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Sample records for bacterial sexually transmitted

  1. Current Concepts in Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the most common infectious diseases worldwide, with over 350 million new cases occurring each year, and have far-reaching health, social, and economic consequences. Failure to diagnose and treat STDs at an early stage may result in serious complications and sequelae. STDs are passed from person to person primarily by sexual contact and are classified into varied groups. Some cause mild, acute symptoms and some are life-threatening. They are caused by many different infectious organisms and are treated in different ways. Syphilis and gonorrhea are ancient afflictions. Now, however, Chlamydia is prevalent and has become the most common bacterial STD. Antimicrobial resistance of several sexually transmitted pathogens is increasing, rendering some regimens ineffective, adding to therapeutic problems. A standardized treatment protocol for STDs is recommended to ensure that all patients receive adequate treatment. Appropriate treatment of STDs is an important public health measure. PMID:22025952

  2. Antibiotic resistance in prevalent bacterial and protozoan sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are "largely inevitable" and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI. PMID:26392647

  3. Treatment of sexually transmitted bacterial diseases in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Donders, G G

    2000-03-01

    Testing for and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in pregnant women deserves special attention. Treatment possibilities are limited because of potential risks for the developing fetus, and because effects can differ in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women, re-infection may be missed because of the intrinsic delicacy of contact-tracing during pregnancy and because pregnant women are more reluctant to take the prescribed medication in its full dose, if at all. However, the devastating effects of some of these genital infections far outweigh any potential adverse effects of treatment. Although active syphilis has become a rarity in most Western countries, it is still prevalent in South America, Africa and South-East Asia. Benzathine benzylpenicillin (2.4 million units once or, safer, twice 7 days apart) is the treatment of choice, although patients with syphilis of longer standing require 3 weekly injections as well as extensive investigation into whether there has been any damage due to tertiary syphilis. Despite declining rates of gonorrhea, the relative rate of penicillinase-producing strains is increasing, especially in South-East Asia. The recommended treatment is intramuscular ceftriaxone (125 or 250 mg) or oral cefixime 400 mg. Despite good safety records after accidental use, fluoroquinolones are contraindicated during pregnancy. An alternative to a fluoroquinolone in pregnant women with combined gonorrhea and chlamydial infection is oral azithromycin 1 or 2 g. Azithromycin as a single 1 g dose is also preferable to a 7 day course of erythromycin 500 mg 4 times a day for patients with chlamydial infection. Eradication of Haemophilus ducreyi in patients with chancroid can also be achieved with these regimens or intramuscular ceftriaxone 250 mg. Trichomonas vaginalis, which is often seen as a co-infection, has been linked to an increased risk of preterm birth. Patients infected with this parasite should therefore received metronidazole 500 mg

  4. Vaccines for bacterial sexually transmitted infections: a realistic goal?

    PubMed Central

    Sparling, P F; Elkins, C; Wyrick, P B; Cohen, M S

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the genital tract (gonorrhea, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis) are common and cause significant morbidity. Their importance is heightened by recent appreciation of their roles in facilitation of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Each is capable of causing repeated infections, suggesting lack of permanent broadly effective immunity. An effective vaccine has yet to be developed for any of these diseases. Rapid progress in understanding the molecular basis for pathogenesis of infection, including mechanisms for escape from otherwise effective immune surveillance and mechanisms for causing injury to host cells, has stimulated renewed efforts to make vaccines for some of these infections. Progress has been greatest for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Present emphasis is on the major or principal outer membrane proteins of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, based on evidence for neutralizing antibodies directed against surface-exposed variable domains of each of these proteins. Other surface-exposed proteins, including the iron-repressible transferrin receptor in gonococci and certain heat-shock proteins in chlamydia, also may be targets for vaccines. Although much remains to be learned, cautious optimism is warranted. PMID:8146139

  5. Aminomethyl spectinomycins as therapeutics for drug-resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, David F; Waidyarachchi, Samanthi L; Madhura, Dora B; Shcherbakov, Dimitri; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Jiuyu; Abdelrahman, Yasser M; Singh, Aman P; Duscha, Stefan; Rathi, Chetan; Lee, Robin B; Belland, Robert J; Meibohm, Bernd; Rosch, Jason W; Böttger, Erik C; Lee, Richard E

    2015-05-20

    The antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis with a unique mechanism of action and an excellent safety index, but it lacks antibacterial activity against most clinically important pathogens. A series of N-benzyl-substituted 3'-(R)-3'-aminomethyl-3'-hydroxy spectinomycins was developed on the basis of a computational analysis of the aminomethyl spectinomycin binding site and structure-guided synthesis. These compounds had ribosomal inhibition values comparable to spectinomycin but showed increased potency against the common respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis, as well as the sexually transmitted bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Non-ribosome-binding 3'-(S) isomers of the lead compounds demonstrated weak inhibitory activity in in vitro protein translation assays and poor antibacterial activity, indicating that the antibacterial activity of the series remains on target against the ribosome. Compounds also demonstrated no mammalian cytotoxicity, improved microsomal stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. The lead compound from the series exhibited excellent chemical stability superior to spectinomycin; no interaction with a panel of human receptors and drug metabolism enzymes, suggesting low potential for adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions in vivo; activity in vitro against a panel of penicillin-, macrolide-, and cephalosporin-resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates; and the ability to cure mice of fatal pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Together, these studies indicate that N-benzyl aminomethyl spectinomycins are suitable for further development to treat drug-resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections. PMID:25995221

  6. Aminomethyl Spectinomycins as Novel Therapeutics for Drug Resistant Respiratory Tract and Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Madhura, Dora B.; Shcherbakov, Dimitri; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Jiuyu; Abdelrahman, Yasser M.; Singh, Aman P.; Duscha, Stefan; Rathi, Chetan; Lee, Robin B.; Belland, Robert J.; Meibohm, Bernd; Rosch, Jason W.; Böttger, Erik C.; Lee, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis with a unique mechanism of action and an excellent safety index, but it lacks antibacterial activity against most clinically important pathogens. A novel series of N-benzyl substituted 3'-(R)- 3'-aminomethyl-3'-hydroxy spectinomycins was developed based on a computational analysis of the aminomethyl spectinomycin binding site and structure guided synthesis. These compounds had ribosomal inhibition values comparable to spectinomycin but showed increased potency against common respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis as well as the sexually transmitted bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Non-ribosome binding 3'-(S) isomers of the leads demonstrated weak inhibitory activity in in vitro protein translation assays and poor antibacterial activity, indicating that the antibacterial activity of the series remains on target. In addition to improved antibacterial potency, compounds also demonstrated no mammalian cytotoxicity, improved microsomal stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. The lead compound from the series, compound 1, exhibited excellent chemical stability, which was superior to spectinomycin and had no significant interaction with a panel of human receptors and drug metabolism enzymes suggesting low potential for adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions in vivo. Compound 1 was active in vitro against a panel of penicillin, macrolide, and cephalosporin resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates and cured mice of fatal pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Together, these studies indicate N-benzyl aminomethyl spectinomycins possess suitable properties for further development as novel antibacterial agents to treat drug resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections. PMID:25995221

  7. Sexually Transmitted Proctitis

    PubMed Central

    Sigle, Gavin W.; Kim, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    There are many different sexually transmitted infections that can cause proctitis. Recognition of the common symptoms with anoscopic examination is crucial in accurate diagnosis of the pathogen. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of more than one inciting pathogen. Treatment should be prompt and extended to sexual partners who have been exposed to the disease. Effective treatment can alleviate the discomfort and potentially serious complications associated with sexually transmitted proctitides. This article illustrates and discusses the clinical presentations, diagnostic pearls, and treatments of sexually transmitted proctitides. PMID:26034402

  8. Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis among HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Nairobi

    PubMed Central

    Marx, G; John-Stewart, G; Bosire, R; Wamalwa, D; Otieno, P; Farquhar, C

    2011-01-01

    Summary HIV-infected women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or bacterial vaginosis (BV) during pregnancy are at increased risk for poor obstetric outcomes. In resource-limited settings, diagnostic testing for STIs and BV is often not available and most pregnant women are managed using syndromic algorithms. As part of a Nairobi perinatal cohort, HIV-1-infected pregnant women were interviewed and samples were collected for STIs and BV testing. Diagnostic accuracy of STIs and BV by syndromic algorithms was evaluated with comparison to the reference standard. Among 441 women, prevalence of BV was 37%, trichomoniasis 16%, chlamydia 4%, syphilis 3% and gonorrhoea 2%. Significantly more women with STIs were aged 21-years-old, had not attended secondary school and had a history of STIs. Syndromic diagnosis of STIs and BV demonstrated a sensitivity of 45% and 57%, and positive predictive value of 30% and 42%, respectively. Among these HIV-infected, pregnant women, STIs and vaginal infections were common and syndromic diagnosis was insensitive, resulting in missed opportunities to intervene and improve infant and maternal health. PMID:20975086

  9. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes ... is no cure. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  10. Sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Wolfgang; Brockmeyer, Norbert H

    2014-06-01

    In no other medical field former rare infections of the 1980(th) and 1990(th) occur again as this is seen in the field of venerology which is as well based on the mobility of the population. Increasing rates of infections in Europe, and increasing bacteriological resistances face health professionals with new challenges. The WHO estimates more than 340 million cases of illnesses worldwide every year. Diseases caused by sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a strict sense are syphilis, gonorrhea, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, and chancroid. In a wider sense, all illnesses are included which can mainly be transmitted through sexual contact. The term "sexual contact" has to be seen widely, from close physical contact to all variants of sexual behavior. This CME article is an overview of the most common occurring sexually transmitted infections in clinical practice. Both, basic knowledge as well as recent developments are discussed below. PMID:24889293

  11. Sexually transmitted diphtheria.

    PubMed

    Berger, Anja; Lensing, Carmen; Konrad, Regina; Huber, Ingrid; Hogardt, Michael; Sing, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Diphtheria is caused by diphtheria toxin-producing Corynebacterium species. While classical respiratory diphtheria is transmitted by droplets, cutaneous diphtheria often results from minor trauma. This report concerns the first case of sexually transmitted diphtheria in a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis after orogenital contact. PMID:22628666

  12. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Mark A; Trout, Wayne

    2015-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) continue to be a global epidemic with significant risk of morbidity/mortality for the fetus. STDs with prominent cutaneous findings including condylomata acuminata, genital herpes infections, and syphilis are reviewed. Important clinical cutaneous findings help aid early diagnosis and facilitate treatment. Condylomata acuminata have the potential of causing cervical cancer, anogenital cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Significant advances have been made in human papilloma virus vaccinations and treatment. Genital herpes infection can produce significant physical and emotional distress to the patient and significant potential harm to the fetus. Early clinical recognition of STDs and their appropriate management is critical. PMID:25565081

  14. Are social organizational factors independently associated with a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection among urban adolescents and young adults?

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Jacky M.; Hensel, Devon J.; Tanner, Amanda E.; Reilly, Meredith L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the social organization of neighborhoods including informal social control and social cohesion and a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among adolescents and young adults in one U.S. urban setting. Data for the current study were collected from April 2004 to April 2007 in a cross-sectional household study. The target population included English-speaking, sexually-active persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years who resided in 486 neighborhoods. The study sample included 599 participants from 63 neighborhoods. A current bacterial STI was defined as diagnosis of a chlamydia and/or gonorrhea infection at the time of study participation. Participants reported on informal social control (i.e. scale comprised of 9 items) and social cohesion (i.e. scale comprised of 5 items) in their neighborhood. In a series of weighted multilevel logistic regression models stratified by gender, greater informal social control was significantly associated with a decreased odds of a current bacterial STI among females (AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34, 0.84) after controlling for individual social support and other factors. The association, while in a similar direction, was not significant for males (AOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.48, 1.12). Social cohesion was not significantly associated with a current bacterial STI among females (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.61, 1.19) and separately, males (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.67, 1.44). Greater individual social support was associated with an almost seven-fold increase in the odds of a bacterial STI among males (AOR 6.85, 95% CI 1.99, 23.53), a finding which is in contrast to our hypotheses. The findings suggest that neighborhood social organizational factors such as informal social control have an independent relationship with sexual health among U.S. urban youth. The causality of the relationship remains to be determined. PMID:25089964

  15. Sexually transmitted viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, F.

    1989-01-01

    Human viruses known to be spread by sexual contact include herpes simplex viruses (HSV), papillomaviruses (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and cytomegalovirus. Infections with the first three (HSV, HPV, and HIV) have reached epidemic proportions and pose global health concerns. Most of what we know about these human pathogens has been learned only recently, owing to the advent of DNA technologies and advances in culture techniques. In fact, our awareness of one virally transmitted venereal disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, dates to the early 1980s. This paper touches on various aspects of the biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and, where applicable, oncogenicity of these agents, as well as current treatments and vaccine initiatives. PMID:2549736

  16. Association of Bacterial vaginosis and other Sexually Transmitted Infections with HIV among pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Imade, Godwin E.; Musa, Jonah; Sagay, Atiene S.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sankale, Jean-Louis; Idoko, John; Kanki, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Jos, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross- sectional study of pregnant women who participated in the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV program of the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria, between April 2002 and July 2004, at the Jos University Teaching Hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Blood, high vaginal and endocervical samples were obtained for diagnosis of HIV, BV and other STIs. Data were analyzed for prevalence of HIV, BV and other STIs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models generated unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) as well as 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association of BV and other STIs with HIV prevalence. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 4,046 pregnant women were studied and 97.6% (3,950/4,046) had complete laboratory records for analysis. The prevalence of HIV was 8.2% (CI: 7.4–9.1); BV 11.9% (CI: 10.9–12.9); Candida 10.7% (CI: 9.7–11.7); mixed infection of BV and Candida 2.8% (CI: 2.3–3.4); Trichomonads 0.6% (CI: 0.3–0.8) and syphilis 0.35% (0.16–0.54). BV, Candida, mixed BV and Candida; and Trichomonads were independently associated with HIV infection [adjusted OR (95% CI), 2.9 (CI: 2.2–3.9); 2.0 (CI: 1.5–2.9); 3.4 (CI: 2.0–5.6), and 3.3 (CI: 1.1–9.7) respectively]. Conclusion HIV prevalence is higher among pregnant women who have BV, Candida and Trichomonads vaginal infections compared with women who have no evidence of infection. The practice of routine screening for BV and other STIs among pregnant women as a strategy for identifying women at risk for prevalent HIV infection should be sustained/ encouraged and the syndromic management of STIs should be integrated into all antenatal care management protocols in antenatal clinics in order to curb the epidemic of heterosexual HIV transmission

  17. Sexual Behavior and Network Characteristics and Their Association with Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Hyman M.; Irvin, Risha; Wilton, Leo; Van Tieu, Hong; Watson, Chauncey; Magnus, Manya; Chen, Iris; Gaydos, Charlotte; Hussen, Sophia A.; Mannheimer, Sharon; Mayer, Kenneth; Hessol, Nancy A.; Buchbinder, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Black men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and individual risk behavior does not fully explain the higher prevalence when compared with other MSM. Using the social-ecological framework, we evaluated individual, social and sexual network, and structural factors and their association with prevalent STIs among Black MSM. Methods The HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 was a multi-site cohort study designed to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention for Black MSM in six US cities. Baseline assessments included demographics, risk behavior, and social and sexual network questions collected information about the size, nature and connectedness of their sexual network. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having any prevalent sexually transmitted infection (gonorrhea, chlamydia, or syphilis). Results A total of 1,553 Black MSM were enrolled in this study. In multivariate analysis, older age (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.49–0.66, p<0.001) was associated with a lower odds of having a prevalent STI. Compared with reporting one male sexual partner, having 2–3 partners (aOR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.08–2.81, p<0.024) or more than 4 partners (aOR = 2.29; 95% CI 1.43–3.66, p<0.001) was associated with prevalent STIs. Having both Black and non-Black sexual partners (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.45–0.99, p = 0.042) was the only sexual network factor associated with prevalent STIs. Conclusions Age and the number and racial composition of sexual partners were associated with prevalent STIs among Black MSM, while other sexual network factors were not. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of the individual, network, and structural factors on prevalent STIs among Black MSM to inform combination interventions to reduce STIs among these men. PMID:26720332

  18. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…

  19. Circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, L S; Koutsky, L A; Holmes, K K

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. New evidence linking lack of circumcision with sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus revives concerns about circumcision and other sexually transmitted diseases. This study was undertaken to assess the relationship between circumcision and syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, genital herpes, nongonococcal urethritis, and exophytic genital warts. METHODS. A cross-sectional study of 2776 heterosexual men attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in 1988 was used to investigate the relationship between circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases. Subjects with specific sexually transmitted diseases and those without such diseases were compared after adjustment for age, race, zip code of residence, other sexually transmitted diseases, and number of sexual partners. RESULTS. A positive relationship was observed between uncircumcised status and both syphilis and gonorrhea. A negative relationship was found between warts and lack of circumcision. No apparent relationship was noted between uncircumcised status and genital herpes, chlamydial infection, or nongonococcal urethritis. CONCLUSIONS. Uncircumcised men were more likely than circumcised men to have syphilis and gonorrhea and were less likely to have visible warts. PMID:8296939

  20. Sexually transmitted diseases in Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Harahap, M

    1980-01-01

    Epidemiological factors and changing ecological conditions have greatly facilitated the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and led to their rising incidence in Indonesia. Gonorrhoea is at present very prevalent, and drug resistance among circulating strains of gonococci is a contributing factor. Despite medical advances in both diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, these are becoming commoner; unlike other communicable diseases they have so far defied efforts to control them. PMID:6893569

  1. Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit OPA . '); Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are also called sexually ... from mother to baby during pregnancy and through breastfeeding. Expand All How do STIs affect pregnant women? ...

  2. [Sexually transmitted infections and spermicides].

    PubMed

    Driák, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of sexually transmitted infections (diseases) has been already increasing again for more than one decade; the world number of 125-340 millions of new cases a year is estimated. Fifteen thousands of new HIV-positive persons daily present a substantial contribution to the total amount. Besides an increasing number of unplanned pregnancies, the huge spreading of sexually transmitted infections predominantly of the second generation is the main reason for a renewed interest in search of local contraceptives, i.e. spermicides. An urgent need for a new, non-detergent, synthetic or natural spermicide emerged to replace the traditional nonoxynol-9. New preparation of microbicidal spermicide should offer dual protection against both unplanned conception and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23256629

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases and anorectum.

    PubMed

    Van Kemseke, C

    2009-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a major public health problem because their incidence is increasing worldwide despite prevention campaigns and because they raise the risk of HIV infection. Anorectal localisations of STD are common among men who have sex with men (MSM) but can also be seen among heterosexuals (men or women). Transmission of such infections is due to anal sex or to other sexual behaviours like "fisting". Although some pathogens (like Human Papillomavirus-HPV) are common in gastroenterologist/proctologist consultations, others are not so well-known. Furthermore during the last years, sexual risky behaviours have led to resurgence of old affections (like syphilis) or to emergence of unknown diseases (like lymphogranuloma venereum) in our countries. This presentation tends to focus on clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of different STD: HPV, Herpes Simplex Virus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis (in particularly lymphogranuloma venereum) and Treponema pallidum. PMID:20163035

  4. Sexually transmitted infections and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ljubojević, Suzana; Lipozenčić, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a public health problem of major significance in most of the world. Adolescents make up about 20% of the world population, of whom 85% live in developing countries. They are at a greater risk of STIs because they frequently have unprotected intercourse, biologically may be more susceptible to infection, often are engaged in multiple monogamous relationships of limited duration, and face multiple obstacles in accessing confidential health care services. Young people who begin to have sexual intercourse in early or middle adolescence are more likely to develop an STI than those who postpone intercourse until later adolescence or adulthood. The most common STIs among adolescents are chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus infection, and trichomoniasis. Unfortunately, lately the incidence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among adolescents is growing. Comprehensive sex education programs in schools can increase STI knowledge and prevent risky sexual behaviors. Health care providers can promote STI prevention methods, including counseling about safe sex. PMID:21251451

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases in children in India.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Jyoti; Gupta, Somesh; Kumar, Bhushan

    2010-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in children are not uncommon in India, though systematic epidemiological studies to determine the exact prevalence are not available. STDs in children can be acquired via sexual route or, uncommonly, via non-sexual route such as accidental inoculation by a diseased individual. Neonatal infections are almost always acquired intrauterine or during delivery. Voluntary indulgence in sexual activity is also an important factor in acquisition of STDs in childhood. Sexual abuse and sex trafficking remain the important problems in India. Surveys indicate that nearly half of the children are sexually abused. Most at risk children are street-based, homeless or those living in or near brothels. Last two decades have shown an increase in the prevalence of STDs in children, though most of the data is from northern part of the country and from major hospitals. However, due to better availability of antenatal care to majority of women, cases of congenital syphilis have declined consistently over the past two-three decades. Other bacterial STDs are also on decline. On the other hand, viral STDs such as genital herpes and anogenital warts are increasing. This reflects trends of STDs in the adult population. Concomitant HIV infection is uncommon in children. Comprehensive sex education, stringent laws to prevent sex trafficking and child sexual abuse, and antenatal screening of all the women can reduce the prevalence of STDs in children. PMID:20826987

  6. [Sexually transmitted diseases and travel].

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E

    1997-01-01

    Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear. PMID:9612761

  7. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Teens at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascola, Laurene

    1987-01-01

    Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)

  8. Clinical update in sexually transmitted diseases-2014.

    PubMed

    Fanfair, Robyn Neblett; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2014-02-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their associated syndromes are extremely common in clinical practice. Early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and partner management are important to ensure sexual, physical, and reproductive health in our patients. PMID:24493491

  9. Vaginal microbiome and sexually transmitted infections: an epidemiologic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brotman, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid–producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Longitudinal studies of the vaginal microbiome using molecular techniques such as 16S ribosomal DNA analysis may lead to interventions that shift the vaginal microbiota toward more protective states. PMID:22133886

  10. Updating the management of sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Catriona; Lewis, David

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The control of sexually transmitted infections relies on case-finding and treatment of sexual contacts to prevent further transmission. Screening for infections should be tailored to the demographic and sexual risk of the individual. For most sexually transmitted infections, screening is performed on self-collected, non-invasive samples using highly sensitive molecular assays. These are quick and inexpensive. Shorter courses of antivirals for genital herpes are now recommended. New chemoprophylactic strategies for preventing HIV transmission have emerged, including treatment to prevent transmission and the use of antiretrovirals for pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:26843713

  11. Updating the management of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Catriona; Lewis, David

    2015-12-01

    The control of sexually transmitted infections relies on case-finding and treatment of sexual contacts to prevent further transmission. Screening for infections should be tailored to the demographic and sexual risk of the individual. For most sexually transmitted infections, screening is performed on self-collected, non-invasive samples using highly sensitive molecular assays. These are quick and inexpensive. Shorter courses of antivirals for genital herpes are now recommended. New chemoprophylactic strategies for preventing HIV transmission have emerged, including treatment to prevent transmission and the use of antiretrovirals for pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:26843713

  12. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Facebook Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Chlamydia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This web ... screened in a variety of settings are monitored. Chlamydia—United States In 2012, a total of 1, ...

  13. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Syphilis

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Facebook Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This web ... MSM accounted for 75% of P&S syphilis cases. Syphilis—All Stages (P&S, Early Latent, Late, Late Latent, ...

  14. The relative contribution of viral and bacterial sexually transmitted infections on HIV acquisition in southern African women in the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa study.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, K K; van der Straten, A; Cheng, H; Montgomery, E T; Lurie, M N; Chipato, T; Ramjee, G; Blanchard, K; Padian, N S; Mayer, K H; de Bruyn, G

    2011-04-01

    We assess the relative contribution of viral and bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV acquisition among southern African women in a nested case-control study within the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA) trial. Cases were women with incident HIV infection; controls were HIV-uninfected at the time of case seroconversion selected in a 1 to 3 case to control ratio (risk-set sampling), matched on study site and time of follow-up. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and population-attributable fractions (PAF). Among 4948 enrolled women, we analysed 309 cases and 927 controls. The overall HIV incidence rate was 4.0 per 100 women-years. The incidence of HIV infection was markedly higher in women who had prevalent Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (AOR: 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.55-2.96), incident HSV-2 (AOR: 4.43; 95% CI: 1.77-11.05) and incident Neisseria gonorrhoeae (AOR: 6.92; 95% CI: 3.01-15.90). The adjusted PAF of HIV incidence for prevalent HSV-2 was 29.0% (95% CI: 16.8-39.3), for incident HSV-2 2.1% (95% CI: 0.6-3.6) and for incident N. gonorrhoeae 4.1% (95% CI: 2.5-5.8). Women's greatest risk factors for HIV acquisition were incident bacterial and viral STIs. Women-centred interventions aimed at decreasing HIV incidence in young African women need to address these common co-morbid conditions. PMID:21515755

  15. Moral Reasoning about Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jadack, Rosemary A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Using hypothetical scenarios in which sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be transmitted, college freshmen and seniors were asked to explain why they believed the characters should or should nor engage in risky behaviors. Results indicated that seniors had a significantly higher stage of moral reasoning than the freshmen when responding to…

  16. The impact of meeting locations for men having sex with men on the risk for bacterial sexually transmitted infections: analyses from a cross-sectional online survey

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, U; an der Heiden, M; Gassowski, M; Kruspe, M; Drewes, J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Opportunities for men having sex with men (MSM) to meet each other have very much improved by new communication technologies. Meeting venue-based characteristics can impact how many partners are met and how much sexual risk is taken. We analysed the association between physical and virtual venues and the risk for bacterial sexually transmitted infections (bSTIs) among participants in an MSM online survey. Methods Data were collected during 2013/2014 with a survey targeting MSM living in Germany. The impact of the meeting place with the last non-steady anal sex partner on diagnosis with a bSTI in the previous year was analysed using bivariate and multivariate regression analysis, taking into account self-reported HIV status, serostatus communication, condom use, partner number, age and city size. Results The study sample consisted of 8878 respondents (7799 not diagnosed with HIV; 1079 diagnosed with HIV). Meeting partners online was most common (62% HIV−/51% HIV+), followed by sex venues (11% HIV−/25% HIV+); other venues were each reported by 2–6% of the respondents. Venue-dependent proportions reporting bSTIs in the recent year were 2–4 folds higher among men diagnosed with HIV. In multivariate analysis, HIV status was the strongest predictor for bSTIs (OR=5.0; 95% CI 2.8 to 8.7). Compared with meeting partners online, sex (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5) and social venues (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.6) were associated with increased bSTI risk for men not diagnosed with HIV, but the risk when meeting partners by smartphone apps was only of borderline significance (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9 to 2.3). For men diagnosed with HIV, bSTI risk increased for sex venues (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1), and was lower for non-gay/other venues (OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5). Conclusions Venues are connected to social-behavioural facets of corresponding sexual encounters, and may be important arenas for differential HIV and STI education, treatment and prevention. PMID:26537499

  17. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Let's Talk About Sexual Health Safe in the City Webinars Webinars Archive Widgets Archive Be Smart. Be ... a Box Home Script for Sex in the City Video STD Clinical Slides STD Clinical Slides STD ...

  18. Management of sexually transmitted disease by surgeons.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, L. M.; Nash, J. R.; Dilke-Wing, G. M.

    1998-01-01

    The management of 63 patients diagnosed by surgeons as having sexually transmitted disease (STD) was audited. A diagnosis of STD was made in 51 (81%) of patients without taking a sexual history. Only 2 (3%) patients were referred to genitourinary medicine (GUM). Appropriate microbiological specimens were obtained from only two of 52 (4%) patients diagnosed with either pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or epididymo-orchitis. Reliance was placed on inappropriate specimens in 22 (42%). There was widespread use of inappropriate antibiotics. The management of sexually transmitted disease by surgeons was very poor. These patients should all be referred to genito-urinary medicine. Images Figure 1 PMID:9849339

  19. Sexually transmitted infections in polygamous mating systems

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Ben; Gupta, Sunetra

    2013-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are often associated with chronic diseases and can have severe impacts on host reproductive success. For airborne or socially transmitted pathogens, patterns of contact by which the infection spreads tend to be dispersed and each contact may be of very short duration. By contrast, the transmission pathways for STIs are usually characterized by repeated contacts with a small subset of the population. Here we review how heterogeneity in sexual contact patterns can influence epidemiological dynamics, and present a simple model of polygyny/polyandry to illustrate the impact of biased mating systems on disease incidence and pathogen virulence. PMID:23339239

  20. Sexually transmitted diseases in Sabah and Sarawak.

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, R D

    1981-01-01

    Despite being part of one of the few remaining primitive areas of the world, both Sabah and Sarawak are provided with adequate, though simple, urban and rural general medical services. At present no reliable data on the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in these areas have been collected and no organised treatment services are available. Gonorrhoea appears to be the commonest notifiable infectious disease in Sarawak, and beta-lactamase-producing strains have been isolated. Because of the rapidly expanding economy and the encouragement of the tourist trade, sexually transmitted disease is likely to prove an increasing problem, for which a specialised service for diagnosis and treatment is badly needed. PMID:6895709

  1. Educator's Guide to Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Health, Austin.

    This document contains an educational resource guide designed to help educators provide relevant education about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) to secondary school students in compliance with the Texas State Board of Education Rules for Curriculum. The guide, taking a pragmatic approach that emphasizes a prevention/intervention strategy,…

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This document contains a reference sheet and an annotated bibliography concerned with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The reference sheet provides a brief, accurate overview of STDs which includes both statistical and background information. The bibliography contains 83 entries, listed alphabetically, that deal with STDs. Books and articles…

  3. Survey of Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This survey covers periodical literature published in the field of research on sexually transmitted diseases during 1985. The articles cover the following diseases: (1) genital chlamydial infection; (2) gonorrhea; (3) genital herpes infection; (4) human papillomavirus infection; (5) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); (6) genital…

  4. Viral hepatitis: a sexually transmitted disease?

    PubMed

    Buzby, M

    1996-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are often discussed in the context of herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and AIDS. Viral hepatitis, specifically hepatitis B, is also an STD often omitted from these discussions. The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is variable throughout the world. In North America, the highest incidence occurs in patients who are between the ages of 15 and 25 years. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV infection, which has an associated increased risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the carrier state. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a newly identified hepatotrophic virus that may also be sexually transmitted. There are no vaccines for the prevention of HCV infection and the majority of those who are infected become chronic carriers with chronic liver disease. Discussions focused on the prevention of STDs must include counseling for the prevention of HBV and HCV. PMID:8788658

  5. Travel-related sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common notifiable health problems worldwide, with particularly high rates in developing countries. Men and women with multiple sexual partners at home or a previous history of STIs are more likely to have casual sexual exposure (CSE) while travelling. Over the last several decades 5% to even 50% of short-term travellers engaged in CSE during foreign trips. It is estimated that only 50% of travellers use condoms during casual sex abroad. Sexual contact with commercial sex workers is an exceptionally high-risk behaviour. The common risk factor is also young age. Adolescents and young adults constitute 25% of the sexually active population, but represent almost 50% of all new acquired STIs. Many STIs are asymptomatic and therefore can be difficult to identify and control. The clinical manifestation of STIs can be grouped into a number of syndromes, such as genital ulcer or erosion, urethral or vaginal discharge, pelvic inflammatory disease. STIs are divided into curable infections caused by bacteria (gonorrhoea, chlamydiasis, syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale) or protozoa (trichomoniasis) and incurable viral infections (genital herpes, genital warts, HIV). STIs are not only a cause of acute morbidity, but may result in complications including male and female infertility, ectopic pregnancy, cervical cancer, premature mortality or miscarriage. Monogamous sex with a stable, uninfected partner or sexual abstinence remains the only way to avoid the risk of becoming infected with STIs. PMID:26726895

  6. Sexually transmitted infections and older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Beverly K

    2013-11-01

    Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:24066789

  7. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in female clinic attendees in Honiara, Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kako, H; Butcher, R; Lauri, B; Puiahi, E; Pitakaka, R; Sokana, O; Kilua, G; Roth, A; Solomon, A W; Mabey, D C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine the prevalence of common bacterial sexually transmitted infections, including Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in women attending clinics in the Solomon Islands. Methods We conducted a sexual health survey among women attending three nurse-led community outpatient clinics in August 2014, to establish the prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in female clinic attenders in Honiara, Solomon Islands. Vaginal swab samples were tested for infection with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae using a commercial strand displacement amplification assay. Serum samples were tested for syphilis. Results We enrolled 296 women, aged 16–49, attending three clinics. Knowledge of safe sexual practices was high but reported condom usage was low. The prevalence of infection with C. trachomatis was 20%. The prevalence of infection with N. gonorrhoeae and syphilis were 5.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Conclusions Bacterial sexually transmitted infections are a major health problem in the Solomon Islands. Interventions are urgently needed. PMID:25922103

  8. Confronting Ebola as a Sexually Transmitted Infection.

    PubMed

    Fischer, William A; Wohl, David A

    2016-05-15

    The unprecedented Ebola outbreak that devastated West Africa evolved within months from a regional outbreak to a global public health emergency. While the rate of confirmed cases declined dramatically, sporadic clusters of Ebola virus disease (EVD) continue well beyond the double incubation period of 42 days used to declare a nation Ebola-free. At the same time, evidence that the virus persists in genital fluids and can be sexually transmitted, along with the potential for lingering virus in other body compartments to permit recrudescence of EVD, has shaken our thinking of what it takes to achieve lasting control of an Ebola epidemic. A comprehensive response to the threat of persistence and sexual transmission of Ebola is required and should build on accessible longitudinal medical care of survivors and accurate genital fluid testing for Ebola. Control of this and future Ebola outbreaks will depend on our ability to recognize and respond to this persistence of the virus in those who survive. PMID:26936667

  9. High School Dropouts and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark; Pörtner, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    People who drop out of high school fare worse in many aspects of life. We analyze the relationship between dropping out of high school and the probability of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Previous studies on the relationship between dropout status and sexual outcomes have not empirically addressed unobserved heterogeneity at the individual level. Using fixed effects estimators, we find evidence supporting a positive relationship between dropping out of high school and the risk of contracting an STI for females. Furthermore, we present evidence that illustrates differences between the romantic partners of dropouts versus enrolled students. These differences suggest that female dropouts may be more susceptible to contracting STIs because they partner with significantly different types of people than non-dropouts. Our results point to a previously undocumented benefit of encouraging those at risk of dropping out to stay in school longer. PMID:25705058

  10. Preventing sexually transmitted infections: back to basics.

    PubMed

    Rompalo, Anne

    2011-12-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have plagued humans for millennia and can result in chronic disease, pregnancy complications, infertility, and even death. Recent technological advances have led to a better understanding of the causative agents for these infections as well as aspects of their pathogenesis that might represent novel therapeutic targets. The articles in this Review Series provide excellent updates on the recent advances in understanding of the pathogenesis of some very important and persistent STIs and discuss the importance of considering each pathogen in the broader context of the environment of the individual who it infects. PMID:22133882

  11. Sexually transmitted infections manifesting as proctitis.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Chris A; Lamb, Elizabeth Iris Mary; Mansfield, John C; Sankar, K Nathan

    2013-01-01

    There is a rising incidence of several sexually transmitted infections (STIs), many of which can present with proctitis. Causative organisms include Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Giardia lamblia (giardiasis) and Entamoeba histolytica (amoebiasis). This paper outlines important clinical discriminators and key investigations to distinguish these organisms from non-infective pathology that include inflammatory bowel disease, solitary rectal ulcer syndrome and Behçet's syndrome. Management of these infections is described and suggestions are made for successful gastroenterology clinical consultation when an STI is suspected. PMID:23914292

  12. [Modern diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, N H; Meyer, T

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has significantly improved in recent years by the application of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). In addition to detection of infectious agents, molecular methods were also used for characterization of pathogens (typing, genotypic resistance testing). In contrast to conventional Sanger sequencing of amplicons, new sequencing technologies (next generation sequencing) are able to identify resistant variants that represent only small minorities in a heterogeneous population. NAATs are also available as fully automated closed systems that can be run independently of centralized laboratories and will become increasingly important for point-of-care testing. PMID:26646440

  13. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases: the global picture.

    PubMed Central

    De Schryver, A.; Meheus, A.

    1990-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are now the commonest group of notifiable infectious diseases in most countries, particularly in the age group of 15 to 50 years and in infants. Their control is important considering the high incidence of acute infections, complications and sequelae, their socioeconomic impact, and their role in increasing transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The worldwide incidence of major bacterial and viral STD is estimated at over 125 million cases yearly. STD are hyperendemic in many developing countries. In industrialized countries, the bacterial STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chancroid) declined from the peak during the Second World War till up to the late fifties, then increased during the sixties and early seventies, and they have been decreasing again from the late seventies till the present. In the industrialized world, diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis, genital herpes virus, human papillomaviruses and human immunodeficiency virus are now more important than the classical bacterial ones; both groups remain major health problems in most developing countries. Infection rates are similar in both women and men, but women and infants bear the major burden of complications and serious sequelae. Infertility and ectopic pregnancies are often a consequence of pelvic inflammatory disease, and are preventable. Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnant women can result in prematurity, stillbirth and neonatal infections. In many areas 1-5% of newborns are at risk of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, a blinding disease; congenital syphilis causes up to 25% of perinatal mortality. Genital and anal cancers (especially cervical cancer) are associated with viral sexually transmitted diseases (genital human papillomavirus and herpes virus infections). Urethral stricture and infertility are frequent sequelae in men. PMID:2289300

  14. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Viral and Bacterial Infections in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex with Men in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Loutfy, Mona R.; Tharao, Wangari; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Huibner, Sanja; Kesler, Maya; Halpenny, Roberta; Grennan, Troy; Brunetta, Jason; Smith, Graham; Reko, Tatjana; Kaul, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been associated with HIV transmission risk and disease progression among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM), but the frequency and distribution of STIs in this community in Canada has not been extensively studied. Methods We recruited MSM living with and without HIV from a large primary care clinic in Toronto. Participants completed a detailed socio-behavioural questionnaire using ACASI and provided blood for syphilis, HIV, HBV and HCV, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology, urine for chlamydia and gonorrhea, and a self-collected anal swab for human papillomavirus (HPV) molecular diagnostics. Prevalences were expressed as a proportion and compared using chi-square. Results 442 MSM were recruited, 294 living with HIV and 148 without. Active syphilis (11.0% vs. 3.4%), ever HBV (49.4% vs. 19.1%), HCV (10.4% vs. 3.4%), HSV-2 (55.9% vs. 38.2%), CMV (98.3% vs. 80.3%) and high-risk (HR) anal HPV (67.6% vs. 51.7%) infections were significantly more common in men living with HIV. Chlamydia and gonorrhea were infrequent in both groups. Regardless of HIV infection status, age and number of lifetime male sexual partners were associated with HBV infection and lifetime injection drug use with HCV infection. Conclusions Syphilis and viral infections, including HBV, HCV, HSV-2, CMV, and HR-HPV, were common in this clinic-based population of MSM in Toronto and more frequent among MSM living with HIV. This argues for the implementation of routine screening, vaccine-based prevention, and education programs in this high-risk population. PMID:27391265

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015.

    PubMed

    Workowski, Kimberly A; Bolan, Gail A

    2015-06-01

    These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30-May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR-12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs. PMID:26042815

  16. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  17. [Anorectal manifestations of sexually transmitted infections].

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted infections is rising in Europe and in Switzerland since the beginning of the third millenium. Many organisms may affect the perianal skin and the anorectum. While some of these infections are a result of contigous spread from genital infection, most result from receptive anal intercourse affecting males who have sex with males but is seen increasingly in females as well since there is evidence of the increasing popularity of anal sex among heterosexuals. The symptoms of specific infections are largely dependent on the route and site of inoculation. Organisms that cause typical genital symptoms - such as syphilis, chancroid, herpes simplex or HPV-infection - result in similar symptoms when the perianal skin, the anoderm or the distal anal canal are the site of infection. Patients with proctitis may have unspecific signs in various degrees including mucous discharge, rectal bleeding, anorectal pain, superficial ulcers and sometimes generalized lymphadenopathy and fever. It is of utmost importance to include STIs (e. g. lymphogranuloma venereum, gonorrhea, non-LGV-chlamydia and herpes simplex) in the differential diagnosis in these patients. Unfortunately rectal infection with chlamydia and gonorrhea is asymptomatic in the majority of cases of men having sex with men and in high-risk females. A careful history and physical examination is essential in establishing a correct diagnosis, usually supported by proctoscopy, culture, PCR, serology and histology. Certain organisms, more commonly thought of as food- or water-borne disease may be sexually transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact from various sexual practices. PMID:23798024

  18. Mycoplasma genitalium: Is It a Sexually Transmitted Pathogen?

    PubMed

    Manhart, Lisa E; Kay, Noa

    2010-07-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging pathogen that has been detected in the male and female reproductive tracts. It is an established cause of nongonococcal urethritis and evidence linking it to cervicitis, endometritis, and tubal factor infertility is accumulating. Whether a pathogen is sexually transmitted has important implications for clinical management because partner management strategies are an essential part of the treatment plan for sexually transmitted infections. However, mere detection in the genital tract and associations with reproductive tract disease are insufficient to conclude that an organism is sexually transmitted. Therefore, to assess whether M. genitalium is sexually transmitted, we evaluated the literature in terms of associations with established risk factors for other sexually transmitted infections, comparisons of sexually experienced individuals to nonsexually experienced individuals, consideration of other modes of transmission, assessment of concordant infection status among sexual partners, and examination of molecular strain typing in concordantly infected partners. PMID:21308546

  19. Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Bipartite Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Luo-Sheng; Zhong, Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Fan

    2009-01-01

    We study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model on bipartite graph. According to the difference of sex conception in western and oriental nations, we construct the Barabási Albert-Barabási Albert (BA-BA) model and Barabási-Albert Homogeneity (BA-HO) model for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Applying the rate equation approach, the positive equilibria of both models are given analytically. We find that the ratio between infected females and infected males is distinctly different in both models and the infected density in the BA-HO model is much less than that in the BA-BA model. These results explain that the countries with small ratio have less infected density than those with large ratio. Our numerical simulations verify these theoretical results.

  20. The Effect of High Rates of Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections on HIV Incidence in a Cohort of Black and White Men Who Have Sex with Men in Atlanta, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Adam S.; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis H.; Salazar, Laura F.; Frew, Paula M.; Cooper, Hannah L.F.; Diclemente, Ralph; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Rosenberg, Eli S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data reporting sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence rates among HIV-negative U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM) are lacking. In addition, it is difficult to analyze the effect of STI on HIV acquisition given that sexual risk behaviors confound the relationship between bacterial STIs and incident HIV. The InvolveMENt study was a longitudinal cohort of black and white HIV-negative, sexually active MSM in Atlanta who underwent routine screening for STI and HIV and completed behavioral questionnaires. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for urethral and rectal Chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC), and syphilis, stratified by race. Propensity-score-weighted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of STI on HIV incidence and calculate the population attributable fraction (PAF) for STI. We included 562 HIV-negative MSM with 843 person-years of follow-up in this analysis. High incidence rates were documented for all STIs, particularly among black MSM. Having a rectal STI was significantly associated with subsequent HIV incidence in adjusted analyses (aHR 2.7; 95% CI 1.2, 6.4) that controlled for behavioral risk factors associated with STI and HIV using propensity score weights. The PAF for rectal STI was 14.6 (95% CI 6.8, 31.4). The high incidence of STIs among Atlanta MSM and the association of rectal STI with HIV acquisition after controlling for behavioral risk underscore the importance of routine screening and treatment for STIs among sexually active MSM. Our data support targeting intensive HIV prevention interventions, such as preexposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP), for Atlanta MSM diagnosed with rectal STIs. PMID:25719950

  1. How to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anyone who has sexual contact—vaginal, anal, or oral sex—with another person may get an STI. STIs ... Body fluids also can carry STIs. Having any unprotected sexual contact with an infected person poses a ...

  2. [Sexually transmitted infections among transgender individuals and other sexual identities].

    PubMed

    Toibaro, Javier J; Ebensrtejin, Juan E; Parlante, Angel; Burgoa, Patricia; Freyre, Alejandro; Romero, Marcela; Losso, Marcelo H

    2009-01-01

    Few data are available regarding the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV-1 infection, and risk behaviors of transgender individuals. Previous reports indicate that this community has a high prevalence of HIV and STIs. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of HIV-1 infection, STI and risk behaviors of transgender people versus non transgender people. We used a cross sectional design study. Patients who received services at our testing site between November 2002 and April 2006, and provided written informed consent, were included in the analysis. Socio-demographic data, sexual behaviour, recreational drug use, condom use, concurrent or previous STI and HIV-1 infection diagnosis and partner serologic status, were collected. We used descriptive statistics and chi 2 for comparisons of proportions. In the period of the study, 105 transgender individuals were identified in a population of 4118 patients tested. The prevalence of HIV infection in the transgender group was 27.6% (29/105), while in the non transgender group was 6.2% (247/4013) p:0.0000. Low level of formal instruction, alcohol consumption, drug abuse, previous history of STI and sex work (100% transgenders and 2.3% of non-transgenders) were significantly more frequent in the transgender. The referred correct use of condom was similar in both groups. The prevalence of syphilis was 42.3% in transgender group and 18.1% in non-transgender individuals. These data show that this population has a very high prevalence of HIV-1 and STI. This information could be instrumental to design targets for intensive HIV prevention strategies in this particular high risk population. PMID:19622481

  3. Marital Status and Sexually Transmitted Infections among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eboni M.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the relationship between low marriage rates and racial disparities in sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates. Data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth was used to examine the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors by marital status. Logistic regression was used to examine whether racial differences in marriage…

  4. Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users 1

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; da Silva, Leandro Nascimento; França, Divânia Dias da Silva; Del-Rios, Nativa Helena Alves; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; Teles, Sheila Araujo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users. Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0. Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9) reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0) and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8), alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3), antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9) and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2) were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:26444164

  5. Sexually-transmitted disease risk in a Micronesian atoll population.

    PubMed

    Brewis, A A

    1992-10-01

    The potential health threat of AIDS to the native island-based populations in the Pacific is now widely appreciated by those working in the public-health sector throughout the region. Although several countries in the region are yet to identify any cases of AIDS or HIV seropositivity, there is reason to suspect that heterosexual contact may emerge as a predominant mode of spread of HIV infection into native Pacific island populations. Sexual networks and their relationship to potentially 'risky behaviours' are described for a single native Micronesian atoll community on the basis of ethnographic observation and interviewing. This description is combined with the investigation of historic-demographic dimensions of the epidemiology of sexually-transmitted diseases in the same population to draw some conclusions about the opportunities for HIV transmission and acquisition among the sexually-active portions of this community. Although sexually-transmitted diseases have not had an appreciable epidemiological or demographic impact on the population in the past, the sexual networks within the community and beyond provide ample opportunity for the introduction and spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and its sequel AIDS. PMID:10148657

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  7. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  8. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    PubMed Central

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Philipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (ARISA) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem. PMID:20961376

  9. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted infections among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsuami, M. Jacques; Sanders, Ladatra S.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has not been determined conclusively whether greater knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is associated with lower rates of STIs. Purpose: This study sought to determine STI knowledge among high school students and factors associated with such knowledge, and to determine whether poor STI knowledge is associated with…

  10. [Sexually transmitted infections. Current clinical and therapeutic data].

    PubMed

    Bouscarat, F

    2005-05-01

    A recent increase of syphilis and gonorrhea has been observed in France. More recently, the resurgence of very infrequent STDs, such as lymphogranuloma venerum, has been noticed in Western Europe. This data illustrates the emergence of high-risk behavior and the relative failure of prevention for sexually transmitted infection and HIV infection, especially in homosexual men. Since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, oral sex has been increasingly used both by heterosexual and homosexual partners. Even if the risk of HIV transmission with oral sex is very low, oral sex is a major mode of transmission for syphilis, gonorrhea, and genital herpes. Condoms are seldom used for oral sex. The transmission of STI by oral sex is less documented in heterosexual than in homosexual patients. The level of knowledge does not seem to reduce risky behavior in the most concerned population. An infection not normally considered as sexually transmitted (i.e. hepatitis C) may be transmitted by high risk sexual behavior increasing the risk of blood-blood contact, as recently reported among HIV-infected homosexual men. The emergence of high-risk sexual practices (traumatic practices, fisting) in a specific population required focused prevention measures to avoid blood-transmitted infections. The increased risk of HIV transmission by ST co-infection (syphilis, genital herpes, gonorrhea) and the potential morbidity of STI in HIV infected patients should also be emphasized. PMID:15878817

  11. The Silent Epidemic. Teens and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Susan

    1998-01-01

    One-quarter of the 3 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) each year occur in teenagers. Teens are at high risk because of biological, age, and behavioral factors. Education is the best weapon against STDs. As their children's first sex educators, parents must make every effort to promote STD education at home and school. (SM)

  12. Sexually Transmitted Disease Services at US Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumans, Emilia H.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Motamed, Cathy; Kohl, Katrin; Schillinger, Julia A.; Markowitz, Lauri E.

    2005-01-01

    The authors' objectives in this study were to describe the proportion of schools providing and the percentage of students with access to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) education, treatment, and prevention services at 2-year and 4-year US colleges and universities. The authors mailed self-administered questionnaires to a stratified…

  13. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  14. Spreading of sexually transmitted diseases in heterosexual populations

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Latora, Vito; Moreno, Yamir; Profumo, Elio

    2008-01-01

    The spread of sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV, etc.) across populations is a major concern for scientists and health agencies. In this context, both the data collection on sexual contact networks and the modeling of disease spreading are intensive contributions to the search for effective immunization policies. Here, the spreading of sexually transmitted diseases on bipartite scale-free graphs, representing heterosexual contact networks, is considered. We analytically derive the expression for the epidemic threshold and its dependence with the system size in finite populations. We show that the epidemic outbreak in bipartite populations, with number of sexual partners distributed as in empirical observations from national sex surveys, takes place for larger spreading rates than for the case in which the bipartite nature of the network is not taken into account. Numerical simulations confirm the validity of the theoretical results. Our findings indicate that the restriction to crossed infections between the two classes of individuals (males and females) has to be taken into account in the design of efficient immunization strategies for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18212127

  15. The association between sexually transmitted pathogens and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in a developing community.

    PubMed Central

    Kharsany, A B; Hoosen, A A; Moodley, J; Bagaratee, J; Gouws, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the association of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). SETTING--An urban tertiary referral hospital serving a large indigent developing community. PARTICIPANTS--48 women attending a colposcopy clinic and 49 women attending a family planning clinic. METHODS--Vaginal, endocervical, rectal swab specimens and sera were collected for the detection of sexually transmitted pathogens. Cervical cytology was performed on all patients. Women attending the colposcopy clinic had confirmation of abnormal cervical cytology by colposcopic directed biopsy. RESULTS--The mean age of women with CIN (33 years) was significantly greater than that of the women without CIN (28 years) and that of the family planning group (26 years). There was a high prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in all women. A significantly higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was found in women with CIN compared to those without (50% vs 20%; p = 0.034). The human papilloma virus (HPV) was detected in 46% of women with CIN and 65% of those without CIN. Chlamydia trachomatis (21%) and Trichomonas vaginalis (39%) were detected frequently in women with CIN. C. trachomatis (14%-21%) was detected more frequently than Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3-5%) in all asymptomatic women studied. CONCLUSION--This study demonstrates a high prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with and without CIN as well as family planning clinic attenders. Bacterial vaginosis was a significant finding in women with CIN. C. trachomatis was detected in a high proportion of all women studied and found more commonly than N. gonorrhoeae. We therefore recommend that all women attending gynaecological services in a developing community be investigated and treated for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:8244352

  16. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic

  17. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1981-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

  18. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Willcox, R R

    1981-06-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. PMID:6894558

  19. How often are gonorrhoea and genital yeast infection sexually transmitted?

    PubMed

    Thin, R N; Rendell, P; Wadsworth, J

    1979-08-01

    Although gonorrhoea is often regarded as the sexually transmitted disease against which others are measured, its infectivity is not clearly understood. Estimates of the infection rate have varied from 5--90%. In this study, 50 couples with gonorrhoea were matched with 50 couples with genital yeast infection. Gonorrhoea was diagnosed in both partners of 32 couples and genital yeast infection in both partners of 21 couples. These figures provide an indication of the sexual transmission of these conditions. The higher figure for gonorrhoea may be related to a greater urgency in tracing contacts. PMID:486247

  20. Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... in-depth look at the severe human and economic burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the ... would have resulted in a substantially higher estimated economic burden. 1 Satterwhite CL, et al. Sexually transmitted ...

  1. Sexually, transmitted disease in clinic patients in Salisbury, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed Central

    Latif, A S

    1981-01-01

    During the three months between December 1979 and February 1980, 2867 patients attended a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. Of the 929 (32.4%) patients examined and interviewed clinical and laboratory finding showed that chancroid was the commonest disease (38.4%) and gonorrhoea almost as common (35.3%) in men. Pelvic inflammatory disease was the commonest disease (47.0%) and gonorrhoea the next commonest (22.7%) in women. PMID:6894561

  2. Microbicides for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted HIV Infections

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Onkar; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 34 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) at the end of 2011. From the last two decades, researchers are actively involved in the development of an effective HIV-1 treatment, but the results intended are still doubtful about the eradication of HIV. The HIV-1 virus has gone from being an “inherently untreatable” infectious agent to the one liable to be affected by a range of approved therapies. Candidate microbicides have been developed to target specific steps in the process of viral transmission. Microbicides are self-administered agents that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the aim of preventing, or reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV-1. The development of efficient, widely available, and low-cost microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted HIV infections should be given high priority. In this review, we studied the various forms of microbicides, their mechanism of action, and their abundant approaches to control the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). PMID:26556193

  3. Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Willard

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines were last updated in 2006. To update the “Clinical Guide to Prevention Services” section of the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines, we reviewed the recent science with reference to interventions designed to prevent acquisition of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Major interval developments include (1) licensure and uptake of immunization against genital human papillomavirus, (2) validation of male circumcision as a potent prevention tool against acquisition of HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), (3) failure of a promising HIV vaccine candidate to afford protection against HIV acquisition, (4) encouragement about the use of antiretroviral agents as preexposure prophylaxis to reduce risk of HIV and herpes simplex virus acquisition, (5) enhanced emphasis on expedited partner management and rescreening for persons infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (6) recognition that behavioral interventions will be needed to address a new trend of sexually transmitted hepatitis C among men who have sex with men, and (7) the availability of a modified female condom. A range of preventive interventions is needed to reduce the risks of acquiring STI, including HIV infection, among sexually active people, and a flexible approach targeted to specific populations should integrate combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. These would ideally involve an array of prevention contexts, including (1) communications and practices among sexual partners, (2) transactions between individual clients and their healthcare providers, and (3) comprehensive population-level strategies for prioritizing prevention research, ensuring accurate outcome assessment, and formulating health policy. PMID:22080271

  4. A social model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2004-10-01

    We have introduced recently a model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a key factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population. The social behavior is taking into account by means of two parameters: the fraction of singles ρs and the promiscuity p. The promiscuity parameter defines the per individual daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In this contribution we show that the interaction between this two parameters give rise to a non-trivial epidemic threshold condition, when going from the homogeneous case ( ρs=1) to heterogeneous cases ( ρs<1). These results can have profound implication in the interpretation of real epidemic data.

