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1

Cross-species induction of luminescence in the quorum-sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

Different species of bacteria were tested for production of extracellular autoinducer-like activities that could stimulate the expression of the luminescence genes in Vibrio harveyi. Several species of bacteria, including the pathogens Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, were found to produce such activities. Possible physiological roles for the two V. harveyi detection-response systems and their joint regulation are discussed.

Bassler, B L; Greenberg, E P; Stevens, A M

1997-01-01

2

Cross-Species Induction of Luminescence in the Quorum Sensing Bacterium Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least two species of marine bacteria, Vibrio fischeri and Vibrio harveyi, express bioluminescence in response to cell den- sity. These two vibrios are found in different environments in the ocean. V. harveyi is found free-living in the sea as well as in the gut tracts of marine animals, where it exists at high popu- lation densities in association with

BONNIE L. BASSLER; E. PETER GREENBERG; ANN M. STEVENS

1997-01-01

3

Biofilm formation by Vibrio harveyi on surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of biofilm in the survival and persistence of the bacterial shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi and its possible role in perpetuating infection in shrimp hatcheries was studied. Vibrio harveyi formed biofilms on all three substrates tested: cement slab, high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic and steel coupons. Cell density was highest on the plastic surface followed by the cement slab

I. Karunasagar; S. K. Otta

1996-01-01

4

Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi

AGATA CZYZ; JACEK JASIECKI; ADAM BOGDAN; HANNA SZPILEWSKA; G. Wegrzyn

2000-01-01

5

Small RNA Control of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Vibrio Harveyi and Vibrio Cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing is a process of cell-to-cell communication, by which bacteria coordinate gene expression and behavior on a\\u000a population-wide scale. Quorum sensing is accomplished through production, secretion, and subsequent detection of chemical\\u000a signaling molecules termed autoinducers. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae and the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi incorporate information from multiple autoinducers, and also environmental signals and metabolic cues

Sine Lo Svenningsen

6

A selective and differential medium for Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

A new medium, termed Vibrio harveyi agar, has been developed for the isolation and enumeration of V. harveyi. It is possible to differentiate V. harveyi colonies from the colonies of strains representing 15 other Vibrio species with this medium. This medium has been shown to inhibit the growth of two strains of marine Pseudomonas spp. and two strains of marine Flavobacterium spp. but to allow the growth of Photobacterium strains. Colonies displaying typical V. harveyi morphology were isolated from the larval rearing water of a commercial prawn hatchery with V. harveyi agar as a primary isolation medium and were positively identified, by conventional tests, as V. harveyi. This agar displays great potential as a primary isolation medium and offers significant advantages over thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar as a medium for differentiating V. harveyi from other marine and estuarine Vibrio species.

Harris, L; Owens, L; Smith, S

1996-01-01

7

Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments  

SciTech Connect

For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, the authors consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

Czyz, A.; Jasiecki, J.; Bogdan, A.; Szpilewska, H.; Wegrzyn, G.

2000-02-01

8

Three Parallel Quorum-Sensing Systems Regulate Gene Expression in Vibrio harveyi†  

PubMed Central

In a process called quorum sensing, bacteria communicate using extracellular signal molecules termed autoinducers. Two parallel quorum-sensing systems have been identified in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. System 1 consists of the LuxM-dependent autoinducer HAI-1 and the HAI-1 sensor, LuxN. System 2 consists of the LuxS-dependent autoinducer AI-2 and the AI-2 detector, LuxPQ. The related bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, a human pathogen, possesses System 2 (LuxS, AI-2, and LuxPQ) but does not have obvious homologues of V. harveyi System 1. Rather, System 1 of V. cholerae is made up of the CqsA-dependent autoinducer CAI-1 and a sensor called CqsS. Using a V. cholerae CAI-1 reporter strain we show that many other marine bacteria, including V. harveyi, produce CAI-1 activity. Genetic analysis of V. harveyi reveals cqsA and cqsS, and phenotypic analysis of V. harveyi cqsA and cqsS mutants shows that these functions comprise a third V. harveyi quorum-sensing system that acts in parallel to Systems 1 and 2. Together these communication systems act as a three-way coincidence detector in the regulation of a variety of genes, including those responsible for bioluminescence, type III secretion, and metalloprotease production.

Henke, Jennifer M.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2004-01-01

9

Small RNA Control of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Vibrio Harveyi and Vibrio Cholerae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quorum sensing is a process of cell-to-cell communication, by which bacteria coordinate gene expression and behavior on a population-wide scale. Quorum sensing is accomplished through production, secretion, and subsequent detection of chemical signaling molecules termed autoinducers. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae and the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi incorporate information from multiple autoinducers, and also environmental signals and metabolic cues into their quorum-sensing pathways. At the core of these pathways lie several homologous small regulatory RNA molecules, the Quorum Regulatory RNAs. Small noncoding RNAs have emerged throughout the bacterial and eukaryotic kingdoms as key regulators of behavioral and developmental processes. Here, I review our present understanding of the role of the Qrr small RNAs in integrating quorum-sensing signals and in regulating the individual cells response to this information.

Svenningsen, Sine Lo

10

Overexpression, Purification, Characterization, and Pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi Hemolysin VHH  

PubMed Central

Vibrio harveyi VHH hemolysin is a putative pathogenicity factor in fish. In this study, the hemolysin gene vhhA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified VHH was characterized with regard to pH and temperature profiles, phospholipase activity, cytotoxicity, pathogenicity to flounder, and the signal peptide.

Zhong, Yingbin; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Chen, Jixiang; Chi, Zhenghao; Sun, Boguang; Li, Yun; Austin, Brian

2006-01-01

11

Negative Feedback in the Vibrio harveyi Quorum-Sensing Circuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quorum sensing is the mechanism by which bacteria communicate and synchronize group behaviors. Multiple feedbacks have been identified in the model quorum-sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi, but it has been unclear how these feedbacks interact in individual cells to control the fidelity of signal transduction. We measured the copy number distribution of the master regulators to quantify the activity of the signaling network. We find that the feedbacks affect the production rate, level, and noise of the core quorum-sensing components. Using fluorescence time-lapse microscopy, we directly observed the master regulator in individual cells, and analyzed the persistence of heterogeneity in terms of the normalized time-delayed direct correlation. Our findings suggest that feedback from small regulatory RNAs regulates a receptor to control the noise level in signal transduction. We further tested this model by re-engineering the gene circuit to specifically diminish this feedback. We conclude that negative feedbacks mediated by sRNAs permit fine-tuning of gene regulation, thereby increasing the fidelity of signal transduction.

Teng, Shu-Wen; Schaffer, Jessie; Wingreen, Ned; Bassler, Bonnie; Phuan Ong, Nai

2010-03-01

12

Genes encoding the Vibrio harveyi haemolysin (VHH)/thermolabile haemolysin (TLH) are widespread in vibrios.  

PubMed

V. harveyi VHH haemolysin, which shows high homology to the TLH haemolysin (the identities of their deduced amino acid sequences are up to 85.6%), is a putative virulence factor to marine cultured fish. A VHH probe, which is specific to V. harveyi vhhA haemolysin gene, was used to screen EcoR I digests of total DNA from 57 vibrio strains, including 26 vibrio type strains, 20 V. harveyi isolates and 11 V. parahaemolyticus isolates. As a result, 1 strong hybridisation band was detected in 13 type strains, including 2 of Vibrio alginolyticus, 2 of V. harveyi, and 1 strain each of Grimontia hollisae, V. campbellii, V. cincinnatiensis, V. fischeri, V. mimicus, V. natriegens, V. parahaemolyticus, V. proteolyticus and V. logei. Also, 1 weak band was detected in 6 type strains, including V. anguillarum, V. aestuarianus, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, V. fluvialis, V. furnissii and V. vulnificus. There was not any hybridization signal in other type strains. Also, vhh/tlh was present in all isolates of V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. Moreover, 3 isolates of V. harveyi, i.e. VIB 645, VIB 648 and SF1, had duplicated vhh genes. The data indicates that vhh/tlh is widespread in vibrios, especially in V. harveyi related species and V. fischeri related species. To support this conclusion, the vhh/tlh homologue genes in V. anguillarum VIB 72, V. campbellii VIB 285, V. natriegens VIB 299 and V. harveyi VIB 647 were cloned and sequenced, and the deduced amino acid sequences showed high degree of identities to VHH (67% - 99%) and TLH haemolysin (69% - 91%). This study will help us to identify the role of vhh/tlh haemolysin gene in the pathogenicity of vibrios. PMID:18062266

Wang, Shu-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Zhong, Ying-Bin; Sun, Bo-Guang; Chen, Ji-Xiang

2007-10-01

13

Regulation of Metalloprotease Gene Expression in Vibrio vulnificus by a Vibrio harveyi LuxR Homologue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of the Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease gene, vvp, was turned up rapidly when bacterial growth reached the late log phase. A similar pattern of expression has been found in the metalloprotease gene of Vibrio cholerae, and this has been shown to be regulated by a Vibrio harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional activator. To find out whether a LuxR homologue exists in V.

CHUNG-PING SHAO; LIEN-I HOR

2001-01-01

14

Biosynthesis of myristic acid in luminescent bacteria. [Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo pulse-label studies have demonstrated that luminescent bacteria can provide myritic acid (14:0) required for the synthesis of the luciferase substrate myristyl aldehyde. Luminescent wild type Vibrio harveyi incubated with (¹⁴C) acetate in a nutrient-depleted medium accumulated substantial tree (¹⁴C)fatty acid (up to 20% of the total lipid label). Radio-gas chromatography revealed that > 75% of the labeled fatty

1987-01-01

15

A model for signal transduction during quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a framework for analyzing luminescence regulation during quorum sensing in the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Using a simplified model for signal transduction in the quorum sensing pathway, we identify key dimensionless parameters that control the system's response. These parameters are estimated using experimental data on luminescence phenotypes for different mutant strains. The corresponding model predictions are consistent with results from other experiments which did not serve as input for determining model parameters. Furthermore, the proposed framework leads to novel testable predictions for luminescence phenotypes and for responses of the network to different perturbations.

Banik, Suman K.; Fenley, Andrew T.; Kulkarni, Rahul V.

2009-12-01

16

Quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards different hosts. Chitinase can be considered as a virulence factor because it helps pathogenic bacteria to attach to the host and to penetrate its tissues (e.g. in case of shrimp). Here, we show that quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in V. harveyi. Chitinolytic activity towards natural chitin from crab shells, the synthetic chitin derivative chitin azure, and fluorogenic chitin oligomers was significantly higher in a mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with a mutant in which the system is maximally active. Furthermore, the addition of signal molecule containing cell-free culture fluids decreased chitinase activity in a Harveyi Autoinducer 1 and Autoinducer 2-deficient double mutant. Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is maximally active when compared with the mutant in which the system is completely inactivated. [Correction added on 25 September 2009, after first online publication: the preceding sentence was corrected from 'Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with the mutant in which the system is maximally active.'] We argue that this regulation might help the vibrios to switch between host-associated and free-living life styles. PMID:23765997

Defoirdt, Tom; Darshanee Ruwandeepika, H A; Karunasagar, Indrani; Boon, Nico; Bossier, Peter

2009-07-01

17

The luxR gene product of Vibrio harveyi is a transcriptional activator of the lux promoter.  

PubMed Central

Expression of the lux operon from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi is dependent on cell density and requires an unlinked regulatory gene, luxR, and other cofactors for autoregulation. Escherichia coli transformed with the lux operon emits very low levels of light, and this deficiency can be partially alleviated by coexpression of luxR in trans. The V. harveyi lux promoter was analyzed in vivo by primer extension mapping to examine the function of luxR. RNA isolated from E. coli transformed with the Vibrio harveyi lux operon was shown to have a start site at 123 bp upstream of the first ATG codon of luxC. This is in sharp contrast to the start site found for lux RNA isolated from V. harveyi, at 26 bp upstream of the luxC initiation codon. However, when E. coli was cotransformed with both the lux operon and luxR, the start site of the lux mRNA shifted from -123 to -26. Furthermore, expression of the luxR gene caused a 350-fold increase in lux mRNA levels. The results suggest that LuxR of V. harveyi is a transcriptional activator stimulating initiation at the -26 lux promoter. Images

Swartzman, E; Silverman, M; Meighen, E A

1992-01-01

18

A Nitric Oxide-Responsive Quorum Sensing Circuit in Vibrio harveyi Regulates Flagella Production and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Cell signaling plays an important role in the survival of bacterial colonies. They use small molecules to coordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. This process, known as quorum sensing, helps bacteria regulate diverse functions such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation and virulence. In Vibrio harveyi, a bioluminescent marine bacterium, four parallel quorum-sensing systems have been identified to regulate light production. We have previously reported that nitric oxide (NO), through the H-NOX/HqsK quorum sensing pathway contributes to light production in V. harveyi through the LuxU/LuxO/LuxR quorum sensing pathway. In this study, we show that nitric oxide (NO) also regulates flagellar production and enhances biofilm formation. Our data suggest that V. harveyi is capable of switching between lifestyles to be able to adapt to changes in the environment.

Henares, Bernadette M.; Xu, Yueming; Boon, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

19

Construction and Use of a Broad-Host-Range Plasmid Expressing the lamB Gene for Utilization of Bacteriophage ? Vectors in the Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The remarkable success of Escherichia coli as a model organism in molecular genetics was dependent, among other things, on its susceptibility to genetic manipulation.\\u000a Many versatile and sophisticated genetic tools for molecular biology studies are derived from bacteriophage ?. However, this\\u000a bacteriophage is specific for E. coli, and thus ?-based techniques have been restricted to this bacterium. Plasmids expressing

Jacek Jasiecki; Agata Czy?; Magdalena Gabig; Grzegorz W?grzyn

2001-01-01

20

Autoinducers Act as Biological Timers in Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing regulates cell density-dependent phenotypes and involves the synthesis, excretion and detection of so-called autoinducers. Vibrio harveyi strain ATCC BAA-1116 (recently reclassified as Vibrio campbellii), one of the best-characterized model organisms for the study of quorum sensing, produces and responds to three autoinducers. HAI-1, AI-2 and CAI-1 are recognized by different receptors, but all information is channeled into the same signaling cascade, which controls a specific set of genes. Here we examine temporal variations of availability and concentration of the three autoinducers in V. harveyi, and monitor the phenotypes they regulate, from the early exponential to the stationary growth phase in liquid culture. Specifically, the exponential growth phase is characterized by an increase in AI-2 and the induction of bioluminescence, while HAI-1 and CAI-1 are undetectable prior to the late exponential growth phase. CAI-1 activity reaches its maximum upon entry into stationary phase, while molar concentrations of AI-2 and HAI-1 become approximately equal. Similarly, autoinducer-dependent exoproteolytic activity increases at the transition into stationary phase. These findings are reflected in temporal alterations in expression of the luxR gene that encodes the master regulator LuxR, and of four autoinducer-regulated genes during growth. Moreover, in vitro phosphorylation assays reveal a tight correlation between the HAI-1/AI-2 ratio as input and levels of receptor-mediated phosphorylation of LuxU as output. Our study supports a model in which the combinations of autoinducers available, rather than cell density per se, determine the timing of various processes in V. harveyi populations.

Anetzberger, Claudia; Reiger, Matthias; Fekete, Agnes; Schell, Ursula; Stambrau, Nina; Plener, Laure; Kopka, Joachim; Schmitt-Kopplin, Phillippe; Hilbi, Hubert; Jung, Kirsten

2012-01-01

21

Subcellular components of Vibrio harveyi and probiotics induce immune responses in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), against V. harveyi.  

PubMed

Bacterial subcellular components and probiotics were successful for the stimulation of immunity and the prevention of Vibrio harveyi infections in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Rainbow trout were immunized with whole inactivated cells of V. harveyi to obtain polyclonal antibodies against specific antigens. Western blotting showed a unique reactive band (approximately 93 kDa) between serum and bacterial proteins from outer membrane proteins (OMP) and extracellular products (ECP). Probiotics were selected according to their capability to inhibit V. harveyi. Two of these bacteria, i.e. A3-47 and A3-51, showed cross-reactivity with V. harveyi antiserum. Their OMPs and ECPs were reactive with V. harveyi antiserum in bands of approximately 93 kDa for A3-51 and higher for A3-47. In vivo tests determined that fish fed with A3-51 produced cross-reactive antibodies against V. harveyi and also, the survival of these fish infected with V. harveyi was high, being similar to the level achieved with vaccinated fish. Thus, the probiotics, when administered as live preparations, were capable of producing cross-reactive antibody against specific bacterial pathogens. PMID:18482381

Arijo, S; Brunt, J; Chabrillón, M; Díaz-Rosales, P; Austin, B

2008-05-13

22

Novel AI-2 quorum sensing inhibitors in Vibrio harveyi identified through structure-based virtual screening.  

PubMed

In this letter, a high-throughput virtual screening was accomplished to identify potent inhibitors against AI-2 quorum sensing on the basis of Vibrio harveyi LuxPQ crystal structure. Seven compounds were found to inhibit AI-2 quorum sensing with IC(50) values in the micromolar range, and presented low cytotoxicity or no cytotoxicity in V. harveyi. PMID:22963763

Zhu, Peng; Peng, Hanjing; Ni, Nanting; Wang, Binghe; Li, Minyong

2012-08-24

23

Quorum Sensing-Disrupting Brominated Furanones Protect the Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana from Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates†  

PubMed Central

Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests.

Defoirdt, Tom; Crab, Roselien; Wood, Thomas K.; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

2006-01-01

24

Quorum sensing-disrupting brominated furanones protect the gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.  

PubMed

Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests. PMID:16957276

Defoirdt, Tom; Crab, Roselien; Wood, Thomas K; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

2006-09-01

25

Regulation of virulence factors by quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is an important aquatic pathogen that produces several virulence factors. In this study, the effect of quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, on the production of the virulence factors caseinase, gelatinase, lipase, hemolysin, and phospholipase, was investigated. The activity of virulence factors was studied through enzymatic plate assays using V. harveyi wild type and mutants with constitutively maximal or minimal quorum sensing activity. The results showed that quorum sensing negatively regulates phospholipase activity as higher activity was observed in mutants with minimal quorum sensing activity than in the mutant with maximal quorum sensing activity.Reverse transcriptase real-time PCR with specific primers revealed that the expression level of three phospholipase genes was 2-fold higher [corrected] in the mutant with minimal quorum sensing activity than in the mutant with maximal quorum sensingactivity. As far as we know, this is the first report of quorum sensing regulation of phospholipase. Finally, caseinase and gelatinase activity were positively regulated by quorum sensing, which is consistent with previous reports, and lipase and hemolysin activity were found to be independent of quorum sensing. Hence, the regulation is different for different virulence factors, with some being either positively or negatively regulated, and others being independent of quorum sensing. This might reflect the need to produce the different virulence factors at different stages during infection. PMID:21775075

Natrah, F M I; Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Pawar, Sushant; Karunasagar, Indrani; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

2011-07-01

26

Comparative genomic analyses identify the Vibrio harveyi genome sequenced strains BAA-1116 and HY01 as Vibrio campbellii  

PubMed Central

Three notable members of the Harveyi clade, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are best known as marine pathogens of commercial and medical import. In spite of this fact, the discrimination of Harveyi clade members remains difficult due to genetic and phenotypic similarities, and this has led to misidentifications and inaccurate estimations of a species' involvement in certain environments. To begin to understand the underlying genetics that complicate species level discrimination, we compared the genomes of Harveyi clade members isolated from different environments (seawater, shrimp, corals, oysters, finfish, humans) using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA). Surprisingly, we found that the only two V. harveyi strains that have had their genomes sequenced (strains BAA-1116 and HY01) have themselves been misidentified. Instead of belonging to the species harveyi, they are actually members of the species campbellii. In total, 28% of the strains tested were found to be misidentified and 42% of these appear to comprise a novel species. Taken together, our findings correct a number of species misidentifications while validating the ability of both CGH and MLSA to distinguish closely related members of the Harveyi clade.

Lin, Baochuan; Wang, Zheng; Malanoski, Anthony P; O'Grady, Elizabeth A; Wimpee, Charles F; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Alves Jr, Nelson; Thompson, Fabiano L; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Vora, Gary J

2010-01-01

27

Construction of a stable GFP-tagged Vibrio harveyi strain for bacterial dynamics analysis of abalone infection.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is a bacterial marine pathogen that can cause fatal disease in a large range of vertebrates and invertebrates, including the commercially important marine gastropod, Haliotis tuberculata. Since 1997, strains of this bacterium have regularly been causing high mortalities in farmed and wild abalone populations. The way in which the pathogen enters into abalone and the disease transmission mechanisms are thus far unknown. Therefore, a pathogenic strain, ORM4, was green fluorescent protein-tagged and validated both for its growth characteristics and for its virulence as a genuine model for abalone disease. The strain allows V. harveyi quantification by flow cytometry in seawater and in abalone haemolymph as well as the in situ detection of the parasite inside abalone tissues. PMID:19054091

Travers, Marie-Agnès; Barbou, Annaïck; Le Goïc, Nelly; Huchette, Sylvain; Paillard, Christine; Koken, Marcel

2008-12-01

28

Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Penaeus monodon hemocytes after Vibrio harveyi infection  

PubMed Central

Background Viral and bacterial diseases can cause mass mortalities in commercial shrimp aquaculture. In contrast to studies on the antiviral response, the responses of shrimps to bacterial infections by high throughput techniques have been reported only at the transcriptional level and not at the translational level. In this study, a proteomic analysis of shrimp hemocytes to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to a luminous bacterium Vibrio harveyi was evaluated for its feasibility and is reported for the first time. Results The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) patterns of the hemocyte proteins from the unchallenged and V. harveyi challenged shrimp, Penaeus monodon, at 24 and 48 h post infection were compared. From this, 27 differentially expressed protein spots, and a further 12 weakly to non-differentially regulated control spots, were selected for further analyses by the LC-ESI-MS/MS. The 21 differentially expressed proteins that could be identified by homologous annotation were comprised of proteins that are directly involved in the host defense responses, such as hemocyanin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, heat shock protein 90 and alpha-2-macroglobulin, and those involved in signal transduction, such as the14-3-3 protein epsilon and calmodulin. Western blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of hemocyanin expression upon bacterial infection. The expression of the selected proteins which were the representatives of the down-regulated proteins (the 14-3-3 protein epsilon and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and of the up-regulated proteins (hemocyanin) was further assessed at the transcription level using real-time RT-PCR. Conclusions This work suggests the usefulness of a proteomic approach to the study of shrimp immunity and revealed hemocyte proteins whose expression were up regulated upon V. harveyi infection such as hemocyanin, arginine kinase and down regulated such as alpha-2-macroglobulin, calmodulin and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. The information is useful for understanding the immune system of shrimp against pathogenic bacteria.

2010-01-01

29

Quorum sensing and quorum quenching in Vibrio harveyi: lessons learned from in vivo work.  

PubMed

Luminescent vibrios, bacteria belonging to the species Vibrio harveyi and closely related species, are important pathogens in aquaculture that can affect almost all types of cultured animals. Due to large-scale use of antibiotics, many luminescent vibrios have acquired (multiple) resistance, which render antibiotic treatments ineffective. One of the alternative strategies that has recently been developed to control infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria is the disruption of quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication. The quorum sensing system of V. harveyi has been studied quite intensively in vitro. Recent studies have been directed towards understanding the impact of quorum sensing and quorum sensing disruption on the virulence of luminescent vibrios towards different host organisms in vivo. This mini-review aims at discussing the current knowledge of quorum sensing in luminescent vibrios in vivo. Subsequently, quorum quenching by halogenated furanones is discussed and finally, some directions for further research are presented. PMID:18180744

Defoirdt, Tom; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

2007-10-25

30

Vibrio harveyi Nitroreductase Is Also a Chromate Reductase  

PubMed Central

The chromate reductase purified from Pseudomonas ambigua was found to be homologous with several nitroreductases. Escherichia coli DH5? and Vibrio harveyi KCTC 2720 nitroreductases were chosen for the present study, and their chromate-reducing activities were determined. A fusion between glutathione S-transferase (GST) and E. coli DH5? NfsA (GST-EcNfsA), a fusion between GST and E. coli DH5? NfsB (GST-EcNfsB), and a fusion between GST and V. harveyi KCTC 2720 NfsA (GST-VhNfsA) were prepared for their overproduction and easy purification. GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNFsB, and GST-VhNFsA efficiently reduced nitrofurazone and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as their nitro substrates. The Km values for GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA for chromate reduction were 11.8, 23.5, and 5.4 ?M, respectively. The Vmax values for GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA were 3.8, 3.9, and 10.7 nmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. GST-VhNfsA was the most effective of the three chromate reductases, as determined by each Vmax/Km value. The optimal temperatures of GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA for chromate reduction were 55, 30, and 30°C, respectively. Thus, it is confirmed that nitroreductase can also act as a chromate reductase. Nitroreductases may be used in chromate remediation. GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA have a molecular mass of 50 kDa and exist as a monomer in solution. Thin-layer chromatography showed that GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA contain FMN as a cofactor. GST-VhNfsA reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Cr(III) was much less toxic to E. coli than Cr(VI).

Kwak, Young Hak; Lee, Dong Seok; Kim, Han Bok

2003-01-01

31

Unexpected photoreactivation of Vibrio harveyi bacteria living in ionization environment  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria undergoing environmental effects is extremely interesting for structural, mechanistic, and evolutionary implications. Luminescent bacteria that have evolved in a specific ambient have developed particular responses and their behavior can give us new suggestions on the task and production of luciferina proteins. To analyze the UV interaction under controlled laboratory conditions, we used photoluminescent bacterial strains belonging to a new species evolutionarily close to Vibrio harveyi sampled from a coastal cave with a high radon content that generates ionizing radiation. The survival of the bacterial strains was analyzed, in the light and in the dark, following a variety of genotoxic treatments including UV radiation exposure. The strains were irradiated by a germicide lamp. The results demonstrated that most of the strains exhibited a low rate of survival after the UV exposure. After irradiation by visible light following the UV exposure, all strains showed a high capability of photoreactivation when grown. This capability was quite unexpected because these bacteria were sampled from a dark ambient without UV radiation. This leads us to hypothesize that the photoreactivation in these bacteria might have been evolved to repair DNA lesions also induced by different radiation sources other than UV (e.g., x-ray) and that the luminescent bacteria might use their own light emission to carry out the photoreactivation. The high capability of photoreactivation of these bacteria was also justified by the results of deconvolution. The deconvolution was applied to the emission spectra and it was able to show evidence of different light peaks. The presence of the visible peak could control the photolysis enzyme.

Alifano, P.; Tala, A.; Tredici, S. M. [Dipartimento Microbiologia, Di.S.Te.B.A., Universita del Salento, via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, C.P. 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Nassisi, V. [Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento and INFN-Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Siciliano, M. V. [Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento and INFN-Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, University of Salento, via Provinciale Lecce- Monteroni, C.P. 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

2011-05-15

32

The Small RNA Chaperone Hfq and Multiple Small RNAs Control Quorum Sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum-sensing bacteria communicate with extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. This process allows community-wide synchronization of gene expression. A screen for additional components of the Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing circuits revealed the protein Hfq. Hfq mediates interactions between small, regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and specific messenger RNA (mRNA) targets. These interactions typically alter the stability of the target transcripts. We

Derrick H. Lenz; Kenny C. Mok; Brendan N. Lilley; Rahul V. Kulkarni; Ned S. Wingreen; Bonnie L. Bassler

2004-01-01

33

Identification of upregulated immune-related genes in Vibrio harveyi challenged Penaeus monodon postlarvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subtracted cDNA library was constructed and analyzed to elucidate the response of Penaeus monodon postlarvae challenged with Vibrio harveyi. As many as 960 randomly selected cDNA fragments generated through suppression subtractive hybridization were single pass sequenced. Forty five genes and 20 hypothetical proteins were identified, a few being first reports from shrimps. The most abundant immune relevant genes were

S. Nayak; S. K. Singh; N. Ramaiah; R. A. Sreepada

2010-01-01

34

Species-specific virulence of Vibrio harveyi for black tiger shrimp is associated with bacteriophage-mediated hemocyte agglutination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp cultivation is an important Thai industry in which production losses can result from disease outbreaks caused by luminous Vibrio harveyi. In some cases, mortality from luminous vibriosis results from extracellular bacterial products (ECPs) such as proteases, phospholipases, hemolysins and cytotoxins that are mediated by specific bacteriophages. Increased virulence of V. harveyi lysogenized by a Siphoviridae-like bacteriophage (VHS1) was first

Aungkul Intaraprasong; Krit Khemayan; Tirasak Pasharawipas; Timothy W. Flegel

2009-01-01

35

Characterization of abalone Haliotis tuberculata-Vibrio harveyi interactions in gill primary cultures.  

PubMed

The decline of European abalone Haliotis tuberculata populations has been associated with various pathogens including bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Following the summer mortality outbreaks reported in France between 1998 and 2000, Vibrio harveyi strains were isolated from moribund abalones, allowing in vivo and in vitro studies on the interactions between abalone H. tuberculata and V. harveyi. This work reports the development of primary cell cultures from abalone gill tissue, a target tissue for bacterial colonisation, and their use for in vitro study of host cell-V. harveyi interactions. Gill cells originated from four-day-old explant primary cultures were successfully sub-cultured in multi-well plates and maintained in vitro for up to 24 days. Cytological parameters, cell morphology and viability were monitored over time using flow cytometry analysis and semi-quantitative assay (XTT). Then, gill cell cultures were used to investigate in vitro the interactions with V. harveyi. The effects of two bacterial strains were evaluated on gill cells: a pathogenic bacterial strain ORM4 which is responsible for abalone mortalities and LMG7890 which is a non-pathogenic strain. Cellular responses of gill cells exposed to increasing concentrations of bacteria were evaluated by measuring mitochondrial activity (XTT assay) and phenoloxidase activity, an enzyme which is strongly involved in immune response. The ability of gill cells to phagocyte GFP-tagged V. harveyi was evaluated by flow cytometry and gill cells-V. harveyi interactions were characterized using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During phagocytosis process we evidenced that V. harveyi bacteria induced significant changes in gill cells metabolism and immune response. Together, the results showed that primary cell cultures from abalone gills are suitable for in vitro study of host-pathogen interactions, providing complementary assays to in vivo experiments. PMID:23756730

Pichon, Delphine; Cudennec, Benoit; Huchette, Sylvain; Djediat, Chakib; Renault, Tristan; Paillard, Christine; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie

2013-06-12

36

Nucleotide sequence of the LuxC gene and the upstream DNA from the bioluminescent system of Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene (1431 bp) and the upstream DNA (1049 bp) of the luminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi has been determined. The luxC gene can be translated into a polypeptide of 55 kDa in excellent agreement with the molecular mass of the reductase polypeptide required for synthesis of the aldehyde substrate for the bioluminescent reaction. Analyses of codon usage showed a high frequency (1.9%) of the isoleucine codon, AUA, in the luxC gene compared to that found in Escherichia coli genes (0.2%) and its absence in the luxA, B and D genes. The low G/C content of the luxC gene and upstream DNA (38-39%) compared to that found in the other lux genes of V. harveyi (45%) was primarily due to a stretch of 500 nucleotides with only a 24% G/C content, extending from 200 bp inside lux C to 300 bp upstream. Moreover, an open reading frame did not extend for more than 48 codons between the luxC gene and 600 bp upstream at which point a gene transcribed in the opposite direction started. As the lux system in the luminescent bacterium, V. fischeri, contains a regulatory gene immediately upstream of luxC transcribed in the same direction, these results show that the organization and regulation of the lux genes have diverged in different luminescent bacteria.

Miyamoto, C M; Graham, A F; Meighen, E A

1988-01-01

37

VanT, a Homologue of Vibrio harveyi LuxR, Regulates Serine, Metalloprotease, Pigment, and Biofilm Production in Vibrio anguillarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio anguillarum possesses at least two N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing circuits, one of which is related to the luxMN system of Vibrio harveyi. In this study, we have cloned an additional gene of this circuit, vanT, encoding a V. harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional regulator. A V. anguillarum vanT null mutation resulted in a significant decrease in total protease activity due to

Antony Croxatto; Victoria J. Chalker; Johan Lauritz; Jana Jass; Andrea Hardman; Paul Williams; M. Camara; Debra L. Milton

2002-01-01

38

Catalytic properties of Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductases from Vibrio harveyi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Azotobacter vinelandii.  

PubMed

The catalytic properties of sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (Na+-NQRs) from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the soil microorganism Azotobacter vinelandii have been comparatively analyzed. It is shown that these enzymes drastically differ in their affinity to sodium ions. The enzymes also possess different sensitivity to inhibitors. Na+-NQR from A. vinelandii is not sensitive to low 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) concentrations, while Na+-NQR from K. pneumoniae is fully resistant to either Ag+ or N-ethylmaleimide. All the Na+-NQR-type enzymes are sensitive to diphenyliodonium, which is shown to modify the noncovalently bound FAD of the enzyme. PMID:18300384

Fadeeva, Maria S; Núñez, Cinthia; Bertsova, Yulia V; Espín, Guadalupe; Bogachev, Alexander V

2008-02-01

39

Interference of Cranberry Constituents in Cell–Cell Signaling System of Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranberry juice has long been recognized in folk medicine as a therapeutic agent, mainly in urinary track infections. It acts\\u000a as an antibiofilm agent against various pathogens. Quorum sensing is process where bacteria communicate with each other via\\u000a signal molecules known as autoinducers. This process is strongly involved in various bacterial pathological and physiological\\u000a pathways. Various strains of Vibrio harveyi

Mark Feldman; Ervin I. Weiss; Itzhak Ofek; Doron Steinberg

2009-01-01

40

The LuxR regulator protein controls synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate in Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LuxR regulatory protein of Vibrio harveyi has been shown to control synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as well as luminescence so as to occur at high cell density, suggesting that it is a general regulatory protein. Mutants defective in the production of LuxR (D1, D34, and MR1130) were found to be missing PHB, whose synthesis could be restored by complementation

Carol M. Miyamoto; Weiqun Sun; Edward A. Meighen

1998-01-01

41

Cloning and functional studies of a luxO regulator LuxT from Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

LuxO is the central regulator integrating the quorum sensing signals controlling autoinduction of luminescence in Vibrio harveyi. We have previously purified to homogeneity a new lux regulator, LuxT, that binds to the luxO promoter. Based on the sequence of the tryptic peptides of LuxT, degenerate oligonucleotides were designed for PCR of the genomic DNA. A 273 bp PCR DNA fragment

Yi Hsing Lin; Carol Miyamoto; Edward A Meighen

2000-01-01

42

The production of anti-Vibrio harveyi egg yolk immunoglobulin and evaluation of its stability and neutralisation efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to replace the antibiotic treatment for control of Vibrio harveyi, a causal agent of luminous disease in Black tiger shrimp, anti-V. harveyi IgY was produced and showed its potential in our preliminary study. However, for further use as feed additive, the IgY stability should be evaluated. The titre of specific IgY was enhanced with an immunostimulant, C-phosphate guanosine

Kawin Punyokun; Ratchanee Hongprayoon; Prapansak Srisapoome; Theerapol Sirinarumitr

2012-01-01

43

Inhibition of Luminescence and Virulence in the Black Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Pathogen Vibrio harveyi by Intercellular Signal Antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated.

MICHAEL MANEFIELD; LACHLAN HARRIS; SCOTT A. RICE; ROCKY DE NYS; STAFFAN KJELLEBERG

2000-01-01

44

A simple and rapid immunochromatographic test strip for detection of pathogenic isolates of Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and rabbit polyclonal antibody (PAb) against Vibrio harveyi were generated from immunization of mice and rabbits with highly virulent isolate of V. harveyi. Two MAbs specific to virulent isolates of V. harveyi were obtained and one of them (VH4) was selected to conjugate with colloidal gold as the detector antibody was laid on a sample pad. Rabbit polyclonal antibody was used as the capture antibody at the test line (T) and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody (GAM) was used as the capture antibody at the control line (C) of nitrocellulose strip. The ready-to-use strip was held in a plastic case and then stored in a desiccated plastic bag. A sample volume of 100 microl of bacterial suspension from various sources mixed with application buffer was applied to the sample chamber at one end of the strip and allowed to flow by chromatography through the nitrocellulose membrane to the other end. In test samples containing virulent isolates of V. harveyi, the bacteria would bind to the monoclonal antibody conjugated with colloidal gold and the resulting complex would be captured by the antibodies at the test line to give a reddish-purple band. Any unbound monoclonal antibody conjugated with colloidal gold moved across the test line would be captured by the GAM and form a band at the control line (C). In sample without V. harveyi or with V. harveyi below the limit (<10(6) CFU/ml) of detection for the kit, only the control line band was observed. If the test sample was pre-enriched in tryptic soy broth (TSB) for 6 h before application to the strip, the sensitivity would increase to 1-10 CFU/ml which is comparable to that of PCR. This method could be used to detect pathogenic isolates of V. harveyi in pond water or infected shrimp in order to monitor and to reduce the risk of V. harveyi outbreak in the shrimp culture. The beneficial features of this kit are that simple, convenient and quick results (within 15 min) can be obtained without the requirement of sophisticated tools or special equipments and skills. PMID:17961765

Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Pecharaburanin, Nilawan; Suksawat, Pornthip; Longyant, Siwaporn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Sithigorngul, Weerawan

2007-10-24

45

Identification of upregulated immune-related genes in Vibrio harveyi challenged Penaeus monodon postlarvae.  

PubMed

A subtracted cDNA library was constructed and analyzed to elucidate the response of Penaeus monodon postlarvae challenged with Vibrio harveyi. As many as 960 randomly selected cDNA fragments generated through suppression subtractive hybridization were single pass sequenced. Forty five genes and 20 hypothetical proteins were identified, a few being first reports from shrimps. The most abundant immune relevant genes were ferritin, hemocyanin, and TCTP (translationally controlled tumor protein) indicating their upregulation as also confirmed through qPCR. Post-infection qPCR analyses confirmed 2.04, 2.09, 3.28, 5.49, 6.47, and 11.63 fold rise respectively in ferritin, penaeidin, MnSOD, lysozyme, TCTP, and hemocyanin genes. These genes may be involved in the regulation of the host defense against V. harveyi. PMID:20580834

Nayak, S; Singh, S K; Ramaiah, N; Sreepada, R A

2010-05-24

46

The anguibactin biosynthesis and transport genes are encoded in the chromosome of Vibrio harveyi: a possible evolutionary origin for the pJM1 plasmid-encoded system of Vibrio anguillarum?  

PubMed

Many Vibrio anguillarum serotype O1 strains carry 65-kb pJM1-type plasmids harboring genes involved in siderophore anguibactin biosynthesis and transport. The anguibactin system is an essential factor for V. anguillarum to survive under iron-limiting conditions, and as a consequence, it is a very important virulence factor of this bacterium. Our comparative analysis of genomic data identified a cluster harboring homologs of anguibactin biosynthesis and transport genes in the chromosome of Vibrio harveyi. We have purified the putative anguibactin siderophore and demonstrated that it is indeed anguibactin by mass spectrometry and specific bioassays. Furthermore, we characterized two genes, angR and fatA, in this chromosome cluster that, respectively, participate in anguibactin biosynthesis and transport as determined by mutagenesis analysis. Furthermore, we found that the V. harveyi FatA protein is located in the outer membrane fractions as previously demonstrated in V. anguillarum. Based on our data, we propose that the anguibactin biosynthesis and transport cluster in the V. anguillarum pJM1 plasmid have likely evolved from the chromosome cluster of V. harveyi or vice versa. PMID:23335587

Naka, Hiroaki; Actis, Luis A; Crosa, Jorge H

2013-01-18

47

Effect of combined function of temperature and water activity on the growth of Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is considered as a causative agent of the systemic disease, vibriosis, which occurs in many biological fields. The effects of temperatures (12.9-27.1 °C) and water activity (NaCl% 0.6%-3.4%) on V. harveyi were investigated. The behavior and growth characteristics of V. harveyi was studied and modeled. Growth curves were fitted by using Gompertz and Baranyi models, and the Baranyi model showed a better fittness. Then, the maximum growth rates (?max) and lag phase durations (LPD, ?) obtained from both Gompertz and Baranyi model were modeled as a combination function of temperature and water activity using the response surface and Arrhenius-Davey models for secondary model. The value of r(2), MSE, bias and accuracy factor suggest Baranyi model has better fitness than Gompertz model. Furthermore, validation of the developed models with independent data from ComBase also shown better interrelationship between observed and predicted growth parameter when using Baranyi model. PMID:24031965

Zhou, Kang; Gui, Meng; Li, Pinglan; Xing, Shaohua; Cui, Tingting; Peng, Zhaohui

2012-06-01

48

Complete genome sequence of virulence-enhancing Siphophage VHS1 from Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi siphophage 1 (VHS1) is a tailed phage with an icosahedral head of approximately 66 nm in diameter and an unornamented, flexible tail of approximately 153 nm in length. When Vibrio harveyi 1114GL is lysogenized with VHS1, its virulence for the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) increases by more than 100 times, and this coincides with production of a toxin(s) associated with shrimp hemocyte agglutination. Curiously, the lysogen does not show increased virulence for the whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus [Litopenaeus] vannamei). Here we present and annotate the complete, circular genome of VHS1 (81,509 kbp; GenBank accession number JF713456). By software analysis, the genome contains 125 putative open reading frames (ORFs), all of which appear to be located on the same DNA strand, similar to the case for many other bacteriophages. Most of the putative ORFs show no significant homology to known sequences in GenBank. Notable exceptions are ORFs for a putative DNA polymerase and putative phage structural proteins, including a portal protein, a phage tail tape measure protein, and a phage head protein. The last protein was identified as a component of the species-specific toxin mixture described above as being associated with agglutination of hemocytes from P. monodon. PMID:22307287

Khemayan, Krit; Prachumwat, Anuphap; Sonthayanon, Burachai; Intaraprasong, Aungkul; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Flegel, Timothy W

2012-02-03

49

Complete Genome Sequence of Virulence-Enhancing Siphophage VHS1 from Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

Vibrio harveyi siphophage 1 (VHS1) is a tailed phage with an icosahedral head of approximately 66 nm in diameter and an unornamented, flexible tail of approximately 153 nm in length. When Vibrio harveyi 1114GL is lysogenized with VHS1, its virulence for the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) increases by more than 100 times, and this coincides with production of a toxin(s) associated with shrimp hemocyte agglutination. Curiously, the lysogen does not show increased virulence for the whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus [Litopenaeus] vannamei). Here we present and annotate the complete, circular genome of VHS1 (81,509 kbp; GenBank accession number JF713456). By software analysis, the genome contains 125 putative open reading frames (ORFs), all of which appear to be located on the same DNA strand, similar to the case for many other bacteriophages. Most of the putative ORFs show no significant homology to known sequences in GenBank. Notable exceptions are ORFs for a putative DNA polymerase and putative phage structural proteins, including a portal protein, a phage tail tape measure protein, and a phage head protein. The last protein was identified as a component of the species-specific toxin mixture described above as being associated with agglutination of hemocytes from P. monodon.

Khemayan, Krit; Prachumwat, Anuphap; Sonthayanon, Burachai; Intaraprasong, Aungkul; Sriurairatana, Siriporn

2012-01-01

50

Profiling of a few immune responsive genes expressed in postlarvae of Fenneropenaeus indicus challenged with Vibrio harveyi D3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified 38 genes and eight hypothetical proteins by sequencing of 1200 clones from a Vibrio harveyi challenged Fenneropenaeus indicus subtracted cDNA library. Based on physiological roles and functions these genes were categorized into 10 groups with ?29% of the sequences having no matches in the databases. Immune related transcripts in the library were carboxypeptidase B, ferritin, translationally controlled tumor

S. Nayak; K. M. Ajay; N. Ramaiah; Ram M. Meena; R. A. Sreepada

2011-01-01

51

Interference with the quorum sensing systems in a Vibrio harveyi strain alters the growth rate of gnotobiotically cultured rotifer Brachionus plicatilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To evaluate the effect of Vibrio harveyi strains on the growth rate of the gnotobiotically cultured rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, and to establish whether quorum sensing is involved in the observed phenomena. Methods and Results: Gnotobiotic B. plicatilis sensu strictu, obtained by hatch- ing glutaraldehyde-treated amictic eggs, were used as test organisms. Challenge tests were performed with 11 V. harveyi

N. T. N. Tinh; N. D. Linh; T. K. Wood; K. Dierckens; P. Sorgeloos; P. Bossier

2007-01-01

52

Gene expression patterns of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata, during successive infections by the pathogen Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Since 1998, episodic mass mortality of the abalone Haliotistuberculata has been observed along the northern Brittany coast of France caused by a complex interaction among the host, pathogen and environmental factors. In the present study, abalone were submitted to two successive infections with the pathogen Vibrioharveyi under controlled conditions. During the first challenge, infection by V.harveyi resulted in 64% mortality of mature abalone. After a second infection of those surviving the first challenge, only 44% mortality was observed. Physiological variability in the host response appears to be a major determinant in susceptibility to V.harveyi. In order to isolate differentially expressed genes in H.tuberculata challenged with this bacterium, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries were constructed from muscle of moribund abalone (susceptibles), surviving individuals (apparently resistant to the bacterium) and control (unexposed) animals. Of the 1152 clones sequenced, 218 different partial cDNA sequences were obtained and represented 69 known genes. Of these, 65 were identified for the first time in H.tuberculata. Using real-time PCR, a time-course study was conducted on 19 of the genes identified by SSH. A majority of differentially expressed transcripts were down-regulated in susceptible individuals as compared to their resistant counterparts. Bacterial challenge of abalone resulted in the up-regulation of three transcripts (encoding ferritin, heat shock protein HSP84 and fatty acid binding protein FABP) in those that survived exposure to V.harveyi. This study has identified potential candidates for further investigation into the functional basis of resistance and susceptibility to summer vibriosis outbreaks in abalone. PMID:20692263

Travers, Marie-Agnès; Meistertzheim, Anne-Leila; Cardinaud, Marion; Friedman, Carolyn S; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

2010-08-06

53

Proteomic Analysis of Protein Expression in the Induction of the Viable But Nonculturable State of Vibrio harveyi SF1.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi has been reported to enter into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. One marine V. harveyi strain, SF1 became nonculturable when incubated in seawater microcosm at 4 °C within 60 days. We investigated protein expression in the exponential phase of V. harveyi SF1 and compared it to the VBNC state. Cytosolic proteins were resolved by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using pH 4-7 linear gradients. Among these proteins, sixteen proteins which were strongly downregulated or upregulated in the VBNC cells were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the differentially expressed proteins were mainly focused on stress response proteins and key components of central and intermediary metabolism, like carbohydrate metabolism, transport, and translation. This study provided clues for understanding the mechanism of adaptation to the VBNC state. PMID:23689940

Jia, Juntao; Li, Zhengyi; Cao, Jijuan; Jiang, Yinghui; Liang, Chengzhu; Liu, Mengzhen

2013-05-21

54

Immunological study of the outer membrane proteins of Vibrio harveyi: Insights that link immunoprotectivity to interference with bacterial infection.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is a bacterial pathogen that affects marine vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we identified 13 outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from a pathogenic V. harveyi strain and analyzed their immunological properties. In vivo immunogenicity analysis showed that antibodies specific to recombinant proteins of the 13 OMPs were detected in the antiserum of V. harveyi-infected rat. When used as subunit vaccines to immunize Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), all OMPs were able to elicit specific serum antibody production in the vaccinated fish; however, only two OMPs (OMP173 and OMP214) induced high levels (>70%) of relative percent survival. Pre-incubation of V. harveyi with the antisera of protective OMPs significantly impaired bacterial infectivity against peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), whereas the antisera of non-protective OMPs had no apparent effect on infection. OMP173 antibodies could bind whole V. harveyi cells and exhibit bactericidal effect in a complement-dependent manner. Passive immunization showed that fish received OMP173 antiserum before being infected with V. harveyi exhibited significantly reduced mortality rate and lower bacterial loads in liver, spleen, and kidney. Finally, treatment of FG cells with OMP173 prior to V. harveyi infection protected the cells from bacterial invasion to a significant extent. Take together, these results indicate that two of the examined OMPs induce protective immunity through production of specific antibodies that block bacterial invasion, and that one OMP is likely to be involved in host cell interaction during the infection process. Thus, the immunoprotectivity of the OMPs is probably associated with functional participations of the OMPs in bacterial infection. PMID:23932987

Yu, Lan-Ping; Hu, Yong-Hua; Sun, Bo-Guang; Sun, Li

2013-08-09

55

Unusual adaptive, cross protection responses and growth phase resistance against peroxide killing in a bacterial shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidant induced protection against peroxide killing was investigated in a prawn bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi. Exposure to 250 ?M H2O2 induced adaptive protection against subsequent exposure to killing concentrations of H2O2. In addition, 200 ?M t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) induced cross protection to H2O2 killing. On the other hand, peroxide pretreatment did not induce protection against tBOOH killing. Peroxide induced adaptive

Paiboon Vattanaviboon; Skorn Mongkolsuk

2001-01-01

56

Severe Wound Infection with Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and Vibrio harveyi, following a Laceration Injury in Marine Environment: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Marine microorganisms are uncommon etiologies of skin and skin structure infections, that is, wound infections. We report a case of severe wound infection, caused by the marine Photobacterium damselae (Vibrionaceae), in a 64-year-old male patient, returning from Australia. The isolate tested positive for pPHDD1, a plasmid conferring high-level virulence. Furthermore, the wound was coinfected with Vibrio harveyi, a halophile bacterium, which has never been reported from human infections before. Identification was achieved by use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Data retrieval from bibliography was complicated since P. damselae has been renamed often with a number of synonyms present in the literature: Photobacterium damsela, Vibrio damselae, Vibrio damsela, Pasteurella damselae, and Listonella damsela. With all synonyms used as query terms, a literature search provided less than 20 cases published worldwide. A majority of those cases presenting as severe wound infection are even fatal following progression into necrotizing fasciitis. Management with daily wound dressing and antibiotic therapy (ofloxacin empirically, followed by doxycycline after availability of microbiology) led in the reported case to a favorable outcome, which seems to be, however, the exception based on a review of the available literature.

