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1

Cross-Species Induction of Luminescence in the Quorum Sensing Bacterium Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least two species of marine bacteria, Vibrio fischeri and Vibrio harveyi, express bioluminescence in response to cell den- sity. These two vibrios are found in different environments in the ocean. V. harveyi is found free-living in the sea as well as in the gut tracts of marine animals, where it exists at high popu- lation densities in association with

BONNIE L. BASSLER; E. PETER GREENBERG; ANN M. STEVENS

1997-01-01

2

Chitin Degradation Proteins Produced by the Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi Growing on Different Forms of Chitin  

PubMed Central

Relatively little is known about the number, diversity, and function of chitinases produced by bacteria, even though chitin is one of the most abundant polymers in nature. Because of the importance of chitin, especially in marine environments, we examined chitin-degrading proteins in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. This bacterium had a higher growth rate and more chitinase activity when grown on (beta)-chitin (isolated from squid pen) than on (alpha)-chitin (isolated from snow crab), probably because of the more open structure of (beta)-chitin. When exposed to different types of chitin, V. harveyi excreted several chitin-degrading proteins into the culture media. Some chitinases were present with all of the tested chitins, while others were unique to a particular chitin. We cloned and identified six separate chitinase genes from V. harveyi. These chitinases appear to be unique based on DNA restriction patterns, immunological data, and enzyme activity. This marine bacterium and probably others appear to synthesize separate chitinases for efficient utilization of different forms of chitin and chitin by-products. PMID:16535505

Svitil, A. L.; Chadhain, S.; Moore, J. A.; Kirchman, D. L.

1997-01-01

3

Mixture toxicity of nitrobenzene and trinitrobenzene using the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi as the test organism.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi, a bioluminescent marine bacterium, was used to evaluate combined or mixture toxicity of two organic compounds, nitrobenzene and trinitrobenzene. An estimated median effective concentration (EC50) and confidence interval were determined for each chemical. These chemicals at their EC50 were evaluated in combination and an additive index method was used to determine a numerical toxicology value. Combinations at 20% intervals of the EC50 were performed using isopleths. The isopleths employed were the isobole plot and the isobologram. Bioluminescent change was also determined and graphed for evaluation of toxicity. Statistical evaluation of isopleths and the additive index method were employed by incorporating confidence intervals. Bioluminescent change and isopleths suggest that mixtures of nitrobenzene and trinitrobenzene are additive, while the additive index method is suggestive of synergism. Statistical evaluation between mixtures and single values, using the z test, was in some cases different at the 5% level. These data suggest that interaction of combinations should be evaluated and described by multiple methodologies. Evaluation of these data suggests, in part, that one mixture is statistically different for antagonism. This study supports the use of bioluminescent microbial toxicity tests with various evaluative methodologies for the determination of mixture interactions. PMID:9126438

Thomulka, K W; Lange, J H

1997-03-01

4

Biochemical evidence against protein-mediated uptake of myristic acid in the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

The bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio harveyi, can utilize exogenous myristic acid (14:0) for beta-oxidation, phospholipid and lipid A synthesis, and as an source of myristyl aldehyde for light emission in the V. harveyi dark mutant M17. A variety of genetic and biochemical strategies were employed in an attempt to isolate V. harveyi mutants defective in myristate uptake and to characterize proteins involved in this process. Although [3H]myristate uptake in a tritium suicide experiment decreased the survival of nitrosoguanidine-treated M17 cells by a factor of 10(5), none of the surviving cells characterized were defective in either incorporation of exogenous myristate into phospholipid or stimulation of light emission. These parameters were also unaffected when intact M17 cells were treated with proteases. Moreover, M17 double mutants selected on the basis of diminished luminescence response to myristate all incorporated [3H]myristate into lipids normally. Finally, no resistant colonies were obtained using the bacteriocidal fatty acid analogue, 11-bromoundecanoate, and experiments with decanoate (10:0) indicated that the V. harveyi cell envelope is very sensitive to physical disruption by fatty acids. Taken together, these results support an unfacilitated uptake of myristic acid in V. harveyi, in contrast with the regulated vectorial transport and activation of long chain fatty acids in Escherichia coli. PMID:12489783

Byers, David M; Shen, Zhiwei

2002-10-01

5

Molecular Uptake of Chitooligosaccharides through Chitoporin from the Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

Background Chitin is the most abundant biopolymer in marine ecosystems. However, there is no accumulation of chitin in the ocean-floor sediments, since marine bacteria Vibrios are mainly responsible for a rapid turnover of chitin biomaterials. The catabolic pathway of chitin by Vibrios is a multi-step process that involves chitin attachment and degradation, followed by chitooligosaccharide uptake across the bacterial membranes, and catabolism of the transport products to fructose-6-phosphate, acetate and NH3. Principal Findings This study reports the isolation of the gene corresponding to an outer membrane chitoporin from the genome of Vibrio harveyi. This porin, expressed in E. coli, (so called VhChiP) was found to be a SDS-resistant, heat-sensitive trimer. Immunoblotting using anti-ChiP polyclonal antibody confirmed the expression of the recombinant ChiP, as well as endogenous expression of the native protein in the V. harveyi cells. The specific function of VhChiP was investigated using planar lipid membrane reconstitution technique. VhChiP nicely inserted into artificial membranes and formed stable, trimeric channels with average single conductance of 1.8±0.13 nS. Single channel recordings at microsecond-time resolution resolved translocation of chitooligosaccharides, with the greatest rate being observed for chitohexaose. Liposome swelling assays showed no permeation of other oligosaccharides, including maltose, sucrose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose and raffinose, indicating that VhChiP is a highly-specific channel for chitooligosaccharides. Conclusion/Significance We provide the first evidence that chitoporin from V. harveyi is a chitooligosaccharide specific channel. The results obtained from this study help to establish the fundamental role of VhChiP in the chitin catabolic cascade as the molecular gateway that Vibrios employ for chitooligosaccharide uptake for energy production. PMID:23383078

Suginta, Wipa; Chumjan, Watcharin; Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R.; Janning, Petra; Schulte, Albert; Winterhalter, Mathias

2013-01-01

6

Influence of nitrogen substrates and substrate C:N ratios on the nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen (N) isotopic compositions of individual hydrolysable amino acids (?15NAAs) in N pools have been increasingly used for trophic position assessment and evaluation of sources and transformation processes of organic matter in marine environments. However, there are limited data about variability in ?15NAAs patterns and how this variability influences marine bacteria, an important mediator of trophic transfer and organic matter transformation. We explored whether marine bacterial ?15NAAs profiles change depending on the type and C:N ratio of the substrate. The ?15NAAs profile of a marine bacterium, Vibrio harveyi, was examined using medium containing either glutamate, alanine or ammonium as the N source [substrate C:N ratios (range, 3 to 20) were adjusted with glucose]. The data were interpreted as a reflection of isotope fractionations associated with de novo synthesis of amino acids by bacteria. Principal component analysis (PCA) using the ?15N offset values normalized to glutamate + glutamine ?15N revealed that ?15NAAs profiles differed depending on the N source and C:N ratio of the substrate. High variability in the ?15N offset of alanine and valine largely explained this bacterial ?15NAAs profile variability. PCA was also conducted using bacterial and phytoplankton (cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae) ?15NAAs profile data reported previously. The results revealed that bacterial ?15NAAs patterns were distinct from those of phytoplankton. Therefore, the ?15NAAs profile is a useful indicator of biochemical responses of bacteria to changes in substrate conditions, serving as a potentially useful method for identifying organic matter sources in marine environments.

Maki, K.; Ohkouchi, N.; Chikaraishi, Y.; Fukuda, H.; Miyajima, T.; Nagata, T.

2014-09-01

7

Reprogramming of Vibrio harveyi gene expression during adaptation in cold seawater.  

PubMed

The life and survival of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi during its adaptation in natural aquatic systems is highly influenced by the availability of nutrients and temperature. To learn about adaptation strategies evolved by this bacterium to cope with drastic temperature downshifts and nutrients depletion, we have studied the phenotypical and gene expression changes occurring in V. harveyi during its adaptation to cold seawater. We found that incubation in cold seawater up to 12 h did not cause any significant morphological changes in V. harveyi and had no effect on the number of viable and culturable cells. Microarray analysis revealed that the V. harveyi response to cold seawater leads to up- and downregulation of numerous genes controlling the central carbon metabolism, nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis as well as DNA repair. In addition, expression of some genes controlling biosynthesis of lipids, molecular transport, and energy production was altered to likely affect the composition and properties of the V. harveyi cell envelope, thus implying the putative role of this compartment in adaptation to stress. Here, we discuss these results with regard to the putative adaptive responses likely triggered by V. harveyi to cope with environmental challenges in natural aquatic systems. PMID:24102529

Montánchez, Itxaso; Arana, Inés; Parada, Claudia; Garaizabal, Idoia; Orruño, Maite; Barcina, Isabel; Kaberdin, Vladimir R

2014-01-01

8

Draft Genome Sequence of the Opportunistic Marine Pathogen Vibrio harveyi Strain E385  

PubMed Central

Vibrio harveyi strain E385 was isolated from a diseased cage-cultured grouper in Daya Bay, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed similarity with V. harveyi strain BAA-1116. We sequenced the pathogenic strain V. harveyi E385 and compared the genome with that of the nonpathogenic strain V. harveyi BAA-1116. PMID:24336361

Yu, Mingjia; Ren, Chunhua; Qiu, Jinrong; Luo, Peng; Zhu, Ruyi

2013-01-01

9

Computational modeling of differences in the quorum sensing induced luminescence phenotypes of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae have quorum sensing pathways with similar design and highly homologous components including multiple small RNAs (sRNAs). However, the associated luminescence phenotypes of strains with sRNA deletions differ dramatically: in V. harveyi, the sRNAs act additively; however, in V. cholerae, the sRNAs act redundantly. Furthermore, there are striking differences in the luminescence phenotypes for different pathway

Andrew T. Fenley; Suman K. Banik; Rahul V. Kulkarni

2011-01-01

10

Genetic Determinants of Tetracycline Resistance in Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

Isolates of Vibrio harveyi, a prawn pathogen, have demonstrated multiple antibiotic resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, such as oxytetracycline. In this paper, we describe the cloning and characterization of two tetracycline resistance determinants from V. harveyi strain M3.4L. The first resistance determinant, cloned as a 4,590-bp fragment, was identical to tetA and flanking sequences encoded on transposon Tn10 from Shigella flexneri. The second determinant, cloned as a 3,358-bp fragment in pATJ1, contains two open reading frames, designated tet35 and txr. tet35 encodes a 369-amino-acid protein that was predicted to have nine transmembrane regions. It is a novel protein which has no homology to any other drug resistance protein but has low levels of homology (28%) to Na+/H+ antiporters. Transposon mutagenesis showed that tet35 and txr were required for tetracycline resistance in a heterologous Escherichia coli host. Tetracycline accumulation studies indicate that E. coli carrying tet35 and txr can function as an energy-dependent tetracycline efflux pump but is less efficient than TetA. PMID:11897587

Teo, Jeanette W. P.; Tan, Theresa M. C.; Poh, Chit Laa

2002-01-01

11

Association of a luminous Vibrio sp ., taxonomically related to Vibrio harveyi, with Clytia linearis (Thornely, 1900) (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously unknown association between a luminous Vibrio sp., taxonomically related to the species Vibrio harveyi and a common member of the shallow\\/mid water communities of the Mediterranean Sea, the hydrozoan Clytia linearis is described. All the specimens of C. linearis observed under blue light excitation showed both a natural luminescence appearing as a series of fine dots due to

Loredana Stabili; Cinzia Gravili; Salvatore Maurizio Tredici; Ferdinando Boero; Pietro Alifano

2011-01-01

12

Exposure to Static Magnetic Field Stimulates Quorum Sensing Circuit in Luminescent Vibrio Strains of the Harveyi Clade  

PubMed Central

In this study, the evidence of electron-dense magnetic inclusions with polyhedral shape in the cytoplasm of Harveyi clade Vibrio strain PS1, a bioluminescent bacterium living in symbiosis with marine organisms, led us to investigate the behavior of this bacterium under exposure to static magnetic fields ranging between 20 and 2000 Gauss. When compared to sham-exposed, the light emission of magnetic field-exposed bacteria growing on solid medium at 18°C ±0.1°C was increased up to two-fold as a function of dose and growth phase. Stimulation of bioluminescence by magnetic field was more pronounced during the post-exponential growth and stationary phase, and was lost when bacteria were grown in the presence of the iron chelator deferoxamine, which caused disassembly of the magnetic inclusions suggesting their involvement in magnetic response. As in luminescent Vibrio spp. bioluminescence is regulated by quorum sensing, possible effects of magnetic field exposure on quorum sensing were investigated. Measurement of mRNA levels by reverse transcriptase real time-PCR demonstrated that luxR regulatory gene and luxCDABE operon coding for luciferase and fatty acid reductase complex were significantly up-regulated in magnetic field-exposed bacteria. In contrast, genes coding for a type III secretion system, whose expression was negatively affected by LuxR, were down-regulated. Up-regulation of luxR paralleled with down-regulation of small RNAs that mediate destabilization of luxR mRNA in quorum sensing signaling pathways. The results of experiments with the well-studied Vibrio campbellii strain BB120 (originally classified as Vibrio harveyi) and derivative mutants unable to synthesize autoinducers suggest that the effects of magnetic fields on quorum sensing may be mediated by AI-2, the interspecies quorum sensing signal molecule. PMID:24960170

Tala, Adelfia; Delle Side, Domenico; Buccolieri, Giovanni; Tredici, Salvatore Maurizio; Velardi, Luciano; Paladini, Fabio; De Stefano, Mario; Nassisi, Vincenzo; Alifano, Pietro

2014-01-01

13

Mixture Toxicity of Nitrobenzene and Trinitrobenzene Using the Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyias the Test Organism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio harveyi,a bioluminescent marine bacterium, was used to evaluate combined or mixture toxicity of two organic compounds, nitrobenzene and trinitrobenzene. An estimated median effective concentration (EC50) and confidence interval were determined for each chemical. These chemicals at their EC50were evaluated in combination and an additive index method was used to determine a numerical toxicology value. Combinations at 20% intervals of

K. W. Thomulka; J. H. Lange

1997-01-01

14

Inhibition of Luminescence and Virulence in the Black Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Pathogen Vibrio harveyi by Intercellular Signal Antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated.

MICHAEL MANEFIELD; LACHLAN HARRIS; SCOTT A. RICE; ROCKY DE NYS; STAFFAN KJELLEBERG

2000-01-01

15

Mutagenicity test using Vibrio harveyi in the assessment of water quality from mussel farms.  

PubMed

This work analyses the mutagenicity of seawater from mussel farms using the Vibrio harveyi mutagenicity test and its relationship with the accumulated pollutants and the development of gonadal neoplasia in mussels. Histological disorders identified as germinoma were observed in the gonad of Mytilus galloprovincialis during the period of study. The prevalence of this pathology is significantly correlated with certain levels of pollutants accumulated in mussels, mainly of PAHs and PCBs, whose toxic equivalents were calculated as EROD induction equivalency. The mutagenicity and toxicity of the water surrounding mussel's farms is clearly correlated with the pollutants accumulated and with the neoplasia prevalence in mussels. Such correlations are corroborated by a multivariate analysis. Our results conclude with the utility of V. harveyi test as an optimal and rapid method in the monitoring of the quality of the water from mussel farms and as a tool to control the risks of pollution on mussel production and its safety for human food. PMID:23510693

Ruiz, Yolanda; Suárez, Pilar; Alonso, Ana; Longo, Elisa; San Juan, Fuencisla

2013-05-15

16

Norepinephrine and dopamine increase motility, biofilm formation, and virulence of Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

Vibrio harveyi is one of the major pathogens of aquatic organisms, affecting both vertebrates and invertebrates, and causes important losses in the aquaculture industry. In order to develop novel methods to control disease caused by this pathogen, we need to obtain a better understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Sensing of catecholamines increases both growth and production of virulence-related factors in pathogens of terrestrial animals and humans. However, at this moment, knowledge on the impact of catecholamines on the virulence of pathogens of aquatic organisms is lacking. In the present study, we report that in V. harveyi, norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (Dopa) increased growth in serum-supplemented medium, siderophore production, swimming motility, and expression of genes involved in flagellar motility, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharide production. Consistent with this, pretreatment of V. harveyi with catecholamines prior to inoculation into the rearing water resulted in significantly decreased survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, when compared to larvae challenged with untreated V. harveyi. Further, NE-induced effects could be neutralized by ?-adrenergic antagonists or by the bacterial catecholamine receptor antagonist LED209, but not by ?-adrenergic or dopaminergic antagonists. Dopa-induced effects could be neutralized by dopaminergic antagonists or LED209, but not by adrenergic antagonists. Together, our results indicate that catecholamine sensing increases the success of transmission of V. harveyi and that interfering with catecholamine sensing might be an interesting strategy to control vibriosis in aquaculture. We hypothesize that upon tissue and/or hemocyte damage during infection, pathogens come into contact with elevated catecholamine levels, and that this stimulates the expression of virulence factors that are required to colonize a new host.

Yang, Qian; Anh, Nguyen D. Q.; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

2014-01-01

17

Sigma E Regulators Control Hemolytic Activity and Virulence in a Shrimp Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

Members of the genus Vibrio are important marine and aquaculture pathogens. Hemolytic activity has been identified as a virulence factor in many pathogenic vibrios including V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi and V. vulnificus. We have used transposon mutagenesis to identify genes involved in the hemolytic activity of shrimp-pathogenic V. harveyi strain PSU3316. Out of 1,764 mutants screened, five mutants showed reduced hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar and exhibited virulence attenuation in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Mutants were identified by comparing transposon junction sequences to a draft of assembly of the PSU3316 genome. Surprisingly none of the disrupted open reading frames or gene neighborhoods contained genes annotated as hemolysins. The gene encoding RseB, a negative regulator of the sigma factor (?E), was interrupted in 2 out of 5 transposon mutants, in addition, the transcription factor CytR, a threonine synthetase, and an efflux-associated cytoplasmic protein were also identified. Knockout mutations introduced into the rpoE operon at the rseB gene exhibited low hemolytic activity in sheep blood agar, and were 3-to 7-fold attenuated for colonization in shrimp. Comparison of whole cell extracted proteins in the rseB mutant (PSU4030) to the wild-type by 2-D gel electrophoresis revealed 6 differentially expressed proteins, including two down-regulated porins (OmpC-like and OmpN) and an upregulated protease (DegQ) which have been associated with ?E in other organisms. Our study is the first report linking hemolytic activity to the ?E regulators in pathogenic Vibrio species and suggests expression of this virulence-linked phenotype is governed by multiple regulatory pathways within the V. harveyi. PMID:22384269

Rattanama, Pimonsri; Thompson, Janelle R.; Kongkerd, Natthawan; Srinitiwarawong, Kanchana; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Mekalanos, John J.

