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a diverse group of infections caused by widely differing microorganisms (viruses, protozoa, bacteria, yeasts, ectoparasites and even a nematode), with transmission from person to person by sexual contact as its common characteristic. In all societies, sexually transmitted infections rank among the most common infectious diseases. These patients are at risk for hepatitis B virus infection, but have been relatively neglected in terms of hepatitis B virus vaccination. Objectives: In this study, compliance with hepatitis B vaccination among adult males with sexually diseases was examined. Patients and Methods: In this survey, 114 males, referred to an infectious diseases clinic, were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating their knowledge of hepatitis B vaccine, and were interviewed to assess their reasons for refusal or acceptance. Finally, SPSS (version 16) was used to perform the statistical analyses. Variables were analyzed with Chi-square tests. Results: The results of this study indicated that the overall hepatitis B vaccine acceptance rate was acceptably high. Among all, 53.5% correctly identified that a vaccine to prevent hepatitis B virus infection had been available, 15% had a negative opinion, and 31.5% were neutral. The rations of all three doses of vaccination were 69.3%. Conclusions: Among the respondents, 87% were currently married, 86.8% were currently employed, 17.5% have addiction, 34.2 % used condom, and 36.8% correctly identified hepatitis B as a sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25485048

  14. Correlates of prevalent sexually transmitted infections among participants screened for an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Otieno, Fredrick Odhiambo; Ndivo, Richard; Oswago, Simon; Pals, Sherri; Chen, Robert; Thomas, Timothy; Kunneke, Ernesta; Mills, Lisa A; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor

    2015-03-01

    We determined the prevalence of four sexually transmitted infections and the demographic and behavioural correlates associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections among participants in an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, western Kenya. Participants were enrolled from a convenience sample and underwent aetiologic sexually transmitted infection investigation. Demographic and behavioural information were collected and basic clinical evaluation performed. Multiple regression analysis was done to determine variables associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections. We screened 846, 18- to 34-year-olds. One-third had at least one sexually transmitted infection with specific prevalence being: syphilis, 1.6%; gonorrhoea, 2.4%; herpes simplex virus type-2, 29.1%; chlamydia, 2.8%; and HIV, 14.8%. Odds of having any sexually transmitted infection were higher among participants who were women, were aged 20-24 or 30-34 years compared to 18-19 years, had secondary or lower education compared to tertiary education, were divorced, widowed or separated compared to singles, reported having unprotected sex compared to those who did not, reported previous sexually transmitted infection treatment, and tested HIV-positive. Multiple strategies are needed to address the overall high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections as well as the gender disparity found in this Kenyan population. Structural interventions may be beneficial in addressing educational and socio-economic barriers, and increasing the uptake of health-promoting practices. PMID:24810218

  15. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in rural Haitian men.

    PubMed

    Downey, Robert F; Hammar, Donna; Jobe, Kathleen A; Schmidt, Terri A; Van Slyke, Lori; Yassemi, Yassi; Zive, Dana

    2014-09-15

    The study attempts to determine the prevalence of organisms associated with urethritis in men in rural southwestern Haiti and to determine the association with demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. A standardised oral interview was conducted; genital examinations were done; urethral swabs were collected for nucleic acid amplification testing, and first void urine was obtained for urinalysis. The mean participant age was 54; 88.8% lived in a rural area. Swabs were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis in 13.7% (28/205), Mycoplasma genitalium in 6.3% (13/205), Chlamydia trachomatis in 4.4% (9/205) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 0% (0/205). Subjects who never reported using condoms were nearly 3.5 times more likely to have any positive swab result (OR: 3.46, 95% CI 1.31-9.14). Subjects who reported their partners had other sexual partners or were unsure were more than three times likely to have any positive swab result (OR: 3.44, 95% CI 1.33-8.92). Infections with Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium were the most common. PMID:25228665

  16. A cognitive behavioural intervention to reduce sexually transmitted infections among gay men: randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Imrie, John; Stephenson, Judith M; Cowan, Frances M; Wanigaratne, Shamil; Billington, Andrew J P; Copas, Andrew J; French, Lesley; French, Patrick D; Johnson, Anne M

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention in reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections among gay men. Design Randomised controlled trial with 12 months' follow up. Setting Sexual health clinic in London. Participants 343 gay men with an acute sexually transmitted infection or who reported having had unprotected anal intercourse in the past year. Main outcome measures Number of new sexually transmitted infections diagnosed during follow up and self reported incidence of unprotected anal intercourse. Results 72% (361/499) of men invited to enter the study did so. 90% (308/343) of participants returned at least one follow up questionnaire or re-attended the clinic and requested a check up for sexually transmitted infections during follow up. At baseline, 37% (63/172) of the intervention group and 30% (50/166) of the control group reported having had unprotected anal intercourse in the past month. At 12 months, the proportions were 27% (31/114) and 32% ( 39/124) respectively (P=0.56). However, 31% (38/123) of the intervention group and 21% (35/168) of controls had had at least one new infection diagnosed at the clinic (adjusted odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 2.74). Considering only men who requested a check up for sexually transmitted infections, the proportion diagnosed with a new infection was 58% (53/91) for men in the intervention group and 43% (35/81) for men in the control group (adjusted odds ratio 1.84, 0.99 to 3.40). Using a regional database that includes information from 23 sexual health clinics in London, we determined that few participants had attended other sexual health clinics. Conclusions This behavioural intervention was acceptable and feasible to deliver, but it did not reduce the risk of acquiring a new sexually transmitted infection among these gay men at high risk. Even carefully designed interventions should not be assumed to bring benefit. It is important to evaluate their effects in randomised trials with objective clinical end points. What is already known on this topicThe need for effective HIV prevention strategies based on reducing sexual risk behaviour remains importantFew interventions to reduce sexual risk behaviour have been rigorously evaluated using randomised controlled trialsWhat this study addsThis is the first randomised controlled trial of an intervention addressing sexual behaviour in homosexual men that uses sexually transmitted infections and self reported behaviour as end pointsThe intervention was brief and feasible to use in a busy clinic, but it did not reduce the risk of participants acquiring new infectionsThe potential for behavioural interventions to do more harm than good needs to be taken seriously PMID:11408300

  17. Patterns of adolescent sexual behavior predicting young adult sexually transmitted infections: a latent class analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Kugler, Kari C; Butera, Nicole M; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent sexual behavior is multidimensional, yet most studies of the topic use variable-oriented methods that reduce behaviors to a single dimension. In this study, we used a person-oriented approach to model adolescent sexual behavior comprehensively, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We identified five latent classes of adolescent sexual behavior: Abstinent (39 %), Oral Sex (10 %), Low-Risk (25 %), Multi-Partner Normative (12 %), and Multi-Partner Early (13 %). Membership in riskier classes of sexual behavior was predicted by substance use and depressive symptoms. Class membership was also associated with young adult STI outcomes although these associations differed by gender. Male adolescents' STI rates increased with membership in classes with more risky behaviors whereas females' rates were consistent among all sexually active classes. These findings demonstrate the advantages of examining adolescent sexuality in a way that emphasizes its complexity. PMID:24449152

  18. Risk and prevalence of treatable sexually transmitted diseases at a Birmingham substance abuse treatment facility.

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, L H; Lewis, I; Allen, R; Schwebke, J R; Leviton, L C; Siegal, H A; Hook, E W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and syphilis in patients entering residential drug treatment. METHODS: Data on sexual and substance abuse histories were collected. Participants provided specimens for chlamydia and gonorrhea ligase chain reaction testing. Trichomonas vaginalis culture, and syphilis serologic testing. RESULTS: Of 311 patients, crack cocaine use was reported by 67% and multisubstance use was reported by 71%. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors were common. The prevalence of infection was as follows: Chlamydia trachomatis, 2.3%; Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1.6%; trichomoniasis, 43%; and syphilis, 6%. CONCLUSIONS: STD counseling and screening may be a useful adjunct to inpatient drug treatment. PMID:11029998

  19. Risk of sexually transmitted infections among Mayan women in rural Guatemala whose partners are migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Janet M; Schaffer, Jessica R; Sac Ixcot, Maria L; Page, Kimberly; Hearst, Norman

    2014-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) are of concern in Mayan districts of Guatemala in which labor migration is common. This study assessed whether the migration status of men is associated with reported STI symptoms among their female primary partners. In a multivariate analysis of survey data taken from a larger Mayan sexual health study, the odds of reporting STI symptoms were twofold higher among women who reported that their partner migrated (OR 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.16-3.71), compared to women whose partners did not. Women from the Mam and Kaqchikel ethnolinguistic groups reported higher rates of STI symptoms after adjustment for their partners' migration status. PMID:23963499

  20. Update on pregnancy, condom use, and prevalence of selected sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cromer, B A; Brown, R T

    1992-12-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and its consequences continue as major sources of morbidity in the United States. A teenager who becomes a parent is at a significant disadvantage in becoming a contributing adult, both psychosocially and economically. The physician who cares for adolescents has the responsibility of helping parenting teens to find needed support so that they will be able to overcome this significant hurdle. Attention from public agencies has focused on increasing condom use as one approach to adolescent pregnancy prevention. The major advantage of using condoms is that they also prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Of note is that level of knowledge about condoms is not related to their use, and engaging in high-risk behaviors is related to a decreased likelihood of condom use. With rates of condom use estimated at less than 50%, rates of sexually transmitted disease remain high, as reported in recent surveys. PMID:1450350

  1. Sexually transmitted pathogens in pregnant women in a rural South African community.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N; Hoosen, A A; Kharsany, A B; van den Ende, J

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and ninety three consecutive pregnant women attending peripheral antenatal clinics attached to Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, Kwa-Zulu, were examined for evidence of sexually transmitted pathogens. The following incidences were found: Trichomonas vaginalis 49.2% (95), Candida spp 38.3% (74), Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4% (22), Gardnerella vaginalis 6.2% (12), Neisseria gonorrhoeae 5.7% (11), positive syphilis serology results 11.9% (23), hepatitis B surface antigen 4.1% (eight). No woman had antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Dyskaryotic smears were found in 20 (10.4%). Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected cytologically in 11 (5.7%). The range of sexually transmitted pathogens found in this rural community was similar to that found in urban groups studied in South Africa. PMID:2807289

  2. Drug use and sexually transmitted diseases among female and male arrested youths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Dembo; Steven Belenko; Kristina Childs; Jennifer Wareham

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the rates and correlates of juvenile offenders’ sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has been limited to samples\\u000a of incarcerated youths comprised mostly of males. Data collected on 442 female and 506 male youths processed at a centralized\\u000a intake facility enabled us to study this important public health problem among a sample of juvenile offenders at the front\\u000a end of

  3. [Sexually transmitted infections as a cause for solid rectal pseudo tumors].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, B; Gaiser, T; Wantia, N; Renner, W; Veeser, M; Ebert, M; Vogelmann, R

    2014-12-01

    Two cases of symptomatic proctitis with rectal tumors suspicious for malignancy are presented. A florid regenerative proctitis was shown in the histological examination. In both cases a sexually transmitted infection (STI) was causing the symptoms. In rare cases STIs present as pseudo tumors mimicking malignancy in clinical examination and endoscopic/radiological analysis. A close collaboration between gastroenterologist and pathologist is necessary for a correct diagnosis and to prevent unnecessary surgical treatment. PMID:25474280

  4. SAFER SEX INFORMATION There are many ways to reduce the risk of acquiring a Sexually Transmitted Disease

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    SAFER SEX INFORMATION There are many ways to reduce the risk of acquiring a Sexually Transmitted and consistently every time you have sex, can be a great safer sex strategy. The basic idea behind safer sex

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Risky Sexual Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Comparison Study of Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    E-print Network

    Jaime R. Strickl; Stephanie E. Afful, Ph.D.; Linda B. Cottler, Ph.D.; Laura Jean Bierut

    Cocaine users routinely engage in high-risk sexual behaviors that place them at an elevated risk of contracting HIV and other blood-borne infections. The purpose of the present study was to compare trading sex for drugs and=or money, having 10 or more sexual partners in 1 year, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of cocainedependent individuals in treatment for their dependence across race and gender and against participants who live in their community. Cocaine-dependent individuals (n 459) were identified through nine publicly and privately funded inpatient and outpatient chemical dependency treatment centers in the St. Louis area during 2001–2006. Community-based participants (n 459) were matched to cocaine-dependent participants on age, ethnicity, gender, and zip code of residence. Mean age of the sample was 36 years old, 50 % were Caucasians, 50 % were African American, and 47 % were male. Nearly half of cocaine-dependent participants in treatment had traded sex for drugs and=or money and over one-third had more than 10 sexual partners in 1 year with a risk concentrated among African Americans even after controlling for income and educational attainment. Participants recruited from the community with some exposure to cocaine reported similar rates of high risk sexual behaviors as the cocaine dependent subjects from treatment settings. It is important for clinicians to recognize that once released from treatment, cocaine-dependent individuals may be returning to high-risk environments where sexual risk behaviors are occurring in the context of cocaine use.

  6. Microbiome, sex hormones, and immune responses in the reproductive tract: challenges for vaccine development against sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Brotman, Rebecca M; Ravel, Jacques; Bavoil, Patrik M; Gravitt, Patti E; Ghanem, Khalil G

    2014-03-20

    The female and male reproductive tracts are complex eco-systems where immune cells, hormones, and microorganisms interact. The characteristics of the reproductive tract mucosa are distinct from other mucosal sites. Reproductive tract mucosal immune responses are compartmentalized, unique, and affected by resident bacterial communities and sex hormones. The female and male genital microbiomes are complex environments that fluctuate in response to external and host-associated stimuli. The female vaginal microbiota play an important role in preventing colonization by pathogenic organisms. Sex hormones and their duration of exposure affect the composition and stability of the microbiome as well as systemic and mucosal immune responses. In addition to the characteristics of the pathogen they are targeting, successful vaccines against sexually transmitted pathogens must take into account the differences between the systemic and mucosal immune responses, the compartmentalization of the mucosal immune responses, the unique characteristics of the reproductive tract mucosa, the role of the mucosal bacterial communities, the impact of sex hormones, and the interactions among all of these factors. PMID:24135572

  7. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Pair Bonding, Fathering, and Alliance Formation: Disease Avoidance Behaviors as a Proposed Element in Human Evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade C. Mackey; Ronald S. Immerman

    2000-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have severe and adverse consequences on human fertility. The greater the prevalence of STDs within a community, the greater the threat to that community's viability. The prime marker for infection with an STD is the number of sexual partners. In this article, it is argued that these dynamics are extremely old and that biocultural factors that

  8. Are we failing our teenagers? Value of a family planning service for teenagers within the sexually transmitted disease clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Tobin; R B Roy

    1985-01-01

    Out of 100 teenage girls attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic for the first time, 77 were found to be using a reliable method of contraception and had similar characteristics to teenage girls attending a family planning clinic. The 23 girls not using any reliable contraception exhibited a different pattern of sexual behaviour and were at high risk of unplanned

  9. Using Process Data to Understand Outcomes in Sexual Health Promotion: An Example from a Review of School-Based Programmes to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Barnett-Page, E.; Kavanagh, J.; Picot, J.; Frampton, G. K.; Cooper, K.; Hartwell, D.; Clegg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible…

  10. From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: the contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Fleming; J. N. Wasserheit

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the scientific data on the role of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in sexual transmission of HIV infection and discuss the implications of these findings for HIV and STD prevention policy and practice. METHODS: Articles were selected from a review of Medline, accessed with the OVID search engine. The search covered articles from January 1987 to September 1998

  11. Dynamic modeling and analysis of sexually transmitted diseases on heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuping; Jin, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Considering homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts in the course of sexual contacts, double degrees which describe the numbers of homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts are introduced, correlation coefficients about degrees based on the joint probability distribution are given, and an SIS mean-field model about sexually transmitted diseases is presented when degrees are uncorrelated. The basic reproduction number of diseases is studied by the method of next generation matrix. Results show that, when homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts all exist, once the disease is epidemic in the interior of male (female) population which is caused by male (female) homosexual transmissions, or the disease is epidemic between the two species which is caused by heterosexual transmissions, the disease must be epidemic in the whole population. Numerical simulations confirm the theoretical results.

  12. [Knowledge and practice of adolescents in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Martini, Jussara Gue; Bandeira, Adriana da Silva

    2003-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the knowledge of adolescents regarding the prevention and transmission of DST's, HIV/AIDS. It was carried out in a school in the city of Canoas/RS. 121 students, with age between 12-19 participated in the study. According to the interviews 22.3% said that their sexual life starts at the age between 12 and 16. Student's knowledge regarding the transmission of DST's is evident, since 79% of the students pointed out that those diseases are transmitted through sexual contact if there is no use of condoms. However some myths and stereotypes related to these disease were also identified. 16.3% of the adolescents believe that contamination can occur in bathrooms, swimming pools and saunas. PMID:14692281

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Plorde, D S

    1981-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to the education and employment of women--and improved medical services are essential for the long-term control of STD. PMID:6895708

  14. Herpes Genitalis in Patients Attending a Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, David; Gutman, Mory; Hrytzay, Millie; McLachlin, Jeanette

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study of 210 patients attending a hospital-based sexually transmitted disease clinic, we documented the prevalence of genital herpes infection (GHI) and its association with gonococcal infection (GI). Herpes simplex virus type 2 was cultured from 58% of symptomatic patients and 0.5% of asymptomatic patients. The ratio of GI to GHI was 41:31 by clinical criteria. The laboratory-confirmed ratio was 41:18. These ratios are much higher than those normally used to estimate the caseload of GHI. PMID:21283317

  15. The Social Constructions of Sexuality: Marital Infidelity and Sexually Transmitted Disease–HIV Risk in a Mexican Migrant Community

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Higgins, Jennifer; Bentley, Margaret E.; Nathanson, Constance A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This article explores the social context of the migration-related HIV epidemic in western Mexico. Methods. Data collection involved life histories and participant observation with migrant women in Atlanta and their sisters or sisters-in-law in Mexico. Results. Both younger and older women acknowledged that migrant men’s sexual behavior may expose them to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.Younger Mexican women in both communities expressed a marital ideal characterized by mutual intimacy, communication, joint decisionmaking, and sexual pleasure, but not by willingness to use condoms as an HIV prevention strategy. Conclusions. Migrant Mexican women’s commitment to an illusion of fidelity will hinder HIV prevention initiatives targeted toward them. Furthermore, the changing meanings of marital sex may make it harder to convince young couples to use condoms as an HIV prevention strategy. If the chain of heterosexual marital HIV transmission is to be interrupted in this community, prevention programs must target men. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1227–1237) PMID:12144974

  16. Childhood trauma, sexually transmitted diseases and the perceived risk of contracting HIV in a drug using population.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Martha A; Hatch, John P

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the association among childhood trauma, sexually transmitted diseases histories, and perceived risk of contracting AIDS in 358 women and 338 male drug users in San Antonio, Texas. Women addicts were less educated, more likely to be in a common-law relationship, living with someone of the opposite sex or separated, and had lower incomes in comparison to men addicts. Significant findings were that women with increasing severity of abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual) histories as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire had increasing numbers of sexually transmitted diseases and perceptions of contracting HIV. These findings have implications for future directions in HIV and sexually transmitted disease intervention programs. PMID:16161726

  17. Risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection in black female attendees of a sexually transmitted disease clinic.

    PubMed

    Baddour, L M; Bucak, V A; Somes, G; Hudson, R

    1988-01-01

    Although recent data have supported the role of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in women, studies generating these data have enrolled few black women. We therefore examined black female participants attending our local health department's sexually transmitted disease clinic for the treatment of presumed uncomplicated gonorrhea in serologic and risk-factor surveys of hepatitis B virus infection. Twenty-four (17.6%) of 136 subjects tested had evidence of prior hepatitis B infection. Serologic evidence of hepatitis B infection was significantly associated with three different barometers of sexual activity that included: (1) years of sexual activity (P less than 0.005); (2) history of sexually transmitted disease (P less than 0.02); and (3) number of lifetime heterosexual partners (P less than 0.001). These data provide further support that the quantity of sexual exposure seems to be an important risk factor for hepatitis B infection in heterosexually active females. PMID:3227474

  18. Herpes simplex virus 2 : a boon to develop other sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shimpi; Devi, Pushpa; Devi, Bimla

    2013-04-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Though, mostly asymptomatic, it acts as a potential risk factor for acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study was undertaken to know sero-prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), syphilis and HIV among STI clinic attendees and to detect the diagnostic utility of HSV2 IgM antibodies. The study group included 170 individuals attending STI clinic irrespective of their presenting complaints. Their sera were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of HSV2 IgM antibodies. The samples were also screened for HIV and syphilis. Twenty-seven (15.88%) out of 170 persons were found to be seropositive for HSV2 IgM antibodies. Syphilis was detected in 13 individuals (7.65%). Twelve individuals (7.06%) were found to be reactive for anti HIV I antibodies. Ten of the genital herpes patients (37.04%), did not have any complaint of genital ulcer. Eight HSV2 patients (29.63%) had coinfection with HIV I, 6 (22.22%) with syphilis and 2 (07.41%) had co-infection with both HIV and syphilis. A significant proportion of the patients with genital herpes presented without the history of genital ulcers. Thus, its detection and treatment among asymptomatic patients is significant so as to reduce its transmission and other STIs. PMID:24475553

  19. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Non-Sexually Transmitted Strains of Haemophilus ducreyi

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Jordan R.; Roberts, Sally A.; Humphreys, Tricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU) that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA), serum resistance protein (dsrA), and a collagen adhesin (ncaA) contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts. PMID:25774793

  20. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Non-Sexually Transmitted Strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Jordan R; Roberts, Sally A; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU) that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA), serum resistance protein (dsrA), and a collagen adhesin (ncaA) contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts. PMID:25774793

  1. The potential role of custody facilities in controlling sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, D; Scribner, R; Clark, J; Cory, D

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The National Commission on Correctional Health Care recommends that medical screening, including tests for syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases, be performed by the 14th day after initial booking procedures. Because the average length of stay in detention is usually less than 14 days, most detainees are not screened or treated for asymptomatic communicable diseases. METHODS. In order to determine the incidence and prevalence of syphilis among those booked through a large county jail, a rapid screening procedure to test newly incarcerated inmates and treat those infected was implemented over a 3-week period. RESULTS. Among 6309 detainees eligible for testing during the 3-week period of the study, 129 (2%) were diagnosed with syphilis. During the preceding month when only those reporting symptoms or high-risk behaviors were screened, 20 cases were diagnosed. The sensitivity and predictive value of self-reported risk factors for syphilis infection were low. Among the first 110 diagnosed cases, 17 (15.5%) were released within 3 days and 86 (78%) were released within 6 days. CONCLUSIONS. If screening and treatment for syphilis are delayed until the 14th day after booking, the majority of infected inmates will be released prior to evaluation and treatment. Rapid screening and treatment for selected sexually transmitted diseases are likely to be an effective public health measure when implemented in custody settings. PMID:1546771

  2. Legal aspects of sexually transmitted diseases: abuse, partner notification and prosecution.

    PubMed

    Argo, A; Zerbo, S; Triolo, V; Averna, L; D'Anna, T; Nicosia, A; Procaccianti, P

    2012-08-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), with special emphasis to HIV infection, involve legal and ethical issues regarding informed consent to submit to a diagnostic, observance of professional secrecy in regard to partner(s) and community; legal troubles of particular difficulties are related to STD involving minors; lastly, physicians must be able to recognize the state of so called medical necessity. Knowledge and awareness of these related obligations are crucial to STD in medical practice; it is also important to allow for proper protection of victims of suspected sexual abuse under observation of healthcare. With regard to this aspect should be emphasized that violence against women and minors is a worldwide problem that has not yet been sufficiently acknowledged. Italian legislation (Law n. 96/1996) against rapes finally gave significant relevance to sex crimes. When sexual abusers have to be evaluated some obstacles may arise for lack of appropriate interdisciplinary approach, with insurance of the collection of biological samples, also related to STD diagnosis and alerts of legal authorities. Personal preconceptions may interfere with investigation if the biological evidences in children are few. In this regard, rules of document "Carta di Noto" drafted in 1996 and reviewed in July 2002 include some specific indications aiming to grant the reliability of the results of technical investigations and authenticity of the statements of the alleged victims. PMID:23007211

  3. Economic hardship and sexually transmitted diseases in Haiti's rural Artibonite Valley.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, D W; Behets, F; Caliendo, A; Roberfroid, D; Lucet, C; Fitzgerald, J W; Kuykens, L

    2000-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate and risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Haiti's rural Artibonite Valley. Women attending antenatal services at Hospital Albert Schweitzer from October to December 1996 were tested for gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomonas, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Of the 476 women tested, 121 (25.4%) had trichomonas, 11/475 (2.3%) had gonorrhea, 51/475 (10.7%) had chlamydia, 32/474 (6.8%) were seropositive for syphilis, 20/469 (4.3%) were seropositive for HIV, and 191 (40.1%) had at least one STD. Nearly 30% of the women reported having entered a sexual relationship out of economic necessity and had increased odds of HIV infection, Odds Ratio (OR) 6.3 (P < 0.001). We postulate that due to recent economic hardship in rural Haiti, women are entering into sexual relationships out of economic necessity and that this trend is contributing to the growing HIV epidemic. We recommend STD prevention and development programs that target young people and economically disadvantaged women. PMID:11220766

  4. Bacterial vaginosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Wang

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginitis, affecting over 3 million women in the United States annually. Depopulation of lactobacilli from the normal vaginal flora and overgrowth of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic species are the presumed etiology. To date, no scientific evidence shows that bacterial vaginosis is a sexually transmitted disease. Malodorous vaginal discharge is the most

  5. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behavior among female sex workers in nine provinces in Indonesia, 2005.

    PubMed

    Tanudyaya, Flora K; Rahardjo, Eko; Bollen, Liesbeth J M; Madjid, Nurholis; Daili, Sjaiful Fahmi; Priohutomo, Sigit; Morineau, Guy; Nurjannah; Roselinda; Anartati, Atiek S; Purnamawati, Kemmy Ampera; Mamahit, Endang R Sedyaningsih

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and sexual risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Indonesia. This cross-sectional 2005 study involved 2500 FSWs in nine provinces in Indonesia. Informed consent was obtained; behavioral and clinical data were collected. Specimens were collected for STI testing, endocervical swabs were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PCR), vaginal smears were cultured to detect Trichomonas vaginalis and sera were tested for syphilis (RPR and TPHA). The prevalence of chlamydial infection was 43.5%, gonorrhea 28.6%, trichomoniasis 15.1%, and syphilis 8.7%; the prevalence of any STI was 64.0%. Inconsistent condom use, younger age, and higher number of clients were independent risk factors for the presence of gonorrhea/chlamydia. Inconsistent condom use was common (73.2%); starting sex work at younger age, and higher number of clients were independent risk factors. Vaginal douching was reported by 89.6% of FSWs; no association with gonorrhea/chlamydial infection was found. This study identified a high STI prevalence and low consistent condom use among FSWs in Indonesia. This will need to be addressed to prevent further spread of infections, including HIV. PMID:20578531

  6. Sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haseen, F; Chawdhury, F A H; Hossain, M E; Huq, M; Bhuiyan, M U; Imam, H; Rahman, D M M; Gazi, R; Khan, S I; Kelly, R; Ahmed, J; Rahman, M

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers (YCHBFSWs) in nine randomly selected hotels in Bangladesh to examine sexual-risk behaviour, condom use and determinants of condom use in last sex, knowledge of HIV, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and STI care-seeking behaviour. A prestructured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical information; urine specimens (before sex) and blood were collected for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) infection. One thousand and thirteen participants were enroled in the study. Approximately half of them reported visiting female sex workers (FSWs) at least once a month and 25% visited FSWs at least once a week. Only 12% of participants reported regular condom use. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis and HSV2 was 2.2%, 3.9%, 7.2%, 2.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Only 15.3% of the YCHBFSW sought STI care in the past year. Negotiation of condom use with FSWs was the main determinant (odds ratio = 17.95) for condom use at last sex. Male clients of FSWs, including YCHBFSW, are an important bridge population for HIV transmission in Bangladesh and HIV interventions should be designed and implemented for them. PMID:22930291

  7. Biological Markers of Sexual Activity: Tools for Improving Measurement in HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Maria F.; Steiner, Markus J.; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Warner, Lee; Jamieson, Denise J.; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Research on interventions to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is heavily influenced by participant reporting of sexual behavior, despite uncertainty about its validity. Exclusive reliance on participant self-report often is based, overtly or by implication, on 4 assumptions: (1) no feasible alternatives exist; (2) misreporting can be minimized to levels that can be disregarded; (3) misreporting tends to underreport sensitive behaviors; and (4) misreporting tends to be nondifferential with respect to the groups being compared. The objective of this review are to evaluate these assumptions, including a review of studies using semen biomarkers to evaluate the validity of self-reported data, and to make recommendations for applying biological markers of semen exposure detectable in women to further strengthen research on HIV/STI prevention. Increasing evidence shows that semen biomarkers provide an important means of assessing and augmenting the validity of studies on HIV/STI prevention. Additional biomarkers are needed to assess male exposure to vaginal sex and both male and female exposure to anal sex. Methods and study designs that incorporate biomarkers into studies collecting self-reported behavioral data should be considered where possible. PMID:23677018

  8. Risk perception of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage sexual behaviour: attitudes towards in a sample of Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Guidi, E; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Lupi, S; Gregorio, P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study is to determine awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their prevention in people aged 14-19 of Ferrara and province. The study was carried out using a self-administered standardised anonymous questionnaire in a sample of students attending to three upper secondary schools. Total number of collected questionnaires was 2695, the average age of interviewed was 17.1. Only 52.3% of respondents correctly recognized STD definition. Over 95% of subjects identified acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), while properly classification of Hepatitis B increased with age and lowest degree of knowledge concerned herpes infection and Candidiasis. Sex without condom (95.97%) and needle exchange in drugs abusers (94.9%) are considered high risk behaviours. 80.3% of interviewed, without distinction of school attendance, sex, and age considered lack of information as a situation of high risk. Condoms are not used by 46.4% of the subjects in case of sex with a regular partner and by 9.5% with casual partner. Majority of students declared condoms very safe in preventing STDs but an important percentage indicated also contraception methods; correct answers were higher among females and increased with age. Main sources of information were TV (21.6%), school (21.1%) and friends (14.8%) and a few sought information from family doctor (7.4%) and web (4.8%). The study suggests, as priority, to improve teenagers' awareness about risk behaviours and prevention of STDs. School can play an important role in reinforcement of sexual education programmes and directing young people to general practitioners and primary sexual health care services. PMID:24396993

  9. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts. PMID:3781857

  10. An Agent Based Model for Simulating the Spread of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Grant; Friesen, Marcia R; McLeod, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    This work uses agent-based modelling (ABM) to simulate sexually transmitted infection (STIs) spread within a population of 1000 agents over a 10-year period, as a preliminary investigation of the suitability of ABM methodology to simulate STI spread. The work contrasts compartmentalized mathematical models that fail to account for individual agents, and ABMs commonly applied to simulate the spread of respiratory infections. The model was developed in C++ using the Boost 1.47.0 libraries for the normal distribution and OpenGL for visualization. Sixteen agent parameters interact individually and in combination to govern agent profiles and behaviours relative to infection probabilities. The simulation results provide qualitative comparisons of STI mitigation strategies, including the impact of condom use, promiscuity, the form of the friend network, and mandatory STI testing. Individual and population-wide impacts were explored, with individual risk being impacted much more dramatically by population-level behaviour changes as compared to individual behaviour changes. PMID:23569641

  11. The epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in China: implications for control and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    China has experienced an increasing epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. High risk groups likely to be infected include female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients, men who have sex with men (MSM), drug users and migrant workers. Prevention can be achieved through education of the population, condom promotion, early detection of symptomatic and asymptomatic people, and effective diagnosis and treatment of these patients and their partners. This article aims to describe the profile of the epidemic in high-risk groups in China as well as to detail the contributing factors and the implications for control. Programmes for the control of STIs should be immediate priorities in China, and primary and secondary prevention strategies are vital to this process. PMID:21975019

  12. A history of sexually transmitted diseases in Thailand: policy and politics.

    PubMed

    Bamber, S D; Hewison, K J; Underwood, P J

    1993-04-01

    This paper provides a brief history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Thailand. The presentation is divided into three main sections: the period up to the 1930s; the period from the 1930s until the end of the early 1980s; and the period from the early 1980s until the present, the so-called 'AIDS Era'. The discussion in each of these sections focuses, as far as sources permit, on the epidemiological picture, as well as describing public and official responses to these diseases. In the final part of the paper consideration is given to these findings in relation to the present situation in Thailand regarding the HIV/AIDS epidemic. PMID:8509097

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases in tropical Africa. A review of the present situation.

    PubMed Central

    Osoba, A O

    1981-01-01

    At present very little information is available on the prevalence and pattern of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in many countries of tropical Africa. The available evidence does, however, suggest that these diseases are highly prevalent and that a considerable reservoir of infection exists among the female population. Gonorrhoea is probably the most commonly recognised STD in tropical Africa, frequently causing epididymitis and urethral stricture in men and salpingitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. The prevalence of a infectious syphilis is still high, particularly the late manifestations of the disease. The prevalence of the other STDs is also high. Thus, the problem is clearly very serious and the need for improving facilities for diagnosis and treatment urgent; some attempt also must be made to initiate control measures. PMID:6894260

  14. [Sexually transmitted diseases and other risks in the adult film industry].

    PubMed

    Kluger, N

    2014-02-01

    The adult film industry nowadays represents a legal multi-billion dollar business. The main health risks of adult performers are well known. They mainly include the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, herpes and papillomavirus. However, despite regular follow-up, the frequency of STD remains significant in this high-risk population since a large part of the industry continues to reject systematic use of condoms. Besides, performers are also exposed to other physical and mental health issues often not known to the public. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known about STD and other risks among the community of performers in the adult film industry. PMID:24507206

  15. First, Do No Harm: The US Sexually Transmitted Disease Experiments in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    García, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 1946, the United States government immorally and unethically—and, arguably, illegally—engaged in research experiments in which more than 5000 uninformed and unconsenting Guatemalan people were intentionally infected with bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases. Many have been left untreated to the present day. Although US President Barack Obama apologized in 2010, and although the US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues found the Guatemalan experiments morally wrong, little if anything has been done to compensate the victims and their families. We explore the backdrop for this unethical medical research and violation of human rights and call for steps the United States should take to provide relief and compensation to Guatemala and its people. PMID:24134370

  16. First, do no harm: the US sexually transmitted disease experiments in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Michael A; García, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Beginning in 1946, the United States government immorally and unethically-and, arguably, illegally-engaged in research experiments in which more than 5000 uninformed and unconsenting Guatemalan people were intentionally infected with bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases. Many have been left untreated to the present day. Although US President Barack Obama apologized in 2010, and although the US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues found the Guatemalan experiments morally wrong, little if anything has been done to compensate the victims and their families. We explore the backdrop for this unethical medical research and violation of human rights and call for steps the United States should take to provide relief and compensation to Guatemala and its people. PMID:24134370

  17. [Vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases/AIDS and use of psychoactive drugs by truck drivers].

    PubMed

    Masson, Valéria Aparecida; Monteiro, Maria Inês

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with the purpose of identify the demographic characteristics, health aspects and life style, vulnerability to Sexually Transmitted Diseases/AIDS amongst long distance truck drivers were applied to 50 drivers from supply center of Campinas (fruit, vegetable, product wholesale market). The outcomes showed that almost all drivers interviewed were men, the majority were married, had kids, low study level and fewer than 40 years old. 70% reported abuse psychoactive drugs. The majority was aware of the importance of using condoms with casual partners; 94% reported relationship with casual partners and just 6% never used condoms. Although the small sample analyzed, the results suggests that must be implemented health promotion actions and illness prevention public politics, including the development of customized educational interventions with in this professional group. PMID:20339759

  18. Opportunities and pitfalls of molecular testing for detecting sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Trembizki, Ella; Costa, Anna-Maria G; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Whiley, David M; Twin, Jimmy

    2015-04-01

    In the last 20 years, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have gradually replaced traditional methods for the detection of sexually transmitted infections. NAAT technology comes with some considerable benefits for diagnosis, including increased sensitivity, rapid result turnaround and suitability for high throughput screening of asymptomatic individuals using more-readily available specimens. However, the transition to NAAT has not come without its problems. False-negative and false-positive results have been reported owing to various technical issues. Furthermore, increased reliance on NAATs for diagnosis have created the need to develop NAAT-based methods to inform treatment, being an area that presents its own set of challenges. In this review article, we explore NAAT-based detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis. In doing so, we consider the benefits and limitations of NAAT-based technology and highlight areas where further research and development is in need. PMID:25714587

  19. Transmission of sexually transmitted disease in complex network of the Penna model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Li, Chunguang

    2007-04-01

    The Penna model is a computational model which can encompass the inheritance, mutation, evolution and ageing phenomena of population successfully. Some researchers considered social interactions in an asexual Penna model, got a complex network and found some interesting properties. We consider a sexual Penna model to study the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our model can also generate a complex network and we observed some properties in real networks, such as small-world and assortative mixing. In the real world, the fatality of STD is changing with the advancing of medicine and it can affect our life. In this paper, we uncover the effect induced by the fatality of STD. We found that fatality plays an important role in the transmission of STD because whether the STD will disappear or continue to exist depends on the fatality of STD. Also, the fatality of STD can affect the evolution of inherited diseases and average life span. Some properties found in the model should be useful for the prevention and control of STD.