Hundenborn, Jorg; Thurig, Steffi

2013-01-01

57

Novel ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases from Vibrio harveyi 650: Cloning, expression, enzymatic properties, and subsite identification  

PubMed Central

Background Since chitin is a highly abundant natural biopolymer, many attempts have been made to convert this insoluble polysaccharide into commercially valuable products using chitinases and ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases). We have previously reported the structure and function of chitinase A from Vibrio harveyi 650. This study t reports the identification of two GlcNAcases from the same organism and their detailed functional characterization. Results The genes encoding two new members of family-20 GlcNAcases were isolated from the genome of V. harveyi 650, cloned and expressed at a high level in E. coli. VhNag1 has a molecular mass of 89 kDa and an optimum pH of 7.5, whereas VhNag2 has a molecular mass of 73 kDa and an optimum pH of 7.0. The recombinant GlcNAcases were found to hydrolyze all the natural substrates, VhNag2 being ten-fold more active than VhNag1. Product analysis by TLC and quantitative HPLC suggested that VhNag2 degraded chitooligosaccharides in a sequential manner, its highest activity being with chitotetraose. Kinetic modeling of the enzymic reaction revealed that binding at subsites (-2) and (+4) had unfavorable (positive) binding free energy changes and that the binding pocket of VhNag2 contains four GlcNAc binding subsites, designated (-1),(+1),(+2), and (+3). Conclusions Two novel GlcNAcases were identified as exolytic enzymes that degraded chitin oligosaccharides, releasing GlcNAc as the end product. In living cells, these intracellular enzymes may work after endolytic chitinases to complete chitin degradation. The availability of the two GlcNAcases, together with the previously-reported chitinase A from the same organism, suggests that a systematic development of the chitin-degrading enzymes may provide a valuable tool in commercial chitin bioconversion.

2010-01-01

58

Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, in contrast to non-pathogenic strains, intervenes with the p38 MAPK pathway to avoid an abalone haemocyte immune response.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone epidemics associated with massive mortalities in France, Japan, and Australia. The aim of this study was the understanding of a possible role of the p38 MAPK in abalone haemocyte responses towards this bacterium. First, the pathogenicity of different V. harveyi strains was compared in both immersion and injection trials, and clear differences were detected. The three strains, ORM4, 04/092, and 05/053, all isolated from moribund abalone, induced up to 80% mortalities in immersion or injection challenges (LD(50) (ORM4) = 2.5 x 10(2) CFU animal(-1)). The two strains, LMG 4044T and LMG 7890 were non-pathogenic towards abalone in immersion trials, and needed very high numbers for killing by intramuscular injections (LD(50) = 8.9 x 10(4) and 1.6 x 10(5) CFU animal(-1), respectively). To start unraveling the mechanism explaining these differences, the p38-MAPK, a keyplayer in antimicrobial immune response, was studied. The non-pathogenic strain, LMG 7890 can be eliminated by abalone haemocytes and induces haemocyte phagocytosis and high ROS production. With different concentrations of a p38-specific inhibitor, SB203580, p38 implication was shown. This inhibitor reduced phagocytosis and ROS induction leading to LMG 7890 proliferation. In the case of the pathogenic ORM4 which can not be eliminated by abalone haemocytes, no phagocytosis and ROS production was induced, and a retarded p38 activation was observed. Taken together, our results suggest that p38 MAPK modulation may be one of the ways of virulent V. harveyi to attack its host and escape abalone immune response. PMID:19058134

Travers, Marie-Agnès; Le Bouffant, Ronan; Friedman, Carolyn S; Buzin, Florence; Cougard, Bertrand; Huchette, Sylvain; Koken, Marcel; Paillard, Christine

2009-01-01

59

Solvent extracts of the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri prevent Vibrio harveyi infections in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

Vibriosis is a common bacterial disease that can cause high mortality and morbidity in farmed shrimp. Since compounds from seaweed have been reported to have anti-bacterial and immunostimulant activity, this study was conducted to determine whether solvent extracts from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri might be a possible alternative for prevention and treatment of shrimp vibriosis caused by Vibrio harveyi. Seaweed extracts prepared using ethanol, methanol, chloroform and hexane were evaluated for anti-V. harveyi activity by the disc-diffusion method. The ethanol, methanol and chloroform extracts showed activity against a virulent strain of V. harveyi with potency (minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 90-190 ?g ml(-1)) equivalent to the antibiotic norfloxacin. The ethanol extract was not toxic to the brine shrimp Artemia salina when it was fed to them for enrichment prior to their use, in turn, as feed for postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Postlarvae fed with these enriched Artemia gave significantly lower mortality than control postlarvae after challenge with V. harveyi. In addition, P. monodon juveniles injected with the ethanol extract showed a significant increase in the total number of haemocytes and an increased proportion of semi-granulocytes and granulocytes when compared to control shrimp. The activities of phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase were also increased, with an accompanying increase in superoxide anion production. When these juvenile shrimp were challenged with V. harveyi, mortality was markedly reduced compared to that of control shrimp. The results indicated that ethanol extracts of G. fisheri had immunostimulant and antimicrobial activity that could protect P. monodon against V. harveyi. PMID:21115128

Kanjana, Kulwadee; Radtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

2010-11-27

60

Identification of Vibrio harveyi isolated from diseased Asian seabass Lates calcarifer by use of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing.  

PubMed

The grow out of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer in marine net-cages is a popular aquaculture activity in Malaysia. Production of this species is greatly affected by the occurrence of vibriosis, which causes heavy mortality. Generally, young fish are more susceptible; they exhibit anorexia and skin darkening, followed by heavy mortality. The acutely affected older fish may also exhibit bloody lesions around the anus and the base of the fins. Twenty-one bacterial isolates obtained from internal organs (kidney, heart, spleen and liver) of the affected specimens were subjected to phenotypic characterization, testing for antibiotic susceptibility, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. The sequencing result showed that all of the bacterial isolates belonged to Vibrio harveyi. The phenotypic characterization, however, identified 4 of the bacterial isolates as V. harveyi, 16 as V. parahaemolyticus, and 1 as V. alginolyticus. These findings suggest that biochemical features alone cannot be reliably used to identify bacterial pathogens, including V. harveyi, in aquaculture. Antibiotic susceptibility assays showed that some antibiotics, including oxytetracycline, nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and oxolinic acid were effective against V. harveyi. Considering the side effects of these antibiotics, however, their use is not recommended in the aquaculture of Asian seabass. PMID:20043399

Ransangan, Julian; Mustafa, Saleem

2009-09-01

61

Summer immune depression associated with increased susceptibility of the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata to Vibrio harveyi infection.  

PubMed

Haliotis tuberculata mortality outbreaks have occurred in France since 1998 and were attributed to a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. These mortalities were recorded in September, a month with abalone reproduction and characterised by high seawater temperatures. The importance of gonadal maturation and temperature increase on abalone immunity and susceptibility to V. harveyi infection needed to be clarified. Therefore, an immune survey analyzing a large panel of parameters was performed from June to September 2007 on abalone from the Bay of Brest. The data obtained were put in relation with abalone reproductive status and its susceptibility to V. harveyi. Most parameters showed clear patterns from early to late summer and during gametogenesis, phagocytosis and phenoloxidase activity were reduced, whereas basal reactive oxygen species production and agglutination titres were significantly increased. Total haemocyte counts went up after the partial spawning event at the end of June, and cell complexity diminished. Using a Principal Component Analysis, the "haemolymph profile" was shown to decrease in parallel with spawning and gonadal maturation processes, and reached a minimum just after total spawning. A significant correlation between this "haemolymph profile" and disease susceptibility allowed us to establish for the first time in abalone, a clear concordance between maturation and spawning processes, immune status and abalone susceptibility to V. harveyi. PMID:18786640

Travers, Marie-Agnès; Le Goïc, Nelly; Huchette, Sylvain; Koken, Marcel; Paillard, Christine

2008-08-22

62

Stereochemical diversity of AI-2 analogs modulates quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Bacteria coordinate population-dependent behaviors such as virulence by intra- and inter-species communication (quorum sensing). Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) regulates inter-species quorum sensing. AI-2 derives from the spontaneous cyclisation of linear (S)-4,5-dihydroxypentanedione (DPD) into two isomeric forms in dynamic equilibrium. Different species of bacteria have different classes of AI-2 receptors (LsrB and LuxP) which bind to different cyclic forms. In the present work, DPD analogs with a new stereocenter at C-5 (4,5-dihydroxyhexanediones (DHDs)) have been synthesized and their biological activity tested in two bacteria. (4S,5R)-DHD is a synergistic agonist in Escherichia coli (which contains the LsrB receptor), while it is an agonist in Vibrio harveyi (LuxP), displaying the strongest agonistic activity reported so far (EC(50)=0.65?M) in this organism. Thus, modification at C-5 opens the way to novel methods to manipulate quorum sensing as a method for controlling bacteria. PMID:22137598

Rui, Fabio; Marques, João C; Miller, Stephen T; Maycock, Christopher D; Xavier, Karina B; Ventura, M Rita

2011-11-12

63

The impact of mutations in the quorum sensing systems of Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio harveyi on their virulence towards gnotobiotically cultured Artemia franciscana.  

PubMed

Disruption of quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication by means of small signal molecules, has been suggested as a new anti-infective strategy for aquaculture. However, data about the impact of quorum sensing on the virulence of aquatic pathogens are scarce. In this study, a model system using gnotobiotically cultured Artemia franciscana was developed in order to determine the impact of mutations in the quorum sensing systems of Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum and V. harveyi on their virulence. Mutations in the autoinducer 2 (AI-2) synthase gene luxS, the AI-2 receptor gene luxP or the response regulator gene luxO of the dual channel quorum sensing system of V. harveyi abolished virulence of the strain towards Artemia. Moreover, the addition of an exogenous source of AI-2 could restore the virulence of an AI-2 non-producing mutant. In contrast, none of the mutations in either the acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated component of the V. harveyi system or the quorum sensing systems of Ae. hydrophila and V. anguillarum had an impact on virulence of these bacteria towards Artemia. Our results indicate that disruption of quorum sensing could be a good alternative strategy to combat infections caused by V. harveyi. PMID:16011761

Defoirdt, Tom; Bossier, Peter; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy

2005-08-01

64

Immunological evaluation of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio vulnificus and infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) combined-vaccine efficacy in Epinephelus coioides.  

PubMed

Combined vaccines are immunological products intended for immunization against multifactorial infectious diseases caused by different types or variants of pathogens. In this study, the effectiveness of Vibrio alginolyticus (Va), Vibrio harveyi (Vh), Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), an iridovirus, combined-vaccine (Vibrio and ISKNV combined vaccines, VICV), Va+Vh+Vv inactive vaccine (VIV) and ISKNV whole cell inactive vaccine (IWCIV) in Epinephelus coioides were evaluated using various immunological parameters including antibody titer, serum lysozyme activity (LA), respiratory burst (RB) activity, bactericidal activity (BA) and relative percentage survival (RPS). E. coioides immunized with VICV and challenged with Va+Vh+Vv+ISKNV had an RPS of 80%. The RPS was 73.3% in E. coioides immunized with VIV and challenged with Va+Vh+Vv. E. coioides immunized with IWCIV and challenged with ISKNV had an RPS of 69.6%. Serum LA in the vaccinated group was significantly higher than the control group on days 21 and 28 post-vaccination (P<0.01). The RB activity of head kidney cells in the vaccinated group was significantly higher (P<0.01) compared to that in the control group. However, RB activity of spleen cells in the vaccinated group and the control group were not significantly different (P>0.05). After immunization with VICV, BA values of blood leucocytes and head kidney cells increased significantly more than spleen cells. BA value of blood leucocytes was higher than that in head kidney cells. There were distinct difference between BA values in head kidney cells and in spleen cells (P<0.05) as well as between BA value of blood leucocytes and head kidney cells (P<0.01). E. coioides vaccinated with VICV have significantly higher antibody levels than control groupers (P<0.01). Our study suggests that the VICV candidate can effectively protect groupers against multiple bacterial and viral pathogens. PMID:23010220

Huang, Zhijian; Tang, Jingjing; Li, Mei; Fu, Yacheng; Dong, Chuanfu; Zhong, Jiang F; He, Jianguo

2012-08-30

65

Synthesis and evaluation of thiazolidinedione and dioxazaborocane analogues as inhibitors of AI-2 quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Two focused libraries based on two types of compounds, that is, thiazolidinediones and dioxazaborocanes were designed. Structural resemblances can be found between thiazolidinediones and well-known furanone type quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors such as N-acylaminofuranones, and/or acyl-homoserine lactone signaling molecules, while dioxazaborocanes structurally resemble previously reported oxazaborolidine derivatives which antagonized autoinducer 2 (AI-2) binding to its receptor. Because of this, we hypothesized that these compounds could affect AI-2 QS in Vibrio harveyi. Although all compounds blocked QS, the thiazolidinediones were the most active AI-2 QS inhibitors, with EC(50) values in the low micromolar range. Their mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of V. harveyi QS mutants and by DNA-binding assays with purified LuxR protein. The active compounds neither affected bioluminescence as such nor the production of AI-2. Instead, our results indicate that the thiazolidinediones blocked AI-2 QS in V. harveyi by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of LuxR. In addition, several dioxazaborocanes were found to block AI-2 QS by targeting LuxPQ. PMID:23286963

Brackman, Gilles; Al Quntar, Abed Al Aziz; Enk, Claes D; Karalic, Izet; Nelis, Hans J; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Srebnik, Morris; Coenye, Tom

2012-12-11

66

The Vibrio harveyi bioassay used routinely to detect AI-2 quorum sensing inhibition is confounded by inconsistent normalization across marine matrices.  

PubMed

The Vibrio harveyi autoinducer-2 (AI-2) bioassay is used routinely to screen for inhibition of the AI-2 quorum sensing system. The present study utilizes three well-described bacterial strains to demonstrate that inconsistent normalization across matrices undermines the assay's use in screening marine samples for AI-2 inhibition. PMID:23305926

Blair, Walter M; Doucette, Gregory J

2013-01-07

67

Effectiveness of a divalent vaccine for sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup), against Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.  

PubMed

The protection of cultured sole, Solea senegalensis, against Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida was evaluated following the use of a divalent vaccine prepared with formalized whole cells and extracellular products of virulent strains of both pathogenic microorganisms and administered by the immersion route. Two prolonged immersions of 5-10 g fish in the divalent bacterin at a 1-month interval gave high levels of protection similar to those obtained when the respective monovalent vaccines were administered by the intraperitoneal route [relative percentage of survival (RPS) values >70%], which indicates that the former procedure can be a useful strategy with small fish. The high protection afforded by the divalent vaccine in sole lasted for 4 months after which the RPS values against both pathogens decreased significantly. PMID:15660791

Arijo, S; Rico, R; Chabrillon, M; Diaz-Rosales, P; Martínez-Manzanares, E; Balebona, M C; Magariños, B; Toranzo, A E; Moriñigo, M A

2005-01-01

68

Profiling of a few immune responsive genes expressed in postlarvae of Fenneropenaeus indicus challenged with Vibrio harveyi D3.  

PubMed

We identified 38 genes and eight hypothetical proteins by sequencing of 1200 clones from a Vibrio harveyi challenged Fenneropenaeus indicus subtracted cDNA library. Based on physiological roles and functions these genes were categorized into 10 groups with ?29% of the sequences having no matches in the databases. Immune related transcripts in the library were carboxypeptidase B, ferritin, translationally controlled tumor proteins (TCTP), hemocyanin, chitinase and serine carboxy peptidase. Remarkably, qPCR results imply 4.15, 3.45 and 1.86-fold rises in expression of ferritin, TCTP and hemocyanin transcripts respectively. Additionally, minor upregulation of other immune relevant genes lectin, penaeidin, crustin, MnSOD was observed in the challenged postlarvae. PMID:21515280

Nayak, S; Ajay, K M; Ramaiah, N; Meena, Ram M; Sreepada, R A

2011-04-15

69

Redox potential and equilibria in the reductive half-reaction of Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi NADPH:FMN oxidoreductase P (FRP(Vh)) is a homodimeric enzyme having a bound FMN per enzyme monomer. The bound FMN functions as a cofactor of FRP(Vh) in transferring reducing equivalents from NADPH to a flavin substrate in the absence of V. harveyi luciferase but as a substrate for FRP(Vh) in the luciferase-coupled bioluminescent reaction. As part of an integral plan to elucidate the regulation of functional coupling between FRP(Vh) and luciferase, this study was carried out to characterize the equilibrium bindings, reductive potential, and the reversibility of the reduction of the bound FMN in the reductive half-reaction of FRP(Vh). Results indicate that, in addition to NADPH binding, NADP(+) also bound to FRP(Vh) in either the oxidized (K(d) 180 microM) or reduced (K(d) 230 microM) form. By titrations with NADP(+) and NADPH and by an isotope exchange experiment, the reduction of the bound FMN by NADPH was found to be readily reversible (K(eq) = 0.8). Hence, the reduction of FRP(Vh)-bound FMN is not the committed step in coupling the NADPH oxidation to bioluminescence. To our knowledge, such an aspect of flavin reductase catalysis has only been clearly established for FRP(Vh). Although the reductive potentials and some other properties of a R203A variant of FRP(Vh) and an NADH/NADPH-utilizing flavin reductase from Vibrio fischeri are quite similar to that of the wild-type FRP(Vh), the reversal of the reduction of bound FMN was not detected for either of these two enzymes. PMID:15628867

Lei, Benfang; Wang, He; Yu, Yimin; Tu, Shiao-Chun

2005-01-11

70

Genome sequence of the human-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus type strain ATCC 27562.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus, which is, like Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a pathogen of humankind, is a Gram-negative, curved, motile, and rod-shaped bacterium [corrected] Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the type strain, ATCC 27562, which was the first isolated Vibrio vulnificus strain. PMID:23209214

Li, Zhaoyun; Chen, Huihong; Chen, Xianjun; Zhou, Tieli; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Chunling; Jin, Wenyang

2012-12-01

71

Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC) in Soil Water Extracts Using Vibrio harveyi BB721 and Its Implication for Microbial Biomass  

PubMed Central

Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is commonly used to measure the growth potential of microorganisms in water, but has not yet been investigated for measuring microbial growth potential in soils. In this study, a simple, rapid, and non-growth based assay to determine AOC in soil was developed using a naturally occurring luminous strain Vibrio harveyi BB721 to determine the fraction of low molecular weight organic carbon in soil water extract. Calibration of the assay was achieved by measuring the luminescence intensity of starved V. harveyi BB721 cells in the late exponential phase with a concentration range from 0 to 800 µg l?1 glucose (equivalent to 0–16.0 mg glucose C kg?1 soil) with the detection limit of 10 µg l?1 equivalent to 0.20 mg glucose C kg?1 soil. Results showed that bioluminescence was proportional to the concentration of glucose added to soil. The luminescence intensity of the cells was highly pH dependent and the optimal pH was about 7.0. The average AOC concentration in 15 soils tested was 5.4±1.2 mg glucose C kg?1. Our data showed that AOC levels in soil water extracts were significantly correlated (P<0.01) with microbial biomass determined as total phospholipid fatty acids and microbial biomass carbon, indicating that the AOC concentrations determined by the method developed might be a good indicator of soil microbial biomass. Our findings provide a new approach that may be used to determine AOC in environmental samples using a non-growth bioluminescence based assay. Understanding the levels of AOC in soil water extract provides new insights into our ability to estimate the most available carbon pool to bacteria in soil that may be easily assimilated into cells for many metabolic processes and suggests possible links between AOC, microbial regrowth potential, and microbial biomass in soils.

Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Wang, Haizhen; Xu, Jianming; Leddy, Menu; Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E.

2012-01-01

72

Interactions of microorganisms isolated from gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup).  

PubMed

Four bacterial isolates from farmed gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, included in a previous study as members of the Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonodaceae and the genus Micrococcus, have been evaluated for their adhesive ability to skin and intestinal mucus of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, and their antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of sole. These isolates showed higher adhesion to sole mucus than the pathogenic strains of V. harveyi assayed. Only two of the isolates showed antagonistic activity to V. harveyi. Interactions of the four isolates with V. harveyi in respect of adhesion to skin and intestinal mucus under exclusion, competition and displacement conditions were studied. Three isolates were able to reduce the attachment to skin and intestinal sole mucus of a pathogenic strain of V. harveyi under displacement and exclusion conditions, but not under competition conditions. The in vivo probiotic potential of isolate Pdp11 was assessed by oral administration followed by challenge with the pathogenic V. harveyi strain Lg14/00. A group of 50 Senegalese sole received a commercial diet supplemented with 10(8) cfu g(-1) of lyophilized Lg14/00 for 15 days. A second group of fish received a non-supplemented commercial diet. After challenge the mortality of the fish receiving the diet supplemented with the potential probiotic isolate was significantly lower than that in the fish receiving the non-supplemented commercial diet. This study has shown that the ability to interfere with attachment of pathogens, as well as the adhesion to host surfaces, are suitable criteria for selection of candidate probiotics for use in the culture of Senegalese sole. PMID:16266326

Chabrillón, M; Rico, R M; Arijo, S; Díaz-Rosales, P; Balebona, M C; Moriñigo, M A

2005-09-01

73

A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with "Bacterial White Tail Disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

74

Deducing receptor signaling parameters from in vivo analysis: LuxN/AI-1 quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

Summary Quorum sensing, a process of bacterial cell-cell communication, relies on production, detection, and response to autoinducer signaling molecules. Here we focus on LuxN, a nine transmembrane domain protein from Vibrio harveyi, and the founding example of membrane-bound receptors for acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) autoinducers. Previously, nothing was known about signal recognition by membrane-bound AHL receptors. We used mutagenesis and suppressor analyses to identify the AHL-binding domain of LuxN, and discovered LuxN mutants that confer decreased and increased AHL sensitivity. Our analysis of dose-response curves of multiple LuxN mutants pins these inverse phenotypes on quantifiable opposing shifts in the free-energy bias of LuxN for its kinase and phosphatase states. To extract signaling parameters, we exploited a strong LuxN antagonist, one of fifteen small-molecule antagonists we identified. We find that quorum-sensing-mediated communication can be manipulated positively and negatively to control bacterial behavior, and that signaling parameters can be deduced from in vivo data.

Swem, Lee R.; Swem, Danielle L.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2008-01-01

75

A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.  

PubMed

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-02-27

76

Immune responses of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), after administration of an experimental Vibrio harveyi bacterin by intraperitoneal injection, anal intubation and immersion.  

PubMed

Barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), were immunized with an experimental Vibrio harveyi bacterin via intraperitoneal injection, immersion and anal intubation. Both specific and non-specific immune parameters were measured to compare responses to bacterin after delivery by various methods. Elevated antibody activities in sera were found in all treatment groups with barramundi injected intraperitoneally displaying significantly higher antibody activity than the other groups. In addition, there was evidence of memory induction with a heightened antibody response in the intraperitoneally injected group only. Bacteriostatic assays indicated activity against V. harveyi in the sera of all bacterin-treated groups; again this activity was significantly higher in the intraperitoneally injected groups. There was no enhancement noted in head kidney macrophage phagocytic activity or in serum lysozyme levels. PMID:15509257

Crosbie, P B B; Nowak, B F

2004-11-01

77

Biocontrol of Vibrio harveyi in Shrimp Aquaculture with Host Specific Lytic Bacteriophage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current decline in shrimp farm production has been related to a variety of issues associated with survivability of shrimp grown in the aquaculture setting. The presence of Vibrio pathogens has been identified as a cause of high mortality in the post larval and juvenile shrimp in aquaculture. The use of bacteriophage to control infections has seen increased interest with

Lillian Barber

2012-01-01

78

Identification of the genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases that are similar in sequence to Escherichia coli Fre in four species of luminous bacteria: Photorhabdus luminescens, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio orientalis.  

PubMed Central

Genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) similar in both size and sequence to Fre, the most abundant flavin reductase in Escherichia coli, were identified in four species of luminous bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens (ATCC 29999), Vibrio fischeri (ATCC 7744), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 33843), and Vibrio orientalis (ATCC 33934). Nucleotide sequence analysis showed Fre-like flavin reductases in P. luminescens and V. fischeri to consist of 233 and 236 amino acids, respectively. As in E. coli Fre, Fre-like enzymes in luminous bacteria preferably used riboflavin as an electron acceptor when NADPH was used as an electron donor. These enzymes also were good suppliers of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) to the bioluminescence reaction. In V. fischeri, the Fre-like enzyme is a minor flavin reductase representing < 10% of the total FMN reductase. That the V. fischeri Fre-like enzyme has no appreciable homology in amino acid sequence to the major flavin reductase in V. fischeri, FRase I, indicates that at least two different types of flavin reductases supply FMNH2 to the luminescence system in V. fischeri. Although Fre-like flavin reductases are highly similar in sequence to luxG gene products (LuxGs), Fre-like flavin reductases and LuxGs appear to constitute two separate groups of flavin-associated proteins. Images

Zenno, S; Saigo, K

1994-01-01

79

Virulence of Vibrio harveyi responsible for the "Bright-red" Syndrome in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi (Vh) CAIM 1792 strain was isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei affected with "Bright-red" Syndrome (BRS). The strain grew in 1-10% NaCl, at 15-35°C and was resistant to ampicillin (10 ?g), carbenicillin (100 ?g) and oxytetracycline (30 ?g). The lowest MIC was for enrofloxacine (0.5 ?gml(-1)). The in vivo and in vitro toxicity of bacterial cells and the extracellular products (ECPs) of Vh CAIM 1792 grown at 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% NaCl were evaluated. Adherence ability, enzymatic activities and siderophore production of bacterial cell was tested. The ECPs exhibited several enzymatic activities, such as gelatinase, amylase, lipase, phospholipase and caseinase. These ECPs displayed a strong cytotoxic effect on HELA cell line at 6 and 24 h. Challenges using 10(3) CFU g(-1) caused opacity at the site of injection and over 80% shrimp mortality before 24 h p.i. (post-injection). Mortality caused by the ECPs was higher than mortalities with bacteria, especially in the first hours p.i. Bacteria were re-isolated from hemolymph samples of moribund shrimp and identified as Vh CAIM 1792 by rep-PCR. Histological analysis of shrimp L. vannamei injected with Vh CAIM 1792 revealed generalized necrosis involving skeletal muscle (MU) at the injection site, the lymphoid organ (LO), heart and connective tissues. Melanization within the MU at the site of injection was also observed as well as hemocytic nodules within the hearth and MU at 168 h p.i. LO was the target organ of BRS. Necrosis of the MU at the injection site was the main difference in comparison to other shrimp vibriosis. PMID:22306693

Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Lozano, Rodolfo; del Rio-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Diéguez, Ana L; Romalde, Jesús L

2012-01-28

80

Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p < 0.05) in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control group fed without neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection. PMID:23178500

Talpur, Allah Dad; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

2012-11-20

81

Expression and distribution of three heat shock protein genes under heat shock stress and under exposure to Vibrio harveyi in Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

A sudden increase in temperature results in heat shock stress of the cultured shrimp. To cope with the stress, shrimp has to overcome by triggering a response known as heat shock response. To understand the heat shock response in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), we examined expression patterns and distribution of three heat shock protein (hsp) genes in P. monodon juveniles. The expression levels of hsp21, hsp70 and hsp90 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR in nine tissues (gill, heart, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestine, eyestalk, pleopod, thoracic ganglia and hemocyte) under untreated and heat shock conditions. Under untreated condition, all three hsp genes were differentially expressed in all examined tissues where the hsp70 transcript showed the highest basal level. Under heat shock condition, only hsp90 was inducible in all nine tissues when comparing to its untreated level. The time-course induction experiment in gill and hepatopancreas revealed that the transcriptional levels of hsp21, hsp70 and hsp90 were inducible under the heat shock condition and in time-dependent manner. To determine the response of the hsp genes upon bacterial exposure, we further determined transcript levels of the hsp genes in gill of P. monodon after Vibrio harveyi injection. The expression levels of hsp70 and hsp90 were significantly increased after a 3-h exposure to V. harveyi where the hsp21 transcript was induced later after a 24-h exposure. This evidence suggests for putative roles and involvement of the hsp genes as a part of immunity response against V. harveyi in P. monodon. PMID:20561967

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2010-06-08

82

Elevated cytokine responses to Vibrio harveyi infection in the Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) treated with Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei (06TCa22) isolated from the Mongolian dairy product.  

PubMed

With the aim of evaluating the effect of a Mongolian dairy product derived Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei (strain 06TCa22) (Lpp) on the cytokine-mediated immune responses to Vibrio harveyi infection, we examined 16 cytokine expressions in the Japanese pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes. Fish were orally treated with the heat-killed Lpp at 1 mg g(-1) body weight d(-1) for 3 days. At 24 h posttreatment, fish were infected by an intramuscular injection of 0.1 mL V. harveyi bacterial suspension (10(8) cfu mL(-1)). Additionally, superoxide anion production (SAP) and phagocytic activity (PA) of head kidney cells were assessed during 120 h postinfection period. Significant up-regulation of pro-inflammatory (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17A/F-3, TNF-? and TNF-N), cell-mediated immune inducing (IL-12p35, IL-12p40 and IL-18), antiviral/intra-cellular pathogen killing (I-IFN-1 and IFN-?), anti-inflammatory (IL-10) and lymphocyte agonistic (IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, IL-21 and TGF-?1) cytokines was observed in the treated fish compared to control ones during the pathogen infection. Furthermore, significantly increased SAP and PA (P < 0.01; 0.05) were recorded in the treated fish compared to untreated fish. These results suggest the beneficial role of Lpp in enhancement of cytokine-mediated immunity in the Japanese pufferfish against V. harveyi infection and application of this product as a potential fish immunostimulant. PMID:23769874

Biswas, G; Korenaga, H; Nagamine, R; Kawahara, S; Takeda, S; Kikuchi, Y; Dashnyam, B; Yoshida, T; Kono, T; Sakai, M

2013-06-12

83

Quorum sensing regulation of virulence gene expression in Vibrio harveyi in vitro and in vivo during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated quorum sensing regulation of virulence genes in Vibrio harveyi by determining their expression levels, both in vitro and in vivo during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp. The quorum sensing master regulator luxR and the vhp metalloprotease showed around threefold and fivefold higher expression levels in a luxO mutant with maximum quorum sensing activity than in a luxO mutant with minimum quorum sensing activity. There was no difference in expression of the vhh haemolysin gene between the two mutants. There was however more than 2.5-fold lower expression in an AI-2-negative mutant, suggesting that this gene is specifically regulated by AI-2 quorum sensing through a yet unknown signal transduction cascade. The in vivo expression data showed a peak in expression of the quorum sensing master regulator luxR and the vhp metalloprotease after 24?h of incubation in wild-type V. harveyi and the luxO mutant mimicking a maximally activated quorum sensing system, whereas the expression remained low in the luxO mutant mimicking a completely inactivated quorum sensing system. The vhh haemolysin gene showed a peak in expression after 24?h in the wild type and a constantly low expression in an AI-2-negative mutant. PMID:23761340

Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Bhowmick, Patit Paban; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

2011-06-08

84

In vitro and in vivo expression of virulence genes in Vibrio isolates belonging to the Harveyi clade in relation to their virulence towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).  

PubMed

Vibrios belonging to the Harveyi clade are pathogenic marine bacteria affecting both vertebrates and invertebrates, thereby causing a severe threat to the aquaculture industry. In this study, the expression of haemolysin, metalloprotease, serine protease, the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR and the virulence regulator ToxR in different Harveyi clade isolates was measured with reverse transcriptase real-time PCR with specific primers. There was relatively low variation in the in vitro expression levels of the quorum sensing master regulator luxR (sevenfold), whereas for the other genes, the difference in expression between the isolates showing lowest and highest expression levels was over 25-fold. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between expression levels of toxR and luxR and between the expression levels of these regulators and the protease genes. The expression levels of luxR, toxR and haemolysin were negatively correlated with the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with the isolates. Finally, a non-virulent, a moderately virulent and a strongly virulent isolate were selected to study in vivo expression of the virulence genes during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae. The in vivo gene expression study showed a clear difference in virulence gene expression between both virulent isolates and the non-virulent isolate. PMID:20946530

Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Defoirdt, Tom; Bhowmick, Patit Paban; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya; Bossier, Peter

2010-10-15

85

Multiple Regulators Control Capsular Polysaccharide Production in Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a biofouling marine bacterium and human pathogen, undergoes phase variation displaying translucent (TR) and opaque (OP) colony morphologies. Prior studies demonstrated that OP colonies produce more capsular polysaccharide (CPS) than TR colonies and that opacity is controlled by the Vibrio harveyi LuxR-type transcriptional activator OpaR. CPS has also been shown to be regulated by the scrABC signaling pathway,

Zehra Tuzun Guvener; Linda L. McCarter

2003-01-01

86

Evolution of tolerance to PCBs and susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen (Vibrio harveyi) in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from New Bedford (MA, USA) harbor  

PubMed Central

A population of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (Atlantic killifish) resident to New Bedford (NB), Massachusetts, USA, an urban harbor highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), demonstrates recently evolved tolerance to some aspects of PCB toxicity. PCB toxicology, ecological theory, and some precedence supported expectations of increased susceptibility to pathogens in NB killifish. However, laboratory bacterial challenges of the marine pathogen Vibrio harveyi to wild fish throughout the reproductive season and to their mature laboratory-raised progeny demonstrated comparable survival by NB and reference killifish, and improved survival by NB males. These results are inconsistent with hypothesized tradeoffs of adaptation, and suggest that evolved tolerance in NB killifish may include mechanisms that minimize the immunosuppressive effects of PCBs. Compensatory strategies of populations persisting in highly contaminated environments provide a unique perspective for understanding the long-term ecological effects of toxic chemicals.

Nacci, Diane; Huber, Marina; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Cohen, Sarah; Gauger, Eric; Fong, Allison; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta

2009-01-01

87

Mutation of bacterium Vibrio gazogenes for selective preparation of colorants.  

PubMed

A novel marine bacterium strain effectively produced prodiginine type pigments. These colorants could dye wool, silk and synthetic fabrics such as polyester and polyacrylic and also show antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on the dyed products. Methyl nitrosoguanidine was used as a mutation agent to increase the genetic diversity and the production yield of the bacteria of the family of Vibrio gazogenes. The analysis of the mutated samples showed that two new main colorants as well as three previously found ones were produced. Liquid chromatography electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques were used to elucidate the structures of the newly produced colorants. Mass measurements revealed that the colorants C1, C2, C3, C4 have molecular masses of 321, 323, 351, and 295 Da. One unstable colorant C5 with molecular mass of 309 Da was detected as well. The mutated bacteria strains increased the yield of pigment production by about 81% and produced prodigiosin in 97% purity. The antibiotic activities of pure colorants are discussed as well. Based on their bio-activity and excellent dyeing capabilities, these colorants could be employed in cosmetic and textile industries. PMID:19902486

Alihosseini, Farzaneh; Lango, Jozsef; Ju, Kou-San; Hammock, Bruce D; Sun, Gang

88

Microbially influenced corrosion of 303 stainless steel by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens: (II) Corrosion mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical techniques (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization curves) and surface analysis (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) were carried out to determine the possible mechanism of the microbially influenced corrosion of 303 stainless steel (303 SS) by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens (V. natriegens). In order to clarify the mechanism, 303 SS coupons were immersed in four different mediums. EIS results

Yansheng Yin; Sha Cheng; Shougang Chen; Jintao Tian; Tao Liu; Xueting Chang

2009-01-01

89

The natural furanone (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone disrupts quorum sensing-regulated gene expression in Vibrio harveyi by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the transcriptional regulator protein luxR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aimed at getting a deeper insight in the molecular mechanism by which the natural furanone (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)- furanone disrupts quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi. Bioluminescence experiments with signal molecule receptor double mutants revealed that the furanone blocks all three channels of the V. harveyi quorum sensing system. In further experiments using mutants with mutations in the quorum sensing

Tom Defoirdt; Carol M. Miyamoto; Thomas K. Wood; Edward A. Meighen; Patrick Sorgeloos; Willy Verstraete; Peter Bossier

2007-01-01

90

Growth, nonspecific immune characteristics, and survival upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) raised on diets containing algal meal.  

PubMed

A 70-day growth trial was conducted with postlarvae 12 (PL12) Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to study the suitability of soybean meal and oil originating from a single-celled microorganism (thraustochytrid) as fishmeal and fish oil substitutes in practical diets for L. vannamei. The growth, survival rate and immune characteristics were evaluated. Seven experimental diets were designed with soybean meal used as the primary protein source; each formulation contained 33% crude protein and 8% lipid. Fish oil was completely substituted with 3% soybean oil and meals originating from single-celled heterotrophs rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were added at different concentrations. A commercial shrimp feed was used as the control diet. The final weights and survival rates of the shrimp were not significantly different among all treatments. However, shrimp raised on diets supplemented with marine algal meals rich in DHA and ARA showed significant improvement in immune parameters, such as total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and bactericidal activity. Additionally, the survival rate after challenge with Vibrio harveyi was increased. These findings demonstrated that substitution of thraustochytrid-derived meals as an alternative to fish-based ingredients in shrimp diets provided similar growth rates while increasing the immune parameters and providing vibriosis resistance. PMID:20420922

Nonwachai, Thasanee; Purivirojkul, Watchariya; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chuchird, Niti; Velasco, Mario; Dhar, Arun K

2010-04-24

91

Individual and Combined Roles of the Master Regulators AphA and LuxR in Control of the Vibrio harveyi Quorum-Sensing Regulon  

PubMed Central

Bacteria use a chemical communication process called quorum sensing to control transitions between individual and group behaviors. In the Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing circuit, two master transcription factors, AphA and LuxR, coordinate the quorum-sensing response. Here we show that AphA regulates 167 genes, LuxR regulates 625 genes, and they coregulate 77 genes. LuxR strongly controls genes at both low cell density and high cell density, suggesting that it is the major quorum-sensing regulator. In contrast, AphA is absent at high cell density and acts to fine-tune quorum-sensing gene expression at low cell density. We examined two loci as case studies of coregulation by AphA and LuxR. First, AphA and LuxR directly regulate expression of the genes encoding the quorum-regulatory small RNAs Qrr2, Qrr3, and Qrr4, the consequence of which is a specifically timed transition between the individual and the group life-styles. Second, AphA and LuxR repress type III secretion system genes but at different times and to different extents. The consequence of this regulation is that type III secretion is restricted to a peak at mid-cell density. Thus, the asymmetric production of AphA and LuxR coupled with differences in their strengths and timing of target gene regulation generate a precise temporal pattern of gene expression.

van Kessel, Julia C.; Rutherford, Steven T.; Shao, Yi; Utria, Alan F.

2013-01-01

92

Exopolysaccharide production by Vibrio fischeri, a fouling marine bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cultures were isolated from the microfouling material developed on stainless steel panels immersed in seawater. Cultures were tentatively identified as Vibrio fischeri strains and were assessed for extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. One culture was used to study the production, isolation and chemical characterization of EPS. The EPS was produced during all phases of growth and with all the substrates

Carol Rodrigues; Narayan B Bhosle

1991-01-01

93

Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Bacterium Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 3.  

PubMed

We report the first genome sequence of the pathogenic Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3. This draft genome sequence of the environmental strain VVyb1(BT3), isolated in Israel, provides a representation of this newly emerged clonal group, which reveals higher similarity to the clinical strains of biotype 1 than to the environmental ones. PMID:23599289

Danin-Poleg, Yael; Elgavish, Sharona; Raz, Nili; Efimov, Vera; Kashi, Yechezkel

2013-04-18

94

Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Bacterium Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 3  

PubMed Central

We report the first genome sequence of the pathogenic Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3. This draft genome sequence of the environmental strain VVyb1(BT3), isolated in Israel, provides a representation of this newly emerged clonal group, which reveals higher similarity to the clinical strains of biotype 1 than to the environmental ones.

Danin-Poleg, Yael; Elgavish, Sharona; Raz, Nili; Efimov, Vera

2013-01-01

95

Penetration of the Coral-Bleaching Bacterium Vibrio shiloi into Oculina patagonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of the coral-bleaching bacterium Vibrio shiloi into seawater containing its host Oculina patagonica led to adhesion of the bacteria to the coral surface via a b-D-galactose receptor, followed by penetration of the bacteria into the coral tissue. The internalized V. shiloi cells were observed inside the exodermal layer of the coral by electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy using specific

E. Banin; T. Israely; A. Kushmaro; Y. Loya; E. Orr; E. Rosenberg

2000-01-01

96

Production of feather protein hydrolysate by keratinolytic bacterium Vibrio sp. kr2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feather protein hydrolysate was produced using the keratinolytic bacterium Vibrio sp. strain kr2. Complete feather degradation was observed in medium containing up to 60gL?1 raw feathers. Cultivation on 40, 60 or 80gL?1 feathers for five days resulted in similar amounts of soluble protein, reaching maximum values around 2.5gL?1. Maximum yields of soluble protein were achieved at 30°C and initial

Adriane Grazziotin; Fernanda A. Pimentel; Sidnei Sangali; Erna V. de Jong; Adriano Brandelli

2007-01-01

97

Removal of a high load of ammonia by a marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus in biofilter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly isolated heterotrophic marine bacterium,Vibrio alginolyticus, was used to remove a high load of ammonia gas under non-sterile condition. The cells were inoculated onto an inorganic packing\\u000a material in a fixed-bed reactor (biofilter), and a high bad of ammonia, in the range of ammonia gas concentration of 170 ppm\\u000a to 880 ppm, was introduced continuously. Sucrose solution and 3%

Nam Jin Kim; Makoto Shoda

2002-01-01

98

Vibrio harveyi NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase: cloning, sequencing and overexpression of the gene and purification and characterization of the cloned enzyme.  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) from luminous bacteria catalyze the reduction of flavin by NAD(P)H and are believed to provide the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) for luciferase in the bioluminescence reaction. By using an oligonucleotide probe based on the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase (flavin reductase P), a recombinant plasmid, pFRP1, was obtained which contained the frp gene encoding this enzyme. The DNA sequence of the frp gene was determined; the deduced amino acid sequence for flavin reductase P consists of 240 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 26,312. The frp gene was overexpressed, apparently through induction, in Escherichia coli JM109 cells harboring pFRP1. The cloned flavin reductase P was purified to homogeneity by following a new and simple procedure involving FMN-agarose chromatography as a key step. The same chromatography material was also highly effective in concentrating diluted flavin reductase P. The purified enzyme is a monomer and is unusual in having a tightly bound FMN cofactor. Distinct from the free FMN, the bound FMN cofactor showed a diminished A375 peak and a slightly increased 8-nm red-shifted A453 peak and was completely or nearly nonfluorescent. The Kms for FMN and NADPH and the turnover number of this flavin reductase were determined. In comparison with other flavin reductases and homologous proteins, this flavin reductase P shows a number of distinct features with respect to primary sequence, redox center, and/or kinetic mechanism. Images

Lei, B; Liu, M; Huang, S; Tu, S C

1994-01-01

99

Epidemic mortality of the sponge Ircinia variabilis (Schmidt, 1862) associated to proliferation of a Vibrio bacterium.  

PubMed

In recent years, several episodes of mass mortality of sessile epibenthic invertebrates, including sponges, have been recorded worldwide. In the present study, we report a disease event on Ircinia variabilis recorded in September 2009 along the southern Adriatic and Ionian seas (Apulian coast), with the aim to quantify the mortality incidence on the sponge population, to investigate the effect of the disease on the sponge tissues and to assess whether the disease is associated with vibrios proliferation. The injured sponges showed wide necrotic areas on the surface or disruption of the body in several portions. Necrotic areas were whitish and often were covered with a thin mucous coat formed by bacteria. In the most affected specimens, sponge organisation resulted partial or complete loss, with the final exposure of the dense skeletal network of spongine fibres to the environment. The results of microbiological cultural analysis using in parallel Marine Agar 2216 and thiosulphate/citrate/bile salts/sucrose agar demonstrated that, in affected specimens, vibrios represented 15.8 % of the total I. variabilis surface culturable bacteria. Moreover, all the isolated vibrios, grown from the wide whitish areas that characterize the surface of the diseased sponges, were identified, and their assignment to the Vibrio rotiferianus was consistent with phylogenetic analysis and data of morphological, cultural and biochemical tests. Studies on V. rotiferianus have shown that its pathogenicity, with respect to various aquatic organisms, is higher than that of Vibrio harveyi. The factors triggering the disease outbreak in Ircinia variabilis populations remain unclear. At present, we can hypothesize the involvement in the disease of a synergetic mechanism that, under stressful physiological conditions (high temperature, elevated nutrients and reduced water flow), induces sponge pathogens, in our case V. rotiferanius, to become virulent, making sponges unable to control their proliferation. Additional studies are needed to understand the etiological processes as well as the factors involved in sponges recovering from this epidemic event allowing them to face mass mortality. A drastic reduction of sponge-specific representatives could have marked a negative impact on the environmental health on account of their role in the sea remediation processes as filter-feeding organisms. PMID:22573240

Stabili, Loredana; Cardone, Frine; Alifano, Pietro; Tredici, S Maurizio; Piraino, Stefano; Corriero, Giuseppe; Gaino, Elda

2012-05-10

100

Susceptibility to Antibiotics of Vibrio sp. AO1 Growing in Pure Culture or in Association with its Hydroid Host Aglaophenia octodonta (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio harveyi is the major causal organism of vibriosis, causing potential devastation to diverse ranges of marine invertebrates over a\\u000a wide geographical area. These microorganisms, however, are phenotypically diverse, and many of the isolates are also resistant\\u000a to multiple antibiotics. In a previous study, we described a previously unknown association between Vibrio sp. AO1, a luminous bacterium related to the

Loredana Stabili; Cinzia Gravili; Ferdinando Boero; Salvatore M. Tredici; Pietro Alifano

2010-01-01

101

NH4+ transport system of a psychrophilic marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1.  