  5. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel: From Boudoir to Bordello.

    PubMed

    Avery, Ann K; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one's home environment-which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling. PMID:26542045

  6. [Analysis of spreading the sexually transmitted disorders in Georgia].

    PubMed

    Chiokadze, Sh; Galdava, G; Kvlividze, O; Durglishvili, G

    2014-03-01

    According statistical data in Georgia sexually transmitted disorders represent one of the most important medical and social problems. Main causes of this are hard social and economic condition of the country, changing sexual-behavioral stereotypes, drugs and alcohol abuse, political perturbation, as well as unprecedented decrease in financing prevention programs of STD by government. The purpose of given research is statistical analysis of spread of sexually transmitted disorders in Georgia, in particular, among the people included in risk group; finding trends and in accordance with this, working out recommendations for improvement of situation in given field of medicine. Essays showed that through 2000-2012 years among STD revealed in the group of increased risk chlamidiosis was the most common. There is an objective trend of increasing the level of morbidity with chlamidiosis and trichomoniasis, however the speed of increasing morbidity with trichomoniasis probably does not correspond the reality. In the same time morbidity with gonorrhea and syphilis is decreasing, however in the result of significant decrease in STD prevention program scale data validity concerning syphilis might be doubtful. Coming out of this in the field of health care related to STD optimization of laboratory diagnostics management is essential; perfection of methods of epidemiologic control; increasing the scales of prevention programs as well as initiation of researches related to antimicrobial resistance of gonococci. Authors consider essential taking steps for optimization of management of laboratory diagnostics and perfection of methods of epidemiologic control and increasing scales of preventive programs. PMID:24743123

  7. Sexually transmitted chemical defense in a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).

    PubMed

    González, A; Rossini, C; Eisner, M; Eisner, T

    1999-05-11

    The arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) that it sequesters as a larva from its food plant. Earlier work had shown that males transmit PA to the female with the sperm package and that the female bestows part of this gift on the eggs, protecting these against predation as a result. We now show that the female herself derives protection from the gift. Females deficient in PA are vulnerable to predation from spiders (Lycosa ceratiola and Nephila clavipes). If mated with a PA-laden male, the females become unacceptable as prey. The effect takes hold promptly and endures; females are unacceptable to spiders virtually from the moment they uncouple from the male and remain unacceptable as they age. Chemical data showed that the female allocates the received PA quickly to all body parts. We predict that other instances will be found of female insects being rendered invulnerable by receipt of sexually transmitted chemicals. PMID:10318925

  8. Sexually transmitted disease control in China (1949-1994).

    PubMed

    Shao, C; Xu, W; Ye, G

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes the historical experiences in venereal disease control in China during the 1950s. Venereal diseases had been all but eliminated in the whole country till 1964. However, along with the implementation of open-door policy and economic reform in the 1980s, the social environment was changed to a great extent in this country. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were re-introduced in the Chinese mainland and new foci of infection established themselves in some cities. During the recent 8 years the national STD case-reporting and sentinel surveillance systems have been set up. The results of surveillance show that the annual incidence of STD has been on the increase. The existing factors associated with the increasing incidence of STD mainly are; population movement, increasing affluence in a part of population, the availability of multiple sexual partners (including the prostitution) and asymptomatic STD increased. Finally, the strategies for STD control are discussed in detail. PMID:9387394

  9. Promiscuity and the evolution of sexual transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2003-09-01

    We study the relation between different social behaviors and the onset of epidemics in a model for the dynamics of sexual transmitted diseases. The model considers the society as a system of individual sexuated agents that can be organized in couples and interact with each other. The different social behaviors are incorporated assigning what we call a promiscuity value to each individual agent. The individual promiscuity is taken from a distribution and represents the daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In terms of this parameter we find a threshold for the epidemic which is much lower than the classical SIR model prediction, i.e., R0 (basic reproductive number)=1. Different forms for the distribution of the population promiscuity are considered showing that the threshold is weakly sensitive to them. We study the homosexual and the heterosexual case as well.

  10. Sexually transmitted diseases in the history of Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, M

    1994-01-01

    First noticed in Uganda in 1863 by a European explorer, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were cited as a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout this century. In 1908 the venereal diseases campaign was launched marking the real introduction of western medicine. By the mid-1920s, the campaign was combined with the medical service but throughout the colonial period (1901-1962) venereal diseases were considered intractable. A 1991 survey revealed alarming incidence rates and in light of the importance of STDs as a co-factor in the transmission of HIV, it is of paramount importance to implement more effective control measures. PMID:8206475

  11. Incarceration and Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Neighborhood Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Levandowski, Brooke A.; Isler, Malika Roman; Torrone, Elizabeth; Wilson, George

    2007-01-01

    The social dynamics of some communities are affected by the loss of significant numbers of people to prison and by the release of others who encounter the challenge of coping with the negative effects of the incarceration experience. The effects on communities are evident, in part, in the high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in North Carolina (NC) counties that have a high rate of incarceration. In the present study, we examined whether the same associations can be observed at the census tract level in one urban city of NC. To identify the mechanisms by which incarceration can affect the transmission of STIs, we conducted ethnographic interviews with ex-offenders and people who lost a sexual partner to prison. We found that census tract rates of incarceration were consistently associated with gonorrhea rates in the subsequent year. An increase of the percentage of census tract person-time spent in prison from 2.0% to 2.5% corresponded to a gonorrhea rate increase of 7.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The people interviewed spoke of sexual partnership changes including those left behind finding new partners, in part for help in making financial ends meet; men having sex with men for the first time in prison; and having multiple new partners upon reentry to the community. The statistical associations and stories of the effects of incarceration on sexual relationships provide additional evidence of unintended community health consequences of high rates of incarceration. PMID:18046653

  12. Sex, drugs and sexually transmitted infections in British university students.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, R; Abubakar, I; Hunter, P R

    2008-06-01

    Understanding predisposing factors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young adults may identify targets for public health interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey of university students' sexual attitudes, behaviours and lifestyles and self-reported rates of STI. A total of 827 students responded, 22.4% had two or more sexual partners in the previous year with inconsistent condom use and the lifetime prevalence of STIs was 9.6%. Factors associated with a diagnosis of STI were increasing age and number of sexual partners ever, female gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31, 5.56) and use of crack (AOR 10.45, 95% CI 1.46, 75.16). For female students, these were increasing age and number of partners ever, whereas for male students having sex with other men (bisexual AOR 4.8, 95% CI 1.02, 22.595, homosexual AOR 17.66, 95% CI 3.03, 103.04) and use of crack (AOR 32.24, 95% CI 3.33, 312.08). Multiple partners and recreational drug use may predict incidence of STI. Prevention strategies need to aim at reducing risk behaviour across various activities. PMID:18595873

  13. Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed Central

    Day, S; Ward, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time to another, together with the risk of sexually transmitted disease. A broad social definition of prostitution rather than a narrow reference to levels of sexual activity is important for effective disease control, as an understanding of the relation between social disadvantage and sexual activity enables the provision of occupational services that sex workers actually want and use. Social prejudice and legal sanctions cause some sex workers and their partners to avoid even the most appropriate and accessible specialist services. Therefore targeted programmes can only complement, and not replace, general measures to control STDs, which are developed for other social groups or the local population as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Sex workers and sex work differ from one place to another and so a single model for STD control is inappropriate. None the less, occupational health risks suggest a general need for specialist services. Where these do not compound the disadvantages that sex workers already suffer, medical services are likely to offer significant benefits in prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of STDs. As the stigma of prostitution leads many people to remain invisible to services, a general health infrastructure and anti-discriminatory measures will be equally important to effective disease control. PMID:9306894

  14. The effect of abortion legalization on sexual behavior: evidence from sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Klick, Jonathan; Stratmann, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Unwanted pregnancy represents a major cost of sexual activity. When abortion was legalized in a number of states in 1969 and 1970 (and nationally in 1973), this cost was reduced. We predict that abortion legalization generated incentives leading to an increase in sexual activity, accompanied by an increase in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using Centers for Disease Control data on the incidence of gonorrhea and syphilis by state, we test the hypothesis that abortion legalization led to an increase in sexually transmitted diseases. We find that gonorrhea and syphilis incidences are significantly and positively correlated with abortion legalization. Further, we find a divergence in STD rates among early legalizing states and late legalizing states starting in 1970 and a subsequent convergence after the Roe v. Wade decision, indicating that the relation between STDs and abortion is casual. Abortion legalization accounts for about one-fourth of the average disease incidence. PMID:15457623

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases in children in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Richens, J

    1994-08-01

    The populations of developing countries have younger age structures than the populations of more developed, Western countries. That is, children, adolescents, and youth constitute a far greater proportion of the populations of developing countries than in developed countries. These young people experiment with sex and sexual intercourse or have coitus on a regular basis depending upon their individual personalities and circumstances. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among younger age groups in developing countries is not well documented. It may, however, be inferred on the basis of reported experience of STD in surveys of adolescents and young adults that many children are infected with STDs. Some young people have sex consensually, some are coaxed into it, and others are coerced. On the one hand, young children have been thought to contract STD by sitting on the laps of infected, scantily-clad adults where such limited attire is the norm. Close contact between youngsters such as communal sleeping, for example, could then facilitate the spread of the STD among children. Sex, consensual or otherwise, is not involved in such infection and transmission beyond the index adult. On the other hand, however, many children and adolescents are forced to have sexual relations and/or intercourse either directly against their will or as a result of the primal need to ensure their individual survival. For example, there are an estimated 100-200 million street children worldwide; many have little alternative but to sell sex to survive. When having sex, they may not use condoms because they are unaware of the STD risk they face, they have no access to free condoms, clients/employers/peers prevent them from using condoms, or due to a myriad of other reasons. Struggling to survive, many such kids place condom use very low on their list of priorities. Children and adolescents can also become infected and transmit STDs to others by engaging in sexual intercourse

  16. Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part I: HSV, HPV.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Majewska, Anna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

    2013-11-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world and important cause of morbidity and mortality. Especially STDs of viral etiology are difficult to cure. In many cases the antiviral therapy can relieve the symptoms but not eliminate the virus. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of antiviral drugs. One of the oldest antiviral medications is acyclovir (ACV). It is approved to treat initial and recurrent genital herpes and as a suppressive therapy in severe recurrent genital infections as well. Drug resistance to ACV and related drugs is seen among immunocompromised hosts, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV-infected patients. Resistant infections can be managed by second-line drugs - foscarnet or cidofovir- but they are more toxic than ACV. In case of HPV there is not known specific target for the medication and that is why the substances used in human papilloma virus HPV infection therapy are either antimitotics or immunomodulators. The Part I review focuses on mechanisms of actions and mechanisms of resistance to antiviral agents used in a treatment of the genital herpes and genital HPV infection. In Part II we will show the therapeutic options in other sexually transmitted infections: hepatitis B, C and HIV. PMID:24032509

  17. [Awareness and education regarding sexually transmitted diseases among undergraduate students].

    PubMed

    Castro, Eneida Lazzarini de; Caldas, Tânia Alencar de; Morcillo, André Moreno; Pereira, Elisabete Monteiro de Aguiar; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main global cause of acute illness and death and represent a high socioeconomic cost. Undergraduate students are highly exposed to STDs. The research developed at UNICAMP sought to quantify and generate self-perception of knowledge(or lack thereof) about STDs, as well as evaluate the interest of the students in a course on the topic. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent electronically to students about to graduate at the end of 2011 and to freshmen in 2012. The questionnaire was answered by 1,448 seniors and 371 freshmen. Twenty percent of seniors and 38% of freshmen had no sexual activity. Among sexually active students, 26.9% had no regular partner and 28.2% more than two partners per year. The condom was used by 99% of students, but less than 20% used them appropriately. About 80% were unaware that condoms do not provide protection outside the barrier area; they intended to read more about STDs and learnt something about the subject. Nearly half of the students considered that a course should be offered to all undergraduates. These findings will be of use in defining strategies for prevention and the teaching tool could be used in other learning environments. PMID:27276546

  18. The social behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2003-10-01

    We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.

  19. Sexualization of the female foot as a response to sexually transmitted epidemics: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Colapietro, G; Slaby, A E; Melemis, S M; Bowman, R K

    1998-10-01

    The authors reviewed historical literature and hypothesized a relationship between epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases and foot fetishism. They tested this hypothesis by quantifying foot-fetish depictions in the mass-circulation pornographic literature during a 30-yr. interval. An exponential increase was noted during the period of the current AIDS epidemic. The authors offer reasons for this possible relationship. PMID:9819924

  20. Gender differences in sexual practices and sexually transmitted infections among adults in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, J; Gotuzzo, E; Escamilla, J; Carrillo, C; Phillips, I A; Barrios, C; Stamm, W E; Ashley, R L; Kreiss, J K; Holmes, K K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examined the prevalences of antibodies to Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 in a sample of Peruvian adults. METHODS. Among adults seeking health certification in Lima, Peru, 600 were randomly selected to undergo interviews and serologic testing. RESULTS. Men's reported mean lifetime number of partners (10.6) far exceeded women's (1.1), yet antibody to sexually transmitted infection pathogens among sexually experienced participants was 2.8 times more prevalent among women than among men. Among men, female sex workers accounted for 37% of recent partners, and only sex with female sex workers while using condoms less than half of the time was independently associated with antibody (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 8.8). among women, number of partners was associated with any sexually transmitted infection antibody, while intercourse before 18 years of age was associated with C trachomatis antibody. At every level of perceived risk, sexually transmitted infection antibody was more frequent among women. CONCLUSIONS. Men having unprotected sex with female sex workers had the greatest risk of acquiring infections and (by inference) of transmitting them to women. PMID:8712268

  1. Sexual Relationship Power as a Mediator between Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…

  2. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…

  3. Sexual Assault and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adults, Adolescents, and Children.

    PubMed

    Seña, Arlene C; Hsu, Katherine K; Kellogg, Nancy; Girardet, Rebecca; Christian, Cindy W; Linden, Judith; Griffith, William; Marchant, Anne; Jenny, Carole; Hammerschlag, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated treatment regimens; vaccinations for human papillomavirus (HPV) among previously unvaccinated patients aged 9-26 years; and consideration for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis using an algorithm to assess the timing and characteristics of the exposure. For child sexual assault (CSA) survivors, recommendations include targeted diagnostic testing with increased use of NAATs when appropriate; routine follow-up visits within 6 months after the last known sexual abuse; and use of HPV vaccination in accordance with national immunization guidelines as a preventive measure in the post-sexual assault care setting. For CSA patients, NAATs are considered to be acceptable for identification of gonococcal and chlamydial infections from urine samples, but are not recommended for extragenital testing due to the potential detection of nongonococcal Neisseria species. Several research questions were identified regarding the prevalence, detection, and management of STI/HIV infections among adult, adolescent, and pediatric sexual assault survivors. PMID:26602623

  4. Sexual behaviour and risk of sexually transmitted infections in young female healthcare students in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Tomás-Rodríguez, María Isabel; Antón-Ruiz, Fina; Belda-Ibañez, Josefina; Montejo, Ángel Luis; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms). Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]). Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05) included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008) and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001). Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI. PMID:26966654

  5. Sexually transmitted infection and the evolution of serial monogamy

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, David V.; Day, Troy

    2014-01-01

    The selective forces shaping mating systems have long been of interest to biologists. One particular selective pressure that has received comparatively little attention is sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While it has been hypothesized that STIs could drive the evolutionary emergence of monogamy, there is little theoretical support. Here we use an evolutionary invasion analysis to determine what aspects of pathogen virulence and transmission are necessary for serial monogamy to evolve in a promiscuous population. We derive a biologically intuitive invasion condition in terms of population-specific quantities. From this condition, we obtain two main results. First, when pathogen virulence causes mortality rather than sterility, monogamy is more likely to evolve. Second, we find that at intermediate pathogen transmission rates, monogamy is the most selectively advantageous, whereas at high- and low-transmission rates, monogamy is generally selected against. As a result, it is possible for a pathogen to be highly virulent, yet for promiscuity to persist. PMID:25320174

  6. Sexually transmitted diseases in Canada, 1800-1992.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, H

    1994-01-01

    The history of sexually transmitted diseases in Canada from 1800 to the present reflects the changing views and values of citizens, medical experts, politicians and bureaucrats. During the colonial period, the military devoted attention to the problem but strict moral codes and social conventions prevented public discussion. Although middle class reformers began to pressure the federal government for funding and direction after 1900, World War I was the catalyst for involvement. Health education through a voluntary group and federal-provincial cost-shared funding for treatment facilities across Canada were introduced to control STDs. Public perception of STD patients as marginalised or deviant limited the impact of these efforts. Social changes during the 1960s, new STDs appearing in the 1970s and the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s have redirected the STD campaign to focus on high risk groups and prevention rather than the moralistic curative efforts of the past. PMID:8300103

  7. Sexually transmitted diseases in modern China: a historical survey.

    PubMed Central

    Dikötter, F

    1993-01-01

    This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attitudes have also structured medical responses to venereal disease. From the reform movements between the two World Wars to the more recent communist health campaigns, medical theory has often been confused with moral prescription. PMID:8244349

  8. Emergency department screening for asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, C S; Haase, C; Stoner, B P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of asymptomatic genital tract infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis among emergency department patients. METHODS: Individuals seeking emergency department evaluation for nongenitourinary complaints provided urine samples for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis testing by ligase chain reaction and completed a sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire. RESULTS: Asymptomatic N gonorrhoeae or C trachomatis was found in 9.7% of persons tested. Correlates of C trachomatis infection included younger age, residence in high-morbidity zip code areas, previous history of N gonorrhoeae or C trachomatis, and number of sex partners in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Urine-based screening of asymptomatic emergency department patients detected significant numbers of N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis infections. Targeted screening programs may contribute to community-level prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:11236416

  9. Skin as an indicator for sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Henry J C

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous signs and skin conditions associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are discussed. Syphilis, condyloma acuminata, and scabies are well-known STIs with cutaneous manifestations. Chlamydia and gonorrhea can also cause specific muco-cutaneous signs and symptoms. HIV often manifests itself through skin conditions. Dermatologists are pivotal in the timely diagnosis of HIV infection and play an important role in the disease prognosis and ongoing transmission. Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN), an HPV related precursor of anal carcinoma affecting HIV positive men, is a relatively new condition that many dermatologists will face in the future. STIs should be involved in the differential diagnosis when dermatologists are confronted with anogenital dermatoses, especially in patients with an increased risk for STIs. PMID:24559554

  10. Sexually transmitted infections of the anus and rectum

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Roland; Hashim, Peter W; Reddy, Vikram B; Einarsdottir, Hulda; Longo, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a significant public health concern. Several STIs, once thought to be on the verge of extinction, have recently reemerged. This change is thought to be partially related to an increase in STIs of the anus and rectum. Importantly, the global human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic has contributed to the emergence of particular anorectal lesions that require specialized approaches. In this report, we review common anorectal STIs that are frequently referred to colorectal surgeons in the United States. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management are summarized, including the latest treatment recommendations. The particularity of anorectal diseases in HIV/AIDS is addressed, along with recent trends in anal cytology and human papillomavirus vaccination. PMID:25386074

  11. Attributable risk of exposures associated with sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Vittinghoff, E; Padian, N S

    1996-10-01

    Attributable risk combines information on the prevalence of an exposure with a measure of the associated increment in risk, providing an estimate of the proportion of incident or prevalent disease that might be avoided by eliminating the exposure. Thus, attributable risk identifies exposures most productively targeted by public health interventions. Attributable risk can be defined as the ratio of average excess risk to average risk. As with other measures of association between exposure and disease computed from observational data, adjustment must be made for confounding factors. Estimates of attributable risk are highly variable. Nonetheless, attributable risk retains its usefulness as an approximate measure of the public health significance of exposures associated with acquisition of sexually transmitted disease, provided it is estimated and interpreted cautiously. PMID:8843248

  12. Recreational urethral sounding is associated with high risk sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. RESULTS There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED. CONCLUSIONS Urethral sounding is a sexual practice that is associated with higher risk sexual behaviour and carries the potential for morbidity. Research on means for risk reduction for men who choose to engage in recreational sounding requires further study. PMID:22221824

  13. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Overlooked Sexually Transmitted Pathogen in Women?

    PubMed

    Ona, Samsiya; Molina, Rose L; Diouf, Khady

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a facultative anaerobic organism and a recognized cause of nongonococcal urethritis in men. In women, M. genitalium has been associated with cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and adverse birth outcomes, indicating a consistent relationship with female genital tract pathology. The global prevalence of M. genitalium among symptomatic and asymptomatic sexually active women ranges between 1 and 6.4%. M. genitalium may play a role in pathogenesis as an independent sexually transmitted pathogen or by facilitating coinfection with another pathogen. The long-term reproductive consequences of M. genitalium infection in asymptomatic individuals need to be investigated further. Though screening for this pathogen is not currently recommended, it should be considered in high-risk populations. Recent guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control regarding first-line treatment for PID do not cover M. genitalium but recommend considering treatment in patients without improvement on standard PID regimens. Prospective studies on the prevalence, pathophysiology, and long-term reproductive consequences of M. genitalium infection in the general population are needed to determine if screening protocols are necessary. New treatment regimens need to be investigated due to increasing drug resistance. PMID:27212873

  14. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Overlooked Sexually Transmitted Pathogen in Women?

    PubMed Central

    Ona, Samsiya; Molina, Rose L.; Diouf, Khady

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a facultative anaerobic organism and a recognized cause of nongonococcal urethritis in men. In women, M. genitalium has been associated with cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and adverse birth outcomes, indicating a consistent relationship with female genital tract pathology. The global prevalence of M. genitalium among symptomatic and asymptomatic sexually active women ranges between 1 and 6.4%. M. genitalium may play a role in pathogenesis as an independent sexually transmitted pathogen or by facilitating coinfection with another pathogen. The long-term reproductive consequences of M. genitalium infection in asymptomatic individuals need to be investigated further. Though screening for this pathogen is not currently recommended, it should be considered in high-risk populations. Recent guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control regarding first-line treatment for PID do not cover M. genitalium but recommend considering treatment in patients without improvement on standard PID regimens. Prospective studies on the prevalence, pathophysiology, and long-term reproductive consequences of M. genitalium infection in the general population are needed to determine if screening protocols are necessary. New treatment regimens need to be investigated due to increasing drug resistance.

  15. Sexually transmitted infections-microbial infections, 2007 update.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Human sexual behavior required for the continuation of humankind nevertheless has its downsides, among them sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The treatment of microbial STIs is challenging but not in itself essentially very difficult. Controlling STIs, on the other hand, is like the task of Sisyphus, a king in Greek mythology who was forced forever to roll a block of stone to the top of a steep hill, only to see it roll back to the valley, where he started the toilsome task again. This is how many a venereologist must view the day's practice, supervising patients with STIs. Yes, there are newcomers, many of them very young, but there are many others, the recidivists, whom the physician and health care staff know only too well. "You don't mind seeing me again, doc. You (collectively) were so good to me last time"--as though catching a chlamydial infection 3 or 4 times, gonorrhea 20 or 30 times, and syphilis on occasion were badges of virility or part of life's natural progression. This is the pattern of STIs in 2007. PMID:17786104

  16. Self-reported sexually transmitted infections among female university students

    PubMed Central

    Tiblom Ehrsson, Ylva; Stenhammar, Christina; Rosenblad, Andreas; Åkerud, Helena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the occurrence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated factors among female university students requesting contraceptive counselling. Material and methods Cross-sectional study. Female university students (n = 353) completed a waiting-room questionnaire in connection with contraceptive counselling at a Student Health Centre in Uppsala, Sweden. Results Ninety-three (26.3%) female students had experienced an STI. The three most frequently reported STIs were chlamydia trachomatis, condyloma, and genital herpes. The experience of an STI was significantly associated with the total number of sexual partners (OR 1.060, 95% CI 1.030–1.091, P < 0.001), being heterosexual (OR 4.640, 95% CI 1.321–16.290, P = 0.017), having experienced an abortion (OR 2.744, 95% CI 1.112–6.771, P = 0.028), not being HPV-vaccinated (OR 2.696, 95% CI 1.473–4.935, P = 0.001), and having had intercourse on first night without using a condom (OR 2.375, 95% CI 1.182–4.771, P = 0.015). Conclusions Contraceptive counselling should also include information about primary and secondary prevention of STI, such as the importance of correct use of a condom and STI testing, to prevent a further spread of STIs. PMID:26489857

  17. STI-GMaS: an open-source environment for simulation of sexually-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexually-transmitted pathogens often have severe reproductive health implications if treatment is delayed or absent, especially in females. The complex processes of disease progression, namely replication and ascension of the infection through the genital tract, span both extracellular and intracellular physiological scales, and in females can vary over the distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. The complexity of these processes, coupled with the common impossibility of obtaining comprehensive and sequential clinical data from individual human patients, makes mathematical and computational modelling valuable tools in developing our understanding of the infection, with a view to identifying new interventions. While many within-host models of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) are available in existing literature, these models are difficult to deploy in clinical/experimental settings since simulations often require complex computational approaches. Results We present STI-GMaS (Sexually-Transmitted Infections – Graphical Modelling and Simulation), an environment for simulation of STI models, with a view to stimulating the uptake of these models within the laboratory or clinic. The software currently focuses upon the representative case-study of Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common sexually-transmitted bacterial pathogen of humans. Here, we demonstrate the use of a hybrid PDE–cellular automata model for simulation of a hypothetical Chlamydia vaccination, demonstrating the effect of a vaccine-induced antibody in preventing the infection from ascending to above the cervix. This example illustrates the ease with which existing models can be adapted to describe new studies, and its careful parameterisation within STI-GMaS facilitates future tuning to experimental data as they arise. Conclusions STI-GMaS represents the first software designed explicitly for in-silico simulation of STI models by non-theoreticians, thus presenting a novel route to

  18. Women on men's sexual health and sexually transmitted infection testing: a gender relations analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Chabot, Cathy; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy; Bungay, Vicky; Shoveller, Jean A

    2013-01-01

    Sexual health and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing is typically portrayed as a women's issue amid men's estrangement from healthcare services. While the underreporting of men's STIs has been linked to masculinities, little is known about how women interpret and respond to heterosexual men's sexual health practices. The findings drawn from this qualitative study of 34 young women reveal how femininities can be complicit in sustaining, as well as being critical of and disrupting masculine discourses that affirm sexual pleasure and resistance to health help-seeking as men's patriarchal privileges. Our analysis revealed three patterns: looking after the man's libido refers to women's emphasised femininity whereby the man's preference for unprotected sex and reticence to be tested for STIs was accommodated. Negotiating the stronger sex refers to ambivalent femininities, in which participants strategically resist, cooperate and comply with men's sexual health practices. Rejecting the patriarchal double standard that celebrates men as 'studs' and subordinates women as 'sluts' for embodying similar sexual practices reflects protest femininities. Overall, the findings reveal that conventional heterosexual gender relations, in which hegemonic masculinity is accommodated by women who align to emphasised femininity, continues to direct many participants' expectations around men's sexual health and STI testing. PMID:22497206

  19. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  20. Sexual practices and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among hairdressers in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omokhodion, F O; Balogun, M O; Klemetti, M M; Olaolorun, F M

    2015-01-01

    The environment in salons provides hairdressers the opportunity to discuss sexual exploits which may promote unhealthy sexual behaviour and increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of the study was to determine sexual practices and knowledge and experience of STIs among hairdressers. The study was carried out in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. A total of 1700 hairdressers were selected by cluster sampling technique. Predictors of risky sexual behaviour, knowledge and experience of STIs were identified. Their mean age was 27.0 ± 8.1 years, 860 (50.6%) were single. Majority of them, 1453(85.5%) had ever had sex. The mean age at sexual debut was 15.9 years. Mean knowledge score of STIs was 14.0 out of 25. Only 158(9.3%) experienced symptoms of STIs in the last 12 months. Among singles, senior secondary education was a predictor of ever had sex (odds ratio [OR]: 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53-3.13), good knowledge of STIs (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.45-2.83) and experience of STIs in the last 12 months (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.53-3.13). Hairdressers, especially singles, are a vulnerable group at risk of reproductive health morbidities. There is a need to focus reproductive health interventions on this occupational group. PMID:25642818

  1. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354

  2. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354

  3. Determinants and consequences of sexual networks as they affect the spread of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Irene A; Padian, Nancy S; Marlow, Cameron; Aral, Sevgi O

    2005-02-01

    Because pathogens spread only within the unique context of a sexual union between people when one person is infectious, the other is susceptible to new infection, and condoms are not used to prevent transmission, the epidemiological study of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is particularly challenging. Social network analysis entails the study of ties among people and how the structure and quality of such ties affect individuals and overall group dynamics. Although ascertaining complete sexual networks is difficult, application of this approach has provided unique insights into the spread of STIs that traditional individual-based epidemiological methods do not capture. This article provides a brief background on the design and assessments of studies of social networks, to illustrate how these methods have been applied to understanding the distribution of STIs, to inform the development of interventions for STI control. PMID:15627230

  4. Male circumcision, HIV and sexually transmitted infections: a review

    PubMed Central

    Larke, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Three randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men by approximately 60%. In this paper, we review the evidence that male circumcision protects against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men and their female partners. Data from the clinical trials indicate that circumcision may be protective against genital ulcer disease, Herpes simplex type 2, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papillomavirus infection in men. No evidence exists of a protective effect against Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea. There is weak evidence that circumcision has a direct protective effect on HIV infection in women, although there is likely to be an indirect benefit, since HIV prevalence is likely to be lower in circumcised male partners. Although there is little evidence from the trials of serious adverse events from the procedure and of behavioural risk compensation among circumcised men, essential operational research is being conducted to evaluate these key issues outside the trial setting as circumcision services are expanded. Following the publication of the clinical trial results in early 2007, the World Health Organization/UNAIDS has advised that promotion of male circumcision should be included as an additional HIV strategy for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in areas of high HIV prevalence. As circumcision services are expanded in settings where resources are limited, non-physician providers including nurses will play an important role in the provision of services. PMID:20622758

  5. Male circumcision, HIV and sexually transmitted infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Larke, Natasha

    Three randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men by approximately 60%. In this paper, we review the evidence that male circumcision protects against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men and their female partners. Data from the clinical trials indicate that circumcision may be protective against genital ulcer disease, Herpes simplex type 2, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papillomavirus infection in men. No evidence exists of a protective effect against Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea. There is weak evidence that circumcision has a direct protective effect on HIV infection in women, although there is likely to be an indirect benefit, since HIV prevalence is likely to be lower in circumcised male partners. Although there is little evidence from the trials of serious adverse events from the procedure and of behavioural risk compensation among circumcised men, essential operational research is being conducted to evaluate these key issues outside the trial setting as circumcision services are expanded. Following the publication of the clinical trial results in early 2007, the World Health Organization/UNAIDS has advised that promotion of male circumcision should be included as an additional HIV strategy for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in areas of high HIV prevalence. As circumcision services are expanded in settings where resources are limited, non-physician providers including nurses will play an important role in the provision of services. PMID:20622758

  6. Comparative Geographic Concentrations of 4 Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kerani, Roxanne P.; Handcock, Mark S.; Handsfield, H. Hunter; Holmes, King K.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We measured and compared the concentration of primary and secondary syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, and genital herpes in a large county with urban, suburban, and rural settings. Methods. We geocoded sexually transmitted infections reported to King County, Washington health department in 2000–2001 to census tract of residence. We used a model-based approach to measure concentration with Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients. Results. Syphilis exhibited the highest level of concentration (estimated Gini coefficient = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64, 0.78), followed by gonorrhea (estimated Gini coefficient=0.57; 95% CI=0.54, 0.60), chlamydial infection (estimated Gini coefficient = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.40, 0.43), and herpes (estimated Gini coefficient=0.26; 95% CI=0.22, 0.29). Conclusions. Geographically targeted interventions may be most appropriate for syphilis and gonorrhea. For less-concentrated infections, control strategies must reach a wider portion of the population. PMID:15671471

  7. Immunity and vaccines against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Howie, Sarah E. M.; Horner, Patrick J.; Horne, Andrew W.; Entrican, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review To review recent findings on immunity and vaccine development to Chlamydia trachomatis. Recent findings There is increasing knowledge on the interactions between Chlamydia trachomatis and infected host cells. During genital infection the organism avoids generating protective immunity but immune responses to a number of chlamydial proteins have been associated with reproductive tract pathology. Various vaccine and adjuvant preparations have been tried experimentally. Information generated by proteomics and complex studies of serological and T-lymphocyte immune responses points to novel vaccine candidates. Summary Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest sexually transmitted infection worldwide and is associated with reproductive pathology. To develop rational vaccines it is necessary to understand the complex life-cycle of the organism, the host immune response to infection and how these relate to disease. Infection does not prevent reinfection and antibiotic treatment prevents antibody production at a population level. It remains unclear what type of immune response would be sufficient to prevent infection and/or reinfection. Although the prevalence and demographics of infection and the severity of disease associations suggest it would be desirable, there is no vaccine currently available. A number of studies have identified novel vaccine candidates. PMID:21124214

  8. DNA Microarray Characterization of Pathogens Associated with Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Boyang; Wang, Suwei; Tian, Zhenyang; Hu, Pinliang; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study established a multiplex PCR-based microarray to detect simultaneously a diverse panel of 17 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)-associated pathogens including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 54 and 58. The target genes are 16S rRNA gene for N. gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium, M. hominism, and Ureaplasma, the major outer membrane protein gene (ompA) for C. trachomatis, the glycoprotein B gene (gB) for HSV; and the L1 gene for HPV. A total of 34 probes were selected for the microarray including 31 specific probes, one as positive control, one as negative control, and one as positional control probe for printing reference. The microarray is specific as the commensal and pathogenic microbes (and closely related organisms) in the genitourinary tract did not cross-react with the microarray probes. The microarray is 10 times more sensitive than that of the multiplex PCR. Among the 158 suspected HPV specimens examined, the microarray showed that 49 samples contained HPV, 21 samples contained Ureaplasma, 15 contained M. hominis, four contained C. trachomatis, and one contained N. gonorrhoeae. This work reports the development of the first high through-put detection system that identifies common pathogens associated with STDs from clinical samples, and paves the way for establishing a time-saving, accurate and high-throughput diagnostic tool for STDs. PMID:26208181

  9. Voluntary vaccination strategy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative. PMID:26877073

  10. HIV testing and sexually transmitted infection care among sexually active youth in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Delva, Wim; Wuillaume, Françoise; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Claeys, Patricia; Verstraelen, Hans; Broeck, Davy Vanden; Temmerman, Marleen

    2008-10-01

    In light of the imminent threat of a growing HIV epidemic in east and southeast Europe, optimal accessibility of primary and secondary HIV preventative interventions, including HIV testing and sexually transmitted infection (STI) care, are fast becoming public health priorities. We surveyed 2150 high school students in Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYR of Macedonia, Serbia, and Montenegro to examine the uptake of HIV testing and associated predictors. Among sexually active youth (n = 651), 5.9% had already been tested for HIV. In marginal logistic regression, country of origin, type of high school, knowing a friend or relative with HIV, poor self-assessed health status, suspicion of having had an STI, and not having used a condom at first sex were independently associated with HIV testing. Fear of the diagnosis, fear of violation of confidentiality, and not knowing where to go for HIV testing were reported as barriers to HIV testing. Of sexually active adolescents who thought they might have contracted an STI, only 42% had subsequently visited a doctor or health facility. The main reasons for not doing so were spontaneous disappearance of the complaints, fear of the diagnosis and being ashamed of discussing the problem. In conclusion, the uptake of HIV testing among this population of sexually active, urban high school students was found to be low, although a higher prevalence of HIV testing history was observed among students showing evidence of risky sexual behavior. Practical and psychological factors seem to challenge the accessibility of facilities for HIV testing and STI care. PMID:18847388

  11. Point of care diagnostics for sexually transmitted infections: perspectives and advances

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte; Hardick, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) tests are urgently needed to control sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics, so that patients can receive immediate diagnoses and treatment. Current POC assays for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae perform inadequately and require better assays. Diagnostics for Trichomonas vaginalis rely on wet preparation, with some notable advances. Serological POC assays for syphilis can impact resource-poor settings, with many assays available, but only one available in the U.S. HIV POC diagnostics demonstrate the best performance, with excellent assays available. There is a rapid assay for HSV lesion detection; but no POC serological assays are available. Despite the inadequacy of POC assays for treatable bacterial infections, application of technological advances offers the promise of advancing POC diagnostics for all STIs. PMID:24484215

  12. Drug Resistance Mechanisms in Bacteria Causing Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Associated with Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Shaskolskiy, Boris; Dementieva, Ekaterina; Leinsoo, Arvo; Runina, Anastassia; Vorobyev, Denis; Plakhova, Xenia; Kubanov, Alexey; Deryabin, Dmitrii; Gryadunov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Here, we review sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) caused by pathogenic bacteria and vaginal infections which result from an overgrowth of opportunistic bacterial microflora. First, we describe the STDs, the corresponding pathogens and the antimicrobials used for their treatment. In addition to the well-known diseases caused by single pathogens (i.e., syphilis, gonococcal infections, and chlamydiosis), we consider polymicrobial reproductive tract infections (especially those that are difficult to effectively clinically manage). Then, we summarize the biochemical mechanisms that lead to antimicrobial resistance and the most recent data on the emergence of drug resistance in STD pathogens and bacteria associated with vaginosis. A large amount of research performed in the last 10–15 years has shed light on the enormous diversity of mechanisms of resistance developed by bacteria. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of antimicrobials action and the emergence of resistance is necessary to modify existing drugs and to develop new ones directed against new targets. PMID:27242760

  13. Drug Resistance Mechanisms in Bacteria Causing Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Associated with Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Shaskolskiy, Boris; Dementieva, Ekaterina; Leinsoo, Arvo; Runina, Anastassia; Vorobyev, Denis; Plakhova, Xenia; Kubanov, Alexey; Deryabin, Dmitrii; Gryadunov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Here, we review sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) caused by pathogenic bacteria and vaginal infections which result from an overgrowth of opportunistic bacterial microflora. First, we describe the STDs, the corresponding pathogens and the antimicrobials used for their treatment. In addition to the well-known diseases caused by single pathogens (i.e., syphilis, gonococcal infections, and chlamydiosis), we consider polymicrobial reproductive tract infections (especially those that are difficult to effectively clinically manage). Then, we summarize the biochemical mechanisms that lead to antimicrobial resistance and the most recent data on the emergence of drug resistance in STD pathogens and bacteria associated with vaginosis. A large amount of research performed in the last 10-15 years has shed light on the enormous diversity of mechanisms of resistance developed by bacteria. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of antimicrobials action and the emergence of resistance is necessary to modify existing drugs and to develop new ones directed against new targets. PMID:27242760

  14. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC overall, among pregnant women, and among women ≤25 years. Methods During October 2004–September 2006, HIV-infected women at 3 obstetrics and gynecology clinics were asked about sexual behaviors and STI symptoms, physically examined, and screened for chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify correlates of infections. NNS was calculated using standard methods. Results Among 1,124 women, 526 (47.0%) had STI symptoms or signs, 469 (41.7%) had CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, and 133 (11.8%) had an STI. Correlates of having an STI included pregnancy and having STI signs. Among 469 women and 655 women with vs. without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, respectively, 43 (9.2%) vs. 31 (4.7%), 2 (0.4%) vs. 9 (1.4%), and 45 (9.6%) vs. 38 (5.8%) had CT, GC, or “CT or GC”, respectively; correlates included receiving care at university hospitals and having sex with a casual partner within 3 months. NNS for women overall and women ≤25 years old were 18 (95% CI, 13-25) and 11 (95% CI, 6-23), respectively; and for pregnant and non-pregnant women, 8 (95% CI, 4-24) and 19 (95% CI, 14-27), respectively. Conclusions STI prevalence among HIV-infected women, including CT and GC among those without symptoms or signs, was substantial. Screening for CT and GC, particularly for pregnant women, should be considered. PMID:23601556

  15. The changing pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Donald, W H

    1979-03-01

    The factors associated with the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents in England and Wales are both social and medical. Among the social factors is the large part played by sex in periodicals, advertisements, the theater, radio, and television. Also playing their part are increased mobility of populations, particularly moves from rural to urban areas, increased affluence, increased alcohol comsumption and leisure time together with greater personal freedom. The medical factors include the prevalence of asymptomatic infection mainly in women but also in men, the high incidence in homosexual men who may be asymptomatic and very promiscuous, and the fact that modern treatment is simple and effective reduces the fear of infection. Furthermore, modern contraceptive techniques such as the IUD and oral contraceptives (OCs) offer no barriers to infection unlike the condom and diaphragm. Syphilis is no longer a problem in the UK, as the incidence has remained at a low level of 2-3 cases/100,000 population for the past 20 years. Gonorrhea has become a problem in its place reaching almost epidemic proportions by 1975, although the incidence is now showing some sign of leveling off. Nonspecific urethritis in men and nonspecific genital infection in women, and the virus condition of herpes genitalis and genital warts have all continued to increase in incidence. In most clinics 40-50% of female patients with gonorrhea are under the age of 20. Changing patterns of sexual behavior have altered the pattern of disease. Oral coitus, both fellatio and cunnilingus, have become more prevalent and can lead to pharyngeal gonorrhea which can be symptomless in both heterosexuals and homosexuals. Rectal gonorrhea occurs in women as well as in male homosexuals and can be a cause of failure of initial treatment. The diagnosis of gonorrhea is a bacteriological diagnosis, and smears and cultures must be taken from the urethra and cervix in the female. It is gradually

  16. Trends in sexually transmitted infections in the Netherlands, combining surveillance data from general practices and sexually transmitted infection centers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STI) care in the Netherlands is primarily provided by general practitioners (GPs) and specialized STI centers. STI surveillance is based on data from STI centers, which show increasing numbers of clients. Data from a GP morbidity surveillance network were used to investigate the distribution in the provision of STI care and the usefulness of GP data in surveillance. Methods Data on STI-related episodes and STI diagnoses based on ICPC codes and, for chlamydia, prescriptions, were obtained from GP electronic medical records (EMRs) of the GP network and compared to data from STI centers from 2002 to 2007. Incidence rates were estimated for the total population in the Netherlands. Results The incidence of STI-consultations and -diagnoses increased substantially in recent years, both at GPs and STI centers. The increase in consultations was larger than the increase in diagnoses; Chlamydia incidence rose especially at STI centers. GPs were responsible for 70% of STI-related episodes and 80-85% of STI diagnoses. STI centers attract relatively younger and more often male STI-patients than GPs. Symptomatic STIs like Herpes genitalis and genital warts were more frequently diagnosed at GPs and chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis at STI centers. Conclusions GPs fulfill an important role in STI care, complementary to STI centers. Case definitions of STI could be improved, particularly by including laboratory results in EMRs. The contribution of primary care is often overlooked in STI health care. Including estimates from GP EMRs can improve the surveillance of STIs. PMID:20487552

  17. The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis in relation to sexual behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been most consistently linked to sexual behaviour, and the epidemiological profile of BV mirrors that of established sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It remains a matter of debate however whether BV pathogenesis does actually involve sexual transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms from men to women. We therefore made a critical appraisal of the literature on BV in relation to sexual behaviour. Discussion G. vaginalis carriage and BV occurs rarely with children, but has been observed among adolescent, even sexually non-experienced girls, contradicting that sexual transmission is a necessary prerequisite to disease acquisition. G. vaginalis carriage is enhanced by penetrative sexual contact but also by non-penetrative digito-genital contact and oral sex, again indicating that sex per se, but not necessarily coital transmission is involved. Several observations also point at female-to-male rather than at male-to-female transmission of G. vaginalis, presumably explaining the high concordance rates of G. vaginalis carriage among couples. Male antibiotic treatment has not been found to protect against BV, condom use is slightly protective, whereas male circumcision might protect against BV. BV is also common among women-who-have-sex-with-women and this relates at least in part to non-coital sexual behaviours. Though male-to-female transmission cannot be ruled out, overall there is little evidence that BV acts as an STD. Rather, we suggest BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease (SED), with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor. This may relate to two distinct pathogenetic mechanisms: (1) in case of unprotected intercourse alkalinisation of the vaginal niche enhances a shift from lactobacilli-dominated microflora to a BV-like type of microflora and (2) in case of unprotected and protected intercourse mechanical transfer of perineal enteric bacteria is enhanced by coitus. A similar mechanism of mechanical

  18. [Child sexual abuse and sexually transmitted infections in sub-saharan Africa].

    PubMed

    Pitche, P

    2005-11-01

    Recently there has been increasing public concern regarding escalating child sexual abuse (CSA) in the sub-Saharan Africa. Medical consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) include sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immune virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of the study was to review literature on CSA and associated STI/HIV in the sub-Saharan Africa. The study covered the 23-year period from 1980 to 2003. The mean age of the child victims was 8 years. The incidence of penetrative sex in the studies ranged from 70 to 97%. Physical signs of CSA included genital or anal injuries, perineal trauma, and vesico-vaginal or recto-vaginal fistula. The incidence of STD varied according to whether the study was retrospective or prospective. Ten percent to 67% of children with STD had been sexually abused while 15 to 30% of sexual abuse incidents were associated with STD. The prevalence of HIV ranged from 3% in Togo to 37.5% in Cameroon. Most alleged child abusers were adult males known by the child, i.e., family members (30-60%), instructors or teachers, household personnel or neighbours. Some acts were motivated by traditional practices such as early, forced marriage and beliefs such as presumed benefits of sex with virgin children (cure for STI/HIV/STD, magic powers or wealth). This study shows that CSA is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Most problem involving CSA in sub-Saharan Afica have not been documented. Knowledge about the extent and special aspects of CSA in Africa can be useful for implementation of suitable management measures. PMID:16555518

  19. Recent Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Efforts and Their Implications for AIDS Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Mildred Zeldes; DeJong, William

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD (sexually transmitted diseases) initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) health education efforts. (Author/CT)

  20. Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…

  1. Polymerase Chain Reaction as a Diagnostic Tool for Six Sexually Transmitted Infections - Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    GRAD, ALECSANDRA IULIA; VICA, MIHAELA LAURA; MATEI, HOREA VLADI; GRAD, DORU LUCIAN; COMAN, IOAN; TATARU, DUMITRU ALEXANDRU

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Sexually transmitted infections are a very frequent and under-diagnosed cause of illness worldwide. A high number of detection methods and a large range of specimens in which sexually transmitted infections can be determined are available at the moment. Polymerase chain reaction performed on first void urine offers the advantage of being non-invasive, self-collectable and has high sensitivity and specificity. We looked to determine the frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Methods Six sexually transmitted infections were determined in the first void urine of 15 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients by polymerase chain reaction. We used “Epicenter MasterPure™ Complete DNA and RNA Purification Kit” for the DNA purification and “Seeplex® STD6 ACE Detection” for the DNA amplification. The results were examined in UV light. Results A number of 5 patients had positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sexually transmitted infections are more frequent in men between 27 and 40 years old. Conclusions Polymerase chain reaction is a good diagnostic tool for sexually transmitted infections because it has a high sensitivity and specificity. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent sexually transmitted infection, followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PMID:26528045

  2. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Howe, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

  3. Affective Factors Which Influence Learning about Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Mary F.; McKirnan, David

    This study investigated the role that emotional factors play in learning about sexual health and in adopting sexually healthy behaviors. Learning about health and adopting healthy behaviors hinges on two variables: the desire to avoid illness and a belief that one can avoid threats to health through personal action. This paper reports on…

  4. Soap Opera Portrayals of Sex, Contraception, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Dennis T.; Towles, David E.

    1989-01-01

    Replicates a 1979 study of sexual behavior on afternoon soap operas, classifying sexual behavior in terms of physical acts, implied acts, and verbal references. Finds a substantial increase in sex between unmarried persons and a norm of promiscuous sex, with few attendant consequences. (MS)

  5. Mortality From Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Reproductive-Aged Women: United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I estimated the sexually transmitted disease–related mortality among US reproductive-aged women from 1999 to 2010. Methods. I estimated mortality from National Center for Health Statistics’ Multiple Cause of Death data. I defined reproductive age as 15 to 44 years. For diseases partially caused by sexual transmission, I estimated the proportion attributable to sexual transmission from the literature. To calculate mortality rates, I estimated number of deaths from each disease and Census Bureau population for reproductive-aged women for 1999 to 2010. Results. From 1999 to 2010, the cumulative sexually transmitted disease–related mortality rate decreased by 49%, from 5.3 to 2.7 deaths per 100 000. The primary contributors were HIV and human papilloma virus infections. Mortality from sexually transmitted HIV infection decreased by 62%, from 3.4 to 1.3 deaths per 100 000. Mortality from human papilloma virus–associated gynecologic cancers decreased by 19%, from 1.6 deaths per 100 000 in 1999 to 1.3 deaths per 100 000 in 2010. Conclusions. Screening and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases may reduce mortality. Research is needed to determine whether sexually transmitted disease–related morbidity among reproductive-aged women has decreased over the past decade. PMID:24922169

  6. Sex, lies, and gastrointestinal tract biopsies: a review of selected sexually transmitted proctocolitides.

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Ali, M Aamir; Singhi, Aatur D; Arnold, Christina A

    2014-03-01

    There are many insults that result in gastrointestinal tract inflammation. Infections can be particularly challenging because (1) only a limited number of organisms provoke a specific endoscopic and/or histologic appearance; and (2) although some organisms may be present on biopsies, the findings may be so subtle or organisms so few that they are easily missed if the reviewer is not performing a specific search for the offender. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are rarely a consideration at the time of GI biopsy examination and clinicians rarely inquire about sexual behavior at the time of initial patient interview. Although establishing a definitive STI diagnosis is not possible on histology alone, these infections are associated with inflammatory patterns that may help raise this diagnostic possibility. Becoming familiar with these patterns is necessary as worldwide outbreaks of these infections are being reported. This review aims to provide the pathologist with histologic clues associated with the most frequently encountered bacterial pathogens in the setting of STI proctitis, namely, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum. PMID:24508691

  7. Syphilis Time to Treatment at Publicly Funded Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics Versus Non-Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics--Maricopa and Pima Counties, Arizona, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Candice L; Young, Lauren; Bisgard, Kristine; Mickey, Tom; Taylor, Melanie M

    2016-01-01

    Delays in syphilis treatment may contribute to transmission. We evaluated time to treatment for symptomatic patients with syphilis by clinical testing site in 2 Arizona counties. Fewer patients were tested and treated at publicly funded sexually transmitted disease clinics, but received the timeliest treatment; these clinics remain crucial to syphilis disease control. PMID:26650993

  8. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  9. Urban Men's Knowledge and Perceptions regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…

  10. Increase in Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men, England, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Holly; Sile, Bersabeh; Duffell, Stephen; Nardone, Anthony; Hughes, Gwenda

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance data from sexual health clinics indicate recent increases in sexually transmitted infections, particularly among men who have sex with men. The largest annual increase in syphilis diagnoses in a decade was reported in 2014. Less condom use may be the primary reason for these increases. PMID:26689861

  11. School Health Education To Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. WHO AIDS Series 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide provides a framework within which education authorities can work with teachers, parents, and community leaders to help young people learn the facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). It emphasizes the importance of education about human behavior and sexuality that is appropriate to…

  12. A Study of the Awareness of Selected College Students Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Gregory H.; Klein, Daniel

    Changes in sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates among adolescents and young adults may depend on changes in sexual activity, accessibility of referral and treatment services, and education. To assess the knowledge and attitudes of college students toward various aspects of STD's, a 45-item Likert inventory focusing on symptoms, prevalence,…

  13. Sentinel surveillance of sexually transmitted infections in South Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L; Coetzee, D; Dorrington, R

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To review studies of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence in South Africa between 1985 and 2003 in selected sentinel populations. To examine how STI prevalence varies between populations and to identify the limitations of the existing data. Methods: Studies of the prevalence of syphilis, chancroid, granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were considered. Results were included if they related to women attending antenatal clinics or family planning clinics, commercial sex workers, individuals in the general population (household surveys), patients with STIs, patients with genital ulcer disease (GUD), or men with urethritis. Results: High STI prevalence rates have been measured, particularly in the case of HSV-2, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis. The aetiological profile of GUD appears to be changing, with more GUD caused by HSV-2 and less caused by chancroid. The prevalence of gonorrhoea and syphilis is highest in "high risk" groups such as sex workers and attenders of STI clinics, but chlamydia and trichomoniasis prevalence levels are not significantly higher in these groups than in women attending antenatal clinics. Conclusions: The prevalence of STIs in South Africa is high, although there is extensive variability between regions. There is a need for STI prevalence data that are more nationally representative and that can be used to monitor prevalence trends more reliably. PMID:16061532

  14. Tweet Content Related to Sexually Transmitted Diseases: No Joking Matter

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie YS

    2014-01-01

    Background Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of “tweeters” (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of “tweet” messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. Objective The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDs—chlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. Methods We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words “chlamydia” or “HIV”, and the hashtags “#chlamydia” or “#HIV”. Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. Results A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words “chlamydia” and/or “HIV”. Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20

  15. [Microbiological diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STI): Part 1. Non-viral STI].