  20. Sexually Transmitted Disease Partner Notification among African-American, Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Buchsbaum, Anna; Gallo, Maria F.; Whiteman, Maura K.; Cwiak, Carrie; Goedken, Peggy; Kraft, Joan Marie; Jamieson, Denise J.; Kottke, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI) among female, African-American adolescents. Methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. Results. At baseline, most participants (85.1%) preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6%) had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4%) notified their partner about their infection. Conclusion. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population. PMID:25609905

  1. Gender inequities in sexually transmitted infections: implications for HIV infection and control in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga

    2011-01-01

    Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multistage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For qualitative data, four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to collect information from stakeholders within the study population, while In-depth interview was employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the State. The data collected were subjected to basic demographic analytical techniques. Combination of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were employed. Information from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed and organized under broad headings that depict different aspects of the discussions. Majority of the respondents interviewed did not inform their partners about their infection in the study area. It was also discovered that stigmatization did not allow some women to disclose their status to their sexual partners. Some of the HIV-positive patients interviewed agreed that they did not attend the health facilities to treat the STI’s before they were finally confirmed positive. The study hypothesis revealed that communication between partners about STI’s was associated with an increase in risk reduction behaviour. The paper concluded that there is need for more information and education on communication about STI’s between the sexual partners; to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases within the nation. PMID:24470905

  2. IT TAKES TWO: PARTNER ATTRIBUTES ASSOCIATED WITH SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Brown, Jennifer L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Sales, Jessica M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify partner attributes associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and summarize implications for research and prevention. Design Systematic review. Methods We identified peer-reviewed studies published 1990–2010 which assessed ?1 partner attribute in relation to a biologically-confirmed STI among adolescents (15–24 years) by searching MEDLINE and included articles. Studies which included adolescents but >50% of the sample or with mean or median age ?25 years were excluded. Results Sixty-four studies met eligibility criteria; 59% were conducted in high-income countries; 80% were cross-sectional; 91% enrolled females and 42% males. There was no standard “partner” definition. Partner attributes assessed most frequently included: age, race/ethnicity, multiple sex partners and STI symptoms. Older partners were associated with prevalent STIs but largely unrelated to incidence. Black race was associated with STIs but not uniformly. Partners with multiple partners and STI symptoms appear to be associated with STIs predominantly among females. Although significant associations were reported, weaker evidence exists for: other partner sociodemographics; sexual and other behaviors (sexual concurrency, sex worker, intimate partner violence, substance use, travel) and STI history. There were no apparent differences by STI. Conclusions Partner attributes are independently associated with STIs among male and female adolescents worldwide. These findings reinforce the importance of assessing partner attributes when determining STI risk. Prevention efforts should continue to promote and address barriers to condom use. Increased efforts are needed to screen and treat STIs and reduce risky behavior among men. A standard “partner” definition would facilitate interpretation of findings in future studies. PMID:23588126

  3. Incident sexually transmitted infection as a biomarker for high risk sexual behavior following diagnosis with acute HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Anna B.; Crooks, Amanda M.; Chin, Tammy; Kuruc, JoAnn D.; McGee, Kara S.; Eron, Joseph J.; Hicks, Charles B.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Gay, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis following diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI) indicates ongoing high-risk sexual behavior and possible risk of HIV transmission. We assessed predictors of STI acquisition and the effect of time since care entry on STI incidence in AHI patients in care and receiving consistent risk-reduction messaging. Methods Data on incident gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, primary/secondary syphilis, demographic, and clinical risk factors were abstracted from medical charts for patients diagnosed with AHI and engaged in care. Poisson regression models using generalized estimating equations were fit to estimate incidence rates (IR), incidence rate ratios (IRR), and robust 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 185 AHI patients, 26 (14%) were diagnosed with ?1 incident STI over 709.4 person-years; 46 STIs were diagnosed during follow-up (IR=6.8/100 person-years). The median time from HIV care entry to first STI diagnosis was 609 days (range=168–1681). Men who have sex with men (MSM) (p=0.03), a shorter time between presentation to medical care and AHI diagnosis (p=0.06), and STI diagnosis prior to AHI diagnosis (p=0.0003) were predictors of incident STI. STI IR >1 year after entering care was double that of patients in care ?1 year (IRR=2.0 95% CI 0.8–4.9). HIV viral load was above the limits of detection within 1 month of 11 STI diagnoses in 6 patients (23.1%) (median=15,898 copies/mL, range=244–152,000 copies/mL). Conclusions Despite regular HIV care, STI incidence was high among this primarily young, MSM AHI cohort. Early antiretroviral initiation may decrease HIV transmission given ongoing risk behaviors despite risk-reduction messaging. PMID:24922104

  4. When no-one wants to talk: personal reflections on engaging rural communities in a study about sexually transmitted infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Fisher

    This paper shares some insights gained from undertaking a mixed methods study examining sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a rural community. The study specifically aimed to gain an understanding of syphilis notifications in relation to rurality and disadvantage as well as how an individual's construction of rurality shaped the way in which he or she accessed community-based health services for

  5. Social marketing sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention: a consumer-centered approach to achieving behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lamptey, P R; Price, J E

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that international sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention efforts might be enhanced by the application of social marketing principles. It first outlines the conceptual basis of social marketing approaches to health behaviour change generally and then explores key issues and opportunities for using these principles to improve current STD/HIV prevention efforts. PMID:9792356

  6. Vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in three provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Ning; Yue, Xiaoli; Gong, Xiangdong

    2015-05-01

    Though vaginal douching is a common practice among female sex workers that could increase the risk of HIV and adverse reproductive health outcomes, it has drawn limited attention. From November 2010 to January 2011, a convenience sample of female sex workers was recruited in three cities in China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather socio-demographic and behavioural information. Blood samples were collected for syphilis serological tests. Endo-cervical swabs were collected and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with vaginal douching and the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infection. A total of 1032 eligible female sex workers were enrolled. The overall prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and vaginal douching with disinfectant were 23.4% and 23.1%, respectively. Factors independently associated with douching practice included study sites, venue types, ethnicity, having regular partner and sexually transmitted infection history. No significant association was found between vaginal douching and current sexually transmitted infection. Vaginal douching with disinfectant after sex with clients seemed to be a prevalent practice among female sex workers in China. Prevention programmes targeting female sex workers should incorporate components about the adverse health outcomes associated with vaginal douching. PMID:25015933

  7. Assessment of Coinfection of Sexually Transmitted Pathogen Microbes by Use of the Anyplex II STI-7 Molecular Kit.

    PubMed

    Berçot, B; Amarsy, R; Goubard, A; Aparicio, C; Loeung, H U; Segouin, C; Gueret, D; Jacquier, H; Meunier, F; Mougari, F; Cambau, E

    2015-03-01

    Anyplex STI-7 is a new molecular kit that detects seven sexually transmitted pathogens. Among 202 subjects screened for genital infection, 143 (70.4%) were diagnosed with at least one pathogen, in concordance with reference methods. In addition, the Anyplex STI-7 demonstrated coinfections, such as that with Ureaplasma parvum and Chlamydia trachomatis, in young women. PMID:25540390

  8. Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Adults: Prevalence, Perceived Risk, and Risk-Taking Behaviors. Research Brief. Publication #2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Schelar, Erin; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States is among the highest in the western industrialized world. Nearly 19 million new STDs are diagnosed each year, and more than 65 million Americans live with an incurable STD, such as herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV). Young people, in particular, are at a heightened risk…

  9. Sexually Transmitted Infections and the Use of Condoms in Biology Textbooks. A Comparative Analysis across Sixteen Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Sandie; Clement, Pierre; Carvalho, Graca; Gilda, Alves; Berger, Dominique; Thiaw, Seyni Mame; Sabah, Selmaoui; Salaheddine, Khzami; Skujiene, Grita; Abdelli, Sami; Mondher, Abrougui; Calado, Florbela; Bogner, Franz; Assaad, Yammine

    2008-01-01

    Our study focused on two topics, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and their control using condoms. For this, we analysed and compared 42 school textbooks from 16 countries on the general topic "Human Reproduction and Sex Education" using a specific grid designed by the BIOHEAD-Citizen project. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was a…

  10. Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual Risk Behaviors and the Risk of Heterosexual Spread of HIV among and beyond IDUs in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Abdala; T. V. Krasnoselskikh; A. J. Durante; M. Y. Timofeeva; S. V. Verevochkin; A. P. Kozlov

    2008-01-01

    Aims: This study investigates whether sexual transmitted behaviors and infections (STIs) among injection drug users (IDUs) may promote the spread of HIV among and beyond IDUs in Russia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of behavior and tested for STIs in a convenience sample of 159 IDUs in St. Petersburg, Russia. Results: The median age was 27 and 57% were

  11. Relative Efficacy of a Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infection, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention--Focused Intervention on Changing Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at…

  12. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  13. Community based study of sexually transmitted diseases in rural women in the highlands of Papua New Guinea: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Passey, M.; Mgone, C. S.; Lupiwa, S.; Suve, N.; Tiwara, S.; Lupiwa, T.; Clegg, A.; Alpers, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and determine their risk factors/markers among a rural population of women in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. METHODS: Community based random cluster sample of women of reproductive age were interviewed and examined and had specimens collected for laboratory confirmation of chlamydial and trichomonal infection, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and bacterial vaginosis. RESULTS: Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 26%, Trichomonas vaginalis in 46%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 1%, syphilis in 4%, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (diagnosed clinically) in 14%, and bacterial vaginosis in 9% of 201 women. 59% of the women had at least one STD. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis taking the clustered sampling into account, independent risk factors for chlamydial infection were age < or = 25 years, < four living children, visualization of yellow mucopurulent endocervical secretions on a white swab, and bacterial vaginosis. Being married to a man who did not have other wives was protective. For trichomonal infection, independent risk factors were having no formal education, infertility, more than one sexual partner in the previous 12 months, treatment for genital complaints in the previous 3 months, abnormal vaginal discharge detected on examination, and chlamydial infection. Similar levels of trichomonal infection were found in all age groups. Among married women, rates of infection correlated with their perception of their husband having had other sexual partners in the previous 3 months, and this relationship was significant for chlamydial infection among women over 25. CONCLUSION: STDs are a major problem in this population, with the risk factors varying by outcome. Current treatment regimens are inappropriate given the high prevalence of trichomonal infection, and the available services are inadequate. Effective interventions are required urgently to reduce this burden and to prevent the rapid transmission of HIV. ??? PMID:9634324

  14. Regulation of Mucosal Immunity in the Female Reproductive Tract: The Role of Sex Hormones in Immune Protection Against Sexually Transmitted Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Wira, Charles R.; Fahey, John V.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey V.

    2015-01-01

    The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the FRT. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack viral, bacterial, and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus, has evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol (E2) and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate and adaptive immune systems are under hormonal control, that protection varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle and as such, is dampened during the secretory stage of the cycle to optimize conditions for fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets. PMID:24734774

  15. Contexts of risk and networks of protection: NYC West Indian immigrants' perceptions of migration and vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Susie; Higgins, Jenny A; Beckford-Jarrett, Sharlene T; Augenbraun, Michael; Bylander, Kimberly E; Mantell, Joanne E; Wilson, Tracey E

    2011-05-01

    To generate insights into how migration shapes sexual risk and protection, we interviewed 36 female and 20 male West Indian immigrants attending a public sexually transmitted disease clinic in Brooklyn, New York, between 2004 and 2005. Migration theory suggests that shifts in sexual partnership patterns, bi-directional travel and changes in sexual norms may alter risk. We found evidence of sexual mixing across ethnic groups: a large proportion of participants' partners were not born in the West Indies, despite what is expected among first generation immigrants. Recent travel 'home', another potential source of risk, was uncommon. In open-ended interviews, two themes around sexual and social networks emerged. First, immigrants believed that access to wider, more anonymous sexual networks in New York City (NYC) and the weakening of social controls that limit multiple partnerships (especially for women) promoted greater risk. Second, immigrants experienced greater opportunities for protection in NYC, both through exposure to safer sex messages and availability of condoms. Reported changes in their own condom use, however, were not attributed to migration. West Indian immigrants' risk in NYC may be driven by access to wider sexual networks but failure to alter reliance on 'networks of knowledge' for protection. PMID:21452091

  16. High-Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among U.S. Active Duty Servicewomen and Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Mattocks, Kristin M.; Sadler, Anne G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The number of women who are active duty service members or veterans of the U.S. military is increasing. Studies among young, unmarried, active duty servicewomen who are sexually active indicate a high prevalence of risky sexual behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners, and binge drinking, that lead to unintended and unsafe sex. These high-risk sexual practices likely contribute to chlamydia infection rates that are higher than the rates in the U.S. general population. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical dysplasia may also be higher among young, active duty servicewomen. Little is known about the sexual practices and rates of sexually transmitted infections among older servicewomen and women veterans; however, women veterans with a history of sexual assault may be at high risk for HPV infection and cervical dysplasia. To address the reproductive health needs of military women, investigations into the prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors and consequent infection among older servicewomen and women veterans are needed. Direct comparison of military and civilian women is needed to determine if servicewomen are a truly high-risk group. Additionally, subgroups of military women at greatest risk for these adverse reproductive health outcomes need to be identified. PMID:22994983

  17. Treatment-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted infections in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Rosenheck, Rachel; Ngilangwa, David; Manongi, Rachael; Kapiga, Saidi

    2010-11-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 340 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur every year, while 33 million individuals are estimated to be living with HIV. The AIDS and STI epidemics are not independent with untreated STIs increasing HIV acquisition and transmission. Female sex workers have increased prevalence of untreated STIs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. This paper aims to investigate why some female sex workers who experience symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers seek treatment while others do not. Data were collected from a cohort study conducted between 2002 and 2005 among female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Study subjects were recruited from 7 out of 15 administrative wards in Moshi as part of the Moshi's Women's Health Project. Data were restricted to women self-reporting symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers (n=459) within the past year. Logistic regression was performed with SAS 9.1. Qualitative analysis was performed using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions among a convenience sample (n=42) of women already enrolled in the study. All interviews and focus group discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed, and data were analyzed thematically. Sixty-four percent of the sample sought treatment for either ailment. Multivariate analysis identified relationship to man of last sexual intercourse, ever experiencing a pregnancy, and age as significant predictors to seeking treatment. Four salient themes of threats to fertility, stigma correlated with prostitution, discomfort with the physical exam, and perceived views of clients were revealed as predictors to why women seek or intentionally ignore symptoms. Understanding the motivations and barriers for seeking treatment of STIs has far ranging public health implications that could help curtail the unnecessary associated morbidity and mortality and curtail the transmission of HIV. PMID:20635239

  18. Community-based trials of sexually transmitted disease treatment: repercussions for epidemiology and HIV prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific basis for trials exploring the relation between sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Mwanza in the United Republic of Tanzania and Rakai and Masaka in the Republic of Uganda. The importance of a study's location and explanations for the divergent results of these trials are discussed. The modest effect on STDs seen in the trial of syndromic management in Mwanza, in contrast to the 38% reduction in the incidence of HIV, casts doubt on the underlying hypothesis that treating STDs alone slows the transmission of HIV-1. According to the Piot-Fransen model, the trial in Rakai, which offered treatment of STDs to all subjects irrespective of symptoms ("mass" treatment), should have been more effective both in reducing the prevalence of STDs and the incidence of HIV. However, the Rakai trial was stopped because there was no difference in the incidence of HIV between the intervention and control arms. If Mwanza is seen as the trial that needs explaining, another paradigm becomes relevant. In rural East Africa, where all trials have been conducted, networks of concurrent sexual partnerships are a source of infection with both STDs and HIV. Because of their shorter latency periods, STDs may prompt attendance at a clinic before the early signs of HIV-1 infection appear. Part of the management of STDs is to recommend abstinence or the consistent use of condoms until treatment is completed. This recommendation may cover the earliest period of viraemia during primary HIV-1 infection. This paradigm appears to explain the results from Mwanza and Rakai, emphasizing behavioural aspects of syndromic management. PMID:11217667

  19. Adolescent criminal justice involvement and adulthood sexually transmitted infection in a nationally representative US sample.

    PubMed

    Khan, Maria R; Rosen, David L; Epperson, Matthew W; Goldweber, Asha; Hemberg, Jordana L; Richardson, Joseph; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman

    2013-08-01

    Criminal justice involvement (CJI) disrupts social and sexual networks, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) thrive on network disruption. Adolescent CJI may be a particularly important determinant of STI because experiences during adolescence influence risk trajectories into adulthood. We used Wave III (2001-2002: young adulthood) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N?=?14,322) to estimate associations between history of adolescent (younger than 18 years) CJI and adult STI risk. Respondents who reported a history of repeat arrest in adolescence, adolescent conviction, and arrest both as an adolescent and an adult (persistent arrest) had between two to seven times the odds of STI (biologically confirmed infection with chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomoniasis) in adulthood and between two to three times the odds of multiple partnerships and inconsistent condom use in the past year in adulthood. In analyses adjusting for sociodemographic and behavioral factors, history of having six or more adolescent arrests was associated with more than five times the odds of STI (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 5.44, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.74-17.1). Both adolescent conviction and persistent CJI appeared to remain independent correlates of STI (conviction: AOR 1.90, 95 % CI 1.02-3.55; persistent CJI: AOR 1.60, 95 % CI 0.99-2.57). Adolescents who have repeat arrests, juvenile convictions, and persist as offenders into adulthood constitute priority populations for STI treatment and prevention. The disruptive effect of adolescent CJI may contribute to a trajectory associated with STI in adulthood. PMID:22815054

  20. Parasitic aphrodisiacs: manipulation of the hosts' behavioral defenses by sexually transmitted parasites.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Animals have a number of behavioral defenses against infection. For example, they typically avoid sick conspecifics, especially during mating. Most animals also alter their behavior after infection and thereby promote recovery (i.e., sickness behavior). For example, sick animals typically reduce the performance of energetically demanding behaviors, such as sexual behavior. Finally, some animals can increase their reproductive output when they face a life-threatening immune challenge (i.e., terminal reproductive investment). All of these behavioral responses probably rely on immune/neural communication signals for their initiation. Unfortunately, this communication channel is prone to manipulation by parasites. In the case of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), these parasites/pathogens must subvert some of these behavioral defenses for successful transmission. There is evidence that STIs suppress systemic signals of immune activation (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines). This manipulation is probably important for the suppression of sickness behavior and other behavioral defenses, as well as for the prevention of attack by the host's immune system. For example, the cricket, Gryllus texensis, is infected with an STI, the iridovirus IIV-6/CrIV. The virus attacks the immune system, which suffers a dramatic decline in its ability to make proteins important for immune function. This attack also hampers the ability of the immune system to activate sickness behavior. Infected crickets cannot express sickness behavior, even when challenged with heat-killed bacteria. Understanding how STIs suppress sickness behavior in humans and other animals will significantly advance the field of psychoneuroimmunology and could also provide practical benefits. PMID:24813461

  1. Sexual history taking in general practice: managing sexually transmitted infections for female sex workers by doctors and assistant doctors in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Do, Khoi; Minichiello, Victor; Hussain, Rafat; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Vietnam have been increasing. Control of STIs among female sex workers (FSWs) is important in controlling the epidemic. Effective STI control requires that physicians are skilful in taking sexual history for FSW patients. Three hundred and seventy-one physicians responded to a survey conducted in three provinces in Vietnam. The respondents were asked whether they asked FSW patients about their sexual history and information asked during sexual history taking. The respondents were also asked about their barriers for taking sexual history. Over one-fourth (27%) respondents always, over half (54%) respondents sometimes and 19% respondents never obtained a sexual history from FSW patients. Multivariable analysis revealed that factors associated with always taking a sexual history were being doctor, training in STIs and working at provincial level facilities. Physician's discomfort was found to be inversely associated with training on communication with patients, seeing 15 or fewer patients a week, working at provincial level facilities. Issues in sexual history taking among FSW patients in general practice in Vietnam were identified. These issues can help STI control for FSW patients and need due attention in order to improve STI management in Vietnam. PMID:24676130

  2. Transformation of Sexually Transmitted Infection-Causing Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis Using Blasticidin for Selection

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Honglei; Gong, Siqi; Tian, Yingxin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Brunham, Robert; Zhong, Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using ?-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a ?-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI)-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, in the current study, we modified the pGFP::SW2 plasmid by fusing a blasticidin S deaminase gene to the GFP gene to establish blasticidin resistance as a selectable marker and replacing the ?-lactamase gene with the Sh ble gene to eliminate the penicillin resistance. The new vector termed pGFPBSD/Z::SW2 was used for transforming plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar D organisms. Using blasticidin for selection, stable transformants were obtained. The GFP-BSD fusion protein was detected in cultures infected with the pGFPBSD/Z::SW2-trasnformed serovar D organisms. The transformation restored the plasmid property to the plasmid-free serovar D organisms. Thus, we have successfully modified the pGFP::SW2 transformation system for studying the biology and pathogenesis of other STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. PMID:24303023

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases and enteric infections in the male homosexual population.

    PubMed

    Law, C

    1990-06-01

    There are certain special considerations in the management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in homosexual men, with the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on the presentation, diagnosis, and management of certain STDs just becoming apparent recently. Rectal and pharyngeal gonorrhea are usually asymptomatic and also more difficult to treat. The serological diagnosis of syphillis may be unreliable in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, and HIV-seropositive homosexual men may be at risk of accelerated progression to neurosyphilis, despite treatment with benzathine penicillin. Chlamydia trachomatis is infrequently detected in patients with proctitis so therapy should be directed only at culture-positive cases. Herpes simplex is usually severe and persistent in immunosuppressed patients and may be further complicated by the development of acyclovir-resistance. Concurrent HIV infection may be associated with increased infectivity of homosexual chronic hepatitis B carriers, but milder hepatic injury and reduced efficacy of hepatitis B vaccines and immodulatory or antiviral agents. Although there is some concern regarding the possibility of increased risk of anal cancer in homosexual men, conservative management of human papilloma-virus-associated conditions is advised. The carriage of Entamoeba histolytica in this group is rarely associated with any deleterious effects and treatment should be directed only at symptomatic patients in whom other enteric pathogens have been excluded. PMID:2202414

  4. Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, D.; Abdool Karim, S. S.; Harrison, A.; Lurie, M.; Colvin, M.; Connolly, C.; Sturm, A. W.

    1999-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored. PMID:10063657

  5. Gender and racial differences in risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases among justice-involved youth.

    PubMed

    Dembo, Richard; Childs, Kristina; Belenko, Steven; Schmeidler, James; Wareham, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Gender and racial differences in infection rates for chlamydia and gonorrhea have been reported within community-based populations, but little is known of such differences within juvenile offending populations. Moreover, while research has demonstrated that certain individual-level and community-level factors affect risky behaviors associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD), less is known about how multi-level factors affect STD infection, particularly among delinquent populations. The present study investigated gender and racial differences in STD infection among a sample of 924 juvenile offenders. Generalized linear model regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of individual-level factors such as age, offense history, and substance use and community-level factors such as concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity, and family disruption on STD status. Results revealed significant racial and STD status differences across gender, as well as interaction effects for race and STD status for males only. Gender differences in individual-level and community-level predictors were also found. Implications of these findings for future research and public health policy are discussed. PMID:20700475

  6. Cervical cancer screening in a sexually transmitted disease clinic: screening adoption experiences from a midwestern clinic.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Beth E; Sayegh, M Aaron; Davis, Alissa; Arno, Janet N; Zimet, Gregory D; LeMonte, Ann M; Williams, James A; Barclay, Lynn; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Objectives. We examined whether a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic could reach women who had not received a Papanicolau (Pap) test in the past 3 years. We also explored staff attitudes and implementation of cervical cancer screening. Methods. Women (n?=?123) aged 30 to 50 years were offered cervical cancer screening in an Indiana STD clinic. We measured effectiveness by the patients' self-reported last Pap test. We explored adoption of screening through focus groups with 34 staff members by documenting their attitudes about cervical cancer screening and screening strategy adaptation. We also documented recruitment and screening implementation. Results. Almost half (47.9%) of participants reported a last Pap test 3 or more years previously; 30% had reported a last Pap more than 5 years ago, and 11.4% had a high-risk test outcome that required referral to colposcopy. Staff supported screening because of mission alignment and perceived patient benefit. Screening adaptations included eligibility, results provision, and follow-up. Conclusions. Cervical cancer screening was possible and potentially beneficial in STD clinics. Future effectiveness-implementation studies should expand to include all female patients, and should examine the degree to which adaptation of selected adoption frameworks is feasible. PMID:25689199

  7. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Risk Factors Among Truck Stand Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Rahman, Motiur; Gausia, Kaniz; Yunus, Md; Islam, Nazrul; Chaudhury, Parwez; Monira, Shirajum; Funkhouser, Ellen; Vermund, Sten H.; Killewo, Japhet

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of selected sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and their risk factors among workers in and near a truck stand in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Study Design A random sample of 696 men and 206 women were recruited into a cross-sectional study using a census that enumerated transport agents, motor mechanics, laborers, and vendors in Tejgaon truck stand. Results The prevalence rates of syphilis (rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination), gonorrhea (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]), and chlamydial infections (PCR) among men were 4.1%, 7.7%, and 2.3%, respectively, and among women were 2.9%, 8.3%, and 5.2%. Multivariable analysis revealed that having ?2 sex partners in the last month, never using a condom with sex workers, and ever injecting narcotics were significant predictors of STI among men. Being never married, working as a laborer, older age, and living within the truck stand were significant predictors of practicing high-risk behaviors among men, but none predicted infection with STIs. Conclusions Both behavioral and STI data suggest that truck stand workers should be included in the STI/HIV intervention programs. PMID:16837827

  8. In sickness and in health: same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. PMID:22789462

  9. Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1) willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2) the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3) client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4) infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5) PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management. PMID:20082718

  10. Sexually transmitted infections and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Caini, Saverio; Gandini, Sara; Dudas, Maria; Bremer, Viviane; Severi, Ettore; Gherasim, Alin

    2014-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most incident cancer and the sixth cause of death by cancer in men worldwide. Despite extensive research efforts, no modifiable risk factors have been consistently identified for PC risk. A number of studies have focused on possible relationships between sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and PC. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between infection caused by Neisseria gonorrheae, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Herpes Simplex Virus types 1 and 2, Human Herpes Virus 8 and Cytomegalovirus, and PC. We conducted a comprehensive, systematic bibliographic search of medical literature to identify relevant studies. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between each STI and PC through random effect models. Subgroup, meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were carried out to detect between-study heterogeneity and bias. We included 47 studies published between 1971 and 2011. Men who reported having ever had any STI in lifetime had an increased PC (SRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.19-1.92). We found a significantly increased PC risk in men having had gonorrhoea (SRR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37). No other single STI was significantly associated with PC. Due to high incidence of both STIs and PC worldwide, prevention of STIs may help preventing a considerable number of PC cases. PMID:24986642

  11. Response of religious groups to HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Genrich, Gillian L; Brathwaite, Brader A

    2005-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA). Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002–2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support group located in Port of Spain based upon their perceived willingness to discuss religious affiliation and describe how living with a terminal infection has affected their spiritual lives. The interviewer, a United States Fulbright Scholar, explained the nature and purpose of the study to all participants. Relevant ethical procedures associated with the collection of interview data were adopted: interviews were conducted in a non-coercive manner and confidentiality was assured. All participants provided verbal consent, and agreed to be interviewed without financial or other incentive. Ethics approval was granted on behalf of the Caribbean Conference of Churches Ethics Committee. Interview questions followed a guideline, and employed an open-ended format to facilitate discussion. All interviews were recorded and transcribed by the interviewer. Results Religious representatives' opinions were grouped into the following categories: rationale for the spread of HIV/AIDS, abstinence, condom use, sexuality and homosexuality, compassion, experiences with PWHA, recommendations and current approach to addressing HIV/AIDS in congregations. Religious representatives expressed a measure of acceptance of HIV/AIDS and overwhelmingly upheld compassion for PWHA. Some statements, however, suggested that HIV/AIDS stigma pervades Trinidad's religious organizations. For many representatives, HIV/AIDS was associated with a promiscuous lifestyle and/or homosexuality. Representatives had varying levels of interaction with PWHA, but personal experiences were positively associated with current involvement in HIV/AIDS initiatives. All 4 PWHA interviewed identified themselves as belonging to Christian denominations. Three out of the 4 PWHA described discriminatory experiences with pastors or congregation members during gatherings for religious services. Nonetheless, PWHA expressed an important role for faith and religion in coping with HIV. Conclusion Religious groups in Trinidad are being challenged to promote a clear and consistent response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic; a response that may reflect personal experien

  12. Sexually transmitted disease among married Zambian women: the role of male and female sexual behaviour in prevention and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C S Morrison; M R Sunkutu; E Musaba; L H Glover

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few studies have evaluated the relation between male and female sexual behaviour and STD among married African women. The objectives of this study were to identify male and female sexual behaviour associated with female STD, and to explore whether incorporating male and female sexual behaviour and male symptoms can improve algorithms for STD management in married African women. METHODS:

  13. “Street Medicine”: Collaborating With a Faith-Based Organization to Screen At-Risk Youths for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Nicholas J.; Gallaread, Alonzo; Siller, Jacqueline; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    Chlamydia and gonorrhea rates among African American youths in San Francisco are far higher than those among young people of the city’s other racial and ethnic groups. A geographically targeted sexually transmitted disease education and screening intervention performed in collaboration with a local faith-based organization was able to screen hundreds of at-risk youths. The screened individuals included friends and sex partners from an extensive social-sexual network that transcended the boundaries of the target population. The intervention also provided an excellent opportunity to practice “street medicine,” in which all screening and treatment was effectively conducted in the field. PMID:15226122

  14. Guidelines for the Use of Molecular Biological Methods to Detect Sexually Transmitted Pathogens in Cases of Suspected Sexual Abuse in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child, in addition to medical implications, can have serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possible abuse. The significance of the identification of a sexually transmitted agent in such children as evidence of possible child sexual abuse varies by pathogen. While culture has historically been used for the detection of STIs in cases of suspected abuse in children, the increasing use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in adults and the increasing proliferation of second-generation tests with better sensitivity and specificity has made inroads into the use of such tests in children, especially for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Acceptance by the medicolegal system for sexual abuse cases is still controversial and more test cases will be necessary before definitive use becomes standard practice. In addition, if these assays ever become legally admissible in court, there will be recommendations that more than one NAAT assay be used in order to assure confirmation of the diagnostic result. PMID:22782828

  15. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-05-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754

  16. Does physician bias affect the quality of care they deliver? Evidence in the care of sexually transmitted infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Khan; D Plummer; R Hussain; V Minichiello

    2008-01-01

    Background:Primary care providers are well placed to control the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI); however, care is likely to be influenced by their attitudes and beliefs. The present study investigates the relationship between general practitioner’s (GP) self-reported level of comfort in dealing with patients with STI and the care they deliver.Methods:A postal survey was conducted using a stratified random

  17. Impact of improved treatment of sexually transmitted diseases on HIV infection in rural Tanzania: randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Grosskurth; J. Todd; E. Mwijarubi; P. Mayaud; A. Nicoll; G. ka-Gina; J. Newell; D. Mabey; R. Hayes; F. Mosha; K. Senkoro; J. Changalucha; A. Klokke; K. Mugeye

    1995-01-01

    SummaryA randomised trial was done to evaluate the impact of improved sexually transmitted disease (STD) case management at primary health care level on the incidence of HIV infection in the rural Mwanza region of Tanzania. HIV incidence was compared in six intervention communities and six pair-matched comparison communities. A random cohort of about 1000 adults aged 15-54 years from each

  18. Rapid ultrasonic isothermal amplification of DNA with multiplexed melting analysis – applications in the clinical diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gaolian; Gunson, Rory N; Cooper, Jonathan M; Reboud, Julien

    2015-02-14

    We describe a nucleic acid testing (NAT) platform for infectious disease diagnostics at the point-of-care, using surface acoustic waves (SAW) to perform a multiplexed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test for sexually transmitted diseases. The ultrasonic actuation not only enables faster NAT reactions but also provides a route towards integrating low-cost, low-power molecular diagnostics into disposable sensors. PMID:25569801

  19. Relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexually transmitted diseases in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Blashill, Aaron J.; Wall, Melanie M.; Balan, Ivan C.; Wang, Shuai; Lejuez, C. W.; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a significant public health concern. Numerous internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders have been found to be related to STD risk. However, to date, no studies have examined several psychiatric disorders simultaneously to account for STD risk. Given that psychiatric disorders often co-occur and can be explained by a limited number of latent dimensions of psychopathology, it is important to examine whether the relationship between STDs and psychiatric disorders is best explained by broad dimensions of psychopathology. Methods The current study examined the associations between a range of Axis I and II psychiatric disorders at baseline and rates of STDs at a three-year follow up in a large, nationally representative sample of adults in the United States (n = 34,434). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to fit three factors, two internalizing and one externalizing. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the relationships between and among the factors and STD status and to test for mediation. Results In bivariate analyses, most Axis I and II disorders were associated with STD diagnosis at Wave 2, whereas the results of the structural model showed that only the externalizing factor was significantly associated with STD diagnosis at Wave 2. Further, the externalizing factor mediated the relationship between one of the internalizing factors and STD diagnosis. Conclusion Findings suggest the unique contribution of externalizing psychopathology to STD risk and the importance of examining latent dimensions of disorders when understanding this relationship between psychiatric disorders and STDs. PMID:24630184

  20. Syphilis seroprevalence among patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Maity, Susmita; Bhunia, Somesh Chandra; Biswas, Subrata; Saha, Malay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and is a major public health concern in India. The trend of syphilis infection was studied in attendees aged 15-49 years in an STD clinic in West Bengal from 2004 to 2008. Blood samples were collected from 250 consecutive patients per year (a total of 1,250 samples over 5 years); the patients attended the STD clinic for 12 weeks (October-December) each year, and the serostatus of syphilis was determined qualitatively with the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test using serum samples. A quantitative VDRL test was then performed at a dilution of 1:8 using serum samples that yielded positive results in the qualitative VDRL test. Finally, serum samples that yielded positive results in the quantitative VDRL test were also subjected to the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). The serum samples that yielded positive results in both the tests were considered syphilis seropositive. All seropositive serum samples from the quantitative VDRL test were also found to be positive results in TPHA. The total seropositivity for syphilis in the STD patients was 8.2% (women, 8.9%; men, 7.7%). Review of the data from 5 consecutive years showed a statistically significant (?(2) = 9.968, df = 4, P < 0.05) decrease in syphilis positivity from 10.8% (2004) to 3.6% (2008). The results of the study also revealed that the highest seroprevalence was in the 20-24 age group (16.3%), and the lowest seroprevalence was in the 45-49 age group (3.3%). The study indicates the effectiveness of current interventions with a need to focus further on reducing the burden in the 20-24 age group. PMID:22116330

  1. The slippery slope: Lubricant Use and Rectal Sexually Transmitted Infections: a newly identified risk

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Pamina M.; Weiss, Robert E.; Fuchs, Edward; Jeffries, Robin A.; Hezerah, Marjan; Brown, Stephen; Voskanian, Alen; Robbie, Edward; Anton, Peter; Cranston, Ross D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Use of lubricant products is extremely common during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) yet has not been assessed as a risk for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods From 2006–2008 a rectal health and behavior study was conducted in Baltimore and Los Angeles as part of the UCLA Microbicide Development Program (NIAID IPCP# #0606414). Participants completed questionnaires and rectal swabs were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis with the Aptima Combo 2 assay and blood was tested for syphilis (for RPR and TPHA with titer) and HIV. Of those reporting lubricant use and RAI, STI results were available for 380 participants. Univariate and multivariate regressions assessed associations of lubricant use in the past month during RAI with prevalent STIs. Results Consistent lubricant use during RAI in the past month was reported by 36% (137/380) of participants. Consistent past month lubricant users had a higher prevalence of STI than inconsistent users (9.5% vs. 2.9%; p=0.006). In a multivariable logistic regression model testing positive for STI was associated with consistent use of lubricant during RAI in the past month (adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 2.98 (95%CI 1.09, 8.15) after controlling for age, gender, study location, HIV status, and numbers of RAI partners in the past month. Conclusions Findings suggest some lubricant products may increase vulnerability to STIs. Because of wide use of lubricants and their potential as carrier vehicles for microbicides, further research is essential to clarify if lubricant use poses a public health risk. PMID:22183849

  2. HIV association with conventional STDS (sexual transmitted diseases) in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Otuonye, N M; Olukoya, D K; Odunukwe, N N; Idigbe, E O; Udeaja, M N; Bamidele, M; Onyewuchie, J I; Oparaugu, C T; Ayelari, O S; Oyekunle, B

    2002-01-01

    The study examined a possible association between HIV infection and conventional sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) in a population of 700 patients seen in some hospitals and clinics in Lagos State between November 1997 and December 1999. The patients were drawn mainly from LUTH and Jolad hospitals in Lagos State. In these hospitals, patients who presented with symptoms of STDS were screened clinically and microbiologically for agents of STDS and HIV antibodies. Screening was carried out using conventional methods. A total of 150 (21.5%) were found positive for various STDS while 550 (78.5%) were negative Also, 109 (15.8%) were sero-positive for HIV while 591 (84.4%) were sero-negative. The frequency of STDS diagnosed were, Treponema pallidum, 38(25.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoea 3(2.0%), Chlamydia trachomatis 26(17.3), Hepatitis B virus 60(40.0%) Staphylococcus aureaus, 20 (13.3%) and Candida albicans 3(2.0%). Data showed that Syphillis was the most prevalent STDS diagnosed while Calbicans and N. gonorrhoea are the least. Amongst the 150 (21.5%) patients positive with STDS, 82(54.65%) were found to be positive for HIV antibodies. The remaining 68(45.3%) patients were negative for HIV. The difference in sero-prevalence on the true group of patients rates was significant. The higher rate in the STDS patients strongly suggest some association between HIV infections andSTDS amongst the patients studied p = 0.05. It was also recorded that HIV-1 infection is four times more prevalent than HIV-2 in these patients. PMID:12403041