PubMed

NH4(+) transport system of a psychrophilic marine bacterium Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1 (Vibrio ABE-1) was examined by measuring the uptake of [14C]methylammonium ion (14CH3NH3+) into the intact cells. 14CH3NH3+ uptake was detected in cells grown in medium containing glutamate as the sole nitrogen source, but not in those grown in medium containing NH4Cl instead of glutamate. Vibrio ABE-1 did not utilize CH3NH3+ as a carbon or nitrogen source. NH4Cl and nonradiolabeled CH3NH3+ completely inhibited 14CH3NH3+ uptake. These results indicate that 14CH3NH3+ uptake in this bacterium is mediated via an NH4+ transport system and not by a specific carrier for CH3NH3+. The respiratory substrate succinate was required to drive 14CH3NH3+ uptake and the uptake was completely inhibited by KCN, indicating that the uptake was energy dependent. The electrochemical potentials of H+ and/or Na+ across membranes were suggested to be the driving forces for the transport system because the ionophores carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and monensin strongly inhibited uptake activities at pH 6.5 and 8.5, respectively. Furthermore, KCl activated 14CH3NH3+ uptake. The 14CH3NH3+ uptake activity of Vibrio ABE-1 was markedly high at temperatures between 0 degrees and 15 degrees C, and the apparent Km value for CH3NH3+ of the uptake did not change significantly over the temperature range from 0 degrees to 25 degrees C. Thus, the NH4+ transport system of this bacterium was highly active at low temperatures. PMID:10356994

Chou, M; Matsunaga, T; Takada, Y; Fukunaga, N

1999-05-01

102

Cloning, expression, and characterization of a chitinase gene from the Antarctic psychrotolerant bacterium Vibrio sp. strain Fi:7  

Microsoft Academic Search

A marine psychrotolerant bacterium from the Antarctic Ocean showing high chitinolytic activity on chitin agar at 5°C was isolated. The sequencing of the 16S rRNA indicates taxonomic affiliation of the isolate Fi:7 to the genus Vibrio. By chitinase activity screening of a genomic DNA library of Vibrio sp. strain Fi:7 in Escherichia coli, three chitinolytic clones could be isolated. Sequencing

Anne Bendt; Heike Hüller; Ulrike Kammel; Elisabeth Helmke; Thomas Schweder

2001-01-01

103

Vibrio xiamenensis sp. nov., a cellulase-producing bacterium isolated from mangrove soil.  

PubMed

A taxonomic study was carried out on a cellulase-producing bacterium, strain G21(T), isolated from mangrove soil in Xiamen, Fujian province, China. Cells were Gram-negative, slightly curved rods, motile with a single polar flagellum. The strain grew at 15-40 °C and in 0.5-10% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain G21(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and formed a clade with Vibrio furnissii ATCC 350116(T) (97.4% sequence similarity), V. fluvialis LMG 7894(T) (97.1%) and V. ponticus CECT 5869(T) (96.1%). However, multilocus sequence analysis (using rpoA, recA, mreB, gapA, gyrB and pyrH sequences) and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated that the strain was distinct from the closest related Vibrio species. Additionally, strain G21(T) could be differentiated from them phenotypically by the ability to grow in 10% NaCl but not on TCBS plates, its enzyme activity spectrum, citrate utilization, oxidization of various carbon sources, hydrolysis of several substrates and its cellular fatty acid profile. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 46.0 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(16:0) and C(18:1)?7c. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, with trace amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant quinones were Q-8 and Q-7. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, it is concluded that strain G21(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio xiamenensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G21(T) (?=?DSM 22851(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.10228(T)). PMID:22039001

Gao, Zhao-Ming; Xiao, Jing; Wang, Xing-Na; Ruan, Ling-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

2011-10-28

104

A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, antagonistic to vibrios in prawn larval rearing systems.  

PubMed

A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, isolated from hatchery water, demonstrated extracellular antagonistic properties against Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluviallis, V. nereis, V. proteolyticus, V. mediterranei, V cholerae and Aeromonas sp., bacteria associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems. The isolate inhibited the growth of V. alginolyticus during co-culture. The antagonistic component of the extracellular product was heat-stable and insensitive to proteases, lipase, catalase and alpha-amylase. Micrococcus MCCB 104 was demonstrated to be non-pathogenic to M. rosenbergii larvae. PMID:16465832

Jayaprakash, N S; Pai, S Somnath; Anas, A; Preetha, R; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

2005-12-30

105

Toxicity of Diphenylamine and Some of Its Nitrated and Aminated Derivatives to the Luminescent Bacterium Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous samples containing various nitrated and aminated diphenylamine derivatives were subjected to the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri NRRL-B-11177 to determine their ecotoxicological potential. As the most important toxicological parameter, EC50, the concentration needed to reduce bacterial luminescence by 50%, was calculated. All compounds tested must be classified to the category \\

O. Drzyzga; S. Jannsen; K. H. Blotevogel

1995-01-01

106

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio fischeri: A symbiotic bacterium with pathogenic congeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio fischeri belongs to the Vibrionaceae, a large family of marine -proteobacteria that includes several dozen species known to engage in a diversity of beneficial or pathogenic interactions with animal tissue. Among the small number of pathogenic Vibrio species that cause human diseases are Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus, the only members of the Vibrionaceae that have had

E. G. Ruby; M. Urbanowski; J. Campbell; A. Dunn; M. Faini; R. Gunsalus; P. Lostroh; C. Lupp; J. McCann; D. Millikan; A. Schaefer; E. Stabb; A. Stevens; K. Visick; C. Whistler; E. P. Greenberg

2005-01-01

107

The natural furanone (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone disrupts quorum sensing-regulated gene expression in Vibrio harveyi by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the transcriptional regulator protein luxR.  

PubMed

This study aimed at getting a deeper insight in the molecular mechanism by which the natural furanone (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone disrupts quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi. Bioluminescence experiments with signal molecule receptor double mutants revealed that the furanone blocks all three channels of the V. harveyi quorum sensing system. In further experiments using mutants with mutations in the quorum sensing signal transduction pathway, the compound was found to block quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence by interacting with a component located downstream of the Hfq protein. Furthermore, reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction with specific primers showed that there was no effect of the furanone on luxR(Vh) mRNA levels in wild-type V. harveyi cells. In contrast, mobility shift assays showed that in the presence of the furanone, significantly lower levels of the LuxR(Vh) response regulator protein were able to bind to its target promoter sequences in wild-type V. harveyi. Finally, tests with purified LuxR(Vh) protein also showed less shifts with furanone-treated LuxR(Vh), whereas the LuxR(Vh) concentration was found not to be altered by the furanone (as determined by SDS-PAGE). Therefore, our data indicate that the furanone blocks quorum sensing in V. harveyi by rendering the quorum sensing master regulator protein LuxR(Vh) unable to bind to the promoter sequences of quorum sensing-regulated genes. PMID:17803774

Defoirdt, Tom; Miyamoto, Carol M; Wood, Thomas K; Meighen, Edward A; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

2007-10-01

108

Quorum-sensing regulates biofilm formation in Vibrio scophthalmi  

PubMed Central

Background In a previous study, we demonstrated that Vibrio scophthalmi, the most abundant Vibrio species among the marine aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract of healthy cultured turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), contains at least two quorum-sensing circuits involving two types of signal molecules (a 3-hydroxy-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone and the universal autoinducer 2 encoded by luxS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions regulated by these quorum sensing circuits in this vibrio by constructing mutants for the genes involved in these circuits. Results The presence of a homologue to the Vibrio harveyi luxR gene encoding a main transcriptional regulator, whose expression is modulated by quorum–sensing signal molecules in other vibrios, was detected and sequenced. The V. scophthalmi LuxR protein displayed a maximum amino acid identity of 82% with SmcR, the LuxR homologue found in Vibrio vulnificus. luxR and luxS null mutants were constructed and their phenotype analysed. Both mutants displayed reduced biofilm formation in vitro as well as differences in membrane protein expression by mass-spectrometry analysis. Additionally, a recombinant strain of V. scophthalmi carrying the lactonase AiiA from Bacillus cereus, which causes hydrolysis of acyl homoserine lactones, was included in the study. Conclusions V. scophthalmi shares two quorum sensing circuits, including the main transcriptional regulator luxR, with some pathogenic vibrios such as V. harveyi and V. anguillarum. However, contrary to these pathogenic vibrios no virulence factors (such as protease production) were found to be quorum sensing regulated in this bacterium. Noteworthy, biofilm formation was altered in luxS and luxR mutants. In these mutants a different expression profile of membrane proteins were observed with respect to the wild type strain suggesting that quorum sensing could play a role in the regulation of the adhesion mechanisms of this bacterium.

2012-01-01

109

Vibrio ruber sp. nov., a red, facultatively anaerobic, marine bacterium isolated from sea water.  

PubMed

A red, heterotrophic, marine bacterium, designated strain VR1T, was isolated from a sea-water sample collected in the shallow coastal region of Keelung, Taiwan. Cells of the novel strain were facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative rods that were motile by means of a polar flagellum. The strain grew optimally at 25-30 degrees C and pH 6-7. Growth required the presence of NaCl, the optimal concentration being about 2%. The red pigment produced by the cells was identified as prodigiosin. Strain VR1T grew anaerobically by fermenting glucose and other carbohydrates and producing acids and gases. The strain did not require either vitamins or other organic growth factors for growth. It contained 2-OH-16 : 0 and 3-OH-14 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G + C content was 45.8 mol%. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization indicated that strain VR1T represents a novel species in the genus Vibrio. Strain VR1T is phenotypically similar to Vibrio gazogenes. However, the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, the ability to utilize D-arabinose, melibiose and L-glycine as sole carbon sources, the inability to utilize sorbitol as a sole carbon source, resistance to O/129 and susceptibility to erythromycin and novobiocin allow differentiation between V. gazogenes and strain VR1T. The name Vibrio ruber sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species, with strain VR1T (=CCRC 17186T =JCM 11486T) as the type strain. PMID:12710616

Shieh, Wung Yang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Chiu, Hsiu-Hui

2003-03-01

110

Characterization of a Facultatively Psychrophilic Bacterium, Vibrio rumoiensis sp. nov., That Exhibits High Catalase Activity  

PubMed Central

A novel facultatively psychrophilic bacterium, strain S-1, which exhibits extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a fish product processing plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching and microbicidal agent. The catalase activity of the isolate was 1 or 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of Corynebacterium glutamicum, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and five other species tested in this study. The strain seemed to possess only one kind of catalase, according to the results of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the cell extract. The optimum temperature for catalase activity was about 30°C, which was about 20°C lower than that for bovine catalase activity. Electron microscopic observation revealed that the surface of the microorganism was covered by blebs. Although the isolate was nonflagellated, its taxonomic position on the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics and analysis of 16S rRNA sequence and DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that strain S-1 is a new species belonging to the genus Vibrio. Accordingly, we propose the name Vibrio rumoiensis. The type strain is S-1 (FERM P-14531).

Yumoto, Isao; Iwata, Hideaki; Sawabe, Tomoo; Ueno, Keisuke; Ichise, Nobutoshi; Matsuyama, Hidetoshi; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Kawasaki, Kosei

1999-01-01

111

Production and sequence validation of a complete full length ORF collection for the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholera, an infectious disease with global impact, is caused by pathogenic strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. High-throughput functional proteomics technologies now offer the opportunity to investigate all aspects of the proteome, which has led to an increased demand for comprehensive protein expression clone resources. Genome-scale reagents for cholera would encourage comprehensive analyses of immune responses and systems-wide functional studies

Andreas Rolfs; Wagner R. Montor; Sang Sun Yoon; Yanhui Hu; Bhupinder Bhullar; Fontina Kelley; Seamus McCarron; Daniel A. Jepson; Binghua Shen; Elena Taycher; Stephanie E. Mohr; Dongmei Zuo; Janice Williamson; John Mekalanos; Joshua Labaer

2008-01-01

112

Purification and Characterization of a Catalase from the Facultatively Psychrophilic Bacterium Vibrio rumoiensis S-1T Exhibiting High Catalase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalase from the facultatively psychrophilic bacterium Vibrio rumoiensis S-1 T , which was isolated from an environment exposed to H2O2 and exhibited high catalase activity, was purified and characterized, and its localization in the cell was determined. Its molecular mass was 230 kDa, and the molecule consisted of four identical subunits. The enzyme, which was not apparently reduced by dithionite,

ISAO YUMOTO; DAISEN ICHIHASHI; HIDEAKI IWATA; ANITA ISTOKOVICS; NOBUTOSHI ICHISE; HIDETOSHI MATSUYAMA; HIDETOSHI OKUYAMA; KOSEI KAWASAKI

2000-01-01

113

Secondary Metabolites Produced by the Marine Bacterium Halobacillus salinus That Inhibit Quorum Sensing-Controlled Phenotypes in Gram-Negative Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain bacteria use cell-to-cell chemical communication to coordinate community-wide phenotypic expres- sion, including swarming motility, antibiotic biosynthesis, and biofilm production. Here we present a marine gram-positive bacterium that secretes secondary metabolites capable of quenching quorum sensing-controlled behaviors in several gram-negative reporter strains. Isolate C42, a Halobacillus salinus strain obtained from a sea grass sample, inhibits bioluminescence production by Vibrio harveyi

Margaret E. Teasdale; Jiayuan Liu; Joselynn Wallace; Fatemeh Akhlaghi; David C. Rowley

2009-01-01

114

Antibiofilm Activity of an Exopolysaccharide from Marine Bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101  

PubMed Central

Bacterial exopolysaccharides have always been suggested to play crucial roles in the bacterial initial adhesion and the development of complex architecture in the later stages of bacterial biofilm formation. However, Escherichia coli group II capsular polysaccharide was characterized to exert broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition activity. In this study, we firstly reported that a bacterial exopolysaccharide (A101) not only inhibits biofilm formation of many bacteria but also disrupts established biofilm of some strains. A101 with an average molecular weight of up to 546 KDa, was isolated and purified from the culture supernatant of the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101 by ethanol precipitation, iron-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. High performance liquid chromatography traces of the hydrolyzed polysaccharides showed that A101 is primarily consisted of galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and glucosamine. A101 was demonstrated to inhibit biofilm formation by a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria without antibacterial activity. Furthermore, A101 displayed a significant disruption on the established biofilm produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not by Staphylococcus aureus. Importantly, A101 increased the aminoglycosides antibiotics' capability of killing P. aeruginosa biofilm. Cell primary attachment to surfaces and intercellular aggregates assays suggested that A101 inhibited cell aggregates of both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, while the cell-surface interactions inhibition only occurred in S. aureus, and the pre-formed cell aggregates dispersion induced by A101 only occurred in P. aeruginosa. Taken together, these data identify the antibiofilm activity of A101, which may make it potential in the design of new therapeutic strategies for bacterial biofilm-associated infections and limiting biofilm formation on medical indwelling devices. The found of A101 antibiofilm activity may also promote a new recognition about the functions of bacterial exopolysaccharides.

Han, Feng; Duan, Gaofei; Lu, Xinzhi; Gu, Yuchao; Yu, Wengong

2011-01-01

115

Penetration of the coral-bleaching bacterium Vibrio shiloi into Oculina patagonica.  

PubMed

Inoculation of the coral-bleaching bacterium Vibrio shiloi into seawater containing its host Oculina patagonica led to adhesion of the bacteria to the coral surface via a beta-D-galactose receptor, followed by penetration of the bacteria into the coral tissue. The internalized V. shiloi cells were observed inside the exodermal layer of the coral by electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy using specific anti-V. shiloi antibodies to stain the intracellular bacteria. At 29 degrees C, 80% of the bacteria bound to the coral within 8 h. Penetration, measured by the viable count (gentamicin invasion assay) inside the coral tissue, was 5.6, 20.9, and 21.7% of the initial inoculum at 8, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The viable count in the coral tissue decreased to 5.3% at 48 h, and none could be detected at 72 h. Determination of V. shiloi total counts (using the anti-V. shiloi antibodies) in the coral tissue showed results similar to viable counts for the first 12 h of infection. After 12 h, however, the total count more than doubled from 12 to 24 h and continued to rise, reaching a value 6 times that of the initial inoculum at 72 h. Thus, the intracellular V. shiloi organisms were transformed into a form that could multiply inside the coral tissue but did not form colonies on agar medium. Internalization of the bacteria was accompanied by the production of high concentrations of V. shiloi toxin P activity in the coral tissue. Internalization and multiplication of V. shiloi are discussed in terms of the mechanism of bacterial bleaching of corals. PMID:10877802

Banin, E; Israely, T; Kushmaro, A; Loya, Y; Orr, E; Rosenberg, E

2000-07-01

116

Effect of Na+and K+Ions on the Luminescence of Intact Vibrio harveyiCells at Different pH Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioluminescent activity of intact Vibrio harveyicells loaded with different concentrations of NaCl and KCl at different pH values was studied. In the pH range of 6.5–8.5, the effect of Na+was significantly higher than that of K+at all concentrations studied. Maximum luminescent activity was observed in cells loaded with 0.68 M NaCl. When Na+was nonuniformly distributed on the plasma membrane,

L. A. Vitukhnovskaya; A. D. Ismailov

2001-01-01

117

A comparison of Fe bioavailability and binding of a catecholate siderophore with virus-mediated lysates from the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus PWH3a  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the bioavailability of Fe complexed to a siderophore produced by the heterotrophic marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus isolate PWH3a and Fe from ligand-complexes present in virus-mediated lysates (using phage PWH3a-P1) of this same bacterium. Fe-binding functional groups, stability constants and the bioavailability of Fe associated with these two separate ligand pools were determined and contrasted to previous work.

Leo Poorvin; Sylvia G. Sander; Imelda Velasquez; Enitan Ibisanmi; Gary R. LeCleir; Steven W. Wilhelm

2011-01-01

118

Rapid, Sensitive and Specific Test for Detecting Pathogenic Bacterium, Vibrio Vulnificus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is related generally to the methods of detecting pathogenic bacteria. More particularly, the invention is related to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) employing a monoclonal antibody for detecting with specificity Vibrio vulnificu...

M. Tomplin

1990-01-01

119

Rapid, Sensitive and Specific Test for Detecting Pathogenic Bacterium, Vibrio vulnificus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is related generally to the methods of detecting pathogenic bacteria. More particularly, the present invention is related to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) employing a monoclonal antibody for detecting with specificity Vibrio v...

M. Tamplin

1990-01-01

120

Genome sequence of the human-pathogenetic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus B2.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus, which can lead to rapidly expanding cellulitis or septicemia, is present in the marine environment. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain B2, which was isolated from a septicemia patient in 2010. PMID:23209257

Wang, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Zhan; Xu, Shui-Ling; Zha, Jia

2012-12-01

121

Identification of a novel endochitinase from a marine bacterium Vibrio proteolyticus strain No. 442  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin binding proteins prepared from Vibrio proteolyticus were purified and the N-terminal amino-acid sequence of a protein from a 110-kDa band on SDS-PAGE was found to be 85–90% identical to the 22nd–41st residues of the N-termini of chitinase A precursor proteins from other vibrios. We cloned the corresponding gene, which encodes a putative protein of 850 amino acids containing a

Shiro Itoi; Yuna Kanomata; Yuki Koyama; Kazunari Kadokura; Shinsuke Uchida; Toshiyuki Nishio; Tadatake Oku; Haruo Sugita

2007-01-01

122

Draft Genome Sequence of the Fast-Growing Marine Bacterium Vibrio natriegens Strain ATCC 14048.  

PubMed

Vibrio natriegens bacteria are Gram-negative aquatic microorganisms that are found primarily in coastal seawater and sediments and are perhaps best known for their high growth rates (generation time of <10 min). In this study, we report the first sequenced genome of this species, that of the type strain Vibrio natriegens ATCC 14048, a salt marsh mud isolate from Sapelo Island, GA. PMID:23929482

Wang, Zheng; Lin, Baochuan; Hervey, W Judson; Vora, Gary J

2013-08-08

123

Marine natural products. XXXIV. Trisindoline, a new antibiotic indole trimer, produced by a bacterium of Vibrio sp. separated from the marine sponge Hyrtios altum.  

PubMed

A new antibiotic indole trimer named trisindoline (1) was isolated, together with a known dioxopiperazine brevianamide F (2), from the culture of a bacterium of Vibrio sp., which was separated from the Okinawan marine sponge Hyrtios altum. The structure of trisindoline (1) has been determined on the bases of physicochemical evidence and chemical synthesis. PMID:7697760

Kobayashi, M; Aoki, S; Gato, K; Matsunami, K; Kurosu, M; Kitagawa, I

1994-12-01

124

Vibrio alginolyticus , a tetrodotoxin-producing bacterium, in the intestines of the fish Fugu vermicularis vermicularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the mechanism of toxification in animals contaminated with tetrodotoxin, the intestinal contents of the puffer Fugu vermicularis vermicularis were examined for bacterial flora in 1985. Twenty-six out of 33 strains belonged to the genus Vibrio. These bacteria were classified into Groups I to VII, based on biological and biochemical characters. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,

T. Noguchi; D. F. Hwang; O. Arakawa; H. Sugita; Y. Deguchi; Y. Shida; K. Hashimoto

1987-01-01

125

Salinity effects on the maximum hydrostatic pressure for growth of the marine psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio marinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nondefined basal medium containing 35% synthetic seawater salts Vibrio mchws MP-1 reproduces at hydrostatic pressures of 422 2 13.5 and 280 k 13.5 atm at 8 and 4C; in defined basal medium containing 35% NaCl, these maximums are 422 2 6.8 and 327 k 6.8 atm at 9 and 4C. Decreasing the NaC'l concentration results in a corresponding decrease

DOUGLAS S. PALMER; LAWRENCE J. ALBRIGHT

1970-01-01

126

Vibrio rhizosphaerae sp. nov., a red-pigmented bacterium that antagonizes phytopathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Two novel red-pigmented Vibrio strains, MSSRF3(T) and MSSRF10, with antibacterial activity against phytopathogens were isolated from the rhizosphere region of mangrove-associated wild rice (Porteresia coarctata Tateoka), in Pichavaram, India. The cells were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic and rod-shaped and were motile by means of single polar flagella. The two strains were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, and were able to grow in 0.1-10 % NaCl (with optimum growth in 2 % NaCl) and at temperatures of 20-42 degrees C (optimum growth at 25-30 degrees C). Both strains produced acid and gas from D-glucose under anaerobic conditions and utilized a wide range of compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. The DNA G+C contents determined were 51.3 mol% for strain MSSRF3(T) and 51.0 mol% for strain MSSRF10. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, rpoA, recA and pyrH gene sequences showed that strains MSSRF3(T) and MSSRF10 belong to the genus Vibrio and are very closely related to Vibrio ruber JCM 11486(T), with which they share 98.3-98.5 % (16S rRNA), 98.3-99.7 % (rpoA), 90.2-99.8 % (recA) and 91.3-99.4 % (pyrH) gene sequence similarities, respectively. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness were 44 % between strains MSSRF3(T) and MSSRF10, 80 % between strain MSSRF10 and V. ruber JCM 11486(T) and 45 % between strain MSSRF3(T) and V. ruber JCM 11486(T). Strain MSSRF3(T) was phenotypically similar to V. ruber JCM 11486(T). However, the inability to reduce nitrate to nitrite, the ability to grow in 0.1 % NaCl and the presence of caseinase were characteristics that allowed differentiation between V. ruber JCM 11486(T) and strain MSSRF3(T). In addition, strain MSSRF3(T) could be differentiated from strain MSSRF10 and its closest relative V. ruber JCM 11486(T) with respect to its genomic fingerprinting analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA, GTG5, BOX, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and ribotyping). Therefore, based on phenotypic, genotypic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses, strain MSSRF3(T) (=LMG 23790(T)=DSM 18581(T)) should be classified as representing the type strain of a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:17911290

Kumar, N Ramesh; Nair, Sudha

2007-10-01

127

Vibrio psychroerythrus sp. n.: Classification of the Psychrophilic Marine Bacterium, NRC 1004  

PubMed Central

A red-pigmented organism, formerly known as marine psychrophile NRC 1004, has been classified as Vibrio psychroerythrus sp. n. Classification was mainly based on morphology, the ability of the organism to oxidize and ferment glucose, its sensitivity to vibriostat 0/129, and its deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of 40.0 moles% guanine plus cytosine, determined by thermal denaturation. The organism gave positive reactions for catalase, oxidase, and starch hydrolysis and produced acid from maltose and dextrin but not from arabinose. It was indole- and citrate-negative and reduced nitrate to nitrite without producing gas.

D'aoust, J. Y.; Kushner, D. J.

1972-01-01

128

IbpA\\/B Small Heat-Shock Protein of Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi Binds to Proteins Aggregated in a Cell During Heat Shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The IbpA and IbpB are 16-kDa Escherichia coli proteins belonging to a family of small heat-shock proteins (sHsps). According to the present model, based on the in vitro\\u000a experiments, sHsps are molecular chaperones that bind and prevent aggregation of nonnative proteins during heat shock. Previously,\\u000a we have shown that IbpA and IbpB bind to endogenous E. coli proteins aggregated

Gracjana Klein; Ewa Laskowska; Alina Taylor; Barbara Lipi?ska

2001-01-01

129

Horizontal transfer of chromosomal DNA between the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii and Escherichia coli revealed by sequence analysis.  

PubMed

Previous in silico analysis of the 67.4-76.0 minutes region of the Escherichia coli genome led to the identification of a gene cluster (named aga) comprising five genes encoding homologs of the mannose transporter of E. coli, a member of the sugar-specific phosphoenolypyruvate/sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). In the present work, we compared the aga gene cluster of E. coli, which has been considered to be involved in N-acetylgalactosamine or N-acetylmannosamine transport and metabolism, to the region comprising the recently identified mannose transporter of the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii. Our analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by three genes (agaV, agaW, and agaA), located in the proximal portion of the aga gene cluster, shared striking similarities with the proteins encoded by the manX (IIBMan), manY (IICMan), and manD (a putative deacetylase) genes of V. furnissii, respectively (70%-82.3% identity among the three pairs of proteins). Moreover, we found that the two following aga genes (agaS and agaY) were homologous to the sequences flanking the mannose operon of V. furnissii. These observations strongly support the idea of a horizontal transfer of the chromosomally encoded man operon of V. furnissii into the E. coli genome. PMID:9697096

Charbit, A; Autret, N

1998-01-01

130

Characterizing the host and symbiont proteomes in the association between the Bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the bacterium, Vibrio fischeri.  

PubMed

The beneficial symbiosis between the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, provides a unique opportunity to study host/microbe interactions within a natural microenvironment. Colonization of the squid light organ by V. fischeri begins a lifelong association with a regulated daily rhythm. Each morning the host expels an exudate from the light organ consisting of 95% of the symbiont population in addition to host hemocytes and shed epithelial cells. We analyzed the host and symbiont proteomes of adult squid exudate and surrounding light organ epithelial tissue using 1D- and 2D-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) in an effort to understand the contribution of both partners to the maintenance of this association. These proteomic analyses putatively identified 1581 unique proteins, 870 proteins originating from the symbiont and 711 from the host. Identified host proteins indicate a role of the innate immune system and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating the symbiosis. Symbiont proteins detected enhance our understanding of the role of quorum sensing, two-component signaling, motility, and detoxification of ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) inside the light organ. This study offers the first proteomic analysis of the symbiotic microenvironment of the adult light organ and provides the identification of proteins important to the regulation of this beneficial association. PMID:21998678

Schleicher, Tyler R; Nyholm, Spencer V

2011-10-05

131

[Purification and characterization of alginate lyase from marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101].  

PubMed

Extracellular alginate lyase secreted by Vibrio sp. QY101, which was isolated from brown algae, was purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow anion-exchange chromatography and Superdex 75 gel filtration chromatography. Its molecular mass was 39 kD as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. The enzyme had an optimal temperature of 30 degrees for its activity, and was most active at pH 7.5. The thermal and pH stability were 0-30 degrees, and pH 6.5-8.5, respectively. The enzyme activity was stimulated by 0.5 mol/L NaCl, 1.0 mmol/L Ca(2+) or 5.0 mmol/L (Mn(2+), and inhibited by 5.0 mmol/L Ni(2+), 1.0 mmol/L Fe2+) or 1.0 mmol/L EDTA. Preliminary analysis on substrate specificity showed that this alginate lyase had activity on both poly-alpha 1,4-L-guluronate and poly-beta1,4-D-mannuronate substrates. PMID:12766810

Song, Kai; Yu, Wen-Gong; Han, Feng; Han, Wen-Jun; Li, Jing-Bao

2003-05-01

132

Physiological roles of three Na+/H+ antiporters in the halophilic bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus mutants lacking three Na+/H+ antiporters (NhaA, NhaB, NhaD) were constructed. The DeltanhaA strains showed significantly higher sensitivity to LiCl regarding their growth compared to the parental strain. The DeltanhaA and DeltanhaB strains exhibited higher sensitivities to LiCl. The mutant XACabd lacking all of the three antiporters could not grow in the presence of 500 mM LiCl at pH 7.0, or 50 mM at pH 8.5. The XACabd mutant was also sensitive to 1.0 M NaCl at pH 8.5. These results suggest that Na+/H+ antiporters, especially NhaA, are responsible for resistance to LiCl and to high concentrations of NaCl. Reduced Na+/H+ and Li+/H+ antiport activities were observed with everted membrane vesicles of DeltanhaB strains. However, Li+/H+ antiport activities of DeltanhaB strains were two times higher than those of DeltanhaA strains when cells were cultured at pH 8.5. It seems that expression of nhaA and nhaB is dependent on medium pH to some extent. In addition, HQNO (2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide), which is a potent inhibitor of the respiratory Na+ pump, inhibited growth of XACabd, but not of the wild type strain. Moreover, survival rate of XACabd under hypoosmotic stress was lower than that of wild type strain. It is likely that the Na+/H+ antiporters are involved in osmoregulation under hypoosmotic stress. Based on these findings, we propose that the Na+/H+ antiporters cooperate with the respiratory Na+ pump in ionic homeostasis in V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:16113500

Kuroda, Teruo; Mizushima, Tohru; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa

2005-01-01

133

Purification and Characterization of a Catalase from the Facultatively Psychrophilic Bacterium Vibrio rumoiensis S-1T Exhibiting High Catalase Activity  

PubMed Central

Catalase from the facultatively psychrophilic bacterium Vibrio rumoiensis S-1T, which was isolated from an environment exposed to H2O2 and exhibited high catalase activity, was purified and characterized, and its localization in the cell was determined. Its molecular mass was 230 kDa, and the molecule consisted of four identical subunits. The enzyme, which was not apparently reduced by dithionite, showed a Soret peak at 406 nm in a resting state. The catalytic activity was 527,500 U · mg of protein?1 under standard reaction conditions at 40°C, 1.5 and 4.3 times faster, respectively, than those of the Micrococcus luteus and bovine catalases examined under the same reaction conditions, and showed a broad optimum pH range (pH 6 to 10). The catalase from strain S-1T is located not only in the cytoplasmic space but also in the periplasmic space. There is little difference in the activation energy for the activity between strain S-1T catalase and M. luteus and bovine liver catalases. The thermoinstability of the activity of the former catalase were significantly higher than those of the latter catalases. The thermoinstability suggests that the catalase from strain S-1T should be categorized as a psychrophilic enzyme. Although the catalase from strain S-1T is classified as a mammal type catalase, it exhibits the unique enzymatic properties of high intensity of enzymatic activity and thermoinstability. The results obtained suggest that these unique properties of the enzyme are in accordance with the environmental conditions under which the microorganism lives.

Yumoto, Isao; Ichihashi, Daisen; Iwata, Hideaki; Istokovics, Anita; Ichise, Nobutoshi; Matsuyama, Hidetoshi; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Kawasaki, Kosei

2000-01-01

134

Osmoadaptation among Vibrio Species and Unique Genomic Features and Physiological Responses of Vibrio parahaemolyticus? †  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a moderately halophilic bacterium found in estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems worldwide. Although the ability of V. parahaemolyticus to grow and proliferate in fluctuating saline environments is well known, the underlying molecular mechanisms of osmoadaptation are unknown. We performed an in silico analysis of V. parahaemolyticus strain RIMD2210633 for genes homologous to osmotic stress response genes in other bacteria. We uncovered two putative compatible solute synthesis systems (encoded by ectABC and betABI) and six putative compatible solute transporters (encoded by four bcct loci and two proVWX loci). An ectoine synthesis system clustered with a betaine/carnitine/choline transporter and a ProU transporter (encoded by homologues of proVWX from Escherichia coli), and a betaine synthesis system clustered with a ProU transporter (encoded by homologues of proVXW from Pseudomonas syringae). This is at least double the number present in V. cholerae, V. fischeri, or V. vulnificus. Six additional Vibrio species contain both ectABC and betABI, i.e., V. alginolyticus 12G01, V. angustum, V. harveyi BAA-1116, V. splendidus LGP32, Vibrio sp. strain MED222, and Vibrio sp. strain Ex25. V. harveyi HY01 and V. splendidus 12B01 only encoded the betaine system. In addition, V. alginolyticus had a compendium of systems identical to that found in V. parahaemolyticus. Comparative physiological analysis of RIMD2210633 with V. vulnificus YJ016, V. cholerae N16961, and V. fischeri ES114 grown at different salinities and temperatures demonstrated that V. parahaemolyticus had a growth advantage under all of the conditions examined. We demonstrate, by one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, that V. parahaemolyticus is capable of de novo synthesis of ectoine at high salinity whereas a ?ectB knockout strain is not. We constructed a single-knockout mutation in proU1, but no growth defect was noted, indicating transporter system redundancy. We complemented E. coli MKH13, a compatible solute transporter-negative strain, with bcct2 and demonstrated uptake of betaine at high salt concentrations.

Naughton, Lynn M.; Blumerman, Seth L.; Carlberg, Megan; Boyd, E. Fidelma

2009-01-01

135

Prevention of quorum-sensing-mediated biofilm development and virulence factors production in Vibrio spp. by curcumin.  

PubMed

The increasing occurrence of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio spp. and the emergence of antibiotic resistance has led to a growing interest in finding alternative strategies to prevent vibriosis. Since the pathogenicity of vibrios is controlled in part by quorum-sensing (QS) system, interfering with this mechanism would prevent the pathogenicity of vibrios without developing resistance. Hence, a non-toxic phytochemical curcumin from Curcuma longa was assessed for its potential in reducing the production of QS-dependent virulence factors in Vibrio spp. The obtained results evidenced 88 % reduction in bioluminescence of Vibrio harveyi by curcumin. Further, curcumin exhibited a significant inhibition in alginate, exopolysaccharides, motility, biofilm development and other virulence factors production in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and V. harveyi. In in vivo analysis, curcumin enhanced the survival rate of Artemia nauplii up to 67 % against V. harveyi infection by attenuating its QS-mediated virulence. PMID:23354447

Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Sasikumar, Pitchaikani; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Veera Ravi, Arumugam

2013-01-26

136

Multiple N-Acyl-L-Homoserine Lactone Auroinducers of Luminescence in the Marine Symbiotic Bacterium Vibrio Fischeri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Vibrio fischeri, the synthesis of N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, the autoinducer for population density responsive induction of the luminescence operon (the lux operon, luxICDABEG), is dependent on the autoinducer synthase gene LuxI. Gene replac...

A. Kuo N. V. Blough P. V. Dunlap

1994-01-01

137

Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus presents a significant public health risk to certain persons consuming raw or undercooked seafood, or who acquire wound infections\\u000a while involved in aquatic activities in coastal or estuarine waters. This review describes the bacterium's taxonomy, the three\\u000a types of infection it is capable of producing, the virulence factors known or speculated to be involved in these infections,\\u000a its

James D. Oliver

138

Pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the factors which are currently recognized as being central to the virulence of the human pathogen, Vibrio vulnificus. This estuarine\\/marine bacterium occurs in high numbers in molluscan shellfish, primarily oysters, and its ingestion in raw oysters results in a ca. 60% mortality in those persons who are susceptible to this bacterium. The organism is also able to

Debra A Linkous; James D Oliver

1999-01-01

139

Identification of the gene encoding the major NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase of the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744.  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding the major NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase (flavin reductase) of the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744 was isolated by using synthetic oligonucleotide probes corresponding to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme. Nucleotide sequence analysis suggested that the major flavin reductase of V. fischeri consisted of 218 amino acids and had a calculated molecular weight of 24,562. Cloned flavin reductase expressed in Escherichia coli was purified virtually to homogeneity, and its basic biochemical properties were examined. As in the major flavin reductase in crude extracts of V. fischeri, cloned flavin reductase showed broad substrate specificity and served well as a catalyst to supply reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) to the bioluminescence reaction. The major flavin reductase of V. fischeri not only showed significant similarity in amino acid sequence to oxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H nitroreductases of Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter cloacae, and E. coli but also was associated with a low level of nitroreductase activity. The major flavin reductase of V. fischeri and the nitroreductases of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae would thus appear closely related in evolution and form a novel protein family. Images

Zenno, S; Saigo, K; Kanoh, H; Inouye, S

1994-01-01

140

Vibrio species isolated from diseased farmed sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup), and evaluation of the potential virulence role of their extracellular products.  

PubMed

Bacteria isolated from an outbreak with moderate mortalities in farmed sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup), in the south of Spain were identified as Vibrio harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. Only bacterial strains showing swarming were virulent in sole and caused mortalities in experimentally inoculated fish. However, the signs of the disease were only reproduced with V. harveyi. The intramuscular inoculation of the extracellular products (ECPs) of both species produced mortalities in inoculated fish and the appearance of surface ulcers in the case of V. harveyi. However, the inoculation of sublethal doses of ECPs to fish showed a protective effect against V. harveyi. PMID:12962218

Zorrilla, I; Arijo, S; Chabrillon, M; Diaz, P; Martinez-Manzanares, E; Balebona, M C; Moriñigo, M A

2003-02-01

141

Purification and characterization of an extracellular beta-1,4-mannanase from a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain MA-138.  

PubMed Central

A beta-mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78) from Vibrio sp. strain MA-138 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and several chromatographic procedures including gel filtration, adsorption, and ion-exchange chromatographies. The final ion-exchange chromatography Mono Q yielded one major active fraction and three minor active fractions. The major active fraction was purified to homogeneity on the basis of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). This purified enzyme was identified as a glycoprotein by periodic acid-Schiff staining and a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 49 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The pI of the enzyme was 3.8. The purified enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 6.5 and 40 degrees C and hydrolyzed at random the internal beta-1,4-mannosidic linkages in beta-mannan to give various sizes of oligosaccharides. The first 20 N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme showed high homology with the N-terminal region of beta-mannanase from Streptomyces lividans 66.

Tamaru, Y; Araki, T; Amagoi, H; Mori, H; Morishita, T

1995-01-01

142

Aposymbiotic culture of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: role of the symbiotic bacterium Vibrio fischeri in host animal growth, development, and light organ morphogenesis.  

PubMed

The sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes forms a bioluminescent mutualism with the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri, harboring V. fischeri cells in a complex ventral light organ and using the bacterial light in predator avoidance. To characterize the contribution of V. fischeri to the growth and development of E. scolopes and to define the long-term effects of bacterial colonization on light organ morphogenesis, we developed a mariculture system for the culture of E. scolopes from hatching to adulthood, employing artificial seawater, lighting that mimicked that of the natural environment, and provision of prey sized to match the developmental stage of E. scolopes. Animals colonized by V. fischeri and animals cultured in the absence of V. fischeri (aposymbiotic) grew and survived equally well, developed similarly, and reached sexual maturity at a similar age. Development of the light organ accessory tissues (lens, reflectors, and ink sac) was similar in colonized and aposymbiotic animals with no obvious morphometric or histological differences. Colonization by V. fischeri influenced regression of the ciliated epithelial appendages (CEAs), the long-term growth of the light organ epithelial tubules, and the appearance of the cells composing the ciliated ducts, which exhibit characteristics of secretory tissue. In certain cases, aposymbiotic animals retained the CEAs in a partially regressed state and remained competent to initiate symbiosis with V. fischeri into adulthood. In other cases, the CEAs regressed fully in aposymbiotic animals, and these animals were not colonizable. The results demonstrate that V. fischeri is not required for normal growth and development of the animal or for development of the accessory light organ tissues and that morphogenesis of only those tissues coming in contact with the bacteria (CEAs, ciliated ducts, and light organ epithelium) is altered by bacterial colonization of the light organ. Therefore, V. fischeri apparently makes no major metabolic contribution to E. scolopes beyond light production, and post-embryonic development of the light organ is essentially symbiont independent. J. Exp. Zool. 286:280-296, 2000. PMID:10653967

Claes, M F; Dunlap, P V

2000-02-15

143

Vibrios as causal agents of zoonoses.  

PubMed

Vibrios are Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria that are widespread in the coastal and estuarine environments. Some species, e.g. Vibrio anguillarum and V. tapetis, comprise serious pathogens of aquatic vertebrates or invertebrates. Other groups, including Grimontia (=Vibrio) hollisae, Photobacterium (=Vibrio) damselae subsp. damselae, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi (=V. carchariae), V. cholerae, V. fluvialis, V. furnissii, V. metschnikovii, V. mimicus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, may cause disease in both aquatic animals and humans. The human outbreaks, although low in number, typically involve wound infections and gastro-intestinal disease often with watery diarrhoea. In a minority of cases, for example V. vulnificus, there is good evidence to actually associate human infections with diseased animals. In other cases, the link is certainly feasible but hard evidence is mostly lacking. PMID:19342185

Austin, B

2009-03-13

144

Plasmid- and chromosome-encoded siderophore anguibactin systems found in marine vibrios: biosynthesis, transport and evolution.  

PubMed

Vibrio anguillarum is a marine pathogen that causes vibriosis, a hemorrhagic septicemia in aquatic invertebrate as well as vertebrate animals. The siderophore anguibactin system is one of the most important virulence factors of this bacterium. Most of the anguibactin biosynthesis and transport genes are located in the 65-kb pJM1 virulence plasmid although some of them are found in the chromosome of this fish pathogen. Over 30 years of research unveiled the role numerous chromosomal and pJM1 genes play in the synthesis of anguibactin and the transport of cognate ferric complexes into the bacterial cell. Furthermore, these studies showed that pJM1-carrying strains might be originated from pJM1-less strains producing the chromosome-mediated siderophore vanchrobactin. Additionally, we recently identified a chromosome-mediated anguibactin system in V. harveyi suggesting the possible evolutional origin of the V. anguillarum anguibactin system. In this review, we present our current understanding of the mechanisms and evolution hypothesis of the anguibactin system that might have occurred in these pathogenic vibrios. PMID:23660776

Naka, Hiroaki; Liu, Moqing; Actis, Luis A; Crosa, Jorge H

2013-05-10

145

21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized...

2010-04-01

146

21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized...

2009-04-01

147

Secondary metabolites produced by the marine bacterium Halobacillus salinus that inhibit quorum sensing-controlled phenotypes in gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Certain bacteria use cell-to-cell chemical communication to coordinate community-wide phenotypic expression, including swarming motility, antibiotic biosynthesis, and biofilm production. Here we present a marine gram-positive bacterium that secretes secondary metabolites capable of quenching quorum sensing-controlled behaviors in several gram-negative reporter strains. Isolate C42, a Halobacillus salinus strain obtained from a sea grass sample, inhibits bioluminescence production by Vibrio harveyi in cocultivation experiments. With the use of bioassay-guided fractionation, two phenethylamide metabolites were identified as the active agents. The compounds additionally inhibit quorum sensing-regulated violacein biosynthesis by Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and green fluorescent protein production by Escherichia coli JB525. Bacterial growth was unaffected at concentrations below 200 microg/ml. Evidence is presented that these nontoxic metabolites may act as antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing by competing with N-acyl homoserine lactones for receptor binding. PMID:19060172

Teasdale, Margaret E; Liu, Jiayuan; Wallace, Joselynn; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh; Rowley, David C

2008-12-05

148

Defences against oxidative stress in vibrios associated with corals.  

PubMed

Bacteria colonizing healthy coral tissue may produce enzymes capable of overcoming the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Significant differences in the activities of these enzymes were observed in cultures of Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio coralliilyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio mediterranei, Vibrio pelagius, Vibrio rotiferanus, Vibrio tasmaniensis, and Photobacterium eurosenbergii isolated from healthy, bleached or necrotic tropical and cold water corals. Levels of SOD in exponential phase cultures of V. coralliilyticus grown at 28 degrees C were only slightly higher than those grown at 16 degrees C whereas the levels in stationary phase cultures at 28 degrees C were 7.3 x higher than those at 16 degrees C. The increase in catalase activity of V. coralliilyticus and V. harveyi upon entry to stationary phase conferred protection against killing by oxidative stress. Increased temperature affected up-regulation of enzymes in stationary phase cultures, but pretreatment of cultures with hydrogen peroxide had no significant effect on induction of catalase or SOD. The increased activities appear to be due to up-regulation of gene expression rather than induction of different forms of the enzymes. We suggest that SOD and catalase are unlikely to be major factors in the virulence of these bacteria for corals and that their main function may be to protect against endogenous superoxide. PMID:18279336

Munn, Colin B; Marchant, Hannah K; Moody, A John

2008-02-14

149

The Yellow Bioluminescence Bacterium, Vibrio fischeri Y1, Contains a Bioluminescence-Active Riboflavin Protein in Addition to the Yellow Fluorescence FMN Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yellow bioluminescence Y1 strain of Vibrio fischeri can produce a 22 kDa protein with either FMN or riboflavin as a bound fluorophore. Both forms are active for shifting the bioluminescence spectral maximum. The fluorescence spectral distribution of the two proteins differs slightly and the in vivo emission appears to be an equal mixture of the two. The bioluminescence activity

V. N. Petushkov; B. G. Gibson; J. Lee

1995-01-01

150

Cloning of a Novel Gene Encoding ?-1,3-Xylosidase from a Marine Bacterium, Vibrio sp. Strain XY-214, and Characterization of the Gene Product?  

PubMed Central

The ?-1,3-xylosidase gene (xloA) of Vibrio sp. strain XY-214 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The xloA gene consisted of a 1,608-bp nucleotide sequence encoding a protein of 535 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 60,835. The recombinant ?-1,3-xylosidase hydrolyzed ?-1,3-xylooligosaccharides to d-xylose as a final product.

Umemoto, Yoshiaki; Onishi, Ryosuke; Araki, Toshiyoshi

2008-01-01

151

Cloning of a novel collagenase gene from the gram-negative bacterium Grimontia (Vibrio) hollisae 1706B and its efficient expression in Brevibacillus choshinensis.  