2012-01-01

18

Synthesis and evaluation of new antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Bacterial quorum sensing has received much attention in recent years because of its relevance to pathological events such as biofilm formation. Based on the structures of two lead inhibitors (IC50: 35-55 microM) against autoinducer-2-mediated quorum sensing identified through virtual screening, we synthesized 39 analogues and examined their inhibitory activities. Twelve of these new analogues showed equal or better inhibitory activities than the lead inhibitors. The best compound showed an IC50 value of approximately 6 microM in a whole-cell assay using Vibrio harveyi as the model organism. The structure-activity relationship is discussed herein. PMID:19533733

Peng, Hanjing; Cheng, Yunfeng; Ni, Nanting; Li, Minyong; Choudhary, Gaurav; Chou, Han Ting; Lu, Chung-Dar; Tai, Phang C; Wang, Binghe

2009-09-01

19

Effect of combined function of temperature and water activity on the growth of Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

Vibrio harveyi is considered as a causative agent of the systemic disease, vibriosis, which occurs in many biological fields. The effects of temperatures (12.9–27.1 °C) and water activity (NaCl% 0.6%-3.4%) on V. harveyi were investigated. The behavior and growth characteristics of V. harveyi was studied and modeled. Growth curves were fitted by using Gompertz and Baranyi models, and the Baranyi model showed a better fittness. Then, the maximum growth rates (?max) and lag phase durations (LPD, ?) obtained from both Gompertz and Baranyi model were modeled as a combination function of temperature and water activity using the response surface and Arrhenius-Davey models for secondary model. The value of r2, MSE, bias and accuracy factor suggest Baranyi model has better fitness than Gompertz model. Furthermore, validation of the developed models with independent data from ComBase also shown better interrelationship between observed and predicted growth parameter when using Baranyi model. PMID:24031965

Zhou, Kang; Gui, Meng; Li, Pinglan; Xing, Shaohua; Cui, Tingting; Peng, Zhaohui

2012-01-01

20

Single cell analysis of Vibrio harveyi uncovers functional heterogeneity in response to quorum sensing signals  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio harveyi and closely related species are important pathogens in aquaculture. A complex quorum sensing cascade involving three autoinducers controls bioluminescence and several genes encoding virulence factors. Single cell analysis of a V. harveyi population has already indicated intercellular heterogeneity in the production of bioluminescence. This study was undertaken to analyze the expression of various autoinducer-dependent genes in individual cells. Results Here we used reporter strains bearing promoter::gfp fusions to monitor the induction/repression of three autoinducer-regulated genes in wild type conjugates at the single cell level. Two genes involved in pathogenesis - vhp and vscP, which code for an exoprotease and a component of the type III secretion system, respectively, and luxC (the first gene in the lux operon) were chosen for analysis. The lux operon and the exoprotease gene are induced, while vscP is repressed at high cell density. As controls luxS and recA, whose expression is not dependent on autoinducers, were examined. The responses of the promoter::gfp fusions in individual cells from the same culture ranged from no to high induction. Importantly, simultaneous analysis of two autoinducer induced phenotypes, bioluminescence (light detection) and exoproteolytic activity (fluorescence of a promoter::gfp fusion), in single cells provided evidence for functional heterogeneity within a V. harveyi population. Conclusions Autoinducers are not only an indicator for cell density, but play a pivotal role in the coordination of physiological activities within the population. PMID:22985329

2012-01-01

21

A novel bacteriocin-like substance (BLIS) from a pathogenic strain of Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Inter-strain and inter-species inhibition mediated by a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi strain VIB 571 was demonstrated against four isolates of the same species, and one culture each of a Vibrio sp., Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio gazogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The crude BLIS, which was obtained by ammonium-sulphate precipitation of the cell-free supernatant of a 72 h broth culture of strain VIB 571, was inactivated by lipase, proteinase K, pepsin, trypsin, pronase E, SDS and incubation at > or =60 degrees C for 10 min. The activity was stable between pH 2-11 for at least 5 h. Anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of a single major peak, comprising a protein with a pI of approximately 5.4 and a molecular mass of approximately 32 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein comprised Asp-Glu-Tyr-Ile-Ser-X-Asn-Lys-X-Ser-Ser-Ala-Asp-Ile (with X representing cysteine or modified amino acid residues). A similarity search based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) generated peptide masses and the N-terminal sequence did not yield any significant matches. PMID:16151215

Prasad, Sathish; Morris, Peter C; Hansen, Rasmus; Meaden, Philip G; Austin, Brian

2005-09-01

22

Identification and characterization of Vibrio harveyi associated with diseased abalone Haliotis diversicolor.  

PubMed

Mass mortality of farmed small abalone Haliotis diversicolor occurred in Fujian, China, from 2009 to 2011. Among isolates obtained from moribund abalones, the dominant species AP37 exhibited the strongest virulence. After immersion challenge with 106 CFU ml-1 of AP37, abalone mortalities of 0, 53 and 67% were induced at water temperatures of 20°C, 24°C, and 28°C, respectively. Following intramuscular injection, AP37 showed a low LD50 (median lethal concentration) value of 2.9 × 102 CFU g-1 (colony forming units per gram abalone wet body weight). The LT50 (median lethal time) values were 5.2 h for 1 × 106 CFU abalone-1, 8.4 h for 1 × 105 CFU abalone-1, and 21.5 h for 1 × 104 CFU abalone-1. For further analysis of virulence, AP37 was screened for the production of extracellular factors. The results showed that various factors including presence of flagella and production of extracellular enzymes, such as lipase, phospholipase and haemolysin, could be responsible for pathogenesis. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain AP37 showed >98.8% similarity to Vibrio harveyi, V. campbellii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. natriegens and V. rotiferianus, so it could not be identified by this method. However, multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of concatenated sequences, including the rpoD, rctB, gyrB, toxR and pyrH genes, identified strain AP37 as V. harveyi. Phenotypic characters of AP37 were identified by API 20E. In antibiotic susceptibility tests, strain AP37 exhibited susceptibility to 7 antibiotics and resistance to 13. This is the first report of a V. harveyi-related species being linked with the mass mortality of adult abalone H. diversicolor in southern China. PMID:23548363

Jiang, Qingru; Shi, Liuyang; Ke, Caihuan; You, Weiwei; Zhao, Jing

2013-03-26

23

Metabolomic analysis revealed the differential responses in two pedigrees of clam Ruditapes philippinarum towards Vibrio harveyi challenge.  

PubMed

Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is an important marine aquaculture shellfish. This species has several pedigrees including White, Zebra, Liangdao Red and Marine Red distributing in the coastal areas in North China. In this work, we studied the metabolic differences induced by Vibrio harveyi in hepatopancreas from White and Zebra clams using NMR-based metabolomics. Metabolic responses (e.g., amino acids, glucose, glycogen, ATP and succinate) and altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (ATP synthase, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme) suggested that V. harveyi induced clear disruption in energy metabolism and immune stresses in both White and Zebra clam hepatopancreas. However, V. harveyi caused obvious osmotic stress in Zebra clam hepatopancreas, which was not observed in V. harveyi-challenged White clams samples. In addition, V. harveyi challenge induced more severe disruption in energy metabolism and immune stress in White clams than in Zebra clams. Overall, our results indicated that the biological differences between different pedigrees of R. philippinarum should be considered in immunity studies. PMID:24161758

Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Qing

2013-12-01

24

Computational modeling of differences in the quorum sensing induced luminescence phenotypes of \\textit{Vibrio harveyi} and \\textit{Vibrio cholerae}  

E-print Network

\\textit{Vibrio harveyi} and \\textit{Vibrio cholerae} have quorum sensing pathways with similar design and highly homologous components including multiple small RNAs (sRNAs). However, the associated luminescence phenotypes of strains with sRNA deletions differ dramatically: in \\textit{V. harveyi}, the sRNAs act additively; however, in \\textit{V. cholerae}, the sRNAs act redundantly. Furthermore, there are striking differences in the luminescence phenotypes for different pathway mutants in \\textit{V. harveyi} and \\textit{V. cholerae}. However these differences have not been connected with the observed differences for the sRNA deletion strains in these bacteria. In this work, we present a model for quorum sensing induced luminescence phenotypes focusing on the interactions of multiple sRNAs with target mRNA. Within our model, we find that one key parameter -- the fold-change in protein concentration necessary for luminescence activation -- can control whether the sRNAs appear to act additively or redundantly. For specific parameter choices, we find that differences in this key parameter can also explain hitherto unconnected luminescence phenotypes differences for various pathway mutants in \\textit{V. harveyi} and \\textit{V. cholerae}. The model can thus provide a unifying explanation for observed differences in luminescence phenotypes and can also be used to make testable predictions for future experiments.

Andrew T Fenley; Suman K Banik; Rahul V Kulkarni

2011-01-27

25

Characterization of DegQVh, a serine protease and a protective immunogen from a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi strain.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is an important marine pathogen that can infect a number of aquaculture species. V. harveyi degQ (degQ(Vh)), the gene encoding a DegQ homologue, was cloned from T4, a pathogenic V. harveyi strain isolated from diseased fish. DegQ(Vh) was closely related to the HtrA family members identified in other Vibrio species and could complement the temperature-sensitive phenotype of an Escherichia coli strain defective in degP. Expression of degQ(Vh) in T4 was modulated by temperature, possibly through the sigma(E)-like factor. Enzymatic analyses demonstrated that the recombinant DegQ(Vh) protein expressed in and purified from E. coli was an active serine protease whose activity required the integrity of the catalytic site and the PDZ domains. The optimal temperature and pH of the recombinant DegQ(Vh) protein were 50 degrees C and pH 8.0. A vaccination study indicated that the purified recombinant DegQ(Vh) was a protective immunogen that could confer protection upon fish against infection by V. harveyi. In order to improve the efficiency of DegQ(Vh) as a vaccine, a genetic construct in the form of the plasmid pAQ1 was built, in which the DNA encoding the processed DegQ(Vh) protein was fused with the DNA encoding the secretion region of AgaV, an extracellular beta-agarase. The E. coli strain harboring pAQ1 could express and secrete the chimeric DegQ(Vh) protein into the culture supernatant. Vaccination of fish with viable E. coli expressing chimeric degQ(Vh) significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced the survival of fish against V. harveyi challenge, which was possibly due to the relatively prolonged exposure of the immune system to the recombinant antigen produced constitutively, albeit at a gradually decreasing level, by the carrier strain. PMID:18723647

Zhang, Wei-wei; Sun, Kun; Cheng, Shuang; Sun, Li

2008-10-01

26

The Vibrio harveyi bioassay used routinely to detect AI-2 quorum sensing inhibition is confounded by inconsistent normalization across marine matrices.  

PubMed

The Vibrio harveyi autoinducer-2 (AI-2) bioassay is used routinely to screen for inhibition of the AI-2 quorum sensing system. The present study utilizes three well-described bacterial strains to demonstrate that inconsistent normalization across matrices undermines the assay's use in screening marine samples for AI-2 inhibition. PMID:23305926

Blair, Walter M; Doucette, Gregory J

2013-03-01

27

The outer membrane protein VhOmp of Vibrio harveyi: pore-forming properties in black lipid membranes.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is known to cause fatal vibriosis in marine animals. Here, an outer membrane protein from V. harveyi, namely, VhOmp, was isolated and functionally characterized in terms of pore-forming contact with artificial lipid membranes. The native VhOmp exists as a trimer of a molecular weight similar to that of the porin OmpF from Escherichia coli. Reconstitution of VhOmp into black lipid membranes demonstrated its ability to form ion channels. The average pore conductance of VhOmp was revealed to be about 0.9 and 2 nS in 0.2 and 1 M KCl, respectively. Within transmembrane potentials of +/-100 mV, VhOmp pores behaved as ohmic conduits, and their conductance scaled linearly with voltage. Nonlinear plots of the pore conductance versus symmetrical salt concentrations at either side of the protein-incorporating membrane suggested the influence of interior channel functionalities on the passage of charged species. In the presence of Omp-specific polyclonal antibodies, the pore-forming property of VhOmp was modulated so that the usual step-like current increments were replaced by random transitory current fluctuations. VhOmp exhibited a strong biological activity by causing hemolysis of human red blood cells, indicating that VhOmp may act as a crucial determinant during bacterial infection to animal host cells. PMID:19672645

Schulte, Albert; Ruamchan, Sompong; Khunkaewla, Panida; Suginta, Wipa

2009-07-01

28

Sigma E Regulators Control Hemolytic Activity and Virulence in a Shrimp Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi  

E-print Network

Members of the genus Vibrio are important marine and aquaculture pathogens. Hemolytic activity has been identified as a virulence factor in many pathogenic vibrios including V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, ...

Rattanama, Pimonsri

29

Hemostasis of tiger prawn Penaeus monodon affected by Vibrio harveyi, extracellular products, and a toxic cysteine protease.  

PubMed

The effects of bacterial cells, extracellular products (ECP) and a purified cysteine protease of Vibrio harveyi on hemostasis and plasma components of tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) were studied. The clotting ability of the hemolymph withdrawn from moribund prawns pre-injected with the bacteria, ECP, cysteine protease of PBS (control) was observed for 2 h at 25 C. Of these, only the control group was clottable while all the other groups were unclottable. A component of the plasma, previously identified as coagulogen-like protein, was further confirmed to be a coagulogen by the comparison of plasma with serum on non-reduced SDS-PAGE or using rabbit antiserum to the coagulogen-like protein (R alpha coagulogen) to neutralize the clotting ability of normal prawn hemolymph. The coagulogen was reduced in amount in plasma of moribund prawns after injection with the bacteria, ECP or cysteine protease while it apparently disappeared after pre-incubation with the ECP or cysteine protease for 2 h at 25 C compared with normal prawn plasma as observed in crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) gels. The reduction of the amount of coagulogen in plasma of moribund prawns was also evident in CIE gels using R alpha coagulogen. In addition, the apparent disapperance of the coagulogen mentioned above was eventually proven to be due to the change of its migration rate in CIE gels after pre-incubation with ECP or cysteine protease, since the disappeared coagulogen arc (arc 2) (migrated into arc 1) could be visualized by using R alpha coagulogen or by reducing the time for pre-incubation from 2 h to 30 min. Thus, the effects of cysteine protease on plasma coagulogen observed in vitro and in vivo may markedly interfere with hemostasis leading to the occurrence of unclottable hemolymph. These complex events may significantly contribute to the pathogenicity of V. harveyi in the prawn. PMID:10575544

Lee, K K; Chen, Y L; Liu, P C

1999-01-01

30

Multiple roles of Asp313 in the refined catalytic cycle of chitin degradation by Vibrio harveyi chitinase A.  

PubMed

Three acidic residues in the DXDXE sequence motif are suggested to play a concerted role in the catalysis of Vibrio harveyi ChiA. An increase in the optimum pH of 0.8 units in mutant D313A/N indicates that Asp313 influences the pKa of the ionizing groups around the cleavage site. D313A showed greatly reduced kcat/Km and increased KD, suggesting that Asp313 participates in catalysis and ligand binding. Investigation of the enzyme-substrate interactions of V. harveyi ChiA and Serratia marcescens ChiB revealed two conformations of Asp313 and (-1)GlcNAc. The first conformation, likely to be the initial conformation, showed that the ?-COOH of Asp313 only interacted with the -C=O of the N-acetyl group in the distorted sugar. The second conformation, formed from the first by concerted bond rotations, demonstrated hydrogen bonds between the Asp313 side chain and the -NH of the N-acetyl group and the ?-COOH of Glu315. Here we propose a further refinement of the catalytic cycle of chitin hydrolysis by family-18 chitinases that involves four steps: Step 1: Pre-priming. An acidic pair is formed between Asp311 and Asp313. Step 2: Substrate binding. The Asp313 side chain detaches from Asp311 and rotates to form a H-bond with the C=O of the 2-acetamido group of -1GlcNAc. Step 3: Bond cleavage. The side chain of Asp313 and the 2-acetamido group simultaneously rotate, permitting Asp313 to interact with the side chain of Glu315 and facilitating bond cleavage. Step 4: Formation of reaction intermediate. The transient (-1) C1-GlcNAc cation readily reacts with the 2-acetamido group, forming an oxazolinium ion intermediate. Further attack by a neighboring water results in retention of ?-configuration of the degradation products. PMID:23221718

Suginta, Wipa; Sritho, Natchanok

2012-01-01

31

A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.  

PubMed

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

32

Preliminary assessment of mutagenic and anti-mutagenic potential of some aminoalkanolic derivatives of xanthone by use of the Vibrio harveyi assay.  

PubMed

The Vibrio harveyi assay was used to evaluate mutagenic and anti-mutagenic effects of four new aminoalkanolic derivatives of xanthone with anticonvulsant activity, to select the potentially safe compounds for further in vivo studies in animal models. The study showed that at a concentration of 40ng/ml the test compounds were not mutagenic. Additionally, two of the investigated compounds, namely the (R,S)-N-methyl-1-amino-2-propanol derivative of 6-methoxyxanthone (compound III) and the (R)-N-methyl-2-amino-1-butanol derivative of 7-chloroxanthone (compound IV) were strong inhibitors of the mutagenicity induced by 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) in V. harveyi strains BB7M and BB7XM. The inhibition percentages for compound IV were 49 (in BB7M) and 69 (in BB7XM), whereas for compound III these percentages were 47 (in BB7M) and 42 (in BB7XM), respectively. The present study demonstrates that four bioactive derivatives of xanthone display no mutagenic activity in the V. harveyi assay. In addition, compounds III and IV demonstrated considerable anti-mutagenic activity in this test. Based on the results obtained here, these compounds could be selected for further studies in animal models, while compounds III and IV should be tested further for their anti-mutagenic properties. PMID:24769486

S?oczy?ska, Karolina; Waszkielewicz, Anna Maria; Marona, Henryk

2014-07-01

33

Draft Genome Sequence of the Fast-Growing Bacterium Vibrio natriegens Strain DSMZ 759  

PubMed Central

Vibrio natriegens is a Gram-negative bacterium known for its extremely short doubling time. Here we present the annotated draft genome sequence of Vibrio natriegens strain DSMZ 759, with the aim of providing insights about its high growth rate. PMID:23969053

Maida, Isabel; Bosi, Emanuele; Perrin, Elena; Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; Orlandini, Valerio; Fondi, Marco; Fani, Renato; Wiegel, Juergen; Bianconi, Giovanna

2013-01-01

34

RNAi knock-down of the Litopenaeus vannamei Toll gene (LvToll) significantly increases mortality and reduces bacterial clearance after challenge with Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

In this study, we used real-time PCR to simultaneously monitor the responses of 12 key genes of the shrimp innate immune system in Litopenaeus vannamei after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. In the proPO activating system, we found that proPO was up-regulated (3.3x control at 36hpi). The hemolymph clotting genes transglutaminase (TGase) and clotting protein were also up-regulated, as were 5 genes in the antimicrobial peptide system (ALF, Crustin, Lyz, PEN2 and PEN4), with only PEN3 showing no significant changes. In the antioxidant defense system, SOD was slightly elevated while GPx was substantially down-regulated. In the pattern recognition receptor system, at 24hpi, the Toll gene (LvToll) showed the highest relative increase in expression level of all the investigated genes (15x greater than the sterile seawater control). In the second part of this study, when LvToll was knocked down by RNAi silencing, there was no effect on either survival rates or bacterial number in unchallenged shrimp. There was also no difference in mortality rates between control shrimp and LvToll-silenced shrimp when these two groups were challenged with a viral pathogen (white spot syndrome virus; WSSV). However, when LvToll-silenced shrimp were challenged by V. harveyi, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. We note that the increase in bacterial CFU count occurred even though treatment with EGFP dsRNA had the opposite effect of reducing the CFU counts. We conclude that LvToll is an important factor in the shrimp innate immune response to acute V. harveyi infection, but not to WSSV. PMID:19698743

Han-Ching Wang, Kc; Tseng, Chun-Wei; Lin, Han-You; Chen, I-Tung; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chen, Yi-Min; Chen, Tzong-Yueh; Yang, Huey-Lang

2010-01-01

35

Draft Genome Sequence of the Oyster Larval Probiotic Bacterium Vibrio sp. Strain OY15.  

PubMed

We report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain OY15, a Gram-negative marine bacterium isolated from an oyster (Crassostrea virginica) digestive tract and shown to possess probiotic activity. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of probiotic activity as well as virulence capacity. PMID:25278542

Schreier, Harold J; Schott, Eric J

2014-01-01

36

Draft Genome Sequence of the Oyster Larval Probiotic Bacterium Vibrio sp. Strain OY15  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain OY15, a Gram-negative marine bacterium isolated from an oyster (Crassostrea virginica) digestive tract and shown to possess probiotic activity. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of probiotic activity as well as virulence capacity. PMID:25278542

Schott, Eric J.