  3. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in rural southwestern Haiti: the Grand'Anse Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Kathleen A; Downey, Robert F; Hammar, Donna; Van Slyke, Lori; Schmidt, Terri A

    2014-11-01

    The study attempts to define socioeconomic, clinical, and laboratory correlates in vaginitis and other sexually transmitted infections in rural southwestern Haiti. A convenience sample of subjects recruited from a rural women's health clinic and attending an established clinic at the Haitian Health Foundation (HHF) clinic was studied. A standardized history and physical examination, including speculum examination, and collection of blood, urine, and vaginal swabs were obtained from the women at the rural clinic. Additional vaginal swab samples only for Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) testing were obtained from women at the HHF clinic in Jérémie. Laboratory results from Leon subjects were positive for Gardnerella vaginalis in 41% (41 of 100), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13.5% (14 of 104), Candida sp. in 9% (9 of 100), Mycoplasma genitalium in 6.7% (7 of 104), Chlamydia trachomatis in 1.9% (2 of 104), and Neisseria gonorrhea in 1% (1 of 104) of patients. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests were negative in 100% (103 of 103) of patients, and syphilis antibody testing was positive for treponemal antibodies in 7.7% (8 of 104) patients. For subjects from the HHF, 19.9% were positive for T. vaginalis, 11.9% were positive for C. trachomatis, 10.1% were positive for M. genitalium, and 4.1% were positive for N. gonorrhea. Infections with G. vaginalis, T. vaginalis, and Candida were the most common. N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Candida sp., T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium infections were associated with younger age (less than 31 years old). PMID:25200263

  4. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections among HIV Positive Women Opting for Intrauterine Contraception

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) are a high risk group for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, the majority of women with STIs are asymptomatic. Data on prevalence of STIs among WLHA in Uganda are limited. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence and factors associated with STIs among WLHA opting for intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). Methods Three hundred fifty one WLHA deemed free of STIs using a syndromic logarithm were enrolled into the study. Endo-cervical swabs were taken before IUD insertion and PCR test for Nisseria gonorrhea (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections conducted. Results Participants’ mean age was 29.4 ± 6.2 years, 83% were under 35years, 50% had secondary education and 73% were married. The majority (69%) had disclosed their HIV sero status to their spouses, 82% used Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, 70% were on antiretroviral therapy, 90% had CD4 count greater than 350, about 60% reported condoms use and 70% were of parity 2-4. Over 50% of the participants’ spouses were older than 35 years and 72% had attained secondary education. STIs prevalence was 11.1%, (95% CI 7.8-14.4) and individual prevalence for TV, NG, and CT was 5.9%, 5.4% and 0.9% respectively. Factors independently associated with STI were having primary or less education (OR= 2.3, 95% CI: 1.09 - 4.85) having a spouse of primary or less education (OR= 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6 - 6.78) and muslim faith (OR= 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04 - 0.78). Conclusion STI prevalence was 11.1%. TV and NG were the commonest STIs in this population. Having primary or less education for both participant and spouse was associated with increased risk while being of muslim faith was associated with reduced risk of STI. PMID:25859659

  5. Effect of single session counselling on partner referral for sexually transmitted infections management in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Kim Streatfield, Peter; Shahidullah, M; Mitra, Dipak; Vermund, Sten H; Kristensen, Sibylle

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the role of single session counselling on partner referral among index cases diagnosed as having sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Bangladesh. Methods A quasirandomised trial was conducted in 1339 index cases with symptomatic STIs in 3 public and 3 non-government organisation operated clinics. Results Out of 1339 index cases, partner referral was achieved by 37% in the counselling group and 27% in the non-counselling group. Index cases in the counselling group and non-counselling group were similar in terms of condom use rates, STI symptoms and duration of disease. A quarter of the index cases reported having more than one sex partner in last 3 months, and 39% reported having commercial sex partners. Only 8% of the index cases reported using condoms during their last sex act. Partner referral rates were higher among index clients with higher age, higher income, those who attended NGO clinics, those who had only one partner and among those who had no commercial partners, but counselling had significantly positive impact in all of these subgroups. In multivariate analysis, the probability of partner referral was 1.3 times higher among index cases in the counselling group (prevalence ratio 1.3; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6) as compared to index cases in the non-counselling group. Conclusions Patient-oriented single session counselling was found to have a modest but significant effect in increasing partner referral for STIs in Bangladesh, greater emphasis should be placed on examining further development and dissemination of partner referral counselling in STI care facilities. PMID:20656725

  6. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey regarding Sex, Contraception and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Commerce College Students in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Mutha, Sonali A; Baghel, Paritosh J; Patil, Ramanand J; Bhagat, Sagar B; Patel, Sadiq B; Watsa, Mahinder C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One in four Indians is a juvenile. Sexual crimes, pre marital sex, sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are on the rise. It has been shown that lack of sexuality education can significantly contribute to the above. Aim: We conducted this study to determine the knowledge and awareness of college students regarding sex and related matters and the factors affecting the prevalent outlook and practices of youth towards the same. Methodology: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 500 students of the K.P.B. Hinduja College of Commerce from December 2012 to March 2013 as per the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Main Outcome Measures: 1. Sex knowledge scores of males and females regarding contraception, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2. Percentage response of males and females to questions depicting attitudes and perceptions regarding premarital sex and promiscuity, sexual fantasy and masturbation, unwanted pregnancies and contraception. 3. Responses depicting participant’s premarital and high risk sexual activities. Results: The mean age was 18.6 ±1.6 years, 46% of participants were female. The total sex related knowledge scores of males and females were 8.2±1.2 and 6.2±2.4 (p<0.0001), respectively. 84% males and 72% females disagree that virginity should be preserved till marriage. Premarital sex was reported by 48% males and 18% females. Out of those who had premarital sex, 68% males and none of the females had more than one sex partner and 21% males and 12% females had used a contraceptive during their sexual encounter. 87% males and 82% females disagree that sex education in secondary schools will cause a rise in premarital intercourse. 40% males and 13% females are of the view that birth control is primarily a female’s responsibility. 14% of males and 21% of females (p = 0.2) reported being forced to have sex. Conclusion: Participants, especially females, lacked basic information about sexuality and related concepts. Male participants had a very casual attitude towards having sex with multiple partners. Premarital sex is more common than once believed. In the light of our finds and the current scenario, sexuality education is indispensable in order to guide the youth to develop and adopt healthy and appropriate sexual practices. PMID:25302214

  7. Predicting Discordance Between Self-reports of Sexual Behavior and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections with African American Female Adolescents: Results from a 4-city Study

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Brown, Larry K.; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors. PMID:22323006

  8. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of an HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk-Reduction Intervention for South African Men

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, Loretta S.; O’Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry D.; Heeren, G. Anita; Mtose, Xoliswa; Carty, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the efficacy of a sexual risk-reduction intervention for men in South Africa, where heterosexual exposure is the main mode of HIV transmission. Methods. Matched-pairs of neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, were randomly selected and within pairs randomized to 1 of 2 interventions based on social cognitive theory and qualitative research: HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction, targeting condom use, or attention-matched control, targeting health issues unrelated to sexual risks. Sexually active men aged 18 to 45 years were eligible. The primary outcome was consistent condom use in the past 3 months. Results. Of 1181 participants, 1106 (93.6%) completed the 12-month follow-up. HIV and STI risk-reduction participants had higher odds of reporting consistent condom use (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.03, 1.71) and condom use at last vaginal intercourse (OR?=?1.40; 95% CI?=?1.08, 1.82) than did attention-control participants, adjusting for baseline prevalence. No differences were observed on unprotected intercourse or multiple partnerships. Findings did not differ for sex with steady as opposed to casual partners. Conclusions. Behavioral interventions specifically targeting men can contribute to efforts to reduce sexual risk behaviors in South Africa. PMID:24432923

  9. Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in a City of Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Pallavi; Masood, Jamal; Singh, J. V.; Singh, V. K.; Gupta, Abhishek; Krishna, Asuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Reproductive tract infections RTIs are important public health problems in India. The prevalence of these infections is considerably higher among high risk groups (HRGs) ranging from 20-30%. It is high time that a study should be conducted to explore different factors and conditions responsible for the practice of unsafe sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and the impact of this on social life and health of FSWs. As Lucknow provides a comprehensive opportunity in terms of tourism, occupation, and economy, it becomes a potential hub for sex work. Studying FSW in Lucknow can thus be considered as a yardstick for the entire FSW population of UP population. The present study was thus planned with the objective of knowing the STI prevalence and its determinants among FSWs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on FSWs registered with Targeted Intervention-Non-government Organization (TI-NGO), registered with Uttar Pradesh State Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Control Society (UPSACS) of Lucknow city. Total 288 subjects were studied. Results: The average age of FSWs was 31 years. FSWs were mostly Hindus and illiterate. The overall prevalence of STI as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. However, the percentage of FSWs with STI was higher in street-based (50.6%) than home-based (29.8%). Majority (42.7%) of sex workers with STI had non-regular partners only while majority (52.4%) of sex workers without any STI had only regular partners. Condom usage with regular partners was poor. However, with the non-regular partners the condom usage was better. On multivariate analysis being single, having sex work as a sole means of earning, duration of sex work > 2 years, having pallor, and giving in to client's demand for unsafe sex were found to be significant in causing STI. Conclusions: Prevalence of STI among the female sex workers as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. Unemployment, anemia, and having sex without condom for extra money, failure to persuade the client and not doing anything were found to be important predictors for presence of STI.

  10. Human Papillomavirus Infection in a Male Population Attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Service

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta Elena; Melón, Santiago; Junquera, Maria Luisa; Boga, Jose Antonio; Villa, Laura; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; de Oña, María

    2013-01-01

    Objective Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men may produce cancer and other major disorders. Men play an important role in the transmission of the virus and act as a reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the HPV-genotypes and their prevalence in a group of men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection service. Patients and Samples Between July 2002 and June 2011, 1392 balanopreputial, 435 urethral, 123 anal, and 67 condyloma lesions from 1551 men with a mean age of 35.8±11.3 years old (range: 17–87) were collected for HPV-DNA testing. Methods A fragment of the L1-gene and a fragment of the E6/E7-genes were amplified by PCR. Positive samples were typed by hybridization. Results The HPV genome was detected in 36.9% (486/1318) balanopreputial and in 24.9% (101/405) urethral (p<0.0001) swabs from 38.1% (538) of 1469 men. Co-infections were present in 5.4% (80/1469) of cases. HPV was found in 43.9% (373/850) of men younger than 35 vs. 31.7% (187/589) of men aged >35. HPV was found in 59.4% (104) of 165 men with lesions (macroscopic or positive peniscopy), and in 22.8% (61/267) without clinical alterations. HPV was also detected in 71.4% (40/56) men with condylomata and in 58.7% (64/109) of men with positive peniscopy. Conclusions HPV prevalence in men was high and decreased with age. HPV was found more frequently in balanopreputial than in urethral swabs. There was a low rate of co-infections. Low-risk HPV vaccine genotypes were the most recurrent especially in younger. Although HPV has been associated with clinical alterations, it was also found in men without any clinical presentation. Inclusion of men in the national HPV vaccination program may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease and reduce transmission of the virus to non-vaccinated women. PMID:23372715

  11. Exploring the relationship between sexually transmitted diseases and HIV acquisition by using different study designs

    PubMed Central

    Zetola, Nicola M.; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Wong, Ernest; Louie, Brian; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Background It is hypothesized that sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increase the risk of HIV acquisition. Yet, difficulties establishing an accurate temporal relation and controlling confounders have obscured this relationship. In an attempt to overcome prior methodologic shortcomings, we explored the use of different study designs to examine the relationship between STDs and HIV acquisition. Methods Acutely HIV-infected patients were included as cases and compared to 1) HIV-uninfected patients (matched case-control), 2) newly diagnosed, chronically HIV-infected patients (infected analysis), and 3) themselves at prior clinic visits when they tested HIV-negative (case-crossover). We used t-tests to compare the average number of STDs and logistic regression to determine independent correlates and the odds of acute HIV infection. Results Between October 2003 and March 2007, 13,662 male patients who had sex with men were tested for HIV infection at San Francisco's municipal STD clinic and 350 (2.56%) HIV infections were diagnosed. Among the HIV-infected patients, 36 (10.3%) cases were identified as acute. We found consistently higher odds of having had an STD within the 12 months (matched case-control, OR 5.2 [2.2-12.6]; infected analysis, OR 1.4 [1.0-2.0]; case-crossover, OR 1.3 [0.5-3.1]) and 3 months (matched case-control, OR 34.5 [4.1-291.3]; infected analysis, OR 2.3 [1.1-4.8]; case-crossover OR 1.8 [0.6-5.6]) prior to HIV testing among acutely HIV-infected patients. We found higher odds of acute HIV infection among patients with concurrent rectal gonorrhea (17.0 [2.6 - 111.4], p<0.01) or syphilis (5.8 [1.1 - 32.3], p=0.04) when compared to those HIV-uninfected. Conclusions Acute HIV infection was associated with a recent or concurrent STD, particularly rectal gonorrhea, among men at San Francisco's municipal STD clinic. Given the complex relationship between STDs and HIV infection, no single design will appropriately control for all the possible confounders; studies using complementary designs are required. PMID:19367993

  12. Neighborhood Environment, Sexual Risk Behaviors and Acquisition of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Adolescents Diagnosed with Psychological Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delia L. LangLaura; Laura F. Salazar; Richard A. Crosby; Ralph J. DiClemente; Larry K. Brown; Geri R. Donenberg

    2010-01-01

    The association between neighborhood environment and prevalence of STIs, sexual partner variables and condom use among adolescents\\u000a with psychological disorders was examined. Cross-sectional data in three urban areas of the US (Southeast, Northeast and Midwest)\\u000a were obtained from 384 sexually active male and female participants who provided urine samples for laboratory-confirmed testing\\u000a of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  13. Can self-reported behavioral factors predict incident sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk African-American men?

    PubMed Central

    Slavinsky, J.; Rosenberg, D. M.; DiCarlo, R. P.; Kissinger, P.

    2000-01-01

    The known link between sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), coupled with the increasing prevalence of HIV in African-American men, makes understanding STD transmission trends in this group important for directing future preventive measures. The goal of this study was to determine if self-reported behavioral factors are predictive of incident sexually transmitted diseases in a group of high risk, HIV-negative African-American men. Five hundred and sixty-two "high risk" (defined as having four or more partners in the last year or having been diagnosed with an STD in the last year) HIV-negative African-American men were administered a baseline behavioral survey and followed to detect an incident STD. Overall, 19% (n = 108) of the patients acquired an incident STD during the study period. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, the only factor associated with an incident STD was age < or = 19 (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 4.54). No other risk factors were statistically significant. In conclusion, self-reported behavioral factors, such as substance use and sexual practices, do not seem to be a good measure of STD risk among a group of high risk, HIV-negative, African-American men. PMID:10946531

  14. Randomized Controlled Trials of Individual?Level, Population?Level, and Multilevel Interventions for Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections: What Has Worked?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    Background. Previous reviews of interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) focused mostly on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We reviewed trials of interventions to prevent sexual trans- mission of any STI, employing a multilevel perspective. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and recent unpublished presentations through 2003, to identify randomized controlled trials of preventive

  15. Major Depression, Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders Do Not Appear to Account for the Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV Epidemics in the Southern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherry D. Broadwell; Peikang Yao; Deborah Hasin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV infection are occurring at epidemic rates in the southern region of the United States. Depression and substance use disorders are associated with sexual risk behavior, so we investigated whether regionwide societal rates of major depression or substance use disorders could explain the higher southern rates. Methods: Data came from two surveys, the National

  16. Family Influences on Adolescents’ Birth Control and Condom Use, Likelihood of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Manczak, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among personal factors, family structure and family function, adolescents’ self-efficacy for safe sex, and sexual behaviors among sexually active adolescents. A subset sample from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was selected for this exploratory…

  17. Social determinants of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases among black women: implications for health equity.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Tanya Telfair; Voûte, Caroline; Rose, Michelle A; Cleveland, Janet; Dean, Hazel D; Fenton, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Recent epidemiologic reports show that black women are at risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In this report, we go beyond race and consider a number of social and economic trends that have changed the way many black women experience life. We discuss poverty, loss of status and support linked to declining marriage participation, and female-headed single-parent household structure-all of which influence sexual risks. We also discuss the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-led national efforts to advance consideration of social determinants of health (SDH) and promotion of health equity in public health activities that may have impact on black and other women. PMID:22196231

  18. Examining Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Recent Heroin-Using and Cocaine-Using Women

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Leah J.; Penniman, Typhanye V.; Hulbert, Alicia; Gaydos, Charlotte; Latimer, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined racial differences in the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their associations with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among recent heroin-using and cocaine-using women. Methods Participants were 214 women (59% black, 41% white) who were recruited during 2002–2010 using targeted sampling to participate in a study in Baltimore, Maryland, and reported using heroin, cocaine, or crack during the previous 6 months. Participants completed self-report questionnaires about their drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and lifetime history of one of six STDs, including gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, or trichomoniasis. Results More black women (50%) than white women (28%) reported a lifetime STD. Although there were no racial differences in the lifetime prevalence of sexual risk behaviors assessed, there were racial differences in the sexual behaviors associated with ever having a lifetime STD. Simple logistic regressions revealed that ever having a casual sex partner or anal sex were correlates of having a lifetime STD among black women but not among white women. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that ever having a casual sex partner was significantly associated with having a lifetime STD among black women, and ever trading sex for money was significantly associated with having a lifetime STD among white women. Conclusions Findings are consistent with national studies and elucidate racial disparities in STDs and associated sexual behaviors among recent heroin-using and cocaine-using women. Findings underscore the need to tailor STD prevention interventions differently for black and white recent heroin-using and cocaine-using women. PMID:21314446

  19. Rectal Self-Sampling in Non-Clinical Venues for Detection of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) among Behaviorally Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Brian; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Malebranche, David; Martinez, Omar; Goncalves, Gabriel; Schnarrs, Phillip; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Rectal sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a common health concern for men who have sex with men (MSM) but little is known about these infections among men who had sex with both men and women (MSMW). Self-obtained rectal specimens were collected from a diverse sample of behaviorally bisexual men. From a total sample of 75 bisexual men, 58 collected specimens. A relatively high prevalence of rectal C. trachomatis infection was found. Participants who collected specimens reported overall acceptability and comfort with self-sampling. Future efforts are needed focusing on increasing awareness of and options for rectal STI testing among bisexual men. PMID:22498165

  20. HIV and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in ethnic minorities in United Kingdom: is surveillance serving its purpose?

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, K. M.; Low, N.

    1997-01-01

    Experience of disease differs across ethnic groups, and ethnicity is a relevant personal characteristic for descriptive epidemiology. Information about ethnicity and country of birth is omitted from the routine notification of many diseases. HIV infection and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis have different incidence rates in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Omission of ethnic data from surveillance activities allows such differences in incidence to go undetected and unaddressed. Surveillance data that included ethnic details could guide interventions to reduce inequalities in health between different subpopulations. PMID:9202508

  1. Extensive Genetic Diversity, Unique Population Structure and Evidence of Genetic Exchange in the Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Melissa D.; Gorman, Andrew W.; Schillinger, Julia A.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Arroyo, Rossana; Malla, Nancy; Dubey, Mohan Lal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Blank, Susan; Secor, William E.; Carlton, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we utilize a panel of T. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2) differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor the T. vaginalis virus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages. Conclusions/Significance Our study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of global T. vaginalis genetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understanding T. vaginalis pathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease. PMID:22479659

  2. Using process data to understand outcomes in sexual health promotion: an example from a review of school-based programmes to prevent sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J; Harden, A; Barnett-Page, E; Kavanagh, J; Picot, J; Frampton, G K; Cooper, K; Hartwell, D; Clegg, A

    2014-08-01

    This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible outcome evaluations, 9 of which included a process evaluation. There were few statistically significant effects in terms of changes in sexual behaviour outcomes, but statistically significant effects were more common for knowledge and self-efficacy. Synthesis of the findings of the process evaluations identified a range of factors that might explain outcomes, and these were organized into two overarching categories: the implementation of interventions, and student engagement and intervention acceptability. Factors which supported implementation and engagement and acceptability included good quality teacher training, involvement and motivation of key school stakeholders and relevance and appeal to young people. Factors which had a negative impact included teachers' failure to comprehend the theoretical basis for behaviour change, school logistical problems and omission of topics that young people considered important. It is recommended that process indicators such as these be assessed in future evaluations of school-based sexual health behavioural interventions, as part of a logic model. PMID:24488650

  3. Sexually Transmitted Infections in the U.S. Military: How Gender Influences Risk

    E-print Network

    Stahlman, Shauna Lynn

    2014-01-01

    National Center for PTSD. Military Sexual Trauma. [U.S.anxiety, PTSD, high overall stress, high military- relatedmilitary; and 4) Screening questions to assess the need for further mental health evaluation including psychological distress, anxiety, depression, and PTSD.

  4. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents can help their adolescent make healthy choices Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health Public Health Reports ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

  5. Meeting Sex Partners Through the Internet, Risky Sexual Behavior, and HIV Testing Among Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic Patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Pugsley, River; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-02-01

    The Internet has now become a popular venue to meet sex partners. People who use the Internet to meet sex partners may be at a higher risk for contracting HIV and STIs. This study examined the association between meeting sex partners from the Internet, and HIV testing, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Data were obtained from the Virginia Department of Health STD Surveillance Network. Logistic regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios, and 95 % confidence intervals for the associations between meeting sex partners through the Internet and ever tested for HIV, HIV testing in the past 12 months, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression was also used to determine if gender and men who have sex with men interaction terms significantly improved the model. Women who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to have had an HIV test in the past 12 months than women who did not meet a partner in this way. On the other hand, men who met a sex partner through the Internet were more likely to have ever had an HIV test than other men, but this was only seen for heterosexual men. All populations who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to take part in risky sexual behavior. HIV prevention strategies should emphasize annual testing for all populations. PMID:25567074

  6. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers living in Barcelona: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Mayans, Martí Vall; Lasagabaster, Maider Arando; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are a serious global public health issue. These diseases are largely preventable, as they are directly and indirectly associated with potentially modifiable factors, including socioeconomic conditions. Sexual transmission is responsible for over 75% of new HIV infections worldwide. Moreover, commercial sex workers and their clients are two of the groups at the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting these infectious diseases, due to an extensive number of sexual encounters and the various factors related to commercial sex situations. This qualitative study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk perception of STIs and HIV and their associated factors in Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Methods and analysis This is a qualitative, descriptive, interpretive study based on a social constructivist and phenomenological perspective conducted on a saturated sample of Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Data will be collected through semistructured individual and triangular group interviews. Information will be examined using a sociological discourse analysis, allowing us to understand the social and individual factors related to the risk perception of STIs and HIV in commercial sex workers. Discussion Qualitative studies are an important element in identifying individual, social and contextual factors directly or indirectly related to the health/disease process. This qualitative study will provide essential knowledge to improve health promotion, prevention strategies and effective management of STIs both for commercial sex workers and their clients. Ethics This study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee (CEIC) of IDIAP Jordi Gol in Barcelona, 2012. PMID:23901029

  7. Associations of a sexually transmitted disease diagnosis during a relationship with condom use and psychosocial outcomes: (short) windows of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Reid, Allecia E; Magriples, Urania; Niccolai, Linda M; Gordon, Derrick M; Divney, Anna A; Kershaw, Trace S

    2013-06-01

    Few studies have examined whether and how receiving an sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnosis while in a romantic relationship relates to condom use and psychosocial sexual outcomes. Using dyadic data, we examined associations of a personal or a partner's STD diagnosis during a relationship with condom use, monogamy intentions, condom intentions and attitudes, and STD susceptibility and communication. Because beliefs about how the STD was acquired may shape associations with behavior and cognitions, gender and suspecting that one's partner had other sexual partners (i.e., partner concurrency) were examined as moderators. Participants were 592 individuals in 296 couples expecting a baby; 108 individuals had been diagnosed with an STD during the relationship. Personal STD diagnosis was unrelated to outcomes or was associated with increased risk. A partner's diagnosis related to more positive condom intentions and attitudes. Among men who suspected concurrency, both a personal and a partner's STD diagnosis were associated with less condom use. Receiving the STD diagnosis during pregnancy was associated with greater susceptibility and marginally greater condom use. Results suggest potential benefits of enhancing communication and encouraging joint risk reduction counseling among couples, engaging men more fully in preventive efforts, and capitalizing on the short window during which risk reduction occurs. PMID:23321987

  8. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Héctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population. PMID:25683522

  9. Random Behaviour or Rational Choice? Family Planning, Teenage Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, David

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice models of teenage sexual behaviour lead to radically different predictions than do models that assume such behaviour is random. Existing empirical evidence has not been able to distinguish conclusively between these competing models. I use regional data from England between 1998 and 2001 to examine the impact of recent increases in…

  10. Random behaviour or rational choice? Family planning, teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Paton

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice models of teenage sexual behaviour lead to radically different predictions than do models that assume such behaviour is random. Existing empirical evidence has not been able to distinguish conclusively between these competing models. I use regional data from England between 1998 and 2001 to examine the impact of recent increases in access to family planning on teenage pregnancy

  11. Multisite Direct Determination of the Potential for Environmental Contamination of Urine Samples Used for Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Patiyan; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Lilliebridge, Rachael A.; Brenner, Nicole C.; Martin, Louise M.; Spencer, Emma; Delima, Jennifer; Singh, Gurmeet; McCann, Frances; Hudson, Carolyn; Johns, Tracy; Giffard, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The detection of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) agent in a urine specimen from a young child is regarded as an indicator of sexual contact. False positives may conceivably arise from the transfer of environmental contaminants in clinic toilet or bathroom facilities into urine specimens. Methods The potential for contamination of urine specimens with environmental STI nucleic acid was tested empirically in the male and female toilets or bathrooms at 10 Northern Territory (Australia) clinics, on 7 separate occasions at each. At each of the 140 experiments, environmental contamination with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid contamination was determined by swabbing 10 locations, and urine collection was simulated 5 times, using a (1) synthetic urine surrogate and (2) a standardized finger contamination procedure. Results The most contaminated toilets and bathrooms were in remote Indigenous communities. No contamination was found in the Northern Territory Government Sexual Assault Referral Centre clinics, and intermediate levels of contamination were found in sexual health clinics and in clinics in regional urban centres. The frequency of surrogate urine sample contamination was low but non-zero. For example, 4 of 558 of the urine surrogate specimens from remote clinics were STI positive. Conclusions This is by far the largest study addressing the potential environmental contamination of urine samples with STI agents. Positive STI tests arising from environmental contamination of urine specimens cannot be ruled out. The results emphasize that urine specimens from young children taken for STI testing should be obtained by trained staff in clean environments, and duplicate specimens should be obtained if possible. PMID:25349693

  12. Frequency-dependent incidence in models of sexually transmitted diseases: portrayal of pair-based transmission and effects of illness on contact behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Getz, Wayne M.; Westerhoff, Hans V.

    2004-01-01

    We explore the transmission process for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We derive the classical frequency-dependent incidence mechanistically from a pair-formation model, using an approximation that applies to populations with rapid pairing dynamics (such as core groups or non-pair-bonding animals). This mechanistic derivation provides a framework to assess how accurately frequency-dependent incidence portrays the pair-based transmission known to underlie STD dynamics. This accuracy depends strongly on the disease being studied: frequency-dependent formulations are more suitable for chronic less-transmissible infections than for transient highly transmissible infections. Our results thus support earlier proposals to divide STDs into these two functional classes, and we suggest guidelines to help assess under what conditions each class can be appropriately modelled using frequency-dependent incidence. We then extend the derivation to include situations where infected individuals exhibit altered pairing behaviour. For four cases of increasing behavioural complexity, analytic expressions are presented for the generalized frequency-dependent incidence rate, basic reproductive number (R0) and steady-state prevalence (i infinity) of an epidemic. The expression for R0 is identical for all cases, giving refined insights into determinants of invasibility of STDs. Potentially significant effects of infection-induced changes in contact behaviour are illustrated by simulating epidemics of bacterial and viral STDs. We discuss the application of our results to STDs (in humans and animals) and other infectious diseases. PMID:15156921

  13. Human papillomavirus infection among sexual partners attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Afonso, L A; Rocha, W M; Carestiato, F N; Dobao, E A; Pesca, L F; Passos, M R L; Cavalcanti, S M B

    2013-06-01

    Cervical cancer is a major source of illness and death among women worldwide and genital infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) its principal cause. There is evidence of the influence of the male factor in the development of cervical neoplasia. Nevertheless, the pathogenic processes of HPV in men are still poorly understood. It has been observed that different HPV types can be found among couples. The objective of the present study was to investigate HPV infections in female patients (n = 60 females/group) as well as in their sexual partners and to identify the concordance of HPV genotypes among them. By using the polymerase chain reaction, we detected a 95% prevalence of HPV DNA in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) compared to 18.3% in women with normal cervical epithelium, with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). The HPV DNA prevalence was 50% in male partners of women with CIN and 16.6% in partners of healthy women. In the control group (healthy women), only 9 couples were simultaneously infected with HPV, and only 22.2% of them had the same virus type, showing a weak agreement rate (kappa index = 0.2). Finally, we observed that HPV DNA was present in both partners in 30 couples if the women had CIN, and among them, 53.3% shared the same HPV type, showing moderate agreement, with a kappa index of 0.5. This finding supports the idea of circulation and recirculation of HPV among couples, perpetuating HPV in the sexually active population, rather than true recurrences of latent infections. PMID:23739745

  14. On the pathway to better birth outcomes? A systematic review of azithromycin and curable sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Chico, R Matthew; Hack, Berkin B; Newport, Melanie J; Ngulube, Enesia; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    The WHO recommends the administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to all pregnant women living in areas of moderate (stable) to high malaria transmission during scheduled antenatal visits, beginning in the second trimester and continuing to delivery. Malaria parasites have lost sensitivity to SP in many endemic areas, prompting the investigation of alternatives that include azithromycin-based combination (ABC) therapies. Use of ABC therapies may also confer protection against curable sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs). The magnitude of protection at the population level would depend on the efficacy of the azithromycin-based regimen used and the underlying prevalence of curable STIs/RTIs among pregnant women who receive preventive treatment. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy data of azithromycin against curable STIs/RTIs. PMID:24191955

  15. Learning from the past: young Indigenous people's accounts of blood-borne viral and sexually transmitted infections as resilience narratives.

    PubMed

    Mooney-Somers, Julie; Olsen, Anna; Erick, Wani; Scott, Robert; Akee, Angie; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

    2011-02-01

    The Indigenous Resilience Project is an Australian community-based participatory research project using qualitative methods to explore young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people's views of blood-borne viral and sexually transmitted infections (BBV/STI) affecting their communities. In this paper we present an analysis of narratives from young people who had a previous BBV/STI diagnosis to explore how they actively negotiate the experience of BBV/STI infection to construct a classic resilience narrative. We examine two overarching themes: first, the context of infection and diagnosis, including ignorance of STI/BBV prior to infection/diagnosis and, second, turning points and transformations in the form of insights, behaviours, roles and agency. Responding to critical writing on resilience theory, we argue that providing situated accounts of adversity from the perspectives of young Indigenous people prioritises their subjective understandings and challenges normative definitions of resilience. PMID:20972915

  16. On the pathway to better birth outcomes? A systematic review of azithromycin and curable sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Chico, R Matthew; Hack, Berkin B; Newport, Melanie J; Ngulube, Enesia; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The WHO recommends the administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to all pregnant women living in areas of moderate (stable) to high malaria transmission during scheduled antenatal visits, beginning in the second trimester and continuing to delivery. Malaria parasites have lost sensitivity to SP in many endemic areas, prompting the investigation of alternatives that include azithromycin-based combination (ABC) therapies. Use of ABC therapies may also confer protection against curable sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs). The magnitude of protection at the population level would depend on the efficacy of the azithromycin-based regimen used and the underlying prevalence of curable STIs/RTIs among pregnant women who receive preventive treatment. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy data of azithromycin against curable STIs/RTIs. PMID:24191955

  17. Low prevalences of HIV infection and sexually transmitted disease among female commercial sex workers in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Uribe-Salas, F; Hernández-Avila, M; Conde-González, C J; Juárez-Figueroa, L; Allen, B; Anaya-Ocampo, R; Del Río-Chiriboga, C; Uribe-Zúñiga, P; de Zalduondo, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tried to determine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalences among female commercial sex workers in Mexico City. METHODS: A sampling frame was constructed that included bars, massage parlors, and street corners. RESULTS: Prevalences for Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus type 2, HIV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis were 6.4%, 65%, 0.6%, 3.7%, and 11.1%, respectively. A significant association was found between higher STD frequencies and working at street sites. CONCLUSIONS: Most STD frequencies were lower in comparison with rates found for female sex workers in other countries. However, preventive programs against STD/ HIV are needed in this population. PMID:9224186

  18. Bacterial vaginosis in sexually experienced and non–sexually experienced young women entering the military

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophia Yen; Mary-Ann Shafer; Jeanne Moncada; Christopher J Campbell; Scott D Flinn; Cherrie B Boyer

    2003-01-01

    ObjectiveTo estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis by Nugent Gram stain criteria in a nonclinic national sample of young women entering recruit training; to examine clinical associations with bacterial vaginosis; and to evaluate the performance of a pH test card and Papanicolaou smear against Gram stain as screening tools for bacterial vaginosis.

  19. Sexually Transmitted Infections among Heterosexual Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Megan M.; Chow, Eric P. F.; Wang, Cheng; Yang, Li-Gang; Yang, Bin; Huang, Jennifer Z.; Wang, Yanjie; Zhang, Lei; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Female sex workers have been the target of numerous sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention strategies in China, but their male clients have attracted considerably less public health attention and resources. We sought to systematically assess the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China. Methods/Principal Findings Original research manuscripts were identified by searching Chinese and English language databases, and 37 studies analyzing 26,552 male clients were included in the review. Client STI prevalence across studies was heterogeneous. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 0.68% (0.36–1.28%) for HIV, 2.91% (2.17–3.89%) for syphilis, 2.16% (1.46–3.17%) for gonorrhea, and 8.01% (4.94–12.72%) for chlamydia. Conclusions/Significance The pooled prevalence estimates of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among clients in this review exceed the prevalences previously reported among population-representative samples and low-risk groups in China. However, heterogeneity across studies and sampling limitations prevent definitive conclusions about how the prevalence of STIs in this population compares to the general population. These findings suggest a need for greater attention to clients’ sexual risk and disease prevalence in China’s STI research agenda in order to inform effective prevention policies. PMID:23951153

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Cervical Neoplasia in Women from a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez, Clara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Renom, Montse; Sacarlal, Jahit; Quintó, Llorenç; Lloveras, Belen; Klaustermeier, Joellen; Kornegay, Janet R.; Sigauque, Betuel; Bosch, F. Xavier; Alonso, Pedro L.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited information on the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and the prevalence of cervical neoplasia in rural sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the prevalence and the etiology of STIs and the prevalence of cervical neoplasia among women in southern Mozambique. An age-stratified cross-sectional study was performed where 262 women aged 14 to 61 years were recruited at the antenatal clinic (59%), the family-planning clinic (7%), and from the community (34%). At least one active STI was diagnosed in 79% of women. Trichomonas vaginalis was present in 31% of all study participants. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis were 14% and 8%, respectively, and Syphilis was diagnosed in 12% of women. HPV DNA was detected in 40% of women and cervical neoplasia was diagnosed in 12% of all women. Risk factors associated with the presence of some of the STIs were being divorced or widowed, having more than one sexual partner and having the partner living in another area. A higher prevalence was observed in the reproductive age group and some of the STIs were more frequently diagnosed in pregnant women. STI control programs are a priority to reduce the STIs burden, including HIV and cervical neoplasia. PMID:20706691

  1. Randomized Controlled Trials of Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections: Learning From the Past to Plan for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Wetmore, Catherine M.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Wasserheit, Judith N.