PubMed

The collagenase gene was cloned from Grimontia (Vibrio) hollisae 1706B, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. Nucleotide sequencing showed that the open reading frame was 2,301 bp in length and encoded an 84-kDa protein of 767 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence and a zinc metalloprotease consensus sequence, the HEXXH motif. G. hollisae collagenase showed 60 and 59% amino acid sequence identities to Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus collagenase, respectively. In contrast, this enzyme showed < 20% sequence identity with Clostridium histolyticum collagenase. When the recombinant mature collagenase, which consisted of 680 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 74 kDa, was produced by the Brevibacillus expression system, a major gelatinolytic protein band of ~ 60 kDa was determined by zymographic analysis. This result suggested that cloned collagenase might undergo processing after secretion. Moreover, the purified recombinant enzyme was shown to possess a specific activity of 5,314 U/mg, an ~ 4-fold greater activity than that of C. histolyticum collagenase. PMID:21515782

Teramura, Naoko; Tanaka, Keisuke; Iijima, Katsumasa; Hayashida, Osamu; Suzuki, Koki; Hattori, Shunji; Irie, Shinkichi

2011-04-22

152

Regulation of growth and energetics of a marine bacterium by nitrogen source and iron availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of nitrogen source and iron availability on growth rates, electron trans- port system (ETS) activity and growth efficiency for the marine gamma-proteobacterium Vibrio harveyi. We found that all 3 parameters increased with increasing iron concen- tration and varied as a function of nitrogen source (amino acids, ammonium, and nitrate). At low iron concentrations, growth rates

David L. Kirchman; Kimberly A. Hoffman; Richard Weaver; David A. Hutchins

2003-01-01

153

Anti-luminous Vibrio factors associated with the ‘green water’ grow-out culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the “green water” grow-out culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to prevent outbreaks of Luminous Vibriosis was investigated by screening associated isolates of bacteria, fungi, phytoplankton and fish skin mucus for anti-luminous Vibrio metabolites. Among the 85 bacterial isolates tested, 63 (74%) caused +?+++ inhibition of the Vibrio harveyi pathogen after 24–48 h co-cultivation. The variation

Gilda D. Lio-Po; Eduardo M. Leaño; Ma. Michelle D. Peñaranda; Annie U. Villa-Franco; Christopher D. Sombito; Nicholas G. Guanzon

2005-01-01

154

Peculiarities of luminescent response of Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain bearing cloned Vibro harveyi lux AB genes to the action of thermostable blood serum compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of Bacillus subtilis previously used as the test-organism in bacteriological and nephelometry methods for detection of thrombocytes cation protein\\u000a (TCP) has been transformed by a plasmid pLFlux containing cloned luxAB genes of a sea luminescent bacterium Vibro harveyi. The designed luminescent biosensor B. subtilis of The All-Russia Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (Moscow) B-10191 demonstrated specific response to the

I. F. Karimov; I. V. Manukhov; V. Yu. Kotova; D. O. Omel’chenko; D. G. Deryabin

2010-01-01

155

Improvement of innate immune responses and defense activity in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fab.) by intramuscular administration of the outer membrane protein Vibrio alginolyticus.  

PubMed

The Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) of Vibrio alginolyticus cell wall was administered intramuscularly (IM) to the tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fab.) at 10, 20, 30 ?g/kg bw. After 14 days infection, the tiger shrimps were challenged with 10(7) bacterial density of Vibrio harveyi for 24 hours. The total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC) and amount of total protein plasma (TPP), superoxide dismutase and protease enzyme activity were monitored. The results showed that intramuscular administration of OMP enhanced an immunomodulatory effect and protection against V. harveyi. The beneficial effect of OMP on the tiger shrimp is dose-dependent and OMP-20 ?g/kg bw is an optimal dose after two times of boosters for 14 days against V. harveyi infection. PMID:24058892

Maftuch; Prasetio, E; Sudianto, A; Rozik, M; Nurdiyani, R; Sanusi, E; Nursyam, H; Fariedah, F; Marsoedi; Murachman

2013-09-03

156

Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio mimicus Strain CAIM 602T  

PubMed Central

Vibrio mimicus is a Gram-negative bacterium associated with gastrointestinal diseases in humans around the world. We report the complete genome sequence of the Vibrio mimicus strain CAIM 602T (CDC1721-77, LMG 7896T, ATCC 33653T).

Guardiola-Avila, Iliana; Acedo-Felix, Evelia; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel

2013-01-01

157

Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives reduce virulence in Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the quorum sensing response regulator LuxR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To date, only few compounds targeting the AI-2 based quorum sensing (QS) system are known. In the present study, we screened cinnamaldehyde and substituted cinnamaldehydes for their ability to interfere with AI-2 based QS. The mechanism of QS inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in several Vibrio harveyi mutants. We also studied in vitro the ability

Gilles Brackman; Tom Defoirdt; Carol Miyamoto; Peter Bossier; Serge Van Calenbergh; Hans Nelis; Tom Coenye

2008-01-01

158

Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Vibrio vulnificus and Other Vibrio Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium that is capable of causing a rapidly fatal infection in humans. A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR protocol was developed for use in detecting V. vulnificus, as well as other members of the genus Vibrio. The resulting RAPD profiles were analyzed by using RFLPScan software. This RAPD method clearly differentiated between members of

JENNIFER M. WARNER; JAMES D. OLIVER

1999-01-01

159

Inferring the Evolutionary History of Vibrios by Means of Multilocus Sequence Analysis? †  

PubMed Central

We performed the first broad study aiming at the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of vibrios by means of multilocus sequence analysis of nine genes. Overall, 14 distinct clades were recognized using the SplitsTree decomposition method. Some of these clades may correspond to families, e.g., the clades Salinivibrio and Photobacteria, while other clades, e.g., Splendidus and Harveyi, correspond to genera. The common ancestor of all vibrios was estimated to have been present 600 million years ago. We can define species of vibrios as groups of strains that share >95% gene sequence similarity and >99.4% amino acid identity based on the eight protein-coding housekeeping genes. The gene sequence data were used to refine the standard online electronic taxonomic scheme for vibrios (http://www.taxvibrio.lncc.br).

Sawabe, Tomoo; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Thompson, Fabiano L.

2007-01-01

160

AI-2 quorum-sensing inhibitors affect the starvation response and reduce virulence in several Vibrio species, most likely by interfering with LuxPQ.  

PubMed

The increase of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio species in aquatic organisms as well as in humans, together with the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, has led to a growing interest in alternative disease control measures. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism for regulating microbial gene expression in a cell density-dependent way. While there is good evidence for the involvement of auto-inducer 2 (AI-2)-based interspecies QS in the control of virulence in multiple Vibrio species, only few inhibitors of this system are known. From the screening of a small panel of nucleoside analogues for their ability to disturb AI-2-based QS, an adenosine derivative with a p-methoxyphenylpropionamide moiety at C-3' emerged as a promising hit. Its mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of Vibrio harveyi AI-2 QS mutants. Our results indicate that this compound, as well as a truncated analogue lacking the adenine base, block AI-2-based QS without interfering with bacterial growth. The active compounds affected neither the bioluminescence system as such nor the production of AI-2, but most likely interfered with the signal transduction pathway at the level of LuxPQ in V. harveyi. The most active nucleoside analogue (designated LMC-21) was found to reduce the Vibrio species starvation response, to affect biofilm formation in Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae, to reduce pigment and protease production in V. anguillarum, and to protect gnotobiotic Artemia from V. harveyi-induced mortality. PMID:19778962

Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

2009-09-24

161

Differences in the susceptibility of American white shrimp larval substages (Litopenaeus vannamei) to four vibrio species.  

PubMed

The rapid expansion of commercial culture of penaeid shrimp is threatened by Vibrio diseases affecting survival and growth. These opportunistic microorganisms are considered part of the normal ecosystem of penaeid shrimp and cause diseases only under conditions that favor them over the host. Shrimp larvae show different susceptibility to these pathogenic agents. In the present work, we report on a comparative study of the susceptibility of all American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larval substages to four potentially pathogenic Vibrio species (V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and V. penaeicida). Strains of these bacterial species were used to infect nauplii, protozoea I-III, mysis I-III, and postlarvae 1 by immersion challenge at 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) cfu mL(-1) for 30 min. V. alginolyticus infection had no significant effect on survival rate, compared to control, in all shrimp larvae and at all doses tested. Shrimp larvae infected with V. alginolyticus showed a high survival rate compared to other Vibrio species at the three dose levels. V. penaeicida produced a significant mortality effect (P < 0.01) in all shrimp substages and only in postlarvae 1 at low infection dose (10(3) cfu mL(-1)). V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus induced significant mortality rates (P < 0.01) only at high doses in shrimp larvae. In summary, shrimp larvae demonstrated an age susceptibility that depends on the Vibrio species and dose level. PMID:12009802

Aguirre-Guzmán, G; Vázquez-Juárez, R; Ascencio, F

2001-11-01

162

Refined identification of Vibrio bacterial flora from Acanthasther planci based on biochemical profiling and analysis of housekeeping genes.  

PubMed

We used a polyphasic approach for precise identification of bacterial flora (Vibrionaceae) isolated from crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) and Guam (U.S.A., Western Pacific Ocean). Previous 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis was useful to allocate and identify isolates within the Photobacterium, Splendidus and Harveyi clades but failed in the identification of Vibrio harveyi-like isolates. Species of the V harveyi group have almost indistinguishable phenotypes and genotypes, and thus, identification by standard biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis is commonly inaccurate. Biochemical profiling and sequence analysis of additional topA and mreB housekeeping genes were carried out for definitive identification of 19 bacterial isolates recovered from sick and wild COTS. For 8 isolates, biochemical profiles and topA and mreB gene sequence alignments with the closest relatives (GenBank) confirmed previous 16S rRNA-based identification: V. fortis and Photobacterium eurosenbergii species (from wild COTS), and V natriegens (from diseased COTS). Further phylogenetic analysis based on topA and mreB concatenated sequences served to identify the remaining 11 V harveyi-like isolates: V. owensii and V. rotiferianus (from wild COTS), and V. owensii, V. rotiferianus, and V. harveyi (from diseased COTS). This study further confirms the reliability of topA-mreB gene sequence analysis for identification of these close species, and it reveals a wider distribution range of the potentially pathogenic V. harveyi group. PMID:22013751

Rivera-Posada, J A; Pratchett, M; Cano-Gomez, A; Arango-Gomez, J D; Owens, L

2011-09-01

163

Induction of luciferase synthesis in Beneckea harveyi by other marine bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been previously demonstrated that luciferase synthesis in the luminous marine bacteria, Beneckea harveyi and Photobacterium fischeri is induced only when sufficient concentrations of metabolic products (autoinducers) of these bacteria accumulate in growth media. Thus, when cells are cultured in liquid medium there is a lag in luciferase synthesis. A quantitative bioassay for B. harveyi autoinducer was developed and

E. P. Greenberg; J. W. Hastings; S. Ulitzur

1979-01-01

164

Sensory Mechanisms Controlling Bacterial Bioluminescence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to explore the sensory mechanisms which control the expression of bioluminescence in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Genetic methods were used to discover the genes which encode functions for the production of extracellul...

M. R. Silverman

1999-01-01

165

Antimicrobial Resistance in Vibrios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses antimicrobial resistance in a genus – Vibrio – that results in two distinct clinical syndromes. One is profound diarrheal disease – cholera – caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139. The other is often the fatal wound infection and sepsis caused by a variety of halophilic (saltloving) vibrios\\u000a (1) – with V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus perhaps

Michael L. Bennish; Wasif A. Khan; Debasish Saha

166

Vibrios adhere to epithelial cells in the intestinal tract of red sea bream, Pagrus major, utilizing GM4 as an attachment site.  

PubMed

Vibrios, distributed in marine and brackish environments, can cause vibriosis in fish and shellfish under appropriate conditions. Previously, we clarified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) overlay assay that (35)S-labeled Vibrio trachuri adhered to GM4 isolated from red sea bream intestine. However, whether GM4 actually functions on epithelial cells as an attachment site for vibrios still remains to be uncovered. We found that six isolates, classified as V. harveyi, V. campbellii, and V. splendidus, from intestinal microflora of red sea bream adhered to GM4 but not galactosylceramide (GalCer) by TLC-overlay assay. Tissue-overlay assays revealed that V. harveyi labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) adhered to epithelial cells of red sea bream intestine where GM4 and GalCer were found to be distributed on the top layer of actin filaments by immunohistochemical analysis using corresponding antibodies. The number of adhering vibrios was diminished by pretreatment with anti-GM4 antibody, but not anti-GalCer antibody. These results clearly indicate that vibrios adhere to epithelial cells of red sea bream intestine utilizing GM4 as an attachment site. PMID:23320941

Chisada, Shin-ichi; Shimizu, Kohei; Kamada, Haruna; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

2013-02-11

167

Illuminating Cell Signaling: Using "Vibrio harveyi" in an Introductory Biology Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cell signaling is an essential cellular process that is performed by all living organisms. Bacteria communicate with each other using a chemical language in a signaling pathway that allows bacteria to evaluate the size of their population, determine when they have reached a critical mass (quorum sensing), and then change their behavior in unison…

Hrizo, Stacy L.; Kaufmann, Nancy

2009-01-01

168

Genetic and Molecular Characterization of the Polar Flagellum ofVibrio parahaemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio parahaemolyticus possesses two alternate flagellar systems adapted for movement under different circumstances. A single polar flagellum propels the bacterium in liquid (swimming), while multiple lateral flagella move the bacterium over surfaces (swarming). Energy to rotate the polarflagellum is derived from the sodium membrane potential, whereas lateralflagella are powered by the proton motive force. Lateralflagella are arranged peritrichously, and the

LINDA L. MCCARTER

1995-01-01

169

EFFECTS OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL FACTORS AND BACTERIAL COLONY MORPHOTYPE ON ASSOCIATION OF VIBRIO VULNIFICUS WITH HEMOCYTES OF CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA  

EPA Science Inventory

Vibrio vulnificus is a naturally occurring marine bacterium which causes invasive disease of immunocompromised humans following consumption of raw oysters. t is natural flora of Gulf Coast estuaries and has been found to inhabit tissues of oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, ...

170

Effects of Physicochemical Factors and Bacterial Colony Morphotype on Association of 'Vibrio vulnificus' with Hemocytes of 'Crassostrea virginica'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vibrio vulnificus is a naturally occurring marine bacterium which causes invasive disease of immunocompromised humans following consumption of raw oysters. It is natural flora of Gulf Coast estuaries and has been found to inhabit tissues of oysters, Crass...

L. Harris-Young M. L. Tamplin W. S. Fisher J. W. Mason

1993-01-01

171

Roles of LuxR in regulating extracellular alkaline serine protease A, extracellular polysaccharide and mobility of Vibrio alginolyticus.  

PubMed

In marine Vibrio species, the Vibrio harveyi-type LuxR protein, a key player in a quorum-sensing system, controls the expression of various genes. In this study, the luxR homologue in Vibrio alginolyticus was identified and named luxR(val), whose expression was greatly induced by the increase of cell number. The luxR(val) in-frame deletion mutant showed a significant downregulation of total extracellular protease activity, and especially caused a 70% decrease in the transcript levels of extracellular alkaline serine protease A (proA), which was an important virulent factor of V. alginolyticus. Complementation in trans with luxR(val) could restore the expression of proA to the level of the wild-type strain. Deletion of the luxR(val) gene also resulted in changes of colony morphology, extracellular polysaccharide production and mobility. Therefore, another member of the V. harveyi-type LuxR regulator family has been characterized in V. alginolyticus. PMID:18573155

Rui, Haopeng; Liu, Qin; Ma, Yue; Wang, Qiyao; Zhang, Yuanxing

2008-06-28

172

Triplex PCR assay for the rapid identification of 3 major Vibrio species, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio fluvialis.  

PubMed

A triplex PCR assay was developed for the identification of 3 major Vibrio spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio fluvialis by targeting their haemolysin, haem-utilizing, and central regulatory genes, respectively. This simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific assay using cell lysates from 227 samples established its usefulness in research and epidemiology. PMID:23706502

Vinothkumar, Kittappa; Bhardwaj, Ashima Kushwaha; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar

2013-05-22

173

Vibrio fischeri metabolism: symbiosis and beyond.  

PubMed

Vibrio fischeri is a bioluminescent, Gram-negative marine bacterium that can be found free living and in a mutualistic association with certain squids and fishes. Over the past decades, the study of V. fischeri has led to important discoveries about bioluminescence, quorum sensing, and the mechanisms that underlie beneficial host-microbe interactions. This chapter highlights what has been learned about metabolic pathways in V. fischeri, and how this information contributes to a broader understanding of the role of bacterial metabolism in host colonization by both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, as well as in the growth and survival of free-living bacteria. PMID:23046951

Dunn, Anne K

2012-01-01

174

Induction of melanin biosynthesis in Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae synthesized the pigment melanin in response to specific physiological conditions that were stressful to the bacterium. Pigmentation was induced when V. cholerae was subjected to hyperosmotic stress in conjunction with elevated growth temperatures (above 30 degrees C). The salt concentration tolerated by V. cholerae was lowered by additional abiotic factors such as acidic starting pH of the growth medium and limitation of organic nutrients. Although the amount of toxin detected in the culture supernatant decreased significantly in response to stressful culture conditions, no correlation between the physiological conditions that induced melanogenesis and expression of OmpU or cholera toxin was detected. Since conditions that induce melanin production in V. cholerae occur in both the aquatic environment and the human host, it is possible that melanogenesis has a specific function with respect to the survival of the bacterium in these habitats.

Coyne, V E; al-Harthi, L

1992-01-01

175

Development of monoclonal antibodies that identify Vibrio species commonly isolated from infections of humans, fish, and shellfish.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Vibrio species that infect humans, fish, and shellfish were developed for application in rapid identifications. The pathogens included Vibrio alginolyticus, V. anguillarum, V. carchariae, V. cholerae, V. damsela, V. furnissii, V. harveyi, V. ordalii, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus. Three types of MAbs were selected. The first important group included MAbs that reacted with only a single species. A second group comprised a number of MAbs that reacted with two, taxonomically closely related Vibrio species. For example, of 22 MAbs raised against V. alginolyticus, 6 recognized a 52-kDa flagellar H antigen common to both V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus; V. anguillarum and V. ordalii also shared antigens. A third group included three genus-specific MAbs that reacted with almost all Vibrio species but did not react with other members of the family Vibrionaceae (e.g., members of the Aeromonas, Photobacterium, and Plesiomonas genera) or a wide range of gram-negative bacteria representing many genera. This last group indicated the possible existence of an antigenic determinant common to Vibrio species. Two of these three genus-specific MAbs reacted with heat-stable antigenic determinants of Vibrio species as well as lipopolysaccharide extracted from Vibrio species. The use of the MAbs in blind tests and diagnosis of clinical isolates indicated that three different types of bacteria, viz., live, formalin-fixed, and sodium azide-killed bacteria, were detected consistently. Overall, it was found that the genus-specific MAbs were very useful for rapidly identifying vibrios in the screening of acute infections, while the species-specific MAbs and others were useful for completing the diagnosis. Images

Chen, D; Hanna, P J; Altmann, K; Smith, A; Moon, P; Hammond, L S

1992-01-01

176

Sixty years from the discovery of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and some recollections.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus was discovered by Tsunesaburo Fujino after a shirasu food poisoning outbreak in 1950, but at that time the isolate was named Pasteurella parahaemolytica, not Vibrio. Although the isolate resembled Vibrio, some properties did not correspond with those of Vibrio. For example, the curved cell form of the cell was one of the important taxonomical indicators of the genus, but the isolate was straight in form. After 5 years, Iwao Takikawa isolated a similar bacterium from a food poisoning case and found the halophilic property of the isolate. He named the isolate Pseudomonas enteritis. In 1960, due to the progress of taxonomy, various scientific indices were adjusted, and Davis and Parks defined the taxonomical position of the genus Vibrio, and Fujino et al. and Sakazaki et al. reexamined the above isolates and confirmed that those were the same species in the genus Vibrio and proposed the new scientific name Vibrio parahaemolyticus.Last year was the 60th year since the discovery of the bacterium, and the discoverer was the first president of our organization, the Society for Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents, Japan. Some recollections including the correlation between the Kanagawa phenomenon and human pathogenicity, the major pathogenic factor TDH (thermostable direct hemolysin) and its related hemolysin (TRH: TDH related hemolysin) are also summarized. PMID:22190435

Shinoda, Sumio

2011-12-01

177

Phylogeny and Molecular Identification of Vibrios on the Basis of Multilocus Sequence Analysis  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the usefulness of rpoA, recA, and pyrH gene sequences for the identification of vibrios. We sequenced fragments of these loci from a collection of 208 representative strains, including 192 well-documented Vibrionaceae strains and 16 presumptive Vibrio isolates associated with coral bleaching. In order to determine the intraspecies variation among the three loci, we included several representative strains per species. The phylogenetic trees constructed with the different genetic loci were roughly in agreement with former polyphasic taxonomic studies, including the 16S rRNA-based phylogeny of vibrios. The families Vibrionaceae, Photobacteriaceae, Enterovibrionaceae, and Salinivibrionaceae were all differentiated on the basis of each genetic locus. Each species clearly formed separated clusters with at least 98, 94, and 94% rpoA, recA, and pyrH gene sequence similarity, respectively. The genus Vibrio was heterogeneous and polyphyletic, with Vibrio fischeri, V. logei, and V. wodanis grouping closer to the Photobacterium genus. V. halioticoli-, V. harveyi-, V. splendidus-, and V. tubiashii-related species formed groups within the genus Vibrio. Overall, the three genetic loci were more discriminatory among species than were 16S rRNA sequences. In some cases, e.g., within the V. splendidus and V. tubiashii group, rpoA gene sequences were slightly less discriminatory than recA and pyrH sequences. In these cases, the combination of several loci will yield the most robust identification. We can conclude that strains of the same species will have at least 98, 94, and 94% rpoA, recA, and pyrH gene sequence similarity, respectively.

Thompson, F. L.; Gevers, D.; Thompson, C. C.; Dawyndt, P.; Naser, S.; Hoste, B.; Munn, C. B.; Swings, J.

2005-01-01

178

Cultivation of Vibrio foetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio foetus is non-pathogenic for small laboratory animals. As it can cause abortion in sheep and cattle, and is then found in the embryo, cultivation in incubated chicken eggs was attempted. The organism grows easily in the allantoic fluid of seven-to-nine-day eggs. Three days after inoculation, there is a rich growth of Vibrio foetus in the allantoic fluid. The organism

Jac. Jansen; H. Kunst

1951-01-01

179

Structure-Activity Relationship of Cinnamaldehyde Analogs as Inhibitors of AI-2 Based Quorum Sensing and Their Effect on Virulence of Vibrio spp  

PubMed Central

Background Many bacteria, including Vibrio spp., regulate virulence gene expression in a cell-density dependent way through a communication process termed quorum sensing (QS). Hence, interfering with QS could be a valuable novel antipathogenic strategy. Cinnamaldehyde has previously been shown to inhibit QS-regulated virulence by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of the QS response regulator LuxR. However, little is known about the structure-activity relationship of cinnamaldehyde analogs. Methodology/Principal Findings By evaluating the QS inhibitory activity of a series of cinnamaldehyde analogs, structural elements critical for autoinducer-2 QS inhibition were identified. These include an ?,? unsaturated acyl group capable of reacting as Michael acceptor connected to a hydrophobic moiety and a partially negative charge. The most active cinnamaldehyde analogs were found to affect the starvation response, biofilm formation, pigment production and protease production in Vibrio spp in vitro, while exhibiting low cytotoxicity. In addition, these compounds significantly increased the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio vulnificus. Conclusions/Significance Several new and more active cinnamaldehyde analogs were discovered and they were shown to affect Vibrio spp. virulence factor production in vitro and in vivo. Although ligands for LuxR have not been identified so far, the nature of different cinnamaldehyde analogs and their effect on the DNA binding ability of LuxR suggest that these compounds act as LuxR-ligands.

Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Hillaert, Ulrik; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Nelis, Hans J.; Coenye, Tom

2011-01-01

180

Autecology of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tropical waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water and shellfish samples collected from estuaries, mangroves, and beaches along the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. An array of water quality parameters were also measured simultaneous with bacteria...

S. Rivera T. Lugo T. C. Hazen

1988-01-01

181

In Vivo Resuscitation, and Virulence towards Mice, of Viable but Nonculturable Cells ofVibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium responsible for 95% of all seafood-related deaths in the United States. The bacterium occurs naturally in molluscan shellfish, and ingestion of raw oysters is typically the sourceofhumaninfection.V.vulnificusisalsoknowntoenteraviablebutnonculturable(VBNC)state,wherein the cells are no longer culturable on routine plating media but can be shown to remain viable. Whether or not this human pathogen remains virulent when entering

JAMES D. OLIVER; ANDROSA BOCKIAN

1995-01-01

182

Isolation and alga-inhibiting characterization of Vibrio sp. BS02 against Alexandrium tamarense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterium BS02 which is closely related to the genus Vibrio sp. and capable of inhibiting the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense was isolated from a mangrove area in Zhangjiangkou, Fujian Province, China. The bacterium was not species-specific since\\u000a it displayed varying degrees of lysing activities against eight of the eighteen algae tested. There was a close interaction\\u000a between initial bacterial

Lijun FuXinli; Xinli An; Dong Li; Lijian Zhou; Yun Tian; Tianling Zheng

183

Extracellular Signal Molecule(s) Involved in the Carbon Starvation Response of Marine Vibrio sp. Strain S14  

PubMed Central

The role of exogenous metabolites as putative signal molecules mediating and/or regulating the carbon starvation adaptation program in Vibrio sp. strain S14 was investigated. Addition of the stationary-phase supernatant extract (SSE) of Vibrio sp. strain S14 to logarithmic-phase cells resulted in a significant number of carbon starvation-induced proteins being up-regulated. Halogenated furanones, putative antagonists of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), inhibited the synthesis of proteins specifically induced upon carbon starvation. The effect of the furanone was the opposite of that caused by SSE with respect to the up- and down-regulation of protein expression, indicating that both the furanone and the putative signalling molecules were acting on the same regulatory pathway. Culturability was rapidly lost when Vibrio sp. strain S14 was starved in the presence of the furanone at a low concentration. The furanone also had a negative effect on the ability of carbon-starved cells to mount resistance against UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide exposure. The SSE of Vibrio sp. strain S14 had the ability to provide cross-protection against the loss in viability caused by the furanone. We have further demonstrated that the SSE taken from low- as well as high-cell-density cultures of Vibrio sp. strain S14 induced luminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Taken together, the results in this report provide evidence that Vibrio sp. strain S14 produces extracellular signalling metabolites during carbon and energy starvation and that these molecules play an important role in the expression of proteins crucial to the development of starvation- and stress-resistant phenotypes.

Srinivasan, Sujatha; Ostling, Jorgen; Charlton, Timothy; de Nys, Rocky; Takayama, Kathy; Kjelleberg, Staffan

1998-01-01

184

Survival of Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio salmonicida at different salinities.  

PubMed Central

The fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio anguillarum and V. salmonicida showed the capacity to survive for more than 50 and 14 months, respectively, in seawater microcosms. A salinity of 5% proved lethal to V. anguillarum harvested in the late-exponential growth phase, whereas a salinity of 9% was lethal to the bacterium after it had been starved at a salinity of 30% for 67 days. The lethal salinity for V. salmonicida harvested in the late-exponential growth phase was probably in the vicinity of 10%. V. anguillarum and V. salmonicida were very sensitive to nalidixic acid. Direct determination of viable cells after incubation with nalidixic acid was not possible, since the cells did not elongate. Samples of V. salmonicida were double stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibodies and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. After 3 or 4 days of starvation, there was a discrepancy between the total numbers of cells as determined by immunofluorescence versus by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The immunofluorescence counts remained high, which indicated the presence of intact cell envelopes but leakage of DNA and other cytoplasm components. After 2 weeks of starvation, for some of the cells, the region stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (i.e., DNA) was markedly smaller than the cell envelope. I attributed this to a shrinkage of the cytoplasm or a confined nucleoid or both. V. anguillarum lost its exoproteolytic activity before 11 days of starvation.

Hoff, K A

1989-01-01

185

Role for cheR of Vibrio fischeri in the Vibrio-Squid Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Upon hatching, the Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes is rapidly colonized by its symbiotic partner, the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. V. fischeri cells present in the seawater enter the light organ of juvenile squid in a process that requires bacterial motility. In this study, we investigated the role chemotaxis may play in establishing this symbiotic colonization. Previously we reported that V. fischeri migrates toward numerous attractants, including N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA), a component of squid mucus. However, whether or not migration toward an attractant such as squid-derived NANA helps the bacterium to localize toward the light organ is unknown. When tested for the ability to colonize juvenile squid, a V. fischeri chemotaxis mutant defective for the methyltransferase CheR was outcompeted by the wild-type strain in co-inoculation experiments, even when the mutant was present in 4-fold excess. Our results suggest that the ability to perform chemotaxis is an advantage during colonization, but not essential.

DeLoney-Marino, Cindy R.; Visick, Karen L.

2011-01-01

186

Molecular Characterization of Direct Target Genes and cis-Acting Consensus Recognized by Quorum-Sensing Regulator AphA in Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

Background AphA is the master quorum-sensing (QS) regulator operating at low cell density in vibrios. Molecular regulation of target genes by AphA has been characterized in Vibrio harveyi and V. cholerae, but it is still poorly understood in V. parahaemolyticus. Methodology/Principal Findings The AphA proteins are extremely conserved in V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio sp. Ex25, Vibrio sp. EJY3, V. harveyi, V. vulnificus, V. splendidus, V. anguillarum, V. cholerae, and V. furnissii. The above nine AphA orthologs appear to recognize conserved cis-acting DNA signals which can be represented by two consensus constructs, a 20 bp box sequence and a position frequency matrix. V. parahaemolyticus AphA represses the transcription of ahpA, qrr4, and opaR through direct AphA-target promoter DNA association, while it inhibits the qrr2-3 transcription in an indirect manner. Translation and transcription starts, core promoter elements for sigma factor recognition, Shine-Dalgarno sequences for ribosome recognition, and AphA-binding sites (containing corresponding AphA box-like sequences) were determined for the three direct AphA targets ahpA, qrr4, and opaR in V. parahaemolyticus. Conclusions/Significance AphA-mediated repression of ahpA, qrr2-4, and opaR was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus by using multiple biochemical and molecular experiments. The computational promoter analysis indicated the conserved mechanism of transcriptional regulation of QS regulator-encoding genes ahpA, qrr4, and opaR in vibrios.

Sun, Fengjun; Zhang, Yiquan; Wang, Li; Yan, Xiaojuan; Tan, Yafang; Guo, Zhaobiao; Qiu, Jingfu; Yang, Ruifu; Xia, Peiyuan; Zhou, Dongsheng

2012-01-01

187

Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here

B. Temperton; S. Thomas; K. Tait; H. Parry; M. Emery; M. Allen; J. Quinn; J. McGrath; J. Gilbert

2011-01-01

188

Evidence supporting predicted metabolic pathways for Vibrio cholerae: gene expression data and clinical tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of the diarrheal illness cholera, can kill an infected adult in 24 h. V.cholerae lives as an autochthonous microbe in estuaries, rivers and coastal waters. A better understanding of its metabolic pathways will assist the development of more effective treatments and will provide a deeper understanding of how this bacterium persists in natural aquatic habitats.

Jing Shi; Pedro R. Romero; Gary K. Schoolnik; Alfred M. Spormann; Peter D. Karp

2006-01-01

189

Changes in membrane functions during short-term starvation of Vibrio fluvialis strain NCTC 11328  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine bacterium Vibrio fluvialis strain NCTC 11328 responded to starvation conditions by forming ultramicrocells of “dwarf” bacteria. The viability of starved cells began to decrease after 2–3 days. During this time the respiratory potential of the bacteria decreased by four- or fivefold, most probably as a result of a decrease in the specific activity of NADH and succinate dehydrogenases.

Adam J. Smigielski; Brian J. Wallace; Kevin C. Marshall

1989-01-01

190

Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis of Starved and Viable but Nonculturable Vibrio vulnificus Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium capable of causing a rapidly fatal infection in humans. Because of the low nutrient levels and temperature fluctuations found in the organism's natural habitat, the starvation state and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state are of particular interest. A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR protocol was developed previously for the detection of V. vulnificus

JENNIFER M. WARNER; JAMES D. OLIVER

1998-01-01

191

The Lipopolysaccharide O Side Chain of Vibrio vulnificus Serogroup E Is a Virulence Determinant for Eels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a gram-negative bacterium capable of producing septicemic infections in eels and immu- nocompromised humans. Two biotypes are classically recognized, with the virulence for eels being specific to strains belonging to biotype 2, which constitutes a homogeneous lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based O serogroup (which we have designated serogroup E). In the present study we demonstrated that the O side chain

CARMEN AMARO; BELEN FOUZ; ELENA G. BIOSCA; ESTER MARCO-NOALES; ROSA COLLADO

1997-01-01

192

The viable but non-culturable state in the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a serious human pathogen, accounting for 95% of all seafood-related deaths in the United States. During the winter months, when coastal water temperatures drop below 10 °C, investigators have repeatedly reported their inability to isolate this estuarine bacterium from the environment. We now realize that this apparent ‘die-off’ is actually due to entry of the cells into

James D. Oliver

1995-01-01

193

Transcriptional Responses of Intestinal Epithelial Cells to Infection with Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae is a noninvasive enteric bacterium that causes the severe diarrheal disease cholera. Candidate cholera vaccines have been engineered by deleting genes encoding known virulence factors in V. cholerae; however, many of these attenuated strains were still reactogenic in human volunteers. In this study, DNA arrays were utilized to monitor the transcriptional responses of human intestinal epithelial cells (T84)

Neil R. Stokes; Xin Zhou; Stephen J. Meltzer; James B. Kaper

2004-01-01

194

Bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri in continuous culture: Optimal conditions for stability and intensity of photoemission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous cultivation of the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri NRRL-B-11177, in a fermenter provided a constant supply of bacteria in exponential growth phase. These bacteria may be used as stable bioindicators to measure perturbation of the metabolic state by physical and chemical agents. However, optimization of light emission necessitates careful choice of growth medium and culture operating conditions. Optimized conditions that

Stefanie Scheerer; Francisco Gomez; David Lloyd

2006-01-01

195

Substrate Specificity and Function of the Pheromone Receptor AinR in Vibrio fischeri ES114.  

PubMed

Two distinct but interrelated pheromone-signaling systems, LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR, positively control bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri. Although each system generates an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal, the protein sequences of LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR are unrelated. AinS and LuxI generate the pheromones N-octanoyl-AHL (C8-AHL) and N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-AHL (3OC6-AHL), respectively. LuxR is a transcriptional activator that responds to 3OC6-AHL, and to a lesser extent to C8-AHL. AinR is hypothesized to respond to C8-AHL and, based on homology to Vibrio harveyi LuxN, to mediate the repression of a Qrr regulatory RNA. However, a ?ainR mutation decreased luminescence, which was not predicted based on V. harveyi LuxN, raising the possibility of a distinct regulatory mechanism for AinR. Here we show that ainR can complement a luxN mutant, suggesting functional similarity. Moreover, in V. fischeri, we observed ainR-dependent repression of a Pqrr-lacZ transcriptional reporter in the presence of C8-AHL, consistent with its hypothesized regulatory role. The system appears quite sensitive, with a half-maximal effect on a Pqrr reporter at 140 pM C8-AHL. Several other AHLs with substituted and unsubstituted acyl chains between 6 and 10 carbons also displayed an AinR-dependent effect on Pqrr-lacZ; however, AHLs with acyl chains of four carbons or 12 or more carbons lacked activity. Interestingly, 3OC6-AHL also affected expression from the qrr promoter, but this effect was largely luxR dependent, indicating a previously unknown connection between these systems. Finally, we propose a preliminary explanation for the unexpected luminescence phenotype of the ?ainR mutant. PMID:24056099

Kimbrough, John H; Stabb, Eric V

2013-09-20

196

Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio spp., Listonella spp., and Clostridium botulinum in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan.  

PubMed Central

The distribution of Vibrio species in samples of surface water, bottom water (water 2 m above the sediment), and sediment from the Seto Inland Sea was studied. A simple technique using a membrane filter and short preenrichment in alkaline peptone water was developed to resuscitate the injured cells, followed by plating them onto TCBS agar. In addition, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Clostridium botulinum in sediment samples. Large populations of heterotrophs were found in surface water, whereas large numbers of total vibrios were found in bottom water. In samples from various water sampling regions, high counts of all bacterial populations were found in the inner regions having little exchange of seawater when compared with those of the open region of the inland sea. In the identification of 463 isolates, 23 Vibrio spp. and 2 Listonella spp. were observed. V. harveyi was prevalent among the members of the Vibrio genus. Vibrio species were categorized into six groups; an estimated 20% of these species were in the so-called "pathogenic to humans" group. In addition, a significant proportion of this group was hemolytic and found in the Bisan Seto region. V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis, and V. cholerae non-O1 predominated in the constricted area of the inland sea, which is eutrophic as a result of riverine influence. It was concluded that salinity indirectly governs the distribution of total vibrios and analysis of variance revealed that all bacterial populations were distributed homogeneously and the variance values were found to be significant in some water sampling regions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Venkateswaran, K; Nakano, H; Okabe, T; Takayama, K; Matsuda, O; Hashimoto, H

1989-01-01

197

Temperature regulation of virulence factors in the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus.  

PubMed

Sea surface temperatures (SST) are rising because of global climate change. As a result, pathogenic Vibrio species that infect humans and marine organisms during warmer summer months are of growing concern. Coral reefs, in particular, are already experiencing unprecedented degradation worldwide due in part to infectious disease outbreaks and bleaching episodes that are exacerbated by increasing SST. For example, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a globally distributed bacterium associated with multiple coral diseases, infects corals at temperatures above 27 °C. The mechanisms underlying this temperature-dependent pathogenicity, however, are unknown. In this study, we identify potential virulence mechanisms using whole genome sequencing of V. coralliilyticus ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) BAA-450. Furthermore, we demonstrate direct temperature regulation of numerous virulence factors using proteomic analysis and bioassays. Virulence factors involved in motility, host degradation, secretion, antimicrobial resistance and transcriptional regulation are upregulated at the higher virulent temperature of 27 °C, concurrent with phenotypic changes in motility, antibiotic resistance, hemolysis, cytotoxicity and bioluminescence. These results provide evidence that temperature regulates multiple virulence mechanisms in V. coralliilyticus, independent of abundance. The ecological and biological significance of this temperature-dependent virulence response is reinforced by climate change models that predict tropical SST to consistently exceed 27 °C during the spring, summer and fall seasons. We propose V. coralliilyticus as a model Gram-negative bacterium to study temperature-dependent pathogenicity in Vibrio-related diseases. PMID:22158392

Kimes, Nikole E; Grim, Christopher J; Johnson, Wesley R; Hasan, Nur A; Tall, Ben D; Kothary, Mahendra H; Kiss, Hajnalka; Munk, A Christine; Tapia, Roxanne; Green, Lance; Detter, Chris; Bruce, David C; Brettin, Thomas S; Colwell, Rita R; Morris, Pamela J

2011-12-08

198

Temperature regulation of virulence factors in the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus  

PubMed Central

Sea surface temperatures (SST) are rising because of global climate change. As a result, pathogenic Vibrio species that infect humans and marine organisms during warmer summer months are of growing concern. Coral reefs, in particular, are already experiencing unprecedented degradation worldwide due in part to infectious disease outbreaks and bleaching episodes that are exacerbated by increasing SST. For example, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a globally distributed bacterium associated with multiple coral diseases, infects corals at temperatures above 27?°C. The mechanisms underlying this temperature-dependent pathogenicity, however, are unknown. In this study, we identify potential virulence mechanisms using whole genome sequencing of V. coralliilyticus ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) BAA-450. Furthermore, we demonstrate direct temperature regulation of numerous virulence factors using proteomic analysis and bioassays. Virulence factors involved in motility, host degradation, secretion, antimicrobial resistance and transcriptional regulation are upregulated at the higher virulent temperature of 27?°C, concurrent with phenotypic changes in motility, antibiotic resistance, hemolysis, cytotoxicity and bioluminescence. These results provide evidence that temperature regulates multiple virulence mechanisms in V. coralliilyticus, independent of abundance. The ecological and biological significance of this temperature-dependent virulence response is reinforced by climate change models that predict tropical SST to consistently exceed 27?°C during the spring, summer and fall seasons. We propose V. coralliilyticus as a model Gram-negative bacterium to study temperature-dependent pathogenicity in Vibrio-related diseases.

Kimes, Nikole E; Grim, Christopher J; Johnson, Wesley R; Hasan, Nur A; Tall, Ben D; Kothary, Mahendra H; Kiss, Hajnalka; Munk, A Christine; Tapia, Roxanne; Green, Lance; Detter, Chris; Bruce, David C; Brettin, Thomas S; Colwell, Rita R; Morris, Pamela J

2012-01-01

199

Environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus DNA signatures validation.  

PubMed

Insignia is a novel DNA computational system which uses highly efficient algorithms to compare bacterial genomes and to identify specific DNA signatures to distinguish a target bacterium, or group of bacteria, from all other known bacterial species. It is currently being validated using different bacterial groups, including Vibrio spp. In this study, the genomic analysis by Insignia was conducted on Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a halophilic gram-negative bacteria which constitutes a leading cause of seafood-borne disease. Insignia was used to identify 37 V. parahaemolyticus-specific signatures and to design PCR assays to validate the representative signature sequences by TaqMan essays. The 37 assays targeted loci distributed around the genome and detected genes coding for hypothetical proteins and for proteins involved in adhesion, starvation and virulence. A panel of V. parahaemolyticus environmental strains isolated from the North Adriatic Sea (Italy) and from the Black Sea (Georgia) was used to validate the selected signatures. The signature assays revealed both sensitive and specific and the method allowed a more accurate identification of the tested bacterial strains at the species level when compared to biochemical and PCR standard methods. Using Insignia, it was possible to distinguish two different groups among the strains previously identified as V. parahaemolyticus: most of the strains were included in a "V. parahaemolyticus-like group" showing nearly all of the signatures assayed while a small group of 10 strains contained only a few of the signatures tested. By sequencing the 16S rDNA of this latter group, it was confirmed that they were not V. parahaemolyticus but in fact belonged to other Vibrio species. No significant genome-wide differences were detected between the strains isolated in Italy and in Georgia though the very different geographical origin. PMID:21940129

Caburlotto, G; Knight, I T; Lleo, M M; Taviani, E; Huq, A; Colwell, R R

2011-09-22

200

Vibrios Commonly Possess Two Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of the two-chromosome configuration was investigated in 34 species of vibrios and closely related species. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of undigested genomic DNA suggested that vibrios commonly have two chromosomes. The size of the large chromosome is predominantly within a narrow range (3.0 to 3.3 Mb), whereas the size of the small chromosome varies considerably among the vibrios (0.8 to 2.4 Mb). This fact suggests that the structure of the small chromosome is more flexible than that of the large chromosome during the evolution of vibrios.

Okada, Kazuhisa; Iida, Tetsuya; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Honda, Takeshi

2005-01-01

201

Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in soil water extracts using Vibrio Harveyi BB721 and its implication for microbial biomass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is commonly used to measure the growth potential of microorganisms in water, but has not yet been investigated for measuring microbial growth potential in soils. In this study, a simple, rapid, and non-growth based assay to determine AOC in soil was developed using a...

202

Identification of Vibrio harveyi Isolated from Diseased Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer by Use of 16S Ribosomal DNA Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grow out of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer in marine net-cages is a popular aquaculture activity in Malaysia. Production of this species is greatly affected by the occurrence of vibriosis, which causes heavy mortality. Generally, young fish are more susceptible; they exhibit anorexia and skin darkening, followed by heavy mortality. The acutely affected older fish may also exhibit bloody lesions

Julian Ransangan; Saleem Mustafa

2009-01-01

203

Involvement of the cgtA gene function in stimulation of DNA repair in Escherichia coli and Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

CgtA is a member of the Obg\\/Gtp1 subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. CgtA homologues have been found in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Nevertheless, despite the fact that cgtA is an essential gene in most bacterial species, its function in the regulation of cellular processes is largely unknown. Here it has been demonstrated that in

Ryszard Zielke; Aleksandra Sikora; Rafaø Dutkiewicz; Grzegorz Wegrzyn; Agata Czyz

2003-01-01

204

Characterization of htrB and msbB Mutants of the Light Organ Symbiont Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial lipid A is an important mediator of bacterium-host interactions, and secondary acylations added by HtrB and MsbB can be critical for colonization and virulence in pathogenic infections. In contrast, Vibrio fischeri lipid A stimulates normal developmental processes in this bacterium's mutualistic host, Euprymna scolopes, although the importance of lipid A structure in this symbiosis is unknown. To further examine

Dawn M. Adin; Nancy J. Phillips; Bradford W. Gibson; Michael A. Apicella; Edward G. Ruby; Margaret J. McFall-Ngai; Daniel B. Hall; Eric V. Stabb

2008-01-01

205

The interactions of Vibrio vulnificus and the oyster Crassostrea virginica.  

PubMed

The human bacterial pathogen, Vibrio vulnificus, is found in brackish waters and is concentrated by filter-feeding molluscan shellfish, especially oysters, which inhabit those waters. Ingestion of raw or undercooked oysters containing virulent strains of V. vulnificus can result in rapid septicemia and death in 50 % of victims. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the environmental interactions between these two organisms, including the effects of salinity and temperature on colonization, uptake, and depuration rates of various phenotypes and genotypes of the bacterium, and host-microbe immunological interactions. PMID:23280497

Froelich, Brett; Oliver, James D

2013-01-03

206

Identification and Characterization of a Vibrio cholerae Gene, mbaA, Involved in Maintenance of Biofilm Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of biofilms is thought to play a key role in the environmental survival of the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Although the factors involved in V. cholerae attachment to abiotic surfaces have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in the subsequent maturation of the biofilms. Here we report the identification of a novel gene,

Natalia Bomchil; Paula Watnick; Roberto Kolter

2003-01-01

207

Roles of the Regulatory Proteins FlhF and FlhG in the Vibrio cholerae Flagellar Transcription Hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the human diarrheal disease cholera, is a motile bacterium with a single polar flagellum, and motility has been inferred to be an important aspect of virulence. The V. cholerae flagellar hierarchy is organized into four classes of genes. The expression of each class of genes within a flagellar hierarchy is generally tightly regulated in

Nidia E. Correa; Fen Peng; Karl E. Klose

2005-01-01

208

The Vibrio cholerae FlgM Homologue Is an Anti 28 Factor That Is Secreted through the Sheathed Polar Flagellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae has a single polar sheathed flagellum that propels the cells of this bacterium. Flagellar synthesis, motility, and chemotaxis have all been linked to virulence in this human pathogen. V. cholerae expresses flagellar genes in a hierarchy consisting of 54- and 28-dependent transcription. In other bacteria, 28 transcriptional activity is controlled by an anti-28 factor, FlgM. We demonstrate that

Nidia E. Correa; Jeffrey R. Barker; Karl E. Klose

2004-01-01

209

Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Vibrio vulnificus Strains Isolated from Taiwan and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a marine bacterium that causes human wound infections and septicemia with a high mortality rate. V. vulnificus strains from different clinical and environmental sources or geographic regions have been successfully characterized by ribotyping and several other methods. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a highly discriminative method, but previous studies suggested that it was not suitable for examining

Hin-chung Wong; Shau-Yan Chen; Meng-Yi Chen; James D. Oliver; Lien-I Hor; Wen-Cherng Tsai

2004-01-01

210

Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio coralliilyticus Strain OCN008, Isolated from Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i.  