2014-01-01

37

Luminescence Control in the Marine Bacterium Vibrio fischeri: An Analysis of the Dynamics of  

E-print Network

Luminescence Control in the Marine Bacterium Vibrio fischeri: An Analysis of the Dynamics of lux states corresponding to the expression of the luminescent and non-lumi- nescent phenotypes certain metabolic circumstances, basal expression of the lux genes could cause a cell to luminesce

Sontag, Eduardo

38

Molecular cloning of peroxinectin gene and its expression in response to peptidoglycan and Vibrio harveyi in Indian white shrimp fenneropenaeus indicus.  

PubMed

Abstract The cDNA sequence of peroxinectin was obtained from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus using RT-PCR and RACE. Fenneropenaeus indicus peroxinectin (Fi-Pxn) sequence has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2415 bp encoding a protein of 804 amino acids with 21 residues signal sequence. The mature protein has molecular mass of 89.8 kDa with an estimated pI of 8.6. Two putative integrin-binding motifs, RGD and KGD, were observed at the basic N-terminal and C-terminal part of the mature aminoacid sequence. Fi-Pxn nucleotide sequence comparison showed high homology to mud crab Scylla serrata (89%) and to various vertebrate and invertebrate species. qRT-PCR showed peroxinectin mRNA transcript in haemocytes of F. indicus increased at 6 h post injection of peptidoglycan and Vibrio harveyi. The Fi-Pxn was mainly expressed in the tissues of haemocytes and the heart. The moulting stage responses showed Fi-Pxn expression in premoult stages D0/1 and D0/2. PMID:25072536

Shanthi, Sathappan; Manju, Sivalingam; Rajakumaran, Perumal; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

2014-12-01

39

Structure-function relationship of Vibrio harveyi NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase FRP: essential residues Lys167 and Arg15 for NADPH binding.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase (FRP) catalyzes flavin reduction by NADPH. In comparing amino acid sequence and crystal structure with Escherichia coli NfsA, residues N134, R225, R133, K167, and R15 were targeted for investigation of their possible roles in the binding and utilization of the NADPH substrate. By mutation of each of these five residues to an alanine, steady-state rate analyses showed that the variants K167A and R15A had apparently greatly increased K(m,NADPH) and reduced k(cat)/K(m,NADPH), whereas little or much more modest changes were found for the other variants. The deuterium isotope effects (D)(V/K) for (4R)-[4-(2)H]-NADPH were markedly increased to 6.3 and 7.4 for K167A and R15A, respectively, indicating that the rate constants for NADPH and NADP(+) dissociation were greatly enhanced relative to the hydride transfer steps. Also, anaerobic stopped-flow analyses revealed that the equilibrium dissociation constant for NADPH binding (K(d)) to be 2.5-3.9 and 1.1 mM for K167A and R15A, respectively, much higher than the 0.4 ?M K(d) for the native FRP, whereas the k(cat) of these two variants were similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. Moreover, the K167 to alanine mutation led to even a slight increase in k(cat)/K(m) for NADH. These results, taken together, provide a strong support to the conclusion that K167 and R15 each was critical in the binding of NADPH by FRP. Such a functional role may also exist for other FRP homologous proteins. PMID:22650604

Chung, Hae-Won; Tu, Shiao-Chun

2012-06-19

40

Penetration of the Coral-Bleaching Bacterium Vibrio shiloi into Oculina patagonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of the coral-bleaching bacterium Vibrio shiloi into seawater containing its host Oculina patagonica led to adhesion of the bacteria to the coral surface via a b-D-galactose receptor, followed by penetration of the bacteria into the coral tissue. The internalized V. shiloi cells were observed inside the exodermal layer of the coral by electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy using specific

E. Banin; T. Israely; A. Kushmaro; Y. Loya; E. Orr; E. Rosenberg

2000-01-01

41

Impaired chromosome partitioning and synchronization of DNA replication initiation in an insertional mutant in the Vibrio harveyi cgtA gene coding for a common GTP-binding protein.  

PubMed Central

The Vibrio harveyi cgtA gene product belongs to a subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, called Obg-like proteins. Members of this subfamily are present in diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. On the other hand, the functions of these proteins in the regulation of cellular processes are largely unknown. Genes coding for these proteins are essential in almost all bacteria investigated thus far. However, a viable V. harveyi insertional mutant in the cgtA gene was described recently. Therefore, this mutant gives a unique opportunity to study functions of a member of the subfamily of Obg-like proteins. Here we demonstrate that the mutant cells often form long filaments with expanded, non-partitioned or rarely partitioned chromosomes. Such a phenotype suggests impairment of the mechanism of chromosome partition. Flow cytometric studies revealed that synchronization of chromosome replication initiation is also significantly disturbed in the cgtA mutant. Moreover, in contrast to wild-type V. harveyi, inhibition of chromosome replication and/or of cell division in the mutant bacteria caused significant increase in the number of large cells, suggesting that the cgtA gene product may be involved in the coupling of cell growth to chromosome replication and cell division. These results indicate that CgtA, an Obg-like GTP-binding protein, plays an important role in the regulation of chromosomal functions. PMID:11879184

S?omi?ska, Monika; Konopa, Grazyna; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Czyz, Agata

2002-01-01

42

Complete Genome Sequence of Vibrio vulnificus 93U204, a Bacterium Isolated from Diseased Tilapia in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus 93U204 is a bacterium isolated from a moribund tilapia collected in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its pathogenicity and for comparative analyses with human-pathogenic strains within the same species. PMID:25278541

Lo, Wen-Sui; Chen, Hwajiun; Chen, Chun-Yao

2014-01-01

43

NH4+ transport system of a psychrophilic marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1.  

PubMed

NH4(+) transport system of a psychrophilic marine bacterium Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1 (Vibrio ABE-1) was examined by measuring the uptake of [14C]methylammonium ion (14CH3NH3+) into the intact cells. 14CH3NH3+ uptake was detected in cells grown in medium containing glutamate as the sole nitrogen source, but not in those grown in medium containing NH4Cl instead of glutamate. Vibrio ABE-1 did not utilize CH3NH3+ as a carbon or nitrogen source. NH4Cl and nonradiolabeled CH3NH3+ completely inhibited 14CH3NH3+ uptake. These results indicate that 14CH3NH3+ uptake in this bacterium is mediated via an NH4+ transport system and not by a specific carrier for CH3NH3+. The respiratory substrate succinate was required to drive 14CH3NH3+ uptake and the uptake was completely inhibited by KCN, indicating that the uptake was energy dependent. The electrochemical potentials of H+ and/or Na+ across membranes were suggested to be the driving forces for the transport system because the ionophores carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and monensin strongly inhibited uptake activities at pH 6.5 and 8.5, respectively. Furthermore, KCl activated 14CH3NH3+ uptake. The 14CH3NH3+ uptake activity of Vibrio ABE-1 was markedly high at temperatures between 0 degrees and 15 degrees C, and the apparent Km value for CH3NH3+ of the uptake did not change significantly over the temperature range from 0 degrees to 25 degrees C. Thus, the NH4+ transport system of this bacterium was highly active at low temperatures. PMID:10356994

Chou, M; Matsunaga, T; Takada, Y; Fukunaga, N

1999-05-01

44

A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, antagonistic to vibrios in prawn larval rearing systems.  

PubMed

A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, isolated from hatchery water, demonstrated extracellular antagonistic properties against Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluviallis, V. nereis, V. proteolyticus, V. mediterranei, V cholerae and Aeromonas sp., bacteria associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems. The isolate inhibited the growth of V. alginolyticus during co-culture. The antagonistic component of the extracellular product was heat-stable and insensitive to proteases, lipase, catalase and alpha-amylase. Micrococcus MCCB 104 was demonstrated to be non-pathogenic to M. rosenbergii larvae. PMID:16465832

Jayaprakash, N S; Pai, S Somnath; Anas, A; Preetha, R; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

2005-12-30

45

Biochemical properties of a new ?-carbonic anhydrase from the human pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Abstract Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of cholera and colonizes the upper small intestine where sodium bicarbonate is present at a high concentration. Sodium bicarbonate is a potential inducer of virulence gene expression. Bacteria can increase cytosolic bicarbonate levels through the existence of transporter family proteins or through the action of metalloenzymes, called carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1). Vibrio cholerae, lacking of transporter proteins in its genome, utilizes the CA system to accumulate bicarbonate into the cell suggesting a pivotal role of this metalloenzymes in the microbial virulence. Here, we report for the first time the characterization of the ?-CA of V. cholerae (VchCA), which has been identified by translated genome inspection. The ?-CA encoding gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified to homogeneity. This investigation aimed to study the biochemical properties of VchCA and to provide preliminary insights in the field of this pathogen virulence. VchCA has a low esterase activity with 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate, and a high activity for the hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate. PMID:23321008

Del Prete, Sonia; De Luca, Viviana; Scozzafava, Andrea; Carginale, Vincenzo; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

2014-02-01

46

Purification and Characterization of a Catalase from the Facultatively Psychrophilic Bacterium Vibrio rumoiensis S-1T Exhibiting High Catalase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalase from the facultatively psychrophilic bacterium Vibrio rumoiensis S-1 T , which was isolated from an environment exposed to H2O2 and exhibited high catalase activity, was purified and characterized, and its localization in the cell was determined. Its molecular mass was 230 kDa, and the molecule consisted of four identical subunits. The enzyme, which was not apparently reduced by dithionite,

ISAO YUMOTO; DAISEN ICHIHASHI; HIDEAKI IWATA; ANITA ISTOKOVICS; NOBUTOSHI ICHISE; HIDETOSHI MATSUYAMA; HIDETOSHI OKUYAMA; KOSEI KAWASAKI

2000-01-01

47

Interactions between the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus and red-tide dinoflagellates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogenic bacterium in marine and estuarine waters. To investigate interactions between V. parahaemolyticus and co-occurring redtide dinoflagellates, we monitored the daily abundance of 5 common red tide dinoflagellates in laboratory culture; Amphidinium carterae, Cochlodinium ploykrikoides, Gymnodinium impudicum, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Additionally, we measured the ingestion rate of each dinoflagellate on V. parahaemolyticus as a function of prey concentration. Each of the dinoflagellates responded differently to the abundance of V. parahaemolyticus. The abundances of A. carterae and P. micans were not lowered by V. parahaemolyticus, whereas that of C. polykrikodes was lowered considerably. The harmful effect depended on bacterial concentration and incubation time. Most C. polykrikoides cells died after 1 hour incubation when the V. parahaemolyticus concentration was 1.4×107 cells ml-1, while cells died within 2 days of incubation when the bacterial concentration was 1.5×106 cells ml-1. With increasing V. parahaemolyticus concentration, ingestion rates of P. micans, P. minimum, and A. carterae on the prey increased, whereas that on C. polykrikoides decreased. The maximum or highest ingestion rates of P. micans, P. minimum, and A. carterae on V. parahaemolyticus were 55, 5, and 2 cells alga-1 h-1, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that V. parahaemolyticus can be both the killer and prey for some red tide dinoflagellates.

Seong, Kyeong Ah; Jeong, Hae Jin

2011-06-01

48

Genome Sequence of Vibrio sp. Strain EJY3, an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium Metabolizing 3,6-Anhydro-l-Galactose as a Sole Carbon Source  

PubMed Central

The metabolic fate of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (l-AHG) is unknown in the global marine carbon cycle. Vibrio sp. strain EJY3 is an agarolytic marine bacterium that can utilize l-AHG as a sole carbon source. To elucidate the metabolic pathways of l-AHG, we have sequenced the complete genome of Vibrio sp. strain EJY3. PMID:22535948

Roh, Hanseong; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Saeyoung; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Sujin; Kim, Byung-Yong; Song, Heesang; Lim, Kwang-il

2012-01-01

49

Vibrio hemicentroti sp. nov., an alginate lyase-producing bacterium, isolated from the gut microflora of sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus).  

PubMed

An alginate lyase-producing bacterium, designated AlyHP32(T), was isolated from the gut of sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) obtained from the South Sea, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain AlyHP32(T) were Gram-reaction-negative and motile with a single polar flagellum. The strain grew with 1-6?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-4?%) and at 4-30 °C (optimum 15-25 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and five housekeeping genes (atpA, pyrH, recA, rpoA and rpoD) revealed that strain AlyHP32(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and formed a compact clade with the Vibrio splendidus group. However, DNA-DNA hybridization and fingerprints using the repetitive primers BOX and REP indicated that strain AlyHP32(T) was distinct from closely related species of the genus Vibrio. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c and/or C16:1?6c) and C16:0. The DNA G+C content was 44.1 mol%. The predominant quinone was ubiquinone Q-8. Based on genotypic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, strain AlyHP32(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio; the name Vibrio hemicentroti sp. nov. (type strain AlyHP32(T)?=?KCTC 32085(T)?=?DSM 26178(T)) is proposed for this novel taxon. PMID:23625262

Kim, Duwoon; Baik, Keun Sik; Hwang, Ye Seul; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kwon, Joseph; Seong, Chi Nam

2013-10-01

50

Administration of Bacillus subtilis strains in the rearing water enhances the water quality, growth performance, immune response, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi infection in juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

In this study, vegetative cell suspensions of two Bacillus subtilis strains, L10 and G1 in equal proportions, was administered at two different doses 10(5) (BM5) and 10(8) (BM8) CFU ml(-1) in the rearing water of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for eight weeks. Both probiotic groups showed a significant reduction of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate ions under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In comparison to untreated control group, final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR) and digestive enzymatic activity were significantly greater in the BM5 and BM8 groups. Significant differences for survival were recorded in the BM8 group as compared to the control. Eight weeks after the start of experiment, shrimp were challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in shrimp survival between probiotic and control groups. Cumulative mortality of the control group was 80%, whereas cumulative mortality of the shrimp that had been given probiotics was 36.7% with MB8 and 50% with MB5. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (PE), lipopolysaccharide- and ?-1,3-glucan- binding protein (LGBP) and serine protein (SP). The expression of all immune-related genes studied was only significantly up-regulated in the BM5 group compared to the BM8 and control groups. These results suggest that administration of B. subtilis strains in the rearing water confers beneficial effects for shrimp aquaculture, considering water quality, growth performance, digestive enzymatic activity, immune response and disease resistance. PMID:24161773

Zokaeifar, Hadi; Babaei, Nahid; Saad, Che Roos; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Balcazar, Jose Luis

2014-01-01

51

Active bacterial luciferase from a fused gene: expression of a Vibrio harveyi luxAB translational fusion in bacteria, yeast and plant cells.  

PubMed

The luxA and luxB genes encoding the luciferase from Vibrio harvey were fused by site-directed mutagenesis so that one polypeptide was encoded by the fused gene. The fused gene facilitated light production in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia when the substrates decanal and reduced flavin mononucleotide were present. The specific activity of the encoded enzyme is not known. In E. coli and S. cerevisiae cells the light emission could be measured in viable, intact cells. The luxAB fusion provides a simple reporter gene for in vivo measurement of promoter strength in these species and may be useful in other systems as well. PMID:2680772

Kirchner, G; Roberts, J L; Gustafson, G D; Ingolia, T D

1989-09-30

52

A comparison of Fe bioavailability and binding of a catecholate siderophore with virus-mediated lysates from the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus PWH3a  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the bioavailability of Fe complexed to a siderophore produced by the heterotrophic marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus isolate PWH3a and Fe from ligand-complexes present in virus-mediated lysates (using phage PWH3a-P1) of this same bacterium. Fe-binding functional groups, stability constants and the bioavailability of Fe associated with these two separate ligand pools were determined and contrasted to previous work.

Leo Poorvin; Sylvia G. Sander; Imelda Velasquez; Enitan Ibisanmi; Gary R. LeCleir; Steven W. Wilhelm

2011-01-01

53

Draft Genome Sequence of the Fast-Growing Marine Bacterium Vibrio natriegens Strain ATCC 14048  

PubMed Central

Vibrio natriegens bacteria are Gram-negative aquatic microorganisms that are found primarily in coastal seawater and sediments and are perhaps best known for their high growth rates (generation time of <10 min). In this study, we report the first sequenced genome of this species, that of the type strain Vibrio natriegens ATCC 14048, a salt marsh mud isolate from Sapelo Island, GA. PMID:23929482

Wang, Zheng; Lin, Baochuan; Hervey, W. Judson

2013-01-01

54

Draft Genome Sequence of the Fast-Growing Marine Bacterium Vibrio natriegens Strain ATCC 14048.  

PubMed

Vibrio natriegens bacteria are Gram-negative aquatic microorganisms that are found primarily in coastal seawater and sediments and are perhaps best known for their high growth rates (generation time of <10 min). In this study, we report the first sequenced genome of this species, that of the type strain Vibrio natriegens ATCC 14048, a salt marsh mud isolate from Sapelo Island, GA. PMID:23929482

Wang, Zheng; Lin, Baochuan; Hervey, W Judson; Vora, Gary J

2013-01-01

55

Genome sequence of Vibrio diabolicus and identification of the exopolysaccharide HE800 biosynthesis locus.  

PubMed

Vibrio diabolicus, a marine bacterium originating from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, produces the HE800 exopolysaccharide with high value for biotechnological purposes, especially for human health. Its genome was sequenced and analyzed; phylogenetic analysis using the core genome revealed V. diabolicus is close to another deep-sea Vibrio sp. (Ex25) within the Harveyi clade and Alginolyticus group. A genetic locus homologous to the syp cluster from Vibrio fischeri was demonstrated to be involved in the HE800 production. However, few genetic particularities suggest that the regulation of syp expression may be different in V. diabolicus. The presence of several types of glycosyltransferases within the locus indicates a capacity to generate diversity in the glycosidic structure, which may confer an adaptability to environmental conditions. These results contribute to better understanding exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and for developing new efficient processes to produce this molecule for biotechnological applications. PMID:25273176

Goudenège, David; Boursicot, Vincent; Versigny, Typhaine; Bonnetot, Sandrine; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Sinquin, Corinne; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roux, Frédérique Le; Delbarre-Ladrat, Christine

2014-12-01

56

Salinity effects on glucose uptake and catabolism in the obligately psychrophilic marine bacterium Vibrio marinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the effects of various salinities on the uptake and catabolism of glucose in Vibrio marinus MP-1 revealed several significant shifts in total uptake and respiration as the cells were subjected to increasingly greater concentrations of NaCl. As the salinity increased from 0.30 to 1.0 M NaCl, there was a decrease in the C6\\/C1 (CO2) ratio. The resulting patterns

R. P. Griffiths; R. Y. Morita

1973-01-01

57

IbpA\\/B Small Heat-Shock Protein of Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi Binds to Proteins Aggregated in a Cell During Heat Shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The IbpA and IbpB are 16-kDa Escherichia coli proteins belonging to a family of small heat-shock proteins (sHsps). According to the present model, based on the in vitro\\u000a experiments, sHsps are molecular chaperones that bind and prevent aggregation of nonnative proteins during heat shock. Previously,\\u000a we have shown that IbpA and IbpB bind to endogenous E. coli proteins aggregated

Gracjana Klein; Ewa Laskowska; Alina Taylor; Barbara Lipi?ska

2001-01-01

58

Experimental and predicted acute toxicity of antibacterial compounds and their mixtures using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri.  