    2010-01-01

    Globally, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a significant source of morbidity and disproportionately impact the health of women and children. The number of randomized controlled trials testing interventions to prevent STIs has dramatically increased over time. To assess their impact, the authors conducted a systematic review of interventions to prevent sexual transmission or acquisition of STIs other than human immunodeficiency virus, published in the English-language, peer-reviewed literature through December 2009. Ninety-three papers reporting data from 74 randomized controlled trials evaluating 75 STI prevention interventions were identified. Eight intervention modalities were used: behavioral interventions (36% of interventions), vaginal microbicides (16%), vaccines (16%), treatment (11%), partner services (9%), physical barriers (5%), male circumcision (5%), and multicomponent (1%). Overall, 59% of interventions demonstrated efficacy in preventing infection with at least 1 STI. Treatment interventions and vaccines for viral STIs showed the most consistently positive effects. Male circumcision protected against viral STIs and possibly trichomoniasis. Almost two-thirds of behavioral interventions were effective, but the magnitude of effects ranged broadly. Partner services yielded similarly mixed results. In contrast, vaginal microbicides and physical barrier methods demonstrated few positive effects. Future STI prevention efforts should focus on enhancing adherence within interventions, integrating new technologies, ensuring sustainable behavior change, and conducting implementation research. PMID:20519264

  2. Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers (FSWs) in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Remis, R S; Kang, L; Calzavara, L; Pan, Q; Liu, J; Myers, T; Ren, J; Tang, X

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, we examined HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in 750 female sex workers (FSWs) in Shanghai using a cross-sectional survey. Participants (mean age 27 years) were interviewed and tested for HIV and selected STIs. Prevalence was: HIV 0·13%, chlamydia 14·7%, gonorrhoea 3·5% and syphilis 1·3%. In a demographic multivariate model, younger age, higher income and originating from provinces other than Zhejiang and Shanghai were independently associated with STI. In a social and sexual behavioural model, women working in small venues with fewer clients per week, use of drugs, and higher price charged per sex act indicated a greater risk for STI. Although HIV appears rare in Shanghai FSWs, chlamydial infection is common, especially in women aged <25 years (prevalence 19·6%). Since STI and HIV share similar risk factors, preventive intervention measures should be implemented immediately based on the venues and characteristics of FSWs to prevent future spread of HIV. PMID:24759515

  3. Randomized Clinical Trial of Brief Risk Reduction Counseling for Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Patients in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Demetria; Eaton, Lisa; Jooste, Sean; Simbayi, Leickness C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of a brief counseling intervention designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among patients receiving STI services in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods. After randomization to either a 60-minute risk reduction counseling session or a 20-minute HIV–STI educational session, patients completed computerized sexual behavior assessments. More than 85% of the participants were retained at the 12-month follow-up. Results. There were 24% fewer incident STIs and significant reductions in unprotected vaginal and anal intercourse among participants who received risk reduction counseling relative to members of the control condition. Moderator analyses showed shorter lived outcomes for heavy alcohol drinkers than for lighter drinkers. The results were not moderated by gender. Conclusions. Brief single-session HIV prevention counseling delivered to STI clinic patients has the potential to reduce HIV infections. Counseling should be enhanced for heavier drinkers, and sustained outcomes will require relapse prevention techniques. Disseminating effective, brief, and feasible behavioral interventions to those at highest risk for HIV infection should remain a public health priority. PMID:21778486

  4. Perceptions of human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted disease risk among low-income adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Davis, R B; Duncan, L; Turner, L W; Young, M

    2001-05-01

    Sexual risk-taking research and subsequent intervention programs have focused almost exclusively on adolescents and men who have sex with men. In comparison, less research has been conducted into adult heterosexual risk-taking behavior. The purposes of this pilot study were to test a survey instrument, assess how low-income adults perceive their risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection, and determine the degree to which condom use is a function of age. The Health Belief Model was used to guide the development of the survey instrument. In the Health Belief Model, age is a mediating factor that influences a person's likelihood to take action to change his or her lifestyle. Respondents perceived that their vulnerability to infection declined because of increased age and decreased frequency of coitus. Condom use was found to significantly decline as the age of the respondents increased. Although this is only a pilot study, the findings highlight the need for HIV and STD education for all age groups and genders. PMID:11319707

  5. Social marketing to promote HPV vaccination in pre-teenage children: Talk about a sexually transmitted infection.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joan R; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2015-02-01

    A significant barrier to the delivery of HPV vaccine is reluctance by both healthcare providers and parents to vaccinate at age 11 or 12, which may be considered a young age. This barrier has been called "vaccine hesitancy" in recent research. In this commentary, we suggest using social marketing strategies to promote HPV vaccination at the recommended preteen ages. We emphasize a critical public health message of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) as preventable and vaccination against HPV as a way to protect against its consequences. The message tackles the issue of vaccine hesitancy head on, by saying that most people are at risk for HPV and there is a way to prevent HPV's serious consequences of cancer. Our approach to this conversation in the clinical setting is also to engage the preteen in a dialog with the parent and provider. We expect our emphasis on the risk of STI infection will not only lead to increased HPV vaccination at preteen ages but also lay important groundwork for clinical adoption of other STI vaccines in development (HIV, HSV, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea) as well as begin conversations to promote sexual health. PMID:25692313

  6. [Molluscum contagiosum--a common but poorly understood "childhood disease" and sexually transmitted illness].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2013-08-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a viral disease of the skin characterized by discrete, multiple, flesh-colored papules. It is caused by a highly infectious, enveloped deoxyribonucleic acid virus, called molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). Molluscum contagiosum is very common in children, sexually active adults and immunocompromised patients, especially those who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. MCV transmission usually takes place through direct skin-to-skin contact. Infections in childhood are often linked to swimming-pool attendance. Adults are infected usually through sexual contact. An intimate skin-to-skin contact is sufficient for transmission of the virus. In immunocompetent adults, the warts remain in the genital area and adjacent regions of the skin. In children and patients with immunocompromised conditions, however, various regions of the body are usually affected. Therapy of molluscum contagiosum should be undertaken in an individualized manner, a specific treatment does not exist. For the treatment, physical methods such as curettage and cryotherapy, topic acids (e. g., acetic acid) and alkalis (e. g., potassium hydroxide), some other topical agents such as cantharidin and imiquimod, as well as several systemic agents the pharmacological treatments is, however, sparse. Effective prevention is problematic due to the high infectivity of the virus. A vaccine is not available. PMID:23977728

  7. Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Guinea-Bissau: A Sexually Transmitted Genotype 2 with Parenteral Amplification?

    PubMed Central

    Plamondon, Mireille; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Frost, Eric; Deslandes, Sylvie; Alves, Alfredo Claudino; Bastien, Nathalie; Pepin, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa is the continent with the highest prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Genotype 2 HCV is thought to have originated from West Africa several hundred years ago. Mechanisms of transmission remain poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To delineate mechanisms for HCV transmission in West Africa, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of individuals aged ?50 years in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Dried blood spots were obtained for HCV serology and PCR amplification. Prevalence of HCV was 4.4% (47/1066) among women and 5.0% (27/544) among men. In multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for HCV infection were age (baseline: 50–59 y; 60–69 y, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.67, 95% CI: 0.91–3.06; ?70 y, AOR: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.89–6.39), belonging to the Papel, Mancanha, Balanta or Mandjako ethnic groups (AOR: 2.45, 95% CI:1.32–4.53), originating from the Biombo, Cacheu or Oio regions north of Bissau (AOR: 4.16, 95% CI: 1.18–14.73) and having bought or sold sexual services (AOR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.88–6.89). Of 57 isolates that could be genotyped, 56 were genotype 2. Conclusions Our results suggest that transmission of HCV genotype 2 in West Africa occurs through sexual intercourse. In specific locations and subpopulations, medical interventions may have amplified transmission parenterally. PMID:17440608

  8. The SPORTSMART study: a pilot randomised controlled trial of sexually transmitted infection screening interventions targeting men in football club settings

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sebastian S; Mercer, Catherine H; Copas, Andrew J; Saunders, John; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Cassell, Jackie A; Hart, Graham; Johnson, Anne M; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise J; Muniina, Pamela; Estcourt, Claudia S

    2015-01-01

    Background Uptake of chlamydia screening by men in England has been substantially lower than by women. Non-traditional settings such as sports clubs offer opportunities to widen access. Involving people who are not medically trained to promote screening could optimise acceptability. Methods We developed two interventions to explore the acceptability and feasibility of urine-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions targeting men in football clubs. We tested these interventions in a pilot cluster randomised control trial. Six clubs were randomly allocated, two to each of three trial arms: team captain-led and poster STI screening promotion; sexual health adviser-led and poster STI screening promotion; and poster-only STI screening promotion (control/comparator). Primary outcome was test uptake. Results Across the three arms, 153 men participated in the trial and 90 accepted the offer of screening (59%, 95% CI 35% to 79%). Acceptance rates were broadly comparable across the arms: captain-led: 28/56 (50%); health professional-led: 31/46 (67%); and control: 31/51 (61%). However, rates varied appreciably by club, precluding formal comparison of arms. No infections were identified. Process evaluation confirmed that interventions were delivered in a standardised way but the control arm was unintentionally ‘enhanced’ by some team captains actively publicising screening events. Conclusions Compared with other UK-based community screening models, uptake was high but gaining access to clubs was not always easy. Use of sexual health advisers and team captains to promote screening did not appear to confer additional benefit over a poster-promoted approach. Although the interventions show potential, the broader implications of this strategy for UK male STI screening policy require further investigation. PMID:25512674

  9. Triggers of self-conscious emotions in the sexually transmitted infection testing process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-conscious emotions (shame, guilt and embarrassment) are part of many individuals' experiences of seeking STI testing. These emotions can have negative impacts on individuals' interpretations of the STI testing process, their willingness to seek treatment and their willingness to inform sexual partners in light of positive STI diagnoses. Because of these impacts, researchers have called for more work to be completed on the connections between shame, guilt, embarrassment and STI testing. We examine the specific events in the STI testing process that trigger self-conscious emotions in young adults who seek STI testing; and to understand what it is about these events that triggers these emotions. Semi-structured interviews with 30 adults (21 women, 9 men) in the Republic of Ireland. Findings Seven specific triggers of self-conscious emotions were identified. These were: having unprotected sex, associated with the initial reason for seeking STI testing; talking to partners and peers about the intention to seek STI testing; the experience of accessing STI testing facilities and sitting in clinic waiting rooms; negative interactions with healthcare professionals; receiving a positive diagnosis of an STI; having to notify sexual partners in light of a positive STI diagnosis; and accessing healthcare settings for treatment for an STI. Self-conscious emotions were triggered in each case by a perceived threat to respondents' social identities. Conclusion There are multiple triggers of self-conscious emotions in the STI testing process, ranging from the initial decision to seek testing, right through to the experience of accessing treatment. The role of self-conscious emotions needs to be considered in each component of service design from health promotion approaches, through facility layout to the training of all professionals involved in the STI testing process. PMID:20716339

  10. Building a sentinel surveillance system for sexually transmitted infections in Germany, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, V; Marcus, U; Hofmann, A; Hamouda, O

    2005-01-01

    Background/objectives: Increases in STIs have been reported from the United States and Europe. Since 2001, only syphilis and HIV are notifiable in Germany. A sentinel surveillance system has been set up to assess the occurrence and trends of STIs and identify risk groups. Methods: Through the sentinel system data are collected from local health offices (LHO), hospital based STI clinics and private practitioners (dermato-venerology, urology, gynaecology, or HIV). For every newly diagnosed laboratory confirmed infection of HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis, or trichomoniasis physicians complete a standardised questionnaire regarding diagnosis, source of infection, and demographic information. Patients complete a questionnaire about sexual risk behaviour. The patient form is matched with the diagnosis form using a unique identifier number. Characteristics of sentinel patients were compared with those reported through the HIV and syphilis national notification system. Results: 58 LHO, 14 hospital based STI clinics, and 160 private practitioners (53.1% dermato-venerologists) from all federal states participated in the study. 176 (75.9%) sentinel sites are located in cities of >100 000 inhabitants. From 1 March 2003–29 February 2004, a total of 1833 STIs have been reported, among them 452 chlamydia, 321 syphilis (10.9% of notified syphilis), 343 gonorrhoea, 269 HIV (15.7% of notified HIV). 925 (50.5%) of the patients were male, the median age was 31 years. Female patients were more often of foreign origin (?2 test; 70.0% v 26.3%; p<0.001). Conclusions: Our sentinel system will provide a base for detection of STI trends in Germany. In addition, information about sexual risk behaviour will enable us to target prevention at those most at risk for STIs. PMID:15800099

  11. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: a sexually transmitted infection of adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, F; Copas, A; Johnson, A; Ashley, R; Corey, L; Mindel, A

    2002-01-01

    Design: Cross sectional study with HSV-1 antibody testing performed by University of Washington western blot assay. Setting: Central London STD clinic (1990–1) and central London blood donation centre (1992). Participants: Representative sample of 869 new and rebooked GUM clinic attenders and 1494 consecutive blood donors. Results: The prevalence of HSV-1 antibody among clinic attenders was 60.4% (95% CI 57.0 to 63.7) and among donors was 46.1% (95% CI 43.5 to 48.7). HSV-1 antibody was independently associated with increasing age in both populations (p<0.001). Among clinic attenders, HSV-1 was less common among heterosexual men than women and homosexual men (p<0.005), and was more common among black people (p=0.001) and those of lower socioeconomic status (p=0.05). Among blood donors, being single rather than married was independently associated with HSV-1 infection (p=0.03). Early age at first intercourse was strongly associated with presence of HSV-1 in both populations. The adjusted odds of HSV-1 among GUM clinic attenders was 0.37 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.65) for someone aged 20 at first intercourse compared with someone aged ?15. Among blood donors, those aged 20 had an adjusted odds of 0.64 (95% CI 0.39 to 1.05) compared with someone aged 15. HSV-1 was not associated with increasing number of lifetime partners after adjustment for other factors. Conclusions: Genital herpes due to HSV-1 antibody is increasing in the United Kingdom, particularly among young people. In this study we found that HSV-1 was strongly associated with early age of first sexual intercourse, which may reflect the sexual practices of people initiating sex in this age group. PMID:12407237

  12. Demographic and Behavioral Determinants of Self-Reported History of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among Young Migrant Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The…

  13. Effectiveness of Health Education Teachers and School Nurses Teaching Sexually Transmitted Infections/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Knowledge and Skills in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borawski, Elaine A.; Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Trapl, Erika S.; Hayman, Laura L.; Yoder, Laura D.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We examined the differential impact of a well-established human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, when taught by school nurses and health education classroom teachers within a high school curricula. Methods: Group-randomized intervention study of 1357 ninth and…

  14. Prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in high risk social networks of young Roma (Gypsy) men in Bulgaria: randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A Kelly; Yuri A Amirkhanian; Elena Kabakchieva; Sylvia Vassileva; Boyan Vassilev; Timothy L McAuliffe; Wayne J DiFranceisco; Radostina Antonova; Elena Petrova; Roman A Khoursine; Borislav Dimitrov

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of a behavioural intervention for prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases that identified, trained, and engaged leaders of Roma (Gypsy) men's social networks to counsel their own network members. Design A two arm randomised controlled trial. Setting A disadvantaged, impoverished Roma settlement in Bulgaria. Participants 286 Roma men from 52 social networks recruited in

  15. Factors associated with forced sex among women accessing health services in rural Haiti: implications for the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Smith Fawzi; W. Lambert; J. M. Singler; Y. Tanagho; F. Léandre; P. Nevil; D. Bertrand; M. S. Claude; J. Bertrand; M. Louissaint; L. Jeannis; J. S. Mukherjee; S. Goldie; J. J. Salazar; P. E. Farmer

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of forced sex among women accessing services at a women's health clinic in rural Haiti; and (2) examine factors associated with forced sex in this population. Based on data from a case-control study of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a cross-sectional analysis to examine factors associated

  16. Source Preferences and the Displacement/Supplement Effect between Internet and Traditional Sources of Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV/AIDS Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines the source preferences and the displacement/supplement effect of traditional and new channel usage as Taiwanese college students search for information about sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS from the Internet. The study involved 535 junior and senior college students from four universities. Analytical results…

  17. Evaluation of Ligase Chain Reaction for Use with Urine for Identification ofNeisseria gonorrhoeaein Females Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KIM R. SMITH; SHANFUN CHING; HELEN LEE; YOSHIHIRO OHHASHI; HSIANG-YUN HU; HENRY C. FISHER; ANDEDWARD W. HOOK

    1995-01-01

    The high sensitivity of nucleic acid amplification tests such as ligase chain reaction (LCR) has the potential to simplify specimen collection for the microbiologic diagnosis of gonorrhea. We screened first-void urine specimens from 283 women attending a Birmingham, Ala., sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic by using LCR and compared the results to those of cervical and urethral cultures for gonorrhea

  18. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  19. Sexual behavior and knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus/aids and sexually transmitted infections among women inmates of Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and STIs, sexual behaviors, and adoption of preventive measures among women inmates. Methods This was a survey conducted between July 1, 2012 and July 29, 2012 among women inmates at Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The author gave an educational lecture on STIs in a conference room at the prison. Educational material was distributed to the attendees after the lecture, and the survey was conducted one week later. All the participants were asked to complete an anonymous 40-item self-administered questionnaire in the presence of a professional health assistant and a translator, for non-Arabic speakers. Data collected included the personal data of the respondent, her alleged criminal background, penal status, accumulative time in prison, history of smoking, alcohol or drug addiction, knowledge about the seven most common STIs, symptoms, modes of transmission, prevention, sexual activity, addiction, and means of protection. Descriptive analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. Results We interviewed 204 women aged 16-60 years (mean, 33.3 years). Most of the respondents (n?=?170; 83?·?0%) were not aware of STIs; 117 respondents (57?·?4%) did not undergo screening for STIs before marriage or intercourse, while only 59 (28?·?9%) did. Over half of the respondents (n?=?107; 52.5%) thought they knew how to protect themselves from STIs. Nevertheless, 87 (42.6%) were uncertain about the role of condoms in protection from STIs and (n?=?41; 20.1%) thought condoms provide 100% protection against STIs, while 72 respondents (35.3%) thought condoms did not confer 100% protection against STIs. Only 10 respondents (4.9%) used condoms to protect themselves from STIs. Saudi women (P?=?0.033) and those with a higher level of education (P?sexual behaviors. Campaigns aimed at increasing awareness of STIs should also target prison inmates, who in general constitute high-risk populations. PMID:24884734

  20. Species realities and numbers in sexual vertebrates: Perspectives from an asexually transmitted genome

    PubMed Central

    Avise, John C.; Walker, DeEtte

    1999-01-01

    A literature review is conducted on the phylogenetic discontinuities in mtDNA sequences of 252 taxonomic species of vertebrates. About 140 of these species (56%) were subdivided clearly into two or more highly distinctive matrilineal phylogroups, the vast majority of which were localized geographically. However, only a small number (two to six) of salient phylogeographic subdivisions (those that stand out against mean within-group divergences) characterized individual species. A previous literature summary showed that vertebrate sister species and other congeners also usually have pronounced phylogenetic distinctions in mtDNA sequence. These observations, taken together, suggest that current taxonomic species often agree reasonably well in number (certainly within an order-of-magnitude) and composition with biotic entities registered in mtDNA genealogies alone. In other words, mtDNA data and traditional taxonomic assignments tend to converge on what therefore may be “real” biotic units in nature. All branches in mtDNA phylogenies are nonanastomose, connected strictly via historical genealogy. Thus, patterns of historical phylogenetic connection may be at least as important as contemporary reproductive relationships per se in accounting for microevolutionary unities and discontinuities in sexually reproducing vertebrates. Findings are discussed in the context of the biological and phylogenetic species concepts. PMID:9927681

  1. The impact of sexual experiences of young minority group members in the United States, and the associated risks of sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission among adults in the United States and China

    E-print Network

    Garcia, Ginny Elizabeth

    2006-08-16

    advances in modern medicine, which have made most sexually transmitted infections curable and at the very least manageable. Furthermore, many of the infections leave no long term effects if treated in a timely manner. Presently, the only STI... are at least 2 to 5 times more likely than uninfected individuals to acquire HIV if they are exposed to the virus through sexual contact? (CDC, 2005). These particular infections (i.e., non-ulcerative STDs) make an infected person more susceptible...

  2. Evaluating the Need for Sex Education in Developing Countries: Sexual Behaviour, Knowledge of Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections/HIV and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Woog, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has…

  3. Mobile Phone Applications for the Care and Prevention of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Emily C; LeGrand, Sara; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile phone applications (apps) provide a new platform for delivering tailored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and care. Objective To identify and evaluate currently available mobile phone apps related to the prevention and care of HIV and other STDs. Methods We searched the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores for HIV/STD-related apps, excluding apps that exclusively targeted industry, providers, and researchers. Each eligible app was downloaded, tested, and assessed for user ratings and functionality as well as 6 broad content areas of HIV prevention and care: HIV/STD disease knowledge, risk reduction/safer sex, condom promotion, HIV/STD testing information, resources for HIV-positive persons, and focus on key populations. Results Search queries up to May 2012 identified 1937 apps. Of these, 55 unique apps met the inclusion criteria (12 for Android, 29 for iPhone, and 14 for both platforms). Among these apps, 71% provided disease information about HIV/STDs, 36% provided HIV/STD testing information or resources, 29% included information about condom use or assistance locating condoms, and 24% promoted safer sex. Only 6 apps (11%) covered all 4 of these prevention areas. Eight apps (15%) provided tools or resources specifically for HIV/STD positive persons. Ten apps included information for a range of sexual orientations, 9 apps appeared to be designed for racially/ethnically diverse audiences, and 15 apps featured interactive components. Apps were infrequently downloaded (median 100-500 downloads) and not highly rated (average customer rating 3.7 out of 5 stars). Conclusions Most available HIV/STD apps have failed to attract user attention and positive reviews. Public health practitioners should work with app developers to incorporate elements of evidence-based interventions for risk reduction and improve app inclusiveness and interactivity. PMID:23291245

  4. High HIV Prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is associated with Social Vulnerability and other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, JP; Weir, SS; Jones-Cooper, C; Byfield, L; Hobbs, MM; McKnight, I; Cummings, S

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is thought to be high in Jamaica. The objective of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors in order to improve prevention approaches. Methods With the help of influential MSM, an experienced research nurse approached MSM in four parishes to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2007. MSM were interviewed and blood taken for HIV and syphilis tests, and urine taken for gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas testing using transcription-mediated amplification assays. A structured questionnaire was administered by the nurse. Results One third (65 of 201; 32%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 25.2% – 47.9%) of MSM were HIV positive. Prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) was: Chlamydia 11%, syphilis 6%, gonorrhea 3.5% and Trichomonas 0%. One third (34%) of MSM identified themselves as being homosexual, 64% as bisexual and 1.5% as heterosexual. HIV positive MSM were significantly more likely to have ever been told by a doctor that they had a STI (48% vs. 27%, OR 2.48 CI 1.21 – 5.04, p=0.01) and to be the receptive sexual partner at last sex (41% vs. 23%, OR 2.41 CI 1.21 – 4.71, p=0.008). MSM who were of low socio-economic status, ever homeless and victims of physical violence were twice as likely to be HIV positive. The majority (60%) of HIV positive MSM had not disclosed their status to their partner and over 50% were not comfortable disclosing their status to anyone. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence among MSM is an important factor driving the HIV epidemic in Jamaica. More effective ways need to be found to reduce the high prevalence of HIV among MSM including measures to reduce their social vulnerability, combat stigma and discrimination and empower them to practice safe sex. PMID:24756602

  5. High prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections among women living in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) contribute largely to the burden of health in South Africa and are recognized as major contributors to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Young women are particularly vulnerable to STIs. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the risk factors associated with prevalent and incident STIs among women who had participated in three clinical trials. Methods A total of 5,748 women were screened and 2293 sexually active, HIV negative, non-pregnant women were enrolled in three clinical trials in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. The prevalence of individual STIs Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), syphilis, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) was assessed at screening; and incident infections were evaluated over a 24 month period. Results Overall, the combined study population of all three trials had a median age of 28 years (inter-quartile range (IQR):22–37), and a median duration of follow-up of 12 months. Prevalence of STIs (CT, NG, TV, or syphilis) was 13% at screening. The STI incidence was estimated to be 20/100 women years. Younger women (<25 years, p?

  6. Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge Is a Poor Predictor of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Genital Tract Inflammation in High-Risk Women in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mlisana, Koleka; Naicker, Nivashnee; Werner, Lise; Roberts, Lindi; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Baxter, Cheryl; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Grobler, Anneke C.; Sturm, A. Willem; Williamson, Carolyn; Ronacher, Katharina; Walzl, Gerhard; Abdool Karim, Salim S.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?Diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is a public health priority, particularly in regions where the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is high. In most developing countries, STIs are managed syndromically. We assessed the adequacy of syndromic diagnosis of STIs, compared with laboratory diagnosis of STIs, and evaluated the association between STI diagnosis and the risk of HIV acquisition in a cohort of high-risk women. Methods.?HIV-uninfected high-risk women (n = 242) were followed for 24 months. Symptoms of STIs were recorded, and laboratory diagnosis of common STI pathogens was conducted every 6 months. Forty-two cytokines were measured by Luminex in cervicovaginal lavage specimens at enrollment. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated monthly. Results.?Only 12.3% of women (25 of 204) who had a laboratory-diagnosed, discharge-causing STI had clinically evident discharge. Vaginal discharge was thus a poor predictor of laboratory-diagnosed STIs (sensitivity, 12.3%; specificity, 93.8%). Cervicovaginal cytokine concentrations did not differ between women with asymptomatic STIs and those with symptomatic STIs and were elevated in women with asymptomatic STIs, compared with women with no STIs or bacterial vaginosis. Although laboratory-diagnosed STIs were associated with increased risk of HIV infection (hazard ratio, 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 1.5–7.2)], clinical symptoms were not. Conclusions.?Syndromic STI diagnosis dependent on vaginal discharge was poorly predictive of laboratory-diagnosed STI. Laboratory-diagnosed STIs were associated with increased susceptibility to HIV acquisition, while vaginal discharge was not. PMID:22517910

  7. Gender and risk behaviors for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among recently released inmates: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Mueller, Shane R; Beaty, Brenda L; Min, Sung-joon; Corsi, Karen F

    2014-01-01

    Women in prison have a higher prevalence of HIV than men. After release from prison, former inmates have the opportunity to engage in risk behaviors for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We sought to assess change in risk behaviors over time and the association of gender with risk behavior in the postrelease period. In this prospective cohort study, we interviewed 200 former inmates (51 women) approximately two weeks (baseline) and three months (follow-up) after release and tested them for HIV infection at follow-up. We examined the association of gender with unprotected vaginal or anal sex in the last seven days using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and multivariable logistic regression. At baseline, 22% of men and 41% of women reported unprotected vaginal sex (p < 0.01) and 5% of men and 8% of women reported unprotected anal sex (p = 0.51). Being younger (OR for each decade increase 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29-0.80), being gay/lesbian or being bisexual (compared with being heterosexual, OR = 4.74, 95% CI = 1.01-22.17 and OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.41-11.26, respectively), or reporting a drug of choice of heroin/speedballs or cocaine/crack (compared with marijuana/no drug of choice, OR = 24.00, 95% CI = 5.15-111.81 and OR = 3.49, 95% CI = 1.20-10.18, respectively) was associated with unprotected vaginal or anal sex after adjusting for race, homelessness, and hazardous drinking. At follow-up, 21% of men and 44% of women reported unprotected sex (p = 0.005), and female gender (OR = 4.42, 95% CI = 1.79-10.94) and hazardous drinking (compared with not meeting criteria for hazardous drinking, OR = 3.64, 95% CI = 1.34-9.86) were associated with unprotected sex, adjusting for race and homelessness. In this population with a high prevalence of HIV, we demonstrated persistent engagement in sexual risk behavior during the postrelease period. Enhanced efforts to promote sexual health and reduced risk behavior among both male and female current and former prison inmates are needed, including improved access to preventive care and HIV and STI screening, testing, and treatment. PMID:24266415

  8. Short message service (SMS) interventions for the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) is rising, posing a challenge to its control and appropriate management. Text messaging has become the most common mode of communication among almost six billion mobile phone users worldwide. Text messaging can be used to remind patients about clinic appointments, to notify patients that it is time for STI re-testing, and to facilitate patient communication with their health professionals with any questions and concerns they may have about their sexual health. While there are a handful of systematic reviews published on short message service (SMS) interventions in a variety of health settings and issues, none are related to sexual health. We plan to conduct a systematic review to examine the impact text messaging might have on interventions for the prevention and care of patients with STIs. Methods/Design Eligible studies will include both quantitative and qualitative studies published after 1995 that discuss the efficacy and effectiveness of SMS interventions for STI prevention and management using text messaging. Data will be abstracted independently by two reviewers using a standardized pre-tested data abstraction form. Inter-rater reliability scores will be obtained to ensure consistency in the inclusion and data extraction of studies. Heterogeneity will be assessed using the I2 test and subgroup analyses. A nonhypothesis driven inductive reasoning approach as well as a coding framework will be applied to analyze qualitative studies. A meta-analysis may be conducted if sufficient quantitative studies are found using similar outcomes. Discussion For this protocol, we identified ten related systematic reviews. The reviews were limited to a particular disease or setting, were not exclusive to SMS interventions, or were out of date. This systematic review will be the first comprehensive examination of studies that discuss the effectiveness of SMS on multiple outcomes that relate to STI prevention and management, covering diverse settings and populations. Findings of the systematic review and any additional meta-analyses will be published and presented to our key knowledge users. This information will provide the evidence that is required to appropriately adopt text messaging into standard practice in STI care. PMID:24433348

  9. Sexually transmitted infections among pregnant heroin or cocaine addicted women in treatment: The significance of psychiatric comorbidity and sex trade

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Hedden, Sarra L.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Psychiatric comorbidity and sex trade were tested as correlates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 76 pregnant heroin or cocaine dependent women. Participants were recruited from a drug treatment program and attended a clinician-administered assessment including the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV-TR) and self report questionnaires about lifetime histories of sex trade and STIs (i.e. gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, or trichomonas). Lifetime and six month rates of STIs were 53.9% and 18.4% respectively. The majority of women also had lifetime histories of psychiatric comorbidity (61.8%) and/or sex trade (60.5%). Participants with psychiatric comorbidity (AOR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3–11.6) and/or sex trade (AOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.1–9.5) were more likely to report STIs during their lifetime compared to those without such histories while controlling for age, education, and race/ethnicity. Results suggest that as many as one-in-five pregnant heroin or cocaine dependent women in treatment have one or more STIs that are concurrent with their pregnancy and may contribute to risk for contracting HIV and pregnancy complications; psychiatric comorbidity and/or sex trade were associated with greater STI risk. Findings underscore the importance of identifying and addressing comorbid psychiatric disorders and sex trade behavior in this population. PMID:20090001

  10. Sensitive Simultaneous Detection of Seven Sexually Transmitted Agents in Semen by Multiplex-PCR and of HPV by Single PCR

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) ?1 and ?2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks. PMID:24921247

  11. One love: explicit monogamy agreements among heterosexual young adult couples at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jocelyn T; Harvey, S Marie; Agnew, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevention strategies among couples include condom use, mutual monogamy, and HIV testing. Research suggests that condom use is more likely with new or casual partners, and tends to decline as relationships become steady over time. Little is known, however, about explicit mutual monogamy agreements and HIV testing within heterosexual couples. This study used data from 434 young heterosexual couples at increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to assess (a) couple concordance on perceptions of a monogamy agreement, sustained monogamy, and HIV testing; and (b) the associations of relationship and demographic factors with monogamy agreement, sustained monogamy, and HIV testing. Results indicated only slight to fair agreement within couples on measures of monogamy agreement and sustained monogamy. Overall, 227 couples (52%) concurred that they had an explicit agreement to be monogamous; of those, 162 (71%) had sustained the agreement. Couples with greater health protective communication and commitment were more likely to have a monogamy agreement. Couples of Latino and Hispanic ethnicity and those with children were less likely to have a monogamy agreement. Only commitment was related to sustained monogamy. Having children, greater health protective communication, and perceived vulnerability to HIV and STIs were associated with HIV testing within the couple. PMID:21191869

  12. Highly variable use of diagnostic methods for sexually transmitted infections-results of a nationwide survey, Germany 2005

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexual transmitted infections (STIs) have increased in Germany and other countries in Europe since the mid-nineties. To obtain a better picture of diagnostic methods used in STI testing institutions in Germany, we performed a nationwide survey amongst STI specialists in order to evaluate the quality of STI reports and provide recommendations to harmonize and possibly improve STI diagnostics in Germany. Methods We asked sentinel physicians and randomly chosen gynaecologists, urologists and dermato-venerologists, about the diagnostic methods used in 2005 to diagnose HIV, chlamydia (CT), gonorrhoea (GO) and syphilis (SY) in a national cross-sectional survey in order to recognize potential problems and provide recommendations. Results A total of 739/2287 (32%) physicians participated. Of all participants, 80% offered tests for HIV, 84% for CT, 83% for GO and 83% for SY. Of all participants who performed HIV testing, 90% requested an antibody test, 3% a rapid test and 1% a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). For CT testing, NAAT was used in 33% and rapid tests in 34% of participants. GO resistance testing was performed by 31% of the participants. SY testing was performed in 98% by serology. Conclusions Diagnostic methods for STI vary highly among the participants. Diagnostic guidelines should be reviewed and harmonised to ensure consistent use of the optimal STI diagnostic methods. PMID:20403184

  13. Health-seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infections and HIV testing among female sex workers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ngo, A D; Ratliff, E A; McCurdy, S A; Ross, M W; Markham, C; Pham, H T B

    2007-08-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to explore health-seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV testing among female sex workers (FSWs) in the cities of Hanoi and Da Nang, Vietnam. Data were gathered from in-depth interviews, focus groups and participant observation. Results suggest that women's decision to seek STI treatment and HIV testing is influenced by the complex interplay of personal risk perceptions, social relationships and community discourse. The women exhibited adequate knowledge of HIV while their knowledge of STIs was limited. They demonstrated high-risk perceptions of HIV, but they showed little concern for STIs. Most women sought treatment at pharmacies when they noticed symptoms of the genital tract. Their decision to seek care in health facilities and HIV testing was hampered by the high costs of treatment, judgmental attitudes of service providers, and a lack of information on testing services. Future interventions need to focus on strengthening knowledge of STIs and the STI-HIV association, and increasing awareness of HIV counselling and testing services. Training for STI service providers including pharmacies and private practitioners on sex-worker friendly and non-judgmental services and counselling skills should be emphasized to provide timely diagnosis and treatment of STIs, and to refer women to HIV testing. PMID:17712691

  14. Thermoreversible Gel Formulations Containing Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or n-Lauroylsarcosine as Potential Topical Microbicides against Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sylvie; Gourde, Pierrette; Piret, Jocelyne; Désormeaux, André; Lamontagne, Julie; Haineault, Caroline; Omar, Rabeea F.; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2001-01-01

    The microbicidal efficacies of two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and n-lauroylsarcosine (LS), were evaluated in cultured cells and in a murine model of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginal infection. In vitro studies showed that SLS and LS were potent inhibitors of the infectivity of HSV-2 strain 333. The concentrations of SLS which inhibit viral infectivity by 50% (50% inhibitory dose) and 90% (90% inhibitory dose) were 32.67 and 46.53 ?M, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for LS were 141.76 and 225.30 ?M. In addition, intravaginal pretreatment of mice with thermoreversible gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS prior to the inoculation of HSV-2 strain 333 completely prevented the development of genital herpetic lesions and the lethality associated with infection. Of prime interest, no infectious virus could be detected in mouse vaginal mucosa. Both formulations still provided significant protection when viral challenge was delayed until 1 h after pretreatment. Finally, intravaginal application of gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS once daily for 14 days to rabbits did not induce significant irritations to the genital mucosa, as demonstrated from macroscopic and histopathologic examinations. These results suggest that thermoreversible gel formulations containing SLS or LS could represent potent and safe topical microbicides for the prevention of HSV-2 and possibly other sexually transmitted pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:11353610

  15. Bedtime stories: the effects of self-constructed risk scenarios on imaginability and perceived susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Meertens, Ree M; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schaalma, Herman P

    2012-01-01

    Various authors (e.g. Kahnemann, D., & Tversky, A. (1982). The simulation heuristic. In D. Kahnemann, P. Slovic, & A. Tversky (Eds.), Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases (pp. 201-208). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press) have suggested that imagining an event and its consequences influences the perceived likelihood that it might happen in reality (simulation heuristic). A scenario--a description of how a certain activity can lead to a certain outcome--may stimulate one to imagine the outcomes and may influence one's likelihood judgement. The present research studied the effect of risk scenarios on perceptions of susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and the role of imaginability therein. In a randomised experimental study, we examined the effects of a prefabricated risk scenario and a self-constructed risk scenario against a non-message condition on perceived susceptibility to get infected with Chlamydia. Participants considered themselves more susceptible to Chlamydia after writing their own risk scenario but not after reading the prefabricated risk scenario. The imaginability of the event seemed to mediate the effect of self-constructed scenario information on perceived susceptibility. Recommendations for health education practices are discussed. PMID:22263927

  16. Epidemiology of Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections among Women at Increased Risk for HIV in Northwestern Tanzania: Inadequacy of Syndromic Management

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Suzanna C.; Ao, Trong T.; Vanobberghen, Fiona M.; Chilongani, Joseph; Hashim, Ramadhan; Andreasen, Aura; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Changalucha, John; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Curable, non-viral pathogens account for a significant burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and there is established evidence that STIs increase both HIV acquisition and transmission. We investigated the prevalence, trends, and factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum, and the performance of syndromic management, among a cohort of women working in bars, hotels, and other food and recreational facilities near large-scale mines in northwestern Tanzania. Methods HIV-negative women aged 18–44 years (N?=?966) were enrolled and followed for 12 months in a microbicides feasibility study. We collected sociodemographic and behavioural data, performed clinical examinations, and tested for STIs, at enrolment and 3-monthly. Risk factors for STIs were investigated using logistic regression models with random effects. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of syndromic management were calculated. Results At enrolment, the prevalences of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and high-titre active syphilis were 111/956 (12%), 42/955 (4%), 184/945 (19%) and 46/965 (5%), respectively. There were significant decreases over time for C. trachomatis and T. vaginalis (OR trend per month: 0.94 [95% CI 0.91, 0.97]; and 0.95 [0.93, 0.98], respectively; both p<0.001). The majority of these infections were not diagnosed by the corresponding syndrome; therefore, most participants were not treated at the diagnosis visit. Syndromic management was poorly predictive of laboratory-diagnosed infections. We identified a number of risk factors for STIs, including low educational level, some sexual behaviours, and ever having been pregnant. Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that the prevalences of curable STIs are high among women who work in food and recreational facilities in northwestern Tanzania. Most of these infections are missed by syndromic management. Accurate and affordable rapid-point-of-care tests and innovative interventions are needed to reduce the burden of STIs in this population which is at increased risk for HIV. PMID:25025338

  17. Consultations for sexually transmitted infections in the general practice in the Netherlands: an opportunity to improve STI/HIV testing