    PubMed

    Martínez, M Angélica T

    2009-12-01

    Non-viral sexually transmitted infections (STI) are an important cause of physical, psychological and social distress, have severe consequences for women's reproductive health and may be transmitted to the newborn child. These infections are also risk factors for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and other STI, and for premature labor. In the last years we have observed a gradual decrease in the national incidence of gonorrhea. The implementation of a screening program in our country for Chlamydia trachomatis is necessary, since up to 80% of infections in women are asymptomatic. Due to medical, psychosocial and legal reasons, laboratory diagnosis of STI has to be certain. This offers a great challenge to laboratories. Since etiological agents are susceptible to environmental conditions, present a high adaptation to their human host and have particular physiological characteristics, their laboratory diagnosis is more difficult than diagnosis of conventional microorganisms. Otherwise, the diagnostic techniques currently available for non-viral STI are characterized by their excellent sensitivity and specificity, which result of great interest given the curable nature of these infections. Clinical specimens obtained for diagnosis of STI and other genital infections, such as bacterial vaginosis or Candidiasis represent a large proportion of specimens processed by clinical laboratories. Thus, the creation of norms and quality control guidelines for laboratories which diagnose these infections, and also the epidemiologic and genetic surveillance of circulating sex transmitted microorganisms should be considered a priority in our country. The objective of this study is to review current literature on accurate diagnostic procedures especially for three non-viral STI agents: C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. PMID:20098788

  16. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: from HPV to HTLV--clinical profile and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Fabíola Suris da; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends the performance of serological tests in patients with clinical signs of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. However, data are lacking to affirm the necessity of testing these patients for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 or type 2. This is a cross-sectional study with 120 patients seen at the Sexually Transmitted Diseases unit of the Sanitary Dermatology Outpatient Clinic of Rio Grande do Sul. The serum from none of the patients was positive for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 or type 2. Viral warts were the most frequent diagnosis. Drug use was confirmed as a risk factor and high educational levels were found to be a protective factor against Sexually Transmitted Diseases. PMID:26734881

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and self-treatment for sexually transmitted diseases among northern Thai men.

    PubMed

    Khamboonruang, C; Beyrer, C; Natpratan, C; Keawvichit, R; Wongworapat, K; Eiumtrakul, S; Celentano, D D; Nelson, K E

    1996-01-01

    In May 1993, at 11 military camps in the upper northern region of Thailand, civilians interviewed 869 men aged 21-29 years (most of whom were 21 years old) so researchers could determine the frequency and variety of self-treatment and self-prophylaxis behaviors for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and the relationship of these behaviors with the prevalence of HIV infection. 12.3% of the men at conscription into the military tested positive for HIV infection. 32.5% had ever had an STD. The leading STDs and syndromes were gonorrhea (16.1%), penile discharge with pus (15.5%), and pain while urinating (11.4%). HIV-positive men were more likely to have had sex with commercial sex workers (CSWs) (odds ratio [OR] = 9.14), to have had an STD (OR = 5.96), and not to use condoms consistently when having sexual intercourse with CSWs (OR = 3.13). 65.2% of men who had ever had an STD self-treated with antibiotics. 8.5% of men who had ever had an STD used antibiotics, particularly chloramphenicol, before having intercourse with a CSW. Among all the men who had sexual intercourse with CSWs, almost all (98.7%) had adopted steps to prevent STDs: increasing urine output (69.2%), washing the genitals with soap and water (28.9%), and using antibiotics (0.9%). Men who self-treated with antibiotics after having intercourse with CSWs were less likely to have HIV infection (OR = 0.53). Antibiotic use before intercourse with CSWs did not have as strong a protective effect as it did after intercourse (OR = 0.74). The protective effect of self-treatment was significant, even when controlling for syphilis, gonorrhea, lymphadenopathy, penile discharge with pus, and condom use with a CSW. These findings show that some sexually active men in northern Thailand are trying to prevent HIV and other STDs and that self-treatment with antibiotics may reduce the HIV risk associated with bacterial STDs in a high prevalence population. PMID:8836017

  18. A Vicarious Experience of the Actions of Contraceptive Devices in Birth Control and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2002-01-01

    Describes how self-constructed models of the male and female reproductive systems are used to simulate sexual intercourse and the actions of contraceptive devices in preventing conception and sexually transmitted diseases. (Author/YDS)

  19. What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know about Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Fact Sheet: What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know About Sexually Transmitted Diseases Recommend ... an STD, sexually active gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at ...

  20. MINIMIZING THE RISK OF PREGNANCY, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, AND HIV AMONG INCARCERATED ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    PubMed Central

    ST LAWRENCE, JANET S.; SNODGRASS, C. EDWARD; ROBERTSON, ANGELA; BAIRD-THOMAS, CONNIE

    2010-01-01

    Delinquent girls are at elevated risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases when compared with non-delinquent peers. Participants—234 incarcerated female juveniles—completed demographic, individual, partner, peer, and family measures and were tested for sexually transmitted diseases. Disease rates were as follows: chlamydia (20%), gonorrhea (4%), and syphilis (1%). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis assessed the relationship of the predictor variable sets with sexual risk. Demographic and individual variables had the strongest associations with risk. Peer, partner, or family variables did not account for significant additional variance. The results suggest that an intervention could be delivered during the window of opportunity during the girls’ incarceration, changing their knowledge, attitudes, and skills that are implicated in risky sexual behavior before they are released back into the community. PMID:20585415

  1. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in HIV-1 infected pregnant women in Europe.

    PubMed

    Landes, Megan; Thorne, Claire; Barlow, Patricia; Fiore, Simona; Malyuta, Ruslan; Martinelli, Pasquale; Posokhova, Svetlana; Savasi, Valeria; Semenenko, Igor; Stelmah, Andrej; Tibaldi, Cecilia; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2007-01-01

    We investigated prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women and described factors associated with STI diagnosis, as a nested study within the European Collaborative Study (ECS). The ECS is a cohort study in which HIV-infected pregnant women are enrolled and their children followed from birth, according to standard clinical and laboratory protocols. Information on STIs diagnosed during pregnancy was collected retrospectively from the antenatal records of women enrolling between January 1999 and October 2005; other variables were obtained from the ECS prospective database. A total of 1,050 women were included: 530 in Western Europe and 520 in Ukraine. Syphilis was the most common bacterial STI (2% prevalence, 95% CI 1.2-3.0). Prevalence of HPV-related genital lesions was 8.6% (95%CI 6.9-10.4) and prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis was 12.1% (95%CI 10.2-14.2). Women in Ukraine (AOR 10.7, 95%CI 3.7-30.5), single women (AOR 3.9, 95%CI 1.2-12.7), sexual partners of injecting drug users (AOR 3.8, 95%CI 1.4-10.4) and women with CD4 counts <200 cells/mm(3) (AOR 5.4, 95%CI 1.0-28.1) were at increased risk of diagnosis with Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis or Trichomonas vaginalis. African origin (AOR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.3) and CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) (AOR 3.4, 95%CI 1.5-7.8) were associated with HSV-2 and/or HPV-related genital lesions. Antenatal screening should be considered an effective tool for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of further transmission of STIs. HIV-infected women should receive adequate screening for STIs during pregnancy together with appropriate counseling and follow-up for treatment and prevention. PMID:17926135

  2. Kurthia gibsonii as a sexually transmitted zoonosis: From a neglected condition during World War II to a recent warning for sexually transmitted disease units

    PubMed Central

    Kövesdi, Valéria; Stercz, Balázs; Ongrádi, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Context: Zoonotic sexual transmission. Aims: Identification of unknown microorganisms causing sexually transmitted zoonotic infection was a common effort of clinicians and the laboratory. Settings and Design: A male patient had recurring urethritis and balanitis after having repeated unprotected penetrative sexual intercourse with female piglets. He claimed allergy to metals and plastics. Routine microbiological tests were carried out. Materials and Methods: Specimens from the urethra, glans, rectum, throat, urine, and blood were cultured. Subsequently, isolates were tested for their biochemical activity and antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Kurthia gibsonii was isolated from both urethra and glans. No other concomitant infection was detected. The patient was cured with oral cefuroxime for 15 days and topical gentamicin cream for 2 months. Conclusion: This is the first reported zoophilic infection by Kurthia spp. Fecal contamination of animals' genital tract was the possible source of infection. Immune disturbance of the patient might predispose to opportunistic Kurthia infection. PMID:27190416

  3. Point-of-care testing for sexually transmitted infections: recent advances and implications for disease control

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D.; Bien, Cedric H.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a major global public health issue, with more than 448 million incident bacterial infections each year. We review recent advances in STI point-of-care (POC) testing and implications for STI prevention and control. Recent findings Accurate immunochromatographic assays to detect HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis antibodies have made home or supervised self-testing possible. Several studies have demonstrated feasibility and excellent test characteristics for HIV, HCV and syphilis POC tests. Rapid oral HIV tests are now available for purchase at retail sites across the United States. Combined HIV and syphilis tests using a single finger prick blood sample are under evaluation. Summary Oral POC STI tests with comparable performance to blood-based POC tests are available for self-testing. POC tests can expand screening, improve syndromic management and reduce loss to follow up. POC STI tests have the potential to facilitate prompt treatment and partner services. POC STI tests create opportunities for new social and financial models of community-based testing services. Increasing equity and access to testing will create challenges in linkage to care, quality assurance, partner services and surveillance. These important developments warrant research to understand appropriate contexts for implementation. PMID:23242343

  4. Sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Henry J C

    2014-01-01

    Homosexuality is a global human phenomenon. Although the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of disorders more than 35years ago, homophobia among physicians is still widely prevalent. Men who have sex with men (MSM) form a relatively new epidemiological risk group for STI. To perform correct management, clinicians evaluating men with male-male sex contacts for STI related complaints or STI screening must obtain a thorough sexual history. Emerging STI like lymphogranuloma venereum, hepatitis C, and multidrug resistant N. gonorrhea strains have been described first in MSM. STI related proctitis often occur in MSM. Within the MSM population, HIV positive patients form a special group affected by STI related diseases, such as anal carcinoma and neurosyphilis. The final part of this review concludes with recommendations to reduce the STI burden in MSM. PMID:24559552

  5. [Psychosocial and cultural factors in the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed

    Gogna

    1998-03-30

    The article deals with the psychosocial and cultural dimensions of sexually transmitted diseases. Based on results from a qualitative study with lower-class males and females (young and adult) from a neighbourhood in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the author discusses how lay beliefs (about symptoms, transmission, consequences) and norms regarding sexual matters and gender relations affect people's ability to consider themselves at risk and/or adopt preventive behaviors. Implications of research results for the design of culturally appropriate strategies to promote sexual and reproductive health are also provided. PMID:9594005

  6. The profile and context of the epidemics of sexually transmitted infections including HIV in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Decosas, J; Padian, N

    2002-01-01

    Zimbabwe has widespread and widely disseminated epidemics of most major sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. This epidemiological situation is examined from a broad historical perspective, exploring the interactions between the population incidence of STI and the social profile of the country. The results suggest opportunities for upstream prevention efforts. Examples of these include: integration of prevention with care and social support; increasing general communication and openness about sexuality; economic support initiatives including income generating and micro-credit programmes, offering living accommodations for families in cities, mines, and military camps; and programmes focusing on adolescents before they become sexually active. PMID:12083446

  7. The profile and context of the epidemics of sexually transmitted infections including HIV in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Decosas, J; Padian, N

    2002-04-01

    Zimbabwe has widespread and widely disseminated epidemics of most major sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. This epidemiological situation is examined from a broad historical perspective, exploring the interactions between the population incidence of STI and the social profile of the country. The results suggest opportunities for upstream prevention efforts. Examples of these include: integration of prevention with care and social support; increasing general communication and openness about sexuality; economic support initiatives including income generating and micro-credit programmes, offering living accommodations for families in cities, mines, and military camps; and programmes focusing on adolescents before they become sexually active. PMID:12083446

  8. Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their…

  9. The Adolescent Male Prostitute and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV and AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, A. R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescent male prostitutes have variable backgrounds; blend of different psychological, behavioral, social, and economic factors. Study of these factors forms basis for understanding potential risks they may be exposed to, including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Reported high incidence…

  10. Education on Sexually Transmitted Infections: Finding Common Ground among Youth, Parents, Providers and Policy Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Joan R.

    2008-01-01

    Outcomes from sex education are shaped not only by the knowledge and attitudes of youth but also by groups influential in young people's lives. American youth bear one of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the industrialized world. Four constituencies with important roles in communicating about STIs are youth, parents,…

  11. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Young Adults. and Update on AIDS for Teachers and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Newschwander, Gregg E.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles on the topics of (1) sexually transmitted diseases and (2) acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Yarber discusses how these topics should be taught to young people, with emphasis on health education as opposed to morality. Newschwander states the facts related to AIDS, including risks of enrolling infected students.…

  12. An Intervention to Promote the Female Condom to Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…

  13. A comparison of Internet search trends and sexually transmitted infection rates using Google trends.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy K; Mehta, Supriya D

    2014-01-01

    Google Trends was used to determine the relationship between sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related search engine trends and STI rates. Trends seem to be similar to the relative rates of STIs and to regional differences in rates. Search engine trends are an innovative tool to integrate into STI surveillance. PMID:24326584

  14. Sulfated carbohydrate compounds prevent microbial adherence by sexually transmitted disease pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Herold, B C; Siston, A; Bremer, J; Kirkpatrick, R; Wilbanks, G; Fugedi, P; Peto, C; Cooper, M

    1997-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) serves as a receptor for adherence of herpes simplex viruses, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and, indirectly, human immunodeficiency virus. Using primary human culture systems, we identified sulfated carbohydrate compounds that resemble HS and competitively inhibit infection by these pathogens. These compounds are candidates for intravaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:9420059

  15. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…

  16. One Size Fits All? Promoting Condom Use for Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention among Heterosexual Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Visser, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…

  17. An attributional analysis of stigma associated with sexually transmitted diseases and its relationship with communication efficacy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jina H; Jang, Suahn

    2012-07-01

    People typically attribute more responsibility to those individuals who are infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) than other diseases. This study tested how different routes (i.e., sexually transmitted or foodborne) of transmission have an impact on individuals' general perception on stigma/shame and the attributions of responsibility, when controlling for symptoms/conditions of the hypothetical virus infection. Two hundreds and ninety eight college students were recruited for the study. As predicted, people who were attributed with control over contracting the virus (i.e., sexually transmitted route) were likely to be assigned a greater level of personal responsibility and were more likely to receive blame from others than people who were attributed relatively less control over contracting the virus (i.e., foodborne). The relationship between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy was also assessed. The results supported our prediction that there was a significant association between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy, in that the perceived controllability of the situation, perceived responsibility for the situation, and blame were all significantly correlated with communication efficacy in a negative direction. Practical applications by evaluating the effectiveness of the actual Merck's Gardasil advertisement were discussed that the Gardasil advertisement appears to reduce the perceived shame and stigma associated with the sexually transmitted nature of the virus by not revealing the true nature of the virus upfront. PMID:22980337

  18. Recruitment Strategies and Motivations for Sexually Transmitted Disease Testing among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Zenilman, Jonathan; Nanda, Joy P.; Mark, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated procedures for recruiting college students for sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing as part of a research study examining the impact of HSV serologic testing. Participants: A convenience sample of 100 students was drawn from students aged 18 to 35 years enrolled at one university in a mid-Atlantic state…

  19. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, covering the following topics (1) Health Education; and…

  20. Likelihood of Condom Use When Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Suspected: Results from a Clinic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Charnigo, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the event-level associations between perceived risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition/transmission and condom use during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) among STD clinic attendees. Method: A convenience sample (N = 622) completed daily electronic assessments. Two questions were proxies of perceived risk:…

  1. Does Funding for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Matter? Evidence from Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Harrison, Paul; Scotton, Carol R.; Varghese, Beena

    2005-01-01

    Since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has allocated several billion dollars for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. Using state-level data from 1981 to 1998, the authors found that greater amounts of prevention funding in a given year are…

  2. EveryBody[TM]: Preventing HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeberlein, Deborah

    EveryBody is a curriculum that emphasizes prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among early adolescents. It fosters active learning and facilitates communication about HIV/STD prevention and promotes safer behaviors. EveryBody incorporates current research on adolescent development so it…

  3. Integrating the Perspective of Vulnerable Heterosexual Male Adolescents to Prevent Premature Paternity and Sexually Transmitted Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manseau, Helene; Blais, Martin; Engler, Kim; Bosse, Marie-Andre

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the perspective of vulnerable Canadian (Quebecker) adolescents defined as such on account of their numerous experiences with potential or actual fatherhood or exposure to sexually transmitted infection. The interviews allowed youth to talk about their experiences with paternity, their sex lives and their views on sex education.…

  4. Teaching About Sexually Transmitted Diseases; A Curriculum Guide and Resources For Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This curriculum guide provides school districts that already have VD education programs with up-to-date information about research and epidemiology relating to sexually transmitted diseases. For districts wishing to implement a program for the first time, it offers both a structured framework and the resources and materials needed for a complete…

  5. American College Health Association Annual Pap Test and Sexually Transmitted Infection Survey: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Davis; Roberts, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results: Almost…

  6. Patterns of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Reported among Students in a Federal University in Midwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omobude-Idiado, S. N.; Bazuaye, G. N.

    2009-01-01

    The study analysed the patterns of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) among students in a Nigerian University. It is a retrospective study of 38,933 students who attended the University Health Centre from 2001 to 2005. The results showed that 1.8% of all the students who attended the clinic had STIs. The study also revealed that 85.26% of the…

  7. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in rural Haitian men.

    PubMed

    Downey, Robert F; Hammar, Donna; Jobe, Kathleen A; Schmidt, Terri A; Slyke, Lori Van; Yassemi, Yassi; Zive, Dana

    2015-09-01

    The study attempts to determine the prevalence of organisms associated with urethritis in men in rural southwestern Haiti and to determine the association with demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. A standardised verbal interview was conducted; genital examinations were done; urethral swabs were collected for nucleic acid amplification testing, and first void urine was obtained for urinalysis. The mean participant age was 54; 88.8% lived in a rural area. Swabs were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis in 13.7% (28/205), Mycoplasma genitalium in 6.3% (13/205), Chlamydia trachomatis in 4.4% (9/205) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 0% (0/205). Subjects who never reported using condoms were nearly 3.5 times more likely to have any positive swab result (OR: 3.46, 95% CI 1.31-9.14). Subjects who reported their partners had other sexual partners or were unsure were more than three times likely to have any positive swab result (OR: 3.44, 95% CI 1.33-8.92). Infections with Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium were the most common. PMID:25228665

  8. Sexual Risk-taking Mediates the Association between Impulsivity and Acquisition of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Hazardously Drinking Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing literature has identified associations between impulsivity and negative behaviors such as sexual risk-taking among high-risk and/or vulnerable populations, but few studies have linked impulsivity to biological outcomes of sexual risk-taking. The main purpose of this study was to document associations among impulsivity, sexual risk-taking, and biological measures of sexually transmitted infection (STI+) in a sample of hazardously drinking incarcerated women. Methods Two hundred forty-five hazardously drinking incarcerated women self-reported alcohol consumption and consequences, impulsivity, and sexual behavior. Results Biological testing revealed a 22.9% prevalence rate for STI+. In this sample, sexual risk-taking fully mediated the association between impulsivity and likelihood of STI+. In addition, individuals reporting sexual activity with multiple partners were significantly more likely to test STI+ than those reporting sexual activity with a primary partner. Conclusion These results support previous research on impulsivity by demonstrating that impulsivity leads to STI+ through risky behavioral choices. These findings also extend prior work by documenting this association using biologically confirmed measures in a vulnerable female population that carries multiple risk factors and thus warrants increased research attention. PMID:23786513

  9. Behavioral Convergence: Implications for Mathematical Models of Sexually Transmitted Infection Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Aral, Sevgi O.; Ward, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends in the behaviors of some groups with high sexual activity and of the general population in some countries suggest that sexual behavior profiles of high and low sexual activity categories may be converging and may call into question the assumptions around sexual mixing that are built into theoretical models of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission dynamics. One category of high sexual activity, sex work, has been undergoing modification in many societies, becoming more acceptable, more dispersed, and larger in volume in some societies and shrinking in others. Concurrent with changes in the characteristics of sex work, the accumulating data on the sexual behaviors of the general population suggest a shift toward those of sex workers, including large numbers of sex partners and short-duration partnerships. The closing of the gap between behaviors associated with high and low sexual activity may have important implications for theories of sexual structure and models of transmission dynamics for STIs, including HIV infection. PMID:25381381

  10. Race/ethnicity, sexual partnerships with men involved with drugs, and sexually transmitted infections among a sample of urban young adult women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Leah F; Brown, Qiana; Cavanaugh, Courtenay; Lawson, April

    2015-10-01

    In many urban neighbourhoods in the United States, drug markets borne from disadvantage have produced risk for sexually transmitted infections through altered sexual norms and partnerships. Presently, we examined the association of race, sexual partnerships with men involved with drugs, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections among 240 African American and white women aged 18-30 years. Thirty seven per cent reported ever having a sexually transmitted infection. Almost 30% of Whites reported sex with a drug user, compared to 5% of African Americans. Fifty eight per cent of African Americans compared to 31% of Whites reported sex with a drug dealer. On Step 1 of a sequential logistic regression model, race was associated with lifetime sexually transmitted infections (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.61-8.34). Results from the full sequential logistic regression model indicated a significant, but smaller association of race and lifetime sexually transmitted infections (Adjusted OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.78-7.02) and an association of sex with a drug dealer and lifetime sexually transmitted infections (Adjusted OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.55-5.20). Forming sexual partnerships with drug dealers may place women at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and explain racial disparities. More research focused on drug dealers as core transmitters is needed. PMID:25505044

  11. Correlates of prevalent sexually transmitted infections among participants screened for an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Otieno, Fredrick Odhiambo; Ndivo, Richard; Oswago, Simon; Pals, Sherri; Chen, Robert; Thomas, Timothy; Kunneke, Ernesta; Mills, Lisa A; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor

    2015-03-01

    We determined the prevalence of four sexually transmitted infections and the demographic and behavioural correlates associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections among participants in an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, western Kenya. Participants were enrolled from a convenience sample and underwent aetiologic sexually transmitted infection investigation. Demographic and behavioural information were collected and basic clinical evaluation performed. Multiple regression analysis was done to determine variables associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections. We screened 846, 18- to 34-year-olds. One-third had at least one sexually transmitted infection with specific prevalence being: syphilis, 1.6%; gonorrhoea, 2.4%; herpes simplex virus type-2, 29.1%; chlamydia, 2.8%; and HIV, 14.8%. Odds of having any sexually transmitted infection were higher among participants who were women, were aged 20-24 or 30-34 years compared to 18-19 years, had secondary or lower education compared to tertiary education, were divorced, widowed or separated compared to singles, reported having unprotected sex compared to those who did not, reported previous sexually transmitted infection treatment, and tested HIV-positive. Multiple strategies are needed to address the overall high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections as well as the gender disparity found in this Kenyan population. Structural interventions may be beneficial in addressing educational and socio-economic barriers, and increasing the uptake of health-promoting practices. PMID:24810218

  12. Correlates of prevalent sexually transmitted infections among participants screened for an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Fredrick Odhiambo; Ndivo, Richard; Oswago, Simon; Pals, Sherri; Chen, Robert; Thomas, Timothy; Kunneke, Ernesta; Mills, Lisa A; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Background We determined the prevalence of four sexually transmitted infections and the demographic and behavioural correlates associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections among participants in an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, western Kenya. Methods Participants were enrolled from a convenience sample and underwent aetiologic sexually transmitted infection investigation. Demographic and behavioural information were collected and basic clinical evaluation performed. Multiple regression analysis was done to determine variables associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections. Results We screened 846, 18- to 34-year-olds. One-third had at least one sexually transmitted infection with specific prevalence being, syphilis; 1.6%, gonorrhoea; 2.4%, herpes simplex virus type-2; 29.1%, chlamydia; 2.8%, and HIV; 14.8%. Odds of having any sexually transmitted infection were higher among participants who were women, were aged 20–24 or 30–34 years compared to 18–19 years, had secondary or lower education compared to tertiary education, were divorced, widowed or separated compared to singles, reported having unprotected sex compared to those who did not, reported previous sexually transmitted infection treatment, and tested HIV-positive. Conclusion Multiple strategies are needed to address the overall high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections as well as the gender disparity found in this Kenyan population. Structural interventions may be beneficial in addressing educational and socio-economic barriers, and increasing the uptake of health-promoting practices. PMID:24810218

  13. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive and HIV negative females, in a tertiary care hospital - An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Dimple; Sandhu, Ivy; Bahl, RK; Bhatia, Ruby; Goyal, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The presentation and course of Sexually transmitted diseases(STI) may be altered by presence of coexisting HIV status. Aim of the study was to study the prevalence of STI in 50 females with HIV infection and 50 females without HIV infection and to study the pap smear of patients to look for any cellular changes (dysplasia) due to sexually transmitted infections. Material and methods: The present study was an observational study, which was undertaken on 100 females with STIs (50 females with coexistent HIV infection and 50 females without HIV infection), in the age group 15-49 years attending Skin and VD OPD of Rajindra hospital, Patiala. Results: In our study, the commonest presenting complaint in case of both HIV positive (66%) and HIV negative (80%) women was vaginal discharge. PAP smear abnormalities were present in 28 (56%) HIV positive women and 11 (22%) HIV negative women. In case of HIV positive women, the inflammation was trichomonal in 4 (8%), bacterial in 2 (4%), fungal in 2 (4%) and non-specific in 20 (40%) patients. In HIV negative women, the inflammation was trichomonal in 2 (4%) patients, bacterial in 2 (4%) patients and non-specific in 7 (14%) patients. The difference in abnormality seen in PAP smear between HIV positive and HIV negative women is statistically significant only in case of non-specific inflammation which is more common in case of HIV positive women. Conclusion: From the present study, it was concluded vaginal discharge was the commonest presenting complaint in both HIV positive and HIV negative women, though the commonest cause of vaginal discharge was candidiasis in HIV positive females and bacterial vaginosis in HIV negative females. Also, PAP smear abnormalities were significantly higher in HIV positive women than HIV negative women. So it is important that HIV positive women should have complete gynecological evaluation including a PAP smear with aggressive screening of STIs. PMID:26392656

  14. Clinician Adherence to Recommendations for Screening of Adolescents for Sexual Activity and Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Monika K; Witt, Rachel; Hayes, Katie L; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Gerber, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate clinician adherence to guidelines for documentation of sexual history and screening for sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV during routine adolescent well visits. Secondary objectives were to determine patient and clinician factors associated with sexual history documentation and STI/HIV testing. Study design Retrospective, cross-sectional study of 1000 randomly selected 13–19 year old routine well visits at all 29 pediatric primary care practices affiliated with a children’s hospital. We evaluated frequency of documentation of sexual history and testing for gonorrhea/chlamydia (GC/CT) and HIV testing. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with documentation and testing. Results Of the 1000 patient visits reviewed, 212 (21.2%; 95% CI 18.7, 23.7) had a documented sexual history, of which 45 adolescents’ (21.2%; 95% CI 15.7, 26.8) encounters were documented as being sexually active. Overall, 26 (2.6%; 95% CI 1.6, 3.6) patients were tested for GC/CT and 16 (1.6%; 95% CI 0.8, 2.4) for HIV. In multivariable analyses, factors associated with sexual history documentation included older patient age, non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, non-private insurance status, and care by female clinician. Factors associated with GC/CT testing included male gender, non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, and non-private insurance. HIV testing was more likely to be performed on older adolescents, those of non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, and those with non-private insurance. Conclusions Pediatric primary care clinicians infrequently document sexual histories and perform STI and HIV testing on adolescent patients. Future studies should investigate provider beliefs, clinical decision-making principles, and perceived barriers to improve the sexual health care of adolescents and evaluate interventions to increase rates of adolescent sexual health screening. PMID:24840761

  15. Extrarelational Sex Among Mexican Men and Their Partners' Risk of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pulerwitz, Julie; Izazola-Licea, Jose-Antonio; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among married and cohabiting women in Mexico City, Mexico, derived from their partners' sexual behaviors. Methods. Results were derived from the first population-based household survey in Mexico that investigated male sexual behavior. Analyses were restricted to sexually active married or cohabiting men (n = 3990). Results. Fifteen percent of the men reported extrarelational sex during the past year, 9% reported condom use during last intercourse, and 80% perceived no HIV risk. Most secondary partners were coworkers, mistresses, or friends. Conclusions. Targeted HIV and STD prevention efforts appear necessary because a substantial number of women may be at risk. PMID:11574329

  16. Acceptance of Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections for Stable Sexual Partners by Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mayanja, Yunia; Mukose, Aggrey David; Nakubulwa, Susan; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Providing treatment to the affected FSWs is a challenge, and more so to their stable sexual partners. There is scanty research information on acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs. We conducted a study to assess acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs, and to identify factors associated with acceptance. Methods We enrolled 241 FSWs in a cross sectional study; they were aged ≥ 18 years, had a stable sexual partner and a diagnosis of STI. Factors associated with acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners were analysed in STATA (12) using Poisson regression. Mantel-Haenszel tests for interaction were performed. Results Acceptance of partner treatment was 50.6%. Majority (83.8%) of partners at the last sexual act were stable partners, and 32.4% of participants had asymptomatic STIs. Factors independently associated with acceptance were: earning ≤ $4 USD per sexual act (aPR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49–0.94) and a clinical STI diagnosis (aPR 1.95; 95% CI: 1.30–2.92). The effect of low income on acceptance of partner treatment was seen in those with less education. Conclusion Acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners was lower than that seen in other studies. Interventions to improve economic empowerment among FSWs may increase acceptance of partner treatment. PMID:27171270

  17. Alcohol Abuse, Sexual Risk Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women in Moshi Urban District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods 2,019 women aged 20–44 were randomly selected in a two-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Results Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.06–3.98) and sexual violence (OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.05–2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.01–2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.08–2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.46–4.00) compared to women with one sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.55–1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. Conclusions The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs. PMID:19060779

  18. Crystal Clear? The Relationship Between Methamphetamine Use and Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Mialon, Hugo M; Nesson, Erik T; Samuel, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    Public health officials have cited methamphetamine control as a tool with which to decrease HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, based on previous research that finds a strong positive correlation between methamphetamine use and risky sexual behavior. However, the observed correlation may not be causal, as both methamphetamine use and risky sexual behavior could be driven by a third factor, such as a preference for risky behavior. We estimate the effect of methamphetamine use on risky sexual behavior using monthly data on syphilis diagnoses in California and quarterly data on syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia diagnoses across all states. To circumvent possible endogeneity, we use a large exogenous supply shock in the US methamphetamine market that occurred in May 1995 and a later shock stemming from the Methamphetamine Control Act, which went into effect in October 1997. While the supply shocks had large negative effects on methamphetamine use, we find no evidence that they decreased syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia rates. Our results have broad implications for public policies designed to decrease sexually transmitted infection rates. PMID:25545965

  19. Risk and prevalence of treatable sexually transmitted diseases at a Birmingham substance abuse treatment facility.

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, L H; Lewis, I; Allen, R; Schwebke, J R; Leviton, L C; Siegal, H A; Hook, E W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and syphilis in patients entering residential drug treatment. METHODS: Data on sexual and substance abuse histories were collected. Participants provided specimens for chlamydia and gonorrhea ligase chain reaction testing. Trichomonas vaginalis culture, and syphilis serologic testing. RESULTS: Of 311 patients, crack cocaine use was reported by 67% and multisubstance use was reported by 71%. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors were common. The prevalence of infection was as follows: Chlamydia trachomatis, 2.3%; Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1.6%; trichomoniasis, 43%; and syphilis, 6%. CONCLUSIONS: STD counseling and screening may be a useful adjunct to inpatient drug treatment. PMID:11029998

  20. The Influence of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Perceived Susceptibility Patterns on Sexual Risk Reduction for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2005-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibility…

  1. Sexually transmitted infections: a medical anthropological study from the Tari research unit 1990-1991.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes medical anthropological research conducted while I was based at the Tari Research Unit for six months in 1990-1991. The research aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the social factors surrounding the transmission of sexually transmitted infections, which had escalated following a local gold rush in 1989. Although HIV/AIDS was a very minor health issue in Papua New Guinea at that time, medical staff were aware of the likelihood of the disease becoming prevalent in the highlands in the near future. The research indicated that many people regarded sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as a nuisance, rather than a serious health risk. Discussions with chronic sufferers revealed that they were more concerned about the dangers of infertility than the immediate effects of the infections. The paper considers the risk-taking that the people of Tari, the Huli, were prepared to accept and suggests ways in which these risks might be minimized. PMID:14658835

  2. Excellence in sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnostics: recognition of past successes and strategies for the future

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, A; Kuypers, J; Lukehart, S A; Peeling, R W; Pope, V

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic advances do not generally receive the recognition given to prevention and treatment contributions, for the control and management of infectious diseases including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In order to identify seminal diagnostic contributions over a half century (1950–2000), the Editorial Board of the WHO Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diagnostics Initiative (SDI) Publication Review or “electronic journal club” were asked to nominate their choices of peer‐reviewed publications for special recognition. From 43 nominations, 13 were voted by a panel of 25 “experts” as having made the most significant contributions. The 1964 article by Thayer and Martin, which identified a selective media for gonococcal culture, was chosen unanimously by all panel members and is identified as the classic STI diagnostic article for this era. PMID:17135329

  3. Rho GTPases as pathogen targets: Focus on curable sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Cristián A; Tudela, Julián Gambarte; Damiani, María T

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved highly specialized mechanisms to infect hosts. Several microorganisms modulate the eukaryotic cell surface to facilitate their engulfment. Once internalized, they hijack the molecular machinery of the infected cell for their own benefit. At different stages of phagocytosis, particularly during invasion, certain pathogens manipulate pathways governed by small GTPases. In this review, we focus on the role of Rho proteins on curable, sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum. Despite the high, worldwide frequencies of these sexually-transmitted diseases, very little is known about the strategies developed by these microorganisms to usurp key eukaryotic proteins that control intracellular signaling and actin dynamics. Improved knowledge of these molecular mechanisms will contribute to the elucidation of how these clinically important pathogens manipulate intracellular processes and parasitize their hosts. PMID:26023809

  4. What's new in sexually transmitted infections in the HIV care setting: focus on syphilis and gonorrhea.

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Jeanne M

    Sexually transmitted infections are a resurgent problem in HIV disease. The number of new cases of syphilis among men who have sex with men has continued to increase, requiring renewed vigilance in screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Drug-resistant gonorrhea has prompted changes in treatment regimens and warrants continued monitoring. This article summarizes an IAS-USA continuing education webinar presented by Jeanne M. Marrazzo, MD, MPH, in January 2014. PMID:25612179

  5. Vaginal Microbiota and Sexually Transmitted Infections That May Influence Transmission of Cell-Associated HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal microbiota and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are likely to influence the transmission of cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota (Nugent score 0–3) will likely inhibit transmission, especially female-to-male transmission. In contrast, polymicrobial microbiota (Nugent score 4–10), community state types IV-A and IV-B, and STIs will likely increase transmission of cell-associated HIV. PMID:25414415

  6. Dynamic analysis of a sexually transmitted disease model on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xin-Peng; Xue, Ya-Kui; Liu, Mao-Xing

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a sexually transmitted disease model is proposed on complex networks, where contacts between humans are treated as a scale-free social network. There are three groups in our model, which are dangerous male, non-dangerous male, and female. By mathematical analysis, we obtain the basic reproduction number for the existence of endemic equilibrium and study the effects of various immunization schemes about different groups. Furthermore, numerical simulations are undertaken to verify more conclusions.

  7. Control of sexually transmitted diseases: view from the United States of America.

    PubMed Central

    Cates, W; Parra, W C; Brown, S T

    1984-01-01

    Past sexually transmitted disease (STD) control efforts in the United States of America have generally permitted a timely response to changes in intervention technology, antibiotic resistance, public funding, and media interest. Today, however, the expansion of STD organisms and syndromes at logarithmic rates has taxed our traditional labour intensive control approaches. We describe briefly the history of STD control strategies in the United States, discuss the seven components upon which current efforts are based, and speculate about our future programme initiatives. PMID:6548398

  8. European guideline for the organization of a consultation for sexually transmitted infections, 2012.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, K W; Flew, S; Poder, A; Cusini, M

    2012-09-01

    This guideline is intended to serve as a framework for those working in any location where sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are managed. It offers recommendations which will need to be adapted depending on local facilities and policies, and is not intended to be all encompassing. This guideline should be read in conjunction with other European guidelines on the management of specific infections (see http://www.iusti.org/). PMID:23033510

  9. Heteronormativity hurts everyone: experiences of young men and clinicians with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira

    2013-09-01

    Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses. PMID:23117592

  10. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors and Risk Determinants Among Sexually Active Adolescent Males: Results From a School-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Rosario, Margaret; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined disparities in risk determinants and risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) between gay-identified, bisexual-identified, and heterosexual-identified young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and heterosexual-identified young men who have sex with women (YMSW) using a school-based sample of US sexually active adolescent males. Methods. We analyzed a pooled data set of Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2005 and 2007 that included information on sexual orientation identity, sexual behaviors, and multiple STI risk factors. Results. Bisexual-identified adolescents were more likely to report multiple STI risk behaviors (number of sex partners, concurrent sex partners, and age of sexual debut) compared with heterosexual YMSW as well as heterosexual YMSM and gay-identified respondents. Gay, bisexual, and heterosexual YMSM were significantly more likely to report forced sex compared with heterosexual YMSW. Conclusions. Our results provide evidence that sexual health disparities emerge early in the life course and vary by both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. In particular, they show that bisexual-identified adolescent males exhibit a unique risk profile that warrants targeted sexual health interventions. PMID:24825214

  11. The burden and risk factors of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Reproductive Tract Infections among pregnant women in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are responsible for high morbidity among women. We aim to quantify the magnitude of the burden and risk factors of STI/RTI s among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. Methods A cross sectional study of pregnant women enrolled at 36 weeks of gestation from the national PMTCT program. Study was conducted from three peri-urban clinics around Harare Zimbabwe offering maternal and child health services. Results A total of 691 pregnant women were enrolled. Prevalence of HSV was (51.1%), HIV (25.6%) syphilis (1.2%), Trichomonas vaginalis (11.8%), bacterial vaginosis (32.6%) and Candidiasis (39.9%). Seven percent of the women had genital warts, 3% had genital ulcers and 28% had an abnormal vaginal discharge. Prevalence of serological STIs and vaginal infections were 51% and 64% respectively. Risk factors for a positive serologic STI were increasing age above 30 years, polygamy and multigravid; adjusted OR (95% CI) 2.61(1.49-4.59), 2.16(1.06-4.39), 3.89(1.27-11.98) respectively, partner taking alcohol and number of lifetime sexual partners. For vaginal infections it was age at sexual debut; OR (95% CI) 1.60(1.06-2.42). More than 25% of the women reported previous STI treatment. Fifty two percent reported ever use of condoms and 65% were on oral contraceptives. Mean age gap for sexual partners was 6.3 years older. Conclusions There is a high morbidity of STI/RTIs in this cohort. There is need to continuously screen, counsel, treat and monitor trends of STI/RTIs to assess if behaviour changes lead to reduction in infections and their sustainability. PMID:20492681

  12. Diagnostic classification, viral sexually transmitted infections and discourses of femininity: limits of normalisation to erase stigma.

    PubMed

    Cook, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians in the field of women's sexual health typically classify the two most common viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the human papilloma virus and the herpes simplex virus, as relatively innocuous infections. Teaching interventions include 'normalising' adult sexual activity and the epidemiological ordinariness of infection. Normalising is intended to disarm the potential stigma of the diagnosis. In this study, in-depth email interviews were conducted with 26 women with a viral STI diagnosis and 12 sexual health clinicians. Data were analysed thematically using a feminist, poststructuralist approach. Normalising is contextualised as an example of the workings of western philosophical thought whereby dualistic classifications privilege certain terms and subordinate other terms. In this instance, the relative medical normalcy of viral STIs is given primacy compared to the social abnormality experienced by women. Although these viral STIs infect women and men, this research concentrates on women's learning about viral STIs. For women, beliefs about femininity, sexuality, health, morality and responsibility influence effects of a viral STI diagnosis. These discourses are clinically significant because beliefs that specifically link to ideas about how to be a woman are overlooked when clinicians devise educational interventions. PMID:22333002

  13. The prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in patients presenting to a Casablanca STD clinic.

    PubMed

    Heikel, J; Sekkat, S; Bouqdir, F; Rich, H; Takourt, B; Radouani, F; Hda, N; Ibrahimy, S; Benslimane, A

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study conducted at the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic of the Pasteur Institute of Morocco (SCPIM) is to describe clinical complaints and biological findings in patients attending this facility. Two thousand two hundred sixty-four patients had visited the STD clinic from 1992 to 1996. The main reported symptom was genital discharge for men (44.5%) and women (68.6%). Genital eruption and ulcer were more frequent in men. The principal biological result shows a seroprevalence of 0.62% for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 3.05% for hepatitis B virus (HBV), 51.5% for chlamydiae and 13.2% for syphilis. Factors associated with clinical findings were age and Gonococcus for men (odds ratio (OR): 1.94 and 5.96, respectively) and Trichomonas and positive TPHA for women (OR: 9.49 and 0.25, respectively). This work describes for the first time the distribution of various germs involved in sexually transmitted diseases in Moroccan population and underlines the importance of studying its sexual behavior as well as determinants of STD incidence. PMID:10555614

  14. Asymptomatic reproductive tract infections/sexually transmitted infections among HIV positive women.

    PubMed

    Bhattar, S; Bhalla, P; Rawat, D; Tripathi, R; Kaur, R; Sardana, K

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to highlight the importance of screening all HIV positive women for various reproductive tract infections/sexually transmitted infections (RTIs/STIs) irrespective of symptoms and to determine its occurrence in asymptomatic HIV positive women. Relevant specimens were collected for diagnosis of various RTIs/STIs. STIs were diagnosed in nearly one-third of the HIV positive asymptomatic patients which is quite high. The national strategy for STIs/RTIs control misses out large number of asymptomatic RTIs/STIs in HIV positive women which is responsible for silently transmitting these infections in the community. So this strategy should be modified to include screening of all HIV positives women irrespective of symptoms of STIs/RTIs. PMID:26068345

  15. Dynamic modeling and analysis of sexually transmitted diseases on heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuping; Jin, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Considering homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts in the course of sexual contacts, double degrees which describe the numbers of homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts are introduced, correlation coefficients about degrees based on the joint probability distribution are given, and an SIS mean-field model about sexually transmitted diseases is presented when degrees are uncorrelated. The basic reproduction number of diseases is studied by the method of next generation matrix. Results show that, when homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts all exist, once the disease is epidemic in the interior of male (female) population which is caused by male (female) homosexual transmissions, or the disease is epidemic between the two species which is caused by heterosexual transmissions, the disease must be epidemic in the whole population. Numerical simulations confirm the theoretical results.

  16. [Knowledge and practice of adolescents in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Martini, Jussara Gue; Bandeira, Adriana da Silva

    2003-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the knowledge of adolescents regarding the prevention and transmission of DST's, HIV/AIDS. It was carried out in a school in the city of Canoas/RS. 121 students, with age between 12-19 participated in the study. According to the interviews 22.3% said that their sexual life starts at the age between 12 and 16. Student's knowledge regarding the transmission of DST's is evident, since 79% of the students pointed out that those diseases are transmitted through sexual contact if there is no use of condoms. However some myths and stereotypes related to these disease were also identified. 16.3% of the adolescents believe that contamination can occur in bathrooms, swimming pools and saunas. PMID:14692281

  17. Sexually transmitted infections in U.S. Air Force recruits in basic military training.

    PubMed

    Webber, Bryant J; Pawlak, Mary T; Jones, Nathan M; Tchandja, Juste N; Foster, Gwendolyn A

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the counts, prevalence, and trends of five common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among U.S. Air Force recruits during 2012-2014. Chlamydia and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) were the most commonly identified STIs in females, with a prevalence of 4,841.2 and 432.3 per 100,000, respectively. Genital HSV was the most commonly identified STI in males at 133.4 per 100,000. There were 13 cases of chlamydia and gonorrhea co-infection among females and none among males. STI prevalence was lower than in a similarly aged U.S. civilian population. PMID:26930147

  18. Modelling the spread of sexually transmitted diseases on scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mao-Xing; Ruan, Jiong

    2009-06-01

    In this paper a new model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is presented. The dynamic behaviors of the model on a heterogenous scale-free (SF) network are considered, where the absence of a threshold on the SF network is demonstrated, and the stability of the disease-free equilibrium is obtained. Three immunization strategies, uniform immunization, proportional immunization and targeted immunization, are applied in this model. Analytical and simulated results are given to show that the proportional immunization strategy in the model is effective on SF networks.

  19. Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Plorde, D S

    1981-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to the education and employment of women--and improved medical services are essential for the long-term control of STD. PMID:6895708

  20. Gender Differences in Associations between Exposure to School HIV Education and Protective Sexual Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Disease/HIV Diagnosis among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Murray, Jessica E.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess associations between school HIV education and protective sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV diagnosis with a representative sample of male and female high school students. Data from male and female adolescent participants in the 1999, 2001 and 2003 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n =…

  1. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Meghan D.; Grayson, Cary T.; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction.…

  2. Using Process Data to Understand Outcomes in Sexual Health Promotion: An Example from a Review of School-Based Programmes to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Barnett-Page, E.; Kavanagh, J.; Picot, J.; Frampton, G. K.; Cooper, K.; Hartwell, D.; Clegg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible…

  3. The Social Constructions of Sexuality: Marital Infidelity and Sexually Transmitted Disease–HIV Risk in a Mexican Migrant Community

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Higgins, Jennifer; Bentley, Margaret E.; Nathanson, Constance A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This article explores the social context of the migration-related HIV epidemic in western Mexico. Methods. Data collection involved life histories and participant observation with migrant women in Atlanta and their sisters or sisters-in-law in Mexico. Results. Both younger and older women acknowledged that migrant men’s sexual behavior may expose them to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.Younger Mexican women in both communities expressed a marital ideal characterized by mutual intimacy, communication, joint decisionmaking, and sexual pleasure, but not by willingness to use condoms as an HIV prevention strategy. Conclusions. Migrant Mexican women’s commitment to an illusion of fidelity will hinder HIV prevention initiatives targeted toward them. Furthermore, the changing meanings of marital sex may make it harder to convince young couples to use condoms as an HIV prevention strategy. If the chain of heterosexual marital HIV transmission is to be interrupted in this community, prevention programs must target men. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1227–1237) PMID:12144974

  4. Heavy episodic drinking among Kenyan female sex workers is associated with unsafe sex, sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Chersich, M F; Luchters, S M F; Malonza, I M; Mwarogo, P; King'ola, N; Temmerman, M

    2007-11-01

    This study examined patterns of alcohol use and its association with unsafe sex and related sequelae among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using snowball sampling. Binge drinkers (> or =5 alcoholic drinks on > or =1 occasion in the previous month) were compared with non-binge drinkers. Of 719 participants, 22.4% were lifetime-alcohol abstainers, 44.7% non-binge and 33.0% binge drinkers. Compared with non-binge drinkers, binge drinkers were more likely to report unprotected sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00-2.53; P=0.047) and sexual violence (AOR=1.85, 95% CI=1.27-2.71; P=0.001) and to have either syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis infection (AOR=1.56, 95% CI=1.00-2.41; P=0.048). HIV prevalence was higher among women having ever drunk (39.9%) than lifetime abstainers (23.2%; P<0.001), but was not associated with drinking patterns. Interventions are needed to assist female sex workers adopt safer drinking patterns. Investigation is needed for the effectiveness of such interventions in reducing unprotected sex, sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:18005511

  5. Sexually transmitted infection screening uptake and knowledge of sexually transmitted infection symptoms among female sex workers participating in a community randomised trial in Peru.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Pamela K; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Buendia, Clara; Hughes, James P; Mejia, Carolina; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, and knowledge of STI symptoms among female sex workers in Peru associated with sex work venues and a community randomised trial of STI control. One component of the Peru PREVEN intervention conducted mobile-team outreach to female sex workers to reduce STIs and increase condom use and access to government clinics for STI screening and evaluation. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, clustering by city. As-treated analyses were conducted to assess outcomes associated with reported exposure to the intervention. Care-seeking was more frequent in intervention communities, but differences were not statistically significant. Female sex workers reporting exposure to the intervention had a significantly higher likelihood of condom use, STI screening at public health clinics, and symptom recognition compared to those not exposed. Compared with street- or bar-based female sex workers, brothel-based female sex workers reported significantly higher rates of condom use with last client, recent screening exams for STIs, and HIV testing. Brothel-based female sex workers also more often reported knowledge of STIs and recognition of STI symptoms in women and in men. Interventions to promote STI detection and prevention among female sex workers in Peru should consider structural or regulatory factors related to sex work venues. PMID:25941053

  6. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among visually impaired people: educational text validation 1

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. Method: a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. Results: on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. Conclusion: the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. PMID:27556880

  7. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Jordan R; Roberts, Sally A; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU) that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA), serum resistance protein (dsrA), and a collagen adhesin (ncaA) contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts. PMID:25774793

  8. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Non-Sexually Transmitted Strains of Haemophilus ducreyi

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Jordan R.; Roberts, Sally A.; Humphreys, Tricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU) that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA), serum resistance protein (dsrA), and a collagen adhesin (ncaA) contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts. PMID:25774793

  9. [Educative program about sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases: experience report with a group of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Souza, Márcia M; Brunini, Sandra; Almeida, Nilza A M; Munari, Denize B

    2007-01-01

    The object of this study was to give an account of the experiment with a teenage group by using sexual education experiences of their own. Ten workshops were made with low-income teenagers of Município de Aparecida de Goiânia /GO, which happened because of the socialization and reflections about the contents of this study. The work was based on Paulo Freire's Participative Methodology and made better by the attention of the coordinators to every single group, considering their special needs and possibilities. We conclude that for the success of this work, the coordinator must listen to the group with a very sensitive prospect, especially when dealing with a teenage group. It is necessary to stimulate the participation, so that more can be learnt and the citizen work can be able to change its social reality. PMID:17477178

  10. Risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection in black female attendees of a sexually transmitted disease clinic.