PubMed

This article investigates the bioluminescence inhibition effects of the antimicrobials triclocarban, triclosan and its metabolite methyl triclosan, using the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri as the test organism (Microtox©). The concentration response analysis was performed for the three individual substances and for a mixture in which the three compounds were mixed in a ratio of the IC50 of the individual components (equitoxic ratio). Toxicity values (the median inhibitory concentration value, in mg L(-1)) in the decreasing order of sensitivity were triclosan (0.73)>triclocarban (0.91)>methyl-triclosan (1.76). The comparison of the experimental data with those obtained by using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) equations indicated that triclosan and triclocarban act as polar narcotic compounds towards V. fischeri, whereas methyl-triclosan acts as a narcotic (baseline toxicity). The toxicity of the mixture was measured experimentally and predicted by two models (CA: concentration addition; IA: independent action). The results showed that the observed mixture toxicity (IC50=0.23 mg L(-1)) had no significant differences from those predicted by both CA and IA models. PMID:24529397

Villa, Sara; Vighi, Marco; Finizio, Antonio

2014-08-01

59

Characterizing the Host and Symbiont Proteomes in the Association between the Bobtail Squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the Bacterium, Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

The beneficial symbiosis between the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, provides a unique opportunity to study host/microbe interactions within a natural microenvironment. Colonization of the squid light organ by V. fischeri begins a lifelong association with a regulated daily rhythm. Each morning the host expels an exudate from the light organ consisting of 95% of the symbiont population in addition to host hemocytes and shed epithelial cells. We analyzed the host and symbiont proteomes of adult squid exudate and surrounding light organ epithelial tissue using 1D- and 2D-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) in an effort to understand the contribution of both partners to the maintenance of this association. These proteomic analyses putatively identified 1581 unique proteins, 870 proteins originating from the symbiont and 711 from the host. Identified host proteins indicate a role of the innate immune system and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating the symbiosis. Symbiont proteins detected enhance our understanding of the role of quorum sensing, two-component signaling, motility, and detoxification of ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) inside the light organ. This study offers the first proteomic analysis of the symbiotic microenvironment of the adult light organ and provides the identification of proteins important to the regulation of this beneficial association. PMID:21998678

Schleicher, Tyler R.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

2011-01-01

60

A new esterase showing similarity to putative dienelactone hydrolase from a strict marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. GMD509.  

PubMed

Vibrio sp. GMD509, a marine bacterium isolated from eggs of the sea hare, exhibited lipolytic activity on tributyrin (TBN) plate, and the gene representing lipolytic activity was cloned. As a result, an open reading frame (ORF) consisting of 1,017 bp (338 aa) was found, and the deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF showed low similarity (< 20%) to alpha/beta hydrolases such as dienelactone hydrolases and esterase/lipase with G-X(1)-S-X(2)-G sequence conserved. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the protein belonged to a new family of esterase/lipase together with various hypothetical proteins. The enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme (Vlip509) showed the best hydrolyzing activity toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate (C(4)) among various p-nitrophenyl esters (C(2) to C(18)), and optimal activity of Vlip509 occurred at 30 degrees C and pH 8.5, respectively. Kinetic parameters toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate were determined as K (m) (307 muM), k (cat) (5.72 s(-1)), and k (cat)/K (m) (18.61 s(-1) mM(-1)). Furthermore, Vlip509 preferentially hydrolyzed the S-enantiomer of racemic ofloxacin ester. Despite its sequence homology to dienelactone hydrolase, Vlip509 showed no dienelactone hydrolase activity. This study represents the identification of a novel lipolytic enzyme from marine environment. PMID:17712554

Park, Sang-Yi; Kim, Jun-Tae; Kang, Sung Gyun; Woo, Jung-Hee; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Hyoung-Tae; Kim, Sang-Jin

2007-11-01

61

Horizontal transfer of chromosomal DNA between the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii and Escherichia coli revealed by sequence analysis.  

PubMed

Previous in silico analysis of the 67.4-76.0 minutes region of the Escherichia coli genome led to the identification of a gene cluster (named aga) comprising five genes encoding homologs of the mannose transporter of E. coli, a member of the sugar-specific phosphoenolypyruvate/sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). In the present work, we compared the aga gene cluster of E. coli, which has been considered to be involved in N-acetylgalactosamine or N-acetylmannosamine transport and metabolism, to the region comprising the recently identified mannose transporter of the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii. Our analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by three genes (agaV, agaW, and agaA), located in the proximal portion of the aga gene cluster, shared striking similarities with the proteins encoded by the manX (IIBMan), manY (IICMan), and manD (a putative deacetylase) genes of V. furnissii, respectively (70%-82.3% identity among the three pairs of proteins). Moreover, we found that the two following aga genes (agaS and agaY) were homologous to the sequences flanking the mannose operon of V. furnissii. These observations strongly support the idea of a horizontal transfer of the chromosomally encoded man operon of V. furnissii into the E. coli genome. PMID:9697096

Charbit, A; Autret, N

1998-01-01

62

[Purification and characterization of alginate lyase from marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101].  

PubMed

Extracellular alginate lyase secreted by Vibrio sp. QY101, which was isolated from brown algae, was purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow anion-exchange chromatography and Superdex 75 gel filtration chromatography. Its molecular mass was 39 kD as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. The enzyme had an optimal temperature of 30 degrees for its activity, and was most active at pH 7.5. The thermal and pH stability were 0-30 degrees, and pH 6.5-8.5, respectively. The enzyme activity was stimulated by 0.5 mol/L NaCl, 1.0 mmol/L Ca(2+) or 5.0 mmol/L (Mn(2+), and inhibited by 5.0 mmol/L Ni(2+), 1.0 mmol/L Fe2+) or 1.0 mmol/L EDTA. Preliminary analysis on substrate specificity showed that this alginate lyase had activity on both poly-alpha 1,4-L-guluronate and poly-beta1,4-D-mannuronate substrates. PMID:12766810

Song, Kai; Yu, Wen-Gong; Han, Feng; Han, Wen-Jun; Li, Jing-Bao

2003-05-01

63

The Vibrio core group induces yellow band disease in Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reef-building corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To determine the relationship between yellow band disease (YBD)- associated pathogenic bacteria found in both Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs, and the virulence of these pathogens. YBD is one of the most significant coral diseases of the tropics. Materials and Results: The consortium of four Vibrio species was isolated from YBD tissue on Indo-Pacific corals: Vibrio rotiferianus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio

J. M. Cervino; F. L. Thompson; B. Gomez-Gil; E. A. Lorence; T. J. Goreau; R. L. Hayes; K. B. Winiarski-Cervino; G. W. Smith; K. Hughen; E. Bartels

2008-01-01

64

A novel algicide: evidence of the effect of a fatty acid compound from the marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. BS02 on the harmful dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamarense.  

PubMed

Alexandrium tamarense is a notorious bloom-forming dinoflagellate, which adversely impacts water quality and human health. In this study we present a new algicide against A. tamarense, which was isolated from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. BS02. MALDI-TOF-MS, NMR and algicidal activity analysis reveal that this compound corresponds to palmitoleic acid, which shows algicidal activity against A. tamarense with an EC50 of 40 ?g/mL. The effects of palmitoleic acid on the growth of other algal species were also studied. The results indicate that palmitoleic acid has potential for selective control of the Harmful algal blooms (HABs). Over extended periods of contact, transmission electron microscopy shows severe ultrastructural damage to the algae at 40 ?g/mL concentrations of palmitoleic acid. All of these results indicate potential for controlling HABs by using the special algicidal bacterium and its active agent. PMID:24626054

Li, Dong; Zhang, Huajun; Fu, Lijun; An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Yi, Lin; Zheng, Tianling

2014-01-01

65

Vibrio plantisponsor sp. nov., a diazotrophic bacterium isolated from a mangrove associated wild rice (Porteresia coarctata Tateoka).  

PubMed

Two Gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, halophilic, motile, slightly curved rod-shaped bacterial strains MSSRF60(T) and MSSRF64 were isolated from the roots of a mangrove-associated wild rice collected in the Pichavaram mangroves, India. These strains possess the key functional nitrogenase gene nifH. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA, recA, gapA, mreB, gyrB and pyrH, gene sequences revealed that strains MSSRF60(T) and MSSRF64 belong to the genus Vibrio, and had the highest sequence similarity with the type strains of Vibrio diazotrophicus LMG 7893(T) (99.7, 94.8, 98.5, 97.9, 94.0 and 90.7%, respectively), Vibrio areninigrae J74(T) (98.2, 87.5, 91.5, 88.9, 86.5 and 84.6% respectively) and Vibrio hispanicus LMG 13240(T) (97.8, 87.1, 91.7, 89.8, 84.1 and 81.9%, respectively). The fatty acid composition too confirmed the affiliation of strains MSSRF60(T) and MSSRF64 to the genus Vibrio. These strains can be differentiated from the most closely related Vibrio species by several phenotypic traits. The DNA G+C content of strain MSSRF60(T) was 41.8mol%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic (multilocus sequence analysis using five genes and genomic fingerprinting using BOX-PCR) and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses, strains MSSRF60(T) and MSSRF64 represent a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio plantipsonsor sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MSSRF60(T) (=DSM 21026(T)=LMG 24470(T)=CAIM 1392(T)). PMID:21596509

Rameshkumar, N; Gomez-Gil, B; Spröer, Cathrin; Lang, Elke; Dinesh Kumar, N; Krishnamurthi, S; Nair, Sudha; Roque, A

2011-11-01

66

Inhibition of Vibrio biofilm formation by a marine actinomycete strain A66  

Microsoft Academic Search

China remains by far the largest aquaculture producer in the world. However, biofilms formed by pathogenic Vibrio strains pose serious problems to marine aquaculture. To provide a strategy for biofilm prevention, control, and eradication,\\u000a extracts from 88 marine actinomycetes were screened. Thirty-five inhibited the biofilm formation of Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio anguillarum at a concentration of 2.5% (v\\/v).

JianLan You; XiaoLi Xue; LiXiang Cao; Xin Lu; Jian Wang; LiXin Zhang; ShiNing Zhou

2007-01-01

67

Enumeration of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the viable but nonculturable state using direct plate counts and recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative, halophilic bacterium indigenous to marine and estuarine environments and it is capable of causing food and water-borne illness in humans. It can also cause disease in marine animals, including cultured species. Currently, culture-based techniques are used for quantification of V. parahaemolyticus in environmental samples; however, these can be misleading as they fail to detect V. parahaemolyticus in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state which leads to an underestimation of the population density. In this study, we used a novel fluorescence visualization technique, called recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization (RING-FISH), which targets chromosomal DNA for enumeration. A polynucleotide probe labeled with Cyanine 3 (Cy3) was created corresponding to the ubiquitous V. parahaemolyticus gene that codes for thermolabile hemolysin (tlh). When coupled with the Kogure method to distinguish viable from dead cells, RING-FISH probes reliably enumerated total, viable V. parahaemolyticus. The probe was tested for sensitivity and specificity against a pure culture of tlh(+), tdh(-), trh(-)V. parahaemolyticus, pure cultures of Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio fischeri, and a mixed environmental sample. This research will provide additional tools for a better understanding of the risk these environmental organisms pose to human health. PMID:21329738

Griffitt, Kimberly J; Noriea, Nicholas F; Johnson, Crystal N; Grimes, D Jay

2011-05-01

68

Polysiphonia harveyi, WNC2005-126  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WNC2005-126, Polysiphonia harveyi J. Bailey, Floating docks at Banks Channel, Wrightville Beach, New Hanover County, NC, 30 Jan 2005, Coll: DW Freshwater & B Stuercke, Det: DW Freshwater & B Stuercke, Poly NC6

Freshwater, Wilson

2008-03-07

69

Vibrios as causal agents of zoonoses.  

PubMed

Vibrios are Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria that are widespread in the coastal and estuarine environments. Some species, e.g. Vibrio anguillarum and V. tapetis, comprise serious pathogens of aquatic vertebrates or invertebrates. Other groups, including Grimontia (=Vibrio) hollisae, Photobacterium (=Vibrio) damselae subsp. damselae, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi (=V. carchariae), V. cholerae, V. fluvialis, V. furnissii, V. metschnikovii, V. mimicus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, may cause disease in both aquatic animals and humans. The human outbreaks, although low in number, typically involve wound infections and gastro-intestinal disease often with watery diarrhoea. In a minority of cases, for example V. vulnificus, there is good evidence to actually associate human infections with diseased animals. In other cases, the link is certainly feasible but hard evidence is mostly lacking. PMID:19342185

Austin, B

2010-01-27

70

Plasmid- and chromosome-encoded siderophore anguibactin systems found in marine vibrios: biosynthesis, transport and evolution  

PubMed Central

Vibrio anguillarum is a marine pathogen that causes vibriosis, a hemorrhagic septicemia in aquatic invertebrate as well as vertebrate animals. The siderophore anguibactin system is one of the most important virulence factors of this bacterium. Most of the anguibactin biosynthesis and transport genes are located in the 65-kb pJM1 virulence plasmid although some of them are found in the chromosome of this fish pathogen. Over 30 years of research unveiled the role numerous chromosomal and pJM1 genes play in the synthesis of anguibactin and the transport of cognate ferric complexes into the bacterial cell. Furthermore, these studies showed that pJM1-carrying strains might be originated from pJM1-less strains producing the chromosome-mediated siderophore vanchrobactin. Additionally, we recently identified a chromosome-mediated anguibactin system in V. harveyi suggesting the possible evolutional origin of the V. anguillarum anguibactin system. In this review, we present our current understanding of the mechanisms and evolution hypothesis of the anguibactin system that might have occurred in these pathogenic vibrios. PMID:23660776

Liu, Moqing; Actis, Luis A.; Crosa, Jorge H.

2013-01-01

71

Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression in Escherichia coli of the New Gene Encoding ?-1,3-Xylanase from a Marine Bacterium, Vibrio sp. Strain XY-214  

PubMed Central

The Vibrio sp. strain XY-214 ?-1,3-xylanase gene cloned in Escherichia coli DH5? consisted of an open reading frame of 1,383 nucleotides encoding a protein of 460 amino acids with a molecular mass of 51,323 Da and had a signal peptide of 22 amino acids. The transformant enzyme hydrolyzed ?-1,3-xylan to produce several xylooligosaccharides. PMID:10742274

Araki, Toshiyoshi; Hashikawa, Shinnosuke; Morishita, Tatsuo

2000-01-01

72

Transcriptomic profiling of the oyster pathogen Vibrio splendidus opens a window on the evolutionary dynamics of the small RNA repertoire in the Vibrio genus  

PubMed Central

Work in recent years has led to the recognition of the importance of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) in bacterial regulation networks. New high-throughput sequencing technologies are paving the way to the exploration of an expanding sRNA world in nonmodel bacteria. In the Vibrio genus, compared to the enterobacteriaceae, still a limited number of sRNAs have been characterized, mostly in Vibrio cholerae, where they have been shown to be important for virulence, as well as in Vibrio harveyi. In addition, genome-wide approaches in V. cholerae have led to the discovery of hundreds of potential new sRNAs. Vibrio splendidus is an oyster pathogen that has been recently associated with massive mortality episodes in the French oyster growing industry. Here, we report the first RNA-seq study in a Vibrio outside of the V. cholerae species. We have uncovered hundreds of candidate regulatory RNAs, be it cis-regulatory elements, antisense RNAs, and trans-encoded sRNAs. Conservation studies showed the majority of them to be specific to V. splendidus. However, several novel sRNAs, previously unidentified, are also present in V. cholerae. Finally, we identified 28 trans sRNAs that are conserved in all the Vibrio genus species for which a complete genome sequence is available, possibly forming a Vibrio “sRNA core.” PMID:23097430

Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Nguyen, An N.; Kuchly, Claire; Ott, Alban; Gautheret, Daniel; Bouloc, Philippe; Jacq, Annick

2012-01-01

73

A novel Vibrio sp. pathogen of the coral Pocillopora damicornis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coral pathogen was isolated from the diseased tissue of Pocillopora damicornis in Zanzibar. The pathogenic bacterium, referred to as Vibrio coralyticus YB, was classified as a member of the genus Vibrio. Based on its 16S rDNA sequence, V. coralyticus is probably a new species. In controlled aquaria experiments at 26-29°C, inoculation of pure cultures of V. coralyticus YB either

Y. Ben-Haim; E. Rosenberg

2002-01-01

74

The Squid-Vibrio Symbioses: From Demes to Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The monospecific light organ association between the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri has been used as a model for the study of the most common type of coevolved animal-bacterial interaction; i.e., the association of Gram-negative bacteria with the extracellular apical surfaces of polarized epithelia. Analysis of the squid-vibrio symbiosis has ranged from

JENNIFER R. KIMBELL

2003-01-01

75

Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives reduce virulence in Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the quorum sensing response regulator LuxR  

PubMed Central

Background To date, only few compounds targeting the AI-2 based quorum sensing (QS) system are known. In the present study, we screened cinnamaldehyde and substituted cinnamaldehydes for their ability to interfere with AI-2 based QS. The mechanism of QS inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in several Vibrio harveyi mutants. We also studied in vitro the ability of these compounds to interfere with biofilm formation, stress response and virulence of Vibrio spp. The compounds were also evaluated in an in vivo assay measuring the reduction of Vibrio harveyi virulence towards Artemia shrimp. Results Our results indicate that cinnamaldehyde and several substituted derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS without inhibiting bacterial growth. The active compounds neither interfered with the bioluminescence system as such, nor with the production of AI-2. Study of the effect in various mutants suggested that the target protein is LuxR. Mobility shift assays revealed a decreased DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The compounds were further shown to (i) inhibit biofilm formation in several Vibrio spp., (ii) result in a reduced ability to survive starvation and antibiotic treatment, (iii) reduce pigment and protease production in Vibrio anguillarum and (iv) protect gnotobiotic Artemia shrimp against virulent Vibrio harveyi BB120. Conclusion Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS in various Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The use of these compounds resulted in several marked phenotypic changes, including reduced virulence and increased susceptibility to stress. Since inhibitors of AI-2 based quorum sensing are rare, and considering the role of AI-2 in several processes these compounds may be useful leads towards antipathogenic drugs. PMID:18793453

Brackman, Gilles; Defoirdt, Tom; Miyamoto, Carol; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans; Coenye, Tom

2008-01-01

76

Draft Genome Sequence of the Shellfish Bacterial Pathogen Vibrio sp. Strain B183  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain B183, a Gram-negative marine bacterium isolated from shellfish that causes mortality in larval mariculture. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of its virulence mechanisms and add to our knowledge of Vibrio sp. diversity and evolution. PMID:25237023

Schott, Eric J.

2014-01-01

77

Simultaneous identification of five marine fish pathogens belonging to the genera Tenacibaculum, Vibrio, Photobacterium and Pseudomonas by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to develop a reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) assay for the identification of five fish pathogens (Tenacibaculum soleae, Tenacibaculum maritimum, Vibrio harveyi, Photobacterium damselae and Pseudomonas baetica) of importance in marine aquaculture. Species-specific probes were designed targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (ISR) or the 23S rRNA gene. Reference and clinical strains of each

J. R. López; J. I. Navas; N. Thanantong; R. de la Herran; O. A. E. Sparagano

78

Vibrio and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... 2012. Vibrio parahaemolyticus . [Cited2012 February 1]. Available at URL: http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/ ... Vibrio vulnificus . [Cited 2009 December 8]. Available at URL: http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/ ...

79

Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture.  