PubMed

Vibrio coralliilyticus is a Gram-negative bacterium found in seawater and is associated with diseased marine organisms. Strains of V. coralliilyticus have been shown to infect coral from multiple genera. We report the draft genome sequence of V. coralliilyticus strain OCN008, the third V. coralliilyticus genome to be sequenced. PMID:24092784

Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M

2013-10-03

211

Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio coralliilyticus Strain OCN008, Isolated from K?ne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i  

PubMed Central

Vibrio coralliilyticus is a Gram-negative bacterium found in seawater and is associated with diseased marine organisms. Strains of V. coralliilyticus have been shown to infect coral from multiple genera. We report the draft genome sequence of V. coralliilyticus strain OCN008, the third V. coralliilyticus genome to be sequenced.

Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Aeby, Greta S.

2013-01-01

212

Using mixture design to construct consortia of potential probiotic Bacillus strains to protect gnotobiotic Artemia against pathogenic Vibrio  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the potential probiotic effect of three Bacillus strains on the survival and growth of an Artemia culture and to obtain the optimal formulation of pure cultures of the bacilli, challenge tests were performed with the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus (S1) using mixture design. According to molecular analyses involving amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), these bacteria corresponded to

Abdelkarim Mahdhi; Besma Harbi; Maria Ángeles Esteban; Kamel Chaieb; Fathi Kamoun; Amina Bakhrouf

2010-01-01

213

Regulation of Vibrio alginolyticus virulence by the LuxS quorum-sensing system.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial intercommunication system that controls the expression of multiple genes in response to population density. The LuxS QS system regulates the expression of several virulence factors in a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria. LuxS has been characterized to be responsible for producing a type of autoinducer, AI-2, which stimulates the expression of the luciferase operon in Vibrio harveyi. Vibrio alginolyticus is established as an opportunistic pathogen of several marine animals, and its LuxS QS system remains undefined. To investigate the pathogenic role of luxS in V. alginolyticus, the luxS mutants of both the standard strain ATCC 33787 and a fish-clinical isolate MVP01, named MYJS and MYJM, respectively, were constructed. The mutation resulted in reduced lethality to Pagrus major. Intraperitoneal LD(50) of MYJS and MYJM increased by 15- and 93-fold, respectively. The two luxS mutants exhibited a lower growth rate and defective flagellar biosynthesis. They also showed a significant decrease in protease production and an increase in both extracellular polysaccharide production and biofilm development. The results suggest that the LuxS QS system plays an important role in regulating the expression of virulence factors in V. alginolyticus. PMID:18261029

Ye, J; Ma, Y; Liu, Q; Zhao, D L; Wang, Q Y; Zhang, Y X

2008-03-01

214

Laboratory studies on the El Tor vibrio.  

PubMed

The identity of the El Tor vibrio is a controversial question that the usual methods of bacteriological investigation have as yet failed to settle. In this paper, the author presents the results of a study of the interrelationships between El Tor vibrios, true cholera vibrios and water vibrios, as revealed by the behaviour of the vibrios in the bile system and in the small intestine of experimental animals.The vibrios investigated included two strains isolated at the El Tor quarantine station on the Sinai Peninsula in 1934, two strains isolated at Makassar, Celebes, during a cholera epidemic in 1937 and identified as "El Tor" vibrios, four strains of true cholera vibrios and five strains of water vibrios. On the whole, the behaviour of the El Tor and Makassar vibrios was similar, closely resembling that of the cholera vibrios and differing markedly from that of the water vibrios. The author therefore considers that the strains of El Tor and Makassar vibrios examined are varieties of Vibrio cholerae and suggests that carriers of such strains should be subjected to the same measures as carriers of true cholera vibrios. PMID:13986981

SAYAMOV, R M

1963-01-01

215

[Septic shock by Vibrio vulnificus at the coast Gulf of Mexico].  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium which is found in marine environments and where there is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. The infection by these bacteria can cause primary septicemia by two mechanisms: upon consuming crustaceans, mollusks and some fish (filtering shellfish) raw or barely cooked or by an open injury in contact with seawater. The patients with infections of the primary injury by Vibrio vulnificus developed contaminated painful cellulitis that progresses quickly as well as a marked local inflammation with signs of hemorrhaging. We described a case of Vibrio vulnificus sepsis, with emphasis on the clinical picture, the epidemiological background and lab findings; finally we did a brief review of the literature related to the case. PMID:21982195

Baizabal-Ramírez, Oscar; Negrete-Pérez, Mónica; Guerrero-Daza, Damayanty; Martínez-Herrera, Nahum; Aburto-Desachy, Yolanda; Mata-Miranda, Pilar

216

Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on Vibrio vulnificus and murine infection caused by it.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus is a bacterium known to cause fatal necrotizing soft tissue infection in humans. Here, a remarkable therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on V. vulnificus infection provoked by its injection into mouse footpads is described. HBO was shown to be bactericidal to this bacterium in vitro as well as in the infected tissue. The bactericidal activity of HBO was shown to be due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), the efficacy of HBO against V. vulnificus infection being accounted for by the high sensitivity of this bacterium to ROS. Besides being somewhat weak in ROS-inactivating enzyme activities, this bacterium is also unusually sensitive to ultraviolet light and other DNA-damaging agents. It seems likely that the sensitivity of V. vulnificus to HBO is mainly due to its poor ability to repair oxidative damage to DNA. These findings encourage clinical application of HBO against potentially fatal V. vulnificus infection in humans. PMID:22775062

Tamura, Tetsuro; Iida, Ken-ichiro; Saito, Mitsumasa; Shiota, Susumu; Nakayama, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

2012-10-01

217

Autecology of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tropical waters  

SciTech Connect

Water and shellfish samples collected from estuaries, mangroves, and beaches along the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. An array of water quality parameters were also measured simultaneous with bacteria sampling. Both species of vibrio were associated with estuary and mangrove locations, and neither was isolated from sandy beaches. Densities of V. vulnificus were negatively correlated with salinity, 10--15 ppt being optimal. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from sites with salinities between 20 and 35 ppt, the highest densities occurring at 20 ppt. Densities of Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus for a tropical estuary surpassed those reported for temperate estuaries by several orders of magnitude. Both densities of total Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus in the water were directly related to densities of fecal coliforms, unlike V. vulnificus. The incidence of ONPG(+) strains among sucrose({minus}) Vibrio spp. served as an indicator of the frequency of V. vulnificus in this group. More than 63% of the V. vulnificus isolated were pathogenic. V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus occupy clearly separate niches within the tropical estuarine-marine ecosystem.

Rivera, S.; Lugo, T.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

1988-12-31

218

Functional Characterization of Two Type III Secretion Systems of Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a gram-negative marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of food-borne gastroen- teritis. Recent genome sequencing of the clinical V. parahaemolyticus strain RIMD2210633 identified two sets of genes for the type III secretion system (TTSS), TTSS1 and TTSS2. Here, we constructed a series of mutant strains from RIMD2210633 to determine whether the two putative TTSS apparatus are functional. The

Kwon-Sam Park; Takahiro Ono; Mitsuhiro Rokuda; Myoung-Ho Jang; Kazuhisa Okada; Tetsuya Iida; Takeshi Honda

2004-01-01

219

Molecular and biochemical characterization of an extracellular serine-protease from Vibrio metschnikovii J1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protease-producing bacterium was isolated from an alkaline wastewater of the soap industry and identified as Vibrio metschnikovii J1 on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical properties. The strain was found to over-produce proteases\\u000a when it was grown at 30°C in media containing casein as carbon source (14,000 U ml?1). J1 enzyme, the major protease produced by V.

Kemel Jellouli; Ali Bougatef; Laila Manni; Rym Agrebi; Rayda Siala; Islem Younes; Moncef Nasri

2009-01-01

220

Genetic Determinants of Virulence in the Marine Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum  

PubMed Central

One of the most studied fish pathogens is Vibrio anguillarum. Development of the genetics and biochemistry of the mechanisms of virulence in this fish pathogen together with clinical and ecologic studies has permitted the intensive development of microbiology in fish diseases. It is the intention of this review to compile the exhaustive knowledge accumulated on this bacterium and its interaction with the host fish by reporting a complete analysis of the V. anguillarum virulence factors and the genetics of their complexity.

Naka, Hiroaki; Crosa, Jorge H.

2011-01-01

221

Transcriptional inactivation of a regulatory site for replication of Vibrio cholerae chromosome II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterium Vibrio cholerae has two chromosomes. The origin of replication of chromosome I is similar to that of Escherichia coli. The origin-containing region of chromosome II (oriCII) resembles replicons of plasmids such as P1, except for the presence of an additional gene, rctA [Egan, E. S. & Waldor, M. K. (2003) Cell 114, 521-530]. The oriCII region that includes

Tatiana Venkova-Canova; Preeti Srivastava; Dhruba K. Chattoraj

2006-01-01

222

Bactericidal Effects of Toluidine Blue-Mediated Photodynamic Action on Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a gram-negative, highly invasive bacterium responsible for human opportunistic infec- tions. We studied the antibacterial effects of toluidine blue O (TBO)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) for V. vulnificus wound infections in mice. Fifty-three percent (10 of 19) of mice treated with 100 g of TBO per ml and exposed to broad-spectrum red light (150 J\\/cm 2 at 80

Tak-Wah Wong; Yin-Yi Wang; Hamm-Ming Sheu; Yin-Ching Chuang

2005-01-01

223

Culturable and VBNC Vibrio cholerae : Interactions with Chironomid Egg Masses and Their Bacterial Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments. Recently, it was found that chironomid\\u000a (nonbiting midges) egg masses serve as a reservoir for the cholera bacterium and that flying chironomid adults are possible\\u000a windborne carriers of V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139. Chironomids are the most widely distributed insect in freshwater. Females deposit egg masses at the

Malka Halpern; Ori Landsberg; Dina Raats; Eugene Rosenberg

2007-01-01

224

Asymmetric Response of Carbon Metabolism at High and Low Salt Stress in Vibrio sp. DSM14379  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy redistribution between growth and maintenance in salt-stressed cells is especially important for bacteria living in\\u000a estuarine environments. In this study, Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio sp. DSM14379, isolated from the estuarine waters of the northern Adriatic Sea, was grown aerobically in a peptone–yeast extract\\u000a medium with different salt concentrations (ranging from 0.3% to 10% (w\\/v) NaCl). Carbon flux through the central

Tjaša Danev?i?; David Stopar

225

Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae sepsis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae is an encapsulated bacterium, ubiquitous in the marine environment and generally considered to be non-pathogenic. However, it is known to cause diarrheal illness, wound infection, and bacteremia in immunocompromised hosts. Here we have describe non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae sepsis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome following exposure to sea-water. Interestingly, the exposure occurred remotely 4 months prior to the onset of nephrotic syndrome. The occurrence of florid sepsis after a prolonged interval from the time of exposure is peculiar and raises the possibility of an association between occult Vibrio sepsis and nephrotic syndrome.

George, N; Fredrick, F; Mohapatra, A; Veeraraghavan, B; Kakde, S T; Valson, A T; Basu, G

2013-01-01

226

Evidence for the Role of Horizontal Transfer in Generating pVT1, a Large Mosaic Conjugative Plasmid from the Clam Pathogen, Vibrio tapetis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine bacterium Vibrio tapetis is the causative agent of the brown ring disease, which affects the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and causes heavy economic losses in North of Europe and in Eastern Asia. Further characterization of V. tapetis isolates showed that all the investigated strains harbored at least one large plasmid. We determined the sequence of the 82,266 bp plasmid

Gaël Erauso; Fatma Lakhal; Adeline Bidault-Toffin; Patrick Le Chevalier; Philippe Bouloc; Christine Paillard; Annick Jacq; Michael Hensel

2011-01-01

227

Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae are human pathogens. Little is known about these Vibrio spp. in the coastal lagoons of France. The purpose of this study was to investigate their incidence in water, shellfish and sediment of three French Mediterranean coastal lagoons using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). In summer, the total number of V. parahaemolyticus in water, sediment, mussels and clams collected from the three lagoons varied from 1 to >1.1 × 10(3) MPN/l, 0.09 to 1.1 × 10(3) MPN/ml, 9 to 210 MPN/g and 1.5 to 2.1 MPN/g, respectively. In winter, all samples except mussels contained V. parahaemolyticus, but at very low concentrations. Pathogenic (tdh- or trh2-positive) V. parahaemolyticus were present in water, sediment and shellfish samples collected from these lagoons. The number of V. vulnificus in water, sediment and shellfish samples ranged from 1 to 1.1 × 10(3) MPN/l, 0.07 to 110 MPN/ml and 0.04 to 15 MPN/g, respectively, during summer. V. vulnificus was not detected during winter. V. cholerae was rarely detected in water and sediment during summer. In summary, results of this study highlight the finding that the three human pathogenic Vibrio spp. are present in the lagoons and constitute a potential public health hazard. PMID:23770313

Cantet, Franck; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Caro, Audrey; Le Mennec, Cécile; Monteil, Caroline; Quéméré, Catherine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

2013-06-12

228

Cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP-receptor protein modulate the autoinducer-2-mediated quorum sensing system in Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine whether cyclic AMP (cAMP) or cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) modulates the activity of the autoinducer (AI)-2-mediated quorum sensing (QS) system in response to glucose availability in Vibrio vulnificus. A mutation in crp impaired V. vulnificus growth, decreased AI-2 production, and repressed the expression of smcR encoding the master regulator SmcR (a Vibrio harveyi LuxR homolog) of the AI-2-QS system, and these changes were prevented by in trans complementation of wild-type crp. Furthermore, glucose repressed smcR expression in the presence of CRP but not in its absence. A mutation in cyaA encoding adenylate cyclase, which is required for cAMP synthesis, also impaired V. vulnificus growth and repressed smcR expression, and these changes were recovered by in trans complementation of wild-type cyaA. These results indicate that cAMP or CRP modulates the AI-2-QS system in response to glucose availability in V. vulnificus, demonstrating the presence of a connection between catabolite repression and quorum sensing in V. vulnificus. PMID:22961036

Kim, Sun-Pyo; Kim, Choon-Mee; Shin, Sung-Heui

2012-09-09

229

Alanine dehydrogenase from the psychrophilic bacterium strain PA43: overexpression, molecular characterization, and sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH; EC 1.4.1.1) from the marine psychrophilic bacterium strain PA-43 was cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The primary structure was deduced on the basis of the nucleotide sequence. The enzyme subunit contains 371 amino acid residues, and the sequence is 90% and 77% identical, respectively, to AlaDHs from Shewanella Ac10 and Vibrio proteolyticus.

Jane A. Irwin; Susan V. Lynch; Suzie Coughlan; Patrick J. Baker; Haflidi M. Gudmundsson; Gudni A. Alfredsson; David W. Rice; Paul C. Engel

2003-01-01

230

Microbial alteration of stable nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the interaction between microbes and organic matter can help elucidate the diagenesis of organic materials in sediments. Vibrio harveyi, a marine, aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, was cultured on individual compounds each containing carbon and nitrogen, i.e. amino acids or amino sugars. When grown on different substrates, the bacteria fractionated the isotopes uniquely. These fractionations were related to the

STEPHEN A. MACKO; MARILYN L. F. ESTEP

1984-01-01

231

Comparison of the use of mussels and semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring and assessment of accumulation of mutagenic pollutants in marine environment in combination with a novel microbiological mutagenicity assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel microbiological mutagenicity assay, based on bioluminescence of a marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi mutant strain, potentially suitable for monitoring and assessment of mutagenic pollution of marine environment, has been\\u000a described recently. Here, we tested the use of this assay, in combination with either mussels (Mytilus sp.) or semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), in assessment of accumulation of mutagens in marine

Ewa Ch??; Beata Podgórska; Grzegorz W?grzyn

2008-01-01

232

Bacteremia caused by Vibrio hollisae.  

PubMed Central

Vibrio hollisae was recovered from the bloodstream of a 36-year-old man with chronic active hepatitis who was admitted to the hospital with signs of gastrointestinal illness. V. hollisae is an infrequent human pathogen associated with seafood ingestion. No etiologic link to seafood was demonstrated in this case report.

Rank, E L; Smith, I B; Langer, M

1988-01-01

233

Growth Characteristics of 'Vibrio parahaemolyticus'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a normal inhabitant of the coastal marine environment and may be seen associated with human disease as well as pathogenic conditions of fish and shellfish. This study was designed to consider only the effect of oil on survival o...

M. Johnson M. Randolf

1980-01-01

234

In situ measured elimination of Vibrio cholerae from brackish water.  

PubMed

In situ elimination of fluorescently labelled Vibrio cholerae (FLB) was measured in two saline water bodies in Mexico: in a brackish water lagoon, Mecoacán (Gulf of Mexico; State of Tabasco) and an athalassohaline lake, Alchichica (State of Puebla). Disappearance rates of fluorescently labelled V. cholera O1 showed that they were eliminated from the environment at an average rate of 32% and 63%/day, respectively (based on the bacterial standing stocks). The indirect immunofluorescence method confirmed the presence of V. cholerae O1 in the lagoon. However, the elimination of FLB was not directly related either to the presence or absence of the bacterium in the water body or to the phytoplankton concentration. PMID:14728617

Pérez, María Elena Martínez; Macek, Miroslav; Galván, María Teresa Castro

2004-01-01

235

Measurement and analysis of Vibrio Fischeri cell-based microfluidic device for personal health monitoring.  

PubMed

The cell-based microfluidic chip was designed and fabricated as a low-cost detector to continuously monitor toxicants in drinking water or human urine samples, which is expected to be an important component of a household health monitoring system in the future. The bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio Fischeri, was selected to validate the function of device. Water samples and Vibrio fischeri cells were mixed and encapsulated into droplets in air flow, which can guarantee sufficient oxygen supply for cells in droplets. Preliminary tests were performed using copper ion (Cu(2+)) as the model toxicant. The droplet system was measured and analyzed at various flow rates in different observation chambers. Both deionized water and human urine samples were tested in the cell-based device. Interestingly, a strong relation between the R.L.U. (Relative Luminescence Units) in the observation chamber and the minute concentration of toxicant (Cu(2+)) was found using deionized water as solvent, whereas the relation was insignificant using human urine as solvent. This study showed the Vibrio fischeri cell-based device might be reliably employed as an early-warning system for the safety of drinking water. However, Vibrio fischeri is not competent to detect dangerous materials in a complex biofluid. With the replacement of cell sensors, the microfluidic device might be functional to analyze urine samples in theory. PMID:24110218

Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

2013-07-01

236

Susceptibility of the Heat, Acid, and Bile-Adapted Vibrio vulnificus to Lethal Low-Salinity Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a marine pathogenic bacterium that inhabits seawater or seafood, Vibrio vulnificus encounters low salinity and other stresses in the natural environment and during food processing. This investigation explores the cross-protective response of sublethal heat-, acid-, or bile-adapted V. vulnificus YJ03 against lethal low-salinity stress. Experimental results reveal that the acid (pH 4.4)- and heat (41C)-adapted V. vulnificus were not

HIN-CHUNG WONG; SHU-HUI LIU

2006-01-01

237

Complete Sequence of Virulence Plasmid pJM1 from the Marine Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum Strain 775  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virulence plasmid pJM1 enables the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, a gram-negative polarly flagel- lated comma-shaped rod bacterium, to cause a highly fatal hemorrhagic septicemic disease in salmonids and other fishes, leading to epizootics throughout the world. The pJM1 plasmid 65,009-nucleotide sequence, with an overall GC content of 42.6%, revealed genes and open reading frames (ORFs) encoding iron transporters, nonribosomal

Manuela Di Lorenzo; Michiel Stork; Marcelo E. Tolmasky; Luis A. Actis; David Farrell; Timothy J. Welch; Lidia M. Crosa; Anne M. Wertheimer; Qian Chen; Patricia Salinas; Lillian Waldbeser; Jorge H. Crosa

2003-01-01

238

Vibrios in the Louisiana gulf coast environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyphasic approach, using bacteriological, immunological, and molecular biological techniques was used to elucidate the distribution of pathogenicVibrio species in the Louisiana coastal environment. A variety ofVibrio species pathogenic for man, includingV. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. fluvialis, andV. vulnificus, were found to be ubiquitous in Louisiana.Vibrio species monitored were shown to fluctuate in response to environmental factors of temperature, salinity,

N. C. Roberts; R. J. Siebeling; J. B. Kaperfl; H. B. Bradford Jr

1982-01-01

239

Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Chesapeake Bay.  

PubMed

A study of the ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related vibrios in the Rhode River area of Chesapeake Bay was carried out over the period December 1970 through August 1971. The incidence of V. parahaemolyticus and related vibrios was found to be correlated with water temperature. The vibrios could not be detected in the water column during the winter months, although they were present in sediment. From late spring to early summer, when water temperatures were 14 +/- 1 C, vibrios over-wintering in sediment were released from the bottom communities and attached to zooplankton, proliferating as the temperature rose. The number of vibrios in and on plankton was reflected in the water column bacterial population densities at water temperatures of ca. 19 C. Thus, temperature of the water column in the range of 14 to 19 C was found to be critical in the annual cycle of the vibrios. Interaction between sediment, water, and zooplankton was found to be essential in the natural estuarine ecosystem. Bacterial counts of zooplankton were found to be temperature dependent. The bacterial population associated with zooplankton was found to be predominantly on external surfaces and was specific, differing from that of the sediment. Vibrio spp. and related organisms comprised the total bacterial population associated with zooplankton in summer months. The ecological role of Vibrio spp., including V. parahaemolyticus, was found to be significant, with respect to their property of chitin digestion and in relation to the population dynamics of zooplankton in Chesapeake Bay. PMID:4567138

Kaneko, T; Colwell, R R

1973-01-01

240

Arabinose induces pellicle formation by Vibrio fischeri.  

PubMed

Biofilms are multicellular communities of bacteria attached to a surface and embedded in a protective matrix. In many cases, the signals that induce biofilm formation are unknown. Here, we report that biofilm formation by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri can be induced by the addition of arabinose to LBS (Luria-Bertani-salt), a tryptone-based medium. Growth of cells in the presence of 0.2% arabinose, but not other sugars, induced the production of a pellicle at the air/liquid interfaces of static cultures. V. fischeri failed to grow on arabinose as the sole carbon source, suggesting that pellicle production did not occur as a result of increased growth, but experiments using the acid/base indicator phenol red suggested that V. fischeri may partially metabolize arabinose. Pellicle production was independent of the syp polysaccharide locus but was altered upon disruption of the bcs cellulose locus. Through a screen for mutants defective for pellicle production, we found that loss of motility disrupted the formation of the arabinose-induced pellicle. Among the ?20 mutants that retained motility were strains with insertions in a putative msh pilus locus and a strain with a defect in yidK, which is involved in galactose catabolism. Mutants with the msh gene disrupted grew poorly in the presence of arabinose, while the yidK mutant appeared to be "blind" to the presence of arabinose. Finally, arabinose impaired symbiotic colonization by V. fischeri. This work thus identifies a novel signal and new pathways involved in control of biofilm formation by V. fischeri. PMID:23335779

Visick, Karen L; Quirke, Kevin P; McEwen, Sheila M

2013-01-18

241

Arabinose Induces Pellicle Formation by Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are multicellular communities of bacteria attached to a surface and embedded in a protective matrix. In many cases, the signals that induce biofilm formation are unknown. Here, we report that biofilm formation by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri can be induced by the addition of arabinose to LBS (Luria-Bertani-salt), a tryptone-based medium. Growth of cells in the presence of 0.2% arabinose, but not other sugars, induced the production of a pellicle at the air/liquid interfaces of static cultures. V. fischeri failed to grow on arabinose as the sole carbon source, suggesting that pellicle production did not occur as a result of increased growth, but experiments using the acid/base indicator phenol red suggested that V. fischeri may partially metabolize arabinose. Pellicle production was independent of the syp polysaccharide locus but was altered upon disruption of the bcs cellulose locus. Through a screen for mutants defective for pellicle production, we found that loss of motility disrupted the formation of the arabinose-induced pellicle. Among the ?20 mutants that retained motility were strains with insertions in a putative msh pilus locus and a strain with a defect in yidK, which is involved in galactose catabolism. Mutants with the msh gene disrupted grew poorly in the presence of arabinose, while the yidK mutant appeared to be “blind” to the presence of arabinose. Finally, arabinose impaired symbiotic colonization by V. fischeri. This work thus identifies a novel signal and new pathways involved in control of biofilm formation by V. fischeri.

Quirke, Kevin P.; McEwen, Sheila M.

2013-01-01

242

Spatially selective colonization of the arthropod intestine through activation of Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium and the human pathogen responsible for the diarrheal disease cholera. In the environment, arthropods are proposed to be carriers and reservoirs of V. cholerae. However, the molecular basis of the association between V. cholerae and viable arthropods has not been elucidated previously. Here, we show that the V. cholerae Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS)-dependent biofilm is highly activated upon entry into the arthropod intestine and is specifically required for colonization of the arthropod rectum. Although the V. cholerae VPS-dependent biofilm has been studied in the laboratory for many years, the function of this biofilm in the natural habitats of V. cholerae has been elusive. Our results provide evidence that the VPS-dependent biofilm is required for intestinal colonization of an environmental host.

Purdy, Alexandra E.; Watnick, Paula I.

2011-01-01

243

Vanchrobactin and Anguibactin Siderophores Produced by Vibrio sp. DS40M4  

PubMed Central

The marine bacterium Vibrio sp. DS40M4 has been found to produce a new triscatechol amide siderophore, trivanchrobactin (1), a related new biscatecholamide compound, divanchrobactin (2), as well as the previously reported siderophores, vanchrobactin (3) and anguibactin (4). Vanchrobactin is comprised of l-serine, d-arginine- and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, while trivanchrobactin is a linear trimer of vanchrobactin joined by two serine ester linkages. The cyclic trivanchrobactin product was not detected. In addition to siderophore production, extracts of Vibrio sp. DS40M4 were screened for biologically active molecules; anguibactin was found to be cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line (IC50 < 15 ?M).

Sandy, Moriah; Han, Andrew; Blunt, John; Munro, Murray; Haygood, Margo; Butler, Alison

2011-01-01

244

Vibrio caribbeanicus sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Scleritoderma cyanea.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, curved rod-shaped bacterium, strain N384(T), was isolated from a marine sponge (Scleritoderma cyanea; phylum Porifera) collected from a depth of 795 feet (242 m) off the west coast of Curaçao. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain N384(T) was shown to belong to the genus Vibrio, most closely related to Vibrio brasiliensis LMG 20546(T) (98.8% similarity), Vibrio nigripulchritudo ATCC 27043(T) (98.5%), Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19109(T) (98.6%) and V. sinaloensis DSM 21326(T) (98.2%). The DNA G+C content of strain N384(T) was 41.6 mol%. An analysis of concatenated sequences of five genes (gyrB, rpoA, pyrH, mreB and ftsZ; 4068 bp) demonstrated a clear separation between strain N384(T) and its closest neighbours and clustered strain N384(T) into the 'Orientalis' clade of vibrios. Phenotypically, the novel species belonged to the arginine dihydrolase-positive, lysine decarboxylase- and ornithine decarboxylase-negative (A+/L-/O-) cluster. The novel species was also differentiated on the basis of fatty acid composition, specifically that the proportions of iso-C(13:0), iso-C(15:0), C(15:0), iso-C(16:0), C(16:0), iso-C(17:0), C(17:1)?8c and C(17:0) were significantly different from those found in V. brasiliensis and V. sinaloensis. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, average nucleotide identity and physiological and biochemical tests further allowed differentiation of this strain from other described species of the genus Vibrio. Collectively, these findings confirm that strain N384(T) represents a novel Vibrio species, for which the name Vibrio caribbeanicus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain N384(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2122(T)?=?DSM 23640(T)). PMID:21930677

Hoffmann, Maria; Monday, Steven R; Allard, Marc W; Strain, Errol A; Whittaker, Paul; Naum, Marianna; McCarthy, Peter J; Lopez, Jose V; Fischer, Markus; Brown, Eric W

2011-09-19

245

Squid-Derived Chitin Oligosaccharides Are a Chemotactic Signal during Colonization by Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is noted as the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. Chitin serves many functions for marine bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae (“vibrios”), in some instances providing a physical attachment site, inducing natural genetic competence, and serving as an attractant for chemotaxis. The marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri is the specific symbiont in the light-emitting organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The bacterium provides the squid with luminescence that the animal uses in an antipredatory defense, while the squid supports the symbiont's nutritional requirements. V. fischeri cells are harvested from seawater during each host generation, and V. fischeri is the only species that can complete this process in nature. Furthermore, chitin is located in squid hemocytes and plays a nutritional role in the symbiosis. We demonstrate here that chitin oligosaccharides produced by the squid host serve as a chemotactic signal for colonizing bacteria. V. fischeri uses the gradient of host chitin to enter the squid light organ duct and colonize the animal. We provide evidence that chitin serves a novel function in an animal-bacterial mutualism, as an animal-produced bacterium-attracting synomone.

Schaefer, Amy L.; Brennan, Caitlin A.; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A. C.; DeLoney-Marino, Cindy R.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

2012-01-01

246

Iron acquisition in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has an absolute requirement for iron and must obtain this element in the human host as well\\u000a as in its varied environmental niches. It has multiple systems for iron acquisition, including the TonB-dependent transport\\u000a of heme, the endogenous siderophore vibriobactin and several siderophores that are produced by other microorganisms. There\\u000a is also a

Elizabeth E. Wyckoff; Alexandra R. Mey; Shelley M. Payne

2007-01-01

247

Occurrence and potential pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus on the South Coast of Sweden.  

PubMed

During the summer of 2006, several wound infections - of which three were fatal - caused by Vibrio cholerae were reported from patients who had been exposed to water from the Baltic Sea. Before these reports, we initiated a sampling project investigating the occurrence of potential human pathogenic V. cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in The Sound between Sweden and Denmark. The Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was used as an indicator to follow the occurrence of vibrios over time. Molecular analyses showed high frequencies of the most potent human pathogenic Vibrio spp.; 53% of mussel samples were positive for V. cholerae (although none were positive for the cholera toxin gene), 63% for V. vulnificus and 79% for V. parahaemolyticus (of which 47% were tdh(+) and/or trh(+)). Viable vibrios were also isolated from the mussel meat and screened for virulence by PCR. The mortality of eukaryotic cells when exposed to bacteria was tested in vivo, with results showing that the Vibrio strains, independent of species and origin, were harmful to the cells. Despite severe infections and several deaths, no report on potential human pathogenic vibrios in this area had been published before this study. PMID:21692819

Collin, Betty; Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi

2011-07-18

248

Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus.  

PubMed

Vibrio coralliilyticus is an important coral pathogen demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of applying bacteriophage therapy to treat the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus. A specific bacteriophage for V. coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696), referred to here as bacteriophage YC, was isolated from the seawater above corals at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the same location where the bacterium was first isolated. Bacteriophage YC was shown to be a lytic phage belonging to the Myoviridae family, with a rapid replication rate, high burst size, and high affinity to its host. By infecting its host bacterium, bacteriophage YC was able to prevent bacterial-induced photosystem inhibition in pure cultures of Symbiodinium, the photosymbiont partner of coral and a target for virulence factors produced by the bacterial pathogen. Phage therapy experiments using coral juveniles in microtiter plates as a model system revealed that bacteriophage YC was able to prevent V. coralliilyticus-induced photoinactivation and tissue lysis. These results demonstrate that bacteriophage YC has the potential to treat coral disease outbreaks caused by the bacterial pathogen V. coralliilyticus, making it a good candidate for phage therapy treatment of coral disease. PMID:23239510

Cohen, Yossi; Joseph Pollock, F; Rosenberg, Eugene; Bourne, David G

2012-12-14

249

Ion selectivity of the Vibrio alginolyticus flagellar motor.  

PubMed Central

The marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, normally requires sodium for motility. We found that lithium will substitute for sodium. In neutral pH buffers, the membrane potential and swimming speed of glycolyzing bacteria reached maximal values as sodium or lithium concentration was increased. While the maximal potentials obtained in the two cations were comparable, the maximal swimming speed was substantially lower in lithium. Over a wide range of sodium concentration, the bacteria maintained an invariant sodium electrochemical potential as determined by membrane potential and intracellular sodium measurements. Over this range the increase of swimming speed took Michaelis-Menten form. Artificial energization of swimming motility required imposition of a voltage difference in concert with a sodium pulse. The cation selectivity and concentration dependence exhibited by the motile apparatus depended on the viscosity of the medium. In high-viscosity media, swimming speeds were relatively independent of either ion type or concentration. These facts parallel and extend observations of the swimming behavior of bacteria propelled by proton-powered flagella. In particular, they show that ion transfers limit unloaded motor speed in this bacterium and imply that the coupling between ion transfers and force generation must be fairly tight.

Liu, J Z; Dapice, M; Khan, S

1990-01-01

250

Iron regulation of swarmer cell differentiation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus has two distinct cell types, the swimmer cell and the swarmer cell, adapted for locomotion in different circumstances. The swimmer cell, produced when the bacterium is grown in liquid media, is a short rod with a single sheathed polar flagellum. The swarmer cell, produced when V. parahaemolyticus is grown on solidified media, is greatly elongated and synthesizes, in addition to the polar flagellum, numerous unsheathed lateral flagella which are responsible for translocation over surfaces. We are interested in understanding how this bacterium differentiates in response to contact with surfaces and have determined in earlier work that the polar flagellum acts as a tactile sensor which controls transcription of genes (laf) encoding the swarmer cell phenotype. Surface recognition involves sensing of forces that obstruct movement of the polar flagellum. In this report we show that a second signal, iron limitation, is also required for swarmer cell differentiation. Production of lateral flagella occurred only when polar flagellar function was perturbed and iron-limiting growth conditions were imposed. The same conditions were required to induce light production in strains of V. parahaemolyticus in which a laf gene was transcriptionally fused to the lux operon encoding the enzymes for bioluminescence. The lafA gene encoding the lateral flagellin subunit was cloned and used in Northern (RNA) blot measurements. Examination of mRNA levels revealed that transcription of lafA is dependent on growth in iron-depleted media. The control of differentiation by multiple environmental stimuli is discussed. Images

McCarter, L; Silverman, M

1989-01-01

251

Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus  

PubMed Central

Vibrio coralliilyticus is an important coral pathogen demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of applying bacteriophage therapy to treat the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus. A specific bacteriophage for V. coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696), referred to here as bacteriophage YC, was isolated from the seawater above corals at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the same location where the bacterium was first isolated. Bacteriophage YC was shown to be a lytic phage belonging to the Myoviridae family, with a rapid replication rate, high burst size, and high affinity to its host. By infecting its host bacterium, bacteriophage YC was able to prevent bacterial-induced photosystem inhibition in pure cultures of Symbiodinium, the photosymbiont partner of coral and a target for virulence factors produced by the bacterial pathogen. Phage therapy experiments using coral juveniles in microtiter plates as a model system revealed that bacteriophage YC was able to prevent V. coralliilyticus-induced photoinactivation and tissue lysis. These results demonstrate that bacteriophage YC has the potential to treat coral disease outbreaks caused by the bacterial pathogen V. coralliilyticus, making it a good candidate for phage therapy treatment of coral disease.

Cohen, Yossi; Joseph Pollock, F; Rosenberg, Eugene; Bourne, David G

2013-01-01

252

Septicaemia secondary to Vibrio vulnifi cus cellulitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnifi cus is a naturally occurring, salt-water bacteria found in estuarine and coastal waters worldwide. It prefers low salinity and warm water temperatures for optimum growth. Infection from Vibrio vulnifi cus is uncommon, although it has been reported from many locations (e.g. southern United States of America, Israel, Republic of Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Spain, Turkey). It can be serious

Peter R Lewis; Lucy Cook; Janet Drewitt-Smith; Adam D McEwen; Linda V Granger

253

Isolation of bacteriophage infectious for Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine phage isolates infectious for Vibrio vulnificus and falling into four morphological groups were isolated from estuarine waters collected in Louisiana. Of the 60 V. vulnificus strains tested, 87% were susceptible to one or more of the isolates. With the exception of V. fluvialis, Vibrio species other than vulnificus were resistant to infection. A spectrum of enteric bacterial strains were

William Pelon; Ronald J. Siebeling; Janet Simonson; Ronald B. Luftig

1995-01-01

254

Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106)  

PubMed Central

Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.

Temperton, Ben; Thomas, Simon; Tait, Karen; Parry, Helen; Emery, Matt; Allen, Mike; Quinn, John; MacGrath, John; Gilbert, Jack

2011-01-01

255

Significant role of an exocellular protease in utilization of heme by Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed Central

Clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio vulnificus could grow in a synthetic medium supplemented with heme protein as the iron source. Protease-deficient mutants of the bacterium could not utilize any of the heme proteins in the synthetic medium, but the addition of purified V. vulnificus protease restored their growth. The protease digested all heme proteins tested and elicited heme liberation from the proteins. Furthermore, the induction of protease production by the heme proteins was demonstrated. These observations suggest that protease contributes to the efficient utilization of heme by V. vulnificus.

Nishina, Y; Miyoshi, S; Nagase, A; Shinoda, S

1992-01-01

256

Characterization of htrB and msbB Mutants of the Light Organ Symbiont Vibrio fischeri?  

PubMed Central

Bacterial lipid A is an important mediator of bacterium-host interactions, and secondary acylations added by HtrB and MsbB can be critical for colonization and virulence in pathogenic infections. In contrast, Vibrio fischeri lipid A stimulates normal developmental processes in this bacterium's mutualistic host, Euprymna scolopes, although the importance of lipid A structure in this symbiosis is unknown. To further examine V. fischeri lipid A and its symbiotic function, we identified two paralogs of htrB (designated htrB1 and htrB2) and an msbB gene in V. fischeri ES114 and demonstrated that these genes encode lipid A secondary acyltransferases. htrB2 and msbB are found on the Vibrio “housekeeping” chromosome 1 and are conserved in other Vibrio species. Mutations in htrB2 and msbB did not impair symbiotic colonization but resulted in phenotypic alterations in culture, including reduced motility and increased luminescence. These mutations also affected sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate, kanamycin, and polymyxin, consistent with changes in membrane permeability. Conversely, htrB1 is located on the smaller, more variable vibrio chromosome 2, and an htrB1 mutant was wild-type-like in culture but appeared attenuated in initiating the symbiosis and was outcompeted 2.7-fold during colonization when mixed with the parent. These data suggest that htrB2 and msbB play conserved general roles in vibrio biology, whereas htrB1 plays a more symbiosis-specific role in V. fischeri.

Adin, Dawn M.; Phillips, Nancy J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Apicella, Michael A.; Ruby, Edward G.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.; Hall, Daniel B.; Stabb, Eric V.

2008-01-01

257

Deletion of Integron-Associated Gene Cassettes Impact on the Surface Properties of Vibrio rotiferianus DAT722  

PubMed Central

Background The integron is a genetic recombination system that catalyses the acquisition of genes on mobilisable elements called gene cassettes. In Vibrio species, multiple acquired gene cassettes form a cassette array that can comprise 1–3% of the bacterial genome. Since 75% of these gene cassettes contain genes encoding proteins of uncharacterised function, how the integron has driven adaptation and evolution in Vibrio species remains largely unknown. A feature of cassette arrays is the presence of large indels. Using Vibrio rotiferianus DAT722 as a model organism, the aim of this study was to determine how large cassette deletions affect vibrio physiology with a view to improving understanding into how cassette arrays influence bacterial host adaptation and evolution. Methodology/Principal Findings Biological assays and proteomic techniques were utilised to determine how artificially engineered deletions in the cassette array of V. rotiferianus DAT722 affected cell physiology. Multiple phenotypes were identified including changes to growth and expression of outer membrane porins/proteins and metabolic proteins. Furthermore, the deletions altered cell surface polysaccharide with Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance on whole cell polysaccharide identifying changes in the carbohydrate ring proton region indicating that gene cassette products may decorate host cell polysaccharide via the addition or removal of functional groups. Conclusions/Significance From this study, it was concluded that deletion of gene cassettes had a subtle effect on bacterial metabolism but altered host surface polysaccharide. Deletion (and most likely rearrangement and acquisition) of gene cassettes may provide the bacterium with a mechanism to alter its surface properties, thus impacting on phenotypes such as biofilm formation. Biofilm formation was shown to be altered in one of the deletion mutants used in this study. Reworking surface properties may provide an advantage to the bacterium’s interactions with organisms such as bacteriophage, protozoan grazers or crustaceans.

Rapa, Rita A.; Shimmon, Ronald; Djordjevic, Steven P.; Stokes, H. W.; Labbate, Maurizio

2013-01-01

258

Non-Lethal Heat Shock Increased Hsp70 and Immune Protein Transcripts but Not Vibrio Tolerance in the White-Leg Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Non-lethal heat shock boosts bacterial and viral disease tolerance in shrimp, possibly due to increases in endogenous heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and/or immune proteins. To further understand the mechanisms protecting shrimp against infection, Hsp70 and the mRNAs encoding the immune-related proteins prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and hemocyanin were studied in post-larvae of the white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, following a non-lethal heat shock. As indicated by RT-qPCR, a 30 min abrupt heat shock increased Hsp70 mRNA in comparison to non-heated animals. Immunoprobing of western blots and quantification by ELISA revealed that Hsp70 production after heat shock was correlated with enhanced Hsp70 mRNA. proPO and hemocyanin mRNA levels were augmented, whereas peroxinectin and crustin mRNA levels were unchanged following non-lethal heat shock. Penaeidin mRNA was decreased by all heat shock treatments. Thirty min abrupt heat shock failed to improve survival of post-larvae in a standardized challenge test with Vibrio harveyi, indicating that under the conditions of this study, L. vannamei tolerance to Vibrio infection was influenced neither by Hsp70 accumulation nor the changes in the immune-related proteins, observations dissimilar to other shrimp species examined.

Loc, Nguyen Hong; MacRae, Thomas H.; Musa, Najiah; Bin Abdullah, Muhd Danish Daniel; Abdul Wahid, Mohd. Effendy; Sung, Yeong Yik

2013-01-01

259

Non-lethal heat shock increased hsp70 and immune protein transcripts but not Vibrio tolerance in the white-leg shrimp.  

PubMed

Non-lethal heat shock boosts bacterial and viral disease tolerance in shrimp, possibly due to increases in endogenous heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and/or immune proteins. To further understand the mechanisms protecting shrimp against infection, Hsp70 and the mRNAs encoding the immune-related proteins prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and hemocyanin were studied in post-larvae of the white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, following a non-lethal heat shock. As indicated by RT-qPCR, a 30 min abrupt heat shock increased Hsp70 mRNA in comparison to non-heated animals. Immunoprobing of western blots and quantification by ELISA revealed that Hsp70 production after heat shock was correlated with enhanced Hsp70 mRNA. proPO and hemocyanin mRNA levels were augmented, whereas peroxinectin and crustin mRNA levels were unchanged following non-lethal heat shock. Penaeidin mRNA was decreased by all heat shock treatments. Thirty min abrupt heat shock failed to improve survival of post-larvae in a standardized challenge test with Vibrio harveyi, indicating that under the conditions of this study, L. vannamei tolerance to Vibrio infection was influenced neither by Hsp70 accumulation nor the changes in the immune-related proteins, observations dissimilar to other shrimp species examined. PMID:24039886

Loc, Nguyen Hong; Macrae, Thomas H; Musa, Najiah; Bin Abdullah, Muhd Danish Daniel; Abdul Wahid, Mohd Effendy; Sung, Yeong Yik

2013-09-09

260

The fur-iron complex modulates expression of the quorum-sensing master regulator, SmcR, to control expression of virulence factors in Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

The gene vvpE, encoding the virulence factor elastase, is a member of the quorum-sensing regulon in Vibrio vulnificus and displays enhanced expression at high cell density. We observed that this gene was repressed under iron-rich conditions and that the repression was due to a Fur (ferric uptake regulator)-dependent repression of smcR, a gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator with similarity to luxR in Vibrio harveyi. A gel mobility shift assay and a footprinting experiment demonstrated that the Fur-iron complex binds directly to two regions upstream of smcR (-82 to -36 and -2 to +27, with respect to the transcription start site) with differing affinities. However, binding of the Fur-iron complex is reversible enough to allow expression of smcR to be induced by quorum sensing at high cell density under iron-rich conditions. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fur fails to bind either region and the expression of smcR is regulated solely by quorum sensing. These results suggest that two biologically important environmental signals, iron and quorum sensing, converge to direct the expression of smcR, which then coordinates the expression of virulence factors. PMID:23716618

Kim, In Hwang; Wen, Yancheng; Son, Jee-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Kim, Kun-Soo

2013-05-28

261

The Vibrio cholerae Genome Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute For Genomic Research (TIGR) has placed online the latest versions of the DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. The TIGR site offers data access via a hypertext Gene Identification Table, DNA Molecule Information, Gene Name Search, Locus Search, RNA Gene Table, Paralogous Gene Families, a Sequence Search, or by download (FTP). Originally published by Heidelberg et al. in the journal Nature [106:477-483, 2000], further information is available to users via links at the TIGR site.

262

Novel approach of using homoserine lactone-degrading and poly-?-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating bacteria to protect Artemia from the pathogenic effects of Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homoserine lactone-degrading and poly-?-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating enrichment cultures (ECs) were obtained using glycerol as C-source and homoserine lactones as N-source, at a high C\\/N ratio (78). The kinetics of acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) degradation was established and the poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) content of the obtained ECs was determined. The ECs were characterised through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the main bands were

Dang To Van Cam; Nguyen Van Hao; Kristof Dierckens; Tom Defoirdt; Nico Boon; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier

2009-01-01

263

Predatory bacteria as natural modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seawater and oysters.  

PubMed

This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. The pathogens examined were V. vulnificus strain VV1003, V. parahaemolyticus O1:KUT (KUT stands for K untypeable), and V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and corresponding O3:K6 mutants deficient in the toxRS virulence regulatory gene or the rpoS alternative stress response sigma factor gene. Vibrios were selected for streptomycin resistance, which facilitated their enumeration. In natural seawater, oysters bioconcentrated each Vibrio strain for 24 h at 22°C; however, counts rapidly declined to near negligible levels by 72 h. In natural seawater with or without oysters, vibrios decreased more than 3 log units to near negligible levels within 72 h. Neither toxRS nor rpoS had a significant effect on Vibrio levels. In autoclaved seawater, V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 counts increased 1,000-fold over 72 h. Failure of the vibrios to persist in natural seawater and oysters led to screening of the water samples for VPB on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 host cells. Many VPB, including Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs; Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Bacteriovorax stolpii) and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus-like predators, were detected by plaque assay and electron microscopic analysis of plaque-purified isolates from Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Hawaiian seawater. When V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 was added to natural seawater containing trace amounts of VPB, Vibrio counts diminished 3 log units to nondetectable levels, while VPB increased 3 log units within 48 h. We propose a new paradigm that VPB are important modulators of pathogenic vibrios in seawater and oysters. PMID:22904049

Richards, Gary P; Fay, Johnna P; Dickens, Keyana A; Parent, Michelle A; Soroka, Douglas S; Boyd, E Fidelma

2012-08-17

264

Vibrio Vulnificus Health Education Kit - Timeline  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Following your initial outreach to the media you should be prepared for a possible resurgence in interest in the event of a Vibrio vulnificus illness or ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/healtheducators

265

Necrotising fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of necrotising fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus is described. The need for early recognition and aggressive surgical treatment are highlighted, and the necrotising infections due to V vulnificus described in the published work are reviewed.

M L Woo; W G Patrick; M T Simon; G L French

1984-01-01

266

Simplified Bulk Growth of Vibrio foetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE cultivation of Vibrio foetus in quantity, for antigen production, is generally regarded as rather difficult and costly. Commonly employed culture media are semi-solid `Thiol' (Difco) and Brucella broth (`Albimi'), both containing 0.1 per cent agar.