    PubMed Central

    Trienekens, Suzan C M; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Donker, Gé A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; van der Sande, Marianne A B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In the Netherlands, sexually transmitted infection (STI) care is provided by general practitioners (GPs) as well as by specialised STI centres. Consultations at the STI centres are monitored extensively, but data from the general practice are limited. This study aimed to examine STI consultations in the general practice. Design Prospective observational patient survey. Setting General practices within the nationally representative Dutch Sentinel GP network (n=125?000 patient population), 2008–2011. Outcome measures GPs were asked to fill out a questionnaire at each STI consultation addressing demographics, sexual behaviour and laboratory test results. Patient population, testing practices and test positivity are reported. Participants Patients attending a consultation concerning an STI/HIV-related issue. Results Overall, 1 in 250 patients/year consulted their GP for STI/HIV-related problems. Consultations were concentrated among young heterosexuals of Dutch origin. Laboratory testing was requested for 83.3% of consultations. Overall consult positivity was 33.4%, highest for chlamydia (14.7%), condylomata (8.7%) and herpes (6.4%). 32 of 706 positive patients (4.5%) were diagnosed with multiple infections. Main high-risk groups were patients who were <25?years old (for chlamydia), >25?years old (syphilis), men who have sex with men (MSM; for gonorrhoea/syphilis/HIV) or having symptoms (for any STI). Adherence to guideline-recommendations to test for multiple STI among high-risk groups varied from 15% to 75%. Conclusions This study found that characteristics of patients who consulted a GP for STIs were comparable to those of patients attending STI centres regarding age and ethnicity; however, consultations of high-risk groups like MSM and (clients of) commercial sex workers were reported less by the general practice. Where the STI centres routinely test all patients for chlamydia/syphilis/HIV/gonorrhoea, GPs tested more selectively, even more restricted than advised by GP guidelines. Test positivity was, therefore, higher in general practice, although it is unknown how many STIs are missed (particularly among high-risk groups). Opportunities for a more proactive role in STI/HIV testing at general practices in line with current guidelines should be explored. PMID:24381253

  18. ‘She was bewitched and caught an illness similar to AIDS’: AIDS and sexually transmitted infection causation beliefs in rural northern Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerry Mshana; Mary L. Plummer; Joyce Wamoyi; Zachayo S. Shigongo; David A. Ross; Daniel Wight

    2006-01-01

    HIV\\/AIDS programmes and interventions are more likely to succeed if they engage with local people's beliefs about AIDS causation. This study examined beliefs about general illness, sexually?transmitted infection (STI) and AIDS aetiology in rural Mwanza, Tanzania. From 1999–2002, participant observation was carried out in nine villages for a total of 158 person?weeks. Beliefs about general illness causation included God's will,

  19. Can We Measure STD Risk Behavior or STD as Surrogates for HIV risk?Presented at the International Congress of Sexually Transmitted Infections (ISSTDR\\/IUSTI) 2001, Berlin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Peterman

    2002-01-01

    There is great interest in the development of surrogate measures for HIV infection that could be used in intervention trials.\\u000a The sample size needed to detect a change in HIV incidence may be 10 times larger than the sample needed to detect a change\\u000a in STD (sexually transmitted disease) incidence, and 200 times larger than that needed to detect a

  20. Impact of five years of peer-mediated interventions on sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Luchters, Stanley; Chersich, Matthew F; Rinyiru, Agnes; Barasa, Mary-Stella; King'ola, Nzioki; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Bosire, Wilkister; Wambugu, Sam; Mwarogo, Peter; Temmerman, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 2000, peer-mediated interventions among female sex workers (FSW) in Mombasa Kenya have promoted behavioural change through improving knowledge, attitudes and awareness of HIV serostatus, and aimed to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI) by facilitating early STI treatment. Impact of these interventions was evaluated among those who attended peer education and at the FSW population level. Methods A pre-intervention survey in 2000, recruited 503 FSW using snowball sampling. Thereafter, peer educators provided STI/HIV education, condoms, and facilitated HIV testing, treatment and care services. In 2005, data were collected using identical survey methods, allowing comparison with historical controls, and between FSW who had or had not received peer interventions. Results Over five years, sex work became predominately a full-time activity, with increased mean sexual partners (2.8 versus 4.9/week; P < 0.001). Consistent condom use with clients increased from 28.8% (145/503) to 70.4% (356/506; P < 0.001) as well as the likelihood of refusing clients who were unwilling to use condoms (OR = 4.9, 95%CI = 3.7–6.6). In 2005, FSW who received peer interventions (28.7%, 145/506), had more consistent condom use with clients compared with unexposed FSW (86.2% versus 64.0%; AOR = 3.6, 95%CI = 2.1–6.1). These differences were larger among FSW with greater peer-intervention exposure. HIV prevalence was 25% (17/69) in FSW attending ? 4 peer-education sessions, compared with 34% (25/73) in those attending 1–3 sessions (P = 0.21). Overall HIV prevalence was 30.6 (151/493) in 2000 and 33.3% (166/498) in 2005 (P = 0.36). Conclusion Peer-mediated interventions were associated with an increase in protected sex. Though peer-mediated interventions remain important, higher coverage is needed and more efficacious interventions to reduce overall vulnerability and risk. PMID:18445258

  1. Role of Community Group Exposure in Reducing Sexually Transmitted Infection-Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Diwakar; Ramanathan, Shreena; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Saggurti, Niranjan; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Background Empowering female sex workers (FSWs) to address structural barriers and forming community groups (CGs) through community mobilization are seen as essential components of HIV prevention programs in India. Taking the membership of a CG as an exposure intervention, we hypothesized whether participation in a CG lead to reduced sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased treatment-seeking behavior among FSWs in three selected states of India — Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Methods and Findings The propensity score matching (PSM) approach examined the effect of CG membership, as against no membership, on STI-related risk, described as selected outcome measures — presence of any STI, self-reported STI symptoms, and treatment-seeking behavior among FSWs. A cross sectional bio-behavioral survey was administered in 2009–2010 and covered 7,806 FSWs through two-stage probability-based conventional and time location cluster sampling in 23 administrative districts of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Only 2,939 FSWs were reported to be members of a CG and among them 4.5% had any STIs. A majority of FSWs were aged above 24 years (86.4%), had ever been married (73%), operated from a public place for solicitation (81.5%), and had ever received HIV test results (75.6%). The average effect of CG exposure was reduction in STI prevalence by 4%, while self-reported STI symptom treatment-seeking behavior increased by 13.7%. Conclusion FSWs who were exposed to a CG were at a substantially lower risk of STIs than those who were unexposed. The FSWs exposed to a CG had a higher chance of seeking STI treatment from public and private health facilities. Collectivization related challenges must be overcome to provide access to tailored STI prevention and care services. PMID:24205210

  2. Women at a sexually transmitted disease clinic who reported same-sex contact: their HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors.

    PubMed Central

    Bevier, P J; Chiasson, M A; Heffernan, R T; Castro, K G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study compares characteristics, behaviors, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in women who reported same-sex contact and women who had sex only with men. METHODS. Participants were patients attending a New York City sexually transmitted disease clinic. Structured questionnaires were administered by interviewers. RESULTS. Overall, 9% (135/1518) of women reported same-sex contact; among these, 93% also reported contact with men. Women reporting same-sex contact were more likely than exclusively heterosexual women to be HIV seropositive (17% vs 11%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 2.6), to exchange sex for money/drugs (48% vs 12%, OR = 6.7, 95% CI = 4.6, 9.8), to inject drugs (31% vs 7%, OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 4.1, 9.5), and to use crack cocaine (37% vs 15%, OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.2, 4.8). HIV in women reporting same-sex contact was associated with history of syphilis (OR = 8.8), sex for crack (OR = 5.7), and injection drug use (OR = 4.5). CONCLUSIONS. In this study, women who reported same-sex contact were predominantly bisexual. They had more HIV risk behaviors and were more often HIV seropositive than women who had sex only with men. Among these bisexual women, heterosexual contact and injection drug use were the most likely sources of HIV. There was no evidence of female-to-female transmission. PMID:7573619

  3. Current trends in negative immuno-synergy between two sexually transmitted infectious viruses: HIV-1 and HSV-1/2

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Dervillez, Xavier; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Kuo, Tiffany; Zhang, Xiuli; Nagot, Nicolas; Tuaillon, Edouard; Van De Perre, Philippe; Nesburn, Anthony B.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of effective anti-retroviral therapy, immuno-compromised patients with HIV-1 infection do live long enough to suffer diseases caused by many opportunistic infections, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 and/or type 2 (HSV-1/2). An estimated two-third of the 40 million individuals that have contracted HIV-1 worldwide are co-infected with HSV-1/2 viruses, the causative agents of ocular oro-facial and genital herpes. The highest prevalence of HIV and HSV-1/2 infections are confined to the same regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. HSV-1/2 infections affect HIV-1 immunity, and vice versa. While important research gains have been made in understanding herpes and HIV immunity, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between HSV-1/2 and HIV co-infection remain to be fully elucidated. Understanding the mechanisms behind the apparent HSV/HIV negative immuno-synergy maybe the key to successful HSV and HIV vaccines; both are currently unavailable. An effective herpes immunotherapeutic vaccine would in turn - indirectly - contribute in reducing HIV epidemic. The purpose of this review is: (i) to summarize the current trends in understanding the negative immuno-crosstalk between HIV and HSV-1/2 infections; and (ii) to discuss the possibility of developing a novel mucosal herpes immunotherapeutic strategy or even a combined or chimeric immunotherapeutic vaccine that simultaneously targets HIV and HSV-1/2 infections. These new trends in immunology of HSV-1/2 and HIV co-infections should become part of current efforts in preventing sexually transmitted infections. The alternative is needed to balance the ethical and financial concerns associated with the rising number of unsuccessful mono-valent clinical vaccine trials. PMID:23355766

  4. The risk of success: cultural determinants of chronic disease and sexually transmitted infections among urban Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Uretsky, Elanah

    2011-06-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, the People's Republic of China successfully waged a series of public health campaigns to control the infectious diseases that were ravaging them as a nation. This included a campaign that targeted the social roots of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). China is now facing a new disease profile that includes emerging epidemics of chronic disease as well as reemerging epidemics of STIs. Many of these diseases are strongly associated with gender and occupation, suggesting need for a critical model of health literacy that recognizes the role of social risk in promoting risky behaviors rather than focusing on a simple model that disseminates knowledge about biomedical risk. Such a model is useful for explaining why people armed with knowledge about biomedical risk continue to engage in risky behaviors. This article focuses on the social risks that wealthy Chinese businessmen and government officials negotiate on a daily basis. It highlights the concept of guanxi that is so central to building relationships in China and explains the traditional process of yingchou used to establish and maintain relationships among this cadre of men who depend on one another for political and economic success. This process, which has become pervasive in China's era of market reform, requires men to engage in frequent practices of smoking, drinking, eating and female-centered entertainment that are contributing both to their success and to their increasing vulnerability to chronic disease and STIs. The paper concludes by offering some alternative approaches to addressing this emerging disease pattern among this particular segment of China's population. PMID:21097473

  5. KAP Study on Sexually Transmitted Infections/Reproductive Tract Infections (STIs/RTIs) among married women in rural Haryana

    PubMed Central

    Rizwan, SA; Rath, Rama S.; Vivek, Gupta; Nitika; Anant, Gupta; Farhad, Ahamed; Vijay, Silan

    2015-01-01

    Context: About 490 million cases of curable Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI) occur throughout the world, of which 79 million cases occur in India annually. Sexually Transmitted Infections/Reproductive Tract Infections (STI/RTI) confers a huge economic burden on the individual and the health system. Complications of RTI/STI are many, ranging from chronic pain syndrome to infertility. Most of these complications can be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment. Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices on STI/RTIs among married women aged 15-45 years in rural Haryana. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study, conducted in selected villages under the primary health centre Mandi, Sonepat, Haryana. Subjects and Methods: Systematic sampling was used to cover 10 villages. In each village, every tenth house was sampled, taking first house from the center of the village. Face-to-face interview was conducted using pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics and results were described in percentages. Results: A total of 344 women were interviewed. About 44% women had never heard of STI/RTI. The prevalence of self-reported symptoms of STI/RTI was very high (60%). Only 40% of them opted for treatment and most common cause for not opting for treatment was that they considered it as a minor problem. Advice for use of condom during the treatment was received by only 20% of patients and only 26.5% of their husbands also received treatment. Conclusions: Overall knowledge, attitude and practices relating to STI/RTI among married women in rural Haryana was poor. The prevalence of self-reported STI/RTI was found to be high and treatment seeking behavior was poor. PMID:25657909

  6. The risk of success: cultural determinants of chronic disease and sexually transmitted infections among urban Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Uretsky, Elanah

    2011-01-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, the People's Republic of China successfully waged a series of public health campaigns to control the infectious diseases that were ravaging them as a nation. This included a campaign that targeted the social roots of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). China is now facing a new disease profile that includes emerging epidemics of chronic disease as well as reemerging epidemics of STIs. Many of these diseases are strongly associated with gender and occupation, suggesting need for a critical model of health literacy that recognizes the role of social risk in promoting risky behaviors rather than focusing on a simple model that disseminates knowledge about biomedical risk. Such a model is useful for explaining why people armed with knowledge about biomedical risk continue to engage in risky behaviors. This article focuses on the social risks that wealthy Chinese businessmen and government officials negotiate on a daily basis. It highlights the concept of guanxi that is so central to building relationships in China and explains the traditional process of yingchou used to establish and maintain relationships among this cadre of men who depend on one another for political and economic success. This process, which has become pervasive in China's era of market reform, requires men to engage in frequent practices of smoking, drinking, eating and female-centered entertainment that are contributing both to their success and to their increasing vulnerability to chronic disease and STIs. The paper concludes by offering some alternative approaches to addressing this emerging disease pattern among this particular segment of China's population. PMID:21097473

  7. Increasing sexually transmitted infection rates in young men having sex with men in the Netherlands, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Men having sex with men (MSM) remain the largest high-risk group involved in on-going transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV, in the Netherlands. As risk behaviour may change with age, it is important to explore potential heterogeneity in risks by age. To improve our understanding of this epidemic, we analysed the prevalence of and risk factors for selected STI in MSM attending STI clinics in the Netherlands by age group. Methods Analysis of data from the national STI surveillance system for the period 2006–2012. Selected STI were chlamydia, gonorrhoea, infectious syphilis and/or a new HIV infection. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with these selected STI and with overall STI positivity. Analyses were done separately for MSM aged younger than 25 years and MSM aged 25 years and older. Results In young MSM a significant increase in positivity rate was seen over time (p?

  8. Antibiotic use before chlamydia and gonorrhea genital and extragenital screening in the sexually transmitted infection clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; van Liere, Genevieve A F S; Wolffs, Petra F G; Den Heijer, Casper; Werner, Marita I L S; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2015-01-01

    Background antibiotic use (i.e., administration of antibiotics not directly related to Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections) has been associated with a lower prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection in a clinical setting. Associations with specific antibiotic types or with N. gonorrhoeae are lacking. Here, we assessed the prevalence of antibiotic use, the different classes and agents used, and their association with a subsequent sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae test result. At our STI clinic, we systematically registered whether antibiotics were used in the past month (in 29% of the cases, the specific antibiotic agent was named). Patients were screened for urogenital C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae; a third of them were also screened for anorectal and oropharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. The proportion of antibiotics used and their association with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence were assessed for heterosexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and women. During 14,775 clinic consultations, antibiotic use was reported by 12.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.7% to 12.7%), i.e., 14.8% of women, 8.6% of heterosexual men, and 11.6% of MSM. The most reported antibiotics were penicillins, tetracyclines, and macrolides, respectively. The prevalence was 11.0% (95% CI, 10.3% to 11.3%) for C. trachomatis and 1.9% (95% CI, 1.7% to 2.1%) for N. gonorrhoeae. Only tetracycline use was associated with a lower C. trachomatis prevalence (3%). Overall antibiotic use was associated with lower anorectal C. trachomatis prevalence in MSM only (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.8). STI clinic visitors commonly report recent antibiotic use. Even in a country with low antibiotic consumption, tetracycline use impacted C. trachomatis prevalence, while there was a notable absence of association with azithromycin. PMID:25313220

  9. 252 | APRIL 2002 | VOLUME 3 www.nature.com/reviews/genetics also introduces the risk of sexually transmitted diseases

    E-print Network

    Otto, Sarah

    , such as the infamous twofold cost of sex. In sexual reproduction, the unit of reproduction is the couple, whereas in asexual reproduction it is the individual. Unless the sexually reproducing couple can produce twice reproductive output per capita.At one extreme,if sexual couples and asexual individuals produce the same

  10. The impact of health education transmitted via social media or text messaging on adolescent and young adult risky sexual behavior: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather

    2014-07-01

    Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women. PMID:24922099

  11. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are no symptoms. STIs are spread during vaginal, anal, or oral sex or during genital touching. So ... Diarrhea, vomiting, and upset stomach Mouth, genital, or anal sores Dry cough Rash or flaky skin Short- ...

  12. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resistance and discover alternate treatments. What's New Media Availability: NIH-Led Scientists Describe New Herpes Treatment Strategy —Dec. 3, 2014 Media Availability: Researchers Discover Common ...

  13. The Burden of Bacterial Vaginosis: Women’s Experience of the Physical, Emotional, Sexual and Social Impact of Living with Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Bilardi, Jade E.; Walker, Sandra; Temple-Smith, Meredith; McNair, Ruth; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Bellhouse, Clare; Fairley, Christopher K.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection, causing an abnormal vaginal discharge and/or odour in up to 50% of sufferers. Recurrence is common following recommended treatment. There are limited data on women’s experience of bacterial vaginosis, and the impact on their self-esteem, sexual relationships and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis on women. Methods A social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty five women with male and/or female partners participated in semi-structured interviews face-to-face or by telephone about their experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Results Recurrent bacterial vaginosis impacted on women to varying degrees, with some women reporting it had little impact on their lives but most reporting it had a moderate to severe impact. The degree to which it impacted on women physically, emotionally, sexually and socially often depended on the frequency of episodes and severity of symptoms. Women commonly reported that symptoms of bacterial vaginosis made them feel embarrassed, ashamed, ‘dirty’ and very concerned others may detect their malodour and abnormal discharge. The biggest impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis was on women’s self-esteem and sex lives, with women regularly avoiding sexual activity, in particular oral sex, as they were too embarrassed and self-conscious of their symptoms to engage in these activities. Women often felt confused about why they were experiencing recurrent bacterial vaginosis and frustrated at their lack of control over recurrence. Conclusion Women’s experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis varied broadly and significantly in this study. Some women reported little impact on their lives but most reported a moderate to severe impact, mainly on their self-esteem and sex life. Further support and acknowledgement of these impacts are required when managing women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis. PMID:24040236

  14. Cervical ectopy: associations with sexually transmitted infections and HIV. A cross-sectional study of high school students in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kleppa, Elisabeth; Holmen, Sigve D; Lillebø, Kristine; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Taylor, Myra; Moodley, Prashini; Onsrud, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It has been hypothesised that ectopy may be associated with increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this cross-sectional study, we wanted to explore the association between STIs (including HIV) and cervical ectopy. Methods We included 700 sexually active young women attending randomly selected high schools in a rural district in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The district is endemic of HIV and has a high prevalence of STIs. We did computer-assisted measurements of the ectocervical area covered by columnar epithelium (ectopy) in colposcopic images and STI analyses on cervicovaginal lavage and serum samples. All participating women answered a questionnaire about sexual behaviour and use of contraceptives. Results The mean age was 19.1?years. Ectopy was found in 27.2%, HIV in 27.8%, chlamydia in 25.3% and gonorrhoea in 15.6%. We found that age, parity, chlamydia and gonorrhoea, years since menarche, years since sexual debut and number of sexual partners were associated with ectopy. In multivariate analysis with chlamydia infection as the dependent variable, women with ectopy had increased odds of having chlamydia infection (adjusted OR 1.78, p=0.033). In women under 19?years of age, we found twofold higher odds of being HIV-positive for those with ectopy (OR 2.19, p=0.014). Conclusions In conclusion, cervical ectopy is associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection and HIV in the youngest women. PMID:25281761

  15. Female sex workers incarcerated in New York City jails: prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and associated risk behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Farah; Katyal, Monica; Alper, Howard; Leibowitz, Ruth; Venters, Homer

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are an important cause of morbidity among incarcerated women and female sex workers (FSW). Little is known about FSW incarcerated in New York City (NYC) jails. We reviewed jail health records to identify the STI and HIV prevalence among newly incarcerated FSW in NYC jails. We also examined the relationship of demographics and self-reported clinical and risk behaviour history with FSW status and compared FSW with non-FSW incarcerated women to identify FSW predictors and, guide NYC jail programme planning and policy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed routinely collected jail health record data to identify the prevalence of chlamydia (Ct), gonorrhoea (Ng) and HIV infection among women newly incarcerated in NYC jails in 2009–2010 (study period) and studied the relationship of STIs, demographics and self-reported clinical and risk behaviour history with FSW status. Results During the study period, 10?828 women were newly incarcerated in NYC jails. Of these, 10?115 (93%) women were tested for Ct and Ng; positivity was 6.2% (95% CI 5.7% to 6.7%) and 1.7% (95% CI 1.4% to 1.9%), respectively. Nine percent had HIV infection. Seven hundred (6.5%) were defined as FSW. FSW were more likely to have Ct (adjusted OR (AOR): 1.55; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.05; p<0.0001) but not Ng or HIV. FSW were more likely to report age 20–24?years, reside in boroughs other than Manhattan, ?6 prior incarcerations, ?2 incarcerations during the study period, condom use with current sex partners, multiple sex partners and current drug use. Conclusions Women incarcerated in NYC jails had high rates of Ct, Ng, and HIV infection. FSW were at higher risk for Ct than non-FSW incarcerated women. These findings are being used to design targeted interventions to identify FSW, provide clinical and preventive services in jail and coordinate care with community partners. PMID:23687128

  16. Utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) among sexually transmitted disease clinics attendees with coexisting drinking problems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse remains a major risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) not typically addressed in STD clinic settings. Information and communication technology (ICT) can offer new avenues to deliver evidence-based screening and treatment for problematic drinking, however, few data exists regarding the utilization of ICT among STD clinic attendees with coexisting drinking problems. The objectives of this study are to identify STD clinics attendees with hazardous drinking, to examine socio-demographic factors associated with ICT use, and to explore individuals’ interests in engaging in ICT-based health interventions. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaires examining alcohol consumption and ICT use were administered to 396 persons attending two non-urban STD clinics. Descriptive statistics for ICT use were calculated for both hazardous drinkers and the entire sample. Multivariable logistic regression models among hazardous drinkers identified factors significantly associated with use of each kind of ICT. Results The mean age of the 396 participants was 25 years, 66% were females and 60% were African-Americans. One third of the sample met the criteria of hazardous drinking. ICT use in hazardous drinkers included 94% reporting having internet access at least monthly, 82% reporting having an email account, 85% reporting currently owning a cell phone, and 91% reporting use of any cell phone application. More than two thirds (73%) of hazardous drinkers were willing to play health-related video games during clinic waiting time, slightly higher than the entire sample (69%). Multivariable analyses indicated that younger age were significantly related to monthly internet use, and multifunction cell phone use, while being males and younger age were significantly associated with monthly video game playing. Conclusions Our study demonstrates commonality of ICT use among STD clinic attendees with hazardous drinking, indicating the viability of using ICT to assist screening and behavioural intervention for alcohol misuse in STD clinic settings. Future research is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of ICT-based health behavioural interventions in the STD clinic settings or other venues that serve populations at high risk for substance abuse, HIV or other STDs. PMID:24670037

  17. Assessment of sexual risk behaviors and perception of vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in women, 1999-2012: a population based survey in a medium-sized Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Mesenburg, Marilia Arndt; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a key factor for susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. An evaluation of the sexual behavior of women at reproductive age was conducted in 1999. A replication of this study aims to evaluate the current situation and identify changes in sexual behavior, 13 years later. This is a population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with 1071 women in Pelotas, Brazil. Compared to the 1999 study, a 14% increase in early sexual debut and an 8% decrease in the non-use of condoms were observed in 2012. The proportion of women who reported anal sex doubled between these periods. There was no trend of increase or decrease in the prevalence of behaviors with distinct patterns being observed for each of them. Reduction of non-use of condoms may be an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to promote safe sex. However, the increased prevalence of early sexual debut and anal sex indicates the need for campaigns to continue and to expand their focus, especially among vulnerable groups. PMID:24780361

  18. A Novel Bacterial Mucinase, Glycosulfatase, Is Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony M. Roberton; Rebecca Wiggins; Patrick J. Horner; Rosemary Greenwood; Theresa Crowley; Arnold Fernandes; Monica Berry; Anthony P. Corfield

    The modifications to the vaginal habitat accompanying a change to vaginal flora in bacterial vaginosis (BV) are poorly understood. In this study enzymes involved in mucin degradation were measured, including a novel glycosulfatase assay. Women attending an emergency walk-in sexually transmitted disease clinic were studied. One high vaginal swab (HVS) was used to prepare a gram-stained smear to determine BV

  19. Factors associated with forced sex among women accessing health services in rural Haiti: implications for the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. c. Smith Fawzi; W. Lambert; J. m. Singler; Y. Tanagho; F. Le Andre; P. Nevil; D. Bertrand; M. s. Claude; J. Bertrand; M. Louissaint; L. Jeannis; J. s. Mukherjee; S. Goldie; J. j. Salazar; P. e. Farmer

    Abstract The goals of the current study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of forced sex among,women,accessing services at a women’s,health clinic in rural Haiti; and,(2) examine,factors associated with forced sex in this population. Based on data from a case-control study of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a cross-sectional analysis to examine,factors associated,with,forced,sex was,performed.,A number,of factors related to

  20. Acceptability of an internet-based partner notification system for sexually transmitted infection exposure among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Fair, Andrew D; Tetu, Ashley M; Novak, David S; Vanderwarker, Rodney; Bertrand, Thomas; Adelson, Stephan; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2008-06-01

    US men who have sex with men (n=1848) completed an online questionnaire about their willingness to use Internet-based partner notification. Eighty-one percent reported that it would be important to them to receive a partner notification e-mail if they had been exposed to a sexually transmitted infection. Seventy percent reported that if infected, they would use a public health specialist to inform partners of possible exposure through Internet notification. There was broad acceptance of Internet partner notification by at-risk US men who have sex with men, including a willingness to receive or initiate a notification e-mail. PMID:17901442

  1. How Setswana Cultural Beliefs and Practices on Sexuality Affect Teachers' and Adolescents' Sexual Decisions, Practices, and Experiences as well as HIV/AIDS/Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention in Botswana Selected Secondary Schools.

    PubMed

    Nleya, Paul T; Segale, Emelda

    2013-06-26

    The article reports on the aspects of a Botswana Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MoE & SD) HIV/AIDS Instructional Television (ITV) project modeled on a similar HIV/AIDS program implemented in Brazil. This Teacher Capacity Building Project (TCBP) in Botswana is in its initial years of implementation. Its overall goal is to contribute to the prevention and mitigation of the impact of HIV and AIDS by strengthening the capacity of the education and communication sectors to deliver interactive, distance HIV/AIDS education primarily to teachers so that they act as agents of behavior change among the in-school youth. One of the components of the TCBP program is a live teacher education television HIV/AIDS program called Talk Back program. Talk Back is a collaborative effort of the MoE & SD and the Botswana national television station. The Talk Back program involves development and implementation of weekly 1 hour live HIV/AIDS education interactive TV broadcasts for teachers. The development of the live programs is guided by a curriculum that provides a wide range of themes related to HIV/AIDS and education. This article reports the results of a survey of a sample of teachers and students at junior secondary schools and senior secondary schools, first, on their views and opinions regarding the Talk Back program as a TCBP. Second, how Setswana cultural beliefs, myths, and practices on sexuality affect teachers' and adolescents' sexual decisions, practices, and experiences as well as HIV&AIDS/sexually transmitted infection prevention. A questionnaire survey and focus group interviews were used as data collection instruments in selected secondary schools. The findings of the study suggest that the Talk Back program has not met much success as a TCBP. The findings further suggest that several myths, beliefs, misconceptions, and attitudes about HIV/AIDS exist among Botswana teachers and students and thus make it difficult for the Talk Back program to impart the HIV/AIDS message successfully. Therefore, there is a need for more stakeholders in HIV/AIDS education, where appropriate learning techniques are used, to bring about the desired behavioral change. PMID:23803563

  2. Prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in high risk social networks of young Roma (Gypsy) men in Bulgaria: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A; Kabakchieva, Elena; Vassileva, Sylvia; Vassilev, Boyan; McAuliffe, Timothy L; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Antonova, Radostina; Petrova, Elena; Khoursine, Roman A; Dimitrov, Borislav

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of a behavioural intervention for prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases that identified, trained, and engaged leaders of Roma (Gypsy) men's social networks to counsel their own network members. Design A two arm randomised controlled trial. Setting A disadvantaged, impoverished Roma settlement in Bulgaria. Participants 286 Roma men from 52 social networks recruited in the community. Intervention At baseline all participants were assessed for HIV risk behaviour, tested and treated for sexually transmitted diseases, counselled in risk reduction, and randomised to intervention or control groups. Network leaders learnt how to counsel their social network members on risk prevention. Networks were followed up three and 12 months after the intervention to determine evidence of risk reduction. Main outcome measure Occurrence of unprotected intercourse during the three months before each assessment. Results Reported prevalence of unprotected intercourse in the intervention group fell more than in control group (from 81% and 80%, respectively, at baseline to 65% and 75% at three months and 71% and 86% at 12 months). Changes were more pronounced among men with casual partners. Effects remained strong at long term follow-up, consistent with changes in risk reduction norms in the social network. Other measures of risk reduction corroborated the intervention's effects. Conclusions Endorsement and advice on HIV prevention from the leader of a social network produces well maintained change in the reported sexual practices in members of that network. This model has particular relevance for health interventions in populations such as Roma who may be distrustful of outsiders. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00310973. PMID:17040924

  3. Is screening for sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men who receive non?occupational HIV post?exposure prophylaxis worthwhile?

    PubMed Central

    Hamlyn, E; McAllister, J; Winston, A; Sinclair, B; Amin, J; Carr, A; Cooper, D A

    2006-01-01

    Background/aims Non?occupational HIV post?exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) is routinely prescribed after high risk sexual exposure. This provides an opportunity to screen and treat individuals at risk of concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STI). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an STI screening programme in individuals receiving NPEP. Methods STI screens were offered to all individuals receiving NPEP from March 2001 to May 2004. Screen results were compared to type of sexual exposure and baseline patient characteristics. Results A total of 253 subjects were screened, representing 85% of the target population. All were men who have sex with men (MSM). Common exposure risks were receptive anal intercourse (RAI) in 61% and insertive anal intercourse (IAI) in 33%. 32 (13%) individuals had one or more STI. The most common STIs were rectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in 11 (4.5%) and six (2.5%) individuals, respectively. Subjects with rectal CT were significantly more likely to be co?infected with rectal NG (p<0.001). There was no association between the presence of a rectal STI and age or exposure risk. Only six (19%) individuals with an STI were symptomatic at screening. Conclusion In this cohort of MSM receiving NPEP, high rates of concomitant STIs are observed highlighting the importance of STI screening in this setting. PMID:16461596

  4. The Relationship Between HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk and Alcohol Use During Commercial Sex Episodes: Results From the Study of Female Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    CHIAO, CHI; MORISKY, DONALD E.; ROSENBERG, RHONDA; KSOBIECH, KATE; MALOW, ROBERT

    2011-01-01

    The HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) risk associated with alcohol use between female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) and their customers has been understudied. We examined this relationship for 1,114 FCSWs aged 15–54 with data collected during the baseline study period (1994 to 1998) in four southern provinces of the Philippines. Two alcohol-related risk situations during commercial sex episodes were examined: prior alcohol use by an FCSW and perceived intoxication in a customer. The influence of sociodemographic variables on sexual risk behaviors was also studied. Multiple sexual risk behaviors were observed with more frequency for FCSWs if alcohol was used before commercial sex or if the episode involved a customer perceived to be intoxicated. Forty-two percent of FCSWs who had sex with an intoxicated customer were STI positive, significantly more than FCSWs who did not have sex with an intoxicated customer (28%, p < .01). Similar significant differences were found for FCSWs who did not consume alcohol before having sex and were STI positive (29%) versus FCSW who did consume alcohol before sex and were STI positive (33%, p < .01). Our analyses reinforce accumulating evidence in the field that sexual risk reduction interventions need to go beyond the behaviors of individual FCSWs to meet the layering of risks such as observed in this study. Multilevel strategies targeting customer substance use and other situational and structural factors have proven to be pivotal mediators in our other research with this population. These experiences and the limitations of this study are discussed. PMID:17002991

  5. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  6. High prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers in Honduras: implications for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L G; Paz-Bailey, G; Morales-Miranda, S; Morgan, M; Alvarez, B; Hickman, L; Monterroso, E

    2012-01-01

    This study describes HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and risk factors associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers (FSWs) in four cities in Honduras. In 2006, 795 FSWs from Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba and Comayagua were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and tested for HIV prevalence and STI. HIV prevalence ranged from no infections in Comayagua to 5.4% in Tegucigalpa. With the exception of Comayagua, more than 20% of FSWs were infected with M. genitalium. M. genitalium in the aggregated cities was associated with HIV positivity, being aged ?30 years old, drinking alcohol more than once weekly and always using condoms with regular clients in the past month. In comparison with a 2001 surveillance study we found lower rates of HIV infection. Interventions for HIV control and prevention among FSWs, including promotion of condom use, are needed in Honduras. PMID:22362680

  7. Impact of a Social Influence Intervention on Condom Use and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morisky, Donald E.; Stein, Judith A.; Chiao, Chi; Ksobiech, Kate; Malow, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the relative impact of structural and social influence interventions on reducing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV risk behavior among female sex workers in the Philippines (N = 897). Four conditions included manager influence, peer influence, combined manager–peer influence, and control. Intervention effects were assessed at the establishment level in multilevel models because of statistical dependencies among women employed within the same establishments. Control group membership predicted greater perceived risk, less condom use, less HIV/AIDS knowledge, and more negative condom attitudes. Combination participants reported more positive condom attitudes, more establishment policies favoring condom use, and fewer STIs. Manager-only participants reported fewer STIs, lower condom attitudes, less knowledge, and higher perceived risk than peer-only participants. Because interventions were implemented at the city level, baseline and follow-up city differences were analyzed to rule out intervention effects due to preexisting differences. PMID:17014277

  8. Insights in public health: Building support for an evidence-based teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention program adapted for foster youth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tamara; Clark, Judith F; Nigg, Claudio R

    2015-01-01

    Hawai'i Youth Services Network (HYSN) was founded in 1980 and is incorporated as a 501(c) (3) organization. HYSN plays a key role in the planning, creation, and funding of local youth services. One of HYSN's focuses is teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention among foster youth. Foster youth are at a greater risk for teen pregnancy and STI due to a variety of complex factors including instability, trauma, and emancipation from the foster care system. This article highlights how HYSN is leveraging both federal and local funding, as well as other resources, in order to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy and STI prevention program adapted for foster youth. PMID:25628980

  9. Low prevalence of HIV and other selected sexually transmitted infections in 2004 in pregnant women from Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita-Moleka, R; Smith, J S; Atibu, J; Tshefu, A; Hemingway-Foday, J; Hobbs, M; Bartz, J; Koch, M A; Rimoin, A W; Ryder, R W

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnant women in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Between April and July 2004, antenatal attendees at two of the largest maternity clinics in Kinshasa were tested to identify HIV status, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). HIV seroprevalence was 1.9% in 2082 women. With PCR techniques, CT and NG infections were also uncommon in the first 529 women (1.7% and 0.4%, respectively). No active syphilis infection case was identified by Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) and rapid plasma reagin test (RPR). A woman's risk of HIV infection was significantly associated with her reporting a male partner having had other female sexual partners (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.2). The continuing low seroprevalence of HIV in pregnant women from Kinshasa was confirmed. Understanding factors associated with this phenomenon could help prevent a future HIV epidemic in low HIV transmission areas in Africa. PMID:18028581

  10. Testing Commercial Sex Workers for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Victoria, Australia: An Evaluation of the Impact of Reducing the Frequency of Testing

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eric P. F.; Fehler, Glenda; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Denham, Ian; Law, Matthew G.; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The frequency of testing sex workers for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Victoria, Australia, was changed from monthly to quarterly on 6 October 2012. Our aim was to determine the impact of this change to the clients seen at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MHSC). Methods Computerised medical records of all clients attending at MHSC from 7 October 2011 to 7 October 2013 were analysed. Results Comparing between the monthly and quarterly testing periods, the number of consultations at MSHC with female sex workers (FSW) halved from 6146 to 3453 (p<0.001) and the consultation time spent on FSW reduced by 40.6% (1942 h to 1153 h). More heterosexual men (p<0.001), and women (p<0.001) were seen in the quarterly testing period. The number of STIs diagnosed in the clinic increased from 2243 to 2589 from the monthly to quarterly period, respectively [15.4% increase (p<0.001)]. Up to AU$247,000 was saved on FSW testing after the shift to quarterly testing. Conclusions The change to STIs screening frequency for sex workers from monthly to quarterly resulted in a 15% increase in STI diagnoses in the clinic and approximate a quarter of a million dollars was diverted from FSW testing to other clients. Overall the change in frequency is likely to have had a beneficial effect on STI control in Victoria. PMID:25048817