    PubMed

    Baddour, L M; Bucak, V A; Somes, G; Hudson, R

    1988-01-01

    Although recent data have supported the role of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in women, studies generating these data have enrolled few black women. We therefore examined black female participants attending our local health department's sexually transmitted disease clinic for the treatment of presumed uncomplicated gonorrhea in serologic and risk-factor surveys of hepatitis B virus infection. Twenty-four (17.6%) of 136 subjects tested had evidence of prior hepatitis B infection. Serologic evidence of hepatitis B infection was significantly associated with three different barometers of sexual activity that included: (1) years of sexual activity (P less than 0.005); (2) history of sexually transmitted disease (P less than 0.02); and (3) number of lifetime heterosexual partners (P less than 0.001). These data provide further support that the quantity of sexual exposure seems to be an important risk factor for hepatitis B infection in heterosexually active females. PMID:3227474

  11. Commercial sex workers in Kathmandu Valley: profile and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, P; Thapa, S; Neupane, S; Baker, J; Friedman, M

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a socioeconomic profile and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), among 341 female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Kathmandu Valley. Most of the CSWs are from outside the valley, but from within Nepal. Over 50% of the CSWs have a secondary or higher level of education. The average age of the CSWs is 21 years. The average age of first sexual intercourse was 16 years; and, at entering the sex trade, 18 years. The most frequently reported type of sexual activity is vaginal intercourse followed by anal intercourse. Although a large proportion of CSWs are aware of condoms, only one-fifth of them reported using condoms most of the time they had intercourse. The majority of the CSWs are aware of general types of STDs. Slightly over 60% are aware of AIDS, and the majority of them know of at least one mode of AIDS transmission. Gynecological examination based on symptoms revealed that 72% of the CSWs were infected with some type of STD. About 47% had vaginal discharges, 36% had pelvic inflammatory disease, 24% had ulcerative disease, and 4% had urethritis. Blood tests of the CSWs revealed that 28% had VDRL (a test for syphilis), hepatitis B, or HIV. The prevalence of VDRL was the most common, followed by hepatitis B. Of the 341 CSWs, 3 (0.9%) were HIV-positive. PMID:12154941

  12. Multiple abortions and sexually transmitted infections among young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yongyang; Tao, Haidong; Xu, Song; Xia, Junrui; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Zaller, Nickolas; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of 358 young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with two indicators of sexual and reproductive health: (i) multiple abortions and (ii) the dual risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and abortion history. One quarter (25.4%) of the women in this sample had multiple abortions during their lifetime and, of those with any abortion history, 18.3% had had an abortion outside of a regulated health clinic. One-third (33.0%) of the sample had had a STI during the past year, and approximately one-fourth (23.7%) of those women did not receive STI treatment in a public hospital. Approximately one-fourth (23.5%) of the sample reported both a history of abortion and an STI during the past year. Women with a history of multiple abortions had significantly lower income levels, were more likely to have sex with clients and with husbands, and tended more to use alcohol before sex. Women who experienced both abortion and STI risks were more likely to report having had unprotected sex, genitourinary tract infections symptoms, anxiety, illicit drug use, and suicidal ideation. Enhanced efforts are needed to improve reproductive and sexual health for female migrants in urban China, particularly those working in entertainment venues. PMID:25902189

  13. Social and cultural vulnerability to sexually transmitted infection: the work of exotic dancers.

    PubMed

    Maticka-Tyndale, E; Lewis, J; Clark, J P; Zubick, J; Young, S

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the social and cultural factors that influence the vulnerability of female exotic dancers to sexually transmitted infections. Results are based on a qualitative, exploratory study using observations in 10 clubs and in-depth interviews with 30 dancers in southern Ontario. The social and cultural context within which exotic dancing takes place contributes to a chronic state of sexual harassment and sexual assault in the strip clubs. Women are pressured by economics and by their customers to engage in sex for pay. The defence mechanisms that some women use to deal with these work conditions also contribute to women's vulnerability. The social structure of strip clubs and their policies toward employees and customers can either reduce or exacerbate the vulnerability of dancers. Workplace policies and health and safety standards appear to be the most effective ways to decrease the vulnerability of dancers. Public health units can work with employers and dancers to establish workplace policies and programmes that contribute to the health and wellbeing of dancers. PMID:10189733

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases in Japanese female commercial sex workers working in massage parlors with cell baths.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Motonobu; Babazono, Akira; Kato, Masumi; Takagi, Shigeru; Chimura, Hiroshi; Une, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    A cross-sectional study of Japanese female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) working in massage parlors with cell baths (MPCBs) was conducted between July 1999 and December 2001. The study subjects were 171 FCSWs aged from 19 to 36 years. A questionnaire included sexual characteristics in addition to working name and date of birth. We serologically or bacteriologically confirmed the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. There were no differences in the clinical characteristics of FCSWs working in standard-class MPCBs (group A) and those working in expensive-class MPCBs (group B). With respect to sexual characteristics, HIV-1 and HIV-2 were not confirmed in any subjects, but N. gonorrhoeae was detected in 1.2%. Use of condoms was 98.4% in group A and 83.3% in group B ( P < 0.01). No HIV infection and an extremely low prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were recognized in Japanese FCSWs working in standard- and expensive-class MPCBs. PMID:14513394

  15. Criterion-based Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection: Sensitivity, Specificity, and Predictive Values of Commonly Used Questions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Patricia; Jacobson, Janet; Turok, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Practice protocols that mandate prescreening for sexually transmitted infection prior to insertion of an intrauterine device for contraception can pose obstacles for women seeking this highly effective method of birth control. Some practices screen for presumed risk factors for sexually transmitted infection in order to identify those who may be infected or those in whom laboratory testing should be obtained. The value of such criterion-based screening is unclear. Methods Data from a prospective observational trial of offering the copper intrauterine device for emergency contraception were used to assess the value of several screening questions in predicting the presence of sexually transmitted infection. Criteria evaluated were age under 25 years, history of a sexually transmitted infection, and having 2 or more sexual partners in the previous 3 months. The sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio of both positive and negative test results and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for 3 separate questions as well as for combinations of these 3 questions. Results There were 197 women who received a copper intrauterine device for emergency contraception at the same time they were tested for sexually transmitted infection. In this sample, there were 8 cases of Chlamydia trachomatis identified and no cases of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The sensitivity of individual and combined questions in identifying those who were infected ranged from 0% to 88%; specificity ranged from 37% to 97%. The positive predictive values for single or combined screening questions were in the range of 4% to 6%. Likelihood ratios for both positive and negative test results did not change posttest likelihood of disease in any appreciable way. Discussion Standard screening questions used to identify sexually transmitted infection risk could presume infection in large numbers of uninfected women and are of little value in identifying the women who are truly

  16. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523-6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123-45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes. PMID:27312324

  17. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C.; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523–6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123–45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes. PMID:27312324

  18. Risk Factors for Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: Implications for HIV/Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    LIU, HONGJIE; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; LIU, HUI; LIANG, GUOJUN; CHEN, XINGUANG; YANG, HONGMEI; HONG, YAN

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify risk factors associated with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing in 2002. Migrants with STDs consisted of 432 migrants who sought STD care in two public STD clinics. Migrants without STDs included 892 migrants recruited from 10 occupational clusters. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Compared to migrants without STDs, migrants with STDs were more likely to report having engaged in commercial sex (selling or buying sex) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.71–4.25), multiple sex partners in the previous month (OR = 6.50, 95% CI: 3.73–11.32) and higher perceived HIV-related stigma (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.30–2.75). Being a migrant with an STD was also associated with female gender (OR = 4.10, 95% CI: 2.89–5.82), higher education (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.40–6.06), and higher monthly salary (OR = 1.68. 95% CI: 1.23–2.29). Migrants with STDs visited their hometowns more frequently and had more stable jobs than migrants without STDs. Approximately 10% of the migrants with STDs and 7.7% of the migrants without STDs always used condoms. This study suggests that among migrants, acquisition of an STD is associated with higher participation in risk behaviors as would be expected, but also with higher perceived stigma, education, stable jobs, salary, and with female gender. Appropriate behavioral intervention programs are advocated to reduce the risk and stigma among the special population. PMID:15665635

  19. Using Sexually Transmitted Infection Biomarkers to Validate Reporting of Sexual Behavior within a Randomized, Experimental Evaluation of Interviewing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Mensch, Barbara S.; de A. Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S.; Jones, Heidi E.; Lippman, Sheri A.; Montgomery, Mark R.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the reporting of sexual and other risk behaviors within a randomized experiment using a computerized versus face-to-face interview mode. Biomarkers for sexually transmitted infection (STI) were used to validate self-reported behavior by interview mode. As part of a parent study evaluating home versus clinic screening and diagnosis for STIs, 818 women aged 18−40 years were recruited in 2004 at or near a primary care clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, and were randomized to a face-to-face interview or audio computer-assisted self-interviewing. Ninety-six percent of participants were tested for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. Reporting of STI risk behavior was consistently higher with the computerized mode of interview. Stronger associations between risk behaviors and STI were found with the computerized interview after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These results were obtained by using logistic regression approaches, as well as statistical methods that address potential residual confounding and covariate endogeneity. Furthermore, STI-positive participants were more likely than STI-negative participants to underreport risk behavior in the face-to-face interview. Results strongly suggest that computerized interviewing provides more accurate and reliable behavioral data. The analyses also confirm the benefits of using data on prevalent STIs for externally validating behavioral reporting. PMID:18525081

  20. Lack of utility of risk score and gynecological examination for screening for sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Eleuse MB; Guimarães, Mark DC; Vieira, Maria Aparecida S; Bontempo, Nádia M; Seixas, Mirian SS; Garcia, Mônica SD; Daud, Lyana ES; Côrtes, Rejane LM; Alves, Maria de Fátima C

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6%) were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2) and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7). Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required. PMID:19284575

  1. Sexually-Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Cannot Be Directly Predicted from Plasma or PBMC-Derived Viral Quasispecies in the Transmitting Partner

    PubMed Central

    Frange, Pierre; Meyer, Laurence; Jung, Matthieu; Goujard, Cecile; Zucman, David; Abel, Sylvie; Hochedez, Patrick; Gousset, Marine; Gascuel, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Chaix, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Objective Characterization of HIV-1 sequences in newly infected individuals is important for elucidating the mechanisms of viral sexual transmission. We report the identification of transmitted/founder viruses in eight pairs of HIV-1 sexually-infected patients enrolled at the time of primary infection (“recipients”) and their transmitting partners (“donors”). Methods Using a single genome-amplification approach, we compared quasispecies in donors and recipients on the basis of 316 and 376 C2V5 env sequences amplified from plasma viral RNA and PBMC-associated DNA, respectively. Results Both DNA and RNA sequences indicated very homogeneous viral populations in all recipients, suggesting transmission of a single variant, even in cases of recent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in donors (n = 2) or recipients (n = 3). In all pairs, the transmitted/founder virus was derived from an infrequent variant population within the blood of the donor. The donor variant sequences most closely related to the recipient sequences were found in plasma samples in 3/8 cases and/or in PBMC samples in 6/8 cases. Although donors were exclusively (n = 4) or predominantly (n = 4) infected by CCR5-tropic (R5) strains, two recipients were infected with highly homogeneous CXCR4/dual-mixed-tropic (X4/DM) viral populations, identified in both DNA and RNA. The proportion of X4/DM quasispecies in donors was higher in cases of X4/DM than R5 HIV transmission (16.7–22.0% versus 0–2.6%), suggesting that X4/DM transmission may be associated with a threshold population of X4/DM circulating quasispecies in donors. Conclusions These suggest that a severe genetic bottleneck occurs during subtype B HIV-1 heterosexual and homosexual transmission. Sexually-transmitted/founder virus cannot be directly predicted by analysis of the donor’s quasispecies in plasma and/or PBMC. Additional studies are required to fully understand the traits that confer the capacity to transmit and

  2. Correlation of CD4 T Cell Count and Plasma Viral Load with Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections in HIV Infected Females

    PubMed Central

    Bhattar, Sonali; Rawat, Deepti; Tripathi, Reva; Kaur, Ravinder; Sardana, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) plays a major role in the spread of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to common route of transmission. These infections display an epidemiological synergy with HIV. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation of CD4 T lymphocyte cell count, HIV-1 plasma viral load with Reproductive tract infections/Sexually transmitted infections (RTIs/STIs) in HIV infected females. Materials and Methods: The study included 60 HIV infected females. An informed consent was taken from all the study subjects. Relevant specimens (genital specimen and blood) were collected for laboratory diagnosis of various RTIs/STIs, CD4 cell count and plasma viral load estimation. Results: Mean CD4 count of females with bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, syphilis and herpes simplex infection were lower as compared to other HIV infected cases and mean plasma viral load of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and syphilis were higher as compared to other HIV infected cases but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of routine screening for STIs/RTIs of all the HIV infected females for RTIs/STIs irrespective of CD4 cell count and plasma viral load. PMID:25478342

  3. Depression and Social Stigma among MSM in Lesotho: Implications for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stahlman, Shauna; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Mothopeng, Tampose; Taruberekera, Noah; Nkonyana, John; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Social stigma is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa, and may influence risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) via its association with depression. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 530 MSM in Lesotho accrued via respondent-driven sampling. Using generalized structural equation models we examined associations between stigma, social capital, and depression with condom use and testing positive for HIV/STIs. Depression was positively associated with social stigma experienced or perceived as a result of being MSM. In contrast, increasing levels of social cohesion were negatively associated with depression. Social stigma was associated with testing positive for HIV; however, this association did not appear to be mediated by depression or condom use. These data suggest a need for integrated HIV and mental health care that addresses stigma and discrimination and facilitates positive social support for MSM. PMID:25969182

  4. The evolution of risky behaviour in the presence of a sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Michael; Knell, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are widespread in nature, often sterilizing their hosts or causing other pathogenic effects. Despite this, there is a widespread occurrence of behaviours that are likely to increase the risk to an individual of contracting an STD. Here, we examine the evolution of behaviours such as promiscuity or mate choice that increase the risk of contracting an STD, but also provide a fitness benefit. As might be expected, the balance between risk and fitness benefit defines the optimal strategy, but this relationship is not straightforward. In particular, we often predict the coexistence of highly risky and highly risk-averse individuals. Surprisingly, very safe strategists that only suffer a small cost will tend to coexist with highly risky strategists rather than outcompete them as might have been expected. Rather than selecting for monogamy or for reduced mate choice, therefore, the presence of an STD may often lead to variability in either promiscuity or mate choice. PMID:11916474

  5. Sexually Transmitted Pathogens, Depression, and Other Manifestations Associated with Premenstrual Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Caroline; Swain, Walker A; Ewald, Holly A Swain; Cook, Christine L; Ewald, Paul W

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated whether sexually transmitted infections and lifestyle variables are associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) as well as particular manifestations commonly associated with PMS. Data were gathered from medical records of 500 regularly cycling women. The following infectious agents were investigated: human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicans, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Bivariate tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate whether these pathogens were associated with headache, pain, nausea, and depression. Chlamydia trachomatis was significantly associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and two common manifestations of PMS: depression and pain. Trichomonas vaginalis was significantly correlated with headache and Gardnerella vaginalis with nausea. None of the illness manifestations was significantly associated with the tested lifestyle variables: dietary calcium supplementation, alcohol and drug use, exercise, and smoking. These associations provide a basis for assessment of infectious causation of PMS and several manifestations of illness that are commonly associated with PMS. PMID:26272230

  6. First, Do No Harm: The US Sexually Transmitted Disease Experiments in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    García, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 1946, the United States government immorally and unethically—and, arguably, illegally—engaged in research experiments in which more than 5000 uninformed and unconsenting Guatemalan people were intentionally infected with bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases. Many have been left untreated to the present day. Although US President Barack Obama apologized in 2010, and although the US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues found the Guatemalan experiments morally wrong, little if anything has been done to compensate the victims and their families. We explore the backdrop for this unethical medical research and violation of human rights and call for steps the United States should take to provide relief and compensation to Guatemala and its people. PMID:24134370

  7. Facilities and diagnostic criteria in sexually transmitted disease clinics in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Adler, M W; Belsey, E M; O'Connor, B H; Catterall, R D; Miller, D L

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to collect information from consultants about the facilities and diagnostic criteria used in clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in England and Wales. Most of the information was obtained by personal interview with a response rate of 92%. Half the clinics were open for 10 hours or less a week, the mean length of time for all clinics was 14 1/2 hours a week. Eighty per cent of clinics had a full or part-time contact-tracing service. All the clinics had microscopical and serological services and almost all (99%) had cultural facilities. The policy concerning the most efficient use of these facilities is discussed. PMID:580411

  8. The global roadmap for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections: Update and next steps.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Deal, Carolyn D; Giersing, Birgitte; Rees, Helen; Bolan, Gail; Johnston, Christine; Timms, Peter; Gray-Owen, Scott D; Jerse, Ann E; Cameron, Caroline E; Moorthy, Vasee S; Kiarie, James; Broutet, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization, the US National Institutes of Health, and global technical partners published a comprehensive roadmap for development of new vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Since its publication, progress has been made in several roadmap activities: obtaining better epidemiologic data to establish the public health rationale for STI vaccines, modeling the theoretical impact of future vaccines, advancing basic science research, defining preferred product characteristics for first-generation vaccines, and encouraging investment in STI vaccine development. This article reviews these overarching roadmap activities, provides updates on research and development of individual vaccines against herpes simplex virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum, and discusses important next steps to advance the global roadmap for STI vaccine development. PMID:27105564

  9. Depression and Social Stigma Among MSM in Lesotho: Implications for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Mothopeng, Tampose; Taruberekera, Noah; Nkonyana, John; Baral, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Social stigma is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa, and may influence risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) via its association with depression. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 530 MSM in Lesotho accrued via respondent-driven sampling. Using generalized structural equation models we examined associations between stigma, social capital, and depression with condom use and testing positive for HIV/STIs. Depression was positively associated with social stigma experienced or perceived as a result of being MSM. In contrast, increasing levels of social cohesion were negatively associated with depression. Social stigma was associated with testing positive for HIV; however, this association did not appear to be mediated by depression or condom use. These data suggest a need for integrated HIV and mental health care that addresses stigma and discrimination and facilitates positive social support for MSM. PMID:25969182

  10. Diagnostic challenges of sexually transmitted infections in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Ronald, Allan

    2009-12-01

    The global burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is highest in the developing world where access to laboratory services is limited. Sophisticated laboratory diagnostic tests using noninvasive specimens have enabled developed countries to screen and diagnose curable STIs in a variety of settings, but control programs in resource-limited settings continue to struggle to find simple rapid tests that can provide adequate performance in the absence of laboratory services. While recent technological advances and investments in research and development may soon yield improved STI tests that can make an impact, these tests will need to be deployed within a health system that includes: regulatory oversight, quality assurance, good supply-chain management, effective training, information systems and a sound surveillance system to monitor disease trends, inform policy decisions and assess the impact of interventions. PMID:19995188

  11. Detecting, Preventing, and Treating Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Adolescent Arrestees: An Unmet Public Health Need

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Rollie, Matthew; Childs, Kristina; Salvatore, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Studies of detained and incarcerated adolescent offenders in the United States indicate that these juveniles have an elevated risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, many more arrestees enter the “front end” of the juvenile justice system than are detained or incarcerated, and research into the STD risk profiles and service needs of this larger group is lacking. An expansion of STD testing (including of asymptomatic youths), prevention, and treatment is needed, as is improved knowledge about gender- and race-specific services. A pilot program in Florida has shown that juvenile justice and public health systems can collaborate to implement STD testing among new arrestees. With integrated linkages to treatment and prevention after release, this model could greatly reduce the STD burden in this underserved, high-risk population. PMID:19372535

  12. First, do no harm: the US sexually transmitted disease experiments in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Michael A; García, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Beginning in 1946, the United States government immorally and unethically-and, arguably, illegally-engaged in research experiments in which more than 5000 uninformed and unconsenting Guatemalan people were intentionally infected with bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases. Many have been left untreated to the present day. Although US President Barack Obama apologized in 2010, and although the US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues found the Guatemalan experiments morally wrong, little if anything has been done to compensate the victims and their families. We explore the backdrop for this unethical medical research and violation of human rights and call for steps the United States should take to provide relief and compensation to Guatemala and its people. PMID:24134370

  13. School-Based Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening: Review and Programmatic Guidance.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Felicia M T; Dittus, Patricia; Salmon, Melinda E; Nsuami, M Jacques

    2016-02-01

    School-based sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening (SBSS) was designed to provide chlamydia and gonorrhea testing, treatment, and counseling to adolescents in a school setting to overcome some of the difficulties of screening in this population. To inform STD control programs and other entities on decision making about potentially implementing this intervention, we reviewed existing published and gray literature on SBSS from 1998 to 2014. Although they are work-intensive to establish, school-based STD screening programs are a feasible and cost-effective way of testing large numbers of male and female adolescents for chlamydia and gonorrhea, and to provide counseling and treatment to almost all those who are found infected. School-based STD screening programs do not seem to reduce prevalence in either the school or the general adolescent population, although there are currently relatively few studies on large-scale SBSS. More research in this field is needed. PMID:26779684

  14. Addressing the Increasing Burden of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip A.; Maher, Justine; Poole, Danielle; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Ducharme, R. Bobby; Yates, Gail; Benben, Stacey; Nunn, Amy; Comella, Jaime; Bandy, Utpala; Montague, Brian T.; Kojic, Erna; Chapin, Kimberle; Flanigan, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    The rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) including chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, are increasing across the United States, including in Rhode Island (RI). These STIs affect many otherwise healthy adolescents and young adults, and represent a significant source of morbidity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention encourages states to develop strategies for addressing increasing STI rates in the setting of diminishing public health resources. The RI Department of Health (DOH) works with providers and funded community-based organizations to promote STI screening, expedited partner therapy, and partner services to reduce STI rates. The Miriam Hospital Immunology Center opened a public HIV/STI Clinic, which offers free and confidential testing for HIV, viral hepatitis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, as well as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) services to prevent HIV. In collaboration with the RI DOH, the Clinic serves as a referral source across the state for complicated STI cases. PMID:25562058

  15. [Sexually transmitted diseases and other risks in the adult film industry].

    PubMed

    Kluger, N

    2014-02-01

    The adult film industry nowadays represents a legal multi-billion dollar business. The main health risks of adult performers are well known. They mainly include the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, herpes and papillomavirus. However, despite regular follow-up, the frequency of STD remains significant in this high-risk population since a large part of the industry continues to reject systematic use of condoms. Besides, performers are also exposed to other physical and mental health issues often not known to the public. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known about STD and other risks among the community of performers in the adult film industry. PMID:24507206

  16. A history of sexually transmitted diseases in Thailand: policy and politics.

    PubMed

    Bamber, S D; Hewison, K J; Underwood, P J

    1993-04-01

    This paper provides a brief history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Thailand. The presentation is divided into three main sections: the period up to the 1930s; the period from the 1930s until the end of the early 1980s; and the period from the early 1980s until the present, the so-called 'AIDS Era'. The discussion in each of these sections focuses, as far as sources permit, on the epidemiological picture, as well as describing public and official responses to these diseases. In the final part of the paper consideration is given to these findings in relation to the present situation in Thailand regarding the HIV/AIDS epidemic. PMID:8509097

  17. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts. PMID:3781857

  18. Prostate involvement during sexually transmitted infections as measured by prostate-specific antigen concentration

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, S; Nevin, R L; Pakpahan, R; Elliott, D J; Cole, S R; De Marzo, A M; Gaydos, C A; Isaacs, W B; Nelson, W G; Sokoll, L J; Zenilman, J M; Cersovsky, S B; Platz, E A

    2011-01-01

    Background: We investigated prostate involvement during sexually transmitted infections by measuring serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a marker of prostate infection, inflammation, and/or cell damage in young, male US military members. Methods: We measured PSA before and during infection for 299 chlamydia, 112 gonorrhoea, and 59 non-chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU) cases, and 256 controls. Results: Chlamydia and gonorrhoea, but not NCNGU, cases were more likely to have a large rise (⩾40%) in PSA than controls (33.6%, 19.1%, and 8.2% vs 8.8%, P<0.0001, 0.021, and 0.92, respectively). Conclusion: Chlamydia and gonorrhoea may infect the prostate of some infected men. PMID:21792196

  19. Male circumcision: a globally relevant but under-utilized method for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Tobian, Aaron A R; Kacker, Seema; Quinn, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    Randomized trials have demonstrated that male circumcision (MC) reduces heterosexual acquisition of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus (HPV), and genital ulcer disease among men, and it reduces HPV, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis among female partners. The pathophysiology behind these effects is multifactorial, relying on anatomic and cellular changes. MC is cost effective and potentially cost saving in both the United States and Africa. The World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS proposed reaching 80% MC coverage in HIV endemic countries, but current rates fall far behind targets. Barriers to scale-up include supply-side and demand-side challenges. In the United States, neonatal MC rates are decreasing, but the American Academy of Pediatrics now recognizes the medical benefits of MC and supports insurance coverage. Although MC is a globally valuable tool to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, it is underutilized. Further research is needed to address barriers to MC uptake. PMID:24111891

  20. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors from the NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Celentano, David D.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Pequegnat, Willo; Abdala, Nadia; Green, Annette M.; Handsfield, H. Hunter; Hartwell, Tyler D.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study describes the baseline prevalence and correlates of common bacterial and viral sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and risk behaviors among individuals at high risk for HIV recruited in five low- and middle-income countries. Correlations of risk behaviors and demographic factors with prevalent STDs and the association of STDs with HIV prevalence are examined. Between 2,212 and 5,543 participants were recruited in each of five countries (China, India, Peru, Russia, and Zimbabwe). Standard protocols were used to collect behavioral risk information and biological samples for STD testing. Risk factors for HIV/STD prevalence were evaluated using logistic regression models. STD prevalence was significantly higher for women than men in all countries, and the most prevalent STD was Herpes simplex virus-type 2 (HSV-2). HIV prevalence was generally low (below 5%) except in Zimbabwe (30% among women, 11.7% among men). Prevalence of bacterial STDs was generally low (below 5% for gonorrhea and under 7% for syphilis in all sites), with the exception of syphilis among female sex workers in India. Behavioral and demographic risks for STDs varied widely across the five study sites. Common risks for STDs included female gender, increasing number of recent sex partners, and in some sites, older age, particularly for chronic STDs (i.e., HSV-2 and HIV). Prevalence of HIV was not associated with STDs except in Zimbabwe, which showed a modest correlation between HIV and HSV-2 prevalence (Pearson coefficient = .55). These findings underscore the heterogeneity of global STD and HIV epidemics and suggest that local, focused interventions are needed to achieve significant declines in these infections. PMID:25400718

  1. Testing for sexually transmitted infections in general practice: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Primary care is an important provider of sexual health care in England. We sought to explore the extent of testing for chlamydia and HIV in general practice and its relation to associated measures of sexual health in two contrasting geographical settings. Methods We analysed chlamydia and HIV testing data from 64 general practices and one genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic in Brent (from mid-2003 to mid-2006) and 143 general practices and two GUM clinics in Avon (2004). We examined associations between practice testing status, practice characteristics and hypothesised markers of population need (area level teenage conception rates and Index of Multiple Deprivation, IMD scores). Results No HIV or chlamydia testing was done in 19% (12/64) of general practices in Brent, compared to 2.1% (3/143) in Avon. In Brent, the mean age of general practitioners (GPs) in Brent practices that tested for chlamydia or HIV was lower than in those that had not conducted testing. Practices where no HIV testing was done had slightly higher local teenage conception rates (median 23.5 vs. 17.4/1000 women aged 15-44, p = 0.07) and served more deprived areas (median IMD score 27.1 vs. 21.8, p = 0.05). Mean yearly chlamydia and HIV testing rates, in practices that did test were 33.2 and 0.6 (per 1000 patients aged 15-44 years) in Brent, and 34.1 and 10.3 in Avon, respectively. In Brent practices only 20% of chlamydia tests were conducted in patients aged under 25 years, compared with 39% in Avon. Conclusions There are substantial geographical differences in the intensity of chlamydia and HIV testing in general practice. Interventions to facilitate sexually transmitted infection and HIV testing in general practice are needed to improve access to effective sexual health care. The use of routinely-collected laboratory, practice-level and demographic data for monitoring sexual health service provision and informing service planning should be more widely evaluated. PMID:21047396

  2. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including HIV in street-connected adolescents in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Susanna E; Chirchir, Amon K; Muthoni, Lauryn N; Ayuku, David; Koech, Julius; Nyandiko, Winstone; Carter, E Jane; Braitstein, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to characterise the sexual health of street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya, analyse gender disparity of risks, estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and identify factors associated with STIs. Methods A cross-sectional study of street-connected adolescents ages 12–21 years was conducted in Eldoret, Kenya. Participants were interviewed and screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus-2, syphilis and HIV. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with having any STI. Results Of the 200 participants, 81 (41%) were female. 70.4% of females and 60.5% of males reported sexual activity. Of those that participated in at least one STI test, 28% (55/194) had ≥1 positive test, including 56% of females; 14% (28/194) had >1 positive test. Twelve females and zero males (6% overall, 14.8% of females) were HIV positive. Among females, those with HIV infection more frequently reported transactional sex (66.7% vs 26.1%, p=0.01), drug use (91.7% vs 56.5%, p=0.02), and reported a prior STI (50.0% vs 14.7%, p<0.01). Having an adult caregiver was less likely among those with HIV infection (33.3% vs 71.0%, p=0.04). Transactional sex (AOR 3.02, 95% CI (1.05 to 8.73)), a previous STI (AOR 3.46 95% CI (1.05 to 11.46)) and ≥2 sexual partners (AOR 5.62 95% (1.67 to 18.87)) were associated with having any STI. Conclusions Street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya are engaged in high-risk sexual behaviours and females in particular have a substantial burden of STIs and HIV. There is a need for STI interventions targeted to street-connected youth. PMID:25714102

  3. Brief Messages to Promote Prevention and Detection of Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    We review the results of our research program investigating the effects of brief risk awareness interventions for sexually active young adults—the age group most at-risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Our review examines the influence of framed messages, individual differences, and visual aids on key attitudes, behavioral intentions, and health outcomes in three extensive longitudinal studies. Our first study showed that health messages can promote self-reported condom use (screening for STIs) when the messages were framed in positive (negative) terms. This study also showed that adding visual aids to the positive and negative framed messages made them equally and highly effective for promoting self-reported behavior. Visual aids increased self-reported behavior by eliminating the effect of framing on attitudes and behavioral intentions, which in turn influenced self-reported behavior. Our second study showed that visual aids were especially helpful for reducing the effect of message framing among young adults with low numeracy and high graph literacy. Our third study showed that visual aids influenced key attitudes, behavioral intentions, and self-reported behavior as much as a validated 8-hour educational program. Overall, our research suggests that well-constructed visual aids provide simple, effective ways of communicating quantitative information about STIs to at-risk young adults. Theoretical mechanisms, public policy implications, and open questions are discussed. PMID:26149162

  4. The decentralisation of the sexually transmitted diseases service and its integration into primary health care.

    PubMed

    Latif, A S; Mbengeranwa, O L; Marowa, E; Paraiwa, E; Gutu, S

    1986-10-01

    As part of National Health Policy, the City Health Department in Harare, Zimbabwe decentralized sexually transmitted diseases (STD) services and integrated it into primary health care. A central referral STD clinic was created to concentrate expertise. Simplified treatment protocols were distributed to primary care clinics, and nurses in these clinics received an intensive 2-week training course at the central clinic. This was part of a larger plan to provide comprehensive health care in easily accessible settings. The Harare City Health Department has 14 primary care clinics and 9 polyclinics staffed mainly by nursing personnel. The training course taught curative treatment of STDs and prevention by patient education and locating sexual contacts. Participants were expected to be able to utilize physical and laboratory diagnostic techniques accurately to identify common STDs, and to order appropriate treatment. The program emphasized "bedside" teaching with continuous exposure to clinical problems and discussion of those problems. The textbook used included management guidelines in the form of flow charts adapted from World Health Organization guidelines. Over 16 weeks, 49 trainees attended the course. Trainees were mainly female, while patients are mainly male. Trainees performed well, gaining self confidence and ability to manage STDs. The main problems encountered were overwork of staff in clinics when 1 lest for the program, and reluctance of male patients to be examined by female trainees. PMID:12281132

  5. Race and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Women With and Without Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Feske, Ulrike; Angiolieri, Teresa; Gold, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with and without a lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) and to compare their histories to those of a group of women with a current nonpsychotic axis I disorder. Methods Two-hundred fifteen women completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I diagnoses (SCID-I), Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality for Axis II diagnoses (SIDP-IV), and a sexual health interview. African American women were oversampled because little is known about BPD in African American women and because they are at greater risk for STDs than non-African American women. Results Women with a lifetime SUD (especially cannabis use disorder) reported more STD risk factors and STDs than women without a lifetime SUD. BPD dimensional scores and African American race were predictors of STD, even after controlling for age, socioeconomic status (SES), SUDs, and participation in the sex trade. Conclusions Determining predictors of STDs within at-risk subpopulations may help reduce the spread of STDs and prevent HIV infection within these groups by helping providers identify women at the highest risk of infection. PMID:21219244

  6. Pilot study of cervical cytology screening in a sexually transmitted diseases clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Lyttle, H; Platts, W M; MacLean, A B

    1985-01-01

    A pilot study of cervical cytology was carried out on 500 new patients at the women's sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic at this hospital. The aim was to discover the incidence of abnormal smears in order to gauge the worth of cervical cytology as a routine clinic procedure. Information was also gathered on each patient's age, sexual history, method of contraception used, previous smears, and genital infection. Smears showing carcinoma in situ, dysplasia, or warty atypia were regarded as abnormal, and the relevant patients were referred for colposcopy. Seventy-three (14.6%) had abnormal smears. Eight women (1.6%), average age 29.7 years, had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (CIN III) confirmed by histology. One third of the patients with abnormal smears had genital warts, and the incidence of abnormal smears was greater in patients with genital warts than in those without warts. We concluded that STD clinics are useful places in which to carry out cervical cytology screening, and we noted a positive association between infection with genital warts and abnormal smears. PMID:2995239

  7. Continuing Need for Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics After the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Parsell, Bradley W.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Habel, Melissa A.; Tao, Guoyu; Pearson, William S.; Gift, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the characteristics of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients, their reasons for seeking health services in STD clinics, and their access to health care in other venues. Methods. In 2013, we surveyed persons who used publicly funded STD clinics in 21 US cities with the highest STD morbidity. Results. Of the 4364 STD clinic patients we surveyed, 58.5% were younger than 30 years, 72.5% were non-White, and 49.9% were uninsured. They visited the clinic for STD symptoms (18.9%), STD screening (33.8%), and HIV testing (13.6%). Patients chose STD clinics because of walk-in, same-day appointments (49.5%), low cost (23.9%), and expert care (8.3%). Among STD clinic patients, 60.4% had access to another type of venue for sick care, and 58.5% had access to another type of venue for preventive care. Most insured patients (51.6%) were willing to use insurance to pay for care at the STD clinic. Conclusions. Despite access to other health care settings, patients chose STD clinics for sexual health care because of convenient, low-cost, and expert care. Policy Implication. STD clinics play an important role in STD prevention by offering walk-in care to uninsured patients. PMID:26447908

  8. Toward global prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the need for STI vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Low, Nicola; Newman, Lori M; Bolan, Gail; Kamb, Mary; Broutet, Nathalie

    2014-03-20

    An estimated 499 million curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs; gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and trichomoniasis) occurred globally in 2008. In addition, well over 500 million people are estimated to have a viral STI such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or human papillomavirus (HPV) at any point in time. STIs result in a large global burden of sexual, reproductive, and maternal-child health consequences, including genital symptoms, pregnancy complications, cancer, infertility, and enhanced HIV transmission, as well as important psychosocial consequences and financial costs. STI control strategies based primarily on behavioral primary prevention and STI case management have had clear successes, but gains have not been universal. Current STI control is hampered or threatened by several behavioral, biological, and implementation challenges, including a large proportion of asymptomatic infections, lack of feasible diagnostic tests globally, antimicrobial resistance, repeat infections, and barriers to intervention access, availability, and scale-up. Vaccines against HPV and hepatitis B virus offer a new paradigm for STI control. Challenges to existing STI prevention efforts provide important reasons for working toward additional STI vaccines. We summarize the global epidemiology of STIs and STI-associated complications, examine challenges to existing STI prevention efforts, and discuss the need for new STI vaccines for future prevention efforts. PMID:24581979

  9. Immune anticipation of mating in Drosophila: Turandot M promotes immunity against sexually transmitted fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weihao; McClure, Colin D; Evans, Cara R; Mlynski, David T; Immonen, Elina; Ritchie, Michael G; Priest, Nicholas K

    2013-12-22

    Although it is well known that mating increases the risk of infection, we do not know how females mitigate the fitness costs of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It has recently been shown that female fruitflies, Drosophila melanogaster, specifically upregulate two members of the Turandot family of immune and stress response genes, Turandot M and Turandot C (TotM and TotC), when they hear male courtship song. Here, we use the Gal4/UAS RNAi gene knockdown system to test whether the expression of these genes provides fitness benefits for females infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii under sexual transmission. As a control, we also examined the immunity conferred by Dorsal-related immunity factor (Dif), a central component of the Toll signalling pathway thought to provide immunity against fungal infections. We show that TotM, but not TotC or Dif, provides survival benefits to females following STIs, but not after direct topical infections. We also show that though the expression of TotM provides fecundity benefits for healthy females, it comes at a cost to their survival, which helps to explain why TotM is not constitutively expressed. Together, these results show that the anticipatory expression of TotM promotes specific immunity against fungal STIs and suggest that immune anticipation is more common than currently appreciated. PMID:24174107

  10. Immune anticipation of mating in Drosophila: Turandot M promotes immunity against sexually transmitted fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Weihao; McClure, Colin D.; Evans, Cara R.; Mlynski, David T.; Immonen, Elina; Ritchie, Michael G.; Priest, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that mating increases the risk of infection, we do not know how females mitigate the fitness costs of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It has recently been shown that female fruitflies, Drosophila melanogaster, specifically upregulate two members of the Turandot family of immune and stress response genes, Turandot M and Turandot C (TotM and TotC), when they hear male courtship song. Here, we use the Gal4/UAS RNAi gene knockdown system to test whether the expression of these genes provides fitness benefits for females infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii under sexual transmission. As a control, we also examined the immunity conferred by Dorsal-related immunity factor (Dif), a central component of the Toll signalling pathway thought to provide immunity against fungal infections. We show that TotM, but not TotC or Dif, provides survival benefits to females following STIs, but not after direct topical infections. We also show that though the expression of TotM provides fecundity benefits for healthy females, it comes at a cost to their survival, which helps to explain why TotM is not constitutively expressed. Together, these results show that the anticipatory expression of TotM promotes specific immunity against fungal STIs and suggest that immune anticipation is more common than currently appreciated. PMID:24174107

  11. Transmission of sexually transmitted disease in complex network of the Penna model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Li, Chunguang

    2007-04-01

    The Penna model is a computational model which can encompass the inheritance, mutation, evolution and ageing phenomena of population successfully. Some researchers considered social interactions in an asexual Penna model, got a complex network and found some interesting properties. We consider a sexual Penna model to study the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our model can also generate a complex network and we observed some properties in real networks, such as small-world and assortative mixing. In the real world, the fatality of STD is changing with the advancing of medicine and it can affect our life. In this paper, we uncover the effect induced by the fatality of STD. We found that fatality plays an important role in the transmission of STD because whether the STD will disappear or continue to exist depends on the fatality of STD. Also, the fatality of STD can affect the evolution of inherited diseases and average life span. Some properties found in the model should be useful for the prevention and control of STD.

  12. Effects of adaptive protective behavior on the dynamics of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Michael A L; Eisenberg, Marisa C

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to present a complex and costly challenge to public health programs. The preferences and social dynamics of a population can have a large impact on the course of an outbreak as well as the effectiveness of interventions intended to influence individual behavior. In addition, individuals may alter their sexual behavior in response to the presence of STIs, creating a feedback loop between transmission and behavior. We investigate the consequences of modeling the interaction between STI transmission and prophylactic use with a model that links a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) system to evolutionary game dynamics that determine the effective contact rate. The combined model framework allows us to address protective behavior by both infected and susceptible individuals. Feedback between behavioral adaptation and prevalence creates a wide range of dynamic behaviors in the combined model, including damped and sustained oscillations as well as bistability, depending on the behavioral parameters and disease growth rate. We found that disease extinction is possible for multiple regions where R0>1, due to behavior adaptation driving the epidemic downward, although conversely endemic prevalence for arbitrarily low R0 is also possible if contact rates are sufficiently high. We also tested how model misspecification might affect disease forecasting and estimation of the model parameters and R0. We found that alternative models that neglect the behavioral feedback or only consider behavior adaptation by susceptible individuals can potentially yield misleading parameter estimates or omit significant features of the disease trajectory. PMID:26362102

  13. Determinants of contraceptive method among young women at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Raine, Tina; Minnis, Alexandra M; Padian, Nancy S

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between contraceptive method choice, sexual risk and various demographic and social factors. Data were collected on 378, 15- to 24-year-old women, recruited from health clinics and through community outreach in Northern California. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association of predictors with contraceptive method used at last sex. Asian and Latina women were less likely to use any method. Women who were raised with a religion, or thought they were infertile, were also less likely to use any method. Women with multiple partners were generally less likely to use any method, but were more likely to use barrier methods when they did use one. Few women (7%) were dual method users. Women appear to act in a rational fashion within their own social context and may use no methods at all or use methods that are less effective for pregnancy prevention but offer more protection from sexually transmitted infections. PMID:12878282

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases in Australia: a decade of change. Epidemiology and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Mulhall, B P; Hart, G; Harcourt, C

    1995-07-01

    Survival data in the last decade for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) other than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are uneven across the states/territories. The incidence of gonorrhoea decreased by more than 80%, but at different times in different patient groups, different states, and different anatomical sites. There was a resurgence of rectal gonorrhoea in homosexual men in 1989-1991. Resistance to penicillin steadily increased, and partial resistance to quinolones has emerged. There was a marked decline in syphilis in most states. Lymphogranuloma venereum is rare, and chancroid seen mostly in returning travellers from Southeast Asia; however, hundreds of cases of donovanosis are seen annually among rural Aborigines. The prevalence of genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis remained stable at 2.5%-14% in STD clinics, and 5% in family planning clinics. The numbers of cases of clinical genital herpes and warts are mostly unavailable. However, specific serology for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) indicates that 14% of antenatal clinic patients, and 40%-60% of STD patients have been exposed. Pap smears have detected the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 14%-40% of various clinic populations. Exposure to hepatitis B in the non-Aboriginal population decreased markedly. Hepatitis C infection occurred in a high percentage of injecting drug users; the evidence for sexual transmission is not strong. An epidemic of hepatitis A infection occurred in male homosexuals in 1989-1991. Changes in the Australian sex industry resulted in marked improvements in the sexual health of local (but not international) sex workers. The high levels of STDs in Aboriginal communities continues to cause concern. PMID:8849191

  15. Factors Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infection Underreporting Among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Yuejiao; Zhao, Ran; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the underreporting of sexually transmitted infections (STI) (i.e., no STI by self-report but have at least one STI through biological testing or clinical examination) and factors associated with underreporting among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. Methods A total of 454 FSWs were recruited from entertainment establishments in a rural county of Guangxi, China. Participants completed a self-administered survey about their demographic and working characteristics, history of STI (past or current infections), sexual history and practices, and HIV/STI-related knowledge and perceptions; 411 of the sample were also tested for syphilis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Chlamydia, Trichomonas, and genital warts. Results About 18% (79 of 411) of the sample reported a history of STI (past or current infections). Biological testing or clinical examination revealed at least one STI (acute STI) for 42% (171 of 411) of the sample. Only 9% (37 of 411) of FSWs with acute STI reported an STI through self-report, which resulted in 33% (134 of 411) of FSWs who were considered underreporting their STI. STI underreporting was independently associated with younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-0.99), a shorter duration of commercial sex (aOR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94-0.99), poorer knowledge of STI (aOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94), and less sexual risks (aOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.41-0.66). Conclusions Underreporting of STI was prevalent in FSWs, especially among women with perceived lower STI risks. The underreporting might be largely due to their perception of low risks for STI and unawareness of STI symptoms (including asymptomatic STIs). Future studies of FSWs should identify those new in commercial sex with lower STI awareness and perceived risks and encourage them to seek timely and appropriate testing and treatment. PMID:21194309

  16. Prevalence of Three Sexually Transmitted Infections in a Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa K.; Dowd, M. Denise; Harrison, Christopher J; Mollen, Cynthia J.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Humiston, Sharon G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrheae (GC), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and describe factors associated with sexually transmitted infection (STI) in a pediatric emergency department (ED). Methods Adolescents aged 14–19 years presenting to a Midwestern pediatric ED were asked to provide urine for STI testing and complete a survey about previous sexual activity (PSA), high-risk behaviors, demographics, and visit reason (reproductive = genital-urinary complaints, abdominal pain, or female with vomiting). Comparisons between subgroups were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results Among 200 subjects (64% of approached), mean age was 15.6 years; 63% were female. Eleven subjects (6%; 95% CI 2.3–8.7) tested positive for ≥1 STI: 10 for CT (one denied PSA), 3 for TV (all co-infected with CT), and 1 for GC. Half reported PSA; of these, 71% reported ≥1 high-risk behavior, most commonly first sex before age 15 years (51%) and no condom at last sex (42%). Among those with PSA and non-reproductive visit (N=73), 11.0% had ≥1 STI (95% CI 3.4–18.1). Two factors were associated with greater likelihood of positive STI test: reporting PSA vs. no PSA (10% vs. 1%, p=0.005) and last sex within ≤1 month vs. >1 month (20% vs. 0%, p=0.001). In this sample, none of the following characteristics were associated with STI: insurance, race, high-risk behaviors, age, or ED visit reason. Conclusion About 1 in 10 sexually active adolescent ED patients without reproductive complaints had ≥1 STI. This suggests the need for strategies to increase STI testing for this population. PMID:25654676

  17. Incentivising safe sex: a randomised trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Dow, William H; Nathan, Rose; Abdul, Ramadhani; Abilahi, Faraji; Gong, Erick; Isdahl, Zachary; Jamison, Julian; Jullu, Boniphace; Krishnan, Suneeta; Majura, Albert; Miguel, Edward; Moncada, Jeanne; Mtenga, Sally; Mwanyangala, Mathew Alexander; Packel, Laura; Schachter, Julius; Shirima, Kizito; Medlin, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Objective The authors evaluated the use of conditional cash transfers as an HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention strategy to incentivise safe sex. Design An unblinded, individually randomised and controlled trial. Setting 10 villages within the Kilombero/Ulanga districts of the Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural south-west Tanzania. Participants The authors enrolled 2399 participants, aged 18–30 years, including adult spouses. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to either a control arm (n=1124) or one of two intervention arms: low-value conditional cash transfer (eligible for $10 per testing round, n=660) and high-value conditional cash transfer (eligible for $20 per testing round, n=615). The authors tested participants every 4 months over a 12-month period for the presence of common sexually transmitted infections. In the intervention arms, conditional cash transfer payments were tied to negative sexually transmitted infection test results. Anyone testing positive for a sexually transmitted infection was offered free treatment, and all received counselling. Main outcome measures The primary study end point was combined prevalence of the four sexually transmitted infections, which were tested and reported to subjects every 4 months: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium. The authors also tested for HIV, herpes simplex virus 2 and syphilis at baseline and month 12. Results At the end of the 12-month period, for the combined prevalence of any of the four sexually transmitted infections, which were tested and reported every 4 months (C trachomatis, N gonorrhoeae, T vaginalis and M genitalium), unadjusted RR for the high-value conditional cash transfer arm compared to controls was 0.80 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.06) and the adjusted RR was 0.73 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.99). Unadjusted RR for the high-value conditional cash transfer arm compared to the low

  18. Behavioural Interventions for the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Young People Aged 13-19 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picot, Joanna; Shepherd, Jonathan; Kavanagh, Josephine; Cooper, Keith; Harden, Angela; Barnett-Page, Elaine; Jones, Jeremy; Clegg, Andrew; Hartwell, Debbie; Frampton, Geoff K.

    2012-01-01

    We systematically reviewed school-based skills building behavioural interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. References were sought from 15 electronic resources, bibliographies of systematic reviews/included studies and experts. Two authors independently extracted data and quality-assessed studies. Fifteen randomized…

  19. Social marketing sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention: a consumer-centered approach to achieving behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lamptey, P R; Price, J E

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that international sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention efforts might be enhanced by the application of social marketing principles. It first outlines the conceptual basis of social marketing approaches to health behaviour change generally and then explores key issues and opportunities for using these principles to improve current STD/HIV prevention efforts. PMID:9792356

  20. Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Adults: Prevalence, Perceived Risk, and Risk-Taking Behaviors. Research Brief. Publication #2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Schelar, Erin; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States is among the highest in the western industrialized world. Nearly 19 million new STDs are diagnosed each year, and more than 65 million Americans live with an incurable STD, such as herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV). Young people, in particular, are at a heightened risk…

  1. The theoretical impact and cost-effectiveness of vaccines that protect against sexually transmitted infections and disease.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Geoff P

    2014-03-20

    Sexually transmitted diseases, a source of widespread morbidity and sometimes mortality, are caused by a diverse group of infections with a common route of transmission. Existing vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papilloma virus 16, 18, 6 and 11 are highly efficacious and cost effective. In reviewing the potential role for other vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) a series of questions needs to be addressed about the burden of disease, the potential characteristics of a new vaccine, and the impact of other interventions. These questions can be viewed in the light of the population dynamics of sexually transmitted infections as a group and how a vaccine can impact these dynamics. Mathematical models show the potential for substantial impact, especially if vaccines are widely used. To better make the case for sexually transmitted infection vaccines we need better data and analyses of the burden of disease, especially severe disease. However, cost effectiveness analyses using a wide range of assumptions show that STI vaccines would be cost effective and their development a worthwhile investment. PMID:24606635

  2. The Association of Early Substance Use with Lifetime/Past Year Contraction of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merianos, Ashley L.; Rosen, Brittany L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Fehr, Sara K.