Dusan Jakovljevic; H. E. R. Beattie

1960-01-01

267

Methodological aspects of assessing phagocytosis of Vibrio anguillarum by leucocytes of gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata L.) by flow cytometry and electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we optimize a flow cytometric method for evaluating the phagocytic activity of leucocytes in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) and characterize the phagocytic cells observed. Optimal conditions were established for the fluorescein-labelling and analysis of the bacterium Vibrio anguillarum by flow cytometry. Head-kidney leucocytes were incubated with the heat-killed fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled bacteria for different periods, during

M. A. Esteban; V. Mulero; J. Muñoz; J. Meseguer

1998-01-01

268

Induction of Fimbriated Vibrio cholerae O139  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several fimbriated phases of Vibrio cholerae O139 strains were selectively induced and compared immuno- logically and biochemically with those of V. cholerae O1. Fimbrial antigens were detected on the surfaces of vibrio cells colonizing the epithelial cells of a rabbit small intestine. Convalescent-phase sera from six individuals infected with V. cholerae O139 revealed the development of antibody against the fimbrillin.

MASAHIKO EHARA; MAMORU IWAMI; YOSHIO ICHINOSE; TOSHIYA HIRAYAMA; M. JOHN ALBERT; R. BRADLEY SACK; SHOICHI SHIMODORI

1998-01-01

269

Geovibrio ferrireducens, a phylogenetically distinct dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, phylogenetically distinct, dissimilatory, Fe(III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from surface sediment of a hydrocarbon-contaminated\\u000a ditch. The isolate, designated strain PAL-1, was an obligately anaerobic, non-fermentative, motile, gram-negative vibrio.\\u000a PAL-1 grew in a defined medium with acetate as electron donor and ferric pyrophosphate, ferric oxyhydroxide, ferric citrate,\\u000a Co(III)-EDTA, or elemental sulfur as sole electron acceptor. PAL-1 also used proline, hydrogen,

John D. Coates; Ramon A. Rossello-Mora; Wolfgang Ludwig; Karl Heinz Schleifer; Derek R. Lovley; Michael J. McInerney

1996-01-01

270

Incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteriophages and other Vibrio bacteriophages in marine samples.  

PubMed

Vibrio bacteriophages were isolated by enrichment from 177 of 643 samples of marine molluscan shellfish, crustaceans, seawater, and sediments. The predominant bacteriophage types isolated were specific for some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A high frequency of phage isolations was also observed with strains of agar-digesting vibrios (21 of 56) and psychrophilic vibrios (14 of 72) that were originally isolated from non-shellfish growing areas. No bacteriophages were isolated against V. alginolyticus and only rarely for V. anguillarum even though these were the two most abundant species found in near-shore environments. No V. cholerae phages were isolated. It was also determined from quantitative studies on the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) obtained from two environments in Washington and Oregon that the titers of V. parahaemolyticus bacteriophages increased with increasing seasonal water temperatures and that this was proportional to the increase in numbers of mesophilic vibrios and not with the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus. Titers of V. parahaemolyticus bacteriophages occasionally exceeded 10(6) per g of oyster during the summer months. Specific V. parahaemolyticus bacteriophages were also isolated from market seafoods and other marine samples that originated in cold environments where no mesophilic vibrios are expected to be found. The possibility that V. parahaemolyticus bacteriophages originate from Vibrio spp. other than V. parahaemolyticus and the role of these bacteriophages in the ecology of marine vibrios are discussed. PMID:727781

Baross, J A; Liston, J; Morita, R Y

1978-09-01

271

A survey of oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) in New Zealand for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbiological survey was conducted to determine the levels of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected from commercial growing areas in the North Island, New Zealand.The survey was intended to be geographically representative of commercial growing areas of Pacific oysters in New Zealand, while selecting the time frame most likely

M. Kirs; A. DePaola; R. Fyfe; J. L. Jones; J. Krantz; A. Van Laanen; D. Cotton; M. Castle

2011-01-01

272

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

PubMed Central

Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

2010-01-01

273

Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae sepsis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome.  

PubMed

Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae is an encapsulated bacterium, ubiquitous in the marine environment and generally considered to be non-pathogenic. However, it is known to cause diarrheal illness, wound infection, and bacteremia in immunocompromised hosts. Here we have describe non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae sepsis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome following exposure to sea-water. Interestingly, the exposure occurred remotely 4 months prior to the onset of nephrotic syndrome. The occurrence of florid sepsis after a prolonged interval from the time of exposure is peculiar and raises the possibility of an association between occult Vibrio sepsis and nephrotic syndrome. PMID:24049279

George, N; Fredrick, F; Mohapatra, A; Veeraraghavan, B; Kakde, S T; Valson, A T; Basu, G

2013-09-01

274

VIBRIO VULNIFICUS EDUCATION WORKSHOP FOR THE FLORIDA MEDICAL COMMUNITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Vibrio vulnificus is a naturally occurring microorganism that occurs warm marine and estuarine waters. The bacteria are concentrated by filter feeding shellfish. Certain immunocompromised individuals and those with liver disease can be adversely, even fatally affected by Vibrio...

275

BAM Media M191: Vibrio vulnificus sucrose Agar (VPSA)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M191: Vibrio vulnificus sucrose Agar (VPSA). May 2004. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M191 Vibrio vulnificus sucrose Agar (VPSA). ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

276

Vibrio biofilms: so much the same yet so different.  

PubMed

Vibrios are natural inhabitants of aquatic environments and form symbiotic or pathogenic relationships with eukaryotic hosts. Recent studies reveal that the ability of vibrios to form biofilms (i.e. matrix-enclosed, surface-associated communities) depends upon specific structural genes (flagella, pili and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis) and regulatory processes (two-component regulators, quorum sensing and c-di-GMP signaling). Here, we compare and contrast mechanisms and regulation of biofilm formation by Vibrio species, with a focus on Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio fischeri. Although many aspects are the same, others differ dramatically. Crucial questions that remain to be answered regarding the molecular underpinnings of Vibrio biofilm formation are also discussed. PMID:19231189

Yildiz, Fitnat H; Visick, Karen L

2009-02-21

277

Vibrio biofilms: so much the same yet so different  

PubMed Central

Vibrios are natural inhabitants of aquatic environments and form symbiotic or pathogenic relationships with eukaryotic hosts. Recent studies reveal that the ability of vibrios to form biofilms – i.e. matrix-enclosed, surface-associated communities– depends upon specific structural genes (flagella, pili, and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis) and regulatory processes (two-component regulators, quorum sensing, and c-di-GMP signaling). In this review, we compare and contrast mechanisms and regulation of biofilm formation by Vibrio species, with a focus on Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio fischeri. While many aspects are the same, others differ dramatically. Critical questions that remain to be answered regarding the molecular underpinnings of Vibrio biofilm formation will also be discussed.

Yildiz, Fitnat H.; Visick, Karen L.

2009-01-01

278

BAM Media M190: Vibrio vulnificus Agar (VVA)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M190: Vibrio vulnificus Agar (VVA). May 2004. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M190 Vibrio vulnificus Agar (VVA). Solution 1. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

279

Control of luminous Vibrio species in penaeid aquaculture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crisis has arisen in the prawn industry in many regions with the onset of disease, with Vibrio spp. being important major causal factors. The value of adding selected strains of Bacillus as probiotic bacteria to control the Vibrio is shown by comparing farms in Indonesia using the same water sources, which contained luminous Vibrio strains. The farms that did

D. J. W Moriarty

1998-01-01

280

The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system displays antimicrobial properties  

PubMed Central

The acute diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae. A type VI secretion system (T6SS), which is structurally similar to the bacteriophage cell-puncturing device, has been recently identified in V. cholerae and is used by this organism to confer virulence toward phagocytic eukaryotes, such as J774 murine macrophages and Dictyostelium discoideum. We tested the interbacterial virulence of V. cholerae strain V52, an O37 serogroup with a constitutively active T6SS. V52 was found to be highly virulent toward multiple Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium, and caused up to a 100,000-fold reduction in E. coli survival. Because the T6SS-deficient mutants V52?vasK and V52?vasH showed toxicity defects that could be complemented, virulence displayed by V. cholerae depends on a functional T6SS. V. cholerae V52 and strains of the O1 serogroup were resistant to V52, suggesting that V. cholerae has acquired immunity independently of its serogroup. We hypothesize that the T6SS, in addition to targeting eukaryotic host cells, confers toxicity toward other bacteria, providing a means of interspecies competition to enhance environmental survival. Thus, the V. cholerae T6SS may enhance the survival of V. cholerae in its aquatic ecosystem during the transmission of cholera and between epidemics.

MacIntyre, Dana L.; Miyata, Sarah T.; Kitaoka, Maya; Pukatzki, Stefan

2010-01-01

281

Quorum sensing in the squid-Vibrio symbiosis.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing is an intercellular form of communication that bacteria use to coordinate group behaviors such as biofilm formation and the production of antibiotics and virulence factors. The term quorum sensing was originally coined to describe the mechanism underlying the onset of luminescence production in cultures of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Luminescence and, more generally, quorum sensing are important for V. fischeri to form a mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The symbiosis is established when V. fischeri cells migrate via flagella-based motility from the surrounding seawater into a specialized structure injuvenile squid called the light organ. The cells grow to high cell densities within the light organ where the infection persists over the lifetime of the animal. A hallmark of a successful symbiosis is the luminescence produced by V. fischeri that camouflages the squid at night by eliminating its shadow within the water column. While the regulatory networks governing quorum sensing are critical for properly regulating V. fischeri luminescence within the squid light organ, they also regulate luminescence-independent processes during symbiosis. In this review, we discuss the quorum-sensing network of V. fischeri and highlight its impact at various stages during host colonization. PMID:23965960

Verma, Subhash C; Miyashiro, Tim

2013-08-07

282

Utilization of hemin and hemoglobin by Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2.  

PubMed Central

The eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is able to use hemoglobin (Hb) and hemin (Hm) to reverse iron limitation. In this stud, the adjuvant effect of both compounds on eel pathogenicity has been evaluated and confirmed. Further, we have studied the heme-iron acquisition mechanism displayed by this bacterium. Whole cells were capable of binding Hb and Hm, independently of (i) iron levels in growth medium and (ii) the presence of polysaccharide capsules on bacterial surface. The Hb- and Hm-binding capacity was retained by the outer membrane protein (OMP) fraction and was abolished after proteolytic digestion of OMP samples. Western blotting (immunoblotting) of denatured OMPs revealed that two major protein bands of 36 and 32 kDa were involved in both Hm and Hb binding. The expression of these proteins was not affected by iron levels. In addition, V. vulnificus biotype 2 produced extracellular proteases, not regulated by iron, that were active against native Hb. In conclusion, the overall data suggest that the eel pathogen V. vulnificus biotype 2 can obtain iron by means of a mechanism which involves a direct interaction between the heme moiety and constitutive OMPs.

Fouz, B; Mazoy, R; Lemos, M L; del Olmo, M J; Amaro, C

1996-01-01

283

Mechanisms of iron regulation of luminescence in Vibrio fischeri  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of luciferase is repressed by iron in the symbiotic bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Possible mechanisms of iron regulation of luciferase synthesis were tested with V. fischeri and with Escherichia coli clones containing plasmids carrying V. fischeri luminescence genes. Experiments were conducted in complete medium with and without the synthetic iron chelator ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid). Comparison of the effect of ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid) and another growth inhibitor, (2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide), showed that iron repression is not due to inhibition of growth. A quantitative bioassay for autoinducer was developed with E. coli HB101 containing pJE411, a plasmid carrying V. fischeri luminescence genes with a transcriptional fusion between luxI and E. coli lacZ. Bioassay experiments showed no effect of iron on either autoinducer activity or production (before induction) or transcription of the lux operon. Ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid) did not affect luciferase induction in E. coli strains with wild-type iron assimilation or impaired iron assimilation bearing pJE202 (a plasmid with functional V. fischeri lux genes), suggesting that the genes responsible for the iron effect are missing or substituted in these clones. Two models are consistent with the data: (i) iron represses autoinducer transport, and (ii) iron acts through an autoinduction-independent regulatory system (e.g., an iron repressor).

Haygood, M.G.; Nealson, K.H.

1985-04-01

284

The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system displays antimicrobial properties.  

PubMed

The acute diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae. A type VI secretion system (T6SS), which is structurally similar to the bacteriophage cell-puncturing device, has been recently identified in V. cholerae and is used by this organism to confer virulence toward phagocytic eukaryotes, such as J774 murine macrophages and Dictyostelium discoideum. We tested the interbacterial virulence of V. cholerae strain V52, an O37 serogroup with a constitutively active T6SS. V52 was found to be highly virulent toward multiple Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium, and caused up to a 100,000-fold reduction in E. coli survival. Because the T6SS-deficient mutants V52?vasK and V52?vasH showed toxicity defects that could be complemented, virulence displayed by V. cholerae depends on a functional T6SS. V. cholerae V52 and strains of the O1 serogroup were resistant to V52, suggesting that V. cholerae has acquired immunity independently of its serogroup. We hypothesize that the T6SS, in addition to targeting eukaryotic host cells, confers toxicity toward other bacteria, providing a means of interspecies competition to enhance environmental survival. Thus, the V. cholerae T6SS may enhance the survival of V. cholerae in its aquatic ecosystem during the transmission of cholera and between epidemics. PMID:20974937

MacIntyre, Dana L; Miyata, Sarah T; Kitaoka, Maya; Pukatzki, Stefan

2010-10-25

285

The low-salt stimulon in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-associated bacterial gastroenteritis and is a moderately halophilic, salt-requiring bacterium. Global gene expression profiles of V. parahaemolyticus grown under 2% and 0.66% NaCl were compared to define the low-salt stimulon. The ectABC-lysC operon for synthesis of the compatible solute ectoine, as well as three compatible solute transport systems, namely ProU (glycine betaine), OpuD1 (glycine betaine) and Pot2 (spermidine), was up-regulated under 2% NaCl relative to 0.66% NaCl. The 2% NaCl condition favored the inducible expression of OmpW, OmpN and OmpA2, while repressed the expression of OmpA1, OmpU and VP1008. These results indicated that, to master the hyperosmotic stress of saline environments, V. parahaemolyticus might not only accumulate osmoprotectants through uptake or endogenous synthesis of compatible solutes, but also remodel its profiles of outer membrane protein to restore its cell membrane. The above differentially regulated genes will provide novel candidates for the further investigation of the molecular mechanisms of osmoadaptation in V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:19954854

Yang, Lei; Zhan, Lingjun; Han, Haihong; Gao, He; Guo, Zhaobiao; Qin, Chuan; Yang, Ruifu; Liu, Xiumei; Zhou, Dongsheng

2009-11-17

286

Cholera and other vibrio-associated diarrhoeas*  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there have been major advances in knowledge of Vibrio species and related organisms that are responsible for diarrhoeal diseases, particularly V. cholerae O-Group 1 (epidemic strains), atypical V. cholerae O-Group 1, non-O-Group 1 V. cholerae (non-epidemic strains), V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and ”Group F vibrios”. This article reviews the important new information, and identifies gaps in our knowledge, on aspects such as the epidemiology and bacteriology of vibrios, environmental surveillance for V. cholerae O-Group 1, phage and vibriocin typing of V. cholerae, and cholera enterotoxin, and its relevance to pathogenesis, immunity, and vaccine development. In each of these areas priorities for further research are recommended.

1980-01-01

287

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

This review highlighted the following: (i) pathogenic mechanism of the thermostable direct hemolysin produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, especially on its cardiotoxicity, (ii) heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, especially structure–activity relationship of heat-stable enterotoxin, (iii) RNA N-glycosidase activity of Vero toxins (VT1 and VT2) produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, (iv) discovery of Vibrio cholerae O139, (v) isolation of new variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor that carries classical ctxB, and production of high concentration of cholera toxin by these strains, and (vi) conversion of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae to culturable state by co-culture with eukaryotic cells.

TAKEDA, Yoshifumi

2011-01-01

288

The Vibrio Pathogenicity Island of Epidemic Vibrio cholerae Forms Precise Extrachromosomal Circular Excision Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vibrio pathogenicity island (VPI) in epidemic Vibrio cholerae is an essential virulence gene cluster. Like many pathogenicity islands, the VPI has at its termini a phage-like integrase gene (int), a transposase-like gene (vpiT), and phage-like attachment (att) sites, and is inserted at a tRNA-like locus (ssrA). We report that the VPI precisely excises from the chromosome and that its

C. Rajanna; J. Wang; D. Zhang; Zheng Xu; A. Ali; Y.-M. Hou; D. K. R. Karaolis

2003-01-01

289

Predicting the Distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Chesapeake Bay: A Vibrio cholerae Case Study  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a naturally occurring inhabitant of the Chesapeake Bay and serves as a predictor for other clinically important vibrios, including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. A system was constructed to predict the likelihood of the presence of V. cholerae in surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay, with the goal to provide forecasts of the occurrence of this and related pathogenic Vibrio spp. Prediction was achieved by driving an available multivariate empirical habitat model estimating the probability of V. cholerae within a range of temperatures and salinities in the Bay, with hydrodynamically generated predictions of ambient temperature and salinity. The experimental predictions provided both an improved understanding of the in situ variability of V. cholerae, including identification of potential hotspots of occurrence, and usefulness as an early warning system. With further development of the system, prediction of the probability of the occurrence of related pathogenic vibrios in the Chesapeake Bay, notably V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, will be possible, as well as its transport to any geographical location where sufficient relevant data are available.

Magny, Guillaume Constantin de; Long, Wen; Brown, Christopher W.; Hood, Raleigh R.; Huq, Anwar; Murtugudde, Raghu; Colwell, Rita R.

2010-01-01

290

Vibrio mimicus diarrhea following ingestion of raw turtle eggs.  

PubMed Central

Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of diarrhea associated with Vibrio mimicus were identified in 33 hospitalized patients referred to the Costa Rican National Diagnostic Laboratory Network between 1991 and 1994. The relevant symptoms presented by patients included abundant watery diarrhea, vomiting, and severe dehydration that required intravenous Dhaka solution in 83% of patients but not fever. Seroconversion against V. mimicus was demonstrated in four patients, from whom acute- and convalescent-phase sera were obtained. Those sera did not show cross-reaction when tested against Vibrio cholerae O1 strain VC-12. All the V. mimicus isolates from these cases produced cholera toxin (CT) and were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics. Attempts to isolate this bacterium from stool samples of 127 healthy persons were not successful. Consumption of raw turtle eggs was recalled by 11 of the 19 (58%) individuals interviewed. All but two V. mimicus diarrheal cases were sporadic. These two had a history of a common source of turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) eggs for consumption, and V. mimicus was isolated from eggs from the same source (a local market). Among the strains, variations in the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were observed. None of the strains recovered from market turtle eggs nor the four isolates from river water showed CT production. Further efforts to demonstrate the presence of CT-producing V. mimicus strains in turtle eggs were made. Successful results were obtained when nest eggs were tested. In this case, it was possible to isolate CT- and non-CT-producing strains, even from the same egg. For CT detection we used PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Y-1 cell assay, obtaining a 100% correlation between ELISA and PCR results. Primers Col-1 and Col-2, originally described as specific for the V. cholerae O1 ctxA gene, also amplified a 302-bp segment with an identical restriction map from V. mimicus. These results have important implications for epidemiological surveillance in tropical countries where turtle eggs are used for human consumption, serving as potential sources of cholera-like diarrhea.

Campos, E; Bolanos, H; Acuna, M T; Diaz, G; Matamoros, M C; Raventos, H; Sanchez, L M; Sanchez, O; Barquero, C

1996-01-01

291

Adhesion of Vibrio cholerae to Granular Starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease caused by specific serogroups of Vibrio cholerae that are pathogenic to humans. Cholera can become epidemic and deadly without adequate medical care. Appropriate rehydration therapy can reduce the mortality rate from as much as 50% of the affected individuals to <1%. Thus, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is an important measure in the treatment of

Hanan Gancz; Orly Niderman-Meyer; Meir Broza; Yechezkel Kashi; Eyal Shimoni

2005-01-01

292

Differential Expression of Vibrio vulnificus Capsular Polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a human pathogen whose virulence has been associated with the expression of capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Multiple CPS types have been described; however, virulence does not appear to correlate with a particular CPS composition. Reversible-phase variation for opaque and translucent colony morpholo- gies is characterized by changes in CPS expression, as suggested by electron microscopy of cells stained

ANITA C. WRIGHT; JAN L. POWELL; MIKE K. TANNER; LYNNE A. ENSOR; ARTHUR B. KARPAS; J. GLENN MORRIS; MARCELO B. SZTEIN

1999-01-01

293

Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is capable of causing severe and often fatal infections in susceptible individuals. It causes two distinct disease syndromes, a primary septicemia and necrotizing wound infections. This review discusses the interaction of environmental conditions, host factors, and bacterial virulence determinants that contribute to the epidemiology and pathogenesis of V. vulnificus.

Mark S. Strom; Rohinee N. Paranjpye

2000-01-01

294

Visualization of bioluminescence as a marker of gene expression in rhizobium-infected soybean root nodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linked structural genes lux A and lux B, encoding bacterial luciferase of a marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, were fused with the nitrogenase nifD promoter from Bradyrhizobium japonicum and with the P1 promoter of pBR322. Both fusions were integrated into the B. japonicum chromosome by site-specific recombination. Soybean roots infected with the two types of rhizobium transconjugants formed nitrogen-fixing nodules

D. J. O'Kane; W. L. Lingle; J. E. Wampler; M. Legocki; R. P. Legocki; A. A. Szalay

1988-01-01

295

Salmonella typhimurium Recognizes a Chemically Distinct Form of the Bacterial Quorum-Sensing Signal AI2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial populations use cell-cell communication to coordinate community-wide regulation of processes such as biofilm formation, virulence, and bioluminescence. This phenomenon, termed quorum sensing, is mediated by small molecule signals known as autoinducers. While most autoinducers are species specific, autoinducer-2 (AI-2), first identified in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, is produced and detected by many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The crystal

Stephen T. Miller; Karina B. Xavier; Shawn R. Campagna; Michiko E. Taga; Martin F. Semmelhack; Bonnie L. Bassler; Frederick M. Hughson

2004-01-01

296

Proteolytic Enzymes of a Marine Bacterium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Characteristics and proteases of a marine bacterium (B-30) isolated in Harrington Sound, Bermuda, were studied. This bacterium was selected because it resembled Aeromonas proteolytica in many ways. Nutritional, biochemical, and morphological features of t...

T. Sipos J. R. Merkel

1967-01-01

297

RECA EXPRESSION IN RESPONSE TO SOLAR UVR IN THE MARINE BACTERIUM VIBRIO NATRIEGENS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Medicinal plants may carry residuals of environmentally persistent pesticides or assimilate heavy metals in varying degrees. Several factors may influence contaminant accumulation, including species, level and duration of contaminant exposure, and topography. As part of a program...

298

The secret languages of coevolved symbioses: Insights from the Euprymna scolopes-Vibrio fischeri symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Recent research on a wide variety of systems has demonstrated that animals generally coevolve with their microbial symbionts. Although such relationships are most often established anew each generation, the partners associate with fidelity, i.e., they form exclusive alliances within the context of rich communities of non-symbiotic environmental microbes. The mechanisms by which this exclusivity is achieved and maintained remain largely unknown. Studies of the model symbiosis between the Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes and the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri provide evidence that the interplay between evolutionarily conserved features of the innate immune system, most notably MAMP/PRR interactions, and a specific feature of this association, i.e., luminescence, are critical for development and maintenance of this association. As such, in this partnership and perhaps others, symbiotic exclusivity is mediated by the synergism between a general animal-microbe ‘language’ and a ‘secret language’ that is decipherable only by the specific partners involved.

McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A. C.; Gillette, Amani A.; Peyer, Suzanne M.; Harvie, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

299

Broad Spectrum Pro-Quorum-Sensing Molecules as Inhibitors of Virulence in Vibrios  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-cell communication process that relies on the production and detection of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. QS allows bacteria to perform collective activities. Vibrio cholerae, a pathogen that causes an acute disease, uses QS to repress virulence factor production and biofilm formation. Thus, molecules that activate QS in V. cholerae have the potential to control pathogenicity in this globally important bacterium. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen, we identified eleven molecules that activate V. cholerae QS: eight molecules are receptor agonists and three molecules are antagonists of LuxO, the central NtrC-type response regulator that controls the global V. cholerae QS cascade. The LuxO inhibitors act by an uncompetitive mechanism by binding to the pre-formed LuxO-ATP complex to inhibit ATP hydrolysis. Genetic analyses suggest that the inhibitors bind in close proximity to the Walker B motif. The inhibitors display broad-spectrum capability in activation of QS in Vibrio species that employ LuxO. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first molecules identified that inhibit the ATPase activity of a NtrC-type response regulator. Our discovery supports the idea that exploiting pro-QS molecules is a promising strategy for the development of novel anti-infectives.

Ng, Wai-Leung; Perez, Lark; Cong, Jianping; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2012-01-01

300

Population dynamics of Vibrio spp. associated with marine sponge microcosms.  

PubMed

Vibrio is a diverse genus of marine-associated bacteria with at least 74 species and more expected as additional marine ecospheres are interrogated. This report describes a phylogenetic reconstruction of Vibrio isolates derived from one such unique ecosystem, marine sponges (Phylum Porifera) collected from depths of 150 to 1242 feet. 16S rRNA gene sequencing along with molecular typing of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions clustered many sponge-associated Vibrio (spp) with current known species. That is, several benthic Vibrio species commensal with Porifera sponges seemed genetically linked to vibrios associated with coastal or shallow-water communities, signalling a panmictic population structure among seemingly ecologically disparate strains. Conversely, phylogenetic analysis provided evidence for at least two novel Vibrio speciation events within this specific sponge microcosm. Collectively, these findings earmark this still relatively unknown environment as a bastion of taxonomic and phylogenetic variability for the genus and probably other bacterial taxa. PMID:20596073

Hoffmann, Maria; Fischer, Markus; Ottesen, Andrea; McCarthy, Peter J; Lopez, Jose V; Brown, Eric W; Monday, Steven R

2010-07-01

301

Plankton composition and environmental factors contribute to Vibrio seasonality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plankton represent a nutrient-rich reservoir capable of enriching Vibrio species, which can include human pathogens, at higher densities than the surrounding water column. To better understand the relationship between vibrios and plankton, the partitioning of culturable vibrios, on TCBS, between free living and plankton associated (63–200- and >200-?m-size fractions) was monitored over a 1-year period in coastal waters of Georgia,

Jeffrey W Turner; Brooks Good; Dana Cole; Erin K Lipp

2009-01-01

302

Vibrio parahaemolyticus Risk Assessment - I. ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Chapter IV: Exposure Assessment (Harvest, Post-Harvest, Consumption). Data: ... Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw oysters at consumption. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/risksafetyassessment

303

Transformation Experiment Using Bioluminescence Genes of "Vibrio fischeri."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bioluminescence transformation experiments show students the excitement and power of recombinant DNA technology. This laboratory experiment utilizes two plasmids of "Vibrio fischeri" in a transformation experiment. (LZ)|

Slock, James

1995-01-01

304

DNA-uptake machinery of naturally competent Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Natural competence for transformation is a mode of horizontal gene transfer that is commonly used by bacteria to take up DNA from their environment. As part of this developmental program, so-called competence genes, which encode the components of a DNA-uptake machinery, are expressed. Several models have been proposed for the DNA-uptake complexes of competent bacteria, and most include a type IV (pseudo)pilus as a core component. However, cell-biology-based approaches to visualizing competence proteins have so far been restricted to Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we report the visualization of a competence-induced pilus in the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We show that piliated cells mostly contain a single pilus that is not biased toward a polar localization and that this pilus colocalizes with the outer membrane secretin PilQ. PilQ, on the other hand, forms several foci around the cell and occasionally colocalizes with the dynamic cytoplasmic-traffic ATPase PilB, which is required for pilus extension. We also determined the minimum competence regulon of V. cholerae, which includes at least 19 genes. Bacteria with mutations in those genes were characterized with respect to the presence of surface-exposed pili, DNA uptake, and natural transformability. Based on these phenotypes, we propose that DNA uptake in naturally competent V. cholerae cells occurs in at least two steps: a pilus-dependent translocation of the incoming DNA across the outer membrane and a pilus-independent shuttling of the DNA through the periplasm and into the cytoplasm. PMID:24127573

Seitz, Patrick; Blokesch, Melanie

2013-10-14

305

Effects of Polyamines on Vibrio cholerae Virulence Properties  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the severe enteric disease cholera. To cause cholera the bacterium must be able to synthesize both cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) which mediates autoagglutination and is required for colonization of the small intestine. Only a few environmental signals have been shown to regulate V. cholerae virulence gene expression. Polyamines, which are ubiquitous in nature, and have been implicated in regulating virulence gene expression in other bacteria, have not been extensively studied for their effect on V. cholerae virulence properties. The objective of this study was to test the effect of several polyamines that are abundant in the human intestine on V. cholerae virulence properties. All of the polyamines tested inhibited autoagglutination of V. cholerae O1 classical strain in a concentration dependent manner. Putrescine and cadaverine decreased the synthesis of the major pilin subunit, TcpA, spermidine increased its production, and spermine had no effect. Putrescine and spermidine led to a decrease and increase, respectively, on the relative abundance of TCP found on the cell surface. Spermine led to a small reduction in cholera toxin synthesis whereas none of the other polyamines had an effect. The polyamines did not affect pili bundling morphology, but caused a small reduction in CTX? transduction, indicating that the TCP present on the cell surface may not be fully functional. We hypothesize the inhibition of autoagglutination is likely to be caused by the positively charged amine groups on the polyamines electrostatically disrupting the pili-pili interactions which mediate autoagglutination. Our results implicate that polyamines may have a protective function against colonization of the small intestine by V. cholerae.

Goforth, John Bradley; Walter, Nicholas Emmanuel; Karatan, Ece

2013-01-01

306

Effects of polyamines on Vibrio cholerae virulence properties.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the severe enteric disease cholera. To cause cholera the bacterium must be able to synthesize both cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) which mediates autoagglutination and is required for colonization of the small intestine. Only a few environmental signals have been shown to regulate V. cholerae virulence gene expression. Polyamines, which are ubiquitous in nature, and have been implicated in regulating virulence gene expression in other bacteria, have not been extensively studied for their effect on V. cholerae virulence properties. The objective of this study was to test the effect of several polyamines that are abundant in the human intestine on V. cholerae virulence properties. All of the polyamines tested inhibited autoagglutination of V. cholerae O1 classical strain in a concentration dependent manner. Putrescine and cadaverine decreased the synthesis of the major pilin subunit, TcpA, spermidine increased its production, and spermine had no effect. Putrescine and spermidine led to a decrease and increase, respectively, on the relative abundance of TCP found on the cell surface. Spermine led to a small reduction in cholera toxin synthesis whereas none of the other polyamines had an effect. The polyamines did not affect pili bundling morphology, but caused a small reduction in CTX? transduction, indicating that the TCP present on the cell surface may not be fully functional. We hypothesize the inhibition of autoagglutination is likely to be caused by the positively charged amine groups on the polyamines electrostatically disrupting the pili-pili interactions which mediate autoagglutination. Our results implicate that polyamines may have a protective function against colonization of the small intestine by V. cholerae. PMID:23593304

Goforth, John Bradley; Walter, Nicholas Emmanuel; Karatan, Ece

2013-04-10

307

Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains  

SciTech Connect

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V. cholerae clones.

Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

2009-01-01

308

Benthic ecology of Vibrio spp. and pathogenic Vibrio species in a coastal Mediterranean environment (La Spezia Gulf, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a 16-month in situ study to investigate the ecology of Vibrio spp. and pathogenic Vibrio species in coastal sediments of the Mediterranean Sea, employing multiple-regression analysis to reveal the major environmental\\u000a factors controlling their occurrence in the benthic environment. In addition, association between vibrios and sediment-inhabiting\\u000a meiofauna, which is a major component of benthic ecosystems, was investigated.

Luigi Vezzulli; Elisabetta Pezzati; Mariapaola Moreno; Mauro Fabiano; Luigi Pane; Carla Pruzzo

2009-01-01

309

Vibrio species as agents of elasmobranch disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Vibrio species identified as V. damsela and a new sucrose-positive Vibrio sp., V. carchariae sp. nov., were simultaneously isolated from a brown shark which died while being held in captivity at a large aquarium. Pathogenicity studies were subsequently conducted using a variety of elasmobranchs, including smooth dogfish and lemon sharks. Both bacterial strains proved pathogenic, causing death in nearly all of the elasmobranch hosts challenged. Virulence studies revealed that both bacterial strains were cytotoxic for Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. The V. damsela strain was highly cytotoxic causing Y-1 cellular damage at culture supernatant dilutions up to 1 : 128. Both strains were hemolytic, but neither exhibited the Kanagawa phenomenon. They were both capable of urea hydrolysis, an interesting trait, considering that elasmobranchs retain large (ca 300 milliosmolal) urea concentration in their tissue.

Grimes, D. J.; Colwell, R. R.; Stemmler, J.; Hada, H.; Maneval, D.; Hetrick, F. M.; May, E. B.; Jones, R. T.; Stoskopf, M.

1984-03-01

310

Effect of water treatment on the growth potential of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seawater.  

PubMed

In laboratory experiments we added Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus to bottles with seawater previously treated by filtration, UV, chlorine or ozone. The purpose was to investigate the influence of different treatment techniques on the growth potential of these bacteria in simulated ballast water tanks. Residual oxidants were removed before inoculation, and the bottles were incubated at 21 ± 1 °C. The growth potential of the vibrios was investigated in two different experimental setups, i.e. in presence and absence of added natural microorganisms. In general, V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus rapidly lost their culturability after inoculation and storage in untreated seawater, but showed increased survival or growth in the treated water. Highest growth was observed in water previously exposed to high concentrations of ozone. Addition of natural microorganisms reduced the growth of V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:23127287

Wennberg, Aina Charlotte; Tryland, Ingun; Østensvik, Øyvin; Secic, Indira; Monshaugen, Marte; Liltved, Helge

2012-10-23

311

Small Molecule Signaling Systems in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of Asiatic cholera, still remains a major public health problem in most of the developing countries.\\u000a Despite tremendous effort given in developing immunotherapeutics, availability of the whole genome sequence, and transcriptional\\u000a profiling data, still a safe, effective, and long-lasting cholera vaccine is not available. One probable reason could be that\\u000a our knowledge about stress adaptive

Rupak K. Bhadra; Sangita Shah; Bhabatosh Das

312

Extended serotyping scheme for Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-seven new O serogroups have been added to the existing serotyping scheme ofVibrio cholerae to extend the scheme from O84 to O140. Prominent new additions were serogroups O139 and O140. The reference strain of O139 was isolated from a patient from an epidemic of cholera-like diarrhea in Madras, Southern India. Serogroup O140 was assigned to a group ofV. cholerae strains

Toshio Shimada; Eiji Arakawa; Kenichiro Itoh; Tadayuki Okitsu; Akiyoshi Matsushima; Yoshio Asai; Shiro Yamai; Tamotsu Nakazato; G. Balakrish Nair; M. John Albert; Yoshifumi Takeda

1994-01-01

313

Nontoxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Causing Acute Gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

We investigated the virulence properties of four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains causing acute gastroenteritis following consumption of indigenous mussels in Italy. The isolated strains were cytotoxic and adhesive but, surprisingly, lacked tdh, trh, and type three secretion system 2 (T3SS2) genes. We emphasize that nontoxigenic V. parahaemolyticus can induce acute gastroenteritis, highlighting the need for more investigation of the pathogenicity of this microorganism.

Leoni, Francesca; Serra, Roberto; Serracca, Laura; Decastelli, Lucia; Rocchegiani, Elena; Masini, Laura; Canonico, Cristina; Talevi, Giulia; Carraturo, Antonio

2012-01-01

314

Molecular Epidemiology of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae of the O1 or O139 serogroups, the causative agents of cholera, undergo frequent genetic changes leading to the origination of diverse clones, which can\\u000a be differentiated using defined genetic markers. Developments in DNA analysis techniques have introduced several new typing\\u000a methods that have enabled to study the epidemiology of V. cholerae on a larger global perspective. Molecular

Shah M. Faruque; G. Balakrish Nair; Yoshifumi Takeda

315

Colonial opacity variations among the choleragenic vibrios.  

PubMed

Cultures of Vibrio cholerae 01, biotype El Tor, from the current epidemic of cholera in the Western Hemisphere, and of the new V. cholerae serogroup O139, from the current outbreak in India and Bangladesh, revealed marked colonial heterogeneity when received by the authors. By comparison with reference colony types, using a stereoscope and transmitted oblique illumination, colonies of approximately 10 different degrees of opacity could be distinguished. In contrast, strains freshly isolated from patients and rapidly and carefully preserved were more homogeneous although still differentiable by this technique. These (and older) observations prompted the questions: (1) why is a V. cholerae colony opaque or translucent? and (2) what benefit is it to the vibrios to vary their colonial appearance? The observed changes in colonial opacity, which are reversible, are sometimes (rarely) accompanied by changes in virulence for infant rabbits and, more frequently, by other phenotypic variations including the ability to produce poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate inclusion bodies on glycerol-containing medium, the degree of encapsulation in 0139, changes in outer-membrane proteins, alteration in lipopolysaccharide structure, changes in expression of glycolytic pathways, and differences in ability to survive under adverse conditions. Colonial variations in choleragenic vibrios are phenotypically multifactorial. The genetic mechanisms(s) underlying the observed phenotypic changes remain to be defined. PMID:9025275

Finkelstein, R A; Boesman-Finkelstein, M; Sengupta, D K; Page, W J; Stanley, C M; Phillips, T E

1997-01-01

316

Ligand-Induced Asymmetry in Histidine Sensor Kinase Complex Regulates Quorum Sensing  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Bacteria sense their environment using receptors of the histidine sensor kinase family, but how kinase activity is regulated by ligand binding is not well understood. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a secreted signaling molecule originally identified in studies of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, regulates quorum-sensing responses and allows communication between different bacterial species. AI-2 signal transduction in V. harveyi requires the integral membrane receptor LuxPQ, comprised of periplasmic binding protein (LuxP) and histidine sensor kinase (LuxQ) subunits. Combined X-ray crystallographic and functional studies show that AI-2 binding causes a major conformational change within LuxP, which in turn stabilizes a quaternary arrangement in which two LuxPQ monomers are asymmetrically associated. We propose that formation of this asymmetric quaternary structure is responsible for repressing the kinase activity of both LuxQ subunits and triggering the transition of V. harveyi into quorum-sensing mode.

Neiditch, Matthew B.; Federle, Michael J.; Pompeani, Audra J.; Kelly, Robert C.; Swem, Danielle L.; Jeffrey, Philip D.; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Hughson, Frederick M.

2012-01-01

317

Ligand-Induced Asymmetry in Histidine Sensor Kinase Complex Regulates Quorum Sensing  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria sense their environment using receptors of the histidine sensor kinase family, but how kinase activity is regulated by ligand binding is not well understood. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a secreted signaling molecule originally identified in studies of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, regulates quorum-sensing responses and allows communication between different bacterial species. AI-2 signal transduction in V. harveyi requires the integral membrane receptor LuxPQ, comprised of periplasmic binding protein (LuxP) and histidine sensor kinase (LuxQ) subunits. Combined X-ray crystallographic and functional studies show that AI-2 binding causes a major conformational change within LuxP, which in turn stabilizes a quaternary arrangement in which two LuxPQ monomers are asymmetrically associated. We propose that formation of this asymmetric quaternary structure is responsible for repressing the kinase activity of both LuxQ subunits and triggering the transition of V. harveyi into quorum-sensing mode.

Neiditch,M.; Federle, M.; Pompeani, A.; Kelly, R.; Swem, D.; Jeffrey, P.; Bassler, B.; Hughson, F.

2006-01-01

318

Going against the grain: chemotaxis and infection in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotaxis is the process by which motile cells move in a biased manner both towards favourable and away from unfavourable environments. The requirement of this process for infection has been examined in several bacterial pathogens, including Vibrio cholerae. The single polar flagellum of Vibrio species is powered by a sodium-motive force across the inner membrane, and can rotate to produce

Susan M. Butler; Andrew Camilli

2005-01-01

319

Taxonomic Study and Amended Description of Vibrio costicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 54 moderately halophilic vibrios, which were isolated from several salterns located in different areas of Spain, were examined by using a wide range of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and nutritional tests. The resulting data, together with data for four reference Vibrio costicola strains including the type strain V. costicolu NCMB 701, and other marine species that were similarly

M. T. GARCIA; A. VENTOSA; F. RUIZ-BERRAQUERO; M. KOCUR

1987-01-01

320

Temperature regulation of virulence factors in the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface temperatures (SST) are rising because of global climate change. As a result, pathogenic Vibrio species that infect humans and marine organisms during warmer summer months are of growing concern. Coral reefs, in particular, are already experiencing unprecedented degradation worldwide due in part to infectious disease outbreaks and bleaching episodes that are exacerbated by increasing SST. For example, Vibrio

Nikole E Kimes; Christopher J Grim; Wesley R Johnson; Nur A Hasan; Ben D Tall; Mahendra H Kothary; Hajnalka Kiss; A Christine Munk; Roxanne Tapia; Lance Green; Chris Detter; David C Bruce; Thomas S Brettin; Rita R Colwell; Pamela J Morris

2012-01-01

321

Diversity and Dynamics of a North Atlantic Coastal Vibrio Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrios are ubiquitous marine bacteria that have long served as models for heterotrophic processes and have received renewed attention because of the discovery of increasing numbers of facultatively pathogenic strains. Because the occurrence of specific vibrios has frequently been linked to the temperature, salinity, and nutrient status of water, we hypothesized that seasonal changes in coastal water bodies lead to

Janelle R. Thompson; Mark A. Randa; Luisa A. Marcelino; Aoy Tomita-Mitchell; Eelin Lim; Martin F. Polz

2004-01-01

322

Metalloprotease Is Not Essential for Vibrio vulnificus Virulence in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work suggested that a metalloprotease, Vvp, may be a virulence factor of Vibrio vulnificus, which causes severe wound infection and septicemia in humans. To determine the role of Vvp in pathogenesis, we isolated an isogenic protease-deficient (PD) mutant of Vibrio vulnificus by in vivo allelic exchange. This PD mutant was as virulent as its parental strain in mice infected

CHUNG-PING SHAO; LIEN-I HOR

2000-01-01

323

The regulator HlyU, the repeat-in-toxin gene rtxA1, and their roles in the pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus infections  

PubMed Central

HlyU is a master regulator that plays an essential role in the virulence of the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of HlyU regulation in this organism is its positive control of the expression of the repeat-in-toxin (RtxA1) gene, one of the most important virulence factors accounting for the fulminating and damaging nature of V. vulnificus infections. In this work, we reviewed the latest studies of RtxA1 in this bacterium and highlight the mechanism of gene regulation of rtxA1 expression by HlyU under a broader gene regulatory network.

Liu, Moqing; Crosa, Jorge H

2012-01-01

324

The regulator HlyU, the repeat-in-toxin gene rtxA1, and their roles in the pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus infections.  

PubMed

HlyU is a master regulator that plays an essential role in the virulence of the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of HlyU regulation in this organism is its positive control of the expression of the repeat-in-toxin (RtxA1) gene, one of the most important virulence factors accounting for the fulminating and damaging nature of V. vulnificus infections. In this work, we reviewed the latest studies of RtxA1 in this bacterium and highlight the mechanism of gene regulation of rtxA1 expression by HlyU under a broader gene regulatory network. PMID:23233275

Liu, Moqing; Crosa, Jorge H

2012-11-28

325

Pertinence of indicator organisms and sampling variables to Vibrio concentrations.  

PubMed

Vibrio-indicator relationships and effects of day, depth, and tidal levels on the density of vibrios enumerated by the most probable number technique were investigated. Counts of vibrios taken monthly from Apalachicola Bay, Fla., were either negatively correlated or showed no correlation with counts of indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, enterococci, fecal coliforms, and total coliforms). Water samples collected on two days from the surface and bottom over a complete tidal cycle on each day were analyzed for differences in vibrio concentrations. Concentrations of vibrios in samples taken on different days, in those taken at different depths, and in those taken at different tidal levels were significantly different, indicating that these factors need to be taken into account in health-related studies. PMID:7986059

Koh, E G; Huyn, J H; LaRock, P A

1994-10-01

326

Pertinence of indicator organisms and sampling variables to Vibrio concentrations.  

PubMed Central

Vibrio-indicator relationships and effects of day, depth, and tidal levels on the density of vibrios enumerated by the most probable number technique were investigated. Counts of vibrios taken monthly from Apalachicola Bay, Fla., were either negatively correlated or showed no correlation with counts of indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, enterococci, fecal coliforms, and total coliforms). Water samples collected on two days from the surface and bottom over a complete tidal cycle on each day were analyzed for differences in vibrio concentrations. Concentrations of vibrios in samples taken on different days, in those taken at different depths, and in those taken at different tidal levels were significantly different, indicating that these factors need to be taken into account in health-related studies.

Koh, E G; Huyn, J H; LaRock, P A

1994-01-01

327

In vivo resuscitation, and virulence towards mice, of viable but nonculturable cells of Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium responsible for 95% of all seafood-related deaths in the United States. The bacterium occurs naturally in molluscan shellfish, and ingestion of raw oysters is typically the source of human infection. V. vulnificus is also known to enter a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, wherein the cells are no longer culturable on routine plating media but can be shown to remain viable. Whether or not this human pathogen remains virulent when entering the VBNC state has not been definitively demonstrated. In this study, the VBNC state was induced through a temperature downshift to 5 degrees C, with cells becoming nonculturable (< 0.1 CFU/ml) within 7 days. As they became nonculturable, virulence was determined by employing an iron overload mouse model. At the point of nonculturability (7 days), injections of the diluted microcosm population resulted in death when < 0.04 CFU was inoculated, although > 10(5) cells in the VBNC state were present in the inoculum. Culturable cells of V. vulnificus, with identification confirmed through PCR, were recovered from the blood and peritoneal cavities of mice which had died from injections of cells present in the VBNC state for at least 3 days. Thus, our data suggest that cells of V. vulnificus remain virulent, at least for some time, when present in the VBNC state and are capable of causing fatal infections following in vivo resuscitation. Our studies also indicate, however, that virulence decreases significantly as cells enter the VBNC state, which may account, at least to some extent, for the decrease in infections caused by this bacterium during winter months.

Oliver, J D; Bockian, R

1995-01-01

328

Pierce's Disease of Grapevines: Isolation of the Causal Bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium has been consistently isolated from grapevines with Pierce's disease. Grapevines inoculated with the bacterium developed Pierce's disease, and the bacterium was reisolated from the plants. The bacterium was serologically and ultrastructurally indistinguishable from the one in naturally infected plants, and also indistinguishable from a bacterium isolated from almonds with almond leaf scorch disease.

Michaei J. Davis; Alex H. Purcell; Sherman V. Thomson

1978-01-01

329

Relationship between ion requirements for respiration and membrane transport in a marine bacterium.  