  11. Hepatitis B Infection and Association with Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lama, Javier R.; Agurto, Hellen S.; Guanira, Juan V.; Ganoza, Carmela; Casapia, Martin; Ojeda, Nora; Ortiz, Abner; Zamalloa, Victoria; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Cabezas, Cesar; Sanchez, Jose L.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    To assess the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru, we evaluated the prevalence and associated risk factors for HBV serologic markers among participants of a HIV sentinel surveillance conducted in 2002–2003. The standardized prevalences for total antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were 20.2% and 2.8%, respectively. Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection had significantly higher anti-HBc (44.3% versus 19.3%) and HBsAg (9.5% versus 2.3%) prevalences than uninfected men. Increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.06), versatile sexual role (AOR = 1.59), sex in exchange for money/gifts (AOR = 1.58), syphilis (AOR = 1.74), HIV-1 infection (AOR = 1.64), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, AOR = 2.77) infection were independently associated with anti-HBc positivity, whereas only HIV-1 infection (AOR = 3.51) and generalized lymph node enlargement (AOR = 3.72) were associated with HBsAg positivity. Pre-existing HBV infection is very common among Peruvian MSM and was correlated with sexual risk factors. MSM in Peru constitute a target population for further HBV preventive and treatment interventions. PMID:20595501

  12. What Girls Won’t Do for Love: Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infections Risk Among Young African-American Women Driven by a Relationship Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Raiford, Jerris L.; Seth, Puja; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Rates of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to increase among African-American youth. Adolescents who have a stronger identity in relation to others (relational identity) rather than to themselves (self-identity) may view intimate relationships as imperative to a positive self-concept, which may lead to risky sexual behavior and abuse. Therefore, the present study assessed the associations among a relationship imperative and HIV/STI-related risk factors and behaviors. Methods Participants were 715 African-American adolescent females, aged 15 to 21 years. They completed measures that assessed how important a relationship was to them and HIV-related risk factors and behaviors. Participants also provided vaginal swab specimens for STI testing. Results Multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for covariates, were conducted. Females who endorsed a relationship imperative (29%), compared to those who did not, were more likely to report: unprotected sex, less power in their relationships, perceived inability to refuse sex, anal sex, sex while their partner was high on alcohol/drugs, and partner abuse. Furthermore, participants with less power, recent partner abuse, and a perceived ability to refuse sex were more likely to test STI positive. Conclusion These results indicate that if African-American adolescent females believe a relationship is imperative, they are more likely to engage in riskier sexual behaviors. Additionally, less perceived power and partner abuse increases their risk for STIs. HIV/STI prevention programs should target males and females and address healthy relationships, sense of self-worth, self-esteem and the gender power imbalance that may persist in the community along with HIV/STI risk. PMID:23298990

  13. Risk Factors for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR?1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945

  14. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Candidate Bacteria: Associations with BV and Behavioural Practices in Sexually-Experienced and Inexperienced Women

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, Christopher K.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Fehler, Glenda; Morton, Anna M.; Hocking, Jane S.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years several new fastidious bacteria have been identified that display a high specificity for BV; however no previous studies have comprehensively assessed the behavioural risk associations of these bacterial vaginosis-candidate organisms (BV-COs). Methods We examined the associations between 8 key previously described BV-COs and BV status established by Nugent's score (NS). We also examined the sexual practices associated with each BV-CO. We incorporated 2 study populations: 193 from a sexually-inexperienced university population and 146 from a highly sexually-active clinic population. Detailed behavioural data was collected by questionnaire and vaginal smears were scored by the Nugent method. Stored samples were tested by quantitative PCR assays for the 8 BV-COs: Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Leptotrichia spp., Megasphaera type I, Sneathia spp., and the Clostridia-like bacteria BVAB1, BVAB2 and BVAB3. Associations between BV-COs and BV and behaviours were examined by univariate and multivariable analyses. Results On univariate analysis, all BV-COs were more common in BV compared to normal flora. However, only Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were significantly independently associated with BV by multivariable analysis. Six of the eight BV-COs (Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, BVAB3, Sneathia, Leptotrichia and G. vaginalis) were rare or absent in sexually-unexposed women, and demonstrated increasing odds of detection with increasing levels of sexual activity and/or numbers of lifetime sexual partners. Only G. vaginalis and A. vaginae were commonly detected in sexually-unexposed women. Megasphaera type I was independently associated with women-who-have-sex-with women (WSW) and lifetime sexual partner numbers, while unprotected penile-vaginal-sex was associated with BVAB2 detection by multivariate analysis. Conclusions Four of eight key BV-COs were significantly associated with BV after adjusting for the presence of other BV-COs. The majority of BV-COs were absent or rare in sexually-unexposed women, and associated with increasing sexual exposure, suggesting potential sexual transmission of BV-COs. PMID:22363457

  15. Prevalent and Incident Bacterial Vaginosis Are Associated with Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviours in Young Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, Christopher K.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M.; McNamee, Kathryn; Urban, Eve; Walker, Sandra; Currie, Marian; Birden, Hudson; Bowden, Francis; Garland, Suzanne; Pirotta, Marie; Gurrin, Lyle; Hocking, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine prevalence and incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and risk factors in young sexually-active Australian women. Methods 1093 women aged 16–25 years were recruited from primary-care clinics. Participants completed 3-monthly questionnaires and self-collected vaginal smears 6-monthly for 12-months. The primary endpoint was a Nugent Score?=?7–10 (BV) and the secondary endpoint was a NS?=?4–10 (abnormal flora [AF]). BV and AF prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were derived, and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) calculated to explore epidemiological associations with prevalent BV and AF. Proportional-hazards regression models were used to examine factors associated with incident BV and AF. Results At baseline 129 women had BV [11.8% (95%CI: 9.4–14.2)] and 188 AF (17.2%; 15.1–19.5). Prevalent BV was associated with having a recent female partner [AOR?=?2.1; 1.0–4.4] and lack of tertiary-education [AOR?=?1.9; 1.2–3.0]; use of an oestrogen-containing contraceptive (OCC) was associated with reduced risk [AOR?=?0.6; 0.4–0.9]. Prevalent AF was associated with the same factors, and additionally with >5 male partners (MSP) in 12-months [AOR?=?1.8; 1.2–2.5)], and detection of C.trachomatis or M.genitalium [AOR?=?2.1; 1.0–4.5]. There were 82 cases of incident BV (9.4%;7.7–11.7/100 person-years) and 129 with incident AF (14.8%; 12.5–17.6/100 person-years). Incident BV and AF were associated with a new MSP [adjusted rate ratio (ARR)?=?1.5; 1.1–2.2 and ARR?=?1.5; 1.1–2.0], respectively. OCC-use was associated with reduced risk of incident AF [ARR?=?0.7; 0.5–1.0]. Conclusion This paper presents BV and AF prevalence and incidence estimates from a large prospective cohort of young Australian women predominantly recruited from primary-care clinics. These data support the concept that sexual activity is strongly associated with the development of BV and AF and that use of an OCC is associated with reduced risk. PMID:23472099

  16. Risk Assessment and Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infections, HIV, and Hepatitis Virus Among Long-Distance Truck Drivers in New Mexico, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Jenison, Steven; Keller, Nick; Vega-Hernandez, Jaime; Hubbard McCree, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexually transmitted infection (STI), HIV, and hepatitis virus prevalence and risk behaviors among truck drivers. Methods. We asked participants about their risk behaviors, and we screened them for STIs, HIV, and hepatitis infections. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with outcomes. Results. Of the 652 enrolled participants, 21% reported sex with sex workers or casual partners in the prior year. Driving solo (odds ratio [OR] = 15.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.92, 117.53; P = .01), history of injection drug use (IDU; OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.19, 6.12; P = .02), and history of an STI (OR = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.19, 5.09; P = .01) were independently associated with high-risk sexual behaviors. Fourteen percent of participants reported drug use in the previous year, and 11% reported having ever injected drugs. Participants tested positive as follows: 54 for HCV antibodies (8.5%), 66 for hepatitis B anticore (anti-HBc) antibodies (10.4%), 8 for chlamydia (1.3%), 1 for gonorrhea (0.2%), 1 for syphilis (0.2%), and 1 for HIV (0.2%). History of injecting drugs (OR = 26.91; 95% CI = 11.61, 62.39; P < .01) and history of anti-HBc antibodies (OR = 7.89; 95% CI = 3.16, 19.68; P < .01) were associated with HCV infection. Conclusions. Our results suggest a need for hepatitis C screening and STI risk-reduction interventions in this population. PMID:19762674

  17. Home?based versus clinic?based self?sampling and testing for sexually transmitted infections in Gugulethu, South Africa: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jones, H E; Altini, L; de Kock, A; Young, T; van de Wijgert, J H H M

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To test whether more women are screened for sexually transmitted infections when offered home?based versus clinic?based testing and to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of self?sampling and self?testing in home and clinic settings in a resource?poor community. Methods Women aged 14–25 were randomised to receive a home kit with a pre?paid addressed envelope for mailing specimens or a clinic appointment, in Gugulethu, South Africa. Self?collected vaginal swabs were tested for gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis using PCR and self?tested for trichomoniasis using a rapid dipstick test. All women were interviewed at enrolment on sociodemographic and sexual history, and at the 6?week follow?up on feasibility and acceptability. Results 626 women were enrolled in the study, with 313 in each group; 569 (91%) completed their 6?week follow?up visit. Forty?seven per cent of the women in the home group successfully mailed their packages, and 13% reported performing the rapid test and/or mailing the kit (partial responders), versus 42% of women in the clinic group who kept their appointment. Excluding partial responders, women in the home group were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) times as likely to respond to the initiative as women in the clinic group. Among the 44% who were tested, 22% tested positive for chlamydia, 10% for trichomoniasis, and 8% for gonorrhoea. Conclusions Self?sampling and self?testing are feasible and acceptable options in low?income communities such as Gugulethu. As rapid diagnostic tests become available and laboratory infrastructure improves, these methodologies should be integrated into services, especially services aimed at young women. PMID:17901084

  18. ONGOING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE ACQUISTION AND RISK TAKING BEHAVIOR AMONG U.S. HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN PRIMARY CARE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PREVENTION INTERVENTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Bush, Timothy; Henry, Keith; Overton, Turner; Hammer, John; Richardson, Jean; Wood, Kathy; Conley, Lois; Papp, John; Caliendo, Angela M.; Patel, Pragna; Brooks, John T

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY A study of HIV-infected persons in primary care in four U.S. found that 13% had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD six months later. Background To better understand the factors associated with HIV and STD transmitting behavior among HIV-infected persons, we estimated STD prevalence and incidence and associated risk factors among a diverse sample of HIV-infected patients in primary care. Methods We analyzed data from 557 participants in the SUN study, a prospective observational cohort of HIV-infected persons in primary care in four U.S. cities. At enrollment and six months thereafter, participants completed an audio computer-assisted self interview about their sexual behavior, and were screened for genitourinary, rectal and pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis infections by nucleic acid amplification testing, and for serologic evidence of syphilis. Women provided cervicovaginal samples and men provided urine to screen for T. vaginalis by polymerase chain reaction. Results Thirteen percent of participants had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD six months later. The most commonly diagnosed infections were rectal chlamydia, oropharyngeal gonorrhea, and chlamydial urethritis among the men, and trichomoniasis among the women. Other than trichomoniasis, 94% of incident STDs were identified in MSM. Polysubstance abuse other than marijuana, and having ? 4 sex partners in the six months prior to testing were associated with diagnosis of an incident STD. Conclusions STDs were commonly diagnosed among contemporary HIV-infected patients receiving routine outpatient care, particularly among sexually active MSM who used recreational drugs. These findings underscore the need for frequent STD screening, prevention counseling, and substance abuse treatment for HIV-infected persons in care. PMID:22183836

  19. Assessment of sex-related behaviours, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men of reproductive age in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are among the major public health challenges in Cameroon. This paper determined the effect of men's sex-related behaviors and HIV knowledge on reported STIs. The data came from the 2012 Cameroon's Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) that were collected from 7191 respondents in 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression methods were used for data analysis. Results showed that majority of the respondents were aware of STIs and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), while 3.96% reported STIs. Also, 49.45% of the men had no wife, while 75.58% and 84.58% noted that condoms and keeping of one partner could be used to prevent HIV transmission, respectively. Wrong impressions that mosquito bites and sharing of food could lead to HIV infection were held by 31.94% and 12.44% of the men, respectively. Among those that reported STIs, 33.33%, 30.18% and 13.33% respectively used condom during sex with most recent partner, second to most recent partner and third to most recent partner, compared to 24.69%, 15.04% and 4.17% among those that did not report STIs. Logistic regression results showed that probability of STI increased significantly (p < 0.05) with condom use with third most recent partners, being married, wrong knowledge that mosquito bites cause HIV and being away for more than one month, while it significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with number of children, knowledge that having one partner prevents STIs. It was concluded that policy initiatives and programmes to enhance right sexual knowledge and behavior among men would go a long way in reducing STI incidence in Cameroon. PMID:25500999

  20. Assessment of sex-related behaviours, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men of reproductive age in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus(HIV), are among the major public health challenges in Cameroon. This paper determined the effect of men's sex-related behaviors and HIV knowledge on reported STIs. The data came from the 2012 Cameroon's Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) that were collected from 7191 respondents in 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression methods were used for data analysis. Results showed that majority of the respondents were aware of STIs and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), while 3.96% reported STIs. Also,49.45% of the men had no wife, while 75.58% and 84.58% noted that condoms and keeping of one partner could be used to prevent HIV transmission, respectively. Wrong impressions that mosquito bites and sharing of food could lead to HIV infection were held by 31.94% and 12.44% of the men, respectively. Among those that reported STIs, 33.33%,30.18% and 13.33% respectively used condom during sex with most recent partner, second to most recent partner and third to most recent partner, compared to 24.69%, 15.04% and 4.17% among those that did not report STIs. Logistic regression results showed that probability of STI increased significantly (p < 0.05) with condom use with third most recent partners, being married, wrong knowledge that mosquito bites cause HIV and being away for more than one month, while it significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with number of children, knowledge that having one partner prevents STIs. It was concluded that policy initiatives and programmes to enhance right sexual knowledge and behavior among men would go a long way in reducing STI incidence in Cameroon. PMID:25587602

  1. Assessment of Sex-Related Behaviours, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Knowledge and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) among Men of Reproductive Age in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are among the major public health challenges in Cameroon. This paper determined the effect of men’s sex-related behaviors and HIV knowledge on reported STIs. The data came from the 2012 Cameroon’s Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) that were collected from 7191 respondents in 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression methods were used for data analysis. Results showed that majority of the respondents were aware of STIs and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), while 3.96% reported STIs. Also, 49.45% of the men had no wife, while 75.58% and 84.58% noted that condoms and keeping of one partner could be used to prevent HIV transmission, respectively. Wrong impressions that mosquito bites and sharing of food could lead to HIV infection were held by 31.94% and 12.44% of the men, respectively. Among those that reported STIs, 33.33%, 30.18% and 13.33% respectively used condom during sex with most recent partner, second to most recent partner and third to most recent partner, compared to 24.69%, 15.04% and 4.17% among those that did not report STIs. Logistic regression results showed that probability of STI increased significantly (p < 0.05) with condom use with third most recent partners, being married, wrong knowledge that mosquito bites cause HIV and being away for more than one month, while it significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with number of children, knowledge that having one partner prevents STIs. It was concluded that policy initiatives and programmes to enhance right sexual knowledge and behavior among men would go a long way in reducing STI incidence in Cameroon. PMID:25500999

  2. Prevention of sexually transmitted HIV infections through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: a history of achievements and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Caroline A; Conly, Shanti R; Stanton, David L; Hasen, Nina S

    2012-08-15

    HIV prevention in the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) began when both data on HIV prevalence and the toolbox of interventions for prevention of sexual transmission were relatively limited. PEPFAR's early focus was on scaling-up information, education, and communication programs that included messaging on abstinence for youth and faithfulness primarily through nongovernmental organizations, including faith-based organizations. Additional activities included condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing. In epidemics concentrated within key populations, PEPFAR's prevention efforts focused on a minimum package of services including outreach, information, education, and communication programs, STI treatment (where appropriate), and condom promotion and distribution. As more epidemiological data became available and with experience gleaned in these early efforts, the need for tailored and flexible approaches became evident. The next iteration of prevention efforts still emphasized behavioral interventions, but incorporated a sharper focus on key epidemic drivers, especially multiple partners; a data-driven emphasis on high transmission areas and populations, including prevention with people living with HIV; and a more strategic and coordinated approach at the national level. Recently, the paradigm for prevention efforts has shifted yet again. Evidence that biomedical interventions such as male circumcision, treatment for prevention of vertical and horizontal transmission, and treatment itself could lead to declines in incidence has refocused PEPFAR's prevention portfolio. New guidance on sexually transmitted HIV focuses on combination prevention, emphasizing biomedical, behavioral and structural approaches. Landmark speeches by the President and the Secretary of State and new ambitious targets for PEPFAR point toward a new goal: an AIDS-free generation. PMID:22797743

  3. Research priorities for human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections surveillance, screening, and intervention in emergency departments: consensus-based recommendations.

    PubMed

    Haukoos, Jason S; Mehta, Supriya D; Harvey, Leah; Calderon, Yvette; Rothman, Richard E

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the results of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention in the emergency department (ED) component of the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference entitled "Public Health in the ED: Surveillance, Screening, and Intervention." The objectives were to use experts to define knowledge gaps and priority research questions related to the performance of HIV and STI surveillance, screening, and intervention in the ED. A four-step nominal group technique was applied using national and international experts in HIV and STI prevention. Using electronic mail, an in-person meeting, and a Web-based survey, specific knowledge gaps and research questions were identified and prioritized. Through two rounds of nomination and refinement, followed by two rounds of election, consensus was achieved for 11 knowledge gaps and 14 research questions related to HIV and STI prevention in EDs. The overarching themes of the research priority questions were related to effectiveness, sustainability, and integration. While the knowledge gaps appear disparate from one another, they are related to the research priority questions identified. Using a consensus approach, we developed a set of priorities for future research related to HIV and STI prevention in the ED. These priorities have the potential to improve future clinical and health services research and extramural funding in this important public health sector. PMID:20053228

  4. Self-reported Ecstasy (MDMA) Use and Past Occurrence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) in a Cohort Juvenile Detainees in the USA.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Torrance; Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Jarboe, Jerriyauna

    2015-04-01

    The current study was designed to determine the extent to which self-reported ecstasy use in a population of juvenile adolescent detainees in a southern state is associated with high-risk health behaviors pertaining to sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptomology and past history of STI occurrence. Participants were 2,260 juvenile offenders housed at selected Youth Development Campuses in the state of Georgia. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) are presented. Juveniles who reported having used ecstasy previously were more likely to report that they had sore bumps of blisters near their sex organs before (OR 1.28, 95 % CI 0.74-2.21), with males who had used ecstasy prior incarceration being more than two times more likely to indicated that they had experienced having a drip or drainage from the penis (OR 1.76, 95 % CI 0.72-4.32), having vaginal discharge or odor from their vagina (OR 2.33, 95 % CI 1.16-4.65). PMID:25160467

  5. How acceptable are antiretrovirals for the prevention of sexually transmitted HIV?: A review of research on the acceptability of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention.

    PubMed

    Young, Ingrid; McDaid, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Recent research has demonstrated how antiretrovirals (ARVs) could be effective in the prevention of sexually transmitted HIV. We review research on the acceptability of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) for HIV prevention amongst potential users. We consider with whom, where and in what context this research has been conducted, how acceptability has been approached, and what research gaps remain. Findings from 33 studies show a lack of TasP research, PrEP studies which have focused largely on men who have sex with men (MSM) in a US context, and varied measures of acceptability. In order to identify when, where and for whom PrEP and TasP would be most appropriate and effective, research is needed in five areas: acceptability of TasP to people living with HIV; motivation for PrEP use and adherence; current perceptions and management of risk; the impact of broader social and structural factors; and consistent definition and operationalisation of acceptability which moves beyond adherence. PMID:23897125

  6. Impact of Social and Structural Influence Interventions on Condom Use and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Establishment-Based Female Bar Workers in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Morisky, Donald E.; Chiao, Chi; Stein, Judith A.; Malow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY This quasi-experimental study evaluated the influence of structural intervention components (e.g., changing organizational and social influence factors) in reducing biological sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reports of unprotected sex among female bar workers (FBWs) in the Philippines (N = 369 at baseline). Recruited from four large southern Philippines cities, FBWs were exposed to a standard care, a manager influence, a peer influence, or a combined manager/peer influence condition. After the two-year intervention period, FBWs in the combined peer and manager intervention condition showed greater reductions in STIs and unprotected sex relative to those in the standard care condition. FBWs in the combined and the manager only conditions also showed a decrease in STIs compared to those in the standard care condition. Managers in the standard care condition reported lower positive condom attitudes and lower attendance at HIV/AIDS related training sessions compared to those in the combined condition. The combined effect of managers and peers had a positive, synergistic effect on condom use behavior and STI reduction compared to the standard care. This research provides empirical evidence that structural changes such as rules, regulations, and increased accessibility of condoms must be in combination with normative changes (individuals’ attitudes, beliefs and normative expectancies) in order to achieve the greatest benefit in condom use behavior and STI reduction/prevention. PMID:21666753

  7. Prevalence of, and risk factors for, HSV-2 antibodies in sexually transmitted disease patients, healthy pregnant females, blood donors and medical students in Tanzania and Norway.

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, A.; Mwakagile, D.; Marsden, H.; Langeland, N.; Matre, R.; Haarr, L.

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of specific HSV-2 antibodies was studied in Tanzanian and Norwegian sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients (1095) and non-STD patients (488). Correlates to demographic and behavioural factors were evaluated. Seropositivity was determined by the non-commercial peptide-55 enzyme-linked immunoassay. The prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies was 70% in Tanzanian and 17% in Norwegian STD patients, 35% in Tanzanian blood donors and pregnant women, and 4, 7 and 14% in Norwegian medical students, blood donors and pregnant women respectively. A higher HSV-2 prevalence was associated with female sex, increasing age, previous STDs, history of genital HSV infection, coitarchal age (age at first intercourse) <15 years and HIV seropositivity. Compared to previous data, the prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies in Tanzanian STD patients has increased remarkably. In Norwegian STD patients our results are consistent with, or lower than, the prevalence previously reported in Western Europe. Demographic rather than behavioural factors were associated with higher prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies in STD patients. PMID:16181514

  8. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... FDA licensure of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4, Gardasil) for use in males and guidance from the ... among adolescent girls, 2007–2012, and postlicensure vaccine safety monitoring, 2006–2013 - United States . MMWR Morb Mortal ...

  9. Care seeking behaviour and barriers to accessing services for sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Laos: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prompt, correct diagnosis and treatment with health information are essential components of reproductive tract infection (RTI) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) services. This study aims to describe care seeking behaviour and barriers to accessing RTI/STI services among female sex workers (FSWs) in Laos. Methods A cross-sectional survey using closed and open-ended questions was performed in six districts along Road 9, traversing Savannakhet province from Thailand to Vietnam. In total, 407 FSWs were interviewed. The data were analyzed and presented descriptively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to assess associations between respondents' background characteristics and care seeking behaviour. Results About half of the respondents (49%) were less than or equal to 19 years of age, and 50% had started or completed secondary school. Fifty-eight percent had been engaged in sex work for less than 1 year. Eighty-six percent of the respondents reported RTI/STI signs or symptoms currently or in the last 3 months but only two-thirds of those with symptoms sought treatment. Source of treatment for the last RTI/STI episode was the drop-in centre (53%) followed by a public hospital (23%), private clinic (12%), private pharmacy (9%), and herbalist (2%). The main barriers to service use were long waiting time, inconvenient location of the clinic, not knowing where to get the services needed, and negative attitudes among healthcare providers. Care seeking behaviour was associated with longer duration of sex work (OR = 2.6, 95%CI 1.52-5.36). Forty-four percent received health information from peer educators, 34% from fellow friends, 26% from a pimp, and 26% had received information from a healthcare provider during the visit. Conclusion There were several barriers to accessing RTI/STI services and they were related to both structural and individual factors. Innovative STI service strategies to inform FSWs about the importance of early diagnosis and treatment should be established. Continuous training for STI service providers focusing on counseling skills and awareness of the sexual health care needs for FSWs is recommended in order to minimize the barriers experienced by FSWs in this particular setting. PMID:22333560

  10. Self-reported sexually transmitted infections and their correlates among men who have sex with men in Norway: an Internet-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidences of reportable sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have increased since the late 1990 s in Norway. The objectives of our study were to assess factors, associated with recent selected STI among MSM, living in Norway in order to guide prevention measures. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional Internet-based survey during 1-19 October 2007 among members of a MSM-oriented Norwegian website using an anonymous questionnaire on demographics, sexual behaviour, drug and alcohol use, and STI. The studied outcomes were gonorrhoea, syphilis, HIV or Chlamydia infection in the previous 12 months. Associations between self-reported selected STI and their correlates were analysed by multivariable Poisson regression. P value for trend (p-trend), adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals [] were calculated. Results Among 2430 eligible 16-74 years old respondents, 184 (8%) reported having had one of the following: syphilis (n = 17), gonorrhoea (n = 35), HIV (n = 42) or Chlamydia (n = 126) diagnosed in the past 12 months. Reporting Chlamydia was associated with non-western background (PR 2.8 [1.4-5.7]), number of lifetime male partners (p-trend < 0.001), unsafe sex under the influence of alcohol (PR 1.8 [1.1-2.9]) and with younger age (p-trend = 0.002). Reporting gonorrhoea was associated with unrevealed background (PR 5.9 [1.3-26.3]), having more than 50 lifetime male partners (PR 4.5 [1.3-15.6]) and more than 5 partners in the past 6 months (PR 3.1 [1.1-8.8]), while mid-range income was protective (PR 0.1 [0.0-0.6]). Reporting HIV was associated with residing in Oslo or Akershus county (PR 2.3 [1.2-4.6]), non-western background (PR 5.4 [1.9-15.3]), unrevealed income (PR 10.4 [1.5-71.4]), number of lifetime male partners (p-trend < 0.001) and being under the influence of selected drugs during sex in the past 12 months (PR 5.2 [2.7-11.4]). In addition, the frequency of feeling drunk was reversibly associated with HIV. Conclusions Our study demonstrates different associations of demographic and behavioural factors with different STI outcomes in the study population. Number of lifetime male partners was the most important potential predictor for Chlamydia and HIV. The STI prevention efforts among MSM should focus on Oslo and Akershus, promote safe sex practices and tackle sex-related drug and alcohol use. PMID:20815931

  11. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs) in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media) and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves). The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination) contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma, discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are critical concerns of FSWs. This report demonstrates that it is possible to address these broader structural factors as part of large-scale HIV prevention programming. Although assessing the impact of the various components of a structural intervention on reducing HIV vulnerability is difficult, addressing the broader structural factors contributing to FSW vulnerability is critical to enable these vulnerable women to become sufficiently empowered to adopt the safer sexual behaviours which are required to respond effectively to the HIV epidemic. PMID:21962115

  12. Recent trends in diagnoses of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in England and Wales among men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, N; Dougan, S; McGarrigle, C; Baster, K; Rice, B; Evans, B; Fenton, K

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine trends in rates of diagnoses of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men who have sex with men (MSM) in England and Wales between 1997 and 2002. Methods: Estimates of the MSM population living in England and Wales, London and the rest of England and Wales were applied to surveillance data, providing rates of diagnoses of HIV and STIs and age group specific rates for HIV and uncomplicated gonorrhoea. Results: Between 1997 and 2002, rates of diagnoses of HIV and acute STIs in MSM increased substantially. Rates in London were higher than elsewhere. Rises in acute STIs were similar throughout England and Wales, except for uncomplicated gonorrhoea and infectious syphilis, with greater increases outside London. Rates of gonorrhoea diagnoses doubled between 1999 and 2001 (661/100 000, 1271/100 000, p<0.001) in England and Wales followed by a slight decline to 1210/100 000 (p = 0.03) in 2002—primarily the result of a decline in diagnoses among men aged 25–34 (1340/100 000, 1128/100 000, p<0.001) and 35–44 (924/100 000, 863/100 000, p = 0.03) in London. HIV was the third most common STI diagnosed in MSM in England and Wales and the second in London, with the highest rate (1286/100 000) found among men aged 35–44 in London in 2002. Conclusions: Rates of diagnosis of HIV and other STIs have increased substantially among MSM in England and Wales. Increases show heterogeneity by infection, geography, and age over time. Rates in London were twice those seen elsewhere, with greatest changes over time. The observed changes reflect concomitant increases in high risk behaviour documented in behavioural surveillance survey programmes. PMID:15572622

  13. Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]?=?25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR?=?4.74; 95% CI?=? 2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR?=?4.29; 95% CI?=?2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR?=?2.80; 95% CI?=?1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR?=?0.53; 95% CI?=?0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

  14. High prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: need for services tailored to their needs

    PubMed Central

    Semde, Gisèle; Sika, Lazare; Crucitti, Tania; Ettiegne Traore, Virginie; Buve, Anne; Laga, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess condom use and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV among male sex workers (MSW) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October 2007 and January 2008 among MSW attending a sex worker clinic in Abidjan. A short questionnaire was administered in a face-to-face interview, and the participants were asked to provide a urine sample for STI testing and to self-collect transudate of the gingival mucosa for anonymous HIV testing, using a rapid test. A rectal swab for STI testing was taken by a physician. Molecular amplification assays were performed for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results 96 MSW participated in the survey, their median age was 27?years and the median duration of sex work was 5?years. Consistent condom use with clients during the last working day was 86.0%, and consistent condom use with the regular partner during the last week was 81.6%. HIV infection was detected in 50.0% of the participants. The prevalence of N gonorrhoeae was 12.8%, chlamydia infection was present in 3.2% and T vaginalis in 2.1% of the study participants. Conclusions HIV and STI rates found in this study confirm the high risk and vulnerability status of MSW in Côte d'Ivoire. There is a definite need for studies exploring risk and risk perceptions among MSW in more depth and for services tailored to their needs, including developing and validating simple algorithms for the diagnosis of STI in MSW and men who have sex with men. PMID:22328644

  15. Community-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening and Increased Detection of Pharyngeal and Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Sex Workers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Horas T.H.; Lee, Krystal C.K.; Chan, Denise P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are one of the key populations being infected most by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. In Hong Kong, limited data on the burden of chlamydial and gonococcal infections exist because regular screenings are not offered. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in FSWs and to assess predictors associated with unprotected fellatio. Methods A cross-sectional study was conduct on 340 FSWs attending a community organization for HIV/STI screening, and a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics was administered to all FSWs. Results The prevalence of syphilis infection was 2.1%, and none was tested positive for HIV. The positivity for pharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 3.2% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas that for urogenital chlamydial and gonococcal infection was 10.6% and 0.9%, respectively. Of 313 FSWs offering fellatio, having unprotected fellatio with clients was significantly associated with the perceived low risk of contracting STI via fellatio (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.88), working in clubs (adjusted OR, 11.14), working on streets (adjusted OR, 3.28), recently started working in the sex industry for 1 year or less (adjusted OR, 3.05), and reporting group sex in the previous year (adjusted OR, 11.03). Conclusions The prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection remains low. This study reveals a relatively high prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae detected mostly in the pharynx. Offering pharyngeal screening for STI would facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal infection in FSWs in Hong Kong. PMID:25768859

  16. Prevalence of HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Risk Behaviours Among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya: Results of a Respondent Driven Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Musyoki, Helgar; Kellogg, Timothy A; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Fisher Raymond, H; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7-34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25-38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8-17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4-18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at 'great risk' for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population. PMID:25428282

  17. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal sexually transmitted infections and blood borne virus notification rates in Western Australia: using linked data to improve estimates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background National notification data for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and blood borne viruses (BBVs) continue to have a high proportion of missing data on Indigenous status, potentially biasing estimates of notification rates by Aboriginality. We evaluated the use of data linkage to improve the accuracy of estimated notification rates for STIs and BBVs in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups in Western Australia. Methods STI and BBV case notifications in Western Australia received in 2010 were linked with administrative health data collections in Western Australia to obtain additional data on Indigenous status. STI and BBV notification rates based on the pre- and post-linkage data among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups were compared. Results Data linkage decreased the proportion of notifications with unknown Indigenous status by 74% from 10.2% to 2.7%. There was no significant difference in disease-specific age-adjusted notification rate ratio estimates based on pre-linkage data and post-linkage data for Aboriginal people compared with non-Aboriginal people. Conclusion Our findings suggest that reported STI and BBV disease-specific age-adjusted notification rates for 2010 in Western Australia are unlikely to be significantly biased by excluding notifications with unknown Indigenous status. This finding is likely to be dependent on recent improvements in the reporting of Indigenous status in notification data in Western Australia. Cost-effective and systematic solutions, including the better use of existing data linkage resources, are required to facilitate continued improvement in the completeness of reporting and accuracy of estimates for notifiable STIs and BBVs in Australia by Aboriginality. PMID:23621957

  18. The Epidemic of HIV, Syphilis, Chlamydia and Gonorrhea and the Correlates of Sexual Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Jiangsu, China, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Geng-Feng; Jiang, Ning; Hu, Hai-Yang; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yin, Yue-Ping; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Babu, Giridhar R.; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Ding, Ping; Qiu, Tao; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Hongxiong; Huan, Xi-Ping; Tang, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Background In China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is expanding among men who have sex with men (MSM). As independent risk factors of HIV infection, the epidemics of Chlamydia (CT) and Gonorrhea (NG) in MSM were not well studied, particular for the risk factors of these infectious. The objectives of current reported study were to understand the dynamics of HIV and other sexual transmitted infections (STIs) among MSM in Jiangsu, China, and to measure factors that correlated with STIs. Methods In order to gain more participants, a multisite cross-sectional study design was used in our study, by using convenience-sampling to recruit MSM in two Changzhou and Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China, between the July and October of 2009. Results In this comprehensive survey involving MSM in two cities of Jiangsu province of China, the prevalence of STIs of CT (6.54%), NG (3.63%), syphilis (20.34%) and HIV (11.62%) were measured. Overall, the STIs prevalence (CT, NG or syphilis) for the participants in our study was 26.39%, meanwhile, 3.4% (14 out of the 413) participants had at least two kinds of STIs. Meeting casual partners at parks, public restrooms or other public areas, having had anal sex with men in the past six months, having had STI symptoms in the past year were positively correlated with STIs positive, with adjusted ORs of 4.61(95%CI 1.03–20.75), 1.91(95%CI 1.14–3.21) and 2.36(95%CI 1.07,5.24). Conclusion Our study findings reiterate the fact that Chinese MSM are highly susceptible to acquiring syphilis, CT, NG and HIV, and there is an urgent need for intervention targeted towards this population. Behavioral measures should constitute an important part of the targeted intervention. Furthermore, the already implemented preventive and diagnostic services for HIV should be expanded to include syphilis CT and NG, too. PMID:25775451

  19. Decline in the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Benin over 15 years of targeted interventions

    PubMed Central

    BÉHANZIN, Luc; DIABATÉ, Souleymane; MINANI, Isaac; BOILY, Marie-Claude; LABBÉ, Annie-Claude; AHOUSSINOU, Clément; ANAGONOU, Séverin; ZANNOU, Djimon Marcel; LOWNDES, Catherine M; ALARY, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background An HIV preventive intervention targeting the sex work milieu and involving fully integrated components of structural interventions (SI), communication for behavioural change and care for sexually transmitted infections (STI), was implemented in Benin by a Canadian project from 1992 to 2006. It first covered Cotonou before being extended to other main cities from 2000. At the project end, the Beninese authorities took over the intervention, but SI were interrupted and other intervention components were implemented separately. We estimated time trends in HIV/STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSW) from 1993 to 2008 and assessed the impact of the change in intervention model on trends. Methods Six integrated biological and behavioural surveys were carried out among FSW. Time trend analysis controlled for potential socio-demographic confounders using log-binomial regression. Results In Cotonou, from 1993 to 2008, there was a significant decrease in HIV (53.3 to 30.4%), gonorrhea (43.2 to 6.4%) and chlamydia (9.4 to 2.8%) prevalence (all adjusted-p=0.0001). The decrease in HIV and gonorrhea prevalence was also significant in the other cities between 2002 and 2008. In 2002, gonorrhea prevalence was lower in Cotonou than elsewhere (prevalence ratio [PR]=0.53; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.32–0.88). From 2005 to 2008, there was an increase in gonorrhea prevalence (PR=1.76; 95%CI: 1.17–2.65) in all cities combined. Conclusion Our results suggest a significant impact of this targeted preventive intervention on HIV/STI prevalence among FSW. The recent increase in gonorrhea prevalence could be related to the lack of integration of the intervention components. PMID:23337368

  20. High Rates of Sexually transmitted infections in HIV-positive patients in the Australian HIV Observational Database - a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mulhall, Brian P; Wright, Stephen; Allen, Debbie; Brown, Katherine; Dickson, Bridget; Grotowski, Miriam; Jackson, Eva; Petoumenos, Kathy; Read, Phillip; Read, Timothy; Russell, Darren; Smith, David J; Templeton, David J; Fairley, Christopher K; Law, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STI) may directly increase the risk of HIV infection, or may indicate sexual practices that increase the risk of HIV infection. In persons with HIV they probably also increase the infectiousness of HIV, even in the context of treatment with antiretroviral drugs (ARV). Estimating STI in this group has proved problematic, and there are few longitudinal studies able to accurately measure incidence. Methods In 2010, we established a cohort of individuals from ten widely dispersed sexual health clinics that were already enrolled in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD). We calculated retrospective diagnosis rates for four STI (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, infectious syphilis, anogenital warts) from 2005-2010, and prospective incidence rates from 2010-2011. Results At baseline (2010) , the patient characteristics (n=554) were similar to the rest of AHOD (n=1767), namely they were predominantly male, homosexual, middle-aged, and pre- treated with ARV. Overall, the incidence of any STI was 12.5/100 person years (py). There was a gradual increase in chlamydial infections , from 3.4/100 py (95% CI 1.9-5.7) in 2005 to 6.7/100py (95% CI 4.5-9.5) in 2011, with a substantial peak of 8.1/100py (95% CI 5.6-11.2) in 2010. The cases were distributed between rectal ( 61.9%), urethral (34%), and pharyngeal (6.3%) sites. Similarly, gonococcal infections increased, with a peak in 2010 of 4.7/100py (95% CI 5.6-11.2), (p value for trend=0.0099), distributed between rectal (63.9%), urethral (27.9%), and pharyngeal (14.8%) sites. Infectious syphilis showed several peaks, the largest in 2008 (5.3/100py , (95% CI 3.3-8.0), but the overall trend was not significant (p=0.113). Diagnoses of genital warts declined from 7.5/100py (95% CI 4.8-11.3) in 2005 (95% CI 4.8-11.3) to 2.4/100py (95% CI 1.1-4.5) in 2011 (p value for trend=0.0016). Conclusions The incidence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in this cohort was higher than previous estimates in Australia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), and increased during the 2005-2011 study period. Rectal infections greatly outnumbered infections at other sites. The incidence of infectious syphilis remained high, but did not increase, and the incidence of genital warts was lower, and decreased. These are the first measurements of STI incidence among persons being treated for HIV in Australia. They may underestimate the true incidence of these infections in the HIV-infected population. PMID:25109880

  1. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  2. Medications for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ritonavir Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors delavirdine, efavirenz, nevirapine Chlamydia Antibiotics azithromycin,erythromycin,doxycycline Gonorrhea Antibiotics ceftriaxone, cefixime, ...