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose is to examine the impact of early substance use on lifetime and past year contraction of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, and syphilis. A secondary analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 52,529) was conducted to determine if lifetime or past year STD…

  3. Sexually Transmitted Infections and the Use of Condoms in Biology Textbooks. A Comparative Analysis across Sixteen Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Sandie; Clement, Pierre; Carvalho, Graca; Gilda, Alves; Berger, Dominique; Thiaw, Seyni Mame; Sabah, Selmaoui; Salaheddine, Khzami; Skujiene, Grita; Abdelli, Sami; Mondher, Abrougui; Calado, Florbela; Bogner, Franz; Assaad, Yammine

    2008-01-01

    Our study focused on two topics, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and their control using condoms. For this, we analysed and compared 42 school textbooks from 16 countries on the general topic "Human Reproduction and Sex Education" using a specific grid designed by the BIOHEAD-Citizen project. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was a…

  4. Vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in three provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Ning; Yue, Xiaoli; Gong, Xiangdong

    2015-05-01

    Though vaginal douching is a common practice among female sex workers that could increase the risk of HIV and adverse reproductive health outcomes, it has drawn limited attention. From November 2010 to January 2011, a convenience sample of female sex workers was recruited in three cities in China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather socio-demographic and behavioural information. Blood samples were collected for syphilis serological tests. Endo-cervical swabs were collected and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with vaginal douching and the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infection. A total of 1032 eligible female sex workers were enrolled. The overall prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and vaginal douching with disinfectant were 23.4% and 23.1%, respectively. Factors independently associated with douching practice included study sites, venue types, ethnicity, having regular partner and sexually transmitted infection history. No significant association was found between vaginal douching and current sexually transmitted infection. Vaginal douching with disinfectant after sex with clients seemed to be a prevalent practice among female sex workers in China. Prevention programmes targeting female sex workers should incorporate components about the adverse health outcomes associated with vaginal douching. PMID:25015933

  5. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth With Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence and persistence of 20 HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) sexual and drug use risk behaviors and to predict their occurrence in 4 mutually exclusive diagnostic groups of delinquent youth: (1) major mental disorders (MMD); (2) substance use disorders (SUD); (3) comorbid MMD and SUD (MMD+SUD); and (4) neither disorder. Methods At the baseline interview, HIV/STI risk behaviors were assessed in 800 juvenile detainees, aged 10 to 18 years; youth were reinterviewed approximately 3 years later. The final sample (n = 689) includes 298 females and 391 males. Results The prevalence and persistence of HIV/STI risk behaviors was high in all diagnostic groups. Youth with SUD at baseline were over 10 times more likely to be sexually active and to have vaginal sex at follow-up than youth with MMD+SUD (AOR=10.86, 95% CI=1.43–82.32; AOR=11.63, 95% CI=1.49–90.89, respectively) and four times more likely to be sexually active and to have vaginal sex than youth with neither disorder (AOR=4.20, 95% CI=1.06–16.62; AOR=4.73, 95% CI=1.21–18.50, respectively). Youth with MMD at baseline were less likely to have engaged in unprotected vaginal and oral sex at follow-up compared with youth with neither disorder (AOR=0.11, 95% CI=0.02–0.50; AOR=0.07, 95% CI=0.01–0.34, respectively), and with youth with SUD (AOR=0.10, 95% CI=0.02–0.50; OR=0.10, 95% CI=0.02–0.47, respectively). Youth with MMD+SUD were less likely (AOR=0.28, 95% CI=0.09–0.92) to engage in unprotected oral sex compared with those with neither disorder. Conclusions Irrespective of diagnostic group, delinquent youth are at great risk for HIV/STIs as they age into adulthood. SUD increases risk. Because detained youth are released after approximately 2 weeks, their risk behaviors become a community health problem. Pediatricians and child psychiatrists must collaborate with corrections professionals to develop HIV/STI interventions and ensure that programs started in detention

  6. Sexual Health Issues Related to College Students and the Use of on Campus Health Clinics for Treatment and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbreath, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Using the Health Belief Model as a conceptual framework, this study examined university students who may seek access to healthcare through an on-campus student clinic for screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data from students enrolled in a general health education…

  7. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  8. Relative Efficacy of a Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infection, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention--Focused Intervention on Changing Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at…

  9. Urbanisation and the epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, D; Schneider, H

    1996-12-01

    This article describes the nature and extent of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in South Africa, the spread of STDs, and recommended STD prevention and control approaches. Gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and chancroid are in the top 25 causes of healthy days of life lost in sub-Saharan Africa. In South Africa, an estimated 40% of women attending family planning clinics were diagnosed with an STD. 15% of women attending prenatal clinics in urban areas had latent syphilis. The World Bank estimates that over 3 million in South Africa, are infected with at least 1 STD/year. 1 in 10 sexually active persons in South Africa, may be infected with an STD every year. STDs cause morbidity, infertility, abortions, ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, prematurity, and cervical cancer. The presence of a genital ulcer increases the risk of AIDS up to tenfold. The presence of a urethral or vaginal discharge increases the AIDS risk fivefold. An estimated 1200 HIV infections could be prevented over the next 10 years by curing or preventing 100 cases of syphilis. In 1995, 1 in 10 women who attended prenatal clinics was infected with HIV. The incidence of STDs among women are underestimates due to the greater chance that women are without STD symptoms or may be embarrassed to report symptoms. High rates of urbanization are linked to 9 factors that contribute to the spread of AIDS. STD prevention programs should create awareness, provide accessible and user-friendly services integrated within primary health care, provide simple and effective STD management, and detect/manage STD carriers. PMID:12178502

  10. Treatment-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted infections in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Rosenheck, Rachel; Ngilangwa, David; Manongi, Rachael; Kapiga, Saidi

    2010-11-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 340 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur every year, while 33 million individuals are estimated to be living with HIV. The AIDS and STI epidemics are not independent with untreated STIs increasing HIV acquisition and transmission. Female sex workers have increased prevalence of untreated STIs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. This paper aims to investigate why some female sex workers who experience symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers seek treatment while others do not. Data were collected from a cohort study conducted between 2002 and 2005 among female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Study subjects were recruited from 7 out of 15 administrative wards in Moshi as part of the Moshi's Women's Health Project. Data were restricted to women self-reporting symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers (n=459) within the past year. Logistic regression was performed with SAS 9.1. Qualitative analysis was performed using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions among a convenience sample (n=42) of women already enrolled in the study. All interviews and focus group discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed, and data were analyzed thematically. Sixty-four percent of the sample sought treatment for either ailment. Multivariate analysis identified relationship to man of last sexual intercourse, ever experiencing a pregnancy, and age as significant predictors to seeking treatment. Four salient themes of threats to fertility, stigma correlated with prostitution, discomfort with the physical exam, and perceived views of clients were revealed as predictors to why women seek or intentionally ignore symptoms. Understanding the motivations and barriers for seeking treatment of STIs has far ranging public health implications that could help curtail the unnecessary associated morbidity and mortality and curtail

  11. Alcohol Use, Unprotected Sex, and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Zhang, Lei; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective Alcohol use has been suggested to interfere with condom use and to increase sexual risk behaviors. However, data on the prevalence of this practice among female sex workers and its association with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are limited. Methods Data were collected through the baseline survey of an HIV prevention project among 454 establishment-based female sex workers in Guangxi, China, in 2004. Both global association and situational analysis were performed using 2 measures of alcohol use (alcohol intoxication and drinking alcohol before having sex with a client). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association of alcohol use with women's condom use and STIs. Results One-third of women reported being intoxicated with alcohol at least once a month during the previous 6 months, and about 30% reported using alcohol before having sex with clients. In comparison with women who did not use alcohol before engaging in sex with clients, women who did so reported significantly less consistent condom use and higher rates of both current STIs and a history of STI. However, alcohol intoxication was not associated with condom use and STIs. These findings indicate event-specific rather than global associations of alcohol use with inconsistent condom use and STIs. Conclusion Alcohol use before commercial sex is associated with unprotected sex and increased risk for STIs. Interventions that address both alcohol use and HIV risk behaviors in the context of commercial sex may have a great impact in preventing the spread of HIV in China. PMID:20601927

  12. Associations between psychosocial factors and incidence of sexually transmitted disease among South African adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Heeren, G. Anita; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry; Lewis, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents living in South Africa are at high risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted disease (STD). The present study sought to identify correlates of curable STD incidence among a cohort of adolescents in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Methods Data were collected in conjunction with an HIV/STD prevention intervention randomized controlled trial1. At 54 months post-intervention, curable STD incidence (gonorrhea, chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis) was assayed and self-report measures of potential correlates of STD incidence were collected. Results Participants were adolescents reporting at least one sexual partner in the past 3 months (N = 659). As expected, univariate analyses revealed that girls were more likely than boys to have an STD. In addition, intimate partner violence, unprotected sex, and having older partners were associated with incident STD. In Poisson multiple regression analyses, gender (risk ratio [RR] = 4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.51–6.39), intimate partner violence (RR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12–1.35), unprotected sex (RR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.09–2.01), and multiple partners (RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.11–2.61), but not partner’s age (RR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.94–1.07) were associated with incident STD, adjusting for 42-month STD prevalence. Binge drinking, forced sex, and age were unrelated to STD incidence in both analyses. Interactions between gender and the hypothesized correlates were non-significant, suggesting that gender did not modify these relationships. Conclusions Interventions to reduce HIV/STD incidence among adolescents in South Africa should address the risk associated with gender, unprotected sex, intimate partner violence, and multiple partnerships. PMID:25668645

  13. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ikeako, LC; Ekwueme, OC; Ezegwui, HU; Okeke, TOC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female traders of reproductive age in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on female traders aged 15-49 years at Ogbete Main Market, Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info 2000 version 3.3.1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta USA) was used to analyze the data and results were presented in tabular form. Results: A total of 200 female traders of reproductive age participated in the study. The mean (standard deviation) age was 26 (7.4) years. 16% (32/200) were adolescents. Knowledge of specific STIs was highest for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome 90% (130/200). Parents were poor sources of information as only 28.5% (57/200) respondents heard about STIs from their parents compared with 46% (92/200) from friends and peers. Risk factors identified were multiple sexual partners 75.5% (151/200), non-use of condoms 62% (124/200) and early debut 58% (116/200). Majority 67.5% (135/200) were aware that STIs could be treated by a visit to the doctor while 21.5% (43/200) preferred traditional/herbal healers. Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools’ curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before embarking on any vocation out-of-school is advocated. PMID:24669343

  14. Community-based trials of sexually transmitted disease treatment: repercussions for epidemiology and HIV prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific basis for trials exploring the relation between sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Mwanza in the United Republic of Tanzania and Rakai and Masaka in the Republic of Uganda. The importance of a study's location and explanations for the divergent results of these trials are discussed. The modest effect on STDs seen in the trial of syndromic management in Mwanza, in contrast to the 38% reduction in the incidence of HIV, casts doubt on the underlying hypothesis that treating STDs alone slows the transmission of HIV-1. According to the Piot-Fransen model, the trial in Rakai, which offered treatment of STDs to all subjects irrespective of symptoms ("mass" treatment), should have been more effective both in reducing the prevalence of STDs and the incidence of HIV. However, the Rakai trial was stopped because there was no difference in the incidence of HIV between the intervention and control arms. If Mwanza is seen as the trial that needs explaining, another paradigm becomes relevant. In rural East Africa, where all trials have been conducted, networks of concurrent sexual partnerships are a source of infection with both STDs and HIV. Because of their shorter latency periods, STDs may prompt attendance at a clinic before the early signs of HIV-1 infection appear. Part of the management of STDs is to recommend abstinence or the consistent use of condoms until treatment is completed. This recommendation may cover the earliest period of viraemia during primary HIV-1 infection. This paradigm appears to explain the results from Mwanza and Rakai, emphasizing behavioural aspects of syndromic management. PMID:11217667

  15. Barrier methods of contraception, spermicides, and sexually transmitted diseases: a review.

    PubMed Central

    d'Oro, L C; Parazzini, F; Naldi, L; La Vecchia, C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To understand whether barrier methods of contraception (BMC) and/or spermicides lower the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted disease (STD) and to quantify the protection. DESIGN--Review of published experimental studies, in vitro and in vivo evidence on the issue. SUBJECTS--We reviewed 22 papers that examined the impermeability of BMC in vitro against STD agents or the effect of spermicides, and 60 papers reporting results of epidemiological studies on the risk of STD in users of BMC. RESULTS--There was in vitro evidence that both BMC and spermicides were effective against most sexually transmissible agents. Doubts remain on the effectiveness of BMC and spermicides in normal conditions of use, particularly against human papilloma virus. Natural membrane condoms are not impermeable and pores are seen by electron microscopy. Epidemiological studies show a consistent reduction in the risk for use of condoms against gonococcal (most studies giving relative risk, RR, estimates around 0.4 to 0.6) and HIV infection (RRs between 0.3 and 0.6 in most studies). Spermicides protect women against gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis; their role against other STDs is less clear and there is some indication of an irritative effect on the vaginal mucosa that is likely to be dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS--A large amount of evidence indicates that BMC reduce the risk of gonorrhoea and HIV transmission, but the results are--at least in quantitative terms--less consistent for other diseases. Implications for individual choices and public health approaches should relate to frequency of exposure and severity of the disease too. PMID:7705860

  16. Serological test results of sexually transmitted diseases in patients with condyloma acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Çakmak, Seray; Yalçınkaya Iyidal, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Arzu; Gül, Ülker; Doner, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The incidence of condyloma acuminata (CA) has increased in recent years. Aim To determine demographical features and serological test results of STD in patients with CA. Material and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 94 patients presenting to a dermatology clinic in Ankara, Middle Anatolia, Turkey. Dermatological examinations were made and the patients completed a questionnaire which consisted of questions about their marital status, partners and condom use. In all cases, VDRL/RPR, anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HCV and in 57 cases – HSV type 1–2 IgM and IgG were studied. If the value of VDRL or RPR was positive, TPHA was conducted. Results In our study, 83 men and 11 women had CA. We could not analyze whether our cases had multiple partners and a habit of condom use as some of the patients did not answer questions about their sexual life. We observed VDRL and TPHA positivity in 3 (3.1%) cases, none of those cases had clinical findings of syphilis and they denied using any therapy for syphilis. HBsAg positivity was found in 3 cases. No anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibody positivity was detected. Conclusions The seroprevalence of HBsAg in our study was similar to that of the general population of Turkey. But as we found positive syphilis serology in 3 patients, we suggest that syphilis serology should be investigated in patients with CA. PMID:26366153

  17. Knowledge and skills for management of sexually transmitted infections among rural medical practitioners in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Mridha, Malay K.; Kristensen, Sibylle; Vermund, Sten H.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) management is considered rudimentary among rural medical practitioners (RMPs) in Bangladesh. We sought to understand the level of knowledge and skills in STI management and to assess the impact of a two-day training orientation among RMPs in Tangail district. Data were collected through a baseline survey of 225 practicing RMPs in the study area and a three-month follow-up survey of 99 RMPs who participated in a two-day STI/HIV orientation training. The level of formal training among RMPs ranged from none (22.7%), to paramedical training (14.7%) and local medical assistant training (62.6%). The baseline survey revealed a low level of STI/HIV knowledge and misconceptions about the transmission of STI/HIV among RMPs. RMPs mostly prescribed first line antibiotics for treatment of common reproductive tract infections (RTIs) including STIs, but they rarely prescribed the correct dosages according to the national RTI/STI management guidelines. Only 3% of RMPs were able to correctly answer all four HIV transmission (unprotected sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, needle sharing and mother to child transmission) questions at baseline, while 94.9% of RMPs answered all four correctly at three months following the training (p=0.001). Only 10% of RMPs reported suggesting the recommended drug (azithromycin) and only 2% mentioned about the recommended dosage (2gm single dose) for the treatment of urethritis/cervicitis; compared to 49.5% suggested azithromycin at follow-up with 39.4% mentioned the recommended 2gm single dose (p=0.001). Our study found low level of knowledge and poor practices related RTI/STI management among RMPs. Short orientation training and education intervention shown promise to increase knowledge and management skills for RTIs/STIs. PMID:25954593

  18. Trichomoniasis and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections: Results from the 2001–2004 NHANES Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Ratner, Jane Alyce; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Background To estimate the association between Trichomonas vaginalis infection (TV) and six sexually transmitted infections: chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes simplex virus (Types 1 and 2), syphilis and HIV in a nationally representative sample. Methods We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) combining the 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 waves to estimate the association between TV and STIs among women in the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. The final sample included data from 3,648 women, which when weighted, represents the experience of 65,563,298 US women between the ages of 14 and 49. Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using logistic regression for rare STIs (< 10%; chlamydia, syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) and Poisson regression for common STIs (herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2). Statistical analyses were conducted using Stata (version 9.2). Results The prevalence of trichomoniasis was 3.2% with over 80% of cases asymptomatic in the past month. All STIs examined (chlamydia, gonorrhea, HSV-1, HSV-2, syphilis and HIV) were more common among women with a positive test for trichomoniasis. HSV-1 (RR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.09, 1.34) and HSV-2 (RR= 1.51, 95% CI 2.32, 3.23) were significantly associated with trichomoniasis after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age and recent sexual partners. In crude analyses, a positive treponemal test was 6 times (95% CI 2.07, 18.8) more common and HIV was 13 times (95% 2.88, 59.1) more common among women with trichomoniasis, but these estimates were greatly attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion Trichomoniasis is significantly associated with concurrent STI. PMID:19734826

  19. Parasitic aphrodisiacs: manipulation of the hosts' behavioral defenses by sexually transmitted parasites.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Animals have a number of behavioral defenses against infection. For example, they typically avoid sick conspecifics, especially during mating. Most animals also alter their behavior after infection and thereby promote recovery (i.e., sickness behavior). For example, sick animals typically reduce the performance of energetically demanding behaviors, such as sexual behavior. Finally, some animals can increase their reproductive output when they face a life-threatening immune challenge (i.e., terminal reproductive investment). All of these behavioral responses probably rely on immune/neural communication signals for their initiation. Unfortunately, this communication channel is prone to manipulation by parasites. In the case of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), these parasites/pathogens must subvert some of these behavioral defenses for successful transmission. There is evidence that STIs suppress systemic signals of immune activation (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines). This manipulation is probably important for the suppression of sickness behavior and other behavioral defenses, as well as for the prevention of attack by the host's immune system. For example, the cricket, Gryllus texensis, is infected with an STI, the iridovirus IIV-6/CrIV. The virus attacks the immune system, which suffers a dramatic decline in its ability to make proteins important for immune function. This attack also hampers the ability of the immune system to activate sickness behavior. Infected crickets cannot express sickness behavior, even when challenged with heat-killed bacteria. Understanding how STIs suppress sickness behavior in humans and other animals will significantly advance the field of psychoneuroimmunology and could also provide practical benefits. PMID:24813461

  20. Contexts of risk and networks of protection: NYC West Indian immigrants’ perceptions of migration and vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Susie; Higgins, Jenny A.; Beckford-Jarrett, Sharlene T.; Augenbraun, Michael; Bylander, Kimberly E.; Mantell, Joanne E.; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2011-01-01

    To generate insights into how migration shapes sexual risk and protection, we interviewed 36 female and 20 male West Indian (WI) immigrants attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Brooklyn, NY between 2004 and 2005. Migration theory suggests that shifts in sexual partnership patterns, bi-directional travel, and changes in sexual norms may alter risk. We found evidence of sexual mixing across ethnic groups: a large proportion of participants’ partners were not born in the WIs, despite what is expected among first generation immigrants. Recent travel “home,” another potential source of risk, was uncommon. In open-ended interviews, two themes around sexual and social networks emerged. First, immigrants believed that access to wider, more anonymous sexual networks in NYC and the weakening of social controls that limit multiple partnerships (especially for women) promoted greater risk. Second, immigrants experienced greater opportunities for protection in NYC, both through exposure to safer sex messages and availability of condoms. Reported changes in their own condom use, however, were not attributed to migration. WI immigrants’ risk in NYC may be driven by access to wider sexual networks but failure to alter reliance on “networks of knowledge” for protection. PMID:21452091

  1. Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections After Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Anupam B.; Goldman, Dana P.; Seabury, Seth A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates among US females remain low, in part because of concerns that HPV vaccination may promote unsafe sexual activity by lowering perceived risks of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI). OBJECTIVE To study whether HPV vaccination of females is associated with increases in STI rates. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Using a large, longitudinal insurance database of females aged 12 to 18 years insured from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2010, in the United States, we examined whether HPV vaccination was associated with an increase in incident STIs among females who were vaccinated compared with those who were not. We defined STIs as one or more medical claims for any of the following infections in a given quarter: chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, human immunodeficiency virus or AIDS, or syphilis. We used difference-in-difference analysis to compare changes in STI rates among HPV-vaccinated females before and after vaccination (index quarter) to changes among age-matched nonvaccinated females before and after the index quarter. We analyzed whether effects varied according to age and prior contraceptive medication use. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Rates of STIs. RESULTS The rates of STIs in the year before vaccination were higher among HPV-vaccinated females (94 of 21 610, 4.3 per 1000) compared with age-matched nonvaccinated females (522 of 186 501, 2.8 per 1000) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09-1.71; P = .007). The rates of STIs increased for the vaccinated (147 of 21 610, 6.8 per 1000) and nonvaccinated (781 of 186 501, 4.2 per 1000) groups in the year after vaccination (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.25-1.79; P < .001). The difference-in-difference odds ratio was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.80-1.38; P = .74), implying that HPV vaccination was not associated with an increase in STIs relative to growth among nonvaccinated females. Similar associations held among subgroups aged 12 through 14 years and

  2. Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, D.; Abdool Karim, S. S.; Harrison, A.; Lurie, M.; Colvin, M.; Connolly, C.; Sturm, A. W.

    1999-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored. PMID:10063657

  3. Health services for HIV/AIDS, HCV, and sexually transmitted infections in substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Robinson, Jim; Alderson, Donald; Rotrosen, John

    2007-01-01

    The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network conducted this study to determine the availability of and factors associated with infection-related health services in substance abuse treatment settings. In a cross-sectional descriptive design, state policies, reimbursement for providers, state level of priority, and treatment program characteristics were studied via written surveys of administrators of substance abuse treatment programs and of state health and substance abuse departments. Data from health departments and substance abuse agencies of 48 states and from 269 substance abuse treatment programs revealed that human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related services are more frequent than hepatitis C virus or sexually transmitted infection-related services, and that nonmedical services are more frequent than medical services. While the availability of infection-related health services is associated with medical staffing patterns, addiction pharmacotherapy services, and state priorities, reimbursement was the most significant determining factor. These findings suggest that greater funding of these health services in substance abuse treatment settings, facilitated by supportive state policies, represents an effective response to the excess morbidity and mortality of these substance use-related infections. PMID:17639646

  4. STD syndrome packets: improving syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D; Harrison, A; Lurie, M; Abdool Karim, S S

    1999-03-01

    As part of an intervention to improve the syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the acceptability of STD syndrome packets was tested in Hlabisa, South Africa. The packets contained drugs recommended for each syndrome, four condoms, a partner treatment card, and a patient information sheet. 4085 such packets were distributed, at a cost of US$0.02 each, to six public sector clinics during the 1-year study period. These clinics treated a total of 3535 STD patients in that time period. Interviews conducted with 16 clinic nurses 1 year after project implementation indicated that they thought the packets made treatment easier and saved staff time. 10 nurses indicated they used the packets all the time; the remaining 6 used them most of the time, with gaps attributed to supply shortages. Also interviewed were 64 STD patients who received the packets. 84% indicated they would be willing to buy the packet from a pharmacy and 63% would buy it from a general store. 67% of STD patients were prepared to spend up to US$5 on the packet. These findings suggest that STD packets have an important role to play in increasing access to STD treatment in developing countries. Use could be increased even further by social marketing of the packets. PMID:10100772

  5. Nurse-led sexually transmitted disease clinics: staff perceptions concerning the quality of the service.

    PubMed

    Mindel, A; Fennema, J S A; Christie, E; van Leent, E

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate staff perception of a nurse-led sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinical service. The staff at the Amsterdam STI clinic were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. A series of eight questions was designed to determine the perceived advantages or disadvantages of nurse-led clinics, based on personal experience, using a Likert scale. After completion of the structured interview, the staff were offered the opportunity of providing comments. All 36 members of staff completed the survey. Twenty-seven (75%) agreed or strongly agreed that nurse-led clinics provided more time with patients. Sixty-four percent agreed or strongly agreed that such a service provided greater confidentiality and 94% agreed or strongly agreed that 'nurse-led clinics provided a high level of job satisfaction for nurses.' In contrast, only 64% agreed or strongly agreed that nurse-led clinics provided a high level of job satisfaction for doctors. When staff comments were evaluated, four common themes emerged. First, that this was an efficient way of providing services; second, that the clinic was a pleasant environment, there was excellent teamwork and greater job satisfaction; third, that a good deal of rivalry existed between doctors and nurses and finally, that there was a need for and importance of protocols, rules and staff training and development. In conclusion, there was a high level of staff satisfaction with the service. Nurse-led STI clinics may be a useful adjunct to existing STI facilities. PMID:19854883

  6. Analysis of the Genome of the Sexually Transmitted Insect Virus Helicoverpa zea Nudivirus 2

    PubMed Central

    Burand, John P.; Kim, Woojin; Afonso, Claudio L.; Tulman, Edan R.; Kutish, Gerald F.; Lu, Zhiqiang; Rock, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    The sexually transmitted insect virus Helicoverpa zea nudivirus 2 (HzNV-2) was determined to have a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 231,621 bp coding for an estimated 113 open reading frames (ORFs). HzNV-2 is most closely related to the nudiviruses, a sister group of the insect baculoviruses. Several putative ORFs that share homology with the baculovirus core genes were identified in the viral genome. However, HzNV-2 lacks several key genetic features of baculoviruses including the late transcriptional regulation factor, LEF-1 and the palindromic hrs, which serve as origins of replication. The HzNV-2 genome was found to code for three ORFs that had significant sequence homology to cellular genes which are not generally found in viral genomes. These included a presumed juvenile hormone esterase gene, a gene coding for a putative zinc-dependent matrix metalloprotease, and a major facilitator superfamily protein gene; all of which are believed to play a role in the cellular proliferation and the tissue hypertrophy observed in the malformation of reproductive organs observed in HzNV-2 infected corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea. PMID:22355451

  7. Video-based sexually transmitted disease patient education: its impact on condom acquisition.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, L N; Doval, A S; Duran, R; O'Donnell, C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study assessed the impact of video-based educational interventions on condom acquisition among men and women seeking services at a large sexually transmitted disease clinic in the South Bronx, New York. METHODS. During 1992, 3348 African American and Hispanic patients were enrolled in a clinical trial of video-based interventions designed to promote safer sex behaviors, including increased condom use. Patients were assigned to one of three groups: control, video, or video plus interactive group discussion. Subjects were given a coupon to redeem for free condoms at a pharmacy several blocks from the clinic. Rates of condom acquisition were assessed by level of intervention. RESULTS. In comparison with a control group, subjects who viewed videos were significantly more likely to redeem coupons for condoms (21.2% redemption rate vs 27.6%). However, participation in interactive sessions after video viewing augmented the positive effects of video viewing alone (27.6% redemption rate vs 36.9%). Gender and ethnicity were significantly associated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. The condom acquisition are almost doubled with the use of culturally appropriate, video-based interventions. Designed to present minimal disruption to clinical services, these interventions can be implemented in clinics servicing at-risk men and women. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7762716

  8. Isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on selective and nonselective media in a sexually transmitted disease clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Bonin, P; Tanino, T T; Handsfield, H H

    1984-01-01

    To assess the practical significance of reported increases in the prevalence of vancomycin-susceptible strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on isolation of this organism, antibiotic-free chocolate agar (CA), modified Thayer-Martin medium (MTM), and a vancomycin-free selective medium (VFSM) were compared in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Among 326 cervical gonococcal infections detected in a comparison of CA with MTM, 92.0% were detected on CA, compared with 98.2% on MTM (P less than 0.001). Similarly, among 306 cervical infections detected in a comparison of MTM and VFSM, 95.8% of infections were detected with VFSM, compared with 98.4% for MTM (P = 0.10). For 1,632 urethral infections in men, all three media were equivalent, with none detecting fewer than 98% of the infections. Compared with a single inoculation, dual inoculation of MTM increased the diagnostic yield by 1.5% for 206 urethral infections and 2.4% for 83 cervical infections. In our clinic population, MTM is superior to CA or VFSM for the diagnosis of genital gonococcal infections, especially in women. The increased yield that accrued from inoculation of both MTM and either of the other media was not sufficiently high to warrant routine use of this practice in our clinic. PMID:6421872

  9. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among female drug abusers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Isa, A R; Moe, H; Sivakumaran, S

    1993-06-01

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among female drug abusers was determined by screening 130 new inmates of a rehabilitation centre. The majority of the subjects (77.7%) were self-confessed sex workers. A high prevalence of syphilis (50.8%), hepatitis B (52.2%), moniliasis (23.8%) and trichomoniasis (19.2%) were noted. Gonorrhoea vaginitis was seen in 8.5%, which was low compared to previous studies. Six subjects were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with 5 of them admitting to needle sharing and working as prostitutes. More than half of them harboured 2 or more STD. A rich reservoir of STD was seen among the drug abusers. With more evidence now available concerning the ease of HIV transmission associated with ulcerative STD, a stage could be set for greater heterosexual HIV transmission. As part of the rehabilitation process, female drug abusers need a thorough screening for STD followed by aggressive treatment regimens. PMID:8350786

  10. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war. PMID:10330595

  11. Vaginal Douching, Condom Use, and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Chinese Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    WANG, BO; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; YANG, HONGMEI; FANG, XIAOYI; ZHAO, RAN; DONG, BAIQING; ZHOU, YUEJIAO; LIU, WEI; LIANG, SHAOLING

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective Vaginal douching has been hypothesized to increase a woman’s risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, data on the prevalence of this practice and its association with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are limited. Study A cross-sectional survey among 454 female sex workers (FSWs) in a Chinese county. Results Vaginal douching was reported by 64.7% of the women. The prevalence of self-reported history of STI and that of current STI was 19.4% and 41.5%, respectively. Fifteen percent of the women reported consistent use of condoms with their clients and 8.4% with their regular partners. Vaginal douching was significantly associated with decreased use of condoms (with clients: OR = 0.31; with regular partner(s): OR = 0.22) and increased rate of self-reported STI history (OR = 1.95). However, there was no direct relation between douching and current STI. Over one third of the women believed that douching can prevent STI/HIV. Conclusion Vaginal douching exposes FSWs to a high risk of STI/HIV. Medical professional and public health workers should correct women’s misconception about the effectiveness of douching and discourage women from douching through educational activities. PMID:16254545

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases and native Americans: trends in reported gonorrhea and syphilis morbidity, 1984-88.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, K E; Oberschelp, A G; Greenspan, J R

    1989-01-01

    Native Americans experienced higher reported gonorrhea and syphilis morbidity than did non-Native Americans from 1984 through 1988 in 13 States with large Native American populations. Gonorrhea rates among American Indians and Alaska Natives were approximately twice the rates for non-Indians. The highest gonorrhea rate was reported among Alaska Natives, with a 5-year average of 1,470 cases per 100,000, more than five times the average non-Native rate in Alaska. The average primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis rate from 1984 through 1988 was more than two times higher among Native Americans, largely due to high syphilis morbidity in Arizona and New Mexico. In Arizona the average American Indian P&S syphilis case rate was seven times higher than the non-Indian rate. True rates for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among Native Americans may be higher than those reported due to racial misclassification of Native American cases, particularly in nonreservation areas. Improved recognition and reporting of STD cases among Native Americans are needed to target STD prevention and education more effectively. PMID:2511589

  13. Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Offenders Following Arrest or Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Marc B.; Aalsma, Matthew C.; Scanlon, Michael L.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to estimate rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among criminal offenders in the 1 year after arrest or release from incarceration. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study of risk of having a positive STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis) or incident-positive HIV test in the 1 year following arrest or incarceration in Marion County (Indianapolis), Indiana. Participants were 247 211 individuals with arrest or incarceration in jail, prison, or juvenile detention between 2003 and 2008. Results. Test positivity rates (per 100 000 and per year) were highest for chlamydia (2968) and gonorrhea (2305), and lower for syphilis (278) and HIV (61). Rates of positive STI and HIV were between 1.5 and 2.8 times higher in female than male participants and between 2.7 and 6.9 times higher for Blacks than Whites. Compared with nonoffenders, offenders had a relative risk of 3.9 for chlamydia, 6.6 for gonorrhea, 3.6 for syphilis, and 4.6 for HIV. Conclusions. The 1-year period following arrest or release from incarceration represents a high-impact opportunity to reduce STI and HIV infection rates at a population level. PMID:26469659

  14. Effectiveness of an intervention promoting the female condom to patients at sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Artz, L; Macaluso, M; Brill, I; Kelaghan, J; Austin, H; Fleenor, M; Robey, L; Hook, E W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated a behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and reduce unprotected sex among women at high risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). METHODS: The effect of the intervention on barrier use was evaluated with a pretest-posttest design with 1159 female STD clinic patients. RESULTS: Among participants with follow-up data, 79% used the female condom at least once and often multiple times. More than one third of those who completed the study used female condoms throughout follow-up. Use of barrier protection increased significantly after the intervention, and high use was maintained during a 6-month follow-up. To account for attrition, the use of protection by all subjects was projected under 3 conservative assumptions. The initial visit and termination visit projections suggest that use increased sharply after the intervention and declined during follow-up but remained elevated compared with the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Many clients of public STD clinics will try, and some will continue, to use female condoms when they are promoted positively and when women are trained to use them correctly and to promote them to their partners. A behavioral intervention that promotes both female and male condoms can increase barrier use. PMID:10667185

  15. In sickness and in health: same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. PMID:22789462

  16. Azithromycin plus chloroquine: combination therapy for protection against malaria and sexually transmitted infections in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chico, R Matthew; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The first-line therapy for the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). There is an urgent need to identify safe, well-tolerated and efficacious alternatives to SP due to widespread Plasmodium falciparum resistance. Combination therapy using azithromycin and chloroquine is one possibility that has demonstrated adequate parasitological response > 95% in clinical trials of non-pregnant adults in sub-Saharan Africa and where IPTp is a government policy in 33 countries. Areas covered: Key safety, tolerability and efficacy data are presented for azithromycin and chloroquine, alone and/or in combination, when used to prevent and/or treat P. falciparum, P. vivax, and several curable sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections (STI/RTI). Pharmacokinetic evidence from pregnant women is also summarized for both compounds. Expert opinion: The azithromycin-chloroquine regimen that has demonstrated consistent efficacy in non-pregnant adults has been a 3-day course containing daily doses of 1 g of azithromycin and 600 mg base of chloroquine. The pharmacokinetic evidence of these compounds individually suggests that dose adjustments may not be necessary when used in combination for treatment efficacy against P. falciparum, P. vivax, as well as several curable STI/ RTI among pregnant women, although clinical confirmation will be necessary. Mass trachoma-treatment campaigns have shown that azithromycin selects for macrolide resistance in the pneumococcus, which reverses following the completion of therapy. Most importantly, no evidence to date suggests that azithromycin induces pneumococcal resistance to penicillin. PMID:21736423

  17. Sexually transmitted infections treatment and care available to high risk populations in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rahimtoola, Minal; Hussain, Hamidah; Khowaja, Saira N; Khan, Aamir J

    2008-01-01

    Limited literature exists on the quality and availability of treatment and care of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Pakistan. This article aims to document existing services for the care and treatment of STIs available in Pakistan's public and private sectors to high risk groups (HRG), particularly the transgendered population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to document STI services in Lahore, Karachi, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and Quetta. Seventy-three interviews were administered with health service providers at the 3 largest public sector hospitals in each city, as well as with general physicians and traditional healers in the private sector. Twenty-five nongovernmental organizations (NGO) providing STI services were also interviewed. Fewer than 45% of private and public sector general practitioners had been trained in STI treatment after the completion of their medical curriculum, and none of the traditional healers had received any formal training or information on STIs. The World Health Organization (WHO) syndromic management guidelines were followed for STI management by 29% of public and private sector doctors and 5% of traditional healers. STI drugs were available at no cost at 44% of NGOs and at some public sector hospitals. Our findings show that although providers do treat HRGs for STIs, there are significant limitations in their ability to provide these services. These deterrents include, but are not limited to, a lack of STI training of service providers, privacy and adherence to recommended WHO syndromic management guidelines, and costly diagnostic and consultation fees. PMID:19856743

  18. Immunity, immunopathology, and human vaccine development against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Ladino, Jose; Ross, Allen GP; Cripps, Allan W

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the immunity, immunopathology, and contemporary problems of vaccine development against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis. Despite improved surveillance and treatment initiatives, the incidence of C. trachomatis infection has increased dramatically over the past 30 years in both the developed and developing world. Studies in animal models have shown that protective immunity to C. trachomatis is largely mediated by Th1 T cells producing IFN-γ which is needed to prevent dissemination of infection. Similar protection appears to develop in humans but in contrast to mice, immunity in humans may take years to develop. Animal studies and evidence from human infection indicate that immunity to C. trachomatis is accompanied by significant pathology in the upper genital tract. Although no credible evidence is currently available to indicate that autoimmunity plays a role, nevertheless, this underscores the necessity to design vaccines strictly based on chlamydial-specific antigens and to avoid those displaying even minimal sequence homologies with host molecules. Current advances in C. trachomatis vaccine development as well as alternatives for designing new vaccines for this disease are discussed. A novel approach for chlamydia vaccine development, based on targeting endogenous dendritic cells, is described. PMID:25483666

  19. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. PMID:25070945

  20. Intravaginal practices, vaginal flora disturbances, and acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases in Zimbabwean women.

    PubMed

    van De Wijgert, J H; Mason, P R; Gwanzura, L; Mbizvo, M T; Chirenje, Z M; Iliff, V; Shiboski, S; Padian, N S

    2000-02-01

    One hundred sixty-nine Zimbabwean women were studied to determine whether the use of intravaginal practices (cleaning with the fingers, wiping the vagina, and inserting traditional substances) are associated with disturbances of vaginal flora and acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Subjects were interviewed and received counseling and a pelvic examination at enrollment, 1 month, and 6 months, and vaginal specimens were collected at enrollment and at 6 months. Users were more likely than nonusers to have vaginal flora disturbances but were not more likely to acquire an STD (relative risk [RR], 2.15; P=.188). Certain vaginal flora disturbances were associated with increased STD incidence and HIV prevalence. The absence of lactobacilli from the vaginal flora was associated with being positive for human immunodeficiency virus in baseline (odds ratio [OR], 0.24; P=.001) and 6-month transition multivariate models (OR, 0.39; P=.025). The presence of clue cells at baseline was associated with a higher incidence of STDs (RR, 1. 94; P=.025). PMID:10669342

  1. Regulation of Mucosal Immunity in the Female Reproductive Tract: The Role of Sex Hormones in Immune Protection Against Sexually Transmitted Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Wira, Charles R.; Fahey, John V.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey V.

    2015-01-01

    The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the FRT. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack viral, bacterial, and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus, has evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol (E2) and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate and adaptive immune systems are under hormonal control, that protection varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle and as such, is dampened during the secretory stage of the cycle to optimize conditions for fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets. PMID:24734774

  2. DECLINING PREVALENCE OF HIV AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS IN JOS, NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Ogbe, AE; Sagay, AS; Imade, GE; Musa, J; Pam, VC; Egah, D; Onwuliri, V; Short, R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female Sex Workers (FSWs) are key reservoirs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from which transmission to the general population fuels epidemics. STIs amplify HIV infectiousness and susceptibility. We determined the status of HIV and STIs among brothel-based FSWs in Jos as part of an ongoing prevention intervention. METHOD Between January and May 2012, consenting consecutive brothel-based FSWs were recruited from previously designated brothels across Jos. HIV counseling and testing as well as screening for gonorrhoea, syphilis, trichomonasis, candidasis and Bacteria vaginosis (BV) were performed. Positive cases were provided free treatment and follow-up at Solat Women Hospital, Jos. Ethical clearance was obtained from Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) ethical committee. RESULT Two hundred FSWs aged 27.6 ± 4.6 years (range 15–55 years) were recruited and of these, 47 (23.5%) were HIV Positive, 20 (10.0%) had syphilis, 9 (4.5%) had Neisseria gonorrhea, 3 (1.5%) had Trichomonas vaginalis and 86 (43.0%) had BV. The association between HIV and bacterial vaginosis was statistically significant (OR of 2.2, 95% CI of 1.1–4.2, P-value=0.02). In comparison to similar prevalence in 2006, the current findings represent 51.5% decline in HIV prevalence, 40.8% decline for syphilis and over 83.3% decline in prevalence for Trichomonas vaginalis. There was no significant change in the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoea and BV. CONCLUSION The prevalence of HIV and STIs among brothel-based FSWs in Jos remain unacceptably high, although, there is a declining trend. A comprehensive HIV prevention program targeting these women is required to block transmission to the general population. PMID:25335372

  3. A Retrospective Study of the Pattern of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Males: Viral Infections in Emerging Trend

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Vijayabhaskar; Prabhakar, Prathyusha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to be a major public health problem with significant burden on the society even after so many health care programmes being organized by the governmental and non-governmental organizations and awareness created among general public about STIs. Male patients are common visitors to STI clinic than females who are generally traced as a contact in our society. Aim The aim of this study was to give an overview of the pattern of STIs among males at a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 5 years. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart review of the data collected from the clinical records of all male patients, who had attended the STI clinic of Chengalpattu Medical College Hospital, Chengalpattu, Tamil Nadu, for various complaints during the 5 year period from 2010 to 2014 was carried out. All male patients with confirmed STIs were included in the study and those patients without any evidence of STIs either clinically or serologically were excluded from the study. Results Out of the 4454 male cases who had attended the STI clinic, 175 (3.93%) patients had STIs. Genital wart accounted for the maximum number among the STIs with 61 cases (34.86%), followed by genital herpes 56 (32%), urethral discharge 19(10.86%), non-herpetic genital ulcerative diseases 17(9.71%) and serological test for syphilis (RPR) was reactive in 22 (12.57%) patients. HIV was positive in 68 (1.53%) among the total 4454 male patients attended the clinic. Conclusion Viral STIs occur significantly more than the bacterial STIs because of its incurable and recurrent nature. Health programmes should be still more focused on creating awareness about the minor STIs and to remove the stigma so that the patients attend the proper health care facilities in the early stage itself for treatment thereby, complications and further transmission of the STIs can be avoided. PMID:26894160

  4. Response of religious groups to HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Genrich, Gillian L; Brathwaite, Brader A

    2005-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA). Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002–2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support group located in Port of Spain

  5. Man up Monday: An Integrated Public Health Approach to Increase Sexually Transmitted Infection Awareness and Testing among Male Students at a Midwest University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth A.; Eastman-Mueller, Heather P.; Henderson, Scott; Even, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This campaign sought to (a) increase awareness of sexual health and chlamydia testing; (b) motivate students, particularly sexually active men who do not pursue regular sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing, to get tested; and (c) improve the capacity of the student health center to provide free chlamydia testing and treatment…

  6. Sexual behavior and awareness of Chinese university students in transition with implied risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiaoqin; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Cong, Liming; Xu, Guozhang; Zamani, Saman; Ravari, Shahrzad Mortazavi; Kihara, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    Background The vulnerability of young people to HIV and the recent emergence of the HIV epidemic in China have made it urgent to assess and update the HIV/STD risk profile of Chinese young people. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey with cross-sectional design was conducted among 22,493 undergraduate students in two universities in Ningbo, China. Bivariate trend analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare sexual behaviors and awareness between grades. Results Of respondents, 17.6% of males and 8.6% of females reported being sexually active. Condom was reported never/rarely used by 35% of sexually active students in both genders in the previous year. Pregnancy and induced abortion had each been experienced by about 10% of sexually active female students and the female partners of male students, and about 1.5% of sexually active students of both genders reported being diagnosed with an STD. Multivariate analysis revealed that students in lower grades, compared to those in higher grades, were more likely to have become sexually active before university, to have become aware of sex before high school, and to have been exposed to pornographic media before the age of 17 years, and for sexually active respondents of both genders, to have engaged in sex without using a condom. Conclusion Sexual behaviors of Chinese university students are poorly protected and sexual behaviors and awareness may have been undergoing rapid change, becoming active earlier and more risky. If this trend continues, vulnerable sexual network will grow among them that allow more expansion of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. PMID:16981985

  7. Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) transmits Acidovorax citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon.

    PubMed

    Choi, Okhee; Park, Jung-Joon; Kim, Jinwoo

    2016-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important pests of cucurbit plants. If TSSM can act as vector for Acidovorax citrulli (Acc), causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), then the movement of mites from infected to healthy plants may represent a potential source of inocula for BFB outbreaks. To confirm the association between Acc and TSSM, we generated a green fluorescent protein-tagged mutant strain (Acc02rf) by transposon mutagenesis and demonstrated that TSSM can transmit Acc from infected to non-infected watermelon plants. Challenge with 10 TSSMs carrying Acc02rf population densities of 1.3 × 10(3) CFU each on freshly grown individual watermelon plants caused disease transmission to 53 %. Incubation periods ranged 7-9 days. Bacteria recovered from symptoms typical of those associated with leaf necrosis were characterized and identified as Acc. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that TSSM can be a vector of Acc. The results reported here support that the strong association of TSSM with Acc is of particular importance in controlling BFB. PMID:27178042

  8. Sexually transmitted infections and pre-exposure prophylaxis: challenges and opportunities among men who have sex with men in the US.

    PubMed

    Scott, Hyman M; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown high efficacy in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in several large clinical trials, and more recently in "real world" reports of clinical implementation and a PrEP demonstration project. Those studies also demonstrated high bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence and raised the discussion of how PrEP may impact STI control efforts, especially in the setting of increasing Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance and the increase in syphilis cases among MSM. Here, we discuss STIs as a driver of HIV transmission risk among MSM, and the potential opportunities and challenges for STI control afforded by expanded PrEP implementation among high-risk MSM. PMID:26793265

  9. Integrating gender and sex to unpack trends in sexually transmitted infection surveillance data in British Columbia, Canada: an ethno-epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Rod; Falasinnu, Titilola; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Small, Will; Goldenberg, Shira; Shoveller, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Surveillance data frequently indicate that young men and women experience high—yet considerably different—reported rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including bacterial infections such as chlamydia. We examined how several sex-based (eg, biological) and gender-based (eg, sociocultural) factors may interact to influence STI surveillance data trends. Methods Employing ethno-epidemiological techniques, we analysed cross-sectional qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2013 about young people's experiences accessing STI testing services in five communities in British Columbia, Canada. These data included 250 semistructured interviews with young men and women aged 15–24 years, as well as 39 clinicians who provided STI testing services. Results The findings highlight how young women are socially and medically encouraged to regularly test, while young men are rarely offered similar opportunities. Instead, young men tend to seek out testing services: (1) at the beginning or end of a sexual relationship; (2) after a high-risk sexual encounter; (3) after experiencing symptoms; or (4) based on concerns about ‘abnormal’ sexual anatomy. Our results illustrate how institutions and individuals align with stereotypical gender norms regarding sexual health responsibilities, STI testing and STI treatments. While these patterns reflect social phenomena, they also appear to intersect with sex-based, biological experiences of symptomatology in ways that might help to further explain systematic differences between young men's and women's patterns of testing for STIs. Conclusions The results point to the importance of taking a social and biological view to understanding the factors that contribute to the gap between young men's and women's routine engagement in STI care. PMID:27566628

  10. Same-sex behavior, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV risks among young northern Thai men.

    PubMed

    Beyrer, C; Eiumtrakul, S; Celentano, D D; Nelson, K E; Ruckphaopunt, S; Khamboonruang, C

    1995-02-01

    In northern Thailand, baseline interviews with and blood testing for syphilis and HIV-1 antibodies of military conscripts were conducted during May-November 1993. Researchers also examined conscripts discharged in April 1993. They interviewed and tested a total of 2047 men. 134 men (6.5%) had had at least one male sex partner. (These men are referred to as MSM.) Only 4 (2.9%) had had sex with only men. The remaining 130 (97.1%) had also had female sex partners. The 134 MSM men were more likely than heterosexual men to be married (odds ratio [OR] = 2.67) and to have a girlfriend with whom they had sex (OR = 1.6). They were also more likely than heterosexual men to have ever had any sexually transmitted disease (STD) (OR = 2.71), gonorrhea (2.05), syphilis (OR = 3.17), nongonococcal urethritis (OR = 4.54), penile discharge with pus (OR = 2.47), watery penile discharge (OR = 6.24), and dysuria (OR = 2.43). The overall HIV prevalence was 12.1% (247 men). MSM men were only somewhat more likely to be HIV infected (PR = 1.51). MSM men with more than one male lifetime partner were significantly more likely to be infected with HIV than those with only one male partner (OR = 2.89). Same-sex behavior was more common among discharged men who had returned to civilian life than those were still in the military (9.3% vs. 6.5%). Discharged bi/homosexual men was the only group of Royal Thai Army current or former conscripts in which sex with men was independently associated with HIV infection (27.3% vs. 12.4% for HIV-infected heterosexual former conscripts; OR = 2.54). Among all subjects, HIV infection was associated with ever visited a female commercial sex worker (OR = 4.16) and ever had any STD (OR = 5.47), gonorrhea (OR = 3.08), syphilis (OR = 3.81), genital herpes (OR = 3.54), genital warts (OR = 3.56), and genital ulcer disease (OR = 5.59). These findings show that MSM in Northern Thailand are at high risk of STDs and HIV. HIV/STD prevention efforts should target all young

  11. Sexually transmitted infections associated syndromes assisted in the primary health care in Northeast, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The lack of information on the care for sexually transmitted infections (STI) associated syndromes may contribute for its non-inclusion as prevention and control strategy for STI in Brazil. This study aims to analyze the cases of STI – Associated Syndromes assisted in primary health care center in a city in Northeast Brazil associating them with socio-demographic and behavioral variables. Methods This is a retrospective study that analyzed 5148 consultation forms and medical records of patients assisted in a primary health care center who presented at least one genital syndrome from 1999 to 2008. Was considered as dependent variables the genital syndromes and serologies for syphilis and HIV and as independent variables the socio-demographic and behavioral aspects. It was used Pearson’s chi-square test to analyze the differences between the categorical variables, with a significance level of 5%. It was performed a multivariate analysis through the multivariate logistic regression model with the variables with p <0.05. We used odds ratio with a confidence interval of 95%. Results The most frequent syndromes were vaginal discharge and/or cervicitis (44%) and genital wart (42.2%). Most people were between 20 and 39 years old (70%) and women (74.2%). Genital ulcer was most prevalent among men (OR = 2.67; CI 95% 1.99-3.58) and people who studied more than eight years (OR = 1.33; CI 95% 1.00-1.75) and wart prevailed among men (OR = 3.92; IC 95% 3.36-4.57), people under 29 years old (OR = 1.81; CI 95% 1.59-2.07) and who studied more than eight years (OR = 1.75; CI 95% 1.54-1.99). The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) was positive in 7.3% of men and in 7.1% of women and the Anti-HIV in 3.1% of men and 0.7% of women. Conclusion Vaginal discharge was the most frequent syndrome assisted in primary health care, followed by genital wart. The high prevalence of genital wart justifies the greater effort for the proper follow-up of these

  12. Acceptability of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) among Male Sexually Transmitted Diseases Patients (MSTDP) in China

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Kim, Yoona

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary Medical Male circumcision (VMMC) is an evidence-based, yet under-utilized biomedical HIV intervention in China. No study has investigated acceptability of VMMC among male sexually transmitted diseases patients (MSTDP) who are at high risk of HIV transmission. A cross-sectional survey interviewed 350 HIV negative heterosexual MSTDP in Shenzhen, China; 12.0% (n = 42) of them were circumcised at the time of survey. When the uncircumcised participants (n = 308) were informed that VMMC could reduce the risk of HIV infection via heterosexual intercourse by 50%, the prevalence of acceptability of VMMC in the next six months was 46.1%. Adjusted for significant background variables, significant factors of acceptability of VMMC included: 1) emotional variables: the Emotional Representation Subscale (adjusted odds ratios, AOR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.06–1.18), 2) cognitive variables derived from Health Belief Model (HBM): perceived some chance of having sex with HIV positive women in the next 12 months (AOR = 2.48, 95%CI: 1.15–5.33) (perceived susceptibility), perceived severity of STD infection (AOR = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.02–1.10), perceived benefit of VMMC in risk reduction (AOR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.16–1.42) and sexual performance (AOR = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.26–1.71), perceived barriers against taking up VMMC (AOR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.81–0.95), and perceived cue to action (AOR = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.23–1.61) and self-efficacy (AOR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.26–1.35) related to taking up VMMC. The association between perceived severity of STD infection and acceptability was fully mediated by emotional representation of STD infection. The relatively low prevalence of circumcision and high acceptability suggested that the situation was favorable for implementing VMMC as a means of HIV intervention among MSTDP in China. HBM is a potential suitable framework to guide the design of future VMMC promotion. Future implementation programs should be conducted in STD clinic settings, taking the

  13. Guidelines for the Use of Molecular Biological Methods to Detect Sexually Transmitted Pathogens in Cases of Suspected Sexual Abuse in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child, in addition to medical implications, can have serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possible abuse. The significance of the identification of a sexually transmitted agent in such children as evidence of possible child sexual abuse varies by pathogen. While culture has historically been used for the detection of STIs in cases of suspected abuse in children, the increasing use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in adults and the increasing proliferation of second-generation tests with better sensitivity and specificity has made inroads into the use of such tests in children, especially for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Acceptance by the medicolegal system for sexual abuse cases is still controversial and more test cases will be necessary before definitive use becomes standard practice. In addition, if these assays ever become legally admissible in court, there will be recommendations that more than one NAAT assay be used in order to assure confirmation of the diagnostic result. PMID:22782828

  14. Perceptions of unmarried young women regarding family size, sexually transmitted diseases at residential regional institutes in northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, N C; Mahanta, J

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to assess the knowledge and attitudes of young unmarried women regarding family size and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, in three residential regional institutes of northeastern India. The data is expected to help in reinforcing various methods of Information, Education and Communication (IEC) implementation. A representative sample of 574 female students, 16-25 years of age, were interviewed by a pretested questionnaire to assess their knowledge of the determinants of family size and sexually transmitted diseases. Of the participants, 48.43% stated that the suitable age for marriage is > 18 years old for women. More than half the respondents stated that the interval between child birth should be 3-5 years. Most of the respondents (96.17%) were of the opinion that both parents are responsible for determining the number of children. Knowledge of STDs and HIV was found in 91.8% and 74.04% of respondents, respectively. PMID:15906675

  15. Awareness of school students on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and their sexual behavior: a cross-sectional study conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) rank among the most important health issues for the people especially the young adults worldwide. Young people tend to engage in sexual activity at younger ages in the past decade than in the 1970s, and 1980s. Knowledge is an essential precursor of sexual risk reduction. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, to produce the baseline information about school students' awareness and perception about sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) and their sexual activity to help establish control and education programmes. Methods Students from form 4 (aged between 15 to 16 years), form 5 (aged between 16 to 17 years) and form 6 (aged between 18 to 20 years) in their class rooms were approached and asked to complete self administered and anonymous pre-validated questionnaires. SPSS for windows version 13 was used to analyze the results statistically and results were presented in tabular form. Results Data was collected from 1139 students aged between 15 to 20 years, 10.6% of which claimed that they never heard about STIs. Sexual experience related significantly with gender, race, and education level. Approximately 12.6% claimed to have sexual experience of which 75.7% had their sexual debut at 15-19 years and 38.2% were having more than 3 partners. Sexual experience was found to be significantly associated with gender (p = 0.003), ethnicity (p = 0.001) and education level (p = 0.030). However, multiple partner behaviour was significantly associated only with gender (p = 0.010). Mean knowledge score was 11.60 ± 8.781 and knowledge level was significantly associated with religion (p = 0.005) education level (p = 0.000), course stream (p = 0.000), socioeconomic class (p = 0.000) and sexual experience (p = 0.022). Conclusions It was concluded that school students have moderate level of knowledge about STIs although they are sexually active. Interventions such as reinforcing the link between STIs and HIV

  16. Desire to father a child and condom use: a study of young black men at risk of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; Graham, Cynthia A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sanders, Stephanie A; Yarber, William L; Salazar, Laura F; Terrell, Ivy; Pasternak, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether men's reported desire to father a child or their perception that someone wanted to have their child was associated with elevated rates of unprotected vaginal sex, we studied a sample of young Black men at high risk of sexually transmitted infection acquisition. Data were collected in clinics treating sexually transmitted infections in three southern U.S. cities. Men 15-23 years of age who identified as Black/African American and reported recent (past two months) penile-vaginal sex were eligible (N = 578). Logistic regression was used to examine whether desire to conceive a child (self and perception of partners' desire) predicted condom use, adjusting for age and whether they had previously impregnated someone. Their own level of desire to conceive a child was not significantly associated with unprotected vaginal sex or the proportion of times a condom was used. However, those who perceived higher level of someone wanting to conceive their child were 1.73 times more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex (P = .006) and 1.62 times more likely to report a lower proportion of times condoms were used (P = .019). Young Black men attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in the USA may forego condom use based on a perceived desire of their partners to become pregnant, putting themselves at risk for sexually transmitted infection acquisition and unplanned pregnancy. Findings provide initial support for the relevance of the idea that perceptions of women partners' desire to conceive may be a critical determinant of condomless sex. PMID:25505038

  17. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I.; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696

  18. The slippery slope: Lubricant Use and Rectal Sexually Transmitted Infections: a newly identified risk

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Pamina M.; Weiss, Robert E.; Fuchs, Edward; Jeffries, Robin A.; Hezerah, Marjan; Brown, Stephen; Voskanian, Alen; Robbie, Edward; Anton, Peter; Cranston, Ross D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Use of lubricant products is extremely common during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) yet has not been assessed as a risk for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods From 2006–2008 a rectal health and behavior study was conducted in Baltimore and Los Angeles as part of the UCLA Microbicide Development Program (NIAID IPCP# #0606414). Participants completed questionnaires and rectal swabs were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis with the Aptima Combo 2 assay and blood was tested for syphilis (for RPR and TPHA with titer) and HIV. Of those reporting lubricant use and RAI, STI results were available for 380 participants. Univariate and multivariate regressions assessed associations of lubricant use in the past month during RAI with prevalent STIs. Results Consistent lubricant use during RAI in the past month was reported by 36% (137/380) of participants. Consistent past month lubricant users had a higher prevalence of STI than inconsistent users (9.5% vs. 2.9%; p=0.006). In a multivariable logistic regression model testing positive for STI was associated with consistent use of lubricant during RAI in the past month (adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 2.98 (95%CI 1.09, 8.15) after controlling for age, gender, study location, HIV status, and numbers of RAI partners in the past month. Conclusions Findings suggest some lubricant products may increase vulnerability to STIs. Because of wide use of lubricants and their potential as carrier vehicles for microbicides, further research is essential to clarify if lubricant use poses a public health risk. PMID:22183849

  19. Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Rural Southwestern Haiti: The Grand'Anse Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Kathleen A.; Downey, Robert F.; Hammar, Donna; Van Slyke, Lori; Schmidt, Terri A.