PubMed

We propose antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems. The growth of a multiple antibiotic resistant Vibrio harveyi strain was effectively controlled by treating the cells with Rose Bengal and photosensitizing for 30 min using a halogen lamp. This resulted in the death of >50% of the cells within the first 10 min of exposure and the 50% reduction in the cell wall integrity after 30 min could be attributed to the destruction of outer membrane protein of V. harveyi by reactive oxygen intermediates produced during the photosensitization. Further, mesocosm experiments with V. harveyi and Artemia nauplii demonstrated that in 30 min, the aPDT could kill 78.9% and 91.2% of heterotrophic bacterial and Vibrio population respectively. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that aPDT with its rapid action and as yet unreported resistance development possibilities could be a propitious strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems and thereby, avoid their hazardous effects on human health and the ecosystem at large. PMID:21951316

Asok, Aparna; Arshad, Esha; Jasmin, C; Pai, S Somnath; Singh, I S Bright; Mohandas, A; Anas, Abdulaziz

2012-01-01

80

Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture  

PubMed Central

Summary We propose antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems. The growth of a multiple antibiotic resistant Vibrio harveyi strain was effectively controlled by treating the cells with Rose Bengal and photosensitizing for 30?min using a halogen lamp. This resulted in the death of >?50% of the cells within the first 10?min of exposure and the 50% reduction in the cell wall integrity after 30?min could be attributed to the destruction of outer membrane protein of V.?harveyi by reactive oxygen intermediates produced during the photosensitization. Further, mesocosm experiments with V.?harveyi and Artemia nauplii demonstrated that in 30?min, the aPDT could kill 78.9% and 91.2% of heterotrophic bacterial and Vibrio population respectively. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that aPDT with its rapid action and as yet unreported resistance development possibilities could be a propitious strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems and thereby, avoid their hazardous effects on human health and the ecosystem at large. PMID:21951316

Asok, Aparna; Arshad, Esha; Jasmin, C.; Somnath Pai, S.; Bright Singh, I. S.; Mohandas, A.; Anas, Abdulaziz

2012-01-01

81

The Regulatory Network of Natural Competence and Transformation of Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic bacterium frequently encountered in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal regions. Within these environmental reservoirs, the bacterium is often found associated with zooplankton and more specifically with their chitinous exoskeleton. Upon growth on such chitinous surfaces, V. cholerae initiates a developmental program termed “natural competence for genetic transformation.” Natural competence for transformation is

Mirella Lo Scrudato; Melanie Blokesch

2012-01-01

82

Genome Sequences of Vibrio navarrensis, a Potential Human Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Vibrio navarrensis is an aquatic bacterium recently shown to be associated with human illness. We report the first genome sequences of three V. navarrensis strains obtained from clinical and environmental sources. Preliminary analyses of the sequences reveal that V. navarrensis contains genes commonly associated with virulence in other human pathogens. PMID:25414502

Gladney, Lori M.; Katz, Lee S.; Knipe, Kristen M.; Rowe, Lori A.; Conley, Andrew B.; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

2014-01-01

83

Visick Lab: Home of the Vibrio-Euprymna Symbiosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features general information about the lab of Karen Visick, which studies the genes needed to establish an interaction between the small Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminescent symbiont, the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It features links to more information about current research in the Visick lab, lab members and events, and the summer research program and microbiology department at Loyola University.

Visick, Karen; University, Loyola

84

Lessons from cholera & Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Cholera is an acute form of diarrhoeal disease that plagued human civilization over the centuries. The sudden and explosive onset of the disease in the form of an outbreak or epidemic, coupled with high mortality and morbidity rates, had a tragic impact on the personal as well as social life of people living in the affected areas. The enormity of human sufferings led clinicians and scientists to carry out extensive research on cholera and Vibrio cholerae (the causative bacterium of the disease) leading to major discoveries that opened up novel areas of research or new disciplines in biomedical sciences. An attempt is made here to summarize some of these breakthroughs and outline their significance in broader perspectives. Finally, the possible impact of the global socio-political scenario on the spread of cholera epidemics (pandemicity of cholera) is briefly discussed. PMID:21415490

Ghose, Asoke C

2011-02-01

85

Genomic taxonomy of vibrios  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence

Cristiane C Thompson; Ana Vicente; Rangel C Souza; Ana Tereza R Vasconcelos; Tammi Vesth; Nelson Alves; David W Ussery; Tetsuya Iida; Fabiano L Thompson

2009-01-01

86

Chitovibrin: a chitin-binding lectin from Vibrio parahemolyticus.  

PubMed

A novel 134 kDa, calcium-independent chitin-binding lectin, 'chitovibrin', is secreted by the marine bacterium Vibrio parahemolyticus, inducible with chitin or chitin-oligomers. Chitovibrin shows no apparent enzymatic activity but exhibits a strong affinity for chitin and chito-oligomers > dp9. The protein has an isoelectric pH of 3.6, shows thermal tolerance, binds chitin with an optimum at pH 6 and is active in 0-4 M NaCl. Chitovibrin appears to be completely different from other reported Vibrio lectins and may function to bind V. parahemolyticus to chitin substrates, or to capture or sequester chito-oligomers. It may be a member of a large group of recently described proteins in Vibrios related to a complex chitinoclastic (chitinivorous) system. PMID:7696854

Gildemeister, O S; Zhu, B C; Laine, R A

1994-12-01

87

rbcL sequences reveal multiple cryptic introductions of the Japanese red alga Polysiphonia harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, the last 20 years have seen a spectacular increase in accidental introductions of marine species, but it has recently been suggested that both the actual number of invaders and their impacts have been seriously underestimated because of the prevalence of sibling species in marine habitats. The red alga Polysiphonia harveyi is regarded as an alien in the British

Lynne McIvor; Christine A. Maggs; Jim Provan; Michael J. Stanhope

2001-01-01

88

Vibrio cholerae in recreational beach waters and tributaries of Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the severe dehydrating diarrheal disease cholera. This bacterium has been detected in many estuaries around the world and the United States. In this study we examine the abundance and distribution of V. cholerae in recreational beach waters and tributaries of Southern California. Water samples were taken from 11 beach locations adjacent to freshwater

Sunny C. Jiang

2001-01-01

89

Alterations in the Proteome of the Euprymna scolopes Light Organ in Response to Symbiotic Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the onset of the cooperative association between the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the anatomy and morphology of the host's symbiotic organ undergo dramatic changes that require interaction with the bacteria. This morphogenetic process involves an array of tissues, including those in direct contact with, as well as those remote from, the

JUDITH DOINO LEMUS; MARGARET J. MCFALL-NGAI

2000-01-01

90

Environmental reservoirs and mechanisms of persistence of Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

It is now well accepted that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the water-borne disease cholera, is acquired from environmental sources where it persists between outbreaks of the disease. Recent advances in molecular technology have demonstrated that this bacterium can be detected in areas where it has not previously been isolated, indicating a much broader, global distribution of this bacterium outside of endemic regions. The environmental persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment can be attributed to multiple intra- and interspecific strategies such as responsive gene regulation and biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces, as well as interactions with a multitude of other organisms. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms that enable the persistence of this bacterium in the environment. In particular, we will discuss how V. cholerae can survive stressors such as starvation, temperature, and salinity fluctuations as well as how the organism persists under constant predation by heterotrophic protists. PMID:24379807

Lutz, Carla; Erken, Martina; Noorian, Parisa; Sun, Shuyang; McDougald, Diane

2013-01-01

91

Substrate Specificity and Function of the Pheromone Receptor AinR in Vibrio fischeri ES114  

PubMed Central

Two distinct but interrelated pheromone-signaling systems, LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR, positively control bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri. Although each system generates an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal, the protein sequences of LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR are unrelated. AinS and LuxI generate the pheromones N-octanoyl-AHL (C8-AHL) and N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-AHL (3OC6-AHL), respectively. LuxR is a transcriptional activator that responds to 3OC6-AHL, and to a lesser extent to C8-AHL. AinR is hypothesized to respond to C8-AHL and, based on homology to Vibrio harveyi LuxN, to mediate the repression of a Qrr regulatory RNA. However, a ?ainR mutation decreased luminescence, which was not predicted based on V. harveyi LuxN, raising the possibility of a distinct regulatory mechanism for AinR. Here we show that ainR can complement a luxN mutant, suggesting functional similarity. Moreover, in V. fischeri, we observed ainR-dependent repression of a Pqrr-lacZ transcriptional reporter in the presence of C8-AHL, consistent with its hypothesized regulatory role. The system appears quite sensitive, with a half-maximal effect on a Pqrr reporter at 140 pM C8-AHL. Several other AHLs with substituted and unsubstituted acyl chains between 6 and 10 carbons also displayed an AinR-dependent effect on Pqrr-lacZ; however, AHLs with acyl chains of four carbons or 12 or more carbons lacked activity. Interestingly, 3OC6-AHL also affected expression from the qrr promoter, but this effect was largely luxR dependent, indicating a previously unknown connection between these systems. Finally, we propose a preliminary explanation for the unexpected luminescence phenotype of the ?ainR mutant. PMID:24056099

Kimbrough, John H.

2013-01-01

92

Biodiversity of Vibrios  

PubMed Central

Vibrios are ubiquitous and abundant in the aquatic environment. A high abundance of vibrios is also detected in tissues and/or organs of various marine algae and animals, e.g., abalones, bivalves, corals, fish, shrimp, sponges, squid, and zooplankton. Vibrios harbour a wealth of diverse genomes as revealed by different genomic techniques including amplified fragment length polymorphism, multilocus sequence typing, repetetive extragenic palindrome PCR, ribotyping, and whole-genome sequencing. The 74 species of this group are distributed among four different families, i.e., Enterovibrionaceae, Photobacteriaceae, Salinivibrionaceae, and Vibrionaceae. Two new genera, i.e., Enterovibrio norvegicus and Grimontia hollisae, and 20 novel species, i.e., Enterovibrio coralii, Photobacterium eurosenbergii, V. brasiliensis, V. chagasii, V. coralliillyticus, V. crassostreae, V. fortis, V. gallicus, V. hepatarius, V. hispanicus, V. kanaloaei, V. neonatus, V. neptunius, V. pomeroyi, V. pacinii, V. rotiferianus, V. superstes, V. tasmaniensis, V. ezurae, and V. xuii, have been described in the last few years. Comparative genome analyses have already revealed a variety of genomic events, including mutations, chromosomal rearrangements, loss of genes by decay or deletion, and gene acquisitions through duplication or horizontal transfer (e.g., in the acquisition of bacteriophages, pathogenicity islands, and super-integrons), that are probably important driving forces in the evolution and speciation of vibrios. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics through the application of, e.g., microarrays will facilitate the investigation of the gene repertoire at the species level. Based on such new genomic information, the taxonomy and the species concept for vibrios will be reviewed in the next years. PMID:15353563

Thompson, Fabiano L.; Iida, Tetsuya; Swings, Jean

2004-01-01

93

Engineering Vibrio fischeri for Inducible Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri serves as a model organism for a variety of natural phenomena, including symbiotic host colonization. The ease with which the V. fischeri genome can be manipulated contributes greatly to our ability to identify the factors involved in these phenomena. Here, we have adapted genetic tools for use in V. fischeri to promote our ability to conditionally control the expression of genes of interest. Specifically, we modified the commonly used mini-Tn5 transposon to contain an outward-facing, LacI-repressible/IPTG-inducible promoter, and inserted the lacI gene into the V. fischeri chromosome. Used together, these tools permit the identification and induction of genes that control specific phenotypes. To validate this approach, we identified IPTG-controllable motility mutants. We anticipate that the ability to randomly insert an inducible promoter into the genome of V. fischeri will advance our understanding of various aspects of the physiology of this microbe.

Ondrey, Jakob M; Visick, Karen L

2014-01-01

94

Environmental determinants of Vibrio cholerae biofilm development.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is a versatile bacterium that flourishes in diverse environments, including the human intestine, rivers, lakes, estuaries, and the ocean. Surface attachment is believed to be essential for colonization of all of these natural environments. Previous studies have demonstrated that the vps genes, which encode proteins required for exopolysaccharide synthesis and transport, are required for V. cholerae biofilm development in Luria-Bertani broth. In this work, we showed that V. cholerae forms vps-dependent biofilms and vps-independent biofilms. The vps-dependent and -independent biofilms differ in their environmental activators and in architecture. Our results suggest that environmental activators of vps-dependent biofilm development are present in freshwater, while environmental activators of vps-independent biofilm development are present in seawater. The distinct environmental requirements for the two modes of biofilm development suggest that vps-dependent biofilm development and vps-independent biofilm development may play distinct roles in the natural environment. PMID:12957889

Kierek, Katharine; Watnick, Paula I

2003-09-01

95

Vibrio cholerae: Cholera toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial protein toxin of Vibrio cholerae, cholera toxin, is a major agent involved in severe diarrhoeal disease. Cholera toxin is a member of the AB toxin family and is composed of a catalytically active heterodimeric A-subunit linked with a homopentameric B-subunit. Upon binding to its receptor, GM01, cholera toxin is internalized and transported in a retrograde manner through the

Davy Vanden Broeck; Caroline Horvath; Marc J. S. De Wolf

2007-01-01

96

Characterization of htrB and msbB Mutants of the Light Organ Symbiont Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial lipid A is an important mediator of bacterium-host interactions, and secondary acylations added by HtrB and MsbB can be critical for colonization and virulence in pathogenic infections. In contrast, Vibrio fischeri lipid A stimulates normal developmental processes in this bacterium's mutualistic host, Euprymna scolopes, although the importance of lipid A structure in this symbiosis is unknown. To further examine

Dawn M. Adin; Nancy J. Phillips; Bradford W. Gibson; Michael A. Apicella; Edward G. Ruby; Margaret J. McFall-Ngai; Daniel B. Hall; Eric V. Stabb

2008-01-01

97

The interactions of Vibrio vulnificus and the oyster Crassostrea virginica.  

PubMed

The human bacterial pathogen, Vibrio vulnificus, is found in brackish waters and is concentrated by filter-feeding molluscan shellfish, especially oysters, which inhabit those waters. Ingestion of raw or undercooked oysters containing virulent strains of V. vulnificus can result in rapid septicemia and death in 50 % of victims. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the environmental interactions between these two organisms, including the effects of salinity and temperature on colonization, uptake, and depuration rates of various phenotypes and genotypes of the bacterium, and host-microbe immunological interactions. PMID:23280497

Froelich, Brett; Oliver, James D

2013-05-01

98

Control of biofilm formation and colonization in Vibrio fischeri: a role for partner switching?emi_2269 2051..2059  

E-print Network

Minireview Control of biofilm formation and colonization in Vibrio fischeri: a role for partner pro- ceeds via a transient biofilm formed by the bacterium. The production of this bacterial biofilm) gene locus. In addition to this transcriptional control, biofilm formation is regulated by two proteins

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

99

Identification and Characterization of a Vibrio cholerae Gene, mbaA, Involved in Maintenance of Biofilm Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of biofilms is thought to play a key role in the environmental survival of the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Although the factors involved in V. cholerae attachment to abiotic surfaces have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in the subsequent maturation of the biofilms. Here we report the identification of a novel gene,

Natalia Bomchil; Paula Watnick; Roberto Kolter

2003-01-01

100

1.8 Å crystal structure of the major NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductase of a bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri: overall structure, cofactor and substrate-analog binding, and comparison with related flavoproteins 1 1 Edited by I. A. Wilson  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have solved the crystal structure of FRase I, the major NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductase of Vibrio fischeri, by the multiple isomorphous replacement method (MIR) at 1.8 Å resolution with the conventional R factor of 0.187. The crystal structure of FRase I complexed with its competitive inhibitor, dicoumarol, has also been solved at 2.2 Å resolution with the conventional R factor of

Hideaki Koike; Hiroshi Sasaki; Toshiro Kobori; Shuhei Zenno; Kaoru Saigo; Michael E. P Murphy; Elinor T Adman; Masaru Tanokura

1998-01-01

101

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

E-print Network

Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it ...

Kirkup, Benjamin C.

102

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

E-print Network

Background: While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an ...

Kirkup, Benjamin C.

103

Vibrio campbellii hmgA-mediated pyomelanization impairs quorum sensing, virulence, and cellular fitness  

PubMed Central

Melanization due to the inactivation of the homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase gene (hmgA) has been demonstrated to increase stress resistance, persistence, and virulence in some bacterial species but such pigmented mutants have not been observed in pathogenic members of the Vibrio Harveyi clade. In this study, we used Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 as model organism to understand how melanization affected cellular phenotype, metabolism, and virulence. An in-frame deletion of the hmgA gene resulted in the overproduction of a pigment in cell culture supernatants and cellular membranes that was identified as pyomelanin. Unlike previous demonstrations in Vibrio cholerae, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the pigmented V. campbellii mutant did not show increased UV resistance and was found to be ~2.7 times less virulent than the wild type strain in Penaeus monodon shrimp virulence assays. However, the extracted pyomelanin pigment did confer a higher resistance to oxidative stress when incubated with wild type cells. Microarray-based transcriptomic analyses revealed that the hmgA gene deletion and subsequent pyomelanin production negatively effected the expression of 129 genes primarily involved in energy production, amino acid, and lipid metabolism, and protein translation and turnover. This transcriptional response was mediated in part by an impairment of the quorum sensing regulon as transcripts of the quorum sensing high cell density master regulator LuxR and other operonic members of this regulon were significantly less abundant in the hmgA mutant. Taken together, the results suggest that the pyomelanization of V. campbellii sufficiently impairs the metabolic activities of this organism and renders it less fit and virulent than its isogenic wild type strain. PMID:24376440

Wang, Zheng; Lin, Baochuan; Mostaghim, Anahita; Rubin, Robert A.; Glaser, Evan R.; Mittraparp-arthorn, Pimonsri; Thompson, Janelle R.; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Vora, Gary J.

2013-01-01

104

Growth and flagellation of Vibrio fischeri during initiation of the sepiolid squid light organ symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pure culture of the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri is maintained in the light-emitting organ of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes. When the juvenile squid emerges from its egg it is symbiont-free and, because bioluminescence is part of an anti-predatory behavior, therefore must obtain a bacterial inoculum from the surrounding environment. We document here the kinetics of the process by

E. G. Ruby; L. M. Asato

1993-01-01

105

Culturable and VBNC Vibrio cholerae : Interactions with Chironomid Egg Masses and Their Bacterial Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments. Recently, it was found that chironomid\\u000a (nonbiting midges) egg masses serve as a reservoir for the cholera bacterium and that flying chironomid adults are possible\\u000a windborne carriers of V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139. Chironomids are the most widely distributed insect in freshwater. Females deposit egg masses at the

Malka Halpern; Ori Landsberg; Dina Raats; Eugene Rosenberg

2007-01-01

106

Molecular and biochemical characterization of an extracellular serine-protease from Vibrio metschnikovii J1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protease-producing bacterium was isolated from an alkaline wastewater of the soap industry and identified as Vibrio metschnikovii J1 on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical properties. The strain was found to over-produce proteases\\u000a when it was grown at 30°C in media containing casein as carbon source (14,000 U ml?1). J1 enzyme, the major protease produced by V.