  3. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases Diseases & Related Conditions STDs & Infertility Other STDs Archive Life Stages and Populations Adolescents and Young Adults ... STDs & Pregnancy Facts & Brochures Fact Sheet Statistics Treatment Archive Laboratory Information Prevention Screening Recommendations Publications & Products Banners ...

  4. [Sexually transmitted infections: update 2013].

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2013-02-27

    Although there have been significant advances in diagnosis, treatment, and education, the occurence of STI continues to increase worldwide as well as in Switzerland. The most common STI include human papillomavirus (HPV), chlamydia, herpes, simplex virus types 1 and 2, gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis B and trichomoniasis. Diagnosis and treatment continue to be major public health challenges because of the asymptomatic nature of many of these infections. Recent studies showed favorable epidemiologic trends for HPV infection in vaccinated females as well as in some males. On the other hand we are confronted with rising incidences e.g. in urethritis with various causative agents and in syphilis cases. Alarmingly during the last 3 years gonococci have become less susceptible to our remaining antibiotics, necessitating strict adherence to updated treatment guidelines. Other trends in STIs and their consequences are discussed. PMID:23446237

  5. Barriers and facilitators of sexually transmissible infection testing in remote Australian Aboriginal communities: results from the Sexually Transmitted Infections in Remote Communities, Improved and Enhanced Primary Health Care (STRIVE) Study.

    PubMed

    Hengel, Belinda; Guy, Rebecca; Garton, Linda; Ward, James; Rumbold, Alice; Taylor-Thomson, Debbie; Silver, Bronwyn; McGregor, Skye; Dyda, Amalie; Knox, Janet; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

    2014-11-27

    Background Remote Australian Aboriginal communities experience high rates of bacterial sexually transmissible infections (STI). A key strategy to reduce STIs is to increase testing in primary health care centres. The current study aimed to explore barriers to offering and conducting STI testing in this setting. Methods: A qualitative study was undertaken as part of the STI in Remote communities, Improved and Enhanced Primary Health Care (STRIVE) project; a large cluster randomised controlled trial of a sexual health quality improvement program. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews in 22 participating health centres across four regions in northern and central Australia. Results: Participants identified barriers including Aboriginal cultural norms that require the separation of genders and traditional kinship systems that prevent some staff and patients from interacting, both of which were exacerbated by a lack of male staff. Other common barriers were concerns about client confidentiality (lack of private consulting space and living in small communities), staff capacity to offer testing impacted by the competing demands for staff time, and high staff turnover resulting in poor understanding of clinic systems. Many participants also expressed concerns about managing positive test results. To address some of these barriers, participants revealed informal strategies, such as team work, testing outside the clinic and using adult health checks. Conclusions: Results identify cultural, structural and health system issues as barriers to offering STI testing in remote communities, some of which were overcome through the creativity and enthusiasm of individuals rather than formal systems. Many of these barriers can be readily addressed through strengthening existing systems of cultural and clinical orientation and educating staff to view STI in a population health framework. However others, particularly issues in relation to culture, kinship ties and living in small communities, may require testing modalities that do not rely on direct contact with health staff or the clinic environment. PMID:25426563

  6. Factors Associated With Intention to Use Internet-Based Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Hottes, Travis Salway; Kerr, Thomas; Taylor, Darlene; Fairley, Christopher K; Lester, Richard; Wong, Tom; Trussler, Terry; Marchand, Rick; Shoveller, Jean; Ogilvie, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet-based testing programs are being increasingly used to reduce testing barriers for individuals at higher risk of infection, yet the population impact and potential for exacerbation of existing health inequities of these programs are not well understood. Objective We used a large online sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada to measure acceptability of Internet-based testing and perceived advantages and disadvantages of this testing approach. Methods We asked participants of the 2011/2012 Sex Now Survey (a serial online survey of gay and bisexual men in Canada) whether they intended to use Internet-based testing and their perceived benefits and disadvantages of use. We examined whether intention to use was associated with explanatory variables spanning (A) sociodemographics, (B) Internet and technology usage, (C) sexually transmitted infections (STI)/ human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and risk, and (D) health care access and testing, using multivariable logistic regression (variable selection using Bayesian information criterion). Results Overall, intention to use was high (5678/7938, 71.53%) among participants with little variation by participant characteristics. In our final model, we retained the variables related to (B) Internet and technology usage: use of Internet to cruise for sex partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.25-1.70), use of Internet to search for sexual health information (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.23-1.51), and mobile phone usage (AOR 1.19, 95% 1.13-1.24). We also retained the variables for (D) health care access and testing: not “out” to primary care provider (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.41), delayed/avoided testing due to privacy concerns (AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.49-2.11), and delayed/avoided testing due to access issues (AOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.40-1.95). Finally, we retained the variable being HIV positive (AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.46-0.68) or HIV status unknown (AOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.77-1.01), age <30 years (AOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.22-1.62), and identifying as bisexual (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.34) or straight/other (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50-0.90). The greatest perceived benefits of Internet-based testing were privacy (2249/8388, 26.81%), general convenience (1701/8388, 20.28%), and being able to test at any time (1048/8388, 12.49%). The greatest perceived drawbacks were the inability to see a doctor or nurse (1507/8388, 17.97%), wanting to talk to someone about results (1430/8388, 17.97%), not wanting online results (1084/8388, 12.92%), and low trust (973/8388, 11.60%). Conclusions The high and wide-ranging intention to use that we observed suggests Internet-based testing has the potential to reach into all subgroups of MSM and may be particularly appealing to those facing current barriers to accessing STI/HIV testing and who are more comfortable with technology. These findings will be used to inform the promotion and further evaluation of an Internet-based testing program currently under development in British Columbia, Canada. PMID:24240644

  7. Influence of study population on the identification of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases using a case-control design: the example of gonorrhea.

    PubMed

    Manhart, Lisa E; Aral, Sevgi O; Holmes, King K; Critchlow, Cathy W; Hughes, James P; Whittington, William L H; Foxman, Betsy

    2004-08-15

    The population prevalence of many sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is low. Thus, most epidemiologic studies of STDs are conducted among STD clinic populations to maximize efficiency. However, STD clinic patients have unique sociobehavioral characteristics. To examine the potential effect of study population on identification of risk factors, the authors compared 1) STD clinic patients with a random digit dialing telephone sample, 2) general population cases with random digit dialing controls, and 3) STD clinic cases with STD clinic controls (Seattle, Washington, 1992-1995). Risk factors for gonorrhea identified among STD clinic patients formed a subset of those identified in the general population. In both populations, risk decreased with age (odds ratio for the general population (OR(GP)) = 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22, 0.59; odds ratio for the clinic population (OR(clinic)) = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.81) and was increased among Blacks (OR(GP) = 15.5, 95% CI: 4.93, 49.0; OR(clinic) = 10.5, 95% CI: 4.51, 24.68) and persons whose partner had been jailed (OR(GP) = 5.4, 95% CI: 2.07, 13.9; OR(clinic )= 3.1, 95% CI: 1.32, 7.30). Additional factors associated with gonorrhea in the general population included secondary education (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.70), anal intercourse (OR = 10.5, 95% CI: 2.01, 54.7, STD history (OR = 5.9, 95% CI: 1.76, 19.5), meeting partners in structured settings (OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.50), no condom use (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.30, 7.89), and divorce (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.07, 11.9). Risk factors identified in STD clinics will probably be confirmed in a general population sample, despite overcontrolling for shared behaviors; however, factors associated with both disease and STD clinic attendance may be missed. PMID:15286025

  8. Reversible Deficiency of Antimicrobial Polypeptides in Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Valore, Erika V.; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Ganz, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common condition associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infections. In contrast, vulvovaginal candidiasis has a much weaker association with sexually transmitted diseases. We found that vaginal lavage fluid from women with bacterial vaginosis is deficient in antimicrobial polypeptides and antimicrobial activity compared to fluid from healthy women or women with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Effective treatment normalized the concentrations of antimicrobial polypeptides in both bacterial vaginosis and in vulvovaginal candidiasis, suggesting that the abnormalities were a result of the diseases. Unlike in vulvovaginal candidiasis, the neutrophil attractant chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) was not increased in bacterial vaginosis, accounting for low concentrations of neutrophil-derived defensins in vaginal fluid. In organotypic cultures of human vaginal epithelium containing dendritic cells, treatment with Lactobacillus jensenii, a typical vaginal resident, induced the synthesis of IL-8 mRNA and the epithelial human ?-defensin-2 mRNA, but a typical bacterial vaginosis pathogen, Gardnerella vaginalis, had no effect. When the two bacteria were combined, Gardnerella vaginalis did not interfere with the immunostimulatory effect of Lactobacillus jensenii. The loss of normal immunostimulatory flora in bacterial vaginosis is thus associated with a local deficiency of multiple innate immune factors, and this deficiency could predispose individuals to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:16988245

  9. Sex On-Demand: Geosocial Networking Phone Apps and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections among a Cross-Sectional Sample of Men who have Sex with Men in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Beymer, Matthew R; Weiss, Robert E; Bolan, Robert K; Rudy, Ellen T; Bourque, Linda B; Rodriguez, Jeffrey P; Morisky, Donald E

    2014-01-01

    Background Geosocial networking applications (GSN apps) used to meet sexual partners have become increasingly popular with men who have sex with men (MSM) since 2009. The current study aimed to determine if self-identified HIV negative, MSM clinic attendees who used GSN apps have an increased incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to self-identified HIV negative, MSM attendees who met sexual partners via in-person venues such as bars or clubs or through MSM-specific hook-up websites. Methods Data were collected between August 2011 and January 2013 on all self-identified HIV-negative, MSM clients visiting the L.A. Gay & Lesbian Center for STI screening. A total of 7,184 individuals tested for STIs and self-reported behaviours on drug use and social networking methods to meet sexual partners. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the results. Results Individuals who used GSN apps to meet sexual partners had greater odds of testing positive for gonorrhoea (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.06–1.48) and for chlamydia (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.13–1.65) compared to individuals who met partners through in-person methods only. There were no significant differences in syphilis and HIV incidence between those who met partners via in-person venues only, on the internet or through GSN apps. Conclusions The present study concludes that sexual health clinic MSM attendees who are meeting on GSN apps are at greater risk for gonorrhoea and chlamydia than MSM attendees who meet in-person or on the internet. Future interventions should explore the use of these novel technologies for testing promotion, prevention and education. PMID:24926041

  10. Immediate medical care after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Cybulska, Beata

    2013-02-01

    Immediate needs after sexual assault include safety and privacy in the first instance, followed by treatment of injuries and prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus. Management should include risk identification of self-harm and suicide, as well as safeguarding children and vulnerable adults. Pregnancy prevention can be achieved through oral or mechanical methods of emergency contraception. Availability of emergency contraception may vary between districts and countries, depending on local laws and cultural or religious beliefs. Sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhoea, chlamydia, hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus, represent an important part of management of victims of sexual assault. They can be prevented immediately by offering bacterial and viral prophylaxis followed by sexual health screening 2 weeks later unless symptomatic. In deciding what antibiotics to use as prophylaxis, local prevalence of infections and resistance to antibiotics should be considered. Prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus infection after sexual exposure should be discussed and offered in high-risk cases for up to 72 h after exposure. This should be accompanied by baseline human immunodeficiency virus test and referral for follow up. In high prevalence areas, prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus infection after sexual exposure should be offered as a routine. Psychosocial support and risk assessment of vulnerabilities, including self-harm or domestic violence and practical support should be addressed and acted on depending on identified needs. PMID:23200638

  11. Tbackoffadaptive Tfastrelay transmits Tfastdata transmitted

    E-print Network

    radius = D (high cost) relay distance = 1 AP transmitter relay region (low cost)The transmission bit rate,karl,kubisch,mengesha}@tkn.tu-berlin.de So-called IEEE 802.11 "performance anomaly" Relay probability (N nodes, two transmit radii) cell of the slowest (i.e. most distant) station in the cell has a disproportionate impact on effective performance 1 1

  12. The susceptibility of organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis to spermicidal compounds, in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B M Jones; L M Willcox

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a prevalent vaginal infection that is now regarded as a risk factor in more serious pelvic and obstetric complications. Spermicides are known to have antimicrobial activity against other sexually transmitted diseases and the aim of this study was to test whether the causative organisms of BV were also susceptible to spermicides, in vitro. DESIGN--Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations

  13. Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Sexual Education in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Therese B Orbea

    2010-01-01

    This review of sexual education in the United States broadly defines the two most common approaches in sexual education seen in this country today. I cover the status of certain sexual behaviors and risks amongst the teenage population in the U.S. and specifically cover reported sexual activity in high school students and overall data on teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted

  14. Exploring the costs and outcomes of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions targeting men in football club settings: preliminary cost-consequence analysis of the SPORTSMART pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Louise J; Roberts, Tracy E; Fuller, Sebastian S; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Saunders, John M; Copas, Andrew J; Mercer, Catherine H; Cassell, Jackie A; Estcourt, Claudia S

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare the costs and outcomes of two sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions targeted at men in football club settings in England, including screening promoted by team captains. Methods A comparison of costs and outcomes was undertaken alongside a pilot cluster randomised control trial involving three trial arms: (1) captain-led and poster STI screening promotion; (2) sexual health advisor-led and poster STI screening promotion and (3) poster-only STI screening promotion (control/comparator). For all study arms, resource use and cost data were collected prospectively. Results There was considerable variation in uptake rates between clubs, but results were broadly comparable across study arms with 50% of men accepting the screening offer in the captain-led arm, 67% in the sexual health advisor-led arm and 61% in the poster-only control arm. The overall costs associated with the intervention arms were similar. The average cost per player tested was comparable, with the average cost per player tested for the captain-led promotion estimated to be £88.99 compared with £88.33 for the sexual health advisor-led promotion and £81.87 for the poster-only (control) arm. Conclusions Costs and outcomes were similar across intervention arms. The target sample size was not achieved, and we found a greater than anticipated variability between clubs in the acceptability of screening, which limited our ability to estimate acceptability for intervention arms. Further evidence is needed about the public health benefits associated with screening interventions in non-clinical settings so that their cost-effectiveness can be fully evaluated. PMID:25512670

  15. Being Pathogenic, Plastic, and Sexual while Living with a Nearly Minimal Bacterial Genome

    PubMed Central

    Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Lartigue, Carole; Marenda, Marc; Jacob, Daniel; Barré, Aurélien; Barbe, Valérie; Schenowitz, Chantal; Mangenot, Sophie; Couloux, Arnaud; Segurens, Beatrice; de Daruvar, Antoine; Blanchard, Alain; Citti, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are commonly described as the simplest self-replicating organisms, whose evolution was mainly characterized by genome downsizing with a proposed evolutionary scenario similar to that of obligate intracellular bacteria such as insect endosymbionts. Thus far, analysis of mycoplasma genomes indicates a low level of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) implying that DNA acquisition is strongly limited in these minimal bacteria. In this study, the genome of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae was sequenced. Comparative genomic data and phylogenetic tree reconstruction revealed that ?18% of its small genome (877,438 bp) has undergone HGT with the phylogenetically distinct mycoides cluster, which is composed of significant ruminant pathogens. HGT involves genes often found as clusters, several of which encode lipoproteins that usually play an important role in mycoplasma–host interaction. A decayed form of a conjugative element also described in a member of the mycoides cluster was found in the M. agalactiae genome, suggesting that HGT may have occurred by mobilizing a related genetic element. The possibility of HGT events among other mycoplasmas was evaluated with the available sequenced genomes. Our data indicate marginal levels of HGT among Mycoplasma species except for those described above and, to a lesser extent, for those observed in between the two bird pathogens, M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae. This first description of large-scale HGT among mycoplasmas sharing the same ecological niche challenges the generally accepted evolutionary scenario in which gene loss is the main driving force of mycoplasma evolution. The latter clearly differs from that of other bacteria with small genomes, particularly obligate intracellular bacteria that are isolated within host cells. Consequently, mycoplasmas are not only able to subvert complex hosts but presumably have retained sexual competence, a trait that may prevent them from genome stasis and contribute to adaptation to new hosts. PMID:17511520

  16. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672

  17. Risk factors for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases and prevention practices among US heterosexual adults: changes from 1990 to 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Catania, J A; Binson, D; Dolcini, M M; Stall, R; Choi, K H; Pollack, L M; Hudes, E S; Canchola, J; Phillips, K; Moskowitz, J T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The National AIDS Behavioral Survey (1990-1992) of heterosexual adults (18-49 years) measured human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors, condom use, and HIV antibody testing, with a focus on major "high-risk" cities. METHODS. A longitudinal survey was conducted. RESULTS. There was little reduction in the overall prevalence of HIV risk factors in the national or high-risk cities cohorts over time. Despite this picture of stability, approximately 39% of the population at risk for HIV because of multiple sexual partners turns over annually. There was little change in HIV test-seeking or in consistent condom use with primary sexual partners. Although the majority of at-risk respondents used condoms sporadically or not at all (65%), a significant increase in condom use was found among those reporting multiple sexual partners in both waves, particularly among Black heterosexuals. Data from other surveys and condom sales nationally support the findings. CONCLUSIONS. There is a need for a series of surveys in this area to assess the reliability of the present findings and to monitor the general US population's response to prevention programs. PMID:7485660

  18. Bacterial genome reduction using the progressive clustering of deletions via yeast sexual cycling.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yo; Assad-Garcia, Nacyra; Kostylev, Maxim; Noskov, Vladimir N; Wise, Kim S; Karas, Bogumil J; Stam, Jason; Montague, Michael G; Hanly, Timothy J; Enriquez, Nico J; Ramon, Adi; Goldgof, Gregory M; Richter, R Alexander; Vashee, Sanjay; Chuang, Ray-Yuan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Hutchison, Clyde A; Gibson, Daniel G; Smith, Hamilton O; Glass, John I; Venter, J Craig

    2015-03-01

    The availability of genetically tractable organisms with simple genomes is critical for the rapid, systems-level understanding of basic biological processes. Mycoplasma bacteria, with the smallest known genomes among free-living cellular organisms, are ideal models for this purpose, but the natural versions of these cells have genome complexities still too great to offer a comprehensive view of a fundamental life form. Here we describe an efficient method for reducing genomes from these organisms by identifying individually deletable regions using transposon mutagenesis and progressively clustering deleted genomic segments using meiotic recombination between the bacterial genomes harbored in yeast. Mycoplasmal genomes subjected to this process and transplanted into recipient cells yielded two mycoplasma strains. The first simultaneously lacked eight singly deletable regions of the genome, representing a total of 91 genes and ?10% of the original genome. The second strain lacked seven of the eight regions, representing 84 genes. Growth assay data revealed an absence of genetic interactions among the 91 genes under tested conditions. Despite predicted effects of the deletions on sugar metabolism and the proteome, growth rates were unaffected by the gene deletions in the seven-deletion strain. These results support the feasibility of using single-gene disruption data to design and construct viable genomes lacking multiple genes, paving the way toward genome minimization. The progressive clustering method is expected to be effective for the reorganization of any mega-sized DNA molecules cloned in yeast, facilitating the construction of designer genomes in microbes as well as genomic fragments for genetic engineering of higher eukaryotes. PMID:25654978

  19. HPTN 035 Phase II/IIb Randomized Safety and Effectiveness Study of the Vaginal Microbicides BufferGel and 0.5% PRO 2000 for the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women

    PubMed Central

    Guffey, M. Bradford; Richardson, Barbra; Husnik, Marla; Makanani, Bonus; Chilongozi, David; Yu, Elmer; Ramjee, Gita; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Gomez, Kailazarid; Hillier, Sharon L.; Karim, Salim Abdool

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the effectiveness of candidate microbicides BufferGel and 0.5% PRO 2000 Gel (P) (PRO 2000) for prevention of non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods Between 2005 and 2007, 3099 women were enrolled in HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) protocol 035, a phase II/IIb evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of BufferGel and PRO 2000 for prevention of sexually transmitted infections, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Incidences of STIs were determined by study arm, and hazard ratios (HRs) of BufferGel and PRO 2000 versus placebo gel or no gel control groups were computed using discrete time Andersen-Gill proportional hazards model. Results The overall incidence rates were 1.6/100 person-years at risk (PYAR) for GC, 3.9/100 PYAR for CT, and 15.3/100 PYAR for TV. For BufferGel versus placebo gel, HRs were 0.99 (95% CI 0.49–2.00), 1.00 (95% CI 0.64–1.57), and 0.95 (95% CI 0.71–1.25) for prevention of GC, CT, and TV respectively. For PRO 2000, HRs were 1.66 (95% CI 0.90–3.06), 1.16 (95% CI 0.76–1.79), and 1.18 (95% CI 0.90–1.53) for prevention of GC, CT, and TV respectively. Conclusions The incidence of STIs was high during HPTN 035 despite provision of free condoms and comprehensive risk-reduction counselling, highlighting the need for effective STI prevention programmes in this population. Unfortunately, candidate microbicides BufferGel and PRO2000 had no protective effect against gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, or trichomoniasis. PMID:24898857

  20. Bacterial vaginosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane R. Schwebke

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, the most prevalent cause of vaginal discharge in the United States, is characterized microbiologically\\u000a by a shift in the vagina away from a lactobacillus-predominant flora and toward a predominantly anaerobic milieu. The cause\\u000a of bacterial vaginosis is unknown, but the epidemiology of the syndrome suggests that it is sexually associated. Bacterial\\u000a vaginosis has been associated with various complications,

  1. "I am proud of myself, just the way I am" (Mwen fyé de tét mwen, jan mwen ye ya): a qualitative study among young Haitian women seeking care for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Severe, Linda; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Deschamps, Marie M; Reif, Lindsey; Post, Kendall; Johnson, Warren D; Pape, Jean W; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2014-04-01

    Haitian women are twice as likely as men to have HIV/AIDs. Factors underlying the feminization of HIV are complex. Self-esteem is an important correlate of sexual behavior. However, its meaning and impact on health behaviors may be influenced by cultural factors. This qualitative study took place in Haiti 4 months after the 2010 earthquake and examines the meaning of self-esteem among young Haitian women seeking treatment for a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI). The meaning of self-esteem was derived from a sense of gratitude and was rooted in their ability to provide for family. This may have led to behaviors such as not using condoms or having sex with partners in concurrent relationships. This article highlights the resilience and resourcefulness of Haitian women, provides insight into how women with apparent positive self-images were led to make choices that placed them at high risk for contracting HIV, and concludes with recommendations for future interventions. PMID:24694329

  2. “I AM PROUD OF MYSELF, JUST THE WAY I AM” (MWEN FYÈ DE TÈT MWEN, JAN MWEN YE YA): A QUALITATIVE STUDY AMONG YOUNG HAITIAN WOMEN SEEKING CARE FOR SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (STIS) IN HAITI

    PubMed Central

    Severe, Linda; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Deschamps, Marie M.; Reif, Lindsey; Post, Kendall; Johnson, Warren D.; Pape, Jean W.; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Haitian women are twice as likely as men to have HIV/AIDs. Factors underlying the feminization of HIV are complex. Self-esteem is an important correlate of sexual behavior. However, its meaning and impact on health behaviors may be influenced by cultural factors. This qualitative study took place in Haiti 4 months after the 2010 earthquake and examines the meaning of self-esteem among young Haitian women seeking treatment for a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI). The meaning of self-esteem was derived from a sense of gratitude and was rooted in their ability to provide for family. This may have led to behaviors such as not using condoms or having sex with partners in concurrent relationships. This article highlights the resilience and resourcefulness of Haitian women, provides insight into how women with apparent positive self-images were led to make choices that placed them at high risk for contracting HIV, and concludes with recommendations for future interventions. PMID:24694329

  3. Sexual behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Catherine H.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare. PMID:24966786

  4. Sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Anna

    2004-01-01

    IN 2001 the government produced the first ever National strategy for sexual health and HIV.1 The strategy called for a broader role for general practice in the promotion of better sexual health. Surveys undertaken in the United Kingdom (UK) in recent years suggest that more people have more sexual partners than ever before. This has been associated with a rise in sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Screening and testing for Chlamydia trachomatis have become more widespread in the UK. Risk assessment and sexual history taking are described. They need to be carried out confidentially and non-judgmentally. Confidentiality training for all staff, including a requirement to sign confidentiality statements, is recommended. Partner notification can be done in a variety of different settings including general practice. A new course for those working in primary care has been devised, aiming to equip participants with the basic knowledge, skills, and attitudes for the effective management of STIs. PMID:15113524

  5. Sexually transmitted infections among migrants' wives remaining in rural homes – a pilot study of the remaining women in rural Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shanbo; Chen, Xinguang; Li, Gang; Zhou, Wang; Shi, Weidong; Wang, Xia

    2014-01-01

    The growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China appears to be related to the vast rural-to-urban migration, with rural migrants serving as a “living bridge” for the spread of HIV. The purpose of this study is to examine whether migrants' wives remaining in rural homes play a role in spreading the virus. Participants were recruited from 12 rural villages. Social and demographic factors, sexual behaviour, and HIV/AIDS knowledge were assessed using survey questionnaire. Reproductive tract infection (RTI; syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, vaginalis trichomonas, and candidiasis) were assessed using blood and vaginal specimens. Among the total 63 participants, 28 (44.4%) were wives remaining behind while their husbands migrated to a city (“remaining”) and 35 were women whose spouses remained in the rural setting (“comparison”). The reported median duration (inter-quarter range (IQR)) since the last episode of sex with husband was nine months (IQR: 7–15) for the remaining women and three months (IQR: 2–7) for the comparison women (Z?=?3.95, p?

  6. Risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among Asian men who have sex with men in Vancouver, British Columbia: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals of Asian heritage represent the largest ethnic minority in Canada. Approximately 10% of the new HIV diagnoses in men in British Columbia occur among Asian-Canadians. However, the HIV risk patterns of Asian men who have sex with men (MSM) have not been extensively studied. Methods Participants aged???19 years were enrolled in a venue-based HIV serobehavioural survey of MSM in Vancouver, Canada. We compared the demographic characteristics, risk behaviours, and prevalence of HIV and other sexual and blood borne infections between Asian and non-Asian MSM using bivariate analysis and logistic regression confounder modelling. Results Amongst 1132 participants, 110 (9.7%) self-identified as Asian. Asian participants were younger than non-Asian participants (median age 29 vs. 32 years; p?

  7. A group-based HIV and sexually transmitted infections prevention intervention for lesbian, bisexual, queer and other women who have sex with women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada: study protocol for a non-randomised cohort pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H; Navia, Daniela; Rwigema, Marie-Jolie; Tharao, Wangari; Este, David; Loutfy, Mona R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The limited research that exists suggests that lesbian, bisexual queer (LBQ) and other women who have sex with women are at similar risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) as heterosexual women. However, scant research has evaluated HIV and STI prevention strategies for LBQ women. The authors present the rationale and study protocol for developing and pilot testing a psychoeducational group-based HIV and STI prevention intervention with LBQ women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre non-randomised cohort pilot study. The target population is LBQ women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada. The authors aim to recruit 40 participants using purposive peer-driven recruitment methods. Participants will conduct a pretest followed by a 2-day group programme of six 2?h sessions addressing stigma, STI and HIV prevention, healthy relationships, safer sex self-efficacy, self-worth, social support and LBQ community engagement. Participants will conduct a post-test directly following the intervention and 6?weeks after the intervention. The primary outcome is safer sex practices; our prespecified index of clinically significant change is an effect size of 0.50. Secondary outcomes include: safer sex self-efficacy, STI testing frequency, STI knowledge, resilient coping, social support, sexual stigma, access to care, depression and self-esteem. We will conduct mixed-effects regression to calculate mean outcome pre–post test score change. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval was attained from the Office of Research Ethics (REB: 29291), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Trial results will be published according to the Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomised Designs (TREND) statement, regardless of the outcomes. Trial registration number This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT02067845. PMID:24760356

  8. A behavioural intervention to reduce persistence of bacterial vaginosis among women who report sex with women: results of a randomised trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne M Marrazzo; Katherine K Thomas; Kathleen Ringwood

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesBacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in lesbians, and treatment fails in up to 28%. Risks include sexual behaviours that transmit vaginal fluid. The authors measured efficacy of a behavioural intervention to reduce sexual transfer of vaginal fluid between female sex partners in reducing BV persistence.MethodsWomen aged 16–35 years with BV who reported sex with women (prior year) were eligible. Participants

  9. ACOG Committee Opinion no. 592: Sexual assault.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    Reproductive-aged victims of sexual assault are at risk of unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and mental health conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Health care providers should screen routinely for a history of sexual assault and offer victims both emergency contraception and sexually transmitted infection prophylaxis. The health care provider who examines victims of sexual assault has a responsibility to comply with state and local statutory or policy requirements for the use of evidence-gathering kits. PMID:24785635

  10. Bacterial vaginosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip Hay

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common cause of abnormal discharge in women of child-bearing age. It is present in 10–20% women in the UK, and may recur or regress spontaneously. It is not regarded as an STI because it can occur in virgin women, but it is more common in sexually active women. Other associations include smoking, partner change, having a

  11. Sexual Health and Reproduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    This activity provides questions and Web sites to guide student investigation of birth control methods, fetal development, risks of alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, changes during puberty, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  12. Sexuality and the law.

    PubMed

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  13. Sexual Needs, Control, and Refusal: How “Doing” Class and Gender Influences Sexual Risk Taking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny A. Higgins; Irene Browne

    2008-01-01

    The poor are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We know relatively little, however, about the sexual processes behind these disparities. Despite studies of gender enactment's influence on sexual behaviors, few analyses examine the sexual “doing” of social class. We conducted sexual history interviews with 36 women and men, half middle class and half poor and

  14. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Syphilis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... P&S syphilis cases. Syphilis—All Stages (P&S, Early Latent, Late, Late Latent, and Congenital) During 2011–2012, the number of cases of early latent syphilis reported to CDC increased 10.4% (from ...

  15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... groups, racial/ethnic groups, geographic areas, and both sexes. Racial differences also persist; reported case rates and prevalence estimates among blacks continue to be substantially higher than among other racial/ethnic ... of HIV infection. Sex Transm Infect. 1999;75:3-17. 4 Centers ...

  16. Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Hamid; Delaney, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Sonnex, Christopher; Carne, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282 (16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection, and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection, and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract. PMID:24046809

  17. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Gonorrhea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... population were located in the South. Gonorrhea by Sex Gonorrhea rates among women have been slightly higher ... the Special Focus Profiles. Gonorrhea by Region and Sex During 2011–2012, gonorrhea rates among women and ...

  18. Diagnostic Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Know Allergies and Asthma Infant CPR Anytime® (English/Spanish) Pediatric First Aid for Caregivers and Teachers (PedFACTs) Teaching Package Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma ...

  19. How to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What are some of the most common STIs? • Chlamydia (see FAQ071 “Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis”) • Gonorrhea (see FAQ071 “Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis”) • Genital herpes (see FAQ054 “Genital Herpes”) ...

  20. An association between non-gonococcal urethritis and bacterial vaginosis and the implications for patients and their sexual partners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F E Keane; B J Thomas; L Whitaker; A Renton; D Taylor-Robinson

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aetiology of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in a considerable proportion of men remains unaccounted for. We wished to investigate the possible aetiological role of bacterial vaginosis (BV), the commonest cause of abnormal discharge in women, in this condition. METHODS: We carried out two studies. In the first, case-control, study, we recruited men with and without NGU and examined their

  1. Estimating sexual behavior parameters from routine sexual behavior data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina Van Vliet; Catharina P. B. Van der Ploeg; Nancy Kidula; Isaac M. Malonza; Mark Tyndall; Nico J. D. Nagelkerke

    1998-01-01

    In mathematical models for predicting the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the rate of acquisition of new sex partners and concurrency, the number of simultaneous sexual partnerships, are important parameters. Yet, information on these parameters is rarely obtained in routine sexual behavior surveys; instead, questions about the total number of sex partners during specific periods are often asked. We

  2. Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis in a Virgin Adolescent: A New Method of Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Papanikolaou; G. Tsanadis; N. Dalkalitsis; D. Lolis

    2002-01-01

    .  \\u000a Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial infection of the vagina and should not be considered an exclusively sexually transmitted\\u000a disease. We describe the case of a 17-year-old female virgin adolescent with recurrent malodorous vaginal discharge for 6\\u000a months. Before referral to us she had been treated unsuccessfully with conservative treatment options. Our investigation revealed\\u000a Gardnerella vaginalis as the responsible

  3. Sexual Compulsivity, the Internet, and Sexual Behaviors Among Men in a Rural Area of the United States

    E-print Network

    Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Satinsky, Sonya; Brinegar, Emily; Stowers, Jill; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Sexual compulsivity has been associated with higher frequencies of sexual behaviors that may increase risk for transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). In a rural midwestern region where social and community resources...

  4. Bacterial vaginosis in relation to menstrual cycle, menstrual protection method, and sexual intercourse in rural Gambian women

    PubMed Central

    Morison, L; Ekpo, G; West, B; Demba, E; Mayaud, P; Coleman, R; Bailey, R; Walraven, G

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Married, regularly menstruating female volunteers were asked to collect self administered swabs on alternate days through four menstrual cycles. BV was assessed using Nugent scores. Menstruation and reported sexual intercourse data were recorded contemporaneously. A crossover design comparing traditional and modern menstrual protection methods was incorporated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations with BV. Results: 30 women completed four menstrual cycles in the study. Completeness and validity of data from the self administered swabs was high. Greater frequencies of BV were found for all women in the second week of the menstrual cycle relative to days 14+, and markedly higher frequencies of BV were found in the first week in women with infrequent BV. BV was (non-significantly) more frequent when modern pads were used compared with traditional cloths. No association was found between BV and intercourse reported in the previous 4 days; or between the frequency of reported intercourse in one menstrual cycle and BV in either the same menstrual cycle or the next. Conclusions: Similar transient fluctuations over the menstrual cycle were found to those in industrialised countries. We found no evidence that sexual intercourse was associated with increased frequency of BV. Our data do not support hypotheses that menstrual hygiene materials might explain the high prevalences of BV found in sub-Saharan Africa compared to industrialised countries. PMID:15923295

  5. Integrated prevention services for HIV infection, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis for persons who use drugs illicitly: summary guidance from CDC and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes current (as of 2011) guidelines or recommendations published by multiple agencies of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) for prevention and control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB) for persons who use drugs illicitly. It also summarizes existing evidence of effectiveness for practices to support delivery of integrated prevention services. Implementing integrated services for prevention of HIV infection, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB is intended to provide persons who use drugs illicitly with increased access to services, to improve timeliness of service delivery, and to increase effectiveness of efforts to prevent infectious diseases that share common risk factors, behaviors, and social determinants. This guidance is intended for use by decision makers (e.g., local and federal agencies and leaders and managers of prevention and treatment services), health-care providers, social service providers, and prevention and treatment support groups. Consolidated guidance can strengthen efforts of health-care providers and public health providers to prevent and treat infectious diseases and substance use and mental disorders, use resources efficiently, and improve health-care services and outcomes in persons who use drugs illicitly. An integrated approach to service delivery for persons who use drugs incorporates recommended science-based public health strategies, including 1) prevention and treatment of substance use and mental disorders; 2) outreach programs; 3) risk assessment for illicit use of drugs; 4) risk assessment for infectious diseases; 5) screening, diagnosis, and counseling for infectious diseases; 6) vaccination; 7) prevention of mother-to-child transmission of infectious diseases; 8) interventions for reduction of risk behaviors; 9) partner services and contact follow-up; 10) referrals and linkage to care; 11) medical treatment for infectious diseases; and 12) delivery of integrated prevention services. These strategies are science-based, public health strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases, substance use disorders, and mental disorders. Treatment of infectious diseases and treatment of substance use and mental disorders contribute to prevention of transmission of infectious diseases. Integrating prevention services can increase access to and timeliness of prevention and treatment. PMID:23135062

  6. Sexual Risk Taking: For Better or Worse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment can be an effective pedagogical strategy for sexuality education. Objectives: After learning about the modes of transmission and prevention strategies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), students engaged in this teaching technique will define sexual intercourse and sexual activity, assess the level of STI risk associated…

  7. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    ... assault fact sheet Sexual assault fact sheet ePublications Sexual assault fact sheet Print this fact sheet Sexual assault ... assaulted? More information on sexual assault What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any type of ...