PubMed Central

Intact cells of the marine bacterium Alteromonas haloplanktis 214 oxidized NADH, added to the suspending medium, by a process which was stimulated by Na+ or Li+ but not K+. Toluene-treated cells oxidized NADH at three times the rate of untreated cells by a mechanism activated by Na+ but not by Li+ or K+. In the latter reaction, K+ spared the requirement for Na+. Intact cells of A. haloplanktis oxidized ethanol by a mechanism stimulated by either Na+ or Li+. The uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid by intact cells of A. haloplanktis in the presence of either NADH or ethanol as an oxidizable substrate required Na+, and neither Li+ nor K+ could replace it. The results indicate that exogenous and endogenous NADH and ethanol are oxidized by A. haloplanktis by processes distinguishable from one another by their requirements for alkali metal ions and from the ion requirements for membrane transport. Intact cells of Vibrio natriegens and Photobacterium phosphoreum oxidized NADH, added externally, by an Na+-activated process, and intact cells of Vibrio fischeri oxidized NADH, added externally, by a K+-activated process. Toluene treatment caused the cells of all three organisms to oxidize NADH at much faster rates than untreated cells by mechanisms which were activated by Na+ and spared by K+.

Khanna, G; DeVoe, L; Brown, L; Niven, D F; MacLeod, R A

1984-01-01

330

A Comparative Genomics, Network-Based Approach to Understanding Virulence in Vibrio cholerae? †  

PubMed Central

Our views of the genes that drive phenotypes have generally been built up one locus or operon at a time. However, a given phenotype, such as virulence, is a multilocus phenomenon. To gain a more comprehensive view of the genes and interactions underlying a phenotype, we propose an approach that incorporates information from comparative genomics and network biology and illustrate it by examining the virulence phenotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor N16961. We assessed the associations among the virulence-associated proteins from Vibrio cholerae and all the other proteins from this bacterium using a functional-association network map. In the context of this map, we were able to identify 262 proteins that are functionally linked to the virulence-associated genes more closely than is typical of the proteins in this strain and 240 proteins that are functionally linked to the virulence-associated proteins with a confidence score greater than 0.9. The roles of these genes were investigated using functional information from online data sources, comparative genomics, and the relationships shown by the protein association map. We also incorporated core proteome data from the family Vibrionaceae; 35% of the virulence-associated proteins have orthologs among the 1,822 orthologous groups of proteins in the core proteome, indicating that they may be dual-role virulence genes or encode functions that have value outside the human host. This approach is a valuable tool in searching for novel functional associations and in investigating the relationship between genotype and phenotype.

Gu, Jianying; Wang, Yufeng; Lilburn, Timothy

2009-01-01

331

Pyrosequencing-Based Comparative Genome Analysis of Vibrio vulnificus Environmental Isolates  

PubMed Central

Between 1996 and 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control reported that the only category of food-borne infections increasing in frequency were those caused by members of the genus Vibrio. The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus is a ubiquitous inhabitant of estuarine waters, and is the number one cause of seafood-related deaths in the US. Many V. vulnificus isolates have been studied, and it has been shown that two genetically distinct subtypes, distinguished by 16S rDNA and other gene polymorphisms, are associated predominantly with either environmental or clinical isolation. While local genetic differences between the subtypes have been probed, only the genomes of clinical isolates have so far been completely sequenced. In order to better understand V. vulnificus as an agent of disease and to identify the molecular components of its virulence mechanisms, we have completed whole genome shotgun sequencing of three diverse environmental genotypes using a pyrosequencing approach. V. vulnificus strain JY1305 was sequenced to a depth of 33×, and strains E64MW and JY1701 were sequenced to lesser depth, covering approximately 99.9% of each genome. We have performed a comparative analysis of these sequences against the previously published sequences of three V. vulnificus clinical isolates. We find that the genome of V. vulnificus is dynamic, with 1.27% of genes in the C-genotype genomes not found in the E- genotype genomes. We identified key genes that differentiate between the genomes of the clinical and environmental genotypes. 167 genes were found to be specifically associated with environmental genotypes and 278 genes with clinical genotypes. Genes specific to the clinical strains include components of sialic acid catabolism, mannitol fermentation, and a component of a Type IV secretory pathway VirB4, as well as several other genes with potential significance for human virulence. Genes specific to environmental strains included several that may have implications for the balance between self-preservation under stress and nutritional competence.

Morrison, Shatavia S.; Williams, Tiffany; Cain, Aurora; Froelich, Brett; Taylor, Casey; Baker-Austin, Craig; Verner-Jeffreys, David; Hartnell, Rachel; Oliver, James D.; Gibas, Cynthia J.

2012-01-01

332

Function and Regulation of Vibrio campbellii Proteorhodopsin: Acquired Phototrophy in a Classical Organoheterotroph  

PubMed Central

Proteorhodopsins (PRs) are retinal-binding photoproteins that mediate light-driven proton translocation across prokaryotic cell membranes. Despite their abundance, wide distribution and contribution to the bioenergy budget of the marine photic zone, an understanding of PR function and physiological significance in situ has been hampered as the vast majority of PRs studied to date are from unculturable bacteria or culturable species that lack the tools for genetic manipulation. In this study, we describe the presence and function of a horizontally acquired PR and retinal biosynthesis gene cluster in the culturable and genetically tractable bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio campbellii. Pigmentation analysis, absorption spectroscopy and photoinduction assays using a heterologous over-expression system established the V. campbellii PR as a functional green light absorbing proton pump. In situ analyses comparing PR expression and function in wild type (WT) V. campbellii with an isogenic ?pR deletion mutant revealed a marked absence of PR membrane localization, pigmentation and light-induced proton pumping in the ?pR mutant. Comparative photoinduction assays demonstrated the distinct upregulation of pR expression in the presence of light and PR-mediated photophosphorylation in WT cells that resulted in the enhancement of cellular survival during respiratory stress. In addition, we demonstrate that the master regulator of adaptive stress response and stationary phase, RpoS1, positively regulates pR expression and PR holoprotein pigmentation. Taken together, the results demonstrate facultative phototrophy in a classical marine organoheterotrophic Vibrio species and provide a salient example of how this organism has exploited lateral gene transfer to further its adaptation to the photic zone.

Wang, Zheng; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J.; Soto, Carissa M.; Rahbar, Amir M.; Robertson, Kelly L.; Lebedev, Nikolai; Vora, Gary J.

2012-01-01

333

Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain  

SciTech Connect

The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} and 3.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} to 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound ({sup 3}H)bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations.

Frischer, M.E.; Thurmond, J.M.; Paul, J.H. (Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg (USA))

1990-11-01

334

Clearing mechanisms of Vibrio vulnificus biotype I in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

Vibrio species' infections are a common sequelae to environmental stress or other disease processes in shrimp, but the mechanism by which the shrimp eliminate the bacteria is poorly understood. In this study, the penetration, fate and the clearing of V. vulnificus were investigated in Penaeus monodon. A bacterial disease isolate from a shrimp farm was identified as V. vulnificus biotype I. Polyclonal antiserum was raised in rabbits against the bacterium and the specificity was verified by ELISA and immunoblot against a range of Vibrio spp. and other gram-negative bacteria. The bacteria were then administered to P. monodon juveniles by injection, immersion and oral intubation. An indirect immunoperoxidase technique was employed in a time course study to follow the bacteria and bacterial antigens in the tissue of the shrimp. Bacteria were cleared by a common route, regardless of the method of administration. Observations in immersion challenge were similar to a combination of those for oral and injection challenges. With immersion, bacteria entered the shrimp through damaged cuticle or via insertion points of cuticular setae. Shortly after entry, whole bacterial cells were observed in the haemolymph and connective tissue. They were either phagocytosed by haemocytes, or broken down outside host cells. Haemocytes containing bacterial cells or antigens (HCB) were observed in the connective tissue and haemolymph. HCB accumulated around the hepatopancreas, midgut, midgut-caecum, gills, heart and lymphoid organ. Free bacterial antigens also accumulated in the heart and lymphoid organ. Bacteria entering through the mouth by oral intubation or immersion were broken down so that only soluble or very fine particles entered the hepatopancreas. Bacterial antigens passed through the hepatopancreas into the haemolymph. Antigens were initially observed in the haemolymph sinuses and subsequently accumulated in the heart and lymphoid organ. Bacterial antigens were released from the shrimp, initially through the gills and subsequently through hepatopancreatic B-cells, branchial podocytes and sub-cuticular podocytes. PMID:12005240

Alday-Sanz, V; Roque, A; Turnbull, J F

2002-03-11

335

Structure of Vibrio cholerae ToxT reveals a mechanism for fatty acid regulation of virulence genes  

SciTech Connect

Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. In order for V. cholerae to cause disease, it must produce two virulence factors, the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT), whose expression is controlled by a transcriptional cascade culminating with the expression of the AraC-family regulator, ToxT. We have solved the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of ToxT, which reveals folds in the N- and C-terminal domains that share a number of features in common with AraC, MarA, and Rob as well as the unexpected presence of a buried 16-carbon fatty acid, cis-palmitoleate. The finding that cis-palmitoleic acid reduces TCP and CT expression in V. cholerae and prevents ToxT from binding to DNA in vitro provides a direct link between the host environment of V. cholerae and regulation of virulence gene expression.

Lowden, Michael J.; Skorupski, Karen; Pellegrini, Maria; Chiorazzo, Michael G.; Taylor, Ronald K.; Kull, F. Jon (Dartmouth)

2010-03-04

336

Protection against Vibrio alginolyticus in crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus immunized with a DNA vaccine containing the ompW gene.  

PubMed

The outer membrane proteins of Vibrio alginolyticus play an important role in the virulence of the bacterium and are potential candidates for vaccine development. In the present study, the ompW gene was cloned, expressed and purified. A DNA vaccine was constructed by inserting the ompW gene into a pcDNA plasmid. Crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus (Bloch) were injected intramuscularly with the recombinant plasmid pcDNA-ompW. The expression of the DNA vaccine was detected in gill, head kidney, heart, liver, spleen and injection site muscle of crimson snapper by RT-PCR 7 and 28 d post-vaccination. The ELISA results demonstrated that the DNA vaccine produced an observable antibody response in all sera of the vaccinated fish. In addition, crimson snapper immunized with the DNA vaccine showed a relative percentage survival (RPS) of 92.53%, indicating effective protection against V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:24062551

Cai, Shuang-Hu; Lu, Yi-Shan; Jian, Ji-Chang; Wang, Bei; Huang, Yu-Cong; Tang, Ju-Fen; Ding, Yu; Wu, Zao-He

2013-09-24

337

A conserved GTPase YchF of Vibrio vulnificus is involved in macrophage cytotoxicity, iron acquisition, and mouse virulence.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus, a highly virulent marine bacterium, causes serious wound infections and fatal septicemia in many areas of the world. To identify V. vulnificus genes required for killing macrophages, we made an insertional mutant library of V. vulnificus and screened it for reduced macrophage cytotoxicity. One mutant defective in macrophage cytotoxicity had an insertion in ychF, a gene encoding a putative GTPase. In addition to reduced cytotoxicity, this mutant had attenuated growth in iron-limited medium and reduced virulence in iron-overloaded mice. The ychF mutation also down-regulated the transcription level of the rtxA1 gene. RtxA1 mutants significantly decreased cytotoxicity to macrophages compared to wild-type bacteria. Overall, these results show that YchF elicits macrophage cytotoxicity through an rtxA1 pathway and is important for mouse virulence. PMID:21570909

Chen, Yu-Chung; Chung, Ya-Ting

2011-05-13

338

Adherence assays and Slime production of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

In this study we investigated the phenotypic slime production of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, food-borne pathogens, using a Congo red agar plate assay. Furthermore, we studied their ability to adhere to abiotic surfaces and Vero cells line. Our results showed that only V. alginolyticus ATCC 17749 was a slime-producer developing almost black colonies on Congo red agar plate. Adherence to glace tube showed that all V. alginolyticus strains were more adherent than V. parahaemolyticus. Only V. alginolyticus ATCC 17749 was found to be able to form biofilm on polystyrene microplate wells (OD570 = 0.532). Adherence to Vero cells showed that all tested strains were non adherent after 30 min, however after 60 min all the studied strains become adherent. The percentage of adherence ranged from1.23% to 4.66%.

Ben Abdallah, Fethi; Chaieb, Kamel; Zmantar, Tarek; Kallel, Hela; Bakhrouf, Amina

2009-01-01

339

Oleic Acid Produced by a Marine Vibrio spp. Acts as an Anti-Vibrio parahaemolyticus Agent  

PubMed Central

It is known that some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are responsible for gastroenteric diseases caused by the ingestion of marine organisms contaminated with these bacterial strains. Organic products that show inhibitory activity on the growth of the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were extracted from a Vibrio native in the north of Chile. The inhibitory organic products were isolated by reverse phase chromatography and permeation by Sephadex LH20, and were characterized by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The results showed that the prevailing active product is oleic acid, which was compared with standards by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These active products might be useful for controlling the proliferation of pathogenic clones of V. parahaemolyticus.

Leyton, Yanett; Borquez, Jorge; Darias, Jose; Cueto, Mercedes; Diaz-Marrero, Ana R.; Riquelme, Carlos

2011-01-01

340

A survey of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in New Zealand for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

A microbiological survey was conducted to determine the levels of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected from commercial growing areas in the North Island, New Zealand. The survey was intended to be geographically representative of commercial growing areas of Pacific oysters in New Zealand, while selecting the time frame most likely to coincide with the increased abundance of pathogenic vibrio species. Vp was detected in 94.8% of oyster samples examined (n=58) with a geometric mean concentration of 99.3 MPN/g, while Vv was detected in 17.2% of oyster samples examined with a geometric mean concentration of 7.4 MPN/g. The frequency of Vp positive samples was 1.7 fold greater than reported in a study conducted three decades ago in New Zealand. Potentially virulent (tdh positive) Vp was detected in two samples (3.4%, n=58) while no trh (another virulence marker) positive samples were detected. 16S rRNA genotype could be assigned only to 58.8% of Vv isolates (8:1:1 A:B:AB ratio, n=10). There was a good agreement [98.2% of Vp (n=280) and 94.4% of Vv (n=18) isolates] between molecular tests and cultivation based techniques used to identify Vibrio isolates and there was a significant (R(2)=0.95, P<0.001, n=18) linear relationship between the MPN estimates by real-time PCR and cultivation. There was no significant correlation between any of the environmental parameters tested and Vp or Vv concentrations. PMID:21501884

Kirs, M; Depaola, A; Fyfe, R; Jones, J L; Krantz, J; Van Laanen, A; Cotton, D; Castle, M

2011-03-25

341

A K+ Uptake Protein, TrkA, Is Required for Serum, Protamine, and Polymyxin B Resistance in Vibrio vulnificus  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus, a highly virulent marine bacterium, is the causative agent of both serious wound infections and fatal septicemia in many areas of the world. To identify the genes required for resistance to human serum, we constructed a library of transposon mutants of V. vulnificus and screened them for hypersensitivity to human serum. Here we report that one of the isolated serum-susceptible mutants had a mutation in an open reading frame identified as trkA, a gene encoding an amino acid sequence showing high identity to that of TrkA of Vibrio alginolyticus, a protein required for the uptake of potassium. A trkA isogenic mutant was constructed via insertional inactivation, and it was significantly more easily killed by human serum, protamine, or polymyxin B than was the wild type. At K+ concentrations of 1 to 20 mM, this isogenic mutant showed attenuated growth compared to the wild-type strain. In addition, infection experiments demonstrated virulence attenuation when this mutant was administered intraperitoneally or subcutaneously to both normal and iron-treated mice, indicating that TrkA may modulate the transport of potassium and resistance to host innate defenses and that it is important for virulence in mice.

Chen, Yu-Chung; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Chang, Chun-Chin; Jeang, Chii-Ling; Chang, Ming-Chung

2004-01-01

342

Genotypic Characterization of Vibrio vulnificus Clinical Isolates in Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives Vibrio vunificus is known to cause septicemia and severe wound infections in patients with chronic liver diseases or an immuno-compromised condition. We carried out the molecular characterization of V. vulnificus isolates from human Vibrio septicemia cases based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using NotI and SfiI. Methods and Results PFGE was used to characterize a total of 78 strains from clinical cases after NotI or SfiI digestion. The geographical distribution of PFGE patterns for the strains from the southern part of Korea, a high-risk region for Vibrio septicemia, indicated that the isolates from southeastern Korea showed a comparatively higher degree of homology than those from southwestern Korea. Conclusions We report the genetic distribution of V. vulnficus isolated from Vibrio septicemia cases during 2000–2004 in Korea. This method has potential use as a subspecies-typing tool for V. vulnificus strains isolated from distant geographic regions.

Jeong, Hye Sook; Kim, Jun Young; Jeon, Se Mi; Park, Mi Sun; Kim, Seong Han

2011-01-01

343

21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

344

Vibrio vulnificus infection in Southern Brazil - Case report*  

PubMed Central

The genus Vibrio is a member of the family Vibrionaceae, and among their disease-causing species, Vibrio vulnificus, a lactose-positive gram-negative bacillus, is one of the most virulent pathogen of the noncholerae vibrios. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male patient, who was using immunosuppressive therapy, admitted to the hospital for liver transplantation. Twelve hours later, the patient presented high fever, myalgia, anuria and erythematous plaques on lower limbs, of rapid growth and proximal progression. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone, meropenem and oxacillin, however he expired within 30 hours. Blood cultures showed growth of a gram-negative bacillus, which was later identified as Vibrio vulnificus.

Franca, Joao Cesar Beenke; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Sanfelice, Elise; Polido, Diego; Gentili, Arthur; Marques, Fabricio

2013-01-01

345

Natural Transformation of a Marine 'Vibrio' Species by Plasmid DNA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of thirty marine and estuarine bacterial isolates was examined for the ability to naturally transform with plasmid DNA. One isolate from Tampa Bay, Florida, identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, successfully incorporated and maintained the broad...

W. H. Jeffrey J. H. Paul G. J. Stewart

1990-01-01

346

Vibrio parahaemolyticus Risk Assessment – Appendix ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Plot of Influential Variability Parameters on log 10 Risk of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Illness per Serving of Raw Oysters from the Mid-Atlantic ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/risksafetyassessment

347

Vibrio vulnificus infection in Southern Brazil -- case report.  

PubMed

The genus Vibrio is a member of the family Vibrionaceae, and among their disease-causing species, Vibrio vulnificus, a lactose-positive gram-negative bacillus, is one of the most virulent pathogen of the noncholerae vibrios. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male patient, who was using immunosuppressive therapy, admitted to the hospital for liver transplantation. Twelve hours later, the patient presented high fever, myalgia, anuria and erythematous plaques on lower limbs, of rapid growth and proximal progression. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone, meropenem and oxacillin, however he expired within 30 hours. Blood cultures showed growth of a gram-negative bacillus, which was later identified as Vibrio vulnificus. PMID:23793212

França, João César Beenke; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Sanfelice, Elise; Polido, Diego; Gentili, Arthur; Marques, Fabricio

348

Letter to Health Professionals Regarding the Risk of Vibrio ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Letter to Health Professionals Regarding the Risk of Vibrio vulnificus Septicemia Associated with the Consumption of Raw Oysters. June 2005. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/healthcareprofessionals

349

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans  

PubMed Central

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin) and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts.

Rivas, Amable J.; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

2013-01-01

350

Quorum Sensing-Dependent Biofilms Enhance Colonization in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. By an incompletely understood developmental process, V. cholerae forms complex surface-associated communities called biofilms. Here we show that quorum sensing-deficient mutants of V. cholerae produce thicker biofilms than those formed by wild-type bacteria. Microarray analysis of biofilm-associated bacteria shows that expression of the Vibrio polysaccharide synthesis (vps) operons is

Jun Zhu; John J. Mekalanos

2003-01-01

351

Population dynamics of Vibrio spp. associated with marine sponge microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio is a diverse genus of marine-associated bacteria with at least 74 species and more expected as additional marine ecospheres are interrogated. This report describes a phylogenetic reconstruction of Vibrio isolates derived from one such unique ecosystem, marine sponges (Phylum Porifera) collected from depths of 150 to 1242 feet. 16S rRNA gene sequencing along with molecular typing of 16S–23S rRNA

Maria Hoffmann; Markus Fischer; Andrea Ottesen; Peter J McCarthy; Jose V Lopez; Eric W Brown; Steven R Monday

2010-01-01

352

Occurrence and Expression of Luminescence in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of the genus Vibrio, including Vibrio cholerae, are bioluminescent or contain bioluminescent strains. Previous studies have reported that only 10% of V. cholerae strains are luminescent. Analysis of 224 isolates of non-O1\\/non-O139 V. cholerae collected from Chesapeake Bay, MD, revealed that 52% (116\\/224) were luminescent when an improved assay method was employed and 58% (130\\/224) of isolates harbored

Christopher J. Grim; Elisa Taviani; Munirul Alam; Anwar Huq; R. Bradley Sack; Rita R. Colwell

2008-01-01

353

Natural transformation of a marine Vibrio species by plasmid DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio sp. DI9, recently isolated from Tampa Bay, FL, has been found to be naturally transformed by the broad host range plasmid pKT230 in both filter transformation assays and sterile sediment microcosms. This is the first report of natural transformation by plasmid DNA of aVibrio sp. and of a marine bacterial isolate. Transformation frequencies ranged from 0.3 to 3.1×10?8 transformants

Wade H. Jeffrey; John H. Paul; Gregory J. Stewart

1990-01-01

354

Diversity and Dynamics of a North Atlantic Coastal Vibrio Community  

PubMed Central

Vibrios are ubiquitous marine bacteria that have long served as models for heterotrophic processes and have received renewed attention because of the discovery of increasing numbers of facultatively pathogenic strains. Because the occurrence of specific vibrios has frequently been linked to the temperature, salinity, and nutrient status of water, we hypothesized that seasonal changes in coastal water bodies lead to distinct vibrio communities and sought to characterize their level of differentiation. A novel technique was used to quantify shifts in 16S rRNA gene abundance in samples from Barnegat Bay, N.J., collected over a 15-month period. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) with primers specific for the genus Vibrio was combined with separation and quantification of amplicons by constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE). Vibrio populations identified by QPCR-CDCE varied between summer and winter samples, suggesting distinct warm-water and year-round populations. Identification of the CDCE populations by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from two summer and two winter samples confirmed this distinction. It further showed that CDCE populations corresponded in most cases to ?98% rRNA similarity groups and suggested that the abundance of these follows temperature trends. Phylogenetic comparison yielded closely related cultured and often pathogenic representatives for most sequences, and the temperature ranges of these isolates confirmed the trends seen in the environmental samples. Overall, this suggests that temperature is a good predictor of the occurrence of closely related vibrios but that considerable microdiversity of unknown significance coexists within this trend.

Thompson, Janelle R.; Randa, Mark A.; Marcelino, Luisa A.; Tomita-Mitchell, Aoy; Lim, Eelin; Polz, Martin F.

2004-01-01

355

Viscosity dictates metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber  

PubMed Central

Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.

Boric, Maja; Danevcic, Tjasa; Stopar, David

2012-01-01

356

Viscosity dictates metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber.  

PubMed

Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment. PMID:22826705

Bori?, Maja; Danev?i?, Tjaša; Stopar, David

2012-07-18

357

Vibrio cholerae: lessons for mucosal vaccine design  

PubMed Central

The ability of Vibrio cholerae to persist in bodies of water will continue to confound our ability to eradicate cholera through improvements to infrastructure, and thus cholera vaccines are needed. We aim for an inexpensive vaccine that can provide long-lasting protection from all epidemic cholera infections, currently caused by O1 or O139 serogroups. Recent insights into correlates of protection, epidemiology and pathogenesis may help us design improved vaccines. This notwithstanding, we have come to appreciate that even marginally protective vaccines, such as oral whole-cell killed vaccines, if widely distributed, can provide significant protection, owing to herd immunity. Further efforts are still required to provide more effective protection of young children.

Bishop, Anne L; Camilli, Andrew

2011-01-01

358

Chitinase Determinants of 'Vibrio vulnificus': Gene Cloning and Applications of a Chitinase Probe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To initiate study of the genetic control of chitinolytic activity in vibrios, the chitobiase gene was isolated by cloning chromosomal DNA prepared from Vibrio vulnificus. Chimeric plasmids were constructed from Sau3A I partial digests of chromosomal DNA b...

A. T. Wortman C. C. Somerville R. R. Colwell

1986-01-01

359

The Regulatory Network of Natural Competence and Transformation of Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic bacterium frequently encountered in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal regions. Within these environmental reservoirs, the bacterium is often found associated with zooplankton and more specifically with their chitinous exoskeleton. Upon growth on such chitinous surfaces, V. cholerae initiates a developmental program termed “natural competence for genetic transformation.” Natural competence for transformation is a mode of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria and contributes to the maintenance and evolution of bacterial genomes. In this study, we investigated competence gene expression within this organism at the single cell level. We provide evidence that under homogeneous inducing conditions the majority of the cells express competence genes. A more heterogeneous expression pattern was observable on chitin surfaces. We hypothesize that this was the case due to the heterogeneity around the chitin surface, which might vary extensively with respect to chitin degradation products and autoinducers; these molecules contribute to competence induction based on carbon catabolite repression and quorum-sensing pathways, respectively. Therefore, we investigated the contribution of these two signaling pathways to natural competence in detail using natural transformation assays, transcriptional reporter fusions, quantitative RT–PCR, and immunological detection of protein levels using Western blot analysis. The results illustrate that all tested competence genes are dependent on the transformation regulator TfoX. Furthermore, intracellular cAMP levels play a major role in natural transformation. Finally, we demonstrate that only a minority of genes involved in natural transformation are regulated in a quorum-sensing-dependent manner and that these genes determine the fate of the surrounding DNA. We conclude with a model of the regulatory circuit of chitin-induced natural competence in V. cholerae.

Lo Scrudato, Mirella; Blokesch, Melanie

2012-01-01

360

Identification of Two Translocon Proteins of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion System 2?  

PubMed Central

The type III secretion system (T3SS) translocon complex is composed of several associated proteins, which form a translocation channel through the host cell plasma membrane. These proteins are key molecules that are involved in the pathogenicity of many T3SS-positive bacteria, because they are necessary to deliver effector proteins into host cells. A T3SS designated T3SS2 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus is thought to be related to the enterotoxicity of this bacterium in humans, but the effector translocation mechanism of T3SS2 is unclear because there is only one gene (the VPA1362 gene) in the T3SS2 region that is homologous to other translocon protein genes. It is also not known whether the VPA1362 protein is functional in the translocon of T3SS2 or whether it is sufficient to form the translocation channel of T3SS2. In this study, we identified both VPA1362 (designated VopB2) and VPA1361 (designated VopD2) as T3SS2-dependent secretion proteins. Functional analysis of these proteins showed that they are essential for T3SS2-dependent cytotoxicity, for the translocation of one of the T3SS2 effector proteins (VopT), and for the contact-dependent activity of pore formation in infected cells in vitro. Their targeting to the host cell membrane depends on T3SS2, and furthermore, they are necessary for T3SS2-dependent enterotoxicity in vivo. These results indicate that VopB2 and VopD2 act as translocon proteins of V. parahaemolyticus T3SS2 and hence have a critical role in the T3SS2-dependent enterotoxicity of this bacterium.

Kodama, Toshio; Hiyoshi, Hirotaka; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Akeda, Yukihiro; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Park, Kwon-Sam; Cantarelli, Vlademir V.; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

2008-01-01

361

Population structure between environmentally transmitted vibrios and bobtail squids using nested clade analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squids from the genus Euprymna (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) and their symbiotic bacteria Vibrio fischeri form a mutualism in which vibrios inhabit a complex light organ within the squid host. A host-mediated daily expulsion event seeds surrounding seawater with symbiotically capable V. fischeri that environmentally colonize newly hatched axenic Euprymna juveniles. Competition experiments using native and non-native Vibrio have shown that this

B. W. JONES; J. E. LOPEZ; J. HUTTENBURG; M. K. NISHIGUCHI

2006-01-01

362

Occurrence of potentially pathogenic vibrios and related environmental factors in Songkhla Lake, Thailand.  

PubMed

Vibrios are halophilic bacteria that are ubiquitous in marine environments. Their occurrence in tropical lakes has rarely been investigated. In this study, the predominance and diversity of Vibrio spp. was investigated over a 12-month period in a coastal lagoon, Songkhla Lake, in southern Thailand. Water samples were collected at 2 stations in the estuary near Yor Island in Songkhla Lake. The predominant vibrios were detected by a culture-based method, using thiosulfate-citrate-bile salt-sucrose agar and CHROMagar Vibrio. The diversity of Vibrio spp. was evaluated using denaturant density gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The highest numbers of total vibrios and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in both areas were observed during the summer. There was no significant correlation between the numbers of vibrios, including V. parahaemolyticus, and either the water temperature or plankton density. Variations in Vibrio species were observed with changes in salinity. Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 were detected during the rainy season when the salinity dropped to nearly 0 parts per thousand. In both areas, V. alginolyticus was the most prominent species detected by the culture method, whereas Vibrio parahaemolyticus was detected by DGGE, every month. Other Vibrio spp. of potential public health concern were also detected by the culture method; they included V. vulnificus , V. fluvialis , and V. mimicus . PMID:22014235

Thongchankaew, Uraiwan; Mittraparp-arthorn, Pimonsri; Sukhumungoon, Pharanai; Tansila, Natta; Nuidate, Taiyeebah; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

2011-10-20

363

Vibrio cholerae Exploits Sub-Lethal Concentrations of a Competitor-Produced Antibiotic to Avoid Toxic Interactions.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogenic marine bacterium inhabiting coastal regions and is vectored into human food and water supplies via attachment to particles including detritus, phytoplankton, and zooplankton. Particle colonization by the pathogen is inhibited by an antagonistic interaction with the particle-associated Vibrionales bacterium SWAT3, a producer of the antibiotic andrimid. By analyzing the individual movement behaviors of V. cholerae exposed to a gradient of andrimid in a microfluidics device, we show that the pathogen has a concentration dependent avoidance response to sub-lethal concentrations of the pure antibiotic and to the metabolites produced by a growing colony of SWAT3-wild-type. This avoidance behavior includes a 25% increase in swimming speeds, 30% increase in run lengths, and a shift in the direction of the bacteria away from the andrimid source. Consequently, these behavioral shifts at low concentrations of andrimid would lead to higher diffusivity and result in the dispersion of bacteria away from the competitor and source of the antibiotic. Such alterations in motility were not elicited in response to a non-andrimid-producing SWAT3 mutant, suggesting andrimid may be a negative effector of chemotaxis for V. cholerae. The behavioral response of colonizing bacteria to sub-inhibitory concentrations of competitor-produced antibiotics is one mechanism that can influence microbial diversity and interspecific competition on particles, potentially affecting human health in coastal communities and element cycling in the ocean. PMID:23386845

Graff, Jason R; Forschner-Dancause, Stephanie R; Menden-Deuer, Susanne; Long, Richard A; Rowley, David C

2013-01-31

364

A novel alcohol resistant metalloproteinase, vimelysin, from vibrio sp. T1800: purification and characterization.  

PubMed

We found a novel metalloproteinase, which has high activity at low temperatures and in the presence of organic solvents, in the culture supernatant of a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. T1800. The metalloproteinase, named vimelysin, was purified from the culture supernatant by three column chromatographies. About 150 mg of purified vimelysin was obtained from 3.3 liters of the culture supernatant with a high yield of 57%. The purified vimelysin showed a single protein band on SDS-PAGE with molecular weight of 38,000. The isoelectric point of vimelysin was 4.3 by isoelectric focusing. The optimum pH of vimelysin was pH 8.0 or pH 6.5 using casein or furylacryloyl-glycyl-leucine amide (FAGLA) as substrates, respectively. The optimum temperature of vimelysin was 50 degrees C when casein was used as a substrate, but it was 15 degrees C when FAGLA was used as a substrate. Interestingly, vimelysin activity was completely retained after 48 h of incubation at 25 degrees C in the presence of 50% ethanol. Moreover, vimelysin showed 40% activity of the control even in the presence of 10% ethanol, while thermolysin showed only 5% activity under the same conditions. PMID:8901104

Oda, K; Okayama, K; Okutomi, K; Shimada, M; Sato, R; Takahashi, S

1996-03-01

365

MARTX of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is a virulence and survival factor.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is a polyphyletic group whose virulence for fish relies on a plasmid. This plasmid contains an rtxA gene duplicated in the small chromosome that encodes a MARTX (Multifunctional, Autoprocessing Repeats-in-Toxin) unique within the species in domain structure (MARTX type III). To discover the role of this toxin in the fitness of this biotype in the fish-farming environment, single- and double-knockout mutants were isolated from a zoonotic strain and analysed in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments with eel, fish cell lines and amoebae isolated from gills. Mice, murine and human cell lines were also assayed for comparative purposes. The results suggest that MARTX type III is involved in the lysis of a wide range of eukaryotic cells, including the amoebae, erythrocytes, epithelial cells and phagocytes after bacterium-cell contact. In fish, MARTX type III may act as a toxin involved in the onset of septic shock, while in mice it may promote bacterial colonization by preventing phagocytosis of bacterial cells. Moreover, this toxin could protect bacteria from predation by amoebae, which would increase bacterial survival outside the host and would explain the fitness of this biotype in the fish-farming environment. PMID:22943291

Lee, Chung-Te; Pajuelo, David; Llorens, Amparo; Chen, Yi-Hsuan; Leiro, José M; Padrós, Francesc; Hor, Lien-I; Amaro, Carmen

2012-09-03

366

Effect of the Squid Host on the Abundance and Distribution of Symbiotic Vibrio fischeri in Nature †  

PubMed Central

Euprymna scolopes, a Hawaiian species of bioluminescent squid, harbors Vibrio fischeri as its specific light organ symbiont. The population of symbionts grew inside the adult light organ with an average doubling time of about 5 h, which produced an excess of cells that were expelled into the surrounding seawater on a diurnal basis at the beginning of each period of daylight. These symbionts, when expelled into the ambient seawater, maintain or slightly increase their numbers for at least 24 h. Hence, locations inhabited by their hosts periodically receive a daily input of symbiotic V. fischeri cells and, as a result, become significantly enriched with these bacteria. As estimated by hybridization with a species-specific luxA gene probe, the typical number of V. fischeri CFU, both in the water column and in the sediments of E. scolopes habitats, was as much as 24 to 30 times that in similar locations where squids were not observed. In addition, the number of symbiotic V. fischeri CFU in seawater samples that were collected along a transect through Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, decreased as a function of the distance from a location inhabited by E. scolopes. These findings constitute evidence for the first recognized instance of the abundance and distribution of a marine bacterium being driven primarily by its symbiotic association with an animal host.

Lee, Kyu-Ho; Ruby, Edward G.

1994-01-01

367

Bactericidal activity against Vibrio cholerae of chemical products used in lemon production in Tucumán, Argentina.  

PubMed

The present research was set up to verify whether the chemical products used in lemon production (from cultivation until packaging) have a bactericidal or a bacteriostatic ability against Vibrio cholerae O1. The studied products were: copper oxychloride, benomil (a carbamate), active chlorine, sodium-o-phenylphenoate, guazatine (a polyamine mixture), imazalil (an imidazole) and lemon peel. The latter was studied with and without treatment using the above mentioned chemicals. Different dilutions of these products were tried out with varying exposure times against the bacterium V. cholerae Serogroup O1, Biotype E1 Tor, Serotype Inaba. The concentrations of the microorganism ranged from 10(2) to 10(8) CFU ml-1, the latter one being considered an infectious dose. The following results were obtained: 1) active chlorine (chlorinated water) showed bactericidal activity at concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 ppm after 10 min of exposure time, 2) copper oxychloride, sodium-o-phenylphenoate, guazatine and imazalil showed bactericidal activity against V. cholerae at concentrations of 10(2) and 10(4) CFU ml-1, 3) due to the fact that during its cultivation the fruit is successively sprayed with several chemical products, it could be that the result of the successive treatments is superior to the result of a repeated treatment with each of the individual products. This consideration should be taken into account when evaluating the eventual protection of the lemon. PMID:9331994

de Castillo, M C; de Allori, C G; de Gutierrez, R C; de Saab, O A; de Fernandez, N P; de Ruiz, C S; de Ruiz Holgado, A P; de Nader, O M

1997-09-01

368

Inhibition of Vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a Possible Probiotic Treatment of Fish  

PubMed Central

To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect of P. fluorescens AH2 was studied under iron-rich and iron-limited conditions. Sterile-filtered culture supernatants from iron-limited P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum, whereas sterile-filtered supernatants from iron-replete cultures of P. fluorescens AH2 did not. P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1,000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 105 CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 104 to 105 CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 107 CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic treatment resulted in a 46% reduction of calculated accumulated mortality; accumulated mortality was 25% after 7 days at 12°C in the probiotic-treated fish, whereas mortality was 47% in fish not treated with the probiont.

Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Spanggaard, Bettina; Huber, Ingrid; Nielsen, Torben F.

1999-01-01

369

Prevalence and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in finfish from Cochin (south India).  

PubMed

Finfish samples obtained from four retail outlets in Cochin between June 2009 and June 2010 were investigated for the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A total of 182 samples were collected and suspect isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests and were further confirmed by a species-specific tlh gene. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 45.1% of samples, with demersal fish being more affected than pelagic species. The bacterium was isolated more frequently from the skin and gills of pelagic fish, while the intestine yielded greater numbers of V. parahaemolyticus in demersal fish. The highest incidence of antibiotic resistance was recorded against ampicillin and streptomycin, followed by carbenicillin, cefpodoxime, cephalothin, colistin and amoxycillin; the lowest was against nalidixic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Multiple drug resistance was prevalent among isolates. Although only a fraction of strains are pathogenic for humans, the time-temperature abuse in markets provides ample scope for these strains to multiply to dangerous levels. The multidrug resistant nature of the strains adds to the gravity of the problem. High V. parahaemolyticus incidence rates in market finfish samples from areas in and around Cochin clearly indicates that control measures should be adopted to reduce post-harvest contamination in seafood and time-temperature abuse in markets to diminish the risk of V. parahaemolyticus infection associated with seafood destined for human consumption. PMID:23038073

Sudha, Santha; Divya, Puthenkandathil S; Francis, Bini; Hatha, Ammanamveetil A M

370

Evaluation of Typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by Three PCR Methods Using Specific Primers  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium frequently involved in human outbreaks of seafood-associated gastroenteritis. For epidemiological purposes, different molecular typing methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or ribotyping, have been developed for this pathogen; however, these methods are mostly labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this work, we designed and evaluated three rapid PCR typing methods for this pathogen using primers designed on the basis of the following specific sequences: conserved ribosomal gene spacer sequence (RS), repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence (REP), and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (ERIC). Typing patterns and clustering analysis indicated that these methods apparently differentiated V. parahaemolyticus strains from reference strains of interspecific Escherichia coli, V. cholerae, and V. vulnificus and were also valuable in subspecies typing of this pathogen. Forty domestic strains of V. parahaemolyticus, representing a wide range of PFGE patterns, were grouped into 15, 27, and 27 patterns, with discrimination indexes of 0.91, 0.97, and 0.98, by RS-, REP-, and ERIC-PCR, respectively. The discriminative abilities of these PCR methods closely approached or even exceeded those of PFGE and ribotyping. REP-PCR is preferable to ERIC-PCR because of the greater reproducibility of its fingerprints, while RS-PCR may be a practical method because it generates fewer amplification bands and patterns than the alternatives.

Wong, Hin-Chung; Lin, Chih-Hsueh

2001-01-01

371

A transcriptional regulator linking quorum sensing and chitin induction to render Vibrio cholerae naturally transformable  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic bacterium associated with zooplankton and their chitinous exoskeletons. On chitinous surfaces, V. cholerae initiates a developmental programme, known as natural competence, to mediate transformation, which is a mode of horizontal gene transfer. Competence facilitates the uptake of free DNA and recombination into the bacterial genome. Recent studies have indicated that chitin surfaces are required, but not sufficient to induce competence. Two additional regulatory pathways, i.e. catabolite repression and quorum sensing (QS), are components of the regulatory network that controls natural competence in V. cholerae. In this study, we investigated the link between chitin induction and QS. We show that the major regulators of these two pathways, TfoX and HapR, are both involved in the activation of a gene encoding a transcriptional regulator of the LuxR-type family, which we named QS and TfoX-dependent regulator (QstR). We demonstrate that HapR binds the promoter of qstR in a site-specific manner, indicating a role for HapR as an activator of qstR. In addition, epistasis experiments indicate that QstR compensates for the absence of HapR. We also provide evidence that QstR is required for the proper expression of a small but essential subset of competence genes and propose a new regulatory model in which QstR links chitin-induced TfoX activity with QS.

Lo Scrudato, Mirella; Blokesch, Melanie

2013-01-01

372

Vibrio vulnificus produces quorum sensing signals of the AHL-class.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus is an aquatic pathogenic bacterium that can cause vibriosis in humans and fish. The species is subdivided into three biotypes with the fish-virulent strains belonging to biotype 2. The quorum sensing (QS) phenomenon mediated by furanosyl borate diester or autoinducer 2 (AI-2) has been described in human strains of biotype 1, and here we show that the luxS gene which encodes AI-2 is present in all strains of V. vulnificus regardless of origin, biotype or serovar. In this study, we also demonstrate that V. vulnificus produces QS signals of the acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) class (AI-1). AHLs were detected in strains of biotype 1 and 2 from water, fish and human wound infections but not in strains isolated from human septicaemic cases. The AHL compound was identified as N-butanoyl-homoserine-lactone (C(4)-HL) by both reporter strains and by HPLC-high-resolution MS. C(4)-HL was detected when AHL-positive strains were grown in low-nutrient medium [modified sea water yeast extract (MSWYE)] but not in rich media (tryptic soy broth or brain-heart infusion) and its production was enhanced when blood factors were added to MSWYE. C(4)-HL was detected in vivo, in eels infected with AHL-positive biotype 2 strains. No known AHL-related gene was detected by PCR or Southern blot suggesting that AHL-related genes in V. vulnificus are different from those found in other Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:19453744

Valiente, Esmeralda; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Jens Laurits; Roig, Francisco J; Gram, Lone; Amaro, Carmen

2009-04-25

373

Cyclic AMP-receptor protein activates aerobactin receptor IutA expression in Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

The ferrophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can utilize the siderophore aerobactin of Escherichia coli for iron acquisition via its specific receptor IutA. This siderophore piracy by V. vulnificus may contribute to its survival and proliferation, especially in mixed bacterial environments. In this study, we examined the effects of glucose, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) on iutA expression in V. vulnificus. Glucose dose-dependently repressed iutA expression. A mutation in cya encoding adenylate cyclase required for cAMP synthesis severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by in trans complementing cya or the addition of exogenous cAMP. Furthermore, a mutation in crp encoding Crp severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by complementing crp. Accordingly, glucose deprivation under iron-limited conditions is an environmental signal for iutA expression, and Crp functions as an activator that regulates iutA expression in response to glucose availability. PMID:22538662

Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Seong-Jung; Shin, Sung-Heui

2012-04-27

374

Alkaline serine protease is an exotoxin of Vibrio alginolyticus in kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus.  

PubMed

An extracellular lethal toxin produced by Vibrio alginolyticus strain Swy originally isolated from diseased kuruma prawn(Penaeus japonicus) was partially purified by Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography with hydrophobic interaction (Phenyl Sepharose Hig hPerformance) chromatography and gel filtration columns. The toxin is an alkaline serine protease, inhibited by phenyl-methylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF),and showed maximal activity at pH 10, having a molecular weight of about 33kDa estimated by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. In addition, the toxin was also completely inhibited by FeCl2 but partially inhibited by CaCl2, CuCl2, CoCl2,MnCl2, and ZnCl2, and not inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylene glycol-bis(beta-amino-ethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), iodoacetamide, pepstatin A, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), and N-tosyl-l-phenyl-alanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK). Both the crude extracellular products (ECP) and the partially purified toxin are lethal for kuruma prawn at LD50 values of 0.30 and 0.27 microg protein/g body weight, respectively. The addition of PMSF completely inhibited the lethal toxicity of both the ECP and the partially purified toxin, indicating that this serine protease is a lethal factor produced by the bacterium. The 33-kDa protease is, therefore, suggested to be a new toxic protease produced by V. alginolyticus strain Swy. PMID:9003588

Lee, K K; Yu, S R; Liu, P C

1997-02-01

375

Characterization and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable Vibrio alginolyticus VIB283.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of the bacterium. Vibrio alginolyticus VIB283 was cultured in sterilized seawater microcosm at 4 degrees C. Culturability of the cells in the microcosm was monitored by spread plate count (PC) on 2216E agar, PCs declined to undetectable levels (<0.1 CFU/ml) within 90 days. Total cell counts remained constant throughout the period as determined by acridine orange direct count (AODC). The direct viable counts, on the other hand, declined from 10(10) to 10(9) CFU/ml active cells and remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable count (DVC), which indicated that a large population of cells entered into the VBNC state. The VBNC cells could be resuscitated by temperature upshift with and without the presence of nutrition. The resuscitated time were 16 h and 8 days respectively. The resuscitation was not achieved in chick embryos. The morphology of the VBNC, normal and resuscitated cells was studied with scanning electron microscope and flow cytometry. The cells changed from rod or arc to coccoid and decreased in size when entered into the VBNC state. The resuscitated and the normal cells had almost no morphological differences. PMID:17492270

Du, Meng; Chen, Jixiang; Zhang, Xiaohua; Li, Aijuan; Li, Yun

2007-05-10

376

Density-dependent sorting of physiologically different cells of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

A pure bacterial culture is composed of clonal cells in different physiological states. Separation of those subpopulations is critical for further characterization and for understanding various processes in the cultured cells. We used density-dependent cell sorting with Percoll to separate subpopulations from cultures of a marine bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Cells from cultures in the exponential and stationary phases were fractionated according to their buoyant density, and their culturability and ability to maintain culturability under low-temperature and low-nutrient stress (stress resistance) were determined. The buoyant density of the major portion of the cells decreased with culture age. The culturability of stationary-phase cells increased with increasing buoyant density, but that of exponential-phase cells did not. Stress resistance decreased with increasing buoyant density regardless of the growth phase. The results indicate that density-dependent cell sorting is useful for separating subpopulations of different culturabilities and stress resistances. We expect that this method will be a powerful tool for analyzing cells in various physiological states, such as the viable but nonculturable state. PMID:12788764

Nishino, Tomohiko; Nayak, Binaya B; Kogure, Kazuhiro

2003-06-01

377

Draft genome sequence of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Phaeospirillum molischianum DSM120, a particularly versatile bacterium.  

PubMed

Here we present the draft genome sequence of the versatile and adaptable purple photosynthetic bacterium Phaeospirillum molischianum DSM120. This study advances the understanding of the adaptability of this bacterium, as well as the differences between the Phaeospirillum and Rhodospirillum genera. PMID:22689244

Duquesne, K; Prima, V; Ji, B; Rouy, Z; Médigue, C; Talla, E; Sturgis, J N

2012-07-01

378

Draft Genome Sequence of the Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium Phaeospirillum molischianum DSM120, a Particularly Versatile Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Here we present the draft genome sequence of the versatile and adaptable purple photosynthetic bacterium Phaeospirillum molischianum DSM120. This study advances the understanding of the adaptability of this bacterium, as well as the differences between the Phaeospirillum and Rhodospirillum genera.

Prima, V.; Ji, B.; Rouy, Z.; Medigue, C.; Talla, E.; Sturgis, J. N.

2012-01-01

379

Fitness factors in vibrios: a mini-review.  