Kemel Jellouli; Ali Bougatef; Laila Manni; Rym Agrebi; Rayda Siala; Islem Younes; Moncef Nasri

2009-01-01

107

Inhibition of Vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a Possible Probiotic Treatment of Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguil- larum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect of P. fluorescens AH2 was studied under iron-rich and iron-limited conditions. Sterile-filtered culture supernatants from iron-limited

LONE GRAM; JETTE MELCHIORSEN; BETTINA SPANGGAARD; INGRID HUBER; TORBEN F. NIELSEN

1999-01-01

108

AinS Quorum Sensing Regulates the Vibrio fischeri Acetate Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri uses two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum-sensing systems. The earlier signal, octanoyl-HSL, produced by AinS, is required for normal colonization of the squid Euprymna scolopes and, in culture, is necessary for a normal growth yield. In examining the latter requirement, we found that during growth in a glycerol\\/tryptone-based medium, wild-type V. fischeri cells initially excrete acetate

Sarah V. Studer; Mark J. Mandel; Edward G. Ruby

2008-01-01

109

Vibrio ordalii sp. nov.: A causative agent of vibriosis in fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio ordalii sp. nov. is the name proposed for the bacterium previously designated asV. anguillarum biotype 2. The change in the classification of this fish pathogen is based on differences between the classicalV. anguillarum andV. ordalii in cultural and biochemical characteristics, and in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence relatedness. Phenotypically,V. ordalii was distinguishable fromV. anguillarum based on: negative Voges-Proskauer reaction; negative

Michael H. Schiewe; Trevor J. Trust; Jorge H. Crosaw

1981-01-01

110

Asymmetric Response of Carbon Metabolism at High and Low Salt Stress in Vibrio sp. DSM14379  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy redistribution between growth and maintenance in salt-stressed cells is especially important for bacteria living in\\u000a estuarine environments. In this study, Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio sp. DSM14379, isolated from the estuarine waters of the northern Adriatic Sea, was grown aerobically in a peptone–yeast extract\\u000a medium with different salt concentrations (ranging from 0.3% to 10% (w\\/v) NaCl). Carbon flux through the central

Tjaša Danev?i?; David Stopar

111

Chironomid Egg Masses as a Natural Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae Non-O1 and Non-O139 in Freshwater Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholera is a diarrheal disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, and an estimated 120,000 deaths from cholera occur globally every year. The natural reservoir of the bacterium is environmental. A recent report indicated an association between V. cholerae and chironomid egg masses. Chironomids, the “non-biting midges” (Diptera; Chironomidae), are the most widely distributed and frequently the most abundant

M. Halpern; Y. B. Broza; S. Mittler; E. Arakawa; M. Broza

2004-01-01

112

The GacA global regulator of Vibrio fischeri is required for normal host tissue responses that limit subsequent bacterial colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Harmful and beneficial bacterium-host interactions induce similar host-tissue changes that lead to con- trasting outcomes of association. A life-long associa- tion between Vibrio fischeri and the light organ of its host Euprymna scolopes begins when the squid col- lects bacteria from the surrounding seawater using mucus secreted from ciliated epithelial appendages. Following colonization, the bacterium causes changes in host

Cheryl A. Whistler; Tanya A. Koropatnick; Amber Pollack; Margaret J. McFall-Ngai; Edward G. Ruby

2007-01-01

113

Ethanolamine utilization in Vibrio alginolyticus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ethanolamine is used as an energy source by phylogenetically diverse bacteria including pathogens, by the concerted action of proteins from the eut-operon. Previous studies have revealed the presence of eutBC genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. However, ethanolamine utilization has not been reported for any member of the Vibrio genus. Our comparative genomics study reveals the presence of genes that are involved in ethanolamine utilization in several Vibrio species. Using Vibrio alginolyticus as a model system we demonstrate that ethanolamine is better utilized as a nitrogen source than as a carbon source. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Lakshminarayan Iyer and Dr. Vivek Anantharaman (nominated by Dr. L Aravind). PMID:23234435

2012-01-01

114

Polyphasic Taxonomy of the Genus Vibrio: Numerical Taxonomy of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Related Vibrio Species  

PubMed Central

A set of 86 bacterial cultures, including 30 strains of Vibrio cholerae, 35 strains of V. parahaemolyticus, and 21 representative strains of Pseudomonas, Spirillum, Achromobacter, Arthrobacter, and marine Vibrio species were tested for a total of 200 characteristics. Morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics were included in the analysis. Overall deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base compositions and ultrastructure, under the electron microscope, were also examined. The taxonomic data were analyzed by computer by using numerical taxonomy programs designed to sort and cluster strains related phenetically. The V. cholerae strains formed an homogeneous cluster, sharing overall S values of ?75%. Two strains, V. cholerae NCTC 30 and NCTC 8042, did not fall into the V. cholerae species group when tested by the hypothetical median organism calculation. No separation of “classic” V. cholerae, El Tor vibrios, and nonagglutinable vibrios was observed. These all fell into a single, relatively homogeneous, V. cholerae species cluster. V. parahaemolyticus strains, excepting 5144, 5146, and 5162, designated members of the species V. alginolyticus, clustered at S ?80%. Characteristics uniformly present in all the Vibrio species examined are given, as are also characteristics and frequency of occurrence for V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus. The clusters formed in the numerical taxonomy analyses revealed similar overall DNA base compositions, with the range for the Vibrio species of 40 to 48% guanine plus cytosine. Generic level of relationship of V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus is considered dubious. Intra- and intergroup relationships obtained from the numerical taxonomy studies showed highly significant correlation with DNA/DNA reassociation data. Images PMID:5473901

Colwell, R. R.

1970-01-01

115

Biodegradation of triclosan by a triclosan-degrading isolate and an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium  

E-print Network

). Also a group of studies to measure the acute toxicity of triclosan to a microtox bacterium (Vibrio fischeri), a crustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia), a microalga (Selenastrum capricornutum) and fish (Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes) were conducted... by Japanese researchers. The results indicated that the microtox bacterium, crustacean and fish had similar sensitivities towards triclosan toxicity (i.e., IC 25 from 0.07 to 0.29 mg/L trclosan, while the microalga was about 30-80-fold (IC 25 0.0034 mg...

Zhao, Fuman

2007-09-17

116

Immunobiological relationships between Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio cholerae enterotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 26 strains of Vibrio fluvialis was included in this study, which were isolated from patients with diarrhoea and other sources. The GM1 enzyme linked immunosorbent assays performed with the culture filtrates of V. fluvialis yielded negative results, indicating that their receptor site is different from that of the known labile toxin. The cholera antitoxin failed to neutralize

CR Ahsan; SC Sanyal; A Zaman; PKB Neogy; MI Huq

1988-01-01

117

Endophthalmitis Caused by Vibrio alginolyticus?  

PubMed Central

Vibrio alginolyticus is a facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacillus found in normal marine flora. Ocular infections induced by V. alginolyticus are extremely rare. We report a case of endophthalmitis caused by V. alginolyticus to draw attention to V. alginolyticus infections following ocular injuries. PMID:19710275

Li, Xiao Chun; Xiang, Zhen Yang; Xu, Xiao Ming; Yan, Wei Hua; Ma, Jian Min

2009-01-01

118

Shedding light on bioluminescence regulation in Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

Summary The bioluminescence emitted by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri is a particularly striking result of individual microbial cells coordinating a group behavior. The genes responsible for light production are principally regulated by the LuxR-LuxI quorum-sensing system. In addition to LuxR-LuxI, numerous other genetic elements and environmental conditions control bioluminescence production. Efforts to mathematically model the LuxR-LuxI system are providing insight into the dynamics of this autoinduction behavior. The Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes forms a natural symbiosis with V. fischeri, and utilizes the symbiont-derived bioluminescence for certain nocturnal behaviors, such as counterillumination. Recent work suggests that the tissue with which V. fischeri associates not only can detect bioluminescence but may also use this light to monitor the V. fischeri population. PMID:22500943

Miyashiro, Tim; Ruby, Edward G.

2012-01-01

119

Vibrio cholerae as a predator: lessons from evolutionary principles  

PubMed Central

Diarrheal diseases are the second-most common cause of death among children under the age of five worldwide. Cholera alone, caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae, is responsible for several million cases and over 120,000 deaths annually. When contaminated water is ingested, V. cholerae passes through the gastric acid barrier, penetrates the mucin layer of the small intestine, and adheres to the underlying epithelial lining. V. cholerae multiplies rapidly, secretes cholera toxin, and exits the human host in vast numbers during diarrheal purges. How V. cholerae rapidly reaches such high numbers during each purge is not clearly understood. We propose that V. cholerae employs its bactericidal type VI secretion system to engage in intraspecies and intraguild predation for nutrient acquisition to support rapid growth and multiplication. PMID:24368907

Pukatzki, Stefan; Provenzano, Daniele

2013-01-01

120

Vibrio vulnificus as a health hazard for shrimp consumers.  

PubMed

Over the last 30 years, a number of Vibrio species found in the aquatic environment have been indicated as cause of disease in human beings. Vibrio vulnificus is an emergent pathogen, an invasive and lethal marine bacterium related to wound infection and held accountable for gastroenteritis and primary septicemia. It occurs quite frequently in marine organisms, mainly in mollusks. This study aimed at isolating and identifying strains of V. vulnificus based upon the analysis of twenty samples of seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller), purchased at the Mucuripe fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil). TCBS agar was used to isolate suspect strains. Seven of twenty-nine strains isolated from six different samples were confirmed as such by means of biochemical evidence and thus submitted to biological assays to determine their virulence. The susceptibility of the V. vulnificus strains to a number of antibiotics was tested. None of the V. vulnificus strains showed signs of virulence during a 24-hour observation period, possibly due to the shedding of the capsules by the cells. As to the results of the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, the seven above-mentioned V. vulnificus strains were found to be sensitive to nitrofurantoin (NT), ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GN) and chloramphenicol (CO) and resistant to clindamycin (CI), penicillin (PN) and ampicillin (AP). PMID:11696848

do Nascimento, S M; dos Fernandes Vieira, R H; Theophilo, G N; Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, D; Vieira, G H

2001-01-01

121

Vibrios in the Louisiana gulf coast environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyphasic approach, using bacteriological, immunological, and molecular biological techniques was used to elucidate the distribution of pathogenicVibrio species in the Louisiana coastal environment. A variety ofVibrio species pathogenic for man, includingV. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. fluvialis, andV. vulnificus, were found to be ubiquitous in Louisiana.Vibrio species monitored were shown to fluctuate in response to environmental factors of temperature, salinity,

N. C. Roberts; R. J. Siebeling; J. B. Kaperfl; H. B. Bradford Jr

1982-01-01

122

The Lipid A from Vibrio fischeri Lipopolysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Vibrio fischeri, a bioluminescent marine bacterium, exists in an exclusive symbiotic relationship with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, whose light organ it colonizes. Previously, it has been shown that the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or free lipid A of V. fischeri can trigger morphological changes in the juvenile squid's light organ that occur upon colonization. To investigate the structural features that might be responsible for this phenomenon, the lipid A from V. fischeri ES114 LPS was isolated and characterized by multistage mass spectrometry (MSn). A microheterogeneous mixture of mono- and diphosphorylated diglucosamine disaccharides was observed with variable states of acylation ranging from tetra- to octaacylated forms. All lipid A species, however, contained a set of conserved primary acyl chains consisting of an N-linked C14:0(3-OH) at the 2-position, an unusual N-linked C14:1(3-OH) at the 2?-position, and two O-linked C12:0(3-OH) fatty acids at the 3- and 3?-positions. The fatty acids found in secondary acylation were considerably more variable, with either a C12:0 or C16:1 at the 2-position, C14:0 or C14:0(3-OH) at the 2?-position, and C12:0 or no substituent at the 3?-position. Most surprising was the presence of an unusual set of modifications at the secondary acylation site of the 3-position consisting of phosphoglycerol (GroP), lysophosphatidic acid (GroP bearing C12:0, C16:0, or C16:1), or phosphatidic acid (GroP bearing either C16:0 + C12:0 or C16:0 + C16:1). Given their unusual nature, it is possible that these features of the V. fischeri lipid A may underlie the ability of E. scolopes to recognize its symbiotic partner. PMID:21498521

Phillips, Nancy J.; Adin, Dawn M.; Stabb, Eric V.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.; Apicella, Michael A.; Gibson, Bradford W.

2011-01-01

123

Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Chesapeake Bay  

PubMed Central

A study of the ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related vibrios in the Rhode River area of Chesapeake Bay was carried out over the period December 1970 through August 1971. The incidence of V. parahaemolyticus and related vibrios was found to be correlated with water temperature. The vibrios could not be detected in the water column during the winter months, although they were present in sediment. From late spring to early summer, when water temperatures were 14 ± 1 C, vibrios over-wintering in sediment were released from the bottom communities and attached to zooplankton, proliferating as the temperature rose. The number of vibrios in and on plankton was reflected in the water column bacterial population densities at water temperatures of ca. 19 C. Thus, temperature of the water column in the range of 14 to 19 C was found to be critical in the annual cycle of the vibrios. Interaction between sediment, water, and zooplankton was found to be essential in the natural estuarine ecosystem. Bacterial counts of zooplankton were found to be temperature dependent. The bacterial population associated with zooplankton was found to be predominantly on external surfaces and was specific, differing from that of the sediment. Vibrio spp. and related organisms comprised the total bacterial population associated with zooplankton in summer months. The ecological role of Vibrio spp., including V. parahaemolyticus, was found to be significant, with respect to their property of chitin digestion and in relation to the population dynamics of zooplankton in Chesapeake Bay. PMID:4567138

Kaneko, Tatsuo; Colwell, Rita R.

1973-01-01

124

Effects of extracellular products of Vibrio alginolyticus on penaeid prawn plasma components.  

PubMed

The effects of both crude extracellular products (ECP) and a partially purified protease of Vibrio alginolyticus on the plasma components of kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus) and tiger prawn (P. monodon) were studied using crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). A component of the plasma, tentatively identified as coagulogen, apparently disappeared after incubation with the ECP, while the amount of a component tentatively identified as haemocyanin decreased. The coagulogen and an unknown component (component 1) in the penaeid plasma showed an increased migration rate after incubation with a partially purified 33 kDa protease of the bacterium. In contrast, incubation with protease had no detectable effect on the amount of haemocyanin. These events may significantly contribute to the pathogenicity of Vibrio alginolyticus in penaeids. PMID:9281857

Lee, K K; Chen, F R; Yu, S R; Yang, T I; Liu, P C

1997-08-01

125

Vibrio caribbeanicus sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Scleritoderma cyanea.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, curved rod-shaped bacterium, strain N384(T), was isolated from a marine sponge (Scleritoderma cyanea; phylum Porifera) collected from a depth of 795 feet (242 m) off the west coast of Curaçao. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain N384(T) was shown to belong to the genus Vibrio, most closely related to Vibrio brasiliensis LMG 20546(T) (98.8% similarity), Vibrio nigripulchritudo ATCC 27043(T) (98.5%), Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19109(T) (98.6%) and V. sinaloensis DSM 21326(T) (98.2%). The DNA G+C content of strain N384(T) was 41.6 mol%. An analysis of concatenated sequences of five genes (gyrB, rpoA, pyrH, mreB and ftsZ; 4068 bp) demonstrated a clear separation between strain N384(T) and its closest neighbours and clustered strain N384(T) into the 'Orientalis' clade of vibrios. Phenotypically, the novel species belonged to the arginine dihydrolase-positive, lysine decarboxylase- and ornithine decarboxylase-negative (A+/L-/O-) cluster. The novel species was also differentiated on the basis of fatty acid composition, specifically that the proportions of iso-C(13:0), iso-C(15:0), C(15:0), iso-C(16:0), C(16:0), iso-C(17:0), C(17:1)?8c and C(17:0) were significantly different from those found in V. brasiliensis and V. sinaloensis. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, average nucleotide identity and physiological and biochemical tests further allowed differentiation of this strain from other described species of the genus Vibrio. Collectively, these findings confirm that strain N384(T) represents a novel Vibrio species, for which the name Vibrio caribbeanicus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain N384(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2122(T)?=?DSM 23640(T)). PMID:21930677

Hoffmann, Maria; Monday, Steven R; Allard, Marc W; Strain, Errol A; Whittaker, Paul; Naum, Marianna; McCarthy, Peter J; Lopez, Jose V; Fischer, Markus; Brown, Eric W

2012-08-01

126

Squid-derived chitin oligosaccharides are a chemotactic signal during colonization by Vibrio fischeri.  

PubMed

Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is noted as the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. Chitin serves many functions for marine bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae ("vibrios"), in some instances providing a physical attachment site, inducing natural genetic competence, and serving as an attractant for chemotaxis. The marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri is the specific symbiont in the light-emitting organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The bacterium provides the squid with luminescence that the animal uses in an antipredatory defense, while the squid supports the symbiont's nutritional requirements. V. fischeri cells are harvested from seawater during each host generation, and V. fischeri is the only species that can complete this process in nature. Furthermore, chitin is located in squid hemocytes and plays a nutritional role in the symbiosis. We demonstrate here that chitin oligosaccharides produced by the squid host serve as a chemotactic signal for colonizing bacteria. V. fischeri uses the gradient of host chitin to enter the squid light organ duct and colonize the animal. We provide evidence that chitin serves a novel function in an animal-bacterial mutualism, as an animal-produced bacterium-attracting synomone. PMID:22522684

Mandel, Mark J; Schaefer, Amy L; Brennan, Caitlin A; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; Deloney-Marino, Cindy R; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; Ruby, Edward G

2012-07-01

127

Squid-Derived Chitin Oligosaccharides Are a Chemotactic Signal during Colonization by Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is noted as the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. Chitin serves many functions for marine bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae (“vibrios”), in some instances providing a physical attachment site, inducing natural genetic competence, and serving as an attractant for chemotaxis. The marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri is the specific symbiont in the light-emitting organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The bacterium provides the squid with luminescence that the animal uses in an antipredatory defense, while the squid supports the symbiont's nutritional requirements. V. fischeri cells are harvested from seawater during each host generation, and V. fischeri is the only species that can complete this process in nature. Furthermore, chitin is located in squid hemocytes and plays a nutritional role in the symbiosis. We demonstrate here that chitin oligosaccharides produced by the squid host serve as a chemotactic signal for colonizing bacteria. V. fischeri uses the gradient of host chitin to enter the squid light organ duct and colonize the animal. We provide evidence that chitin serves a novel function in an animal-bacterial mutualism, as an animal-produced bacterium-attracting synomone. PMID:22522684

Schaefer, Amy L.; Brennan, Caitlin A.; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A. C.; DeLoney-Marino, Cindy R.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

2012-01-01

128

Multiplex Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus  

PubMed Central

Objectives A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for the identification of three Vibrio species: Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Methods Specific primers and probes targeting the hlyA, tlh, and vvhA genes were selected and used for multiplex real-time PCR to confirm the identification of V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus, respectively. This method was applied to screen Vibrio species from environmental samples and combining it with a culture-based method, its effectiveness was evaluated in comparison with culture-based methods alone. Results Specific PCR fragments were obtained from isolates belonging to the target species, indicating a high specificity of this multiplex real-time PCR. No cross-reactivity with the assay was observed between the tested bacteria. The sensitivity of the multiplex real-time PCR was found to have a lower limit of 104 colony-forming units/reaction for all three Vibrio species. The combination strategy raised the isolation ratio of all three Vibrio species 1.26- to 2.75-fold. Conclusion This assay provides a rapid, sensitive, and specific technique to detect these three Vibrio species in the environment. PMID:24159544

Park, Jie Yeun; Jeon, Semi; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Misun; Kim, Seonghan

2013-01-01

129

Properties of proteolytic toxin of Vibrio anguilolarum from diseased flounder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extracellular products (ECP) produced by Vibrio anguillarum strain M3 originally isolated from diseased flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) were prepared. ECP of M3 showed gelatinase, casinase, amylase and haemolytic activity on agarose plates. High protease activity against azocasin was detected. Bacterium M2 showed highest growth and protease activity at 25°C. The protease present in ECP showed maximal activity at pH 8 and 55°C; was completely inactivated by application of 80°C heat for 30 min; was completely inhibited by EDTA and HgCl2, and was partially inhibited by PMSF, SDS, MnCl2 and iodoacetic acid; but not inhibited by CaCl2 and MgCl2. The ECP was toxic to flounder fish at LD50 values of 3.1 ?g protein/g body weight. The addition of HgCl2 and application of heat at 50°C decreased the lethal toxicity of ECP. When heated at 100°C, ECP lethality to flounder was completely inhibited. After intramuscular injection of ECP into flounder, it showed evident histopathological changes including necrosis of muscle, extensive deposition of haemosiderin in the spleen, dilated blood vessels congested with numerious lymphocytes in the liver. These results showed that ECP protease was a lethal factor produced by the bacterium V. anguillarum M3.