  8. Multidimensional Characterization of Sexual Minority Adolescents’ Sexual Safety Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths’ risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers’. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths’ sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

  9. Multidimensional characterization of sexual minority adolescents' sexual safety strategies.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

  10. Biosensors for whole-cell bacterial detection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asif; Rushworth, Jo V; Hirst, Natalie A; Millner, Paul A

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial pathogens are important targets for detection and identification in medicine, food safety, public health, and security. Bacterial infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In spite of the availability of antibiotics, these infections are often misdiagnosed or there is an unacceptable delay in diagnosis. Current methods of bacterial detection rely upon laboratory-based techniques such as cell culture, microscopic analysis, and biochemical assays. These procedures are time-consuming and costly and require specialist equipment and trained users. Portable stand-alone biosensors can facilitate rapid detection and diagnosis at the point of care. Biosensors will be particularly useful where a clear diagnosis informs treatment, in critical illness (e.g., meningitis) or to prevent further disease spread (e.g., in case of food-borne pathogens or sexually transmitted diseases). Detection of bacteria is also becoming increasingly important in antibioterrorism measures (e.g., anthrax detection). In this review, we discuss recent progress in the use of biosensors for the detection of whole bacterial cells for sensitive and earlier identification of bacteria without the need for sample processing. There is a particular focus on electrochemical biosensors, especially impedance-based systems, as these present key advantages in terms of ease of miniaturization, lack of reagents, sensitivity, and low cost. PMID:24982325

  11. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Bihl, Florian; Castelli, Damiano; Marincola, Francesco; Dodd, Roger Y; Brander, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens. PMID:17553144

  12. VINCLOZOLIN (V) TREATMENT INDUCES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS AND INFERTILITY IN F1 MALE RATS WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL BUT NOT GONADAL DIFFERENTIATION. THE EFFECTS ARE NOT TRANSMITTED TO THE SUBSEQUENT GENERATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    V produces adverse reproductive effects in male rats when administered during sexual differentiation by acting as an androgen-antagonist. It was recently reported that four generations of SD rats, derived from dams dosed via ip injection GD8-15 with 100 mg V/kg/day, displayed pro...

  13. sexual Assault sexual Assault

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    sexual Assault sexual Assault if You Are a Victim of a sexual Assault 1. Get to a safe place. 2. Call out for help. 3. DiAl 6111 or ask someone to ring for you and state "sEXUAl AssAUlT" giving exact. if You Witness a sexual Assault 1. Everyone is asked to assist in making the campus a safe place by being

  14. Sexual Compulsivity Among Men in a Decentralized MSM Community of the Midwestern United States

    E-print Network

    Satinsky, Sonya; Fisher, Christopher; Stupiansky, Nathan; Dodge, Brian; Alexander, Andreia; Herbenick, Debby; Reece, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Among men who have sex with men (MSM), sexual compulsivity has been associated with higher frequencies of sexual behaviors that may increase risk for transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). In a Midwestern region where...

  15. Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quincy, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted

  16. Improving Sexuality Education: The Development of Teacher-Preparation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Elissa M.; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Russell, Susan; Seabert, Denise; Wallen, Michele; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teaching sexuality education to support young people's sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the…

  17. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual

  18. Reducing High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among College Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justine J. Reel; Elizabeth Joy; Erin M. Hellstrom

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise awareness about the need to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reduce high-risk sexual behaviors among college student-athletes. Athletes engage in risky sexual behaviors at a higher frequency with more sexual partners than their college peers (Faurie, Pontier, & Raymond, 2004; Wetherill & Fromme, 2007). In an effort to reduce the consequences

  19. Beyond Risk: Examining College Students' Sexual Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Sara B.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual health education often focuses on prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies, but the decision to engage in sexual activity is equally important. This cross-sectional study examined the decisions of college students (n = 422) to engage in oral sex, vaginal sex, and other sexual behaviors. Regression analyses…

  20. PROTECTING SENSITIVE INFORMATION TRANSMITTED

    E-print Network

    INFORMATION TRANSMITTED IN PUBLIC NETWORKS Shirley Radack, EditorShirley Radack, Editor Computer Security DivisionComputer Security Division Information Technology LaboratoryInformation Technology Laboratory settings and values may still be exploited by hackers. IPsec is a framework of open standards for ensuring

  1. Douching in relation to bacterial vaginosis, lactobacilli, and facultative bacteria in the vagina 1 1 The authors thank the following individuals whose dedication to working with the women enrolled in the GYN Infections Follow-through Study made this study possible: Susie Alagasarmy, Julie Beuler, Debbie Carr, Hope Cohen-Webb, Leslie Curll, Christine Donahue, Amanda Farmer, Janice French, Melissa Girman, Alice Howell, Juliette Hunt, Ellen Klein, Faye LeBoeuf, April Lehman, Rosalyn Liu, Ingrid Macio, Kathleen McKenna, Kim Miller, Megan Mundy, Anne Rideout, Jacqueline Travasso, Jennifer Watts, and Casey Zuckerman. The authors also thank Sevgi Aral, PhD, for helping to devise data collection instruments and Lori Burleigh and Barbara Kolodjiez for technical assistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta B Ness; Sharon L Hillier; Holly E Richter; David E Soper; Carol Stamm; James McGregor; Debra C Bass; Richard L Sweet; Peter Rice

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study how frequency, recentness, and reason for douching impact bacterial vaginosis-related vaginal microflora and the occurrence of cervical pathogens. Douching has been linked to bacterial vaginosis as well as to chlamydial cervicitis in some, but not all, studies.METHODS:A total of 1200 women at high risk for sexually transmitted infections were enrolled from five clinical sites around the United States.

  2. Teenage pregnancy and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Alison; Evans, David T

    The under-18 conception rate in England is at a 40-year low but a further reduction is needed to reach levels in comparable western European countries. Sexually transmitted infections are common among young people, with chlamydia the most prevalent STI in the UK. To challenge this, a multi-agency approach is needed, with high-quality sex and relationships education, easy access to contraception and sexual health services and an open culture around relationships and sexual health. Nurses play a crucial role in supporting young people within both contraception and sexual health services and as trusted practitioners in a range of settings. PMID:24383309

  3. [Sexuality in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Wilk, Bartosz

    2015-02-25

    Sustaining and strengthening the ability of the elderly to continue their sexual needs can be realized as part of improving their quality of life, health and well-being. There is no age at which ends the expression of sexuality and intimacy. Through education, quality of life and advances in medicine, the average life expectancy is still increasing. Sexual activity of older people society usually describe using pejorative terms as an inappropriate, bizarre or obscene, but these labels are different than reality. Hormonal changes and other physiological changes associated with aging affect sexual interest. Erectile dysfunction is a problem in men increasing with age. There is no evidence that premature ejaculation is more common in older age. Cross-sectional studies showed no difference in sexual dysfunction between older and younger women. Age is not a barrier to sexually transmitted diseases. The most common pathogenetic factors for male erectile dysfunction are vascular diseases. In women, the most important symptoms of sexual dysfunction are lack of emotional wellbeing and a sense of intimacy during sexual intercourse. PMID:25815611

  4. 2013 European Guideline on the management of proctitis, proctocolitis and enteritis caused by sexually transmissible pathogens.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Henry Jc; Zingoni, Adele; White, John A; Ross, Jonathan Dc; Kreuter, Alexander

    2013-12-18

    Proctitis is defined as an inflammatory syndrome of the distal 10-12 cm of the anal canal, also called the rectum. Infectious proctitis can be sexually transmitted via genital-anal mucosal contact, but some also via mutual masturbation. N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis (including lymphogranuloma venereum), Herpes Simplex Virus and T. pallidum are the most common sexually transmitted anorectal pathogens. Shigellosis can be transferred via oral-anal contact and may lead to proctocolitis or enteritis. Although most studies on these infections have concentrated on men who have sex with men (MSM), a significant proportion of women have anal intercourse and therefore may also be at risk. A presumptive clinical diagnosis of proctitis can be made when there are symptoms and signs, and a definitive diagnosis when the results of laboratory tests are available. The symptoms of proctitis include anorectal itching, pain, cramps (tenesmus) and discharge in and around the anal canal. Asymptomatic proctitis occurs frequently and can only be detected by laboratory tests. The majority of rectal chlamydia and gonococcal infections are asymptomatic. Therefore when there is a history of receptive anal contact, exclusion of anorectal infections is generally indicated as part of standard screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condom use does not guarantee protection from bacterial and protozoan STIs, which are often spread without penile penetration. PMID:24352129

  5. Trial of an urban adolescent sexual risk-reduction intervention for rural youth: a promising but imperfect fit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonita Stanton; Carole Harris; Lesley Cottrell; Xiaoming Li; Catherine Gibson; Jiantong Guo; Robert Pack; Jennifer Galbraith; Sara Pendleton; Ying Wu; James Burns; Matthew Cole; Sharon Marshall

    2006-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Focus on Kids (FOK), a sexual risk reduction intervention, shown to be effective among urban, African-American adolescents living in communities with high rates of sexually transmitted diseases, in reducing sexual risk behaviors among rural, white adolescents living in communities with low rates of sexually transmitted diseases. The subjects were

  6. Social Change, Migration and Sexual Health: Chilean Women in Chile and Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Teresa Dawson; Sandra Margaret Gifford

    2004-01-01

    Cultural beliefs, norms and values regarding sexuality and gender roles forge people's sexual behaviour and understanding of sexual health risk. Acknowledging a person's cultural background is a key challenge for the promotion of sexual health programs and strategies for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV\\/AIDS. This challenge acquires larger dimensions when health promotion programs are directed towards

  7. Inequalities in the provision of sexual health information for young people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Mclaughlin; Kate Thompson; Kader Parahoo; Janice Armstrong; Allison Hume

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundSexual health has been emphasised in national and regional strategies as a target for health and social well-being. In Northern Ireland (NI), the Sexual Health Promotion Strategy concentrates on reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), reducing the number of unplanned births to teenage mothers, providing appropriate, effective and equitable sexual health information, and facilitating access to sexual health

  8. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Harassment and Sexual Bullying Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What Are Sexual ... technology to harass someone sexually (like sending inappropriate text messages, pictures, or videos). Sometimes sexual harassment can ...

  9. Sexual isolation in bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Majewski

    2001-01-01

    Bacteria exchange genes rarely but are promiscuous in the choice of their genetic partners. Inter-specific recombination has the advantage of increasing genetic diversity and promoting dissemination of novel adaptations, but suffers from the negative effect of importing potentially harmful alleles from incompatible genomes. Bacterial species experience a degree of 'sexual isolation' from genetically divergent organisms ^ recombination occurs more frequently

  10. Trends in sexual behaviours and infections among young people in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A E Biddlecom

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe trends over time in sexual behaviour, condom use, and sexually transmitted infections among female and male adolescents in the United States.Methods: A review was carried out of published studies using data from six surveys since the 1970s on sexual behaviour and surveillance data on sexually transmitted infections.Results: The proportion of adolescents who have ever had sexual intercourse

  11. Gyrotron transmitting tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An RF transmitting tube for the 20 GHz to 500 GHz range comprises a gyrotron and a multistage depressed collector. A winding provides a magnetic field which acts on spent, spinning or orbiting electrons changing their motion to substantially forward linear motion in a downstream direction. The spent electrons then pass through a focusser into the collector. Nearly all of the electrons injected into the collector will remain within an imaginary envelope as they travel forward toward the end collector plate. The apertures in the collector plates are at least as large in diameter as the envelope at any particular axial position.

  12. Plant Viruses Transmitted by Whiteflies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Jones

    2003-01-01

    One-hundred and fourteen virus species are transmitted by whiteflies (family Aleyrodidae). Bemisia tabaci transmits 111 of these species while Trialeurodes vaporariorum and T. abutilonia transmit three species each. B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum are present in the European–Mediterranean region, though the former is restricted in its distribution. Of the whitefly-transmitted virus species, 90% belong to the Begomovirus genus, 6% to

  13. Sexual knowledge of Canadian adolescents after completion of high school sexual education requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Maya M; Lim, Rodrick; Langford, Cindy; Seabrook, Jamie A; Speechley, Kathy N; Lynch, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Formal sexual education is a mandatory component of the high school curriculum in most Canadian provinces. The present study was a preliminary assessment of sexual knowledge among a sample of Ontario adolescents who had completed their high school sexual education requirements. METHODS: A questionnaire, testing understanding of the learning objectives of Ontario’s minimally required high school sexual education course, was distributed in a paediatric emergency department to 200 adolescent patients who had completed the course. RESULTS: Respondents demonstrated good understanding of pregnancy physiology and sexually transmitted infections, but poor understanding of concepts related to reproductive physiology, contraception, HIV/AIDS and sexual assault. Most respondents could not identify Canada’s age of sexual consent. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents demonstrated concerning gaps in sexual knowledge despite completion of their sexual education requirements. Further studies must determine whether a representative, population-based student sample would exhibit similar findings. Sexual education currently offered in Ontario may require investigation. PMID:24421660

  14. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    Indian Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives Feedback Employee Resources • A to ... Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American Indians and Alaska Natives. Sexual assault refers to sexual ...

  15. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  16. Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Claudine; Robin, Emilie; Nhan, Tuxuan; Teissier, Anita; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually. PMID:25625872

  17. Sexuality Education in India: Examining the Rhetoric, Rethinking the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Arpita

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) has been recognised globally as key to helping young people assert their sexual and reproductive rights. In India too, there is growing awareness of the importance of providing CSE not only to reduce sexually transmitted infections, unintended pregnancies and abortions but also to teach important life…

  18. Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Examining Data from Texas and the US

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Markham; Melissa Peskin; Belinda F Hernandez; Kimberly Johnson; Robert C. Addy; Paula Cuccaro; Ross Shegog; Susan Tortolero

    2011-01-01

    Background: The US has higher rates of teen births and sexually transmitted infections (STI) than other developed countries. Texas youth are disproportionately impacted. Purpose: To review local, state, and national data on teens’ engagement in sexual risk behaviors to inform policy and practice related to teen sexual health. Methods: 2009 middle school and high school Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)

  19. Watching Sex on Television Predicts Adolescent Initiation of Sexual Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca L. Collins; Marc N. Elliott; Sandra H. Berry; David E. Kanouse; Dale Kunkel; Sarah B. Hunter; Angela Miu

    2004-01-01

    Background. Early sexual initiation is an important social and health issue. A recent survey sug- gested that most sexually experienced teens wish they had waited longer to have intercourse; other data indicate that unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases are more common among those who begin sex- ual activity earlier. The American Academy of Pediatrics has suggested that portrayals of

  20. Sexual Initiation, Parent Practices, and Acculturation in Hispanic Seventh Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Campos, Daisy Y.; Markham, Christine; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hispanic youths have high rates of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancies, yet little research has targeted multiple protective/risk factors for early sexual initiation in this group. This study examined two main factors--parenting practices and acculturation--on early sexual initiation among Hispanic middle school students in…

  1. Sexuality Education in Florida: Content, Context, and Controversy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Dodge; Kristina Zachry; Michael Reece; Ellen D. S. López; Debby Herbenick; Kristin Gant; Amanda Tanner; Omar Martinez

    2008-01-01

    As with many states, Florida has official directives that are intended to influence what type of sexuality education, if any, takes place in public school classrooms. However, little is known about contextual factors that facilitate or challenge the ability of teachers to implement effective sexuality education initiatives. Levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies continue to rise in

  2. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen K Wilson; Helen P Koo

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics

  3. A Multidimensional Model of Sexual Health and Sexual and Prevention Behavior Among Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (?: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention. PMID:23332488

  4. PSYCHOLOGY OF HUMAN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR SYLLABUS (psyc 355) FALL 2010, Wed 7-9:45 pm

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    transmitted diseases, sex and aging, legal aspects of sexual behavior, sexual exploitation, and eroticism in American culture. Presentations will be frank and explicit. Guest/panel attendance and/or video viewing

  5. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet N°366 Updated April 2014 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ... eggs present in human faeces, which contaminate the soil in areas where sanitation is poor. Approximately two ...

  6. Sexual Attitudes and Risk-Taking Behaviors of High School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aras, Sahbal; Semin, Semih; Gunay, Turkan; Orcin, Esmahan; Ozan, Sema

    2007-01-01

    Background: The risk of sexually transmitted diseases is high but opportunities of sexual education for adolescents are limited in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual attitudes and behaviors and to determine the predictors of sexual initiation among adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire designed by the researchers was administered…

  7. How Can Parents Make a Difference? Longitudinal Associations With Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daneen P. Deptula; David B. Henry; Michael E. Schoeny

    2010-01-01

    Parents have the potential to protect against adolescent sexual risk, including early sexual behavior, inconsistent condom use, and outcomes such as pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Identification of the specific parenting dimensions associated with sexual risk in adolescence and young adulthood is necessary to inform and focus prevention efforts. The current study examined the relation of proximal (e.g., discussions

  8. Exposure to Degrading Versus Nondegrading Music Lyrics and Sexual Behavior Among Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven C. Martino; Rebecca L. Collins; Marc N. Elliott; Amy Strachman; David E. Kanouse; Sandra H. Berry

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND.Early sexual activity is a significant problem in the United States. A recent survey suggested that most sexually experienced teens wish they had waited longer to have intercourse; other data indicate that unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are more common among those who begin sexual activity earlier. Popular music may contribute to early sex. Music is an integral part

  9. Theoretical assessment of sexuality-related services among college health centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott M Butler

    2009-01-01

    Individuals within collegiate settings may be at increased risk for unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual assault. Given this public health risk, collegiate health centers may provide the majority of the sexual healthcare services to their student populations. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of sexuality-related services among a national sample of U.S. college

  10. Sexual communication in the age of AIDS: The construction of risk and trust among young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Lear

    1995-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are extremely prevalent among youth, and it is only by understanding the processes involved in negotiating sexual relationships that effective prevention and intervention programs can be designed. This study explores sexual communication among young adults, how gender and sexual orientation influence negotiation for safer sex, the strategies employed for risk reduction, and the barrier to safer sex.

  11. Parental Influence on Adolescent Sexual Behavior in High-Poverty Settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Romer; Bonita Stanton; Jennifer Galbraith; Susan Feigelman; Maureen M. Black; Xiaoming Li

    1999-01-01

    Background: African American adolescents living in high-poverty urban settings are at increased risk for early sexual initiation and sexually transmitted diseases. Objective: To determine whether parental stategies to monitor their children's social behavior and to commu- nicate with them about sexual risks help to reduce the initiation of risky sexual behavior and prevent the re- sulting adverse health outcomes. Methods:

  12. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  13. Internet Sexualities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Döring

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable\\u000a on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates\\u000a a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services\\u000a and applications (e.g., websites, online

  14. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    PubMed

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid. PMID:24382700

  15. Psychology and AIDS Education: Reducing High-Risk Sexual Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Brigham; Patricia Donahoe; Bo James Gilbert; Nancy Thomas; Sarah Zemke; Darrelle Koonce; Patricia Horn

    Abstract Several years of research produced a 1-credit AIDS education class that is effective in increasing student knowledge,and changing high-risk sexual behavior. The course integrates information on AIDS, other sexually transmitted infections, sexual assault prevention, and related issues with self-management and sexual decision-making skills. The class is taught in small sections led by 2-person teams of peer instructors and uses

  16. Adaptive transmit beamforming for simultaneous transmit and receive

    E-print Network

    Gerber, Daniel L

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous transmit and receive (STAR) is an important problem in the field of communications. Engineers have researched many different models and strategies that attempt to solve this problem. One such strategy is to ...

  17. Sexual Isolation and Speciation in Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick M. Cohan

    2002-01-01

    Like organisms from all other walks of life, bacteria are capable of sexual recombination. However, unlike most plants and animals, bacteria recombine only rarely, and when they do they are extremely promiscuous in their choice of sexual partners. There may be no absolute constraints on the evolutionary distances that can be traversed through recombination in the bacterial world, but interspecies

  18. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:24262218

  19. Teen Talk: Commonly Asked Questions about Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Department of Health and Human Services: Office of Public Health and Science — Office of Population Affairs Teen Talk # ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of Public Health and Science Office of Population Affairs

  20. The Beneficial Sexually Transmitted Microbe Hypothesis of Avian Copulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P Lombardo; Patrick A Thorpe; Harry W Power

    1999-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain why female birds either copulate repeatedly with a single mate or copulate with multiple partners even though only a single copulation may be sufficient to fertilize an entire clutch. We hypothesize that females may directly benefit from high frequencies of copulation and multiple copulation partners if they receive a cloacal inoculation of beneficial

  1. FastStats: Sexually Transmitted Diseases/STD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  2. Measuring the transmission dynamics of a sexually transmitted disease

    E-print Network

    Knell, Rob

    not previously been tested in an animal STD system, is invalid in a simple and general experimental model are now known to occur throughout the animal kingdom (16, 18), the only experimental assessment of STD, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, United Kingdom; and §Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University

  3. Internet Sexualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  4. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  5. A risk for non-sexual transmission of human papillomavirus?

    PubMed

    Ryndock, Eric J; Meyers, Craig

    2014-10-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are estimated to be the most common sexually transmitted virus in humans. The virus is of great interest as it is the etiological agent of cervical cancer. Sexual transmission of HPV is generally accepted, however, non-sexual transmission of the virus is often debated. Here, we review the evidence from basic research and clinical studies that show HPV can survive well outside of its host to potentially be transmitted by non-sexual means. In doing so, we hope to discover problems in current prevention practices and show a need for better disinfectants to combat the spread of HPV. PMID:25199987

  6. Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  7. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... big part of being human. Love, affection and sexual intimacy all play a role in healthy relationships. ... both men and women. Factors that can affect sexual health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about ...

  8. Adolescent's sexual problems in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, B S

    1990-07-01

    This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on sexual matters. Proposals needing implementation include family life education for parents and their children, sex education and counseling within the school systems, treatment centers for sexually transmitted diseases and pre/post natal care, and youth counseling centers. PMID:12316430

  9. Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1 Many survivors find that their sexual attitudes and reactions are impacted after a sexual assault or sexual abuse. While these effects are not permanent, they can be very frustrating as they can decrease the enjoyment of one's sexual life and intimacy

  10. Decreasing Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infection in Indian Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, S. Nishat Fatima; Agarwal, Devisha

    2014-01-01

    Transfusion transmitted infections are major problem associated with blood transfusion. Accurate estimates of risk of TTIs are essential for monitoring the safety of blood supply and evaluating the efficacy of currently employed screening procedures. The present study was carried out to assess the percentage of voluntary donors and replacement donors and to find out prevalence and changing trends of various TTIs blood donors in recent years. A study was carried out on blood units of voluntary and replacement donors which were collected from January 2008 to December 2012. On screening of 180,371 replacement units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in replacement donors was 0.15% in HIV, 1.67% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.49% in hepatitis C virus, 0.01% in VDRL, and 0.009% in malaria. Of 11,977 voluntary units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in voluntary donors was 0.08% in HIV, 0.24% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.001% in hepatitis C virus, 0.008% in VDRL (sexually transmitted disease), and 0.01% in malaria. From results it has been concluded that prevalence of transfusion transmitted infection (HIV, HBV, HCV, VDRL, and malaria) was more in replacement donors in comparison to voluntary donors. Extensive donor selection and screening procedures will help in improving the blood safety. PMID:24616614

  11. Sexual conflict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey Chapman; Göran Arnqvist; Jenny Bangham; Locke Rowe

    2003-01-01

    Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what

  12. Is Food Insecurity Associated with HIV Risk? Cross-Sectional Evidence from Sexually Active Women in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander C. Tsai; Kristin J. Hung; Sheri D. Weiser

    2012-01-01

    Alexander Tsai and colleagues show that in sexually active women in Brazil severe food insecurity with hunger was positively associated with symptoms potentially indicative of sexually transmitted infection and with reduced odds of condom use.

  13. Sexual minority youth.

    PubMed

    Steever, John; Francis, Jenny; Gordon, Lonna P; Lee, Janet

    2014-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the medical and mental health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth population. Information is reviewed regarding both primary medical care and the special health risks that these youth face. Providers are introduced to the concept that societal and internalized homophobia lead directly to certain health disparities, including substance use, school and family rejection, depression, and increased sexually transmitted infection acquisition. This article familiarizes the primary care practitioner with the health care needs of the LGBT population and the research behind the various recommendations for caring for these youth. PMID:25124211

  14. Marijuana Use and Risky Sexual Behavior Among High-Risk Adolescents: Trajectories, Risk Factors, and Event-Level Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela D. Bryan; Sarah J. Schmiege; Renee E. Magnan

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system have a high incidence of risky sexual behaviors resulting in unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Substance use may be particularly important as a risk factor for unsafe sexual behavior for this group, and recent evidence suggests a possible association between marijuana use and risky sexual behavior. Adolescents (n = 728; 33% female)

  15. Trial of an urban adolescent sexual risk-reduction intervention for rural youth: a promising but imperfect fit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonita Stanton; Carole Harris; Lesley Cottrell; Xiaoming Li; Catherine Gibson; Jiantong Guo; Robert Pack; Jennifer Galbraith; Sara Pendleton; Ying Wu; James Burns; Matthew Cole; Sharon Marshall

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Focus on Kids (FOK), a sexual risk reduction intervention, shown to be effective among urban, African-American adoles- cents living in communities with high rates of sexually transmitted diseases, in reducing sexual risk behaviors among rural, white adolescents living in communities with low rates of sexually trans- mitted diseases.

  16. SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE Sexual Assault Definition ­ any form of sexual contact without both parties' voluntary consent. Contrary to what most people think, sexual assault. ­ Zvulony & Company ­ The Law of Sexual Assault in Canada. Sexual Harassment Definition ­ is comment

  17. Relationship between sexual compulsivity and sexual risk behaviors among chinese sexually active males.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei; Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, Hi Yi; Gu, Jing; Wang, Zixin

    2015-04-01

    Compulsivity is defined as "an insistent, repetitive, intrusive, and unwanted urge to perform specific acts often in ritualized or routinized fashions." Sexual compulsivity has been shown to be associated with some high risk sexual behaviors related to HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI). In some Western countries, the 10-item Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS) has been developed to assess people's sexual compulsivity but no Chinese version has been validated. This study validated the Chinese version of the SCS and investigated its associations with specific sexual behaviors. In 2008, a random telephone survey was conducted in the sexually active male general population in Hong Kong, interviewing 1,048 participants. The Chinese version of the SCS was found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's ? = 0.88 for the overall scale), with a mean total score of 20.7 (SD = 4.7). An exploratory factor analysis procedure extracted two factors that were named Controllability and Functional Consequences. Higher SCS scores were associated with multiple female sexual partnerships in the last 6 months, having had sex with either non-regular partner(s) or female sex worker(s) in the last 6 months, having contracted STI in the last 6 months, and inconsistent condom use with either non-regular partner(s) or female sex worker(s) in the last 6 months. The scale can be used to assess sexual compulsivity among sexually active Chinese men in Hong Kong. It can potentially be used in other Chinese communities. Further confirmatory studies are warranted. PMID:25030121

  18. Adolescent sexuality and disability.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Jacob A; Klingbeil, Fred; Bryen, Diane Nelson; Silverman, Brett; Thomas, Anila

    2002-11-01

    Regardless of what our beliefs about sex and disability may be, as health care providers we can promote the health and well being of our patients with disabilities in several ways. First and perhaps foremost, physical and programmatic barriers to accessing general health care including routine gynecologic care must be dramatically reduced. The promise of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act must be aggressively extended to our health care system to ensure equal access to routine health care for all. Second, knowledge of community resources that can support the healthy development and exercise of responsible and satisfying sexuality is critical. For example, health care providers should know about adaptive and assistive technologies as well as the use of personal care assistants to support the healthy although sometimes nontypical expression of one's sexuality. Centers for Independent Living are community resources that are often underutilized by the medical profession. These centers--run by and for people with disabilities--are likely resources and allies for providing education, role models, and peer mentoring around relationships, intimacy, sexuality, sexual expression, and parenting with a disability. Finally, sex education is a must and should include the following: Basic facts of life, reproduction, and sexual intercourse; Human growth and development Human reproduction and anatomy Self-pleasuring/masturbation and the use of sexual aids Intimacy and privacy Pregnancy and child birth Contraception and abortion Family life and parenthood Sexual response and consensual sex Sexual orientation Sexual abuse HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The question should not be whether sex education is provided to persons with disabilities, but rather how it is most effectively provided. Health sex education must include the development of effective communication skills, decision-making skills, assertiveness, and the ability to say "no." It must also include ways to create satisfying relationships. For more information about sex education as it relates to people with disabilities, the following abbreviated resource list may be helpful: http://www.sexualhealth.com http://www.lookingglass.com Ludwig S, Hingsburger, D. Being sexual: an illustrated series on sexuality and relationships. SIECCAN, 850 Coxwell, Aven., East York, Ontario, M4C 5R1 Tel: 416-466-5304; Fax: 416-778-0785. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS), 130 West 42nd Street, Suite 350, New York, NY 10036. Tel: 212-819-9770. National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY), P.O. Box 1492, Washington, DC 20013; Tel/TTY: 800-695-0285; Fax: 202-884-8641; Internet: www.nichcy.org Non-Latex Supplies (Ask your pharmacist if not available) Trojan-Supra: http://www.trojancondoms.com Durex-Avanti: http://www.durex.com Female Health Company-FC Female Condom http://www.femalehealth.com Pasante--EzOn http://www.postalcondoms.co.uk (available in Canada and U.K.). PMID:12465564

  19. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in southwest china.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual individuals; and (c) altered participants' attitudes toward premarital sex and monogamy. The program used diverse teaching methods, providing 6 sessions over a period of 9 weeks about sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes to college students (age 18-26 years) in Southwest China. Sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes of 80 comprehensive sexual education class students (education group) and 92 general mental health education class students (control group) were measured at baseline, the end of course (posttest), and 3 weeks after the end of course (follow-up). There were significant effects of the program on (a) sexual health knowledge, including reproductive health, contraception, condom use, and HIV/AIDS and (b) positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, although these changes may require further reinforcement. In contrast, the program did not alter students' attitudes about premarital sex or monogamy. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations of sex education in China and future directions for research. PMID:23417908

  20. Sexual Dimorphism

    E-print Network

    Frayer, David W.; Wolpoff, Milford H.

    1985-01-01

    and "socially imposed monogamy" showed greater sexual differ- ences in stature than ones following what the authors described as "ecologically imposed" monogamous patterns, which led these authors to postulate that patterns of sexual dimorphism in humans... of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1Order of the authors is alphabetical. INTRODUCTION That the human species exhibits sexual dimorphism in size, shape, and be- havior is an obvious conclusion from anyone?s simple participation...

  1. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions. PMID:3059299

  2. Evaluation and management of the sexually assaulted woman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Cantu; Marco Coppola; Alice J. Lindner

    The evaluation and management of the sexually assaulted woman is a complex, multifaceted task. The emergency physician should be prepared to assess and treat injuries, appropriately manage the exposure to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), prevent unwanted pregnancy, appropriately collect evidence to assist in the prosecution of the assailant, and provide psychologic intervention for the victim. The emergency physician is faced

  3. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…

  4. Adolescent Sexuality Kristine M. Baber, Ph.D., Director

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    on teen pregnancy, sexually-transmitted infections, poor decision making, and other problems. In fact to be increasing (Nichols & Good, 2004). · Teen pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates have declined steadily since and improved contraceptive practices contributed equally to declines in teen pregnancy rates. · Most sexually

  5. Sexual health for people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Kathy; Ray, Sunanda

    2007-05-01

    Sexual health is defined in terms of well-being, but is challenged by the social, cultural and economic realities faced by women and men with HIV. A sexual rights approach puts women and men with HIV in charge of their sexual health. Accurate, accessible information to make informed choices and safe, pleasurable sexual relationships possible is best delivered through peer education and health professionals trained in empathetic approaches to sensitive issues. Young people with HIV especially need appropriate sex education and support for dealing with sexuality and self-identity with HIV. Women and men with HIV need condoms, appropriate services for sexually transmitted infections, sexual dysfunction and management of cervical and anogenital cancers. Interventions based on positive prevention, that combine protection of personal health with avoiding HIV/STI transmission to partners, are recommended. HIV counselling following a positive test has increased condom use and decreased coercive sex and outside sexual contacts among discordant couples. HIV treatment and care have reduced stigma and increased uptake of HIV testing and disclosure of positive status to partners. High adherence to antiretroviral therapy and safer sexual behaviour must go hand-in-hand. Sexual health services have worked with peer educators and volunteer groups to reach those at higher risk, such as sex workers. Technological advances in diagnosis of STIs, microbicide development and screening and vaccination for human papillomavirus must be available in developing countries and for those with the highest need globally. PMID:17531749

  6. Socially transmitted mate preferences in a monogamous bird: a non-genetic mechanism

    E-print Network

    Swaddle, John

    Socially transmitted mate preferences in a monogamous bird: a non-genetic mechanism of sexual-8795, USA There is increasing evidence that animals can acquire mate preferences through the use of public information, notably by observing (and copying) the mate preferences of others in the population. If females

  7. Attitudes toward Sexuality and Sexual Behaviors of Asian-American Adolescents. Implications for Risk of HIV Infection. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Connie S.

    There has been a widespread perception that Asian Americans are at lower risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases than the population as a whole. This report assesses the knowledge of Asian American adolescents about AIDS and their sexual behaviors and explores whether there is a difference between a Cambodian group (half the…

  8. A Pilot Project to Increase Parent Comfort Communicating with Their Children about Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Elissa M.; Johnson Moore, Michele; Howard, Alexandria

    2012-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviors among U.S. adolescents have resulted in epidemic rates of sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and unintended pregnancy. This article describes a community-developed pilot program for parents in a large South Florida county aimed at increasing parent comfort in discussing sexuality with their children to improve adolescent…

  9. Parent and Family Influences on Young Women's Romantic and Sexual Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Parents can play an important role in reducing their children's risk for teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, and in promoting sexual health during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to explore communication between parents, family members and young people and how it influences their romantic and sexual behaviours.…

  10. Gender, Ethnic, and Acculturation Differences in Sexual Behaviors: Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Sabogal; Regina Otero-Sabogal; Robert A. Hiatt

    1995-01-01

    Hispanics have an increased prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). To describe the prevalence of sexual behaviors of Hispanics, we conducted surveys of randomly selected residents in census tract areas and members of a health maintenance organization (n = 2,596). Hispanic men were more likely to start sexual intercourse at an earlier age and reported lower rates of condom use

  11. Hispanic and White College Students' Sexual Behavior: More Similar than Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Public health data have shown higher rates of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections for Hispanic individuals as compared with White individuals in the United States. This study compared sexual health behaviors and sexual outcomes between Hispanic and White college students (N = 1,008) at a Hispanic serving institution. Using…

  12. Trends in sexual risk behaviour among Turkish\\/Moroccan adolescents in The Netherlands 1990-195

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EMILY BRUGMAN; TON VOGELS; GERTJAN VAN ZESSEN

    1997-01-01

    Background: in 1990, a national survey on adolescent sexuality showed that Turkish\\/Moroccan students were at special risk for sexually transmitted diseases. In 1995 the study was repeated. This article describes trends in the safe sex knowledge and sexual behaviour of Turkish\\/Moroccan students. The results are also seen in relation to those of Dutch students. Methods: data were collected from representative

  13. Vulnerability to HIV Among Women Formerly Incarcerated and Women with Incarcerated Sexual Partners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Kim; Kimberly Page-Shafer; Juan Ruiz; Lisa Reyes; Viva Delgado; Jeffrey Klausner; Fred Molitor; Mitchell Katz; William McFarland

    2002-01-01

    HIV risk was assessed in association with a history of incarceration and having a sexual partner with a history of incarceration in a population sample of low-income young women residing in San Francisco. Of the 235 women surveyed, 23% reported prior incarceration and 42% reported having a sexual partner with a history of incarceration. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

  14. Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of…

  15. The Association of Childhood Personality on Sexual Risk Taking during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sexual risk taking during adolescence such as failure to use contraception or condoms is associated with premature parenthood and high rates of sexually transmitted infection. The relation of childhood personality to sexual risk taking during adolescence has been largely unexplored. Methods: Using data collected from participants in…

  16. Sexual Assault Victim Care Options Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Sexual Assault Victim Care Options Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Reviewed 8/2012 Page 1 of 1 Sexual Assault Victim Care Options- Points to help Penn State students make to address risk of pregnancy, sexually transmitted infection, involuntary drugging or injuries related

  17. The Influence of Sexual Scripts and the "Better than Average" Effect on Condom Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Bailey, Lindsey L.; Moring, John; Angiola, Julie; Bowen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Young adults attending college are especially susceptible to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to high rates of risky sexual behaviour. Many college students are aware of the disease risks involved in vaginal and anal intercourse with heterosexual partners; however, only 35% of sexually active students reported condom use. Data from this…

  18. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diseases Behavioral indicators Inappropriate sex-role relationship between victim and suspect Inappropriate, unusual, or aggressive sexual behavior How can I learn more? "Speaking the unspeakable: An interview about elder sexual assault with Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Ph.D" in nexus , ...

  19. Sexual Sadism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Berner; Peter Berger; Andreas Hill

    2003-01-01

    Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism

  20. Sexual selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malte Andersson; Yoh Iwasa

    1996-01-01

    Competition over mates takes many forms and has far-reaching consequences for many organisms. Recent work suggests that relative reproductive rates of males and females, sperm competition and quality variation among mates affect the strength of sexual selection. Song, other display, body size, visual ornaments and material resource offerings are often sexually selected. There is much empirical evidence of mate choice,