    2014-01-01

    The study attempts to define socioeconomic, clinical, and laboratory correlates in vaginitis and other sexually transmitted infections in rural southwestern Haiti. A convenience sample of subjects recruited from a rural women's health clinic and attending an established clinic at the Haitian Health Foundation (HHF) clinic was studied. A standardized history and physical examination, including speculum examination, and collection of blood, urine, and vaginal swabs were obtained from the women at the rural clinic. Additional vaginal swab samples only for Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) testing were obtained from women at the HHF clinic in Jérémie. Laboratory results from Leon subjects were positive for Gardnerella vaginalis in 41% (41 of 100), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13.5% (14 of 104), Candida sp. in 9% (9 of 100), Mycoplasma genitalium in 6.7% (7 of 104), Chlamydia trachomatis in 1.9% (2 of 104), and Neisseria gonorrhea in 1% (1 of 104) of patients. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests were negative in 100% (103 of 103) of patients, and syphilis antibody testing was positive for treponemal antibodies in 7.7% (8 of 104) patients. For subjects from the HHF, 19.9% were positive for T. vaginalis, 11.9% were positive for C. trachomatis, 10.1% were positive for M. genitalium, and 4.1% were positive for N. gonorrhea. Infections with G. vaginalis, T. vaginalis, and Candida were the most common. N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Candida sp., T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium infections were associated with younger age (less than 31 years old). PMID:25200263

  20. Failure to disclose HIV risk among gay and bisexual men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed

    Doll, L S; Harrison, J S; Frey, R L; McKirnan, D; Bartholow, B N; Douglas, J M; Joy, D; Bolan, G; Doetsch, J

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed data from a multisite study of 1,063 gay or bisexual men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics to evaluate factors predicting failure to disclose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors to clinic staff and the extent of such failure. We compared data from a brief screening assessment on unprotected anal and oral sex with data on the same behaviors from a subsequent detailed interview. We also compared behavioral data from screening and the interview with data on diagnoses of rectal gonorrhea abstracted from medical charts. Of 523 men reporting unprotected anal sex at interview, 29% failed to report this behavior at screening. Men failing to disclose unprotected anal sex were also less likely to disclose engaging in unprotected oral sex. Among men reporting no unprotected anal sex, either at screening or interview, 1.6% were diagnosed with rectal gonorrhea. Logistic regression analyses comparing men who did and did not disclose at screening having engaged in unprotected anal sex showed that men who failed to disclose reported greater involvement in gay organizations, greater perceived peer support for condoms, fewer episodes of unprotected anal sex in the last four months, and lower rates of substance abuse treatment. Our data suggest that men who failed to disclose may have lower risk levels, and may be more integrated into the gay community. Brief interviews, as opposed to detailed ones, also may underestimate incidence of unsafe sex. Where feasible, HIV risk assessment and counseling and laboratory screening should be routinely provided to all clinic attendees, regardless of self-reports. PMID:7917436

  1. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J

    2016-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696

  2. Pattern of sexually transmitted infections in a Muslim majority region of North India

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Iffat; Anwar, Parvaiz; Rather, Shagufta; Sameem, Farah; Majid, Imran; Jabeen, Yasmeen; Mubashir, Syed; Nisa, Nuzhatun; Masood, Qazi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing trends of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS has been noted in the literature over years, depending to some extent on the geographical and cultural factors of the region. In Kashmir Valley also, the pattern of STI may be different from the rest of the country. Aims of the Study: The aim was to present the experience with patterns of STI in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: Retrospective hospital-based study carried out by detailed analysis of case records of 5-year period. Results: A total of 184 patients, 100 males and 84 females, had specific STI. Genital ulcer disease was the presentation in 54 patients (29.35%), out of which herpes genitalis was found in 27 patients (50%), followed by chancroid in 13 (24.07%) and syphilis in 10 (18.52%) patients. 42 female patients (22.83%) presented with vaginal discharge, out of which, 24 (57.14%) had vaginal candidiasis. 24 males (13.04%) presented with urethral discharge, out of which, 15 (62.5%) had nongonococcal and 9 (37.5%) gonococcal urethritis. Genital molluscum contagiosum (MC) was found in 19 patients (10.33%), and warts in 15 (8.15%). HIV positive serology was detected in 3 patients (1.63%). Conclusion: The most common STI encountered in our study was genital ulcer, followed by vaginal discharge, urethritis, genital MC, and genital warts. Herpes genitalis was the commonest genital ulcer; candidiasis was the most common cause of vaginal discharge and nongonococcal urethritis the most common cause of urethritis. These findings are by and large similar to those noted in other parts of our country. PMID:26392651

  3. Young adults with depression are at increased risk of sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Wiley D; Botchway, Albert

    2016-07-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and depression impact millions of individuals each year in the United States, with direct medical costs exceeding $41 billion. While the interactions of these conditions are poorly understood, they are increasingly addressed in primary care whereas historically they have been addressed separately. We analyzed data associated with the 18-25year age group from the 2014 National Survey of Drug Use and Health, a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population aged ≥12years for factors associated with past year diagnosis of STD (STDy). Independent variables included participant demographics; lifetime diagnosis of major depressive episode (MDE); participant behaviors associated with STD risk (patient-provided); and medical record data associated with mental illness treatment (clinically-observed). Of 18,142 participants, the prevalence of MDE and STD was 15.3% and 2.4%, respectively, with significant differences by gender and race. MDE was associated with increased risk of STDy among females (odds ratio [OR]=1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.18-2.20), males (OR=2.32; CI=1.15-4.70), those of white race (OR=3.02; CI=2.02-4.53), and lower income levels and insurance status. Univariate modeling found that receiving mental health treatment, and use of marijuana, alcohol, and illegal drugs were each associated with significantly increased STDy. In a multivariate logistic regression, receiving mental health treatment became protective for STDy (AOR=0.55; CI=0.32-0.95]). Individuals with a history of depression are at increased risk of STDy, with this risk modified by factors readily ascertained within primary care. As depression treatment is increasingly incorporated into primary care there are means to more effectively target intervention resources. PMID:27058942

  4. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high‐risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L; Murray, Pamela J; Chang, Chung‐Chou H; Comer, Diane M; Ness, Roberta B

    2007-01-01

    Objective Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Aim To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high‐risk sample of young women. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, 403 young women (mean age 18.9 years, 70% black) with a recent STD or with STD‐related risk factors were enrolled. Participants were recruited from clinics and high‐prevalence neighbourhoods and then randomly assigned to receive either a home testing kit or an invitation to attend a medical clinic for testing at 6, 12 and 18 months after enrollment. Over 80% of women were followed for 2 years. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 00177437. Results Of 197 women in the intervention group, 140 (71%) returned at least one home test and 25 of 249 (10%) home tests were positive. Women who received home screening tests completed significantly more STD tests overall (1.94 vs 1.41 tests per woman‐year, p<0.001) and more STD tests in the absence of symptoms (1.18 vs 0.75 tests per woman‐year, p<0.001). More women in the intervention group completed at least one test when asymptomatic (162 (82.2%) vs 117 (61.3%), p<0.001). The intervention was most effective among women recruited outside medical clinics. There was no significant difference in the overall rate of STDs detected. Conclusions Home screening significantly increased the utilisation of chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing in this sample of high‐risk young women, and thus represents a feasible strategy to facilitate STD testing in young women. PMID:17301105

  5. Group Sex and Prevalent Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Rice, Cara E; Lynch, Courtney D; Norris, Alison H; Davis, John A; Fields, Karen S; Ervin, Melissa; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the direct relation between group sex and prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a cross-sectional study of men who have sex with men (MSM) presenting at an urban STI clinic in the Midwestern US. Among 231 men who enrolled and reported that they have sex with men, we collected behavioral data using a combination of interviewer and self-administered surveys and extracted STI data from electronic health records. We used modified Poisson regression to examine the unadjusted and adjusted associations between group sex participation and prevalent STI. One-quarter of participants (n = 58) reported group sex participation in the last 3 months. Eighteen percent of participants (n = 42) had gonorrhea and 19 % (n = 45) had chlamydial infection. Men who reported recent group sex were more likely to be HIV-positive, to report recent drug use, and to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past 3 months. After adjustment for age, race, and recent drug use, recent participation in group sex was associated with prevalent gonorrhea infection (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.11, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = [1.13, 3.95]) but not chlamydia infection (PR = 1.03, 95 % CI = [0.58, 1.84]). We performed a sensitivity analysis in which we also adjusted for unprotected receptive anal intercourse and the results were not substantively changed. In summary, participation in group sex in the past 3 months was associated with a more than twofold increased prevalence of gonorrhea, but not with chlamydia. These findings support group sex participation as a potential contributor to increased STI prevalence. PMID:26392187

  6. Risk Factors of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections in China: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William Chi Wai

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are a global challenge. China, once said to have eradicated STIs, is now facing a rapid rise in the prevalence of HIV/STIs. This review of reviews aims to map HIV/STI risk factors among the Chinese population, with the objective of identifying risk factors to inform the formulation of effective prevention strategies. Methods A systematic search using key terms related to HIV/STIs, risk factors and the Chinese population in both English and Chinese databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library; Wanfang data, CNKI, VIP and SINOMED) was conducted, and peer-reviewed systematic reviews on the topic from 1991 to 2014 were selected. Identified risk factors were grouped into different level determinants based on the HIV Social Epidemiology Model, and then evaluated and reported based on the PRISMA checklist. Findings Of the twenty-eight reviews included, the majority were focused on well-established, individual level risk factors within key populations, with some highlighting the complexity of interacting factors (e.g., alcohol use and higher income in male migrants). While twenty-two reviews covered individual factors, only ten mentioned social factors and five had contents on structural factors. There are gaps in the evidence on social and structural level impacts of HIV/STIs, such as on stigma, discrimination, health policy, access to care, and illicit drug control policies. Migration and social expectation appear to pose a significant threat in aggravating the HIV/STI situation in China; for example, incarceration patterns indicated a significant risk of HIV/STIs for female sex workers. Conclusions Since international guidelines recommend an integrated and multi-level approach to HIV/STI prevention, a comprehensive approach targeting interventions at all levels along the continuum of care is needed to effectively curtail HIV/STI transmission in China. More research is needed to better understand the impact of socio

  7. Screening for genital and anorectal sexually transmitted infections in HIV prevention trials in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Grijsen, ML; Graham, SM; Mwangome, M; Githua, P; Mutimba, S; Wamuyu, L; Okuku, H; Price, MA; McClelland, RS; Smith, AD; Sanders, EJ

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the value of routine, basic sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening at enrolment into an HIV-1 vaccine feasibility cohort study and to highlight the importance of soliciting a history of receptive anal intercourse (RAI) in adults identified as ‘high risk’. Methods Routine STI screening was offered to adults at high risk for HIV-1 upon enrolment into a cohort study in preparation for HIV-1 vaccine trials. Risk behaviors and STI prevalence were summarized, and the value of microscopy assessed. Associations between prevalent HIV-1 infection and RAI or prevalent STIs were evaluated with multiple logistic regression. Results Participants had a high burden of untreated STIs. Symptom-directed management would have missed 67% of urethritis cases in men and 59% of cervicitis cases in women. RAI was reported by 36% of male and 18% of female participants. RAI was strongly associated with HIV-1 in men (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% CI 2.0 – 6.9), and independently associated with syphilis in women (aOR 12.9, 95% CI 3.4 – 48.7). Conclusions High-risk adults recruited for HIV-1 prevention trials carry a high STI burden. Symptom-directed treatment may miss many cases, and simple laboratory-based screening can be done with little cost. Risk assessment should include questions about anal intercourse and whether condoms were used. STI screening, including specific assessment for anorectal disease, should be offered in African research settings recruiting participants at high risk for HIV-1 acquisition. PMID:18375645

  8. Awareness and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Secondary School Adolescents in Ado Ekiti, South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amu, E O; Adegun, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among adolescents in Ado, South Western Nigeria. Methods. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional design. Five hundred and fifty adolescents selected from public and private secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State were recruited using a multistage sampling technique. Results. Four hundred and ninety-nine (92.4%) respondents had heard about sexually transmitted infections before, the three most important sources of information being electronic media (68.7%); teachers (68.1%); and print media (44.9%). Eighty percent of the respondents knew only one STI and the two most commonly mentioned ones were HIV/AIDS (78.0%) and gonorrhea (23.0%). More than 75% of the respondents knew the modes of transmission of STIs while some of them equally had misconceptions. The most important symptoms mentioned were weight loss (77.4%), painful micturition (68.9%), and genital ulcer (54.1%). On the whole, only 6.9% of the respondents had good knowledge of STIs; the rest had fair and poor knowledge. Conclusion. Secondary school adolescents in Ado Local Government Area have only a fair knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases. STI studies should be inculcated into the school curriculum and media publicity/enlightenment campaigns about them should be intensified. PMID:26345225

  9. Awareness and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Secondary School Adolescents in Ado Ekiti, South Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Amu, E. O.; Adegun, P. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among adolescents in Ado, South Western Nigeria. Methods. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional design. Five hundred and fifty adolescents selected from public and private secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State were recruited using a multistage sampling technique. Results. Four hundred and ninety-nine (92.4%) respondents had heard about sexually transmitted infections before, the three most important sources of information being electronic media (68.7%); teachers (68.1%); and print media (44.9%). Eighty percent of the respondents knew only one STI and the two most commonly mentioned ones were HIV/AIDS (78.0%) and gonorrhea (23.0%). More than 75% of the respondents knew the modes of transmission of STIs while some of them equally had misconceptions. The most important symptoms mentioned were weight loss (77.4%), painful micturition (68.9%), and genital ulcer (54.1%). On the whole, only 6.9% of the respondents had good knowledge of STIs; the rest had fair and poor knowledge. Conclusion. Secondary school adolescents in Ado Local Government Area have only a fair knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases. STI studies should be inculcated into the school curriculum and media publicity/enlightenment campaigns about them should be intensified. PMID:26345225

  10. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754

  12. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey regarding Sex, Contraception and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Commerce College Students in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Mutha, Sonali A; Baghel, Paritosh J; Patil, Ramanand J; Bhagat, Sagar B; Patel, Sadiq B; Watsa, Mahinder C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One in four Indians is a juvenile. Sexual crimes, pre marital sex, sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are on the rise. It has been shown that lack of sexuality education can significantly contribute to the above. Aim: We conducted this study to determine the knowledge and awareness of college students regarding sex and related matters and the factors affecting the prevalent outlook and practices of youth towards the same. Methodology: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 500 students of the K.P.B. Hinduja College of Commerce from December 2012 to March 2013 as per the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Main Outcome Measures: 1. Sex knowledge scores of males and females regarding contraception, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2. Percentage response of males and females to questions depicting attitudes and perceptions regarding premarital sex and promiscuity, sexual fantasy and masturbation, unwanted pregnancies and contraception. 3. Responses depicting participant’s premarital and high risk sexual activities. Results: The mean age was 18.6 ±1.6 years, 46% of participants were female. The total sex related knowledge scores of males and females were 8.2±1.2 and 6.2±2.4 (p<0.0001), respectively. 84% males and 72% females disagree that virginity should be preserved till marriage. Premarital sex was reported by 48% males and 18% females. Out of those who had premarital sex, 68% males and none of the females had more than one sex partner and 21% males and 12% females had used a contraceptive during their sexual encounter. 87% males and 82% females disagree that sex education in secondary schools will cause a rise in premarital intercourse. 40% males and 13% females are of the view that birth control is primarily a female’s responsibility. 14% of males and 21% of females (p = 0.2) reported being forced to have sex. Conclusion: Participants

  13. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    PubMed

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective. PMID:27000155

  14. Commit and Transmit: Molecular Players in Plasmodium Sexual Development and Zygote Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Guttery, David S; Roques, Magali; Holder, Anthony A; Tewari, Rita

    2015-12-01

    During each cycle of asexual endomitotic division in erythrocytes, the malaria parasite makes a fundamental and crucial decision: to continue to invade and proliferate or to differentiate into gametocytes ready for continuation of sexual development. The proteins and regulatory pathways involved in Plasmodium sexual development have been of great interest in recent years as targets for blocking malaria transmission. However, the 'Holy Grail', the master switch orchestrating asexual-to-sexual commitment and further differentiation, has remained elusive - until now. Here we highlight the recent studies identifying the epigenetic and transcriptional master regulators of sexual commitment and discuss the key players in reversible phosphorylation pathways involved in sexual and zygote differentiation. PMID:26440790

  15. Predicting Discordance Between Self-reports of Sexual Behavior and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections with African American Female Adolescents: Results from a 4-city Study

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Brown, Larry K.; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors. PMID:22323006

  16. Sexual sensation-seeking and worry about sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Olga; Bermúdez, María Paz; Teva, Inmaculada; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2007-11-01

    The target of this study is to assess the relationship between sexual sensation-seeking, worry about STD/HIV infection, and risky sexual behaviours among 182 adolescents aged 13-18 years. Results showed that participants who engaged in a wider range of potentially risky behaviours (e.g., sexual experience, higher number of sexual partners in last six months, and the last sexual contact with a casual partner) obtained higher sensation-seeking scores. It was also found that adolescents who engaged in sex with a casual partner in their last sexual contact reported being worried about STD/HIV infection, but adolescents having sex with a steady partner underestimated their risk of STD/HIV infection. These results support the idea that preventive programmes may benefit from including components aimed at teaching adolescents to satisfy their preferences for sexual sensation-seeking through novel and stimulating sexual behaviours involving minimum risk. Similarly, the need to include components aimed at making adolescents become realistically aware of the STD/HIV risk involved in unprotected intercourse with steady love partners is highlighted. PMID:17959123

  17. Avatars using computer/smartphone mediated communication and social networking in prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among North-Norwegian youngsters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Chlamydia trachomatis bacterial infection, a common cause of infertility, are highly prevalent in developed countries, and a worrying problem in North Norway, where the incidence of chlamydia twice the Norwegian average. Seventy percent of reported chlamydia cases are found in people below 25 years of age, and although its spread could be controlled with proper prevention, young people are more aware of the risks of unwanted pregnancy than their risk of acquiring a STD. Information and Communication Technologies, including, the Internet, social media and/or smartphones, should be valued for sexual health promotion for their potential to engage young audiences. And in these media, avatars guarantee anonymity to users when handling sensitive information. The main objective of this project is to achieve that North Norwegian youngsters become more aware of STDs through the use of popular technologies among young people. Methods A Virtual Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (VCSTD) will be developed. The VCSTD will provide early guidance and reliable information sources concerning reproductive health, delivered in a novel and innovative way to the younger population. The VCSTD consists of an “avatar” supported intervention in a serious gaming and e-learning environment, which will bypass direct physical access (in person) to reliable medical information, as well as allowing the youngsters to share that information in social media, and thus helping the VCSTD to be disseminated to more people. Data analyses will be conducted on publically available health data relevant to STDs in Troms and Finnmark, like the absolute number of chlamydia tests, the amount of emergency contraception medication sold, and the number of abortions. Also, usage data of the system and experiences of usefulness will be explored through participants’ voluntary responses to a feedback form available in the VCSTD. Discussion

  18. Human Papillomavirus Infection in a Male Population Attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Service

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta Elena; Melón, Santiago; Junquera, Maria Luisa; Boga, Jose Antonio; Villa, Laura; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; de Oña, María

    2013-01-01

    Objective Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men may produce cancer and other major disorders. Men play an important role in the transmission of the virus and act as a reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the HPV-genotypes and their prevalence in a group of men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection service. Patients and Samples Between July 2002 and June 2011, 1392 balanopreputial, 435 urethral, 123 anal, and 67 condyloma lesions from 1551 men with a mean age of 35.8±11.3 years old (range: 17–87) were collected for HPV-DNA testing. Methods A fragment of the L1-gene and a fragment of the E6/E7-genes were amplified by PCR. Positive samples were typed by hybridization. Results The HPV genome was detected in 36.9% (486/1318) balanopreputial and in 24.9% (101/405) urethral (p<0.0001) swabs from 38.1% (538) of 1469 men. Co-infections were present in 5.4% (80/1469) of cases. HPV was found in 43.9% (373/850) of men younger than 35 vs. 31.7% (187/589) of men aged >35. HPV was found in 59.4% (104) of 165 men with lesions (macroscopic or positive peniscopy), and in 22.8% (61/267) without clinical alterations. HPV was also detected in 71.4% (40/56) men with condylomata and in 58.7% (64/109) of men with positive peniscopy. Conclusions HPV prevalence in men was high and decreased with age. HPV was found more frequently in balanopreputial than in urethral swabs. There was a low rate of co-infections. Low-risk HPV vaccine genotypes were the most recurrent especially in younger. Although HPV has been associated with clinical alterations, it was also found in men without any clinical presentation. Inclusion of men in the national HPV vaccination program may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease and reduce transmission of the virus to non-vaccinated women. PMID:23372715

  19. Obtaining Self-Samples to Diagnose Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Systematic Review of Patients’ Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Paudyal, Priyamvada; Llewellyn, Carrie; Lau, Jason; Mahmud, Mohammad; Smith, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine screening is key to sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and control. Previous studies suggest that clinic-based screening programmes capture only a small proportion of people with STIs. Self-sampling using non- or minimally invasive techniques may be beneficial for those reluctant to actively engage with conventional sampling methods. We systematically reviewed studies of patients’ experiences of obtaining self-samples to diagnose curable STIs. Methods We conducted an electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, BNI, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant articles published in English between January 1980 and March 2014. Studies were included if participants self-sampled for the diagnosis of a curable STI and had specifically sought participants’ opinions of their experience, acceptability, preferences, or willingness to self-sample. Results The initial search yielded 558 references. Of these, 45 studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-six studies assessed patients’ acceptability and experiences of self-sampling. Pooled results from these studies shows that self-sampling is a highly acceptable method with 85% of patients reporting the method to be well received and acceptable. Twenty-eight studies reported on ease of self-sampling; the majority of patients (88%) in these studies found self-sampling an “easy” procedure. Self-sampling was favoured compared to clinician sampling, and home sampling was preferred to clinic-based sampling. Females and older participants were more accepting of self-sampling. Only a small minority of participants (13%) reported pain during self-sampling. Participants were willing to undergo self-sampling and recommend others. Privacy and safety were the most common concerns. Conclusion Self-sampling for diagnostic testing is well accepted with the majority having a positive experience and willingness to use again. Standardization of self-sampling procedures

  20. HIV Screening Rates among Medicaid Enrollees Diagnosed with Other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A.; Abara, Winston E.; Xu, Junjun; Lee, Joel M.; Rust, George; Satcher, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 20 million new sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diagnosed yearly in the United States costing the healthcare system an estimated $16 billion in direct medical expenses. The presence of other STIs increases the risk of HIV transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has long recommended routine HIV screening for individuals with a diagnosed STI. Unfortunately, HIV screening prevalence among STI diagnosed patients are still sub-optimal in many healthcare settings. Objective To determine the proportion of STI-diagnosed persons in the Medicaid population who are screened for HIV, examine correlates of HIV screening, and to suggest critical intervention points to increase HIV screening in this population. Methods A retrospective database analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of HIV screening among participants. Participant eligibility was restricted to Medicaid enrollees in 29 states with a primary STI diagnosis (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis) or pelvic inflammatory disease claim in 2009. HIV-positive persons were excluded from the study. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample in general and by STI diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to estimate unadjusted odds ratios and adjusted odds ratio respectively and the 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression models that included the independent variables (race, STI diagnosis, and healthcare setting) and covariates (gender, residential status, age, and state) were analyzed to examine independent associations with HIV screening. Results About 43% of all STI-diagnosed study participants were screened for HIV. STI-diagnosed persons that were between 20–24 years, female, residing in a large metropolitan area and with a syphilis diagnosis were more likely to be screened for HIV. Participants who received their STI diagnosis in the emergency

  1. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of an HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk-Reduction Intervention for South African Men

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, Loretta S.; O’Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry D.; Heeren, G. Anita; Mtose, Xoliswa; Carty, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the efficacy of a sexual risk-reduction intervention for men in South Africa, where heterosexual exposure is the main mode of HIV transmission. Methods. Matched-pairs of neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, were randomly selected and within pairs randomized to 1 of 2 interventions based on social cognitive theory and qualitative research: HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction, targeting condom use, or attention-matched control, targeting health issues unrelated to sexual risks. Sexually active men aged 18 to 45 years were eligible. The primary outcome was consistent condom use in the past 3 months. Results. Of 1181 participants, 1106 (93.6%) completed the 12-month follow-up. HIV and STI risk-reduction participants had higher odds of reporting consistent condom use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.71) and condom use at last vaginal intercourse (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.82) than did attention-control participants, adjusting for baseline prevalence. No differences were observed on unprotected intercourse or multiple partnerships. Findings did not differ for sex with steady as opposed to casual partners. Conclusions. Behavioral interventions specifically targeting men can contribute to efforts to reduce sexual risk behaviors in South Africa. PMID:24432923

  2. Prevalence of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Kisumu, Western Kenya, 1997 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Vandenhoudt, Hilde M.; Langat, Lilian; Menten, Joris; Odongo, Fredrick; Oswago, Simon; Luttah, Geoffrey; Zeh, Clement; Crucitti, Tania; Laserson, Kayla; Vulule, John; Buve, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1997, a survey in Kisumu found a prevalence of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSW) of 75%. Only 50% reported using a condom with the last client. In 2008, we conducted another survey to collect data to inform an intervention targeting FSW in Kisumu. Methods In 2008 FSW were recruited by respondent-driven sampling. Women completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to explore factors associated with HIV-infection, and with condom use. Prevalence of HIV infection was compared in the two surveys from 1997 and 2008. Multivariate analysis was used to assess whether a change in HIV prevalence between the two surveys could be explained by changes in socio-demographic characteristics and/or behavioral factors. Results 481 FSW participated in the 2008 study. HIV prevalence was 56.5% (95% CI 52.0–61.6). Factors independently associated with HIV were age older than 29 years; being a widow; STI treatment in the past year; herpes simplex virus Type-2 infection; bacterial vaginosis; and trichomoniasis. Condom use with last client was reported by 75.0% (95% CI 70.9–78.9). Predictors of condom use with the last client were age older than 29 years; higher price paid by last client; ever having been tested for HIV. Predictors of unprotected sex were being drunk during last sex act; usually having sex during menses; and STI treatment in the past year. The odds ratio of HIV infection associated with year of survey was 0.49 (95% CI 0.33–0.75) after adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Conclusions The prevalence of HIV among FSW in Kisumu was found to be lower in 2008 than in 1997, while reported condom use was higher. However, access to HIV/STI prevention and care services needs to improve to further decrease HIV transmission between FSW and their clients. PMID:23372801

  3. HIV-Related Risk Behaviors and History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Male Migrants Who Patronize Commercial Sex in China

    PubMed Central

    WANG, BO; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; FANG, XIAOYI; LIN, DANHUA; MAO, RONG

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective Men who pay for sexual services are at increased risk for HIV/sexually transmitted disease. Data on the sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of such men in China are limited. Study Design Two cross-sectional surveys, using similar instruments, were completed among Chinese migrants in Beijing, Shanghai, and Nanjing in 2002. A total of 1304 rural-to-urban migrant men from community settings (“community sample”) and 465 migrant men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics (“STD clinic sample”) were included in the current study. Results Ten percent of men in the community sample and 32.7% of men in the STD clinic sample reported having ever paid for sex. Nearly 20% of clients from the community sample and 60% of clients from the STD clinic sample reported a history of STDs. For both the community and STD clinic samples, working at industrial or construction sectors, multiple sexual partners, regular sex partner having sex with others, and a history of drug use were associated with being a male client. In addition, perceived peer sexual risk and perceived vulnerability to STD were associated with being a male client in the community sample, and a history of STD and being tested for STD/HIV were associated with being a male client in the STD sample. Conclusion Male migrants who paid for sex in China were vulnerable to HIV/STDs. HIV prevention efforts should target young migrant men who work at factory and construction sectors. STD clinics may be important sites for outreach and intervention efforts among male clients. PMID:16755272

  4. Family Influences on Adolescents’ Birth Control and Condom Use, Likelihood of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Manczak, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among personal factors, family structure and family function, adolescents’ self-efficacy for safe sex, and sexual behaviors among sexually active adolescents. A subset sample from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was selected for this exploratory…

  5. Conceptualising quality of life outcomes for women participating in testing for sexually transmitted infections: A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Louise J; Roberts, Tracy E

    2015-10-01

    Many public health interventions have aims which are broader than health alone; this means that there are difficulties in using outcome measures that capture health effects only, such as Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are a major public health concern both in the UK and globally, with Chlamydia trachomatis being the most common bacterial STI worldwide. There is scope for the wider use of qualitative syntheses in health-related research; in this study we highlight their potential value in informing outcome identification, particularly for public health interventions where a broad range of outcomes may need to be considered. This article presents a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies that investigated women's experiences of thinking about and participating in testing for chlamydia. The meta-ethnography highlights issues relating to beliefs about STIs and testing, assessing risk and interpreting symptoms, emotional responses to testing, coping with diagnosis, relationship with sex partners(s), informal support, and interaction with health care services. The study findings suggest that women can experience a range of impacts on their health and quality of life. It is important that this range of effects is taken into account within evaluations, to ensure that decision makers are fully informed about the outcomes associated with screening interventions, and ultimately, to make sure that appropriate interventions are available to support women in maintaining good sexual health. PMID:26360418

  6. Feasibility of Providing Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment in Off-Campus, Nonclinic Settings for Adolescents Enrolled in a School-Based Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Mariam R.; Markham, Christine; Thiel, Melanie; Crandall, Stacy M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Shegog, Ross; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the acceptability and feasibility of using a biological outcome measure to evaluate a school-based sexuality education program. Confidential field-delivered sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing by nonmedical field staff and STI treatment by medically trained field staff was assessed in off-campus and…

  7. Decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among trucking company workers in Kenya: results of a behavioural risk-reduction programme.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D J; Rakwar, J P; Richardson, B A; Mandaliya, K; Chohan, B H; Bwayo, J J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Martin, H L; Moses, S; Kreiss, J K

    1997-06-01

    556 male HIV-seronegative male employees of trucking companies in Mombasa, Kenya, were exposed to HIV serological testing, individual counseling, condom promotion, and sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnosis and management, and returned for at least one follow-up visit in a prospective study to measure changes in sexual behavior and STD incidence after the intervention. There was a significant decrease in sex with high-risk partners over the 1-year period of follow-up, but no change in condom use among study participants; 30% of men reported consistent condom use during extramarital sex throughout the study period. The change in heterosexual risk behavior was accompanied by a significant decrease in the incidence of gonorrhea, nongonococcal urethritis, and genital ulcer disease. The percentage of men reporting extramarital sex decreased from 49% to 36%, while contact with female prostitutes declined from 12% to 6%. PMID:9189216

  8. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    PubMed

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs. PMID:16794556

  9. Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women. PMID:25204565

  10. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  11. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers' Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Matthew B; Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  12. HIV and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in ethnic minorities in United Kingdom: is surveillance serving its purpose?

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, K. M.; Low, N.

    1997-01-01

    Experience of disease differs across ethnic groups, and ethnicity is a relevant personal characteristic for descriptive epidemiology. Information about ethnicity and country of birth is omitted from the routine notification of many diseases. HIV infection and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis have different incidence rates in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Omission of ethnic data from surveillance activities allows such differences in incidence to go undetected and unaddressed. Surveillance data that included ethnic details could guide interventions to reduce inequalities in health between different subpopulations. PMID:9202508

  13. Sexually-transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 1087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends’ attitudes and behavior were assessed with friends’ reports. Among males, there was evidence for selection effects on STI diagnoses and socialization effects on reports of unintended pregnancy, both involving friends’ attitudes. Among females, there was evidence for long-term effects of both socialization and selection processes involving same-sex friends’ attitudes. Discussion focuses on the importance of peer and individual attitudes as potential intervention targets. PMID:22563148

  14. HIV Prevalence, Risk Behavior, Knowledge and Beliefs among Women Seeking Care at a Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Shastri, Jayanthi S.; Shastri, Aditi; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2013-01-01

    Three hundred women presenting to a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Mumbai, India were surveyed and HIV tested. Thirty-nine percent were HIV-infected; 80% were current sex workers, and HIV-infection was not significantly associated with past-year sex work. Only 44% always used condoms with their non-commercial sex partners. Most believed condom preparation is a male responsibility (58%), condom use is a sign that partner trust is lacking (84%), and, if a woman asks her partner to use a condom, he will lose respect for her (65%). All women at STI clinics in India need HIV testing and culturally sensitive risk intervention. PMID:23659311

  15. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers’ Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B.; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  16. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection and new sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Noah; Davey, Dvora Joseph; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-09-10

    We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize rates of sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV versus MSM not using PrEP. Incidence rate ratios showed that MSM using PrEP were 25.3 times more likely to acquire a Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, 11.2 times more likely to acquire a Chlamydia trachomatis infection, and 44.6 times more likely to acquire a syphilis infection versus MSM not using PrEP. PMID:27314179

  17. Screening wild and semi-free ranging great apes for putative sexually transmitted diseases: Evidence of Trichomonadidae infections.

    PubMed

    Rushmore, Julie; Allison, Andrew B; Edwards, Erin E; Bagal, Ujwal; Altizer, Sonia; Cranfield, Mike R; Glenn, Travis C; Liu, Hsi; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Mugisha, Lawrence; Muller, Martin N; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Wrangham, Richard; Yabsley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can persist endemically, are known to cause sterility and infant mortality in humans, and could have similar impacts in wildlife populations. African apes (i.e., chimpanzees, bonobos, and to a lesser extent gorillas) show multi-male mating behavior that could offer opportunities for STD transmission, yet little is known about the prevalence and impact of STDs in this endangered primate group. We used serology and PCR-based detection methods to screen biological samples from wild and orphaned eastern chimpanzees and gorillas (N = 172 individuals, including adults, and juveniles) for four classes of pathogens that either commonly cause human STDs or were previously detected in captive apes: trichomonads, Chlamydia spp., Treponema pallidum (syphilis and yaws), and papillomaviruses. Based on results from prior modeling and comparative research, we expected STD prevalence to be highest in females versus males and in sexually mature versus immature individuals. All samples were negative for Chlamydia, Treponema pallidum, and papillomaviruses; however, a high percentage of wild chimpanzee urine and fecal samples showed evidence of trichomonads (protozoa). Analysis revealed that females were more likely than males to have positive urine-but not fecal-samples; however, there was no evidence of age (sexual maturity) differences in infection status. Sequence analysis of chimpanzee trichomonad samples revealed a close relationship to previously described trichomonads within the genus Tetratrichomonas. Phylogenetic comparisons to archived sequences from multiple vertebrate hosts suggests that many of the chimpanzee parasites from our study are likely transmitted via fecal-oral contact, but the transmission of some Tetratrichomonas sequence-types remains unknown and could include sexual contact. Our work emphasizes that only a fraction of infectious agents affecting wild apes are presently known to science, and that further work on great

  18. Risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases: a comparison study of cocaine-dependent individuals in treatment versus a community-matched sample.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Strickland, Jaime R; Afful, Stephanie E; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2009-09-01

    Cocaine users routinely engage in high-risk sexual behaviors that place them at an elevated risk of contracting HIV and other blood-borne infections. The purpose of the present study was to compare trading sex for drugs and/or money, having 10 or more sexual partners in 1 year, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of cocaine-dependent individuals in treatment for their dependence across race and gender and against participants who live in their community. Cocaine-dependent individuals (n = 459) were identified through nine publicly and privately funded inpatient and outpatient chemical dependency treatment centers in the St. Louis area during 2001-2006. Community-based participants (n = 459) were matched to cocaine-dependent participants on age, ethnicity, gender, and zip code of residence. Mean age of the sample was 36 years old, 50% were Caucasians, 50% were African American, and 47% were male. Nearly half of cocaine-dependent participants in treatment had traded sex for drugs and/or money and over one-third had more than 10 sexual partners in 1 year with a risk concentrated among African Americans even after controlling for income and educational attainment. Participants recruited from the community with some exposure to cocaine reported similar rates of high risk sexual behaviors as the cocaine dependent subjects from treatment settings. It is important for clinicians to recognize that once released from treatment, cocaine-dependent individuals may be returning to high-risk environments where sexual risk behaviors are occurring in the context of cocaine use. PMID:19645618

  19. Focus-on-Teens, sexual risk-reduction intervention for high-school adolescents: impact on knowledge, change of risk-behaviours, and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B

    2016-01-01

    Summary A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n = 1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards ‘safer’ sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (P < 0.05). Proportion of students with complete correct knowledge of STDs/HIV increased to 88% at time 4 from 80% at baseline after adjusting for age, gender and sexual activity (P < 0.05). High prevalence of STDs was detected in 875 participants who reported for urine testing at time 1: trichomonas, 11.8%; chlamydia, 10.1% and gonorrhoea, 4.1%. Prevalence decreased significantly for 310 participants who re-tested; chlamydia: 27.4% to 6.1% and gonorrhoea: 11.3% to 3.2%. FOT was successfully implemented as an STDs/HIV risk-reduction intervention. Sustained improvements of knowledge about STDs/HIV/condom usage, decreases in sexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention. PMID:18824625

  20. Using process data to understand outcomes in sexual health promotion: an example from a review of school-based programmes to prevent sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J; Harden, A; Barnett-Page, E; Kavanagh, J; Picot, J; Frampton, G K; Cooper, K; Hartwell, D; Clegg, A

    2014-08-01

    This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible outcome evaluations, 9 of which included a process evaluation. There were few statistically significant effects in terms of changes in sexual behaviour outcomes, but statistically significant effects were more common for knowledge and self-efficacy. Synthesis of the findings of the process evaluations identified a range of factors that might explain outcomes, and these were organized into two overarching categories: the implementation of interventions, and student engagement and intervention acceptability. Factors which supported implementation and engagement and acceptability included good quality teacher training, involvement and motivation of key school stakeholders and relevance and appeal to young people. Factors which had a negative impact included teachers' failure to comprehend the theoretical basis for behaviour change, school logistical problems and omission of topics that young people considered important. It is recommended that process indicators such as these be assessed in future evaluations of school-based sexual health behavioural interventions, as part of a logic model. PMID:24488650

  1. Acephaline gregarine parasites (Monocystis sp.) are not transmitted sexually among their lumbricid earthworm hosts.

    PubMed

    Field, Stuart G; Michiels, Nico K

    2006-04-01

    The precise transmission mode(s) of acephaline gregarines in their earthworm hosts has long been questioned, yet a rigorous experimental evaluation of sexual transmission is currently lacking. That Monocystis sp., a common gregarine parasite of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, infects the sexual organs of its host is suggestive of sexual transmission. Considering the divergent evolutionary consequences of various modes of transmission, excluding or proving sexual transmission in this host-parasite system is critical to fully understanding it. We cultured uninfected earthworms from cocoons and subsequently mated them to either an infected or uninfected partner (from the wild). We then compared these individuals with an orally infected group, which were infected using a newly developed gavage (oral injection) method. Our data have unambiguously established that (1) horizontal sexual transmission does not play a significant role in the transmission of Monocystis sp., and (2) oral transmission through the soil is likely the principal mode of transmission between earthworms. This finding is important to models of mate-choice because infection avoidance does not appear to drive mating decisions. Finally, we further report a successful and relatively simple method to obtain infection-free individuals, which can subsequently be infected via oral gavage and used in empirical studies. PMID:16729685

  2. Self-administered sample collection for screening of sexually transmitted infection among reservation-based American Indian youth.

    PubMed

    Tingey, Lauren; Strom, Rachel; Hastings, Ranelda; Parker, Anthony; Barlow, Allison; Rompalo, Anne; Gaydos, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    American Indians suffer a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infection, particularly adolescents. Screening access barriers in rural and reservation-based communities necessitate alternatives to clinic-based options. Self-administered screening for three sexually transmitted infections was piloted among 32 American Indian adolescents aged 18 to 19. Participants self-collected in a private location; specimens were processed by trained, American Indian paraprofessionals and analysis was conducted by an outside laboratory. Participants testing positive were treated by a Public Health Nurse from the Indian Health Service. Results suggest high overall acceptability: 69% preferred a self-administered method over clinic-based screening, 75% would encourage their friends to use this method and 100% would use it again. A self-administered screening method has the ability to reach this and other high-risk populations that might not otherwise access screening, with added potential within the Indian Health Services system for uptake and dissemination in rural, reservation communities facing significant screening barriers. PMID:25228666

  3. High Resistance to Azithromycin in Clinical Samples from Patients with Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bangyong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Geng; Cao, Juan; Tang, Zhongshu; Gan, Quan; Wei, Pingjiang

    2016-01-01

    Azithromycin is used as an alternative medicine in patients with syphilis who are intolerant to penicillin. Nevertheless, the report of treatment failure of azithromycin for patients with syphilis has raised concerns in China in the past years. In this study, 178 patients with early syphilis, who were treated in sexually transmitted infections clinics in four cities in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were enrolled to investigate the regional prevalence of Treponema pallidum strain resistant to azithromycin. Nested PCR was performed to amplify the 23S ribosomal RNA (23SrRNA) gene. The point mutation of A2058G in 23SrRNA, which confers Treponema pallidum resistance to azithromycin, was measured by endonuclease digestion of PCR amplification products using MboII. A2058G point mutation was detected in 91.0% (162/178; 95% CI, 86.8%, 95.2%) of the specimens, but no difference in prevalence of azithromycin resistance was found between the patients who had taken antibiotics before enrollment and the patients who had not (91.8% vs. 89.4%), nor between the patients with and without past sexually transmitted infections (87.1% vs. 93.1%). We concluded that azithromycin may not be suitable for syphilis as a treatment option in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region because of the extremely high prevalence of resistance in the general syphilis population. PMID:27467164

  4. Self-administered sample collection for screening of sexually transmitted infection among reservation-based American Indian youth

    PubMed Central

    Tingey, Lauren; Strom, Rachel; Hastings, Ranelda; Parker, Anthony; Barlow, Allison; Rompalo, Anne; Gaydos, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Background American Indians suffer a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infection, particularly adolescents. Screening access barriers in rural and reservation-based communities necessitate alternatives to clinic-based options. Methods Self-administered screening for three sexually transmitted infections was piloted among 32 American Indian adolescents aged 18 to 19. Participants self-collected in a private location; specimens were processed by trained, American Indian paraprofessionals and analysis was conducted by an outside laboratory. Participants testing positive were treated by a Public Health Nurse from the Indian Health Service. Results Results suggest high overall acceptability: 69% preferred a self-administered method over clinic-based screening, 75% would encourage their friends to use this method and 100% would use it again. Conclusions A self-administered screening method has the ability to reach this and other high-risk populations that might not otherwise access screening, with added potential within the Indian Health Services system for uptake and dissemination in rural, reservation communities facing significant screening barriers. PMID:25228666

  5. Efficacy of an Adapted HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Intervention for Incarcerated Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Catherine I.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Neevel, A. M.; Parker, Sharon D.; Carry, Monique; White, Becky L.; Fasula, Amy M.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Gelaude, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We tested the efficacy of an adapted evidence-based HIV–sexually transmitted infection (STI) behavioral intervention (Providing Opportunities for Women′s Empowerment, Risk-Reduction, and Relationships, or POWER) among incarcerated women. Methods We conducted a randomized trial with 521 women aged 18 to 60 years in 2 correctional facilities in North Carolina in 2010 and 2011. Intervention participants attended 8 POWER sessions; control participants received a single standard-of-care STI prevention session. We followed up at 3 and 6 months after release. We examined intervention efficacy with mixed-effects models. Results POWER participants reported fewer male sexual partners than did control participants at 3 months, although this finding did not reach statistical significance; at 6 months they reported significantly less vaginal intercourse without a condom outside of a monogamous relationship and more condom use with a main male partner. POWER participants also reported significantly fewer condom barriers, and greater HIV knowledge, health-protective communication, and tangible social support. The intervention had no significant effects on incident STIs. Conclusions POWER is a behavioral intervention with potential to reduce risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV and STIs among incarcerated women returning to their communities. PMID:25211714

  6. High Resistance to Azithromycin in Clinical Samples from Patients with Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bangyong; Bu, Jin; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Geng; Cao, Juan; Tang, Zhongshu; Gan, Quan; Wei, Pingjiang

    2016-01-01

    Azithromycin is used as an alternative medicine in patients with syphilis who are intolerant to penicillin. Nevertheless, the report of treatment failure of azithromycin for patients with syphilis has raised concerns in China in the past years. In this study, 178 patients with early syphilis, who were treated in sexually transmitted infections clinics in four cities in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were enrolled to investigate the regional prevalence of Treponema pallidum strain resistant to azithromycin. Nested PCR was performed to amplify the 23S ribosomal RNA (23SrRNA) gene. The point mutation of A2058G in 23SrRNA, which confers Treponema pallidum resistance to azithromycin, was measured by endonuclease digestion of PCR amplification products using MboII. A2058G point mutation was detected in 91.0% (162/178; 95% CI, 86.8%, 95.2%) of the specimens, but no difference in prevalence of azithromycin resistance was found between the patients who had taken antibiotics before enrollment and the patients who had not (91.8% vs. 89.4%), nor between the patients with and without past sexually transmitted infections (87.1% vs. 93.1%). We concluded that azithromycin may not be suitable for syphilis as a treatment option in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region because of the extremely high prevalence of resistance in the general syphilis population. PMID:27467164

  7. Family-Based HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Reduction for Drug-Involved Young Offenders: 42-Month Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Cynthia L; Alberga, Linda; Dakof, Gayle A; Henderson, Craig E; Ungaro, Rocio; Liddle, Howard A

    2016-06-01

    This study tested a family-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention approach integrated within an empirically supported treatment for drug-involved young offenders, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT). A randomized, controlled, two-site community-based trial was conducted with 154 youth and their parents. Drug-involved adolescents were recruited in detention, randomly assigned to either MDFT or Enhanced Services as Usual (ESAU), and assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 18, 24, 36, and 42-month follow-ups. Youth in both conditions received structured HIV/STI prevention in detention and those in MDFT also received family-based HIV/STI prevention as part of ongoing treatment following detention release. Youth in both conditions and sites significantly reduced rates of unprotected sex acts and STI incidence from intake to 9 months. They remained below baseline levels of STI incidence (10%) over the 42-month follow-up period. At Site A, adolescents who were sexually active at intake and received MDFT showed greater reduction in overall frequency of sexual acts and number of unprotected sexual acts than youth in ESAU between intake and 9-month follow-ups. These intervention differences were evident through the 42-month follow-up. Intervention effects were not found for STI incidence or unprotected sex acts at Site B. Intensive group-based and family intervention in detention and following release may reduce sexual risk among substance-involved young offenders, and a family-based approach may enhance effects among those at highest risk. Site differences in intervention effects, study limitations, clinical implications, and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26879671

  8. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers living in Barcelona: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Mayans, Martí Vall; Lasagabaster, Maider Arando; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are a serious global public health issue. These diseases are largely preventable, as they are directly and indirectly associated with potentially modifiable factors, including socioeconomic conditions. Sexual transmission is responsible for over 75% of new HIV infections worldwide. Moreover, commercial sex workers and their clients are two of the groups at the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting these infectious diseases, due to an extensive number of sexual encounters and the various factors related to commercial sex situations. This qualitative study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk perception of STIs and HIV and their associated factors in Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Methods and analysis This is a qualitative, descriptive, interpretive study based on a social constructivist and phenomenological perspective conducted on a saturated sample of Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Data will be collected through semistructured individual and triangular group interviews. Information will be examined using a sociological discourse analysis, allowing us to understand the social and individual factors related to the risk perception of STIs and HIV in commercial sex workers. Discussion Qualitative studies are an important element in identifying individual, social and contextual factors directly or indirectly related to the health/disease process. This qualitative study will provide essential knowledge to improve health promotion, prevention strategies and effective management of STIs both for commercial sex workers and their clients. Ethics This study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee (CEIC) of IDIAP Jordi Gol in Barcelona, 2012. PMID:23901029

  9. Random Behaviour or Rational Choice? Family Planning, Teenage Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, David

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice models of teenage sexual behaviour lead to radically different predictions than do models that assume such behaviour is random. Existing empirical evidence has not been able to distinguish conclusively between these competing models. I use regional data from England between 1998 and 2001 to examine the impact of recent increases in…

  10. EXPERIENCE OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AS A PREDICTOR OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AMONG MARRIED WOMEN IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Sigbeku, O.A.; Fawole, O.I.; Ogunniyan, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue that is associated with adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs have recently gained more recognition worldwide because they increase the risk for HIVinfection. However, there is dearth of information on the association between IPV and STIs particularly among married women in Nigeria. Objective: To determine the association between IPV and STIs among married women in Nigeria. Method: This was a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) dataset. A total of 18,402 married women aged between 15 and 49 years were included. Questions about intimate partner violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale (CTS). Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine relationship between IPV and self-reported STIs. Results: The prevalence of IPV among married women in Nigeria was 29.3%. Majority of the women experienced emotional violence (22.1%), 17.3% of the women experienced physical violence while the least experienced form of violence was sexual IPV (4.4%). Majority (60.1%) of the women experienced just one type of IPV, 30.0% two types, 9.9% all three types. The prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections was 7.2%. Logistic regression demonstrated that after controlling for other covariates, women who experienced any form of IPV were found to be more likely to report STI than women who did not [OR 1.357 (95% CI 1.188-1.551)]. In addition, experience of physical and sexual IPV was significantly associated with history of STIs [OR 1.699 (95% CI 1.420-2.034); OR 1.414 (95% CI 1.085-1.843) respectively]. Experiencing two or more types of IPV was significantly associated with history of STIs [OR 1.759 (95% CI 1.446-2.139); OR 2.193 (95% CI 1.636-2.941) respectively]. Conclusion: There is a need to incorporate IPV screening and services in STI clinics. Also, it is

  11. Reservoir of four organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis suggests lack of sexual transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Holst, E

    1990-01-01

    This study consisted of a search for the possible reservoir and mode of spread of the four bacterial vaginosis-associated organisms Mobiluncus mulieris, Mobiluncus curtisii, Mycoplasma hominis, and Gardnerella vaginalis. Their occurrence in rectal, oral, and pharyngeal specimens from women with and without bacterial vaginosis, their male sexual consorts, four homosexual men, and children (altogether, 374 people) was studied. Genital samples were also obtained from all adults. All four organisms were isolated from the rectums of 45 to 62% of women with bacterial vaginosis and 10 to 14% of women without bacterial vaginosis. They also occurred in the rectums of males and children. M. hominis was recovered from the oropharynxes of 12 adults whose sexual consorts had genital occurrences of the organism. Mobiluncus spp. occurred only in the vaginas of women with bacterial vaginosis (97%). The organisms were only infrequently recovered from genital samples from 135 males. Organisms were recovered from the urethras and/or coronal sulci of 10 of 44 male consorts of women with bacterial vaginosis. However, after 2 weeks of condom use during sexual intercourse, only M. hominis remained in the urethra of one man. These findings suggest that the organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis are not spread sexually but colonize the vagina from an endogenous intestinal tract site. The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to bacterial vaginosis in a subpopulation of all women are still unknown. PMID:2229386

  12. Silencing Sexually Transmitted Infections: Topical siRNA-Based Interventions for the Prevention of HIV and HSV

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Lee Adam

    2014-01-01

    The global impact of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is significant. The sexual transmission of viruses such as herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) and the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), has been especially difficult to control. To date, no effective vaccines have been developed to prevent the transmission of these STIs. Although antiretroviral drugs have been remarkably successful in treating the symptoms associated with these viral infections, the feasibility of their widespread use for prevention purposes may be more limited. Microbicides might provide an attractive alternative option to reduce their spread. In particular, topically applied small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs) have been shown to not only block transmission of viral STIs to mucosal tissues both in vitro and in vivo, but also confer durable knockdown of target gene expression, thereby circumventing the need to apply a microbicide around the time of sexual encounter, when compliance is mostly difficult. Despite numerous clinical trials currently testing the efficacy of siRNA-based therapeutics, they have yet to be approved for use in the treatment of viral STIs. While several obstacles to their successful implementation in the clinic still exist, promising preclinical studies suggest that siRNAs are a viable modality for the future prevention and treatment of HSV and HIV. PMID:24526828

  13. The relationship between physical intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infection among women in India and the United States.

    PubMed

    Spiwak, Rae; Afifi, Tracie O; Halli, Shiva; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in two national samples. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2 (n=34,653) and the National Family Health Survey-3 (n=124 385). Ever-married women between the ages of 20 and 49 were asked if they had experienced physical violence by their partner in the past year. Outcomes were presence of doctor confirmed HIV and self-reported STI. Age at first intercourse was examined as a mediator of the relationship between IPV and STI. Logistic regression examined associations between IPV, age at first intercourse and STI. Compared to individuals with no physical IPV, risk for STI was higher for individuals who experienced past year IPV living in the United States and India, however once controlling for age at first intercourse, age, education, household wealth/income and past year sexual violence, the relationship between IPV, and STI was significant in the American sample [(AOR)=1.65, 95% (CI)=1.21-2.26], however not for individuals living in India [(AOR)=1.75, 95% (CI)=0.84-3.65]. Individuals with exposure to physical IPV are at increased odds for STI. Age at first intercourse although a marker of risk, may not be an accurate marker of risky sexual behavior in both samples. PMID:23778315

  14. Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections between Sexually Active Foreign and Chinese Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Martin; Huang, Qiao; Rashid, Abid; Ma, Xiu Lan; Yuan, HongFang; Escalera Antezana, Juan Pablo; Yeltay, Rakhmanov; Rao, Meng; He, Qian; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases' spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students' education on HIV/AIDS and STIs. PMID:27195287

  15. Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections between Sexually Active Foreign and Chinese Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Martin; Huang, Qiao; Rashid, Abid; Ma, Xiu Lan; Yuan, HongFang; Escalera Antezana, Juan Pablo; Yeltay, Rakhmanov; Rao, Meng; He, Qian; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases' spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students' education on HIV/AIDS and STIs. PMID:27195287

  16. A flowchart for managing sexually transmitted infections among Nigerian adolescent females.

    PubMed Central

    Obunge, O. K.; Brabin, L.; Dollimore, N.; Kemp, J.; Ikokwu-Wonodi, C.; Babatunde, S.; White, S.; Briggs, N. D.; Hart, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To devise a flowchart suitable for assessing risk of trichomoniasis, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in an adolescent population, not all of whom will be sexually experienced or currently in a relationship. METHODS: The data used to derive the flowchart were generated from cross-sectional microbiological surveys of girls aged 14-19 years in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The flowchart screened on the basis of: (i) sexual experience; (ii) recent sexual activity; (iii) a positive urine leukocyte esterase (LE) test; and (iv) among LE negatives, a history of malodorous/pruritic discharge. FINDINGS: Using this flowchart, we found that 26.2% of all adolescents screened would receive treatment for cervicitis and vaginitis. Chlamydial, gonococcal, and trichomonal infections were correctly diagnosed in 37.5%, 66.7%, and 50% of the cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the flowchart is more suitable for an adolescent population than the vaginal discharge algorithm used in syndromic management protocols, it still lacks precision and needs adapting to local settings. PMID:11357208

  17. Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases among pregnant women in Burkina Faso, west Africa: potential for a clinical management based on simple approaches.