PubMed

Vibrios are Gram-negative curved bacilli that occur naturally in marine, estuarine, and freshwater systems. Some species include human and animal pathogens, and some vibrios are necessary for natural systems, including the carbon cycle and osmoregulation. Countless in vivo and in vitro studies have examined the interactions between vibrios and their environment, including molecules, cells, whole animals, and abiotic substrates. Many studies have characterized virulence factors, attachment factors, regulatory factors, and antimicrobial resistance factors, and most of these factors impact the organism's fitness regardless of its external environment. This review aims to identify common attributes among factors that increase fitness in various environments, regardless of whether the environment is an oyster, a rabbit, a flask of immortalized mammalian cells, or a planktonic chitin particle. This review aims to summarize findings published thus far to encapsulate some of the basic similarities among the many vibrio fitness factors and how they frame our understanding of vibrio ecology. Factors representing these similarities include hemolysins, capsular polysaccharides, flagella, proteases, attachment factors, type III secretion systems, chitin binding proteins, iron acquisition systems, and colonization factors. PMID:23306394

Johnson, Crystal N

2013-01-10

380

Ecological study of pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments.  

PubMed

An ecological study of pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments of Okayama was carried out. The number of Vibrio parahaemolyticus detected in the sea area was comparatively smaler than that found in the survey of about two decades ago. Various reasons for the decrease in the case of food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus have been suggested but the lower number of the vibrio in aquatic environments may be one explanation. Although the number of V. vulnificus was also not as large, most of the isolates possessed the pathogenic genes, vvp and vvh, suggesting the potential for fatal pathogenicity to patients having underlying diseases. As for V. cholerae, some non-O1/non-O139 serovar isolates were detected in a fresh water area, and many of them had hlyA, the gene for hemolysin which acts as a pathogenic factor in sporadic cases of diarrhea. Thus, the total number of pathogenic vibrios detected was not of concern. However, the marine products of these areas are shipped in wide area and are for general consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to continue to survey pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments in order to ensure food hygiene. PMID:23538851

Shinoda, Sumio; Furumai, Yuki; Katayama, Sei-Ichi; Mizuno, Tamaki; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi

2013-01-01

381

Characterization of Vibrio cholerae 01 recently isolated in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

91 strains of Vibrio cholerae O1, isolated in Bangladesh in January 1986, were examined for their biological behaviour and sensitivity to 6 antimicrobial agents. Biotyping indicated that 60 of the isolates belonged to the classical biotype and 31 to the El Tor biotype. 21 El Tor strains revealed beta-haemolysis on blood agar plates, but only 8 showed complete haemolysis in broth. Serotyping indicated 79 Ogawa, 10 Inaba, and 2 Hikojima. Phage typing showed that all classical vibrios belonged to Mukerjee's phage type 1. El Tor vibrios were classified into 4 groups: one strain each in type 1 and type 5, 19 in type 4, and 10 in an untypable group. Prophage typing of El Tor vibrios identified 14 strains of Ubol type, 16 of cured Celebes type, and one of original Celebes type. No strain was resistant to tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, amoxicillin or nalidixic acid. The classical vibrios differed from those isolated before 1973 in toxin production pattern. PMID:3450016

Nakasone, N; Iwanaga, M; Eeckels, R

1987-01-01

382

Enterotoxin production by Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus grown in continuous culture with microbial cell recycle.  

PubMed Central

We have examined the effect of complete cell recycle on the production of cholera toxin (CT) by Vibrio cholerae and CT-like toxin by Vibrio mimicus in continuous culture fermentations. Complete cell recycle was obtained by filtering culture fluids through Amicon hollow fibers with an exclusion limit of 100,000 daltons (H1P100-20) and returning the concentrated cell slurry to the fermentor. A single 1-liter laboratory fermentor system modified with this recycle loop was capable of producing over 20 liters of cell-free culture filtrate per day. Toxin production in this system was compared with yields obtained in traditional continuous cultures and in shake flask cultures. Yields of CT from V. cholerae 569B in the recycle fermentor were highest at the highest dilution rate employed (1.0 vol/vol per h). The use of complete cell recycle dramatically increased yields over those obtained in continuous culture and equaled those obtained in shake flasks. The concentration of CT in the filtrate was slightly less than half of that measured in culture fluids sampled at the same time. Similarly, V. mimicus 61892 grown in the presence of 50 micrograms of lincomycin per ml produced 280 ng of CT per ml in the recycle fermentor, compared with 210 ng/ml in shake flasks under optimal conditions. The sterile filtrate from this fermentation contained 110 ng/ml.

Spira, W M; Fedorka-Cray, P J

1983-01-01

383

Vibrio fischeri flavohemoglobin protects against nitric oxide during initiation of the squid-Vibrio symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in a wide range of biological processes, including innate immunity against pathogens, signal transduction, and protection against oxidative stress. However, its possible roles in beneficial host-microbe associations are less well recognized. During the early stages of the squid-vibrio symbiosis, the bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri encounters host-derived NO, which has been hypothesized to serve as specificity determinant. We demonstrate here that the flavohemoglobin, Hmp, of V. fischeri protects against NO, both in culture and during colonization of the squid host. Transcriptional analyses indicate that hmp expression is highly responsive to NO, principally through the repressor, NsrR. Hmp protects V. fischeri from NO inhibition of aerobic respiration, and removes NO under both oxic and anoxic conditions. A ?hmp mutant of V. fischeri initiates squid colonization less effectively than wild type, but is rescued by the presence of an NO synthase inhibitor. The hmp promoter is activated during the initial stage of colonization, during which the ?hmp strain fails to form normal-sized aggregates of colonizing cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the sensing of host-derived NO by NsrR, and the subsequent removal of NO by Hmp, influence aggregate size and, thereby, V. fischeri colonization efficiency.

Wang, Yanling; Dunn, Anne K.; Wilneff, Jacqueline; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.; Spiro, Stephen; Ruby, Edward G.

2010-01-01

384

Pathologic changes of gut in non-01 Vibrio cholerae infection.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old girl who had beta-thalassemia hemoglobin E disease was infected by bacteriologically proven non-01 Vibrio cholerae at 2 months postsplenectomy and died 37 hours after onset of the malady. Postmortem examination disclosed congestion, edema, and hemorrhagic foci of the mucosa of the small and large intestines. The gut mucosa was focally eroded. The gut wall was infiltrated by leucocytes, especially neutrophils, in all coats representing acute purulent and hemorrhagic enterocolitis. There was hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles in the gut mucosa and lymph nodes. It is suggested that morphologic change of the gut in non-01 Vibrio cholerae infection is more severe than in infection caused by Vibrio cholerae. PMID:7673807

Shuangshoti, S; Reinprayoon, S

1995-04-01

385

Adhesion of Vibrio cholerae to granular starches.  

PubMed

Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease caused by specific serogroups of Vibrio cholerae that are pathogenic to humans. Cholera can become epidemic and deadly without adequate medical care. Appropriate rehydration therapy can reduce the mortality rate from as much as 50% of the affected individuals to <1%. Thus, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is an important measure in the treatment of this disease. To further reduce the symptoms associated with cholera, improvements in oral rehydration solution (ORS) by starch incorporation were suggested. Here, we report that V. cholerae adheres to starch granules incorporated in ORS. Adhesion of 98% of the cells was observed within 2 min when cornstarch granules were used. Other starches showed varied adhesion rates, indicating that starch source and composition play an important role in the interaction of V. cholerae and starch granules. Sugars metabolized by V. cholerae showed a repressive effect on the adhesion process. The possible mechanisms involved are discussed. Comparing V. cholerae adhesion with the adhesion of other pathogens suggests the involvement of starch degradation capabilities. This adhesion to granular starch can be used to improve ORT. PMID:16085883

Gancz, Hanan; Niderman-Meyer, Orly; Broza, Meir; Kashi, Yechezkel; Shimoni, Eyal

2005-08-01

386

Characterization of surface properties of Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed Central

A number of isolates of Vibrio cholerae were examined with respect to their (i) surface hydrophobicity as measured by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, (ii) capacity to agglutinate erythrocytes, and (iii) ability to bind to an ion-exchange matrix. V. cholerae isolates, cultured under a variety of growth conditions, were conspicuously hydrophobic. The hydrophobicity was accentuated when these strains were (i) cultivated in a chemically defined synthetic medium, (ii) harvested at the exponential phase of growth, and (iii) cultured at a lower temperature. Rough strains were more hydrophobic than smooth strains. Of the various surface components examined, the outer membrane proteins were conspicuously hydrophobic. The cell-bound hemagglutinating activity of V. cholerae strains was increased when these strains were cultured in synthetic medium and harvested at the stationary phase of growth. This property was unaffected by the growth temperature. Only D-mannose, at a high concentration, inhibited hemagglutination of 80% of the isolates examined. L-Fucose did not inhibit the hemagglutinating activity. V. cholerae strains adhered strongly to the anion-exchange matrix DEAE-cellulose. The surface charge density was accentuated when these strains were grown in synthetic medium. These results suggest that the V. cholerae surface contains both specific (hemagglutinating) and nonspecific (hydrophobic and ionic) factors which may influence its eventual adherence to the host cell surface.

Kabir, S; Ali, S

1983-01-01

387

Transferable Quinolone Resistance in Vibrio cholerae?  

PubMed Central

Ciprofloxacin was introduced for treatment of patients with cholera in Bangladesh because of resistance to other agents, but its utility has been compromised by the decreasing ciprofloxacin susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae over time. We correlated levels of susceptibility and temporal patterns with the occurrence of mutation in gyrA, which encodes a subunit of DNA gyrase, followed by mutation in parC, which encodes a subunit of DNA topoisomerase IV. We found that ciprofloxacin activity was more recently further compromised in strains containing qnrVC3, which encodes a pentapeptide repeat protein of the Qnr subfamily, members of which protect topoisomerases from quinolone action. We show that qnrVC3 confers transferable low-level quinolone resistance and is present within a member of the SXT integrating conjugative element family found commonly on the chromosomes of multidrug-resistant strains of V. cholerae and on the chromosomes of Escherichia coli transconjugants constructed in the laboratory. Thus, progressive increases in quinolone resistance in V. cholerae are linked to cumulative mutations in quinolone targets and most recently to a qnr gene on a mobile multidrug resistance element, resulting in further challenges for the antimicrobial therapy of cholera.

Kim, Hong Bin; Wang, Minghua; Ahmed, Sabeena; Park, Chi Hye; LaRocque, Regina C.; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Salam, Mohammed A.; Khan, Wasif A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Jacoby, George A.; Hooper, David C.

2010-01-01

388

Mechanistic and statistical models of total Vibrio abundance in the Neuse River Estuary.  

PubMed

Bacteria in the genus Vibrio are ubiquitous to estuarine waters worldwide and are often the dominant genus recovered from these environments. This genus contains several potentially pathogenic species, including Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio alginolyticus. These bacteria have short generation times, as low as 20-30 min, and can thus respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions. A five-parameter mechanistic model was generated based on environmental processes including hydrodynamics, growth, and death rates of Vibrio bacteria to predict total Vibrio abundance in the Neuse River Estuary of eastern North Carolina. Additionally an improved statistical model was developed using the easily monitored parameters of temperature and salinity. This updated model includes data that covers more than eight years of constant bacterial monitoring, and incorporates extreme weather events such as droughts, storms, and floods. These models can be used to identify days in which bacterial abundance might coincide with increased health risks. PMID:23948561

Froelich, Brett; Bowen, James; Gonzalez, Raul; Snedeker, Alexandra; Noble, Rachel

2013-07-11

389

Current perspectives on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of clinically significant Vibrio spp.  

PubMed Central

Recent taxonomic advances have now implicated several different Vibrio species as human pathogens. While the most common clinical presentation of Vibrio infection continues to be gastroenteritis, an increasing number of extraintestinal infections are being reported, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Detection of Vibrio infections requires a good clinical history and the use of appropriate isolation and identification procedures by the laboratory to confirm illnesses attributed to Vibrio species. Except for Vibrio cholerae O1 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, there is little direct evidence linking the production of a myriad of cell-associated or extracellular factors produced by each species with human disease and pathogenesis. Many questions regarding pathogenic Vibrio species remain unanswered, including their frequency and distribution in environmental specimens (water, shellfish), infective doses, virulence potential of individual isolates, and markers associated with such strains. Images

Janda, J M; Powers, C; Bryant, R G; Abbott, S L

1988-01-01

390

A Vibrio harveyi insertional mutant in the cgtA (obg, yhbZ) gene, whose homologues are present in diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to humans and are essential genes in many bacterial species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cgtA gene product is a member of the subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins that have been identified in diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. In bacteria that sporulate or display another special developmental programme, this gene (referred to as cgtA, obg or yhbZ) appears to be involved in the regulation of these processes. However, this gene has also

Agata Czyz; Ryszard Zielke

391

Cell vacuolation caused by Vibrio cholerae hemolysin.  

PubMed

Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae implicated in gastroenteritis and diarrhea generally lack virulence determinants such as cholera toxin that are characteristic of epidemic strains; the factors that contribute to their virulence are not understood. Here we report that at least one-third of diarrhea-associated nonepidemic V. cholerae strains from Mexico cause vacuolation of cultured Vero cells. Detailed analyses indicated that this vacuolation was related to that caused by aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin of Aeromonas; it involved primarily the endoplasmic reticulum at early times (approximately 1 to 4 h after exposure), and resulted in formation of large, acidic, endosome-like multivesicular vacuoles (probably autophagosomes) only at late times (approximately 16 h). In contrast to vacuolation caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA protein, that induced by V. cholerae was exacerbated by agents that block vacuolar proton pumping but not by endosome-targeted weak bases. It caused centripetal redistribution of endosomes, reflecting cytoplasmic alkalinization. The gene for V. cholerae vacuolating activity was cloned and was found to correspond to hlyA, the structural gene for hemolysin. HlyA protein is a pore-forming toxin that causes ion leakage and, ultimately, eukaryotic cell lysis. Thus, a distinct form of cell vacuolation precedes cytolysis at low doses of hemolysin. We propose that this vacuolation, in itself, contributes to the virulence of V. cholerae strains, perhaps by perturbing intracellular membrane trafficking or ion exchange in target cells and thereby affecting local intestinal inflammatory or other defense responses. PMID:11179335

Figueroa-Arredondo, P; Heuser, J E; Akopyants, N S; Morisaki, J H; Giono-Cerezo, S; Enríquez-Rincón, F; Berg, D E

2001-03-01

392

Pyrosequencing-based comparative genome analysis of Vibrio vulnificus environmental isolates.  

PubMed

Between 1996 and 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control reported that the only category of food-borne infections increasing in frequency were those caused by members of the genus Vibrio. The gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus is a ubiquitous inhabitant of estuarine waters, and is the number one cause of seafood-related deaths in the US. Many V. vulnificus isolates have been studied, and it has been shown that two genetically distinct subtypes, distinguished by 16S rDNA and other gene polymorphisms, are associated predominantly with either environmental or clinical isolation. While local genetic differences between the subtypes have been probed, only the genomes of clinical isolates have so far been completely sequenced. In order to better understand V. vulnificus as an agent of disease and to identify the molecular components of its virulence mechanisms, we have completed whole genome shotgun sequencing of three diverse environmental genotypes using a pyrosequencing approach. V. vulnificus strain JY1305 was sequenced to a depth of 33×, and strains E64MW and JY1701 were sequenced to lesser depth, covering approximately 99.9% of each genome. We have performed a comparative analysis of these sequences against the previously published sequences of three V. vulnificus clinical isolates. We find that the genome of V. vulnificus is dynamic, with 1.27% of genes in the C-genotype genomes not found in the E- genotype genomes. We identified key genes that differentiate between the genomes of the clinical and environmental genotypes. 167 genes were found to be specifically associated with environmental genotypes and 278 genes with clinical genotypes. Genes specific to the clinical strains include components of sialic acid catabolism, mannitol fermentation, and a component of a Type IV secretory pathway VirB4, as well as several other genes with potential significance for human virulence. Genes specific to environmental strains included several that may have implications for the balance between self-preservation under stress and nutritional competence. PMID:22662170

Morrison, Shatavia S; Williams, Tiffany; Cain, Aurora; Froelich, Brett; Taylor, Casey; Baker-Austin, Craig; Verner-Jeffreys, David; Hartnell, Rachel; Oliver, James D; Gibas, Cynthia J

2012-05-25

393

Vibrio cholerae Requires rpoS for Efficient Intestinal Colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae is a facultative intestinal pathogen that lives in aquatic environments, often in association with planktonic species. In the suckling mouse, oral inoculation with V. cholerae leads to intestinal colonization and symptoms of diarrheal disease. Results reported here indicate a role for the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, in intestinal colonization in this model of cholera. We constructed within rpoS

D. SCOTT MERRELL; ANNA D. TISCHLER; SANG HO LEE; ANDREW CAMILLI

2000-01-01

394

Cholesterol induce oligomerization of Vibrio vulnificus cytolysin specifically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus cytolysin (VVC) has been implicated as one of the important virulence determinants of V. vulnificus that causes serious septicemia and wound infection. An attempt was made to investigate that VVC could act as a ligand which stimulates intracel- lular signaling systems. Cholesterol dose-depen- dently blocked VVC hemolytic activity through oli- gomerization of cytolysin. Among cholesterol deriv- atives including

Byeong-Soo Kim; Jong-Suk Kim

2002-01-01

395

Multiplex real-time PCR detection of Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholera is an important enteric disease, which is endemic to different regions of the world and has historically been the cause of severe pandemics. Vibrio cholerae is a natural inhabitant of the aquatic environment and the toxigenic strains are causative agents of potentially life-threatening diarrhoea. A multiplex, real-time detection assay was developed targeting four genes characteristic of potentially toxigenic strains

Aneta J. Gubala

2006-01-01

396

Antibiotic activity of lectins from marine algae against marine vibrios.  

PubMed

Saline and aqueous ethanol extracts of marine algae and the lectins from two red algal species were assayed for their antibiotic activity against marine vibrios. Experimental studies were also carried out on the influence of environmental factors on such activity, using batch cultures. The results indicated that many of the saline extracts of the algal species were active and that the activity was selective against those vibrios assayed. The algal extracts were active against Vibrio pelagius and the fish pathogen V. vulnificus, but inactive against V. neresis. Algal lectins from Eucheuma serra (ESA) and Galaxaura marginata (GMA) strongly inhibited V. vulnificus but were inactive against the other two vibrios. The antibacterial activity of algal extracts was inhibited by pretreatment with various sugars and glycoprotein. Extracts of the two red algae, E. serra and Pterocladia capillacea, in saline and aqueous ethanol, inhibited markedly the growth rate of V. vulnificus at very low concentrations. Culture results indicated that metabolites active against V. vulnificus were invariably produced in P. capillacea over a wide range of temperature, light intensity, and nutritional conditions. Enhanced antibacterial activity occurred when P. capillacea was grown under higher irradiance, severe nutrient stress and moderate temperature (20 degrees C), reflecting the specific antibiotic characteristics of this alga. The strong antibiotic activity of lectins towards fish pathogenic bacteria reveals one of the important roles played by algal lectins, as well as the potential high economic value of those marine algae assayed for aquaculture and for biomedical purposes. PMID:12884128

Liao, W-R; Lin, J-Y; Shieh, W-Y; Jeng, W-L; Huang, R

2003-07-23

397

Antimicrobial Peptides Protect Coho Salmon from Vibrio anguillarum Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish losses from infectious diseases are a significant problem in aquaculture worldwide. Therefore, we investigated the ability of cationic antimicrobial peptides to protect against infection caused by the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. To identify effective peptides for fish, the MICs of certain antimicrobial peptides against fish pathogens were determined in vitro. Two of the most effective antimicrobial peptides, CEME, a

X. Jia; A. Patrzykat; R. H. Devlin; P. A. Ackerman; G. K. Iwama; R. E. W. Hancock

2000-01-01

398

Power plays: iron transport and energy transduction in pathogenic vibrios  

PubMed Central

The Vibrios are a unique group of bacteria inhabiting a vast array of aquatic environments. Many Vibrio species are capable of infecting a wide assortment of hosts. Some of these species include V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. anguillarum, and V. cholerae. The ability of these organisms to utilize iron is essential in establishing both an infection in their hosts as well as surviving in the environment. Bacteria are able to sequester iron through the secretion of low molecular weight iron chelators termed siderophores. The iron-siderophore complexes are bound by specific outer membrane receptors and are brought through both the outer and inner membranes of the cell. The energy needed to drive this active transport is achieved through the TonB energy transduction system. When first elucidated in E. coli, the TonB system was shown to be a three protein complex consisting of TonB, ExbB and ExbD. Most Vibrio species carry two TonB systems. The second TonB system includes a fourth protein; TtpC, which is essential for TonB2 mediated iron transport. Some Vibrio species have been shown to carry a third TonB system that also includes a TtpC protein.

Kustusch, Ryan J.; Kuehl, Carole J.; Crosa, Jorge H.

2011-01-01

399

Filamentous phage associated with recent pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed Central

A group of pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has recently appeared in Asia and North America. We demonstrate that a filamentous phage is specifically associated with the pandemic V. parahaemolyticus strains. An open reading frame unique to the phage is a useful genetic marker to identify these strains.

Iida, T.; Hattori, A.; Tagomori, K.; Nasu, H.; Naim, R.; Honda, T.

2001-01-01

400

Clinical Characteristics and Molecular Subtyping of Vibrio vulnificus Illnesses, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1996-1997, a new Vibrio vulnifi cus biotype 3, which caused severe soft tissue infection after fi shbone injury, emerged in Israel. We conducted a follow-up study from 1998 through 2005 to assess changing trends, out- comes, and molecular relatedness of the implicated strains. A total of 132 cases (71% confi rmed and 29% suspected) of V. vulnifi cus biotype

Ronit Zaidenstein; Chantal Sadik; Larisa Lerner; Lea Valinsky; June Kopelowitz; Ruth Yishai; Vered Agmon; Michele Parsons; Cheryl Bopp; Miriam Weinberger

2008-01-01

401

Quartz crystal microbalance detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 serotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

A piezoelectric (PZ) quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor for the rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae serotype O139 has been developed. The antibody to this serotype was immobilized on the gold transducer surface of a 10 MHz AT cut PZ crystal. Solutions containing known antigen concentrations were then incubated for 1 h on the antibody-bound transducer. The biosensor was able to

R. M. Carter; J. J. Mekalanos; M. B. Jacobs; G. J. Lubrano; G. G. Guilbault

1995-01-01

402

Antibiotic activity of lectins from marine algae against marine vibrios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saline and aqueous ethanol extracts of marine algae and the lectins from two red algal species were assayed for their antibiotic activity against marine vibrios. Experimental studies were also carried out on the influence of environmental factors on such activity, using batch cultures. The results indicated that many of the saline extracts of the algal species were active and that

W.-R. Liao; J.-Y. Lin; W.-Y. Shieh; W.-L. Jeng; R. Huang

2003-01-01

403

Complete Genome Sequence of Vibrio vulnificus Bacteriophage SSP002  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus phages are abundant in coastal marine environments, shellfish, clams, and oysters. SSP002, a V. vulnificus-specific bacteriophage, was isolated from oysters from the west coast of South Korea. In this study, the complete genome of SSP002 was sequenced and analyzed for the first time among the V. vulnificus-specific bacteriophages.

Lee, Hyun Sung; Choi, Slae

2012-01-01

404

Isolation of Vibrio cholerae serotype Ogawa from a Florida estuary.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae serotype Ogawa was recently isolated from the estuarine waters of Apalachicola Bay, Fla., in areas that are subject to consistent fecal contamination and in areas that are remote from any apparent source of contamination. The significance of these organisms in the environment has not been determined. PMID:6824323

Motes, M L; Zywno, S R; DePaola, A; Becker, R E; Presnell, M W

1983-01-01

405

Vibrio vulnificus resists phagocytosis in the absence of serum opsonins.  

PubMed Central

Invasive disease caused by Vibrio vulnificus may result partially from resistance to phagocytic host defense mechanisms. The present studies show that V. vulnificus resists phagocytosis by murine peritoneal macrophages in the absence of serum opsonins and extracellular bacterial products, apparently through the anti-phagocytic properties of the bacterial surface.

Tamplin, M L; Specter, S; Rodrick, G E; Friedman, H

1985-01-01

406

Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Vibrio cholerae, India  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is rarely reported. We detected a strain that was negative for extended-spectrum ?-lactamase and positive for the AmpC disk test, modified Hodge test, and EDTA disk synergy test and harbored the blaDHA-1 and blaNDM-1 genes. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile of V. cholerae should be monitored.

Mandal, Jharna; Sangeetha, Vilwanathan; Ganesan, Vithiya; Parveen, Mohamudha; Preethi, Venkatesan; Harish, Belgode Narasimha; Srinivasan, Sampath

2012-01-01

407

Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in Water and Seafood, Haiti  

PubMed Central

During the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, water and seafood samples were collected to detect Vibrio cholerae. The outbreak strain of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was isolated from freshwater and seafood samples. The cholera toxin gene was detected in harbor water samples.

Cohen, Nicole; Kahler, Amy M.; Jones, Jessica L.; Bopp, Cheryl A.; Marano, Nina; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Garrett, Nancy M.; Boncy, Jacques; Henry, Ariel; Gomez, Gerardo A.; Wellman, Michael; Curtis, Maurice; Freeman, Molly M.; Turnsek, Maryann; Benner, Ronald A.; Dahourou, Georges; Espey, David; DePaola, Angelo; Tappero, Jordan W.; Handzel, Tom; Tauxe, Robert V.

2011-01-01

408

Differentiation, Classification and Laboratory Diagnosis of El Tor Vibrios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By the use of kappa-type phage, El Tor cholera vibrios were classified into 'Celebes type' and 'Classic-Ubon type', and the 'Celebes type' was further divided into 'Original' and 'Cured' strains. This phage-typing was applied to epidemiological studies. B...

K. Takeya

1967-01-01

409

Occurrence of Vibrio vulnificus Biotypes in Danish Marine Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the unusually warm summer in Denmark in 1994, 11 clinical cases of Vibrio vulnificus infection were reported. These reports initiated an investigation of the occurrence of V. vulnificus biotypes in Danish marine environments. Samples of coastal water, sediment, shellfish, and wild fish were analyzed by preenrichment in alkaline peptone water amended with polymyxin B (2.0 3 10 4 U\\/liter)

L. HØI; J. L. LARSEN; I. DALSGAARD; A. DALSGAARD

1998-01-01

410

Expression of Vibrio vulnificus Capsular Polysaccharide Inhibits Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a human pathogen that produces lethal septicemia in susceptible persons, and the primary virulence factor for this organism is capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The role of the capsule in V. vulnificus biofilms was examined under a variety of conditions, by using either defined CPS mutants or spontaneous CPS expression phase variants derived from multiple strains. CPS expression was

Lavin A. Joseph; Anita C. Wright

2004-01-01

411

An Epimerase Gene Essential for Capsule Synthesis in Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracellular capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Vibrio vulnificus is a primary virulence factor which allows survival of the bacteria in the human host. To study the genes involved in expression of the capsule, we generated mutants that lost the ability to produce CPS following the insertion of a minitransposon into the genome of an encapsulated, clinical strain of V. vulnificus.

AMY B. ZUPPARDO; RONALD J. SIEBELING

1998-01-01

412

Isolation and Purification of Prodigiosin from Vibrio psychroerythrus  

PubMed Central

The red pigment of Vibrio psychroerythrus (formerly marine psychrophile NRC 1004) was identified as prodigiosin by comparison of its mass spectrum, absorption spectrum in the visible range, and chromatographic behavior with prodigiosin isolated from Serratia marcescens. The properties of the V. psychroerythrus pigment were clearly distinguishable from five other prodigiosin-like compounds isolated from three different microorganisms.

D'Aoust, J. Y.; Gerber, Nancy N.

1974-01-01

413

Quorum sensing controls biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Multiple quorum-sensing circuits function in parallel to control virulence and biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae . In contrast to other bacterial pathogens that induce virulence factor production and\\/or biofilm for- mation at high cell density in the presence of quorum- sensing autoinducers, V. cholerae represses these behaviours at high cell density. Consistent with this, we show here that V.

Brian K. Hammer; Bonnie L. Bassler

2003-01-01

414

Regulation system for protease production in Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a causative agent of serious food-borne diseases in humans related to consumption of raw seafoods. This human pathogen secretes a metalloprotease (VVP) that evokes enhancement of the vascular permeability and disruption of the capillaries. Production of microbial proteases is generally induced at early stationary phase of its growth. This cell density dependent regulation of VVP production in

Tomoka Kawase; Shin-ichi Miyoshi; Zafar Sultan; Sumio Shinoda

2004-01-01

415

Probing control of glucose feeding in Vibrio cholerae cultivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with Vibrio cholerae is a significant problem in many developing countries. Cultivation of V. cholerae is used in production of cholera toxin B subunit, which is a component in a cholera vaccine. Fed-batch cultivations with V. cholerae in defined media have been conducted and reproducible results were obtained. A probing feeding strategy developed by Åkesson for Escherichia coli cultivations

L. de Maré; L. Andersson; P. Hagander

2003-01-01

416

Physiologische Untersuchungen zur Bioluminescenz von Vibrio luminosus Beijerinck  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is established for the cultivation of Vibrio luminosus Beijerinck and continuous registration of light intensity with photomultipliers. Comparing examinations of luminescence and respiration demonstrate that light emission is increasing only after the maximum of respiration has been reached. The intensity of bioluminescence is influenced by noxious substances of industrial origin and luminous bacteria can be used as test

Franz Kössler; Gunther Müller

1967-01-01

417

Design of Vibrio 16S rRNA gene specific primers and their application in the analysis of seawater Vibrio community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pathogenic species of genus Vibrio cause vibriosis, one of the most prevalent diseases of maricultured animals and seafood consumers. Monitoring their kinetics in the chain of seafood production, processing and consumption is of great importance for food and mariculture safety. In order to enrich Vibrio-representing 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) fragments and identify these bacteria further real-timely and synchronously among bacterial flora in the chain, a pair of primers that selectively amplify Vibrio 16S rDNA fragments were designed with their specificities and coverage testified in the analysis of seawater Vibrio community. The specificities and coverage of two primers, VF169 and VR744, were determined theoretically among bacterial 16S rDNAs available in GenBank by using BLAST program and practically by amplifying, Vibrio 16S rDNA fragments from seawater DNA. More than 88.3% of sequences in GenBank, which showed identical matches with VR744, belong to Vibrio genus. A total of 33 clones were randomly selected and sequenced. All of the sequences showed their highest similarities to and clustered around those of diverse known Vibrio species. The primers designed are capable of retrieving a wide range of Vibrio 16S rDNA fragments specifically among bacterial flora in seawater, the most important natural environment of seafood cultivation.

Liu, Yong; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Hualei; Chen, Jixiang; Shi, Xianming; Zou, Guiwei; Wei, Qiwei; Sun, Xiuqin

2006-04-01

418

Phenotypic Characterization ofVibrio vulnificusBiotype 2, a Lipopolysaccharide-Based Homogeneous O Serogroup withinVibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have reevaluated the taxonomic position of biotype 2 ofVibrio vulnificus. For this purpose, we have biochemically and serologically characterized 83 biotype 2 strains from diseased eels, comparing them with 17 biotype 1 strains from different sources. Selected strains were also molecularly analyzed and tested for eel and mouse pathogenicity. Results have shown that biotype 2 (i)

ELENA G. BIOSCA; JAMES D. OLIVER; ANDCARMEN AMARO

1996-01-01

419

Comparison between thiosulphate-citrate-bile salt sucrose (TCBS) agar and CHROMagar Vibrio for isolating Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering its widespread distribution in marine environments, its fast replication times and low infectious doses and the rapid spread of its strains in recent years, intensive and continuous monitoring of potentially pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus is strongly recommended in order to assess the human health risk arising from shellfish consumption. The lack of epidemiological data points to the need to develop

Angela Di Pinto; Valentina Terio; Lucia Novello; Giuseppina Tantillo

2011-01-01

420

A new culture-based method for the improved identification of Vibrio vulnificus from environmental samples, reducing the need for molecular confirmation.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for 95% of seafood related deaths in the US. Monitoring the presence of this bacterium in estuarine waters and shellfish is of medical and economic importance due to its ability to cause severe wound infections and fulminant septicemia. Current methods for isolating V. vulnificus from environmental samples typically employ an initial selective medium which requires subsequent molecular confirmation of presumptive V. vulnificus isolates. Although culture-based methods are accessible and inexpensive, they lack the specificity needed to definitively identify V. vulnificus. The goal of this study was to develop a more accurate, culture-based method for the initial detection of V. vulnificus, thereby decreasing or eliminating the requirement for confirmatory molecular tests. Colony color characteristics of a variety of Vibrio species were determined on three commonly employed media to identify those which present as false-positive isolates for V. vulnificus. We subsequently developed a triple-plating method which utilizes three media in combination to greatly decrease the number of false positive isolates. The number of isolates positively identified as V. vulnificus using the triple-plating method were compared to a typical single-plating method and revealed over a 2-fold increase in ability to accurately predict V. vulnificus isolates. We suggest that this new method will enhance the predictive power of culture-based methods, reduce the cost and time spent on additional detection methods, and may be a valuable alternative when molecular methods are not available or unaffordable. PMID:23566825

Williams, Tiffany C; Froelich, Brett; Oliver, James D

2013-04-06

421

Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium.  

PubMed

A new alkaliphilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain Z-7935T (T = type strain), was isolated from a soda-depositing lake, Lake Magadi in Kenya. This organism is a motile vibrio which utilizes only hydrogen and formate as electron donors and sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate, but not sulfur, as electron acceptors. Thiosulfate is dismutated. Strain Z-7935T is an obligately sodium-dependent alkaliphile which grows in sodium carbonate medium and does not grow at pH 7; the maximum pH for growth is more than pH 10, and the optimum pH is 9.5 to 9.7. The optimum NaCl concentration for growth is 3% (wt/vol). The optimum temperature for growth is 37 degrees C. The G + C content of the DNA is 48.6 mol%. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis revealed that strain Z-7935T represents a new lineage with genus status in the delta subclass of the Proteobacteria. The name Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this organism; the type strain of D. hydrogenovorans is strain Z-7935 (= DSM 9292). PMID:8995816

Zhilina, T N; Zavarzin, G A; Rainey, F A; Pikuta, E N; Osipov, G A; Kostrikina, N A

1997-01-01

422

Spectrum of vibrio species associated with acute diarrhea in North Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio spp was isolated from 1024 (21.2%) of 4820 diarrhea patients admitted to a community hospital in North Jakarta from 1996 through 1998. Vibrio cholerae O1 (49.5%) and V. parahaemolyticus (30.1%) comprised the major species isolated, followed by V. cholerae non-O1 (16.9%), and V. fluvialis (9.4%). In 938 (19.4%) patients, Vibrio was found as single isolate. Multiple infections were detected

Murad Lesmana; Decy S Subekti; Periska Tjaniadi; Cyrus H Simanjuntak; Narain H Punjabi; James R Campbell; Buhari A Oyofo

2002-01-01

423

The in vitro antibiofilm activity of selected marine bacterial culture supernatants against Vibrio spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work is to investigate the effect of marine bacterial culture supernatants on biofilm formation of Vibrio spp., a major menace in aquaculture industries. Vibrio spp. biofilm cause life-threatening infections in humans and animals. Forty-three marine bacterial culture supernatants were\\u000a screened against the hydrophobicity index, initial attachment and biofilm formation in Vibrio spp. Twelve culture supernatants showed

Chari Nithya; Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian

2010-01-01

424

Towards a Phylogeny of the Genus Vibrio Based on 16s rRNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inter- and intrageneric relationships of the genus Vibrio were investigated by performing a comparative analysis of the 16s rRNAs of 10 species, including four pathogenic representatives. The results of immuno- logical and 5s rRNA studies were confirmed in that the genus is a neighboring taxon of the family Entero- bacteriaceae. With regard to the intrageneric structure, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio

M. DORSCH; E. STACKEBRANDT

1992-01-01

425

A multiplatform real-time polymerase chain reaction detection assay for Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

We report a multiplatform real-time polymerase chain reaction methodology based on genes encoding for the regulatory toxR activator and enterotoxin A protein to determine enterotoxigenic Vibrio cholerae types from other vibrios. This assay, which was successfully validated on a collection of 87 bacterial strains, including 63 representatives of V. cholerae and 8 noncholera vibrios provides a rapid tool for detection and identification of cholera. PMID:19729262

Koskela, Katja A; Matero, Pirjo; Blatny, Janet M; Fykse, Else M; Olsen, Jaran Strand; Nuotio, Lasse O; Nikkari, Simo

2009-09-02

426

Swimming efficiency of bacterium Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

We use measurements of swimming bacteria in an optical trap to determine fundamental properties of bacterial propulsion. In particular, we directly measure the force required to hold the bacterium in the optical trap and determine the propulsion matrix, which relates the translational and angular velocity of the flagellum to the torques and forces propelling the bacterium. From the propulsion matrix, dynamical properties such as torques, swimming speed, and power can be obtained by measuring the angular velocity of the motor. We find significant heterogeneities among different individuals even though all bacteria started from a single colony. The propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the propulsive power output to the rotary power input provided by the motors, is found to be ?2%, which is consistent with the efficiency predicted theoretically for a rigid helical coil.

Chattopadhyay, Suddhashil; Moldovan, Radu; Yeung, Chuck; Wu, X. L.

2006-01-01

427

Paradigms: examples from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.  

PubMed

The history of advances in research on Xylella fastidiosa provides excellent examples of how paradigms both advance and limit our scientific understanding of plant pathogens and the plant diseases they cause. I describe this from a personal perspective, having been directly involved with many persons who made paradigm-changing discoveries, beginning with the discovery that a bacterium, not a virus, causes Pierce's disease of grape and other plant diseases in numerous plant species, including important crop and forest species. PMID:23682911

Purcell, Alexander

2013-05-17

428

A bacteriophage of a moderately halophilic bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacteriophage of an aerobic, gram-negative, rod-shaped halophilic bacterium, provisionally named Pseudomonas sp. G3, is described. The phage has a head and a tail and is similar in appearance to Salmonella phage Beccles. It infects its bacterial host at all salt concentrations in which the bacteirum is able to grow. In contrast to phages of halophilic archaebacteria, the newly-described phage

Tiiu Kauri; Hans-W. Ackermann; Usha Goel; Donn J. Kushner

1991-01-01

429

A New, Mushroom-shaped Budding Bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mushroom-shaped budding bacterium, isolated from fresh pond water, is unlike any previously described aquatic budding bacteria (Whittenbury & McLee, I 967 ; Hirsch & Rheinheimer, 1968 ; Staley, 1968). Its morphological 'life-cycle' and other properties are described. METHODS Media. The organism was grown routinely in glucose-salts medium (pH 6.9) of the follow- ing composition: (NH4)2S04, 0.1 % (w\\/v); NaCI,

R. WHITTENBURY; JUDITH M. NICOLL

1971-01-01

430

Vibrio cholerae FabV defines a new class of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase.  

PubMed

Enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase catalyzes the last step of the fatty acid elongation cycle. The paradigm enoyl-ACP reductase is the FabI protein of Escherichia coli that is the target of the antibacterial compound, triclosan. However, some Gram-positive bacteria are naturally resistant to triclosan due to the presence of the triclosan-resistant enoyl-ACP reductase isoforms, FabK and FabL. The genome of the Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae lacks a gene encoding a homologue of any of the three known enoyl-ACP reductase isozymes suggesting that this organism encodes a novel fourth enoyl-ACP reductase isoform. We report that this is the case. The gene encoding the new isoform, called FabV, was isolated by complementation of a conditionally lethal E. coli fabI mutant strain and was shown to restore fatty acid synthesis to the mutant strain both in vivo and in vitro. Like FabI and FabL, FabV is a member of the short chain dehydrogenase reductase superfamily, although it is considerably larger (402 residues) than either FabI (262 residues) or FabL (250 residues). The FabV, FabI and FabL sequences can be aligned, but only poorly. Alignment requires many gaps and yields only 15% identical residues. Thus, FabV defines a new class of enoyl-ACP reductase. The native FabV protein has been purified to homogeneity and is active with both crotonyl-ACP and the model substrate, crotonyl-CoA. In contrast to FabI and FabL, FabV shows a very strong preference for NADH over NADPH. Expression of FabV in E. coli results in markedly increased resistance to triclosan and the purified enzyme is much more resistant to triclosan than is E. coli FabI. PMID:18032386

Massengo-Tiassé, R Prisca; Cronan, John E

2007-11-21

431

Vibrio cholerae evades neutrophil extracellular traps by the activity of two extracellular nucleases.  

PubMed

The Gram negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the secretory diarrheal disease cholera, which has traditionally been classified as a noninflammatory disease. However, several recent reports suggest that a V. cholerae infection induces an inflammatory response in the gastrointestinal tract indicated by recruitment of innate immune cells and increase of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we describe a colonization defect of a double extracellular nuclease V. cholerae mutant in immunocompetent mice, which is not evident in neutropenic mice. Intrigued by this observation, we investigated the impact of neutrophils, as a central part of the innate immune system, on the pathogen V. cholerae in more detail. Our results demonstrate that V. cholerae induces formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) upon contact with neutrophils, while V. cholerae in return induces the two extracellular nucleases upon presence of NETs. We show that the V. cholerae wild type rapidly degrades the DNA component of the NETs by the combined activity of the two extracellular nucleases Dns and Xds. In contrast, NETs exhibit prolonged stability in presence of the double nuclease mutant. Finally, we demonstrate that Dns and Xds mediate evasion of V. cholerae from NETs and lower the susceptibility for extracellular killing in the presence of NETs. This report provides a first comprehensive characterization of the interplay between neutrophils and V. cholerae along with new evidence that the innate immune response impacts the colonization of V. cholerae in vivo. A limitation of this study is an inability for technical and physiological reasons to visualize intact NETs in the intestinal lumen of infected mice, but we can hypothesize that extracellular nuclease production by V. cholerae may enhance survival fitness of the pathogen through NET degradation. PMID:24039581

Seper, Andrea; Hosseinzadeh, Ava; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Roier, Sandro; Leitner, Deborah R; Röhm, Marc; Grutsch, Andreas; Reidl, Joachim; Urban, Constantin F; Schild, Stefan

2013-09-05

432

Vibrio cholerae Evades Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by the Activity of Two Extracellular Nucleases  

PubMed Central

The Gram negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the secretory diarrheal disease cholera, which has traditionally been classified as a noninflammatory disease. However, several recent reports suggest that a V. cholerae infection induces an inflammatory response in the gastrointestinal tract indicated by recruitment of innate immune cells and increase of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we describe a colonization defect of a double extracellular nuclease V. cholerae mutant in immunocompetent mice, which is not evident in neutropenic mice. Intrigued by this observation, we investigated the impact of neutrophils, as a central part of the innate immune system, on the pathogen V. cholerae in more detail. Our results demonstrate that V. cholerae induces formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) upon contact with neutrophils, while V. cholerae in return induces the two extracellular nucleases upon presence of NETs. We show that the V. cholerae wild type rapidly degrades the DNA component of the NETs by the combined activity of the two extracellular nucleases Dns and Xds. In contrast, NETs exhibit prolonged stability in presence of the double nuclease mutant. Finally, we demonstrate that Dns and Xds mediate evasion of V. cholerae from NETs and lower the susceptibility for extracellular killing in the presence of NETs. This report provides a first comprehensive characterization of the interplay between neutrophils and V. cholerae along with new evidence that the innate immune response impacts the colonization of V. cholerae in vivo. A limitation of this study is an inability for technical and physiological reasons to visualize intact NETs in the intestinal lumen of infected mice, but we can hypothesize that extracellular nuclease production by V. cholerae may enhance survival fitness of the pathogen through NET degradation.

Seper, Andrea; Hosseinzadeh, Ava; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Roier, Sandro; Leitner, Deborah R.; Rohm, Marc; Grutsch, Andreas; Reidl, Joachim; Urban, Constantin F.; Schild, Stefan

2013-01-01

433

Population Structure of Clinical and Environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Pacific Northwest Coast of the United States  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common marine bacterium and a leading cause of seafood-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although this bacterium has been the subject of much research, the population structure of cold-water populations remains largely undescribed. We present a broad phylogenetic analysis of clinical and environmental V. parahaemolyticus originating largely from the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) separated 167 isolates into 39 groups and subsequent multilocus sequence typing (MLST) separated a subset of 77 isolates into 24 sequence types. The Pacific Northwest population exhibited a semi-clonal structure attributed to an environmental clade (ST3, N?=?17 isolates) clonally related to the pandemic O3:K6 complex and a clinical clade (ST36, N?=?20 isolates) genetically related to a regionally endemic O4:K12 complex. Further, the identification of at least five additional clinical sequence types (i.e., ST43, 50, 65, 135 and 417) demonstrates that V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in the Pacific Northwest is polyphyletic in nature. Recombination was evident as a significant source of genetic diversity and in particular, the recA and dtdS alleles showed strong support for frequent recombination. Although pandemic-related illnesses were not documented during the study, the environmental occurrence of the pandemic clone may present a significant threat to human health and warrants continued monitoring. It is evident that V. parahaemolyticus population structure in the Pacific Northwest is semi-clonal and it would appear that multiple sequence types are contributing to the burden of disease in this region.

Turner, Jeffrey W.; Paranjpye, Rohinee N.; Landis, Eric D.; Biryukov, Stanley V.; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Nilsson, William B.; Strom, Mark S.

2013-01-01

434

Association of Vibrio cholerae with fresh water amoebae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. An investigation was undertaken to determine whether Acanthamoeba polyphaga SHI and Naegleria gruberi 1518\\/le could affect the survival of various strains of Vibrio cholerae in laboratory microcosms. In microcosms pre-inoculated with trophozoites of amoebae, all six strains of V. choZerae tested survived and multiplied during 24 h. In control microcosms without trophozoites of amoebae, survival of the V. cholerae

SUSAN THOM; D. WARHURSTt; B. S. Drasar

1992-01-01

435

Mechanism of activation of adenylate cyclase by Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The influence ofVibrio cholerae enterotoxin (choleragen) on the response of adenylate cyclase to hormones and GTP, and on the binding of125I-labeled glucagon to membranes, has been examined primarily in rat adipocytes, but also in guinea pig ileal mucosa and rat liver. Incubation of fat cells with choleragen converts adenylate cyclase to a GTP-responsive state; (-)-isoproterenol has a similar effect

Vann Bennett; Lilly Mong; Pedro Cuatrecasas

1975-01-01

436

Integron-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The disease cholera is the result of infection with the toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae. Even though the oral rehydration therapy is the main stay for the treatment of cholera patients, administration of antimicrobials\\u000a is a common existing practice as it shortens the volume and duration of diarrhea, duration of hospitalization, and excretion\\u000a of the causative pathogen. Due to excessive

Amit Ghosh; T. Ramamurthy

437

Cyclic Diguanylate Regulates Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic dinucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-diGMP) has been implicated in regulation of cell surface properties in several bacterial species, including Vibrio cholerae. Expression of genes required for V. cholerae biofilm formation is activated by an increased intracellular c-diGMP concentration. The response regulator VieA, which contains a domain responsible for degradation of c-diGMP, is required to maintain a low

Anna D. Tischler; Andrew Camilli

2005-01-01

438

Induction of Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression by Vibrio vulnificus Cytolysin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pore-forming cytolysin of Vibrio vulnificus (VVC) causes severe hypotension and vasodilatation in vivo. Under the condition of bacterial sepsis, large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) can contribute to host-induced tissue damage causing hypotension and septic shock. In this study, we investigated the effect of purified VVC on NO production in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

Mi-Kyung Kang; Eun-Chung Jhee; Bon-Sun Koo; Jeong-Yeh Yang; Byung-Hyun Park; Jong-Suk Kim; Hye-Won Rho; Hyung-Rho Kim; Jin-Woo Park

2002-01-01

439