Mo, Zhao-Lan; Chen, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Pei-Jun

2002-12-01

130

Function of neuraminidase in vibrio taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among all the microorganisms, Vibrio cholerae evidently possesses the highest neuraminidase activity, and for this reason it is used as a source of the enzyme on a commercial scale. The suggestion has been made that the formation of neuraminidase by Vibrio cholerae takes place parallel with the accumulation of type 2 toxins [7], including the factor that increases capillary permeability

V. D. Solov'ev; I. V. Domaradskii; N. Ya. Shimanyuk; I. I. Kurennaya

1972-01-01

131

Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106).  

SciTech Connect

Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.

Temperton, B.; Thomas, S.; Tait, K.; Parry, H.; Emery, M.; Allen, M.; Quinn, J.; McGrath, J.; Gilbert, J. (CLS-GSB); (Plymouth Marine Lab.); (Queen's Univ.); (Univ. of Plymouth); (Univ. of Chicago)

2011-01-01

132

Isolation and identification among cockle isolates of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from Selangor, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrio vulnificus infections are worldwide public health problems associated with illnesses resulting from consumption of raw or partially cooked seafood. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and identification of V. vulnificus in cockles from local wet (40) and supermarkets (38) from Selangor, Malaysia from July 2013 to February 2014. A total of 78(n=78) cockle were examined for the presence of V. vulnificus and at about 32% (25/78) cockle samples were positive to this bacterium. Colonies morphological observation and biochemical characterization for those isolates showed 60% (15/78) of isolates were classified as biotype 1 and 40% (10/78) belong to biotype 2.

Kurdi Al-Dulaimi, Mohammed M.; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Ghani, Ma`aruf Abd.

2014-09-01

133

Microbiological and other hazards from seafoods with special reference to Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

The salient features of some of the more important microbiological health hazards to man from seafoods are reviewed briefly. They include poisoning, indirectly from toxins produced by certain marine algae or more directly by Clostridium botulinum, as well as infection with the marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Local culinary habits play a significant role in such kinds of illness, and food well cooked shortly before consumption is always preferable. Since established customs die hard, safety ultimately depends, not so much on arbitrary microbiological standards, but on hygienic production, correct storage and distribution, and on education in intelligent eating habits. PMID:4467856

Barrow, G. I.

1974-01-01

134

The Fur-Iron Complex Modulates Expression of the Quorum-Sensing Master Regulator, SmcR, To Control Expression of Virulence Factors in Vibrio vulnificus  

PubMed Central

The gene vvpE, encoding the virulence factor elastase, is a member of the quorum-sensing regulon in Vibrio vulnificus and displays enhanced expression at high cell density. We observed that this gene was repressed under iron-rich conditions and that the repression was due to a Fur (ferric uptake regulator)-dependent repression of smcR, a gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator with similarity to luxR in Vibrio harveyi. A gel mobility shift assay and a footprinting experiment demonstrated that the Fur-iron complex binds directly to two regions upstream of smcR (?82 to ?36 and ?2 to +27, with respect to the transcription start site) with differing affinities. However, binding of the Fur-iron complex is reversible enough to allow expression of smcR to be induced by quorum sensing at high cell density under iron-rich conditions. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fur fails to bind either region and the expression of smcR is regulated solely by quorum sensing. These results suggest that two biologically important environmental signals, iron and quorum sensing, converge to direct the expression of smcR, which then coordinates the expression of virulence factors. PMID:23716618

Kim, In Hwang; Wen, Yancheng; Son, Jee-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Ho

2013-01-01

135

Non-Lethal Heat Shock Increased Hsp70 and Immune Protein Transcripts but Not Vibrio Tolerance in the White-Leg Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Non-lethal heat shock boosts bacterial and viral disease tolerance in shrimp, possibly due to increases in endogenous heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and/or immune proteins. To further understand the mechanisms protecting shrimp against infection, Hsp70 and the mRNAs encoding the immune-related proteins prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and hemocyanin were studied in post-larvae of the white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, following a non-lethal heat shock. As indicated by RT-qPCR, a 30 min abrupt heat shock increased Hsp70 mRNA in comparison to non-heated animals. Immunoprobing of western blots and quantification by ELISA revealed that Hsp70 production after heat shock was correlated with enhanced Hsp70 mRNA. proPO and hemocyanin mRNA levels were augmented, whereas peroxinectin and crustin mRNA levels were unchanged following non-lethal heat shock. Penaeidin mRNA was decreased by all heat shock treatments. Thirty min abrupt heat shock failed to improve survival of post-larvae in a standardized challenge test with Vibrio harveyi, indicating that under the conditions of this study, L. vannamei tolerance to Vibrio infection was influenced neither by Hsp70 accumulation nor the changes in the immune-related proteins, observations dissimilar to other shrimp species examined. PMID:24039886

Loc, Nguyen Hong; MacRae, Thomas H.; Musa, Najiah; Bin Abdullah, Muhd Danish Daniel; Abdul Wahid, Mohd. Effendy; Sung, Yeong Yik

2013-01-01

136

Non-lethal heat shock increased Hsp70 and immune protein transcripts but not Vibrio tolerance in the white-leg shrimp.  

PubMed

Non-lethal heat shock boosts bacterial and viral disease tolerance in shrimp, possibly due to increases in endogenous heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and/or immune proteins. To further understand the mechanisms protecting shrimp against infection, Hsp70 and the mRNAs encoding the immune-related proteins prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and hemocyanin were studied in post-larvae of the white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, following a non-lethal heat shock. As indicated by RT-qPCR, a 30 min abrupt heat shock increased Hsp70 mRNA in comparison to non-heated animals. Immunoprobing of western blots and quantification by ELISA revealed that Hsp70 production after heat shock was correlated with enhanced Hsp70 mRNA. proPO and hemocyanin mRNA levels were augmented, whereas peroxinectin and crustin mRNA levels were unchanged following non-lethal heat shock. Penaeidin mRNA was decreased by all heat shock treatments. Thirty min abrupt heat shock failed to improve survival of post-larvae in a standardized challenge test with Vibrio harveyi, indicating that under the conditions of this study, L. vannamei tolerance to Vibrio infection was influenced neither by Hsp70 accumulation nor the changes in the immune-related proteins, observations dissimilar to other shrimp species examined. PMID:24039886

Loc, Nguyen Hong; Macrae, Thomas H; Musa, Najiah; Bin Abdullah, Muhd Danish Daniel; Abdul Wahid, Mohd Effendy; Sung, Yeong Yik

2013-01-01

137

A Vibrio anguillarum strain associated with skin ulcer on cultured flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizootic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. (intramuscular injection), bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues. The LD50 dose was 5.144×103 CFU/ per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of antimicrobial agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

Mo, Zhao-Lan; Tan, Xun-Gang; Xu, Yong-Li; Zhang, Pei-Jun

2001-12-01

138

L-forms of Mechnikov's vibrio and NAG vibrio obtained with tetracycline and their biological properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable L-forms were obtained by the action of tetracycline on Mechnikov's vibrio and the NAG vibrio, for the first time. Conversion of the L-forms of the vibrios by tetracycline is similar to that obtained by the use of penicillins. By passage of the L-forms three types of cultures were obtained: stable tetracycline-resistant L-forms, stable L-forms highly resistant to tetracycline, and

V. D. Timakov; V. S. Levashev; V. T. Savenkova; V. V. Androsov

1975-01-01

139

Evolution of tolerance to PCBs and susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen ( Vibrio harveyi) in Atlantic killifish ( Fundulus heteroclitus) from New Bedford (MA, USA) harbor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (Atlantic killifish) resident to New Bedford (NB), Massachusetts, USA, an urban harbor highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), demonstrates recently evolved tolerance to some aspects of PCB toxicity. PCB toxicology, ecological theory, and some precedence supported expectations of increased susceptibility to pathogens in NB killifish. However, laboratory bacterial challenges of the

Diane Nacci; Marina Huber; Denise Champlin; Saro Jayaraman; Sarah Cohen; Eric Gauger; Allison Fong; Marta Gomez-Chiarri

2009-01-01

140

Expression and distribution of three heat shock protein genes under heat shock stress and under exposure to Vibrio harveyi in Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sudden increase in temperature results in heat shock stress of the cultured shrimp. To cope with the stress, shrimp has to overcome by triggering a response known as heat shock response. To understand the heat shock response in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), we examined expression patterns and distribution of three heat shock protein (hsp) genes in P.

Wanilada Rungrassamee; Rungnapa Leelatanawit; Pikul Jiravanichpaisal; Sirawut Klinbunga; Nitsara Karoonuthaisiri

2010-01-01

141

Vibrio chromosome-specific families  

PubMed Central

We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished chromosomes, we find a core set of 1269 encoded protein families for chromosome 1, and a core of 252 encoded protein families for chromosome 2. Many of these core proteins are also found in the draft genomes (although which chromosome they are located on is unknown.) Of the chromosome specific core protein families, 1169 and 153 are uniquely found in chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) terms for each of the protein families were determined, and the different sets for each chromosome were compared. A total of 363 different “Molecular Function” GO categories were found for chromosome 1 specific protein families, and these include several broad activities: pyridoxine 5' phosphate synthetase, glucosylceramidase, heme transport, DNA ligase, amino acid binding, and ribosomal components; in contrast, chromosome 2 specific protein families have only 66 Molecular Function GO terms and include many membrane-associated activities, such as ion channels, transmembrane transporters, and electron transport chain proteins. Thus, it appears that whilst there are many “housekeeping systems” encoded in chromosome 1, there are far fewer core functions found in chromosome 2. However, the presence of many membrane-associated encoded proteins in chromosome 2 is surprising. PMID:24672511

Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W.

2014-01-01

142

Vibrio kanaloae sp. nov., Vibrio pomeroyi sp. nov. and Vibrio chagasii sp. nov., from sea water and marine animals.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting groups A46 (five isolates), A51 (six isolates), A52 (five isolates) and A53 (seven isolates) obtained in a previous study were further analysed through a polyphasic approach. The 23 isolates were phylogenetically related to Vibrio splendidus, but DNA-DNA hybridization experiments proved that they belong to three novel species. Chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses further disclosed several features that differentiate between the 23 isolates and known Vibrio species. The names Vibrio kanaloae sp. nov. (type strain LMG 20539(T) = CAIM 485(T); EMBL accession no. AJ316193; G + C content 44.7 mol%), Vibrio pomeroyi sp. nov. (type strain LMG 20537(T) = CAIM 578(T); EMBL accession no. AJ491290; G +C content 44.1 mol%) and Vibrio chagasii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 21353(T) = CAIM 431(T); EMBL accession no. AJ316199; G + C content 44.6 mol%) are respectively proposed to encompass the five isolates of A46, the six isolates of A51 and the 12 isolates of A52/A53. The three novel species can be distinguished from known Vibrio species by several phenotypic features, including utilization and fermentation of various carbon sources, beta-galactosidase activity and fatty acid content (particularly of 12 : 0, 14: 0, 14 : 0 iso and 16 : 0 iso). PMID:12807197

Thompson, F L; Thompson, C C; Li, Y; Gomez-Gil, B; Vandenberghe, J; Hoste, B; Swings, J

2003-05-01

143

Gimme shelter: how Vibrio fischeri successfully navigates an animal's multiple environments  

PubMed Central

Bacteria successfully colonize distinct niches because they can sense and appropriately respond to a variety of environmental signals. Of particular interest is how a bacterium negotiates the multiple, complex environments posed during successful infection of an animal host. One tractable model system to study how a bacterium manages a host’s multiple environments is the symbiotic relationship between the marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, and its squid host, Euprymna scolopes. V. fischeri encounters many different host surroundings ranging from initial contact with the squid to ultimate colonization of a specialized organ known as the light organ. For example, upon recognition of the squid, V. fischeri forms a biofilm aggregate outside the light organ that is required for efficient colonization. The bacteria then disperse from this biofilm to enter the organ, where they are exposed to nitric oxide, a molecule that can act as both a signal and an antimicrobial. After successfully managing this potentially hostile environment, V. fischeri cells finally establish their niche in the deep crypts of the light organ where the bacteria bioluminesce in a pheromone-dependent fashion, a phenotype that E. scolopes utilizes for anti-predation purposes. The mechanism by which V. fischeri manages these environments to outcompete all other bacterial species for colonization of E. scolopes is an important and intriguing question that will permit valuable insights into how a bacterium successfully associates with a host. This review focuses on specific molecular pathways that allow V. fischeri to establish this exquisite bacteria–host interaction. PMID:24348467

Norsworthy, Allison N.; Visick, Karen L.

2013-01-01

144

Predatory Bacteria as Natural Modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in Seawater and Oysters  

PubMed Central

This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. The pathogens examined were V. vulnificus strain VV1003, V. parahaemolyticus O1:KUT (KUT stands for K untypeable), and V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and corresponding O3:K6 mutants deficient in the toxRS virulence regulatory gene or the rpoS alternative stress response sigma factor gene. Vibrios were selected for streptomycin resistance, which facilitated their enumeration. In natural seawater, oysters bioconcentrated each Vibrio strain for 24 h at 22°C; however, counts rapidly declined to near negligible levels by 72 h. In natural seawater with or without oysters, vibrios decreased more than 3 log units to near negligible levels within 72 h. Neither toxRS nor rpoS had a significant effect on Vibrio levels. In autoclaved seawater, V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 counts increased 1,000-fold over 72 h. Failure of the vibrios to persist in natural seawater and oysters led to screening of the water samples for VPB on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 host cells. Many VPB, including Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs; Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Bacteriovorax stolpii) and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus-like predators, were detected by plaque assay and electron microscopic analysis of plaque-purified isolates from Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Hawaiian seawater. When V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 was added to natural seawater containing trace amounts of VPB, Vibrio counts diminished 3 log units to nondetectable levels, while VPB increased 3 log units within 48 h. We propose a new paradigm that VPB are important modulators of pathogenic vibrios in seawater and oysters. PMID:22904049

Fay, Johnna P.; Dickens, Keyana A.; Parent, Michelle A.; Soroka, Douglas S.; Boyd, E. Fidelma

2012-01-01

145

Structure of TcpG, the DsbA protein folding catalyst from Vibrio cholerae 1 1 Edited by I. A. Wilson  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient and correct folding of bacterial disulfide bonded proteins in vivo is dependent upon a class of periplasmic oxidoreductase proteins called DsbA, after the Escherichia coli enzyme. In the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the DsbA homolog (TcpG) is responsible for the folding, maturation and secretion of virulence factors. Mutants in which the tcpg gene has been inactivated are avirulent;

Shu-Hong Hu; Joel A Peek; Eileen Rattigan; Ronald K Taylor; Jennifer L Martin

1997-01-01

146

The detection of fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum in water and fish using a species-specific DNA probe combined with membrane filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine bacteriumVibrio anguillarum causes disease in fish worldwide and is particularly devastating in aquaculture. Little is known about the ecology ofV. anguillarum in the environment and how this may relate to the pathogenicity of this organism. Combining membrane filtration and a species-specific DNA probe, culturableV. anguillarum cells were detected in water from three habitats and in chinook salmon (Onchorynchus

J. L. Powell; M. W. Loutit

1994-01-01

147

Two Cases of Bacteriemia Caused by Nontoxigenic, Non-O1, Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Isolates in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

The toxigenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae belonging to the O1 and O139 serogroups is commonly associated with epidemic diarrhea in tropical settings; other diseases caused by this environmental pathogen are seldom identified. Here we report two unassociated cases of nonfatal, nontoxigenic V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 bacteremia in patients with comorbidities in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, that occurred within a 4-week period. PMID:25122858

Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Yen, Nguyen Thi Thu; Dung, Le Thi; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Campbell, James I.; Whitehorn, Jamie; Thwaites, Guy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh

2014-01-01

148

Two Cases of Bacteriemia Caused by Nontoxigenic, Non-O1, Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Isolates in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.  

PubMed

The toxigenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae belonging to the O1 and O139 serogroups is commonly associated with epidemic diarrhea in tropical settings; other diseases caused by this environmental pathogen are seldom identified. Here we report two unassociated cases of nonfatal, nontoxigenic V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 bacteremia in patients with comorbidities in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, that occurred within a 4-week period. PMID:25122858

Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Yen, Nguyen Thi Thu; Dung, Le Thi; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Campbell, James I; Whitehorn, Jamie; Thwaites, Guy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Baker, Stephen

2014-10-01

149

VIBRIO VULNIFICUS EDUCATION WORKSHOP FOR THE FLORIDA MEDICAL COMMUNITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Vibrio vulnificus is a naturally occurring microorganism that occurs warm marine and estuarine waters. The bacteria are concentrated by filter feeding shellfish. Certain immunocompromised individuals and those with liver disease can be adversely, even fatally affected by Vibrio...

150

Quorum Sensing in the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is an intercellular form of communication that bacteria use to coordinate group behaviors such as biofilm formation and the production of antibiotics and virulence factors. The term quorum sensing was originally coined to describe the mechanism underlying the onset of luminescence production in cultures of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Luminescence and, more generally, quorum sensing are important for V. fischeri to form a mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The symbiosis is established when V. fischeri cells migrate via flagella-based motility from the surrounding seawater into a specialized structure injuvenile squid called the light organ. The cells grow to high cell densities within the light organ where the infection persists over the lifetime of the animal. A hallmark of a successful symbiosis is the luminescence produced by V. fischeri that camouflages the squid at night by eliminating its shadow within the water column. While the regulatory networks governing quorum sensing are critical for properly regulating V. fischeri luminescence within the squid light organ, they also regulate luminescence-independent processes during symbiosis. In this review, we discuss the quorum-sensing network of V. fischeri and highlight its impact at various stages during host colonization. PMID:23965960

Verma, Subhash C.; Miyashiro, Tim

2013-01-01

151

Trophic regulation of Vibrio cholerae in coastal marine waters.  

PubMed

Cholera disease, caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, afflicts hundreds of thousands worldwide each year. Endemic to aquatic environments, V. cholerae's proliferation and dynamics in marine systems are not well understood. Here, we show that under a variety of coastal seawater conditions V. cholerae remained primarily in a free-living state as opposed to attaching to particles. Growth rates of free-living V. cholerae (micro: 0.6-2.9 day(-1)) were high (similar to reported values for the bacterial assemblages; 0.3-2.5 day(-1)) particularly in phytoplankton bloom waters. However, these populations were subject to heavy grazing-mortality by protozoan predators. Thus, grazing-mortality counterbalanced growth, keeping V. cholerae populations in check. Net population gains were observed under particularly intense bloom conditions when V. cholerae proliferated, overcoming grazing pressure terms in part via rapid growth (> 4 doublings day(-1)). Our results show V. cholerae is subject to protozoan control and capable of utilizing multiple proliferation pathways in the marine environment. These findings suggest food web effects play a significant role controlling this pathogen's proliferation in coastal waters and should be considered in predictive models of disease risk. PMID:16343318

Worden, Alexandra Z; Seidel, Michael; Smriga, Steven; Wick, Arne; Malfatti, Francesca; Bartlett, Douglas; Azam, Farooq

2006-01-01

152

Quorum sensing in the squid-Vibrio symbiosis.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing is an intercellular form of communication that bacteria use to coordinate group behaviors such as biofilm formation and the production of antibiotics and virulence factors. The term quorum sensing was originally coined to describe the mechanism underlying the onset of luminescence production in cultures of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Luminescence and, more generally, quorum sensing are important for V. fischeri to form a mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The symbiosis is established when V. fischeri cells migrate via flagella-based motility from the surrounding seawater into a specialized structure injuvenile squid called the light organ. The cells grow to high cell densities within the light organ where the infection persists over the lifetime of the animal. A hallmark of a successful symbiosis is the luminescence produced by V. fischeri that camouflages the squid at night by eliminating its shadow within the water column. While the regulatory networks governing quorum sensing are critical for properly regulating V. fischeri luminescence within the squid light organ, they also regulate luminescence-independent processes during symbiosis. In this review, we discuss the quorum-sensing network of V. fischeri and highlight its impact at various stages during host colonization. PMID:23965960

Verma, Subhash C; Miyashiro, Tim

2013-01-01

153

"Build a Bacterium" Scavenger Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working in small groups, learners receive a written scenario regarding a bacterium with a certain goal it must carry out. They must work together to decide what cell parts are needed to form the basic structure of any cell as well as to carry out the specific functions required by their scenario. To âbuildâ their bacterium learners must negotiate and trade index cards with other groups to acquire their desired cell parts.