    PubMed Central

    Meda, N; Sangaré, L; Lankoandé, S; Sanou, P T; Compaoré, P I; Catraye, J; Cartoux, M; Soudré, R B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in pregnant women in Burkina Faso. (2) To evaluate the potential of clinical management of STDs based on screening with clinical data and urine leucocyte esterase test (LET). METHODS: Cross sectional study among antenatal clinic attendees was conducted in 1994 in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso, the two largest urban centres in Burkina Faso, where more than 94% of the pregnant women benefit from antenatal care at least twice during their pregnancy. Each woman selected underwent an interview, general and gynaecological examination. Genital samples were collected to confirm the presence of STD pathogens. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify models that predict (a) gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia, (b) trichomoniasis and/or bacterial vaginosis, (c) candidiasis. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of these models were assessed using standard methods. RESULTS: All 645 consecutive pregnant women were enrolled in the two sites. Among these women 32.4% presented at least one STD. The major STDs were: trichomoniasis (14%), bacterial vaginosis (13%), recent syphilis (3.6%), chlamydial infection (3.1%), genital warts (3%), gonococcal infection (1.6%) and genital ulcer (0.8%). Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 14%. The use of a risk marker (length of relationship with regular sexual partner < 3 years), and the positivity +3 of the urine LET provided a sensitivity of 80% and a positive predictive value of 7% for the screening of gonococcal and/or chlamydial infection. If clinical signs and positivity of the urine LET were taken into account sensitivity and positive predictive value of trichomoniasis and/or bacterial vaginosis screening were 77% and 37%, respectively. Clinical signs and positivity of the urine LET showed a low sensitivity (23%) for screening vaginal candidiasis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of STDs in pregnant women is high in urban

  18. Students for Safer Sexuality: A Peer Education Program Addressing the Postponement of Sexual Involvement and the Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancy, HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Pam; Vaughan, David

    Students for Safer Sexuality is a peer education program designed to train 11th and 12th graders to be key agents in the delivery of sexuality education, HIV prevention, and communication skills programs. There were 15 students involved in the first year and 20 students currently involved. Participants are trained to lead discussion groups,…

  19. Human papillomavirus infection among sexual partners attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Afonso, L A; Rocha, W M; Carestiato, F N; Dobao, E A; Pesca, L F; Passos, M R L; Cavalcanti, S M B

    2013-06-01

    Cervical cancer is a major source of illness and death among women worldwide and genital infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) its principal cause. There is evidence of the influence of the male factor in the development of cervical neoplasia. Nevertheless, the pathogenic processes of HPV in men are still poorly understood. It has been observed that different HPV types can be found among couples. The objective of the present study was to investigate HPV infections in female patients (n = 60 females/group) as well as in their sexual partners and to identify the concordance of HPV genotypes among them. By using the polymerase chain reaction, we detected a 95% prevalence of HPV DNA in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) compared to 18.3% in women with normal cervical epithelium, with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). The HPV DNA prevalence was 50% in male partners of women with CIN and 16.6% in partners of healthy women. In the control group (healthy women), only 9 couples were simultaneously infected with HPV, and only 22.2% of them had the same virus type, showing a weak agreement rate (kappa index = 0.2). Finally, we observed that HPV DNA was present in both partners in 30 couples if the women had CIN, and among them, 53.3% shared the same HPV type, showing moderate agreement, with a kappa index of 0.5. This finding supports the idea of circulation and recirculation of HPV among couples, perpetuating HPV in the sexually active population, rather than true recurrences of latent infections. PMID:23739745

  20. Low prevalences of HIV infection and sexually transmitted disease among female commercial sex workers in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Uribe-Salas, F; Hernández-Avila, M; Conde-González, C J; Juárez-Figueroa, L; Allen, B; Anaya-Ocampo, R; Del Río-Chiriboga, C; Uribe-Zúñiga, P; de Zalduondo, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tried to determine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalences among female commercial sex workers in Mexico City. METHODS: A sampling frame was constructed that included bars, massage parlors, and street corners. RESULTS: Prevalences for Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus type 2, HIV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis were 6.4%, 65%, 0.6%, 3.7%, and 11.1%, respectively. A significant association was found between higher STD frequencies and working at street sites. CONCLUSIONS: Most STD frequencies were lower in comparison with rates found for female sex workers in other countries. However, preventive programs against STD/ HIV are needed in this population. PMID:9224186

  1. On the pathway to better birth outcomes? A systematic review of azithromycin and curable sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Chico, R Matthew; Hack, Berkin B; Newport, Melanie J; Ngulube, Enesia; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The WHO recommends the administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to all pregnant women living in areas of moderate (stable) to high malaria transmission during scheduled antenatal visits, beginning in the second trimester and continuing to delivery. Malaria parasites have lost sensitivity to SP in many endemic areas, prompting the investigation of alternatives that include azithromycin-based combination (ABC) therapies. Use of ABC therapies may also confer protection against curable sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs). The magnitude of protection at the population level would depend on the efficacy of the azithromycin-based regimen used and the underlying prevalence of curable STIs/RTIs among pregnant women who receive preventive treatment. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy data of azithromycin against curable STIs/RTIs. PMID:24191955

  2. No evidence that presence of sexually transmitted infection selects for reduced mating rate in the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sophie L.; Pastok, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in animals and plants, and frequently impair individual fertility. Theory predicts that natural selection will favour behaviours that reduce the chance of acquiring a STI. We investigated whether an STI, Coccipolipus hippodamiae has selected for increased rejection of mating by female Adalia bipunctata as a mechanism to avoid exposure. We first demonstrated that rejection of mating by females did indeed reduce the chance of acquiring the mite. We then examined whether rejection rate and mating rate differed between ladybirds from mite-present and mite-absent populations when tested in a common environment. No differences in rejection intensity or remating propensity were observed between the two populations. We therefore conclude there is no evidence that STIs have driven the evolution of female mating behaviour in this species. PMID:26290801

  3. Screening Juvenile Justice-Involved Females for Sexually Transmitted Infection: A Pilot Intervention for Urban Females in Community Supervision

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Abigail A.; Burns, Jessica; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Maehr, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) rates in community-supervised juvenile justice-involved (CSJJI) females, or how to best provide screening for sexually transmitted infections in this population. A pilot intervention allowed case managers to offer optional CT/GC screening to CSJJI females during mandated visits. Anonymous satisfaction surveys and discussion groups assessed intervention acceptability. Case managers met with 514 CSJJI females; 102 (20%) agreed to screening and 117 tests were completed. Among those screened, 21 (18%) had CT and 3 (3%) had GC. Intervention feedback from case managers and clients was positive, but there were barriers to recruitment. Lessons learned from this case manager-facilitated intervention may increase the acceptability and effectiveness of future screening methods in this setting. PMID:23983235

  4. Sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Mongolia: potential impact on the Mongolian HIV epidemic.

    PubMed

    Amindavaa, Oyunbileg; Kristensen, Sibylle; Pak, Chin Y; Khalzan, Davaajav; Chultemsuren, Byambaa; Randall, Andrea S; Mikolon, Andrea; Lkhamsuren, Erdenechimeg; Tulgaa, Khosbayar; Chimeddorj, Battogtokh; Natsag, Udval

    2005-02-01

    We conducted Mongolia's first nation-wide cross-sectional survey of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among pregnant women attending prenatal care. Among our 2000 participants, 386 (19.3%) were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis, 133 (6.7%) with Trichomonas vaginalis, 121 (6.1%) with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and 128 (6.4%) were seropositive for Treponemal antibodies. None of our participants were seropositive for HIV infection. Additionally, 605 (30.3%) of the women had at least one STI, 133 (6.7%) had a double infection, and 15 (0.8%) had a triple infection. Our results suggest that STIs are a serious problem in Mongolia. Pregnant women represent a lower-risk general population; these high STI rates suggest that at this nascent stage, the identification, treatment, and prevention of STIs as risk factors for HIV transmission are crucial in the prevention of the emerging Mongolian HIV epidemic. PMID:15807944

  5. Simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Brazilian women by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Souza, Raquel P; de Abreu, André L P; Ferreira, Érika C; Rocha-Brischiliari, Sheila C; de B Carvalho, Maria D; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2013-12-01

    We determined the prevalence of seven clinically important pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum), by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) in samples from Brazilian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and uninfected Brazilian women (controls). The M-PCR assay identified all STIs tested for and surprisingly, occurred association between the control and STIs. This association was probably caused by excellent HIV infection control and regular monitoring in these women established by public health strategies in Brazil to combat HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Studies using this M-PCR in different populations may help to better elucidate the roles of STIs in several conditions. PMID:24080632

  6. The control and management of the sexually transmitted diseases: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Renton, A M; Borisenko, K K; Tichonova, L I; Akovbian, V A

    1999-10-01

    During the last 20 years, both the United Kingdom and the Russian Federation have seen changes to clinical services for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) health systems and other mechanisms through which STDs are controlled. In the UK these changes followed the description of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); its causal agent. In Russia, the breakdown of the Soviet Union following glasnost and perestroika, and its associated political, social and economic changes generated substantial developments to the ideological and legislative framework within which STD control is achieved as well as a revolution in the financial base upon which clinical STD services operate. The purpose of this paper is to sketch these developments in STD services within the 2 countries to provide a context for the series of papers presented in this edition. PMID:10582633

  7. Comparison of Opt-In Versus Opt-Out Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Inmates in a County Jail.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Raees A; Simonsen, Kari A; O'Keefe, Anne; Earley, Mary; Foxall, Mark; Islam, K M; Person, Austin; Boyle, Cole; Sandkovsky, Uriel; Margalit, Ruth

    2015-10-01

    A majority of jails in the United States rely on an opt-in (voluntary) rather than opt-out (universal) approach to testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study compares an opt-out approach at intake to opt-in testing during incarceration and estimates the prevalence of common STIs among jail inmates. Data derive from a universal intake pilot testing program (n = 298) and an established, student-led voluntary testing program (n = 1,963), respectively. The adjusted prevalence as well as the odds of testing positive for chlamydia were significantly higher in the opt-out program (p = .025 and .008, respectively) than the opt-in program but not for gonorrhea (p = .402 and .300, respectively). These results demonstrate the potential public health benefit of implementation of universal STI testing of jail inmates. PMID:26285597

  8. Meta-Analysis of Single-Session Behavioral Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections: Implications for Bundling Prevention Packages

    PubMed Central

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Sagherian, Michael J.; Warren, Michelle; Popat, Ami R.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based, single-session behavioral interventions are urgently needed for preventing the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To estimate the efficacy of single-session, behavioral interventions for STI prevention, we collected data from 29 single-session interventions (20 studies; n = 52 465) with an STI outcome. Infection with an STI was 35% less likely (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.55–0.77) among intervention group participants than among control group participants. Single-session interventions offer considerable benefits in terms of disease prevention and create minimal burden for both the patient and the provider. Brief and effective STI prevention interventions are a valuable tool and can be readily adapted to bolster the benefits of biomedical technologies focusing on the prevention of HIV and other STIs. PMID:22994247

  9. Population- and individual-based approaches to the design and analysis of epidemiologic studies of sexually transmitted disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Shiboski, S; Padian, N S

    1996-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies of sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission present a number of unique challenges in design and analysis. These arise both from the social nature of STD transmission and from inherent difficulties in collecting accurate and informative data on exposure and infection. Risk of acquiring an STD depends on both individual-level factors and the behavior and infectiousness of others. Consequently, study designs and analysis methods developed for studying chronic disease risk in individuals or groups may not apply directly. Simple models of STD transmission were used to investigate these issues, focusing on how the interplay between individual- and population-level factors influences design and interpretation of epidemiologic studies, with particular attention to interpretation of common measures of association and to common sources of bias in epidemiologic data. Existing methods for investigating risk factors can be modified such that these issues may be addressed directly. PMID:8843249

  10. Patterns of risk behaviour for patients with sexually transmitted diseases and surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lye, M S; Archibald, C; Ghazali, A A; Low, B T; Teoh, B H; Sinniah, M; Rus, S C; Singh, J; Nair, R C

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of establishing a sentinel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance system involving patients with sexually transmitted diseases attending private clinics and a government sexually transmitted disease clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Information on risk behaviours for HIV infection were also collected. A total of 84 female and 91 male patients were interviewed and tested for HIV infection; 41.7% of the women reported working as prostitutes, other occupations included masseuses, hairdressers, waitresses, salesgirls, receptionists, factory workers, and others. The most common diagnosis was gonorrhoea. Other diagnoses included non-specific genital infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, genital herpes and syphilis. 58.3% of the women had a hundred or more sex partners during the previous month; 99% had 6 or more sex partners. Only 4.8% of female patients had their male partners using condoms most of the time, 11.9% hardly used condoms at all. Of the males, 93.3% were heterosexual, while 6.7% were bisexuals, 41.1% had between 6-20 different partners in the previous year. 78.0% of them had prostitutes as their sex partners most of the time. 41.8% had experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. 73.6% never used condoms, while 19.8% only used condoms rarely. Although all patients were tested negative for HIV antibodies, lot quality assurance sampling methods indicate that the upper limits of prevalences for females and males were 3.5% and 3.3% respectively, at a 5% type I error. The study has shown that it is feasible to carry out a sentinel surveillance programme among STD patients and provided useful baseline data for future comparisons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8031914

  11. Vulnerable Women’s Self-Care Needs in Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Baghersad, Zahra; Boroumandfar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vulnerable women are prone to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) due to their special conditions and poor knowledge about these diseases in the society. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the vulnerable women’s self-care needs in knowledge, attitude and practice concerning STD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional-descriptive study conducted in 2014. The data collection was carried out using a self-administered structured questionnaire. 120 vulnerable women referring to centers affiliated to health and well-being center in Isfahan participated in this study. They were selected through proportional rationing sampling and filled out a researcher developed questionnaire containing information on personal characteristics, self-care knowledge, attitude, and practice needs toward the STD. The data were analyzed using statistical methods including Spearman & Pearson correlation co-efficient, independent t-test and ANOVA. All analyses were carried out using SPSS, 20. Results: Based on the results, most of the subjects mentioned that their priorities of self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice were “familiarization with the types and contamination ways of sexually transmitted diseases” (57.9%); “diagnosis of STD only makes us anxious” (24.8), and “the method of washing the genital area before and after intercourse” 41.3%), respectively. There was a significant association among marital status, education, history of addiction, and self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice (P<0.05). Conclusion: Results showed that vulnerable women not only knew their need about STD, but also paid attention to their attitude and practice needs toward STD. Therefore, educational programs should be designed and administrated by the experts, based on vulnerable women’s self-care needs concerning their knowledge, attitude and practice to prevent and control STD in vulnerable individuals. PMID:27382588

  12. Retention of clinical trial participants in a study of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), a sexually transmitted infection in men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Lensing, Shelly Y; Schwebke, Jane R

    2012-07-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), an inflammation of the urethra not caused by gonorrhea, is the most common urethritis syndrome seen in men in the United States. It is a sexually transmitted infection commonly caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, a pathogen which occurs more frequently in African-American men compared to white men. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to retention of study participants in a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial that evaluated four treatment regimens for the treatment of NGU. After the one-week treatment period, follow-up visits were scheduled during days 15-19 and days 35-45. Participants were phoned prior to scheduled appointments to encourage attendance, and contacted after missed appointments to reschedule their clinic visits. Of the 305 male study participants, 298 (98%) were African-American, 164 (54%) were 25 years of age or younger, and 80 (31%) had a post-secondary school education. The overall retention rate was 75%. Factors associated with study completion were educational level attained and clinical center. Participants with higher levels of education were more likely to complete the study. Clinical centers with the highest retention rates also provided the highest monetary incentives for participation. The retention rate for this study suggests that strategies are needed for improving the proportion of study participants that complete a clinical trial among young men with a sexually transmitted disease. These strategies may include increasing contacts with study participants to remind them of scheduled study visits using text messaging or social media and the use of financial incentives. PMID:22261236

  13. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M; Cohen, Elijah L; LeClerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD=2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p=0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p=0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p=0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p=0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p<0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to understanding

  14. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M.; Cohen, Elijah L.; LeClerc, M.; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12–29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD = 2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p = 0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p = 0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p = 0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p = 0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p < 0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to

  15. Prevalence and risks for sexually transmitted infections among a national sample of migrants versus non-migrants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Wei, C; Buchholz, M E; Martin, M C; Smith, B D; Huang, Z J; Wong, F Y

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to describe and compare the gender-specific prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea, sexual behaviours and experiences, and risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among migrants versus rural and urban non-migrants in China. Data were abstracted from the Chinese Health and Family Life Survey conducted from 1999 to 2000, which provided a nationally representative adult (ages 20-64 years) sample. STI results were determined using a urine-based nucleic acid amplification assay. The prevalence of chlamydia for migrant women was triple that of rural non-migrant women. Migrants were more likely to engage in STI-associated risk behaviours than non-migrants (e.g. receiving money for sex). Among migrants, women were more likely than men to have STIs. The high STI prevalence among migrants highlights an urgent need to implement comprehensive prevention and intervention programmes targeting the cultural, social and structural needs of migrants in the city, especially migrant women. PMID:20606221

  16. Incidence of HCV and sexually transmitted diseases among hiv positive msm in antwerp, belgium, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Apers, L; Koole, O; Bottieau, E; Vandenbruaene, M; Ophoff, D; Van Esbroeck, M; Crucitti, T; Florence, E

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are an indication of unsafe sexual practices and may be associated with HCV-infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. In a retrospective study we analysed the laboratory data of 99 HIV-positive MSM who acquired HCV during the observation period (cases) and 176 HIV-positive MSM who remained HCV negative during the observation period (controls), all followed at the HIV/STI-clinic in Antwerp, Belgium. All laboratory confirmed STI-episodes were recorded since the date of first consultation at our clinic, until the date of HCV-diagnosis of the cases. The HCV incidence varied between 0.24 (2001) and 1.36 (2011) new cases per hundred person-years, with a peak of 2.93 new cases per hundred person-years in 2009. The number of STI-episodes per person-year follow-up was significantly higher for the cases as compared to the controls for syphilis, non-LGV and LGV Chlamydia infections (p < 0.005). When considering the incidence of STIs that occurred 1 year prior to HCV conversion, all laboratory confirmed STIs remained more frequent among cases, but only the difference in syphilis incidence was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Recurrent STIs among HIV positive MSM should be considered as a behavioural and biological risk factor for acquiring HCV and should lead to intensified screening for HCV and counselling of the patient. PMID:24635329

  17. A Call to Develop Evidence-based Interventions to Reduce Sexually Transmitted Infections in Juvenile Justice Populations.

    PubMed

    Gates, Madison L; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Cartier, Jeanne; Best, Candace; Stone, Rebecca; Walker, Veronica; Hastings, Beverly; Yoo, Wonsuk; Webb, Nancy C; Braithwaite, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk, are a significant health issue for young women (ages 16-21), especially African Americans with a juvenile justice history. Studies have found that 44% of young African American women have had at least one STI compared to 24.1% for all young women. The rate of STIs among young women with juvenile justice histories, particularly African Americans, is likely much higher than their non-detained peers. Yet, there are few evidence-based interventions (EBIs) designed specifically for the detained population. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Compendium of Evidence-Based Interventions and Best Practices for HIV Prevention listed few programs that comprehensively included components related to mental health, intimate relationships and high risk sexual behaviors that would be salient for a detained population. Further, many EBIs have had limited or no long-term protective effect. We propose that interrelated factors (mental health, substance use, trauma and intimate relationships) can effectively decrease risk and increase protective behaviors for the detained population most at risk. PMID:27133511

  18. Eating sweets without the wrapper: perceptions of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among street youth in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Embleton, Lonnie; Wachira, Juddy; Kamanda, Allan; Naanyu, Violet; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Street-connected youth in Kenya are a population potentially at-risk of HIV transmission, yet little is known about their perceptions and experiences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), despite being an HIV endemic region. We sought to elucidate the language and sociocultural factors rooted in street life that impact on street-connected young people’s knowledge of and perceptions about the prevention and transmission of STIs, and their diagnosis and treatment, using qualitative methods in western Kenya. We conducted a total of 25 in-depth interviews and 5 focus group discussions with 65 participants aged 11–24 years in Eldoret, Kenya. Thematic analysis was conducted and data were coded according to themes and patterns that emerged until saturation was reached. In general, street-connected young people knew of STIs and some of the common symptoms associated with these infections. However, there were many misconceptions regarding transmission and prevention. Gender inequities were prominent, as the majority of men described women as individuals who spread STIs due to unhygienic practices, urination, and multiple partners. Due to misconceptions, gender inequity, and lack of access to youth-friendly healthcare there is an urgent need for community-based organisations and healthcare facilities to introduce or augment their adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes for vulnerable young people. PMID:26394208

  19. HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors and Beliefs Among Black West Indian Immigrants and US-Born Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Beckford Jarrett, Sharlene T.; Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Wallace, Scyatta A.; Augenbraun, Michael; Hogben, Matthew; Liddon, Nicole; McCormack, William M.; Rubin, Steve; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We compared Black West Indian immigrants' and US-born Blacks' sexual and drug-use risk behaviors and their beliefs related to using condoms and informing partners of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to identify possible differences in risk. Methods. We drew data from the baseline assessment of a clinic-based intervention designed to increase partner STI notification. Results. Black West Indian men were less likely than were US-born Black men to report nonregular partners. There were no differences in condom use. US-born Black women were more likely than were Black West Indian women to be extremely confident that they could convince their regular partners to use condoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 4.76), whereas there were no differences between Black West Indian and US-born Black men on this measure (interaction P = .06). US-born Black women were more likely than were Black West Indian women to be extremely confident in their ability to discuss STI screening with their regular partners (OR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.03, 3.47). Conclusions. Black West Indian women's lower levels of confidence that they can discuss STI screening with their regular partners and convince these partners to use condoms may increase their infection risk. Gender-sensitive interventions are warranted for Black West Indian immigrants, especially women. PMID:18309140

  20. Genital hygiene practices of fishermen targeted for a topical microbicide intervention against sexually transmitted infections in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kwena, Z A; Bukusi, E A; Gorbach, P; Sharma, A; Sang, N M; Holmes, K K

    2010-06-01

    Research on hygiene has been relatively limited in the current era of rigorous observational studies and clinical trials. We set out to investigate the perception and practices of genital hygiene among fishermen working on the beaches along Lake Victoria, targeted for a topical male microbicide hygiene intervention. We conducted 12 focus group discussions involving fishermen (n = 130), recording the discussions in Dholuo (the local language) and transcribing them verbatim before translating into English. Transcripts were double-coded and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Despite easy access to lake water and recognition of a link that may exist between poor genital hygiene and the risk of penile infection and poor sexual relationships, few fishermen regularly washed their genitalia due to fear/embarrassment from cleaning their genitalia in public, traditional Luo beliefs such as that washing with soap would reduce the fish catch, lack of time because of their busy schedules, laziness and lack of responsibility, and excessive consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Hygiene practices of the fishermen were poor and could contribute to genital infections including sexually transmitted infections. Given the fishermen's poor genital hygiene practices, they may benefit from hygiene intervention, including that provided by penile microbicides, which can be applied in the privacy of their bedrooms. PMID:20606226

  1. Sexually transmitted infections among transgender people and men who have sex with men in Port Vila, Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Veronese, Vanessa; van Gemert, Caroline; Bulu, Siula; Kwarteng, Tamara; Bergari, Isabel; Badman, Steven; Vella, Alyce

    2015-01-01

    Despite high sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence in the Pacific, there are limited data on STIs and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG). In 2011, an Integrated Bio-Behavioural Survey recruited self-identified MSM and TG in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Descriptive findings were stratified by sexuality. Among 28 (55%) MSM and 23 (45%) TG, recent anal sex with male partners was more common among MSM (94% vs 71%; P < 0.1), including with casual (47% vs 35%), regular (59% vs 29%) and paying partners (28% vs 12%). MSM more commonly reported lifetime (P < 0.01) and recent sex with female partners (P < 0.01). Reported condom use with any partner type was low. More MSM (35%) than TG (24%) were diagnosed with an STI; previous treatment-seeking behaviour when symptomatic was lower among TG (P < 0.1). Tailored strategies acknowledging differences between MSM and TG are required to reduce STI vulnerability in Vanuatu. PMID:25960923

  2. Eating sweets without the wrapper: perceptions of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among street youth in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Embleton, Lonnie; Wachira, Juddy; Kamanda, Allan; Naanyu, Violet; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Street-connected youth in Kenya are a population potentially at risk of HIV transmission, yet little is known about their perceptions and experiences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), despite their living in an HIV endemic region. We sought to elucidate the language and sociocultural factors rooted in street life that impact on street-connected young people's knowledge of and perceptions about the prevention and transmission of STIs, and their diagnosis and treatment, using qualitative methods in western Kenya. We conducted a total of 25 in-depth interviews and 5 focus-group discussions with 65 participants aged 11-24 years in Eldoret, Kenya. Thematic analysis was conducted and data were coded according to themes and patterns emergent until saturation was reached. In general, street-connected young people knew of STIs and some of the common symptoms associated with these infections. However, there were many misconceptions regarding transmission and prevention. Gender inequities were prominent, as the majority of men described women as individuals who spread STIs due to unhygienic practices, urination and multiple partners. Due to misconceptions, gender inequity and lack of access to youth-friendly healthcare there is an urgent need for community-based organisations and healthcare facilities to introduce or augment their adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes for vulnerable young people. PMID:26394208

  3. Sexually transmitted infections among transgender people and men who have sex with men in Port Vila, Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Vanessa; van Gemert, Caroline; Bulu, Siula; Kwarteng, Tamara; Bergari, Isabel; Badman, Steven; Vella, Alyce; Stoové, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite high sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence in the Pacific, there are limited data on STIs and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG). In 2011, an Integrated Bio-Behavioural Survey recruited self-identified MSM and TG in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Descriptive findings were stratified by sexuality. Among 28 (55%) MSM and 23 (45%) TG, recent anal sex with male partners was more common among MSM (94% vs 71%; P < 0.1), including with casual (47% vs 35%), regular (59% vs 29%) and paying partners (28% vs 12%). MSM more commonly reported lifetime (P < 0.01) and recent sex with female partners (P < 0.01). Reported condom use with any partner type was low. More MSM (35%) than TG (24%) were diagnosed with an STI; previous treatment-seeking behaviour when symptomatic was lower among TG (P < 0.1). Tailored strategies acknowledging differences between MSM and TG are required to reduce STI vulnerability in Vanuatu. PMID:25960923

  4. Social marketing to promote HPV vaccination in pre-teenage children: talk about a sexually transmitted infection.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joan R; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2015-01-01

    A significant barrier to the delivery of HPV vaccine is reluctance by both healthcare providers and parents to vaccinate at age 11 or 12, which may be considered a young age. This barrier has been called "vaccine hesitancy" in recent research. In this commentary, we suggest using social marketing strategies to promote HPV vaccination at the recommended preteen ages. We emphasize a critical public health message of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) as preventable and vaccination against HPV as a way to protect against its consequences. The message tackles the issue of vaccine hesitancy head on, by saying that most people are at risk for HPV and there is a way to prevent HPV's serious consequences of cancer. Our approach to this conversation in the clinical setting is also to engage the preteen in a dialog with the parent and provider. We expect our emphasis on the risk of STI infection will not only lead to increased HPV vaccination at preteen ages but also lay important groundwork for clinical adoption of other STI vaccines in development (HIV, HSV, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea) as well as begin conversations to promote sexual health. PMID:25692313

  5. Social marketing to promote HPV vaccination in pre-teenage children: Talk about a sexually transmitted infection

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Joan R; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2015-01-01

    A significant barrier to the delivery of HPV vaccine is reluctance by both healthcare providers and parents to vaccinate at age 11 or 12, which may be considered a young age. This barrier has been called “vaccine hesitancy” in recent research. In this commentary, we suggest using social marketing strategies to promote HPV vaccination at the recommended preteen ages. We emphasize a critical public health message of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) as preventable and vaccination against HPV as a way to protect against its consequences. The message tackles the issue of vaccine hesitancy head on, by saying that most people are at risk for HPV and there is a way to prevent HPV's serious consequences of cancer. Our approach to this conversation in the clinical setting is also to engage the preteen in a dialog with the parent and provider. We expect our emphasis on the risk of STI infection will not only lead to increased HPV vaccination at preteen ages but also lay important groundwork for clinical adoption of other STI vaccines in development (HIV, HSV, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea) as well as begin conversations to promote sexual health. PMID:25692313

  6. Sexually transmitted diseases and the use of condoms in a cohort of homosexual men followed since 1983 in Finland.

    PubMed

    Valle, S L

    1988-01-01

    High rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were recorded among 235 homosexually active men at the start of a prospective follow-up study in June 1983 in Finland. The vast majority (88.5%) reported at least one STD, the most common of them being pubic lice (64.7%) followed by gonorrhoea (42.9%) and non-gonococcal urethritis (26.4%). Those 31 (13.2%) who were seropositive for HIV at the end of the study, had experienced more episodes of STDs than the seronegative individuals (p = 0.0027). Nine HIV seroconversions were noted during the follow-up of 5-40 months, all in individuals who had practised "unsafe" sex. The study participants were repeatedly given detailed advice for avoiding HIV infection, and a tendency towards "safer" sexual practises resulting in a decrease in incidence of most STDs, was noted during the course of the study. However, further spread of HIV is to be expected because 57% of the men still reported practising and sex at the end of the follow-up, and 42% of them without condoms. PMID:3399835

  7. Hepatitis B testing and vaccination among adults with sexually transmitted infections in a large managed care organization.

    PubMed

    Hechter, Rulin C; Jacobsen, Steven J; Luo, Yi; Nomura, Jim H; Towner, William J; Tartof, Sara Y; Tseng, Hung Fu

    2014-06-01

    Data on viral hepatitis B (HBV) testing and vaccination in primary care settings among persons at sexual risk for HBV infection have been sparse. We examined rates and factors associated with HBV serologic testing and vaccination rates in adults infected with sexually transmitted infections. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults diagnosed with chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis in Kaiser Permanente Southern California in 2008-2011. The vaccine series initiation was examined in subjects who were tested susceptible. The 90-day hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) testing rate was 28.1% in 15 357 adults. Testing rates increased through the study period. Only 8.8% of patients received both HBsAg and hepatitis B surface antibody tests to determine prior exposure and susceptibility to HBV. Among those who were tested susceptible, 116 (10.6%) subjects initiated the vaccine series. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the odds of receiving testing was inversely associated with female sex, black race, other/unknown race, or having prespecified chronic comorbidities. In survival analysis, adults aged 25-34 years and ≥55 years were more likely to initiate hepatitis B vaccine series compared with those aged 18-24 years. There are missed opportunities in HBV testing and vaccination in primary care. Implementation of provider decision-making support tools in the electronic medical record system may potentially improve hepatitis B testing and vaccination rates. PMID:24571863

  8. HIV, Hepatitis C, and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Male Sex Workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Colby, Donn J; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Nguyen, Thi; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    There is little data on the burden of HIV and other infections that affect male sex workers (MSW) in Vietnam. We conducted behavioral and biological sexual health surveys with 300 MSW in Ho Chi Minh City. Generalized estimating equation models were built to assess factors associated with HIV, hepatitis C, and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Of 300 MSW, 19 (6.3 %) were diagnosed seropositive for HIV, 11 (3.7 %) had hepatitis C, and 26 (8.7 %) had at least one prevalent STI. In a multivariable model, opiate use was significantly associated with HIV infection (aOR 6.46, 95 % CI 1.28-32.7) and hepatitis C (aOR = 19.6, 95 % CI 2.35-163.6). Alcohol dependency was associated with increased odds of hepatitis C (aOR = 4.79, 95 % CI 1.02-22.5) and decreased odds of other STI (aOR = 0.30, 95 % CI 0.10-0.97). These findings suggest that MSW in Vietnam would benefit from regular HIV and STI testing, as well as linkage to care and substance use rehabilitation services. PMID:26563761

  9. Why are men less tested for sexually transmitted infections in remote Australian Indigenous communities? A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiunn-Yih; Belton, Suzanne; Ryder, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    Gender disparities in testing rates for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been identified as one potential factor sustaining high rates of STIs and repeat infections in the Northern Territory of Australia, especially in remote Indigenous communities. The study aimed to investigate the reasons for these disparities utilising a mixed-method study design. We conducted an audit on client information at a remote community health clinic, focus-group discussions with young men in the same community and interviews with experienced remote area clinicians. The clinic audit found a significantly higher proportion of female residents of the community than males visited the clinic (72.8 versus 55.3%, p < 0.005). Women were also more likely to be tested for STIs than men when visiting the clinic (49.7 versus 40.3%, p = 0.015). Major barriers to men's seeking STI testing included a sense of shame from being seen visiting the clinic by women, men's lack of understanding of STIs and the need for testing, and inadequate access to male clinicians. Increasing men's access to healthcare and STI testing requires offering testing at a gender-sensitive and separate locations, and community-based sexual health promotion to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:27142316

  10. Sexually transmitted disease control in the era of managed care: "magic bullet" or "shadow on the land"?

    PubMed

    Chaulk, C P; Zenilman, J

    1997-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health problem. In the United States, nearly 12 million STD infections occur annually, generating estimated direct annual health care costs exceeding $12 billion. Lifetime costs may total $88 billion. Meanwhile, inflation-adjusted public funding for STD clinical care and control decreased over the past two decades. Previous STD control officials warned that declining support for STD control programs would result in program elimination and increased rates of STDs ("Brown's Law"). Effective public health and primary prevention efforts have been difficult to implement because of societal sensitivities about sexuality, and the curative rather than preventive focus of our health care system. Proven cost-effective medical interventions, such as chlamydia screening, have not been universally implemented because of health care system inefficiencies, whereby public STD clinical services generate private sector savings not reinvested into these public prevention programs. However, the dramatic growth in managed care presents opportunities, as well as risks, for better STD management. PMID:10186713

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of sexually transmitted infections and cervical neoplasia in women from a rural area of southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Clara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Renom, Montse; Sacarlal, Jahit; Quintó, Llorenç; Lloveras, Belen; Klaustermeier, Joellen; Kornegay, Janet R; Sigauque, Betuel; Bosch, F Xavier; Alonso, Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    There is limited information on the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and the prevalence of cervical neoplasia in rural sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the prevalence and the etiology of STIs and the prevalence of cervical neoplasia among women in southern Mozambique. An age-stratified cross-sectional study was performed where 262 women aged 14 to 61 years were recruited at the antenatal clinic (59%), the family-planning clinic (7%), and from the community (34%). At least one active STI was diagnosed in 79% of women. Trichomonas vaginalis was present in 31% of all study participants. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis were 14% and 8%, respectively, and Syphilis was diagnosed in 12% of women. HPV DNA was detected in 40% of women and cervical neoplasia was diagnosed in 12% of all women. Risk factors associated with the presence of some of the STIs were being divorced or widowed, having more than one sexual partner and having the partner living in another area. A higher prevalence was observed in the reproductive age group and some of the STIs were more frequently diagnosed in pregnant women. STI control programs are a priority to reduce the STIs burden, including HIV and cervical neoplasia. PMID:20706691

  12. Snakes, Ladders, and Information about Sexually Transmitted Infections: Evaluation of a Peer Educator Training on the Thailand-Burma Border.

    PubMed

    Gedeon, Jillian; Hkum, Jessica; Hsue, Saw Nanda; Walsh, Meredith; Foster, Angel M

    2016-01-01

    The longstanding conflict and civil strife in Burma has had significant consequences on the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of ethnic minority groups, including adolescents. The Adolescent Reproductive Health Zone in Chiang Mai, Thailand promotes adolescent SRH rights and access to services by having peer educators travel to their hometowns in Burma and lead intensive youth-focused trainings on a variety of topics and issues. In order to evaluate the impact of an intensive three-day workshop dedicated to improving knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among peer educators through didactic, experiential, and skill-building exercises, we administered a pre-, post-, and longitudinal assessment. All 13 participants completed both the pre-test and post-test; 11 of 13 participants (85%) completed the longitudinal evaluation administered three months after the training. Our results indicate that both individual and aggregate STI knowledge increased from baseline and that this knowledge was retained. Moreover, the training increased participants' confidence in their outreach abilities, informed changes in the curricular modules, and led to the implementation of new teaching and learning techniques, especially the incorporation of games and activities. Our findings showcase a successful initiative and suggest similar adolescent peer health educator programs could be undertaken in this protracted crisis and conflict setting. PMID:27241433

  13. Structural approaches for prevention of sexually transmitted HIV in general populations: definitions and an operational approach

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Justin O

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although biomedical HIV prevention efforts have seen a number of recent promising developments, behavioural interventions have often been described as failing. However, clear lessons have been identified from past efforts, including the need to address influential social, economic and legal structures; to tailor efforts to local contexts; and to address multiple influencing factors in combination. Despite these insights, there remains a pervasive strategy to try to achieve sexual behaviour change through single, decontextualized, interventions or sets of activities. With current calls for structural approaches to HIV as part of combination HIV prevention, though, there is a unique opportunity to define a structural approach to HIV prevention as one which moves beyond these past limitations and better incorporates our knowledge of the social world and the lessons from past efforts. Discussion A range of interlinked concepts require delineation and definition within the broad concept of a structural approach to HIV. This includes distinguishing between “structural factors,” which can be seen as any number of elements (other than knowledge) which influence risk and vulnerability, and “structural drivers,” which should be reserved for situations where an empirically established relationship to a target group is known. Operationalizing structural approaches similarly can take different paths, either working to alter structural drivers or alternatively working to build individual and community resilience to infection. A “structural diagnostic approach” is further defined as the process one undertakes to develop structural intervention strategies tailored to target groups. Conclusions For three decades, the HIV prevention community has struggled to reduce the spread of HIV through sexual risk behaviours with limited success, but equally with limited engagement with the lessons that have been learned about the social realities shaping patterns of

  14. Sexually Transmitted Infections Among HIV-Infected Adults in HIV Care Programs in Kenya: A National Sample of HIV Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Singa, Benson; Glick, Sara Nelson; Bock, Naomi; Walson, Judd; Chaba, Linda; Odek, James; McClelland, R. Scott; Djomand, Gaston; Gao, Hongjiang; John-Stewart, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying sexually transmitted infections (STI) in HIV-infected individuals has potential to benefit individual and public health. There are few guidelines regarding routine STI screening in sub-Saharan African HIV programs. We determined sexual risk behavior and prevalence and correlates of STI in a national survey of large HIV treatment programs in Kenya. Methods A mobile screening team visited 39 (95%) of the 42 largest HIV care programs in Kenya and enrolled participants using population-proportionate systematic sampling. Participants provided behavioral and clinical data. Genital and blood specimens were tested for trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and CD4 T-lymphocyte counts. Results Among 1661 adults, 41% reported no sexual partners in the past 3 months. Among those who reported sex in the past 3 months, 63% of women reported condom use during this encounter compared with 77% of men (P < 0.001). Trichomoniasis was the most common STI in women (10.9%) and men (2.8%); prevalences of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis were low (<1%–2%). Among women, younger age (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.96 per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94–0.98) and primary school education or lower level (adjusted OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.37–3.40) were independently associated with trichomoniasis, whereas CD4 count, cotrimoxazole use, and reported condom use were not. Reported condom use at last sex was associated with reporting that the clinic provided condoms among both women (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.17–2.35) and men (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.18–4.82). Conclusions Women attending Kenyan HIV care programs had a 10.9% prevalence of trichomoniasis, suggesting that screening for this infection may be useful. Condom provision at clinics may enhance secondary HIV prevention efforts. PMID:23324977

  15. NYC condom use and satisfaction and demand for alternative condom products in New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ryan C; Wilson, Juliet; Kowalski, Alexis; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica; Begier, Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, via a high-profile media campaign, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) introduced the "NYC Condom," the first specially packaged condom unique to a municipality. We conducted a survey to measure NYC Condom awareness of and experience with NYC Condoms and demand for alternative male condoms to be distributed by the DOHMH. Trained interviewers administered short, in-person surveys at five DOHMH-operated sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Spring 2008. We systematically sampled eligible patients: NYC residents aged ≥18 years waiting to see a physician. We approached 539; 532 agreed to be screened (98.7% response rate); 462 completed the survey and provided NYC zip codes. Most respondents were male (56%), non-Hispanic black (64%), aged 18-24 years (43%) or 25-44 years (45%), employed (65%), and had a high school degree/general equivalency diploma or less (53%). Of those surveyed, 86% were aware of the NYC Condom, and 81% of those who obtained the condoms used them. NYC Condom users were more likely to have four or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-3.8), use condoms frequently (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and name an alternative condom for distribution (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9). The most frequently requested condom types respondents wanted DOHMH to provide were larger size (28%), ultra thin/extra sensitive (21%), and extra strength (16%). We found high rates of NYC Condom use. NYC Condom users reported more sexual partners than others, suggesting the condom initiative successfully reached higher-risk persons within the STD clinic population. Study results document the condom social marketing campaign's success. PMID:21792691

  16. Tinea genitalis: a new entity of sexually transmitted infection? Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Isabelle; Bosshard, Philipp Peter; Kasper, Romano Silvio; Reinhardt, Dominic; Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Investigation on recent cases of tinea genitalis after travelling to South East Asia. Methods Patients with tinea in the genital region, which emerged after sex in South East Asia, underwent further assessment including microscopy, cultures and DNA analyses. Results The case series includes seven patients. In six patients, Trichophyton interdigitale (former Trichophyton mentagrophytes) was detected. Three patients suffered from a severe inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue and two of them needed hospitalisation due to severe pain. In four patients, cicatrising healing was noticed. Five patients were declared incapacitated for work. Conclusions Sexual activity should be considered as a potentially important and previously underappreciated means of transmission of T. interdigitale. To avoid irreversible scarring alopecia, prompt initiation of antifungal treatment is essential and adequate isolation and identification of the pathogen is mandatory. PMID:26071391

  17. Case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in male without presentation of sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Yi, Haram; Shim, Chan Sup; Kim, Gyu Won; Kim, Jung Seok; Choi, In Zoo

    2015-11-16

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is a type of perihepatitis that causes liver capsular infection without infecting the hepatic parenchyma or pelvis. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is known to occur commonly in women of childbearing age who do not use oral contraceptives and have sexual partners older than 25 years of age. However, the syndrome has been reported to occur rarely in males. The clinical symptoms are right upper quadrant pain and tenderness, and pleuritic right sided chest pain. The clinical presentation is similar in male and female. We experienced a case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in a 60-year-old man with the chief complaint of right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Despite a previous history of gonorrhea, we have also described our experiences of improved symptoms and recovery with allopathic medicines and have thereby reported the present case with a literature review. PMID:26601101

  18. Case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in male without presentation of sexually transmitted disease

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Haram; Shim, Chan Sup; Kim, Gyu Won; Kim, Jung Seok; Choi, In Zoo

    2015-01-01

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is a type of perihepatitis that causes liver capsular infection without infecting the hepatic parenchyma or pelvis. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is known to occur commonly in women of childbearing age who do not use oral contraceptives and have sexual partners older than 25 years of age. However, the syndrome has been reported to occur rarely in males. The clinical symptoms are right upper quadrant pain and tenderness, and pleuritic right sided chest pain. The clinical presentation is similar in male and female. We experienced a case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in a 60-year-old man with the chief complaint of right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Despite a previous history of gonorrhea, we have also described our experiences of improved symptoms and recovery with allopathic medicines and have thereby reported the present case with a literature review. PMID:26601101

  19. Syphilis in renaissance Europe: rapid evolution of an introduced sexually transmitted disease?

    PubMed

    Knell, Robert J

    2004-05-01

    When syphilis first appeared in Europe in 1495, it was an acute and extremely unpleasant disease. After only a few years it was less severe than it once was, and it changed over the next 50 years into a milder, chronic disease. The severe early symptoms may have been the result of the disease being introduced into a new host population without any resistance mechanisms, but the change in virulence is most likely to have happened because of selection favouring milder strains of the pathogen. The symptoms of the virulent early disease were both debilitating and obvious to potential sexual partners of the infected, and strains that caused less obvious or painful symptoms would have enjoyed a higher transmission rate. PMID:15252975

  20. Triggers of self-conscious emotions in the sexually transmitted infection testing process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-conscious emotions (shame, guilt and embarrassment) are part of many individuals' experiences of seeking STI testing. These emotions can have negative impacts on individuals' interpretations of the STI testing process, their willingness to seek treatment and their willingness to inform sexual partners in light of positive STI diagnoses. Because of these impacts, researchers have called for more work to be completed on the connections between shame, guilt, embarrassment and STI testing. We examine the specific events in the STI testing process that trigger self-conscious emotions in young adults who seek STI testing; and to understand what it is about these events that triggers these emotions. Semi-structured interviews with 30 adults (21 women, 9 men) in the Republic of Ireland. Findings Seven specific triggers of self-conscious emotions were identified. These were: having unprotected sex, associated with the initial reason for seeking STI testing; talking to partners and peers about the intention to seek STI testing; the experience of accessing STI testing facilities and sitting in clinic waiting rooms; negative interactions with healthcare professionals; receiving a positive diagnosis of an STI; having to notify sexual partners in light of a positive STI diagnosis; and accessing healthcare settings for treatment for an STI. Self-conscious emotions were triggered in each case by a perceived threat to respondents' social identities. Conclusion There are multiple triggers of self-conscious emotions in the STI testing process, ranging from the initial decision to seek testing, right through to the experience of accessing treatment. The role of self-conscious emotions needs to be considered in each component of service design from health promotion approaches, through facility layout to the training of all professionals involved in the STI testing process. PMID:20716339

  1. Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal.

    PubMed

    Flegr, J; Klapilová, K; Kaňková, S

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects about 30% of the human population. Common sources of infection are oocysts in cat faeces contaminating drinking water or unwashed vegetables, undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, and organ transplants from infected donors containing tissue cysts. However, very often, it is not possible to identify any potential source of infection in mothers of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Here we present a hypothesis suggesting that toxoplasmosis is transmitted from infected men to noninfected women during unprotected sexual intercourse, which can result in the most serious form of disease, congenital toxoplasmosis. Arguments for the hypothesis: (1) Toxoplasma tachyzoites are present in the seminal fluid and tissue of the testes of various animals including humans. In some species infection of females by artificial insemination with semen from infected males has been observed. (2) Up to two thirds of Toxoplasma infections in pregnant women cannot be explained by the known risk factors. (3) Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in women in child-bearing age covaries with the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in particular countries. (4) In some countries, an increased incidence of toxoplasmosis has been reported in women (but not men) aged 25-35 years. This second peak of infection could be associated with women having regular unprotected sex after marriage. (5) Toxoplasmosis triggers schizophrenia in predisposed subjects. Onset of schizophrenia is about 2-3 years earlier in men than in women. However, this difference in the onset can be found only between Toxoplasma-infected patients. The increased onset of schizophrenia in infected women could be associated with the already mentioned second peak of toxoplasmosis incidence. (6) The prevalence of toxoplasmosis decreases in developed countries in last 20 years. This trend could be a result of decrease in promiscuity and increase in safe sex practices, both associated with the AIDS pandemics

  2. Contribution of transmission in HIV-positive men who have sex with men to evolving epidemics of sexually transmitted infections in England: an analysis using multiple data sources, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Malek, R; Mitchell, H; Furegato, M; Simms, I; Mohammed, H; Nardone, A; Hughes, G

    2015-01-01

    HIV seroadaptive behaviours may have contributed to greater sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission in HIV-positive men who have sex with men(MSM) and to the global increase in STIs. Using multiple national surveillance data sources and population survey data, we estimated the risk of STIs in HIV-positive MSM and assessed whether transmission in HIV-positive MSM has contributed to recent STI epidemics in England. Since 2009, an increasing proportion of STIs has been diagnosed in HIV-positive MSM, and currently, the population rate of acute bacterial STIs is up to four times that of HIV-negative or undiagnosed MSM. Almost one in five of all diagnosed HIV-positive MSM in England had an acute STI diagnosed in 2013. From 2009 to 2013, the odds of being diagnosed with syphilis increased from 2.71 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.41–3.05, p<0.001) to 4.05 (95%CI 3.70-4.45, p<0.001) in HIV-positive relative to HIV negative/undiagnosed MSM. Similar trends were seen for gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Bacterial STI re-infection rates were considerably higher in HIV-positive MSM over a five-year follow-up period, indicative of rapid transmission in more dense sexual networks.These findings strongly suggest that the sexual health of HIV-positive MSM in England is worsening, which merits augmented public health interventions and continued monitoring. PMID:25953130

  3. Risk behaviors of 15–21 year olds in Mexico lead to a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections: results of a survey in disadvantaged urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Juan-Pablo; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Sanchez-Aleman, Miguel-Angel

    2006-01-01

    Background Due to the fact that adolescents are more likely to participate in high-risk behaviors, this sector of the population is particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and resultant health problems. Methods A survey was carried out among adolescents from poor homes in 204 small-urban areas of Mexico. Information was collected in relation to risk behaviors and socio-economic environment. A sub-group of the participants also provided blood and urine samples which were analyzed to detect sexually transmitted infections. Results The presence of Chlamydia was detected in nearly 8% of participants who had stated that they were sexually active (18%) and approximately 12% were positive for herpes type 2-specific antibodies. For both, a greater proportion of girls resulted positive compared to boys. The presence of these biological outcomes of sexual risk behavior was associated with other risk behaviors (smoking), but not with self-reported indicators of protected sex (reported use of condom during most recent sexual activity). Conclusion The results presented in this study show a startlingly high prevalence of HSV-2 among sexually active Mexican adolescents in poor urban areas, suggesting that this group has participated to a great extent in risky sexual practices. The relationships between socioeconomic environment and adolescent risk behavior need to be better understood if we are to design preventive interventions that modify the determinants of risk behaviors. PMID:16504147

  4. Relationship Dynamics and Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies Among Heterosexual Young Adults: A Qualitative Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Attendees at an Urban Chicago Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Anna L; French, Audrey L; Hosek, Sybil G; Kendrick, Sabrina R; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L; Mehta, Supriya D

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October-December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n = 13) and women (n = 20) aged 18-29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:26588197

  5. Effectiveness of Health Education Teachers and School Nurses Teaching Sexually Transmitted Infections/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Knowledge and Skills in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borawski, Elaine A.; Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Trapl, Erika S.; Hayman, Laura L.; Yoder, Laura D.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We examined the differential impact of a well-established human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, when taught by school nurses and health education classroom teachers within a high school curricula. Methods: Group-randomized intervention study of 1357 ninth and…

  6. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  7. The Role of Condom Motivation Education in the Reduction of New and Reinfection Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Inner-City Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. B.; Weinman, M. L.; Parrilli, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of small group condom motivation education in reducing new and reinfection rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among urban female teenagers was evaluated. Teens (N=205) were followed for six months. Findings are presented and health education opportunities are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  8. Demographic and Behavioral Determinants of Self-Reported History of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among Young Migrant Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The…

  9. Source Preferences and the Displacement/Supplement Effect between Internet and Traditional Sources of Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV/AIDS Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines the source preferences and the displacement/supplement effect of traditional and new channel usage as Taiwanese college students search for information about sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS from the Internet. The study involved 535 junior and senior college students from four universities. Analytical results…

  10. Trends in sexually transmitted infections in general practice 1990-2000: population based study using data from the UK general practice research database

    PubMed Central

    Cassell, Jackie A; Mercer, Catherine H; Sutcliffe, Lorna; Petersen, Irene; Islam, Amir; Brook, M Gary; Ross, Jonathan D; Kinghorn, George R; Simms, Ian; Hughes, Gwenda; Majeed, Azeem; Stephenson, Judith M; Johnson, Anne M; Hayward, Andrew C

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the contribution of primary care to the diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted infections in the United Kingdom, 1990-2000, in the context of increasing incidence of infections in genitourinary medicine clinics. Design Population based study. Setting UK primary care. Participants Patients registered in the UK general practice research database. Main outcome measures Incidence of diagnosed sexually transmitted infections in primary care and estimation of the proportion of major such infections diagnosed in primary care. Results An estimated 23.0% of chlamydia cases in women but only 5.3% in men were diagnosed and treated in primary care during 1998-2000, along with 49.2% cases of non-specific urethritis and urethral discharge in men and 5.7% cases of gonorrhoea in women and 2.9% in men. Rates of diagnosis in primary care rose substantially in the late 1990s. Conclusions A substantial and increasing number of sexually transmitted infections are diagnosed and treated in primary care in the United Kingdom, with sex ratios differing from those in genitourinary medicine clinics. Large numbers of men are treated in primary care for presumptive sexually transmitted infections. PMID:16439371

  11. Influence of network dynamics on the spread of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Risau-Gusman, Sebastián

    2012-01-01

    Network epidemiology often assumes that the relationships defining the social network of a population are static. The dynamics of relationships is only taken indirectly into account by assuming that the relevant information to study epidemic spread is encoded in the network obtained, by considering numbers of partners accumulated over periods of time roughly proportional to the infectious period of the disease. On the other hand, models explicitly including social dynamics are often too schematic to provide a reasonable representation of a real population, or so detailed that no general conclusions can be drawn from them. Here, we present a model of social dynamics that is general enough so its parameters can be obtained by fitting data from surveys about sexual behaviour, but that can still be studied analytically, using mean-field techniques. This allows us to obtain some general results about epidemic spreading. We show that using accumulated network data to estimate the static epidemic threshold lead to a significant underestimation of that threshold. We also show that, for a dynamic network, the relative epidemic threshold is an increasing function of the infectious period of the disease, implying that the static value is a lower bound to the real threshold. A practical example is given of how to apply the model to the study of a real population. PMID:22112655

  12. Distinct Bacterial Microbiomes in Sexual and Asexual Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand Freshwater Snail.

    PubMed

    Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; King, Kayla; Van Horn, David; Larkin, Katelyn; Neiman, Maurine

    2016-01-01

    Different reproductive strategies and the transition to asexuality can be associated with microbial symbionts. Whether such a link exists within mollusks has never been evaluated. We took the first steps towards addressing this possibility by performing pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes associated with Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail. A diverse set of 60 tissue collections from P. antipodarum that were genetically and geographically distinct and either obligately sexual or asexual were included, which allowed us to evaluate whether reproductive mode was associated with a particular bacterial community. 2624 unique operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97% DNA similarity) were detected, which were distributed across ~30 phyla. While alpha diversity metrics varied little among individual samples, significant differences in bacterial community composition and structure were detected between sexual and asexual snails, as well as among snails from different lakes and genetic backgrounds. The mean dissimilarity of the bacterial communities between the sexual and asexual P. antipodarum was 90%, largely driven by the presence of Rickettsiales in sexual snails and Rhodobacter in asexual snails. Our study suggests that there might be a link between reproductive mode and the bacterial microbiome of P. antipodarum, though a causal connection requires additional study. PMID:27563725

  13. Distinct Bacterial Microbiomes in Sexual and Asexual Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand Freshwater Snail

    PubMed Central

    Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; King, Kayla; Van Horn, David; Larkin, Katelyn; Neiman, Maurine

    2016-01-01

    Different reproductive strategies and the transition to asexuality can be associated with microbial symbionts. Whether such a link exists within mollusks has never been evaluated. We took the first steps towards addressing this possibility by performing pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes associated with Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail. A diverse set of 60 tissue collections from P. antipodarum that were genetically and geographically distinct and either obligately sexual or asexual were included, which allowed us to evaluate whether reproductive mode was associated with a particular bacterial community. 2624 unique operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97% DNA similarity) were detected, which were distributed across ~30 phyla. While alpha diversity metrics varied little among individual samples, significant differences in bacterial community composition and structure were detected between sexual and asexual snails, as well as among snails from different lakes and genetic backgrounds. The mean dissimilarity of the bacterial communities between the sexual and asexual P. antipodarum was 90%, largely driven by the presence of Rickettsiales in sexual snails and Rhodobacter in asexual snails. Our study suggests that there might be a link between reproductive mode and the bacterial microbiome of P. antipodarum, though a causal connection requires additional study. PMID:27563725

  14. Sexual behavior and knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus/aids and sexually transmitted infections among women inmates of Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and STIs, sexual behaviors, and adoption of preventive measures among women inmates. Methods This was a survey conducted between July 1, 2012 and July 29, 2012 among women inmates at Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The author gave an educational lecture on STIs in a conference room at the prison. Educational material was distributed to the attendees after the lecture, and the survey was conducted one week later. All the participants were asked to complete an anonymous 40-item self-administered questionnaire in the presence of a professional health assistant and a translator, for non-Arabic speakers. Data collected included the personal data of the respondent, her alleged criminal background, penal status, accumulative time in prison, history of smoking, alcohol or drug addiction, knowledge about the seven most common STIs, symptoms, modes of transmission, prevention, sexual activity, addiction, and means of protection. Descriptive analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. Results We interviewed 204 women aged 16-60 years (mean, 33.3 years). Most of the respondents (n = 170; 83 · 0%) were not aware of STIs; 117 respondents (57 · 4%) did not undergo screening for STIs before marriage or intercourse, while only 59 (28 · 9%) did. Over half of the respondents (n = 107; 52.5%) thought they knew how to protect themselves from STIs. Nevertheless, 87 (42.6%) were uncertain about the role of condoms in protection from STIs and (n = 41; 20.1%) thought condoms provide 100% protection against STIs, while 72 respondents (35.3%) thought condoms did not confer 100% protection against STIs. Only 10 respondents (4.9%) used condoms to protect themselves from STIs. Saudi women (P = 0.033) and those with a higher level of education

  15. Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Swendeman, Dallas; Basu, Ishika; Das, Sankari; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-10-01

    The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women's empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program. We previously demonstrated significant condom use increases among female sex workers in a 16 month replication trial of the Sonagachi empowerment intervention (n=110) compared to a control community (n=106) receiving standard care of STD clinic, condom promotion, and peer education in two randomly assigned rural towns in West Bengal, India (Basu et al., 2004). This article examines the intervention's impacts on 21 measured variables reflecting five common factors of effective HIV/STD prevention programs to estimate the impact of empowerment strategies on HIV/STD prevention program goals. The intervention which was conducted in 2000-2001 significantly: 1) improved knowledge of STDs and condom protection from STD and HIV, and maintained STD/HIV risk perceptions despite treatment; 2) provided a frame to motivate change based on reframing sex work as valid work, increasing disclosure of profession, and instilling a hopeful future orientation reflected in desire for more education or training; 3) improved skills in sexual and workplace negotiations reflected in increased refusal, condom decision-making, and ability to change work contract, but not ability to take leave; 4) built social support by increasing social interactions outside work, social function participation, and helping other sex workers; and 5) addressed environmental barriers of economic vulnerabilities by increasing savings and alternative income, but not working in other locations, nor reduced loan taking, and did not increase voting to build social capital. This study

  16. Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases⋆

    PubMed Central

    Swendeman, Dallas; Basu, Ishika; Das, Sankari; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women’s empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program. We previously demonstrated significant condom use increases among female sex workers in a 16 month replication trial of the Sonagachi empowerment intervention (n = 110) compared to a control community (n = 106) receiving standard care of STD clinic, condom promotion, and peer education in two randomly assigned rural towns in West Bengal, India (Basu et al., 2004). This article examines the intervention’s impacts on 21 measured variables reflecting five common factors of effective HIV/STD prevention programs to estimate the impact of empowerment strategies on HIV/STD prevention program goals. The intervention which was conducted in 2000–2001 significantly: 1) improved knowledge of STDs and condom protection from STD and HIV, and maintained STD/HIV risk perceptions despite treatment; 2) provided a frame to motivate change based on reframing sex work as valid work, increasing disclosure of profession, and instilling a hopeful future orientation reflected in desire for more education or training; 3) improved skills in sexual and workplace negotiations reflected in increased refusal, condom decision-making, and ability to change work contract, but not ability to take leave; 4) built social support by increasing social interactions outside work, social function participation, and helping other sex workers; and 5) addressed environmental barriers of economic vulnerabilities by increasing savings and alternative income, but not working in other locations, nor reduced loan taking, and did not increase voting to build social capital. This

  17. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership. A retrospective cohort study of two Danish religious minorities

    PubMed Central

    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont; Johansen, Christoffer; Søndergaard, Jens; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. Methods We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care contacts using the National Patient Register. We compared the incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia among members of the cohort with the general population. Results The cohort comprised 3119 SDA females, 1856 SDA males, 2056 Baptist females and 1467 Baptist males. For the entire cohort, we expected a total of 32.4 events of STD, and observed only 9. Female SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (both p<0.001). Male SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years also had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No SDA members were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's ‘rule of three’, is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis. Conclusions The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which may partly explain the lower incidence of cancers of the cervix, rectum, anus, head and neck. PMID:27016243

  18. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Antibody in Patients With Sexually Transmitted Diseases Attending a Harrisburg, PA, STD Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sharon; Weber, Daniel I.; LeBar, William D.; Heitjan, Daniel F.; Kopreski, Mary Magdalene C.; Curcio, Frederick D.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic population was studied, along with the prevalence of various STD agents, in an attempt to identify possible STD markers for the hepatitis C virus and help delineate the role of hepatitis C as an STD. The hepatitis C antibody rates found in the STD clinic were also compared with those found among patients attending a local OB/GYN clinic and those enrolled in a blood donor program, all from the same geographical area. Methods: A total of 150 women attending an STD clinc were examined for each of the following agents: Chlamyadia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis B surface antibody, and hepatitis C virus antibody. Additionally, several patients who signed informed consent to be evaluated for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody were tested by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screen method. The prevalence of each agent was then compared with the other agents. Results: The overall prevalence rates detected were as follows: hepatitis B 16%, hepatitis C 4%, chlamydia 18.7%, gonorrhea 7.4%, syphilis 0.7%, and HIV 0%. Hepatitis C antibody was detected in 4% of patients in the STD clinic, 0.76% of volunteer blood donors from central Pennsylvania, and 0% of patiants studied from the Harrisburg Hospital (Harrisburg, PA) prentatal population. Conclusions: This screening study reveals an association between attending a Harrisburg, PA, area STD clinic and having an increased prevalence of hepatitis C antibody, but larger matched control studies will be needed to help clarify sexual transmission as a mode of transmission for the hepatitis C virus. PMID:18475350

  19. Mobile Phone Applications for the Care and Prevention of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Emily C; LeGrand, Sara; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile phone applications (apps) provide a new platform for delivering tailored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and care. Objective To identify and evaluate currently available mobile phone apps related to the prevention and care of HIV and other STDs. Methods We searched the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores for HIV/STD-related apps, excluding apps that exclusively targeted industry, providers, and researchers. Each eligible app was downloaded, tested, and assessed for user ratings and functionality as well as 6 broad content areas of HIV prevention and care: HIV/STD disease knowledge, risk reduction/safer sex, condom promotion, HIV/STD testing information, resources for HIV-positive persons, and focus on key populations. Results Search queries up to May 2012 identified 1937 apps. Of these, 55 unique apps met the inclusion criteria (12 for Android, 29 for iPhone, and 14 for both platforms). Among these apps, 71% provided disease information about HIV/STDs, 36% provided HIV/STD testing information or resources, 29% included information about condom use or assistance locating condoms, and 24% promoted safer sex. Only 6 apps (11%) covered all 4 of these prevention areas. Eight apps (15%) provided tools or resources specifically for HIV/STD positive persons. Ten apps included information for a range of sexual orientations, 9 apps appeared to be designed for racially/ethnically diverse audiences, and 15 apps featured interactive components. Apps were infrequently downloaded (median 100-500 downloads) and not highly rated (average customer rating 3.7 out of 5 stars). Conclusions Most available HIV/STD apps have failed to attract user attention and positive reviews. Public health practitioners should work with app developers to incorporate elements of evidence-based interventions for risk reduction and improve app inclusiveness and interactivity. PMID:23291245

  20. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  1. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers in Barcelona: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine in detail the risk perception of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, and the contextual circumstances, in Nigerian commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Barcelona. Design A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Setting Raval area in Barcelona. Participants 8 CSWs working in Barcelona. Methods A phenomenological study was carried out with Nigerian CSWs in Barcelona. Sampling was theoretical, taking into account: different age ranges; women with and without a partner; women with and without children; and women participating or not in STI/HIV-prevention workshops. Information was obtained by means of eight semistructured individual interviews. An interpretative content analysis was conducted by four analysts. Results Illegal immigrant status, educational level, financial situation and work, and cultural context had mixed effects on CSW knowledge of, exposure to, and prevention and treatment of STI and HIV. CSWs were aware of the higher risk of STI associated with their occupation. They identified condoms as the best preventive method and used them during intercourse with clients. They also implemented other preventive behaviours such as personal hygiene after intercourse. Control of sexual services provided, health education and healthcare services had a positive effect on decreasing exposure and better management of STI/HIV. Conclusions Nigerian CSWs are a vulnerable group because of their poor socioeconomic status. The perception of risk in this group and their preventive behaviours are based on personal determinants, beliefs and experiences from their home country and influences from the host country. Interventions aimed at CSWs must address knowledge gaps, risk behaviours and structural elements. PMID:26078307

  2. Prevalence and knowledge of sexual transmitted infections, drug abuse, and AIDS among male inmates in a Taiwan prison.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming-Chu; Feng, Jui-Ying; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chang, Pi-Yen; Lu, Po-Liang

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study performed a structured questionnaire survey of a Taiwan population of male prison inmates to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), intravenous drug users (IDUs), and drug abuse and to assess their knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The objective was to obtain data needed to control the spread of HIV. Out of 1000 questionnaires distributed, 908 valid questionnaires were returned. Inmates were classified into three groups: IDUs with HIV (13.5%), IDUs without HIV (49.3%), and non-IDUs without HIV (37.2%). A total of 115 (12.7%) inmates had contracted STIs other than HIV. Compared with inmates without HIV, those with HIV were more likely to have a junior high school education level or lower and a history of the following: employment as a blue-collar laborer, STI, unprotected sexual activity, and needle sharing during intravenous drug use. The longer they have used intravenous drugs, the higher the probability that they shared needles, and the more likely they contracted with HIV. Taiwanese male inmates had a low level of knowledge about safe sex and HIV transmission routes, except for sharing needles. The three groups did not significantly differ in HIV-related knowledge. Given the high percentage of IDU and HIV infection in male prison inmates in Taiwan, interventions are needed to educate this population in the increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS associated with unsafe sex and needle sharing during illicit drug use. Such interventions are crucial for limiting the spread of HIV as this population reintegrates with the community. PMID:23217358

  3. High HIV Prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is associated with Social Vulnerability and other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, JP; Weir, SS; Jones-Cooper, C; Byfield, L; Hobbs, MM; McKnight, I; Cummings, S

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is thought to be high in Jamaica. The objective of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors in order to improve prevention approaches. Methods With the help of influential MSM, an experienced research nurse approached MSM in four parishes to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2007. MSM were interviewed and blood taken for HIV and syphilis tests, and urine taken for gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas testing using transcription-mediated amplification assays. A structured questionnaire was administered by the nurse. Results One third (65 of 201; 32%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 25.2% – 47.9%) of MSM were HIV positive. Prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) was: Chlamydia 11%, syphilis 6%, gonorrhea 3.5% and Trichomonas 0%. One third (34%) of MSM identified themselves as being homosexual, 64% as bisexual and 1.5% as heterosexual. HIV positive MSM were significantly more likely to have ever been told by a doctor that they had a STI (48% vs. 27%, OR 2.48 CI 1.21 – 5.04, p=0.01) and to be the receptive sexual partner at last sex (41% vs. 23%, OR 2.41 CI 1.21 – 4.71, p=0.008). MSM who were of low socio-economic status, ever homeless and victims of physical violence were twice as likely to be HIV positive. The majority (60%) of HIV positive MSM had not disclosed their status to their partner and over 50% were not comfortable disclosing their status to anyone. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence among MSM is an important factor driving the HIV epidemic in Jamaica. More effective ways need to be found to reduce the high prevalence of HIV among MSM including measures to reduce their social vulnerability, combat stigma and discrimination and empower them to practice safe sex. PMID:24756602

  4. Short message service (SMS) interventions for the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) is rising, posing a challenge to its control and appropriate management. Text messaging has become the most common mode of communication among almost six billion mobile phone users worldwide. Text messaging can be used to remind patients about clinic appointments, to notify patients that it is time for STI re-testing, and to facilitate patient communication with their health professionals with any questions and concerns they may have about their sexual health. While there are a handful of systematic reviews published on short message service (SMS) interventions in a variety of health settings and issues, none are related to sexual health. We plan to conduct a systematic review to examine the impact text messaging might have on interventions for the prevention and care of patients with STIs. Methods/Design Eligible studies will include both quantitative and qualitative studies published after 1995 that discuss the efficacy and effectiveness of SMS interventions for STI prevention and management using text messaging. Data will be abstracted independently by two reviewers using a standardized pre-tested data abstraction form. Inter-rater reliability scores will be obtained to ensure consistency in the inclusion and data extraction of studies. Heterogeneity will be assessed using the I2 test and subgroup analyses. A nonhypothesis driven inductive reasoning approach as well as a coding framework will be applied to analyze qualitative studies. A meta-analysis may be conducted if sufficient quantitative studies are found using similar outcomes. Discussion For this protocol, we identified ten related systematic reviews. The reviews were limited to a particular disease or setting, were not exclusive to SMS interventions, or were out of date. This systematic review will be the first comprehensive examination of studies that discuss the effectiveness of SMS on multiple outcomes that relate to STI

  5. High prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2 and other sexually transmitted infections among women attending two sexual health clinics in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Månsson, F; Camara, C; Biai, A; Monteiro, M; da Silva, Z J; Dias, F; Alves, A; Andersson, S; Fenyö, E M; Norrgren, H; Unemo, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to examine the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2 and 10 other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and to explore the relationship between HIV and those STIs in women attending two sexual health clinics in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. In all, 711 women with urogenital problems were included. Clinical examination was performed and HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1, HTLV-2 and syphilis were diagnosed by serology. Trichomonas vaginalis was examined using wet mount microscopy. Cervical samples (and swabs from visible ulcers, if present) were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Haemophilus ducreyi, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2, and culture diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection) was 9.5%, 1.8% and 1.1%, respectively. The prevalence of HTLV-1 was 2.8%, HTLV-2 0%, HSV-1 1.4%, HSV-2 7.7%, T. vaginalis 20.4%, syphilis 1.0%, N. gonorrhoeae 1.3%, H. ducreyi 2.7%, M. genitalium 7.7% and C. trachomatis 12.6%. HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infection was significantly associated with active HSV-2 and HIV-1 was significantly associated with M. genitalium infection. In conclusion, HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence was higher compared with previous studies of pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau. The prevalence of co-infection of HIV and other STIs is high. National evidence-based guidelines for the management of STIs in Guinea-Bissau are essential. PMID:21097735

  6. Prevalence and associated factors of mental health problems among monogamous Chinese female patients with sexually transmitted diseases in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; You, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD) increases risk of HIV infection and has profound psychological consequences. The present study examined the mental health problems (poor emotional well-being, insomnia, probable depression) and their associated factors among monogamous Chinese female STD patients. A total of 537 Chinese female STD patients who self-reported having had only one male sex partner in the last 12 months were recruited from a STD clinic in Hong Kong. They completed a survey including measures of mental health, STD-related history, perceptions, feelings related to STD infection, and perceptions toward condom use. Results showed that 22% had poor emotional well-being, 25.7% had insomnia, and 43% were probable cases of depression. Unemployment, worsened relationship with partners after STD diagnosis, STD history in last three months, finding STD examinations embarrassing, and feelings of helplessness were significant risk factors for poor emotional well-being and insomnia. Also, unemployment, worsened relationships with partners after STD diagnosis, and perceived high chance of STD in the coming six months were significant risk factors for probable depression. Perceived efficacy of condom use for STD prevention was a significant protective factor against poor emotional well-being and probable depression. Findings suggest that interventions are warranted to improve the mental health among this population. PMID:25369553

  7. Sensitive Simultaneous Detection of Seven Sexually Transmitted Agents in Semen by Multiplex-PCR and of HPV by Single PCR

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) −1 and −2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks. PMID:24921247

  8. Medicine Sellers for Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections: Effect of a Quasi-Experimental Training Intervention in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Alam, Anadil; Fournier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental pre-post design to test whether short training can improve medicine sellers' (MSs) practices and skills for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Bangladesh. The training included lectures, printed materials, and identification of referral sites. Difference-in-differences estimation was used to determine the effects of intervention on key primary and secondary outcomes. Advice given by the MSs in intervention group for partner treatment and condoms use increased significantly by 11% and 9%, respectively, after adjusting for baseline differences in education, religion, age, duration of training, and study site. Referral of clients to qualified service providers increased by 5% in the intervention group compared to the comparison group, but this change was not found to be statistically significant. Significantly higher proportion of MSs in the intervention group recognized the recommended medications as per the national syndromic management guidelines in Bangladesh for treatment of urethral discharge and genital ulcer symptoms. Short training intervention was found to be effective in improving MSs' practice of promoting condom use and partner treatment to the clients. We anticipate the need for broad based training programs of MSs to improve their skills for the prevention and control of STI/HIV in Bangladesh. PMID:26491678

  9. Validity and Reliability of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Assessment Tool Among Vulnerable Women Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boroumandfar, Zahra; Khorvash, Farzin; Taeri, Katayoun; Salehi, Mahrdad; Yadegarfar, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to design and evaluate the content and face validity, and reliability of knowledge, attitude, and behavior questionnaire on preventive behaviors among vulnerable women concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases of an action research. In the first phase, to explain STDs preventive domains, 20 semi- structured interviews were conducted with the vulnerable women, residing at women prison and women referred to counseling centers. After analyzing content of interviews, three domains were identified: improve their knowledge, modify their attitude and change their behaviors. In the second phase, the questionnaire was designed and tested in a pilot study. Then, its content validity was evaluated. Face validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by test re- test method and Cronbach alpha respectively. Results: Index of content validity in each three domain of the questionnaire (knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning STDs) was obtained over 0.6. Overall content validity index was 0.86 in all three domains of the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha as reliability of questionnaire was 0.80 for knowledge, 0.79 for attitude and 0.85 for behavior. Conclusion: The results showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool to measure knowledge, attitude and behavior of vulnerable women, predisposed to risk of STDs. PMID:27385968

  10. Applying the RE-AIM Framework to Evaluate the Dissemination and Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heon-Jae; Jo, Heui-Sug; Oh, Moo-Kyung; Oh, Hyung-Won

    2015-07-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are one of the most effective ways to translate evidence of medical improvement into everyday practice. This study evaluated the dissemination and implementation of the Sexually Transmitted Infections-Korean Guidelines (STIKG) by applying the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. A survey questionnaire was administered to clinicians via the internet. Among the 332 respondents, 190 (57.2%) stated that they were aware of STIKG and 107 (33.2%) implemented STIKG in their practice. The odds that a physician was exposed to STIKG (dissemination) were 2.61 times greater among physicians with previous training or education for any CPG than those who did not. Clinicians who indicated that STIKG were easy to understand were 4.88 times more likely to implement STIKG in their practice than those who found them not so easy. When a clinician's workplace had a supporting system for CPG use, the odds of implementation was 3.76 times higher. Perceived level of effectiveness of STIKG did not significantly influence their implementation. The findings of this study suggest that, ultimately, knowing how to engage clinicians in CPG implementation is as important as how to disseminate such guidelines; moreover, easy-to-use guidelines and institutional support are key factors. PMID:26130944

  11. Health-seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infections and HIV testing among female sex workers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ngo, A D; Ratliff, E A; McCurdy, S A; Ross, M W; Markham, C; Pham, H T B

    2007-08-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to explore health-seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV testing among female sex workers (FSWs) in the cities of Hanoi and Da Nang, Vietnam. Data were gathered from in-depth interviews, focus groups and participant observation. Results suggest that women's decision to seek STI treatment and HIV testing is influenced by the complex interplay of personal risk perceptions, social relationships and community discourse. The women exhibited adequate knowledge of HIV while their knowledge of STIs was limited. They demonstrated high-risk perceptions of HIV, but they showed little concern for STIs. Most women sought treatment at pharmacies when they noticed symptoms of the genital tract. Their decision to seek care in health facilities and HIV testing was hampered by the high costs of treatment, judgmental attitudes of service providers, and a lack of information on testing services. Future interventions need to focus on strengthening knowledge of STIs and the STI-HIV association, and increasing awareness of HIV counselling and testing services. Training for STI service providers including pharmacies and private practitioners on sex-worker friendly and non-judgmental services and counselling skills should be emphasized to provide timely diagnosis and treatment of STIs, and to refer women to HIV testing. PMID:17712691

  12. HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections in a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Neaigus, Alan

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections among a convenience sample of 64 residents of Dzsumbuj, a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary. No cases of HIV were detected, while the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc) was 27% and syphilis prevalence was 2%. Romas (n=50) were significantly more likely than non-Romas (n=14) to have HAV antibodies (80% vs. 43%) and less likely to be HBV immunized (anti-HBs only; 6% vs. 29%). Current drug injectors (n=13) were more likely than non-injectors (n=51) to have antibodies against HAV (85% vs. 69%) and HCV (85% vs. 8%). While HIV has not been introduced in this population, risk conditions for a potentially explosive HIV epidemic are present. Health care policies should focus on expanding coverage for HAV and HBV immunizations, and access to HIV preventive services needs to be extended to marginalized, mostly minority populations, such as the Roma in Europe. PMID:18935777

  13. Formulas for estimating the costs averted by sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention programs in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chesson, Harrell W; Collins, Dayne; Koski, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention programs can mitigate the health and economic burden of STIs. A tool to estimate the economic benefits of STI programs could prove useful to STI program personnel. Methods We developed formulas that can be applied to estimate the direct medical costs and indirect costs (lost productivity) averted by STI programs in the United States. Costs and probabilities for these formulas were based primarily on published studies. Results We present a series of formulas that can be used to estimate the economic benefits of STI prevention (in 2006 US dollars), using data routinely collected by STI programs. For example, the averted sequelae costs associated with treating women for chlamydia is given as (Cw)(0.16)(0.925)(0.70)($1,995), where Cw is the number of infected women treated for chlamydia, 0.16 is the absolute reduction in the probability of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) as a result of treatment, 0.925 is an adjustment factor to prevent double-counting of PID averted in women with both chlamydia and gonorrhea, 0.70 is an adjustment factor to account for the possibility of re-infection, and $1,995 is the average cost per case of PID, based on published sources. Conclusion The formulas developed in this study can be a useful tool for STI program personnel to generate evidence-based estimates of the economic impact of their program and can facilitate the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of their activities. PMID:18500996

  14. Seminal fluid of honeybees contains multiple mechanisms to combat infections of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Grassl, Julia; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-27

    The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted. We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future. PMID:26791609

  15. High Blood Pressure and Related Factors Among Individuals at High Risk for HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Latkin, Carl

    2016-06-01

    Data from a social network-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention study with a total of 330 men and women at high risk for HIV/STIs were used to examine the relationships between substance use, depressive symptoms, general health, cardiovascular disease risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP). Approximately 60% of the participants had prehypertension to stage 2 hypertension. In the base model, older patients (P<.0001), men (P=.003), and patients with poorer self-reported health (P=.029) were significantly associated with high SBP, whereas older age (P<.001) and higher body mass index (P<.001) were significantly associated with higher DBP. After adjusting for the base model, high frequency of alcohol drinking and high frequency of binge drinking remained significant for high SBP and DBP. These data suggest that future cardiovascular disease programs should target moderate alcohol consumption to improve blood pressure among individuals at high risk for HIV/STIs. PMID:26514661

  16. Vaginal douching and association with sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in a prefecture of Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Xu, Jun-Jie; Wang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Guo-Wei; Wang, Ning; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2016-06-01

    SummaryVaginal douching is a common practice and has been hypothesised to increase a woman's risk for human of contracting HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Our objective was to assess the prevalence of douching and its association with STIs, genital symptoms and HIV/STI knowledge among female sex workers (FSWs). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 837 FSWs with interviews and laboratory tests for HIV/STIs in a prefecture of Yunnan Province in southern China. Vaginal douching was reported by 84% of the women. We found a higher prevalence of vaginal douching practice among FSWs of Han ethnicity, and who were single or cohabitating. Douching was also significantly more common among more educated FSWs and those with greater knowledge of HIV/STIs, and as well as in FSWs who had experienced clinical symptoms in the previous 12 months. Douching was linked to higher risks of HIV (adjusted odds ratio = 2.29; 95% confidence interval 1.01-5.23) and herpes simplex virus type 2 infections (adjusted odds ratio = 2.18; 95% confidence interval 1.46-3.24) after adjusting for confounding factors. Medical professionals and public health workers should correct women's misconception about the effectiveness of douching and discourage women from douching through educational activities. More prospective studies among FSWs are urgently required to identify the relationship between vaginal douching and HIV/STIs. PMID:26016725

  17. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obisesan, Oluranti J.; Olowe, Olugbenga A.; Taiwo, Samuel S.

    2015-01-01

    The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31–45 and 16–30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere. PMID:26064140

  18. Acceptability and Feasibility of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment among Pregnant Women in Gaborone, Botswana, 2015.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Adriane; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Gaolebale, Ponatshego; Moshashane, Neo; Agatha Offorjebe, Ogechukwu; Arena, Kaitlin; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Morroni, Chelsea

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can cause adverse maternal and birth outcomes. Most countries do not conduct routine testing during antenatal care. We present data on the acceptability and feasibility of testing and treating pregnant women for STIs in an antenatal clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. Materials and Methods. We offered CT, NG, and TV testing using self-collected vaginal swabs to eligible pregnant women. Participants received same-day test results. Those who tested positive were given treatment. Results. Among the 225 women who were eligible and recruited, 200 (89%) agreed to participate. The median age of our study sample was 30 years; most were unmarried (77%), with a median gestational age of 27 weeks and a 23% HIV prevalence. All participants received their results with at least 72% (n = 143) on the same day. Thirty participants (15%) tested positive for an STI, all were treated, and 24 (80%) were treated on the same day. Conclusion. The acceptability of STI testing was high, and the intervention was feasible. This study provides support for continued research into STI prevalence, cost-effectiveness, and the association of STIs with adverse maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:27119076

  19. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus among women attending prenatal services in Apia, Samoa.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, E A; Koro, Semo; Tabrizi, S; Kaldor, J; Poumerol, G; Chen, S; O'Leary, M; Garland, S M

    2004-02-01

    There is no routine prenatal screening for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in pregnancy in Samoa. Testing for chlamydial infection is not available. To gather information on pregnant women, a prevalence survey was conducted in Apia, Samoa, utilizing two prenatal hospital clinics. Pregnant (n=427) women were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and for syphilis (n=441) by rapid plasmid reagin (RPR) and HIV (n=441) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results were: chlamydia 30.9% (132); trichomoniasis 20.8%; gonorrhoea 3.3%; syphilis 0.5%; and HIV 0%. Overall 42.7% had at least 1 STD. Young women aged <25 years were three times more likely to have a STD than older women (odds ratio=3.0, 95% confidence intervals 2.0, 4.5). The lack of inexpensive, reliable field diagnostics remain a barrier to sustainable STD control programmes for pregnant women living in developing countries. PMID:15006074

  20. Self-reported weapon ownership, use, and violence experience among clients accessing an inner-city sexually transmitted disease clinic.

    PubMed

    Jadack, R A; Pare, B; Kachur, S P; Zenilman, J M

    2000-06-01

    Little is known about the extent to which people who access public health care settings own/carry weapons and experience/perpetrate acts of violence. The purpose of this study was to describe weapon ownership and violence experiences of persons attending an inner-city sexually transmitted disease clinic. Face-to-face interviews were administered to 245 clients to assess weapon ownership, types of weapons carried, and experiences as victims or perpetrators of violent acts. Overall, 43.7% reported experience of carrying a weapon at some point in their lives. More men chose to carry guns; more women chose to carry knives or mace. Participants reported experiencing alarming levels of violence in the previous year: 30.5% experienced beatings, 23.9% reported being threatened with a gun, and 18.9% reported forced, unwanted sex. Persons with a history of carrying weapons were significantly more likely to report being both victims and perpetrators of violence. Persons who experienced violence in the previous month were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with an STD. Results show that STD clinics represent yet another setting wherein interventions to curb the extent of violence might be appropriate, and strategies to assist and protect those experiencing violence are needed. PMID:10871536

  1. Does Male Circumcision Protect against Sexually Transmitted Infections? Arguments and Meta-Analyses to the Contrary Fail to Withstand Scrutiny

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Brian J.; Hankins, Catherine A.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Krieger, John N.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    We critically evaluate a recent article by Van Howe involving 12 meta-analyses that concludes, contrary to current evidence, that male circumcision increases the risk of various common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Our detailed scrutiny reveals that these meta-analyses (1) failed to include results of all relevant studies, especially data from randomized controlled trials, (2) introduced bias through use of inappropriate control groups, (3) altered original data, in the case of human papillomavirus (HPV), by questionable adjustments for “sampling bias,” (4) failed to control for confounders through use of crude odds ratios, and (5) used unnecessarily complicated methods without adequate explanation, so impeding replication by others. Interventions that can reduce the prevalence of STIs are important to international health. Of major concern is the global epidemic of oncogenic types of HPV that contribute to the burden of genital cancers. Meta-analyses, when well conducted, can better inform public health policy and medical practice, but when seriously flawed can have detrimental consequences. Our critical evaluation leads us to reject the findings and conclusions of Van Howe on multiple grounds. Our timely analysis thus reaffirms the medical evidence supporting male circumcision as a desirable intervention for STI prevention. PMID:24944836

  2. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of the sexually-transmitted parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Adao, Davin Edric V; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect the sexually-transmitted parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swabs. The presence of T. vaginalis was detected from 121 female sex workers attending a social hygiene clinic in Balibago, Angeles City, Pampanga, Philippines using culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the developed LAMP assay. The high analytical sensitivity of LAMP detected a higher prevalence of T. vaginalis (42.06%) compared to culture (8.26%) and PCR (7.44%). Additionally, this assay did not cross-react with DNAs of other trichomonads that can infect humans such as Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis as well as the pathogens, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. The LAMP assay developed had a limit of detection (0.036 ng/μl) lower than that of PCR using the primers TvK3 and TvK7 (0.36 ng/μl). Prevalence of T. vaginalis in female sex workers in this area of the Philippines may be higher than previously estimated. Discordant results of PCR and LAMP may be due to different reactions to different kinds of inhibitors in the vaginal swabs. PMID:27262954

  3. Thermoreversible Gel Formulations Containing Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or n-Lauroylsarcosine as Potential Topical Microbicides against Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sylvie; Gourde, Pierrette; Piret, Jocelyne; Désormeaux, André; Lamontagne, Julie; Haineault, Caroline; Omar, Rabeea F.; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2001-01-01

    The microbicidal efficacies of two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and n-lauroylsarcosine (LS), were evaluated in cultured cells and in a murine model of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginal infection. In vitro studies showed that SLS and LS were potent inhibitors of the infectivity of HSV-2 strain 333. The concentrations of SLS which inhibit viral infectivity by 50% (50% inhibitory dose) and 90% (90% inhibitory dose) were 32.67 and 46.53 μM, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for LS were 141.76 and 225.30 μM. In addition, intravaginal pretreatment of mice with thermoreversible gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS prior to the inoculation of HSV-2 strain 333 completely prevented the development of genital herpetic lesions and the lethality associated with infection. Of prime interest, no infectious virus could be detected in mouse vaginal mucosa. Both formulations still provided significant protection when viral challenge was delayed until 1 h after pretreatment. Finally, intravaginal application of gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS once daily for 14 days to rabbits did not induce significant irritations to the genital mucosa, as demonstrated from macroscopic and histopathologic examinations. These results suggest that thermoreversible gel formulations containing SLS or LS could represent potent and safe topical microbicides for the prevention of HSV-2 and possibly other sexually transmitted pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:11353610

  4. Bedtime stories: the effects of self-constructed risk scenarios on imaginability and perceived susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Meertens, Ree M; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schaalma, Herman P

    2012-01-01

    Various authors (e.g. Kahnemann, D., & Tversky, A. (1982). The simulation heuristic. In D. Kahnemann, P. Slovic, & A. Tversky (Eds.), Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases (pp. 201-208). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press) have suggested that imagining an event and its consequences influences the perceived likelihood that it might happen in reality (simulation heuristic). A scenario--a description of how a certain activity can lead to a certain outcome--may stimulate one to imagine the outcomes and may influence one's likelihood judgement. The present research studied the effect of risk scenarios on perceptions of susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and the role of imaginability therein. In a randomised experimental study, we examined the effects of a prefabricated risk scenario and a self-constructed risk scenario against a non-message condition on perceived susceptibility to get infected with Chlamydia. Participants considered themselves more susceptible to Chlamydia after writing their own risk scenario but not after reading the prefabricated risk scenario. The imaginability of the event seemed to mediate the effect of self-constructed scenario information on perceived susceptibility. Recommendations for health education practices are discussed. PMID:22263927

  5. Acceptability and Feasibility of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment among Pregnant Women in Gaborone, Botswana, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Adriane; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Gaolebale, Ponatshego; Moshashane, Neo; Agatha Offorjebe, Ogechukwu; Arena, Kaitlin; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Morroni, Chelsea

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can cause adverse maternal and birth outcomes. Most countries do not conduct routine testing during antenatal care. We present data on the acceptability and feasibility of testing and treating pregnant women for STIs in an antenatal clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. Materials and Methods. We offered CT, NG, and TV testing using self-collected vaginal swabs to eligible pregnant women. Participants received same-day test results. Those who tested positive were given treatment. Results. Among the 225 women who were eligible and recruited, 200 (89%) agreed to participate. The median age of our study sample was 30 years; most were unmarried (77%), with a median gestational age of 27 weeks and a 23% HIV prevalence. All participants received their results with at least 72% (n = 143) on the same day. Thirty participants (15%) tested positive for an STI, all were treated, and 24 (80%) were treated on the same day. Conclusion. The acceptability of STI testing was high, and the intervention was feasible. This study provides support for continued research into STI prevalence, cost-effectiveness, and the association of STIs with adverse maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:27119076

  6. Mycoplasma genitalium as a Contributor to the Multiple Etiologies of Cervicitis in Women Attending Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte; Maldeis, Nancy E.; Hardick, Andrew; Hardick, Justin; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium, in women attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, as well as the frequency of coinfections, and relationship of each organism to cervicitis. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 324 women attending Baltimore City STD Clinics, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium were detected using nucleic acid amplification tests. Demographic characteristics and risk factors were ascertained. Results Overall prevalence of infection with C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium was found to be 11.1%, 4.6%, 15.3%, and 19.2%, respectively. Prevalence in women with cervicitis was 15.8%, 6%, 18.9%, and 28.6% for C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium, respectively. Percentages of coinfections were high. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were significantly associated with cervicitis in univariate analysis, but only M. genitalium was significantly associated with cervicitis (AOR: 2.5) in multiple logistic regression models. Conclusion Knowledge of the statistical association of M. genitalium with cervicitis in this study increases the need for further confirmation of the etiologic significance of this organism with cervicitis in more diverse populations. The high prevalence merits more study and may have implications for diagnosis and treatment of cervicitis. PMID:19704398

  7. Sexually transmitted diseases and condom use among female freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, M L; Chan, R K; Chua, W L; Wee, S

    1999-11-01

    This study compares the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), condom use, and health-screening behavior between freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore. A total of 111 female freelance sex workers arrested from November 1996 to March 1997 for illicit prostitution were interviewed; 333 brothel-based sex workers served as the comparison group for the analysis. STD test results revealed that freelance sex workers (34.8%) have higher STD rates than brothel-based sex workers (24%). The two most common STDs in both groups were chlamydial cervicitis and syphilis. Moreover, condom use was significantly lower among freelance sex workers than brothel-based sex workers and was associated with younger age (25 years old), decreasing number of clients, and perception of non-condom use among peers. In addition, freelance workers were more educated and had equally high knowledge on STDs and AIDS. Since most of these freelance workers practice high-risk behaviors and poor health screening behaviors such as not going for regular medical check-ups, STD services and education programs should target this group. PMID:10560725

  8. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obisesan, Oluranti J; Olowe, Olugbenga A; Taiwo, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31-45 and 16-30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere. PMID:26064140

  9. The need for innovative sexually transmitted infection screening initiatives for young men: evidence from genitourinary medicine clinics across England.

    PubMed

    Dave, S S; French, R S; Jungmann, E; Brook, G; Cassell, J A; Mercer, C H

    2011-10-01

    The study objectives were to ascertain behavioural, access-related, health-seeking factors and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence in young men (<25 years) attending genitourinary (GU) medicine clinics and compare them with older men (≥ 25 years) and young women (<25 years). Between October 2004 and March 2005, 4600 new attendees at seven sociodemographically and geographically contrasting GU medicine clinics across England completed questionnaires, which were linked to routine clinical data. Young men waited significantly less time to be seen in clinic compared with older men and young women. They were less likely to report symptoms than older men (P = 0.021) yet more likely to be diagnosed with chlamydia (P = 0.001) and gonorrhoea (P = 0.007). They were also more likely to be diagnosed with an acute STI relative to young women (P = 0.007). Our data confirm the need to make comprehensive STI screening readily available for young men and to develop effective and innovative screening strategies in different settings. PMID:21998183

  10. Characteristics and predictors of women who obtain rescreening for sexually transmitted infections using the www.iwantthekit.org screening program

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Barnes, Mathilda; Jett-Goheen, Mary; Quinn, Nicole; Whittle, Pamela; Hogan, Terry; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Professional organizations recommend rescreening chlamydia-infected women. The iwantthekit Internet-screening program offered rescreening opportunities by using iwantthekit. Mailed, home-collected vaginal swabs were tested for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomonas by nucleic acid amplification tests. Demographics and risk behaviors of repeat users were determined from questionnaires. Predictors of repeat users were measured in a matched case–control study. Of 1747 women, 304 (17%), who used iwantthekit, indicated they had used the kit previously. Mean age was 24.7 ± 5.7 year and 69% were African American. Repeat iwantthekit users were more likely to be ≥20 years (OR = 2.10); were more likely to have been treated for a sexually transmitted infection (OR = 2.32); less likely to drink alcohol before sex (OR = 0.63); and to never use condoms (OR = 0.43). Of repeaters, 84.2% had a negative prior test and 15.8% had a positive. At current test, 13.2% were infected. Previous trichomonas was associated with current trichomonas (p < 0.05). The iwantthekit may offer rescreening opportunities for previously infected women. PMID:23970594

  11. Are obligatory apomicts invested in the pollen tube transmitting tissue? Comparison of the micropyle ultrastructure between sexual and apomictic dandelions (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Świątek, Piotr; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Majeský, Ľuboš; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Stolarczyk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    With the exception of the sunflower, little information concerning the micropyle ultrastructure of the family Asteraceae is available. The aim of our study was to compare the micropyle structure in amphimictic and apomictic dandelions. Ultrastructural studies using buds and flowers during anthesis have been done on the micropyle of the sexual and apomictic Taraxacum. In all of the species that were examined, the micropylar canal was completely filled with ovule transmitting tissue and the matrix that was produced by these cells. The ovule transmitting tissue was connected to the ovarian transmitting tissue. The micropyle was asymmetrical because the integument epidermis that forms the transmitting tissue was only on the funicular side. There was a cuticle between the obturator cells and epidermal cells on the other side of integument. The micropylar transmitting tissue cells and theirs matrix reached the synergid apex. The cytoplasm of the transmitting tissue cells was especially rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), dictyosomes, and mitochondria. No major differences were detected between the micropyle structure of the amphimictic and apomictic species; thus, a structural reduction of obturator does not exist. The ovule transmitting tissue is still active in apomictic dandelions despite the presence of the embryo and endosperm. Differences and similarities between the micropyle structure in the Asteraceae that have been studied to date are discussed. PMID:25652809

  12. “Street Medicine”: Collaborating With a Faith-Based Organization to Screen At-Risk Youths for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Nicholas J.; Gallaread, Alonzo; Siller, Jacqueline; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    Chlamydia and gonorrhea rates among African American youths in San Francisco are far higher than those among young people of the city’s other racial and ethnic groups. A geographically targeted sexually transmitted disease education and screening intervention performed in collaboration with a local faith-based organization was able to screen hundreds of at-risk youths. The screened individuals included friends and sex partners from an extensive social-sexual network that transcended the boundaries of the target population. The intervention also provided an excellent opportunity to practice “street medicine,” in which all screening and treatment was effectively conducted in the field. PMID:15226122

  13. Impact of an intervention on HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use among sex workers in Bombay, India.

    PubMed

    Bhave, G; Lindan, C P; Hudes, E S; Desai, S; Wagle, U; Tripathi, S P; Mandel, J S

    1995-07-01

    The objective was to develop and test an HIV intervention targeting sex workers and madams in the brothels of Bombay. In a controlled intervention trial, with measurements before and after the intervention, 334 sex workers and 20 madams were recruited from an intervention site, and 207 and 17, respectively, from a similar control site, both in red-light areas of Bombay. All sex workers were tested for antibodies to HIV and syphilis, and for hepatitis B surface antigen. Information on sexual practices, condom use, and knowledge of HIV was collected by questionnaires. All subjects in the intervention group underwent a 6-month program of educational videos, small group discussions and pictorial educational materials; free condoms were also distributed. The blood tests and the questionnaire were readministered to all subjects at both sites immediately after the intervention. Both groups were followed for approximately 1 year. The baseline prevalence of HIV antibodies was 47% in the intervention group and 41% in the control group (p = 0.17). The incidence densities for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases were significantly different in the 2 groups (all p 0.005): 0.05 and 0.16 per person-year of follow-up for HIV, 0.08 and 0.22 per person-year for antibodies to syphilis, and 0.04 and 0.12 per person-year for hepatitis B surface antigen in the intervention and control women, respectively. Following the intervention, there was a significant increase in knowledge of modes of HIV transmission in the intervention group (n = 334) compared to the control group (n = 190) (60% vs. 99% compared to 56% vs. 26%, p 0.001). In addition, women reported increased levels of condom use and some (41%) said they were willing to refuse clients who would not use them. However, both the sex workers and 100% of the madams were concerned about losing business if condom use was insisted upon. Intervention programs of longer duration that target madams and clients and make condoms easily

  14. Consultations for sexually transmitted infections in the general practice in the Netherlands: an opportunity to improve STI/HIV testing

    PubMed Central

    Trienekens, Suzan C M; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Donker, Gé A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; van der Sande, Marianne A B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In the Netherlands, sexually transmitted infection (STI) care is provided by general practitioners (GPs) as well as by specialised STI centres. Consultations at the STI centres are monitored extensively, but data from the general practice are limited. This study aimed to examine STI consultations in the general practice. Design Prospective observational patient survey. Setting General practices within the nationally representative Dutch Sentinel GP network (n=125 000 patient population), 2008–2011. Outcome measures GPs were asked to fill out a questionnaire at each STI consultation addressing demographics, sexual behaviour and laboratory test results. Patient population, testing practices and test positivity are reported. Participants Patients attending a consultation concerning an STI/HIV-related issue. Results Overall, 1 in 250 patients/year consulted their GP for STI/HIV-related problems. Consultations were concentrated among young heterosexuals of Dutch origin. Laboratory testing was requested for 83.3% of consultations. Overall consult positivity was 33.4%, highest for chlamydia (14.7%), condylomata (8.7%) and herpes (6.4%). 32 of 706 positive patients (4.5%) were diagnosed with multiple infections. Main high-risk groups were patients who were <25 years old (for chlamydia), >25 years old (syphilis), men who have sex with men (MSM; for gonorrhoea/syphilis/HIV) or having symptoms (for any STI). Adherence to guideline-recommendations to test for multiple STI among high-risk groups varied from 15% to 75%. Conclusions This study found that characteristics of patients who consulted a GP for STIs were comparable to those of patients attending STI centres regarding age and ethnicity; however, consultations of high-risk groups like MSM and (clients of) commercial sex workers were reported less by the general practice. Where the STI centres routinely test all patients for chlamydia/syphilis/HIV/gonorrhoea, GPs tested more selectively, even more

  15. The 2012 International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections European Collaborative Clinical Group report on the diagnosis and management of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in Europe.

    PubMed

    Brooks, B; Patel, R

    2013-06-01

    The European Collaborative Clinical Group (ECCG) was inaugurated at the 26th International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI) Congress in Riga, Latvia 2011. The ECCG is a network of over 100 sexually transmitted infection specialists who have come together to conduct questionnaire-based research across the European region. It is expected that this work will focus and direct guideline development. A central core group of the ECCG has also been established who are responsible for identifying suitable survey questions that will be carried out but only after approval by the full ECCG Board. The ECCG aims to conduct a maximum of two projects per year which will be presented at the annual regional congresses and published as appropriate. PMID:23970741

  16. Internet-Based HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing in British Columbia, Canada: Opinions and Expectations of Prospective Clients

    PubMed Central

    Hottes, Travis Salway; Farrell, Janine; Bondyra, Mark; Haag, Devon; Shoveller, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Background The feasibility and acceptability of Internet-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing have been demonstrated; however, few programs have included testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In British Columbia, Canada, a new initiative will offer online access to chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV testing, integrated with existing clinic-based services. We presented the model to gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and existing clinic clients through a series of focus groups. Objective To identify perceived benefits, concerns, and expectations of a new model for Internet-based STI and HIV testing among potential end users. Methods Participants were recruited through email invitations, online classifieds, and flyers in STI clinics. A structured interview guide was used. Focus groups were audio recorded, and an observer took detailed field notes. Analysts then listened to audio recordings to validate field notes. Data were coded and analyzed using a scissor-and-sort technique. Results In total, 39 people participated in six focus groups. Most were MSM, and all were active Internet users and experienced with STI/HIV testing. Perceived benefits of Internet-based STI testing included anonymity, convenience, and client-centered control. Salient concerns were reluctance to provide personal information online, distrust of security of data provided online, and the need for comprehensive pretest information and support for those receiving positive results, particularly for HIV. Suggestions emerged for mitigation of these concerns: provide up-front and detailed information about the model, ask only the minimal information required for testing, give positive results only by phone or in person, and ensure that those testing positive are referred for counseling and support. End users expected Internet testing to offer continuous online service delivery, from booking appointments, to transmitting information to the laboratory, to

  17. Potential impact and acceptability of Internet partner notification for men who have sex with men and transgender women recently diagnosed as having sexually transmitted disease in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jesse L; Segura, Eddy R; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; Peinado, Jesus; Salvatierra, Hector J; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the potential impact of Internet partner notification among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Peru recently diagnosed as having sexually transmitted disease. Use of Internet partner notification was anticipated for 55.9% of recent partners, including 43.0% of partners not currently expected to be notified, a 20.6% increase in anticipated notification outcomes. PMID:24326581

  18. Digital divide: variation in internet and cellular phone use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic.

    PubMed

    Samal, Lipika; Hutton, Heidi E; Erbelding, Emily J; Brandon, Elizabeth S; Finkelstein, Joseph; Chander, Geetanjali

    2010-01-01

    We sought to describe: (1) the prevalence of internet, cellular phone, and text message use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic, (2) the acceptability of health advice by each mode of information and communication technology (ICT), and (3) demographic characteristics associated with ICT use. This study is a cross-sectional survey of 200 English-speaking women presenting to a Baltimore City STI clinic with STI complaints. Participants completed a self-administered survey querying ICT use and demographic characteristics. Three separate questions asked about interest in receiving health advice delivered by the three modalities: internet, cellular phone, and text message. We performed logistic regression to examine how demographic factors (age, race, and education) are associated with likelihood of using each modality. The median age of respondents was 27 years; 87% were African American, and 71% had a high school diploma. The rate of any internet use was 80%; 31% reported daily use; 16% reported weekly use; and 32% reported less frequent use. Almost all respondents (93%) reported cellular phone use, and 79% used text messaging. Acceptability of health advice by each of the three modalities was about 60%. In multivariate analysis, higher education and younger age were associated with internet use, text messaging, and cellular phone use. Overall rate of internet use was high, but there was an educational disparity in internet use. Cellular phone use was almost universal in this sample. All three modalities were equally acceptable forms of health communication. Describing baseline ICT access and the acceptability of health advice via ICT, as we have done, is one step toward determining the feasibility of ICT-delivered health interventions in urban populations. PMID:19941085

  19. Perceptions on Point-of-Care Tests for Sexually Transmitted Infections - Comparison between Frontline Clinicians and Professionals in Industry.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Hogan, M Terry; Jackman, Joany; Jett-Goheen, Mary; Uy, O Manuel; Rompalo, Anne M

    2012-06-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine if a gap exists between sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinicians and industry professionals regarding perceptions of the ideal types and characteristics of STI point-of-care tests (POCTs). METHODS: Our online survey design contained sections on demographics; barriers of use for available STI POCTs; characteristics of an ideal POCT, including prioritizing pathogens for targets; and "building your own POCT". Practicing clinicians and academic experts from two venues, STI-related international conference attendees and U.S. STD clinic clinicians, were invited to participate in the clinician survey. Professionals from industry in the STI diagnostic field were invited to participate in the industry survey. Chi-square test and conditional logistical regression were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Clinician survey participants (n=218) identified "the time frame required" (39.9%), "complexity" (31.2%), and "interruption of work flow" (30.3%) as the top three barriers making it difficult to use STI POCTs, while the industry survey participants (n=107) identified "complexity" (65.4%), "unreliability" (53.3%), and "difficulty in reading results" (34.6%) as the top three barriers (all p values <0.05). Sensitivity was always the most important attribute to be considered for a new STI POCT by both participant groups. Participants of the clinician group chose cost as the second priority attribute, while those of the industry group chose specificity as the second priority. CONCLUSION: We identified differences in the perceptions regarding barriers and ideal attributes for STI POCTs between frontline clinical providers and industry personnel. Tailored training is warranted to inform scientists, biomedical engineers, and other industry experts about characteristics that clinicians desire for STI POCTs. PMID:22844231

  20. HIV-1 subtype E incidence and sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of military conscripts in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nopkesorn, T; Mock, P A; Mastro, T D; Sangkharomya, S; Sweat, M; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Laosakkitiboran, J; Young, N L; Morse, S A; Schmid, S; Weniger, B G

    1998-08-01

    Findings are presented from a prospective study conducted to determine the rate of and risk factors for HIV-1 seroconversion, and to describe sexually transmitted diseases (STD) prevalence rates for young men in northern Thailand. Study findings are based upon data collected from self-administered questionnaires and serologic testing at enrollment in 1991 and at follow-up after 6, 17, and 23 months on a cohort of 1115 young men chosen by lottery for military conscription. Men in Thailand are generally eligible for conscription in the year of their 21st birthday. 6.9% of the men were HIV-1 seropositive at enrollment; 15.3% of men from the upper northern region compared with 2.5% of men from elsewhere. 14 subjects seroconverted to HIV-1 envelope subtype E over the course of the study. The overall HIV-1 incidence rate was 1.1/100 person-years (PY) of follow-up. However, the rate was 2.0/100 PY for conscripts from the upper northern subregion of Thailand compared with 0.5/100 PY from other regions. Multivariate analyses found frequent sex with female prostitutes, receptive anal sex, and high levels of alcohol consumption to be positively associated with HIV-1 seroconversion. Genital ulceration was the STD most strongly associated with seroconversion. The prevalence of serologic reactivity to syphilis, Haemophilus ducreyi, and herpes simplex virus type 2 increased with greater frequency of sex with female prostitutes, and was generally higher for men from the upper north. PMID:9704943