Hare, Janelle

2012-01-01

154

Vibrio cortegadensis sp. nov., isolated from clams.  

PubMed

A group of four strains isolated from clams (Venerupis decussata and Venerupis philippinarum) in Galicia (NW Spain) were subjected to a polyphasic characterization, based on the phenotypic characteristics, the analysis of chemotaxonomic features, the sequencing of the 16S rRNA and five housekeeping (atpA, pyrH, recA, rpoA and rpoD) genes, as well as DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH). The analysis of the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and the results of a phylogenetic study, based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis, clearly indicated that these strains belong to the genus Vibrio and were allocated between the Splendidus and Anguillarum clades showing a close relationship with the type strains of Vibrio tapetis (98.8 %), Vibrio pomeroyi (98.0 %) and Vibrio crassostreae (97.9 %). DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed that these isolates constitute a new species. The name Vibrio cortegadensis sp. nov. is proposed with C 16.17(T) (=CECT 7227(T)=LMG 27474(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24271473

Lasa, Aide; Diéguez, Ana L; Romalde, Jesús L

2014-02-01

155

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

This review highlighted the following: (i) pathogenic mechanism of the thermostable direct hemolysin produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, especially on its cardiotoxicity, (ii) heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, especially structure–activity relationship of heat-stable enterotoxin, (iii) RNA N-glycosidase activity of Vero toxins (VT1 and VT2) produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, (iv) discovery of Vibrio cholerae O139, (v) isolation of new variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor that carries classical ctxB, and production of high concentration of cholera toxin by these strains, and (vi) conversion of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae to culturable state by co-culture with eukaryotic cells. PMID:21233598

TAKEDA, Yoshifumi

2011-01-01

156

The Vibrio Pathogenicity Island of Epidemic Vibrio cholerae Forms Precise Extrachromosomal Circular Excision Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vibrio pathogenicity island (VPI) in epidemic Vibrio cholerae is an essential virulence gene cluster. Like many pathogenicity islands, the VPI has at its termini a phage-like integrase gene (int), a transposase-like gene (vpiT), and phage-like attachment (att) sites, and is inserted at a tRNA-like locus (ssrA). We report that the VPI precisely excises from the chromosome and that its

C. Rajanna; J. Wang; D. Zhang; Zheng Xu; A. Ali; Y.-M. Hou; D. K. R. Karaolis

2003-01-01

157

Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus in the German Bight over a seasonal cycle.  

PubMed

Bacteria of the genus Vibrio are an important component of marine ecosystems worldwide. The genus harbors several human pathogens, for instance the species Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a main cause for foodborne gastroenteritis in Asia and the USA. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains emerged also in Europe, but little is known about the abundance, pathogenicity and ecology of V. parahaemolyticus especially in Northern European waters. This study focuses on V. parahaemolyticus and its close relative Vibrio alginolyticus in the North Sea (Helgoland Roads, Germany). Free-living, plankton-attached and shellfish-associated Vibrio spp. were quantified between May 2008 and January 2010. CFUs up to 4.3 × 10(3) N l(-1) and MPNs up to 240 N g(-1) were determined. Phylogenetic classification based on rpoB gene sequencing revealed V. alginolyticus as the dominant Vibrio species at Helgoland Roads, followed by V. parahaemolyticus. We investigated the intraspecific diversity of V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus using ERIC-PCR. The fingerprinting disclosed three distinct groups at Helgoland Roads, representing V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus and one group in between. The species V. parahaemolyticus occurred mainly in summer months. None of the strains carried the virulence-associated genes tdh or trh. We further analyzed the influence of nutrients, secchi depth, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a and phytoplankton on the abundance of Vibrio spp. and the population structure of V. parahaemolyticus. Spearman Rank analysis revealed that particularly temperature correlated significantly with Vibrio spp. numbers. Based on multivariate statistical analyses we report that the V. parahaemolyticus population was structured by a complex combination of environmental parameters. To further investigate these influences is the key to understanding the dynamics of Vibrio spp. in temperate European waters, where this microbial group and especially the pathogenic species, are likely to gain in importance. PMID:21598011

Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Wichels, Antje; Wiltshire, Karen H; Gerdts, Gunnar

2011-08-01

158

Predicting the Distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Chesapeake Bay: A Vibrio cholerae Case Study  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a naturally occurring inhabitant of the Chesapeake Bay and serves as a predictor for other clinically important vibrios, including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. A system was constructed to predict the likelihood of the presence of V. cholerae in surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay, with the goal to provide forecasts of the occurrence of this and related pathogenic Vibrio spp. Prediction was achieved by driving an available multivariate empirical habitat model estimating the probability of V. cholerae within a range of temperatures and salinities in the Bay, with hydrodynamically generated predictions of ambient temperature and salinity. The experimental predictions provided both an improved understanding of the in situ variability of V. cholerae, including identification of potential hotspots of occurrence, and usefulness as an early warning system. With further development of the system, prediction of the probability of the occurrence of related pathogenic vibrios in the Chesapeake Bay, notably V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, will be possible, as well as its transport to any geographical location where sufficient relevant data are available. PMID:20145974

Magny, Guillaume Constantin de; Long, Wen; Brown, Christopher W.; Hood, Raleigh R.; Huq, Anwar; Murtugudde, Raghu; Colwell, Rita R.

2010-01-01

159

Antibacterial activity of the lipopetides produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens M1 against multidrug-resistant Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased marine animals.  

PubMed

In this work, the antibacterial activity of the lipopeptides produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens M1 was examined against multidrug-resistant Vibrio spp. and Shewanella aquimarina isolated from diseased marine animals. A new and cheap medium which contained 1.0 % soybean powder, 1.5 % wheat flour, pH 7.0 was developed. A crude surfactant concentration of 0.28 mg/ml was obtained after 18 h of 10-l fermentation and diameter of the clear zone on the plate seeded with Vibrio anguillarum was 34 mm. A preliminary characterization suggested that the lipopeptide N3 produced by B. amyloliquefaciens M1 was the main product and contained the surfactin isoforms with amino acids (GLLVDLL) and hydroxy fatty acids (of 12-15 carbons in length). The evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the lipopeptide N3 was carried out against S. aquimarina and nine species of Vibrio spp.. It was found that all the Vibrio spp. and S. aquimarina showed resistance to several different antibiotics, suggesting that they were the multidrug resistance. It was also indicated that all the Vibrio spp. strains and S. aquimarina were sensitive to the surfactin N3, in particular V. anguillarum. The results demonstrated that the lipopeptides produced by B. amyloliquefaciens M1 had a broad spectrum of action, including antibacterial activity against the pathogenic Vibrio spp. with multidrug-resistant profiles. After the treatment with the lipopeptide N3, the cell membrane of V. anguillarum was damaged, and the whole cells of the bacterium were disrupted. PMID:24132666

Xu, Hong-Mei; Rong, Yan-Jun; Zhao, Ming-Xin; Song, Bo; Chi, Zhen-Ming

2014-01-01

160

Vibrio parahaemolyticus cell biology and pathogenicity determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Characterization of this pathogen has revealed a unique repertoire of virulence factors that allow for colonization of the human host and disease. The following describes the known pathogenicity determinants while establishing the need for continued research.

Christopher A. Broberg; Thomas J. Calder; Kim Orth

2011-01-01

161

Mutation of Bacterium Vibrio gazogenes for Selective Preparation of Colorants Farzaneh Alihosseini  

E-print Network

spectrometry, natural dye Introduction Prodiginines are the secondary metabolites produced by different gazogenes, and Streptomyces coelicolor.1­5 These groups of natural compounds belong to a family of pyrrole activities. The thus dyed fabrics demonstrated strong antimicrobial ability against both gram positive

Hammock, Bruce D.

162

Vibrio areninigrae sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from black sand  

E-print Network

­10. Strain J74T was oxidase- and catalase-positive, arginine dihydrolase-negative and sensitive conditions. All phenotypic growth tests were carried out on the novel isolate and V. hispanicus KCTC 12827T

Bae, Jin-Woo

163

Antibiofilm Activity of an Exopolysaccharide from Marine Bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial exopolysaccharides have always been suggested to play crucial roles in the bacterial initial adhesion and the development of complex architecture in the later stages of bacterial biofilm formation. However, Escherichia coli group II capsular polysaccharide was characterized to exert broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition activity. In this study, we firstly reported that a bacterial exopolysaccharide (A101) not only inhibits biofilm formation

Peng Jiang; Jingbao Li; Feng Han; Gaofei Duan; Xinzhi Lu; Yuchao Gu; Wengong Yu; Michael Hensel

2011-01-01

164

Evidence that water transmits Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 infections to eels.  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is classically considered an obligate eel pathogen. However, it has recently been associated with one human septicemic case. In this paper, the opportunistic behavior of this pathogen is discussed. The bacterium can survive alone in brackish water or attached to eel surfaces for at least 14 days. It is able to spread through water and infect healthy eels by using skin as a portal of entry. These results suggest that water and infected eels may act as reservoirs of infection. A capsule seems to be essential for waterborne infectivity, which would explain why cells recovered from naturally diseased eels give rise to pure cultures of opaque colonies. The spread of the disease is dependent on temperature and water salinity, thus suggesting a method to reduce the risk of epizootics and that of infection for humans. PMID:7793914

Amaro, C; Biosca, E G; Fouz, B; Alcaide, E; Esteve, C

1995-01-01

165

Characterization of Vibrio tapetis strains isolated from diseased cultured Wedge sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata Moreau).  

PubMed

The first isolation of Vibrio tapetis from Wedge sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata) is reported. The bacterium was recovered from ulcers of ailing cultured fish, from two different outbreaks occurred in spring 2005. The four isolates found (a200, a201, a204 and a255) were biochemically, genetically and serologically characterized and diagnosis was confirmed by PCR V. tapetis specific primers and multilocus sequencing analysis (MLSA). The isolates constituted a homogeneous phenotypic and genotypic group, being distinct to the already serological and genetic groups defined within the species. A virulence evaluation of the isolate a255 was also carried out; however this strain was unable to induce disease in fry and juvenile Wedge sole. PMID:20557916

López, J R; Balboa, S; Núñez, S; de la Roca, E; de la Herran, R; Navas, J I; Toranzo, A E; Romalde, J L

2011-04-01

166

Thermal Stress Triggers Broad Pocillopora damicornis Transcriptomic Remodeling, while Vibrio coralliilyticus Infection Induces a More Targeted Immuno-Suppression Response  

PubMed Central

Global change and its associated temperature increase has directly or indirectly changed the distributions of hosts and pathogens, and has affected host immunity, pathogen virulence and growth rates. This has resulted in increased disease in natural plant and animal populations worldwide, including scleractinian corals. While the effects of temperature increase on immunity and pathogen virulence have been clearly identified, their interaction, synergy and relative weight during pathogenesis remain poorly documented. We investigated these phenomena in the interaction between the coral Pocillopora damicornis and the bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus, for which the infection process is temperature-dependent. We developed an experimental model that enabled unraveling the effects of thermal stress, and virulence vs. non-virulence of the bacterium. The physiological impacts of various treatments were quantified at the transcriptome level using a combination of RNA sequencing and targeted approaches. The results showed that thermal stress triggered a general weakening of the coral, making it more prone to infection, non-virulent bacterium induced an ‘efficient’ immune response, whereas virulent bacterium caused immuno-suppression in its host. PMID:25259845

Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Dheilly, Nolwenn M.; Rondon, Rodolfo; Grunau, Christoph; Cosseau, Céline; Smith, Kristina M.; Freitag, Michael; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Mitta, Guillaume

2014-01-01

167

Thermal Stress Triggers Broad Pocillopora damicornis Transcriptomic Remodeling, while Vibrio coralliilyticus Infection Induces a More Targeted Immuno-Suppression Response.  

PubMed

Global change and its associated temperature increase has directly or indirectly changed the distributions of hosts and pathogens, and has affected host immunity, pathogen virulence and growth rates. This has resulted in increased disease in natural plant and animal populations worldwide, including scleractinian corals. While the effects of temperature increase on immunity and pathogen virulence have been clearly identified, their interaction, synergy and relative weight during pathogenesis remain poorly documented. We investigated these phenomena in the interaction between the coral Pocillopora damicornis and the bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus, for which the infection process is temperature-dependent. We developed an experimental model that enabled unraveling the effects of thermal stress, and virulence vs. non-virulence of the bacterium. The physiological impacts of various treatments were quantified at the transcriptome level using a combination of RNA sequencing and targeted approaches. The results showed that thermal stress triggered a general weakening of the coral, making it more prone to infection, non-virulent bacterium induced an 'efficient' immune response, whereas virulent bacterium caused immuno-suppression in its host. PMID:25259845

Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Rondon, Rodolfo; Grunau, Christoph; Cosseau, Céline; Smith, Kristina M; Freitag, Michael; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Mitta, Guillaume

2014-01-01

168

Regulation of Cytotoxicity by Quorum-Sensing Signaling in Vibrio vulnificus Is Mediated by SmcR, a Repressor of hlyU?†  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxicity is an important virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus, and two cytotoxins, RTX (encoded by rtxA1) and cytolysin/hemolysin (encoded by vvhA), have been identified in this organism. We showed that the quorum-sensing regulator LuxO controlled the cytotoxicity of this organism: a ?luxO mutant exhibited low cytotoxicity, whereas a constitutively activated luxO mutant, luxO(D47E), remained highly cytotoxic. The cytotoxicity of the ?luxO mutant was restored when smcR, a Vibrio harveyi luxR homologue repressed by luxO, was further deleted. SmcR then was shown to repress the expression of both rtxA1 and vvhA. A DNA library of V. vulnificus was screened in Escherichia coli for clones that upregulated vvhA in the presence of SmcR, and hlyU, which has been shown to positively regulate rtxA1 and vvhA, was identified. We demonstrated that SmcR repressed the expression of hlyU and bound to a region upstream of hlyU in V. vulnificus. The deletion of hlyU resulted in the loss of cytotoxicity and reduced cytolysin/hemolysin production in the ?smcR mutant. The ?smcR ?hlyU mutant regained cytotoxicity and cytolysin/hemolysin activity when hns, which has been shown to repress the transcription of rtxA1 and interfere with hlyU, was further removed. Collectively, our data suggest that SmcR mediates the regulation of cytotoxicity by quorum-sensing signaling in V. vulnificus by repressing hlyU, an activator of rtxA1 and vvhA. PMID:21398530

Shao, Chung-Ping; Lo, Horng-Ren; Lin, Jen-Hsing; Hor, Lien-I

2011-01-01

169

Genomic and proteomic analyses of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus reveal a diverse virulence repertoire  

PubMed Central

Vibrio coralliilyticus has been implicated as an important pathogen of coral species worldwide. In this study, the nearly complete genome of Vibrio coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696) was sequenced and proteases implicated in virulence of the strain were specifically investigated. The genome sequence of P1 (5?513?256?bp in size) consisted of 5222 coding sequences and 58 RNA genes (53 tRNAs and at least 5 rRNAs). Seventeen metalloprotease and effector (vgrG, hlyA and hcp) genes were identified in the genome and expressed proteases were also detected in the secretome of P1. As the VcpA zinc-metalloprotease has been considered an important virulence factor of V. coralliilyticus, a vcpA deletion mutant was constructed to evaluate the effect of this gene in animal pathogenesis. Both wild-type and mutant (?vcpA) strains exhibited similar virulence characteristics that resulted in high mortality in Artemia and Drosophila pathogenicity bioassays and strong photosystem II inactivation of the coral dinoflagellate endosymbiont (Symbiodinium). In contrast, the ?vcpA mutant demonstrated higher hemolytic activity and secreted 18 proteins not secreted by the wild type. These proteins included four types of metalloproteases, a chitinase, a hemolysin-related protein RbmC, the Hcp protein and 12 hypothetical proteins. Overall, the results of this study indicate that V. coralliilyticus strain P1 has a diverse virulence repertoire that possibly enables this bacterium to be an efficient animal pathogen. PMID:21451583

de O Santos, Eidy; Alves, Nelson; Dias, Graciela M; Mazotto, Ana Maria; Vermelho, Alane; Vora, Gary J; Wilson, Bryan; Beltran, Victor H; Bourne, David G; Le Roux, Frederique; Thompson, Fabiano L

2011-01-01

170

Response of Vibrio parahaemolyticus 03:K6 to a hot water/cold shock pasteurization process.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are natural inhabitants of estuarine environments world wide. Pathogenic strains of these bacteria are often transmitted to humans through consumption of raw oysters, which flourish in the same estuaries. Previous studies reported the effective use of hot water pasteurization followed by cold shock to eliminate from raw oysters naturally and artificially incurred environmental strains of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus common to the Gulf of Mexico. The present study focused on the use of the same pasteurization method to reduce a highly process resistant Vibrio strain, V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 to non-detectable levels. Oysters were artificially contaminated with 10(4) and 10(6) V. parahaemolyticus 03:K6 cfu g(-1) oyster meat. Contaminated oysters were pasteurized between 50 and 52 degrees C for up to 22 min. Samples of processed oysters were enumerated for V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 at 2-min intervals beginning after the 'come-up time' to achieve an oyster internal temperature of at least 50 degrees C. The D value (D(52)deg C) was 1.3-1.6 min. V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 proved more process resistant than non-pathogenic environmental strains found in Gulf of Mexico waters. A total processing time of at least 22 min at 52 degrees C was recommended to reduce this bacterium to non-detectable levels (< 3 g(-1) oyster meat). PMID:12775474

Andrews, L S; DeBlanc, S; Veal, C D; Park, D L

2003-04-01

171

Evidence for the Role of Horizontal Transfer in Generating pVT1, a Large Mosaic Conjugative Plasmid from the Clam Pathogen, Vibrio tapetis  

PubMed Central

The marine bacterium Vibrio tapetis is the causative agent of the brown ring disease, which affects the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and causes heavy economic losses in North of Europe and in Eastern Asia. Further characterization of V. tapetis isolates showed that all the investigated strains harbored at least one large plasmid. We determined the sequence of the 82,266 bp plasmid pVT1 from the CECT4600T reference strain and analyzed its genetic content. pVT1 is a mosaic plasmid closely related to several conjugative plasmids isolated from Vibrio vulnificus strains and was shown to be itself conjugative in Vibrios. In addition, it contains DNA regions that have similarity with several other plasmids from marine bacteria (Vibrio sp., Shewanella sp., Listonella anguillarum and Photobacterium profundum). pVT1 contains a number of mobile elements, including twelve Insertion Sequences or inactivated IS genes and an RS1 phage element related to the CTXphi phage of V. cholerae. The genetic organization of pVT1 underscores an important role of horizontal gene transfer through conjugative plasmid shuffling and transposition events in the acquisition of new genetic resources and in generating the pVT1 modular organization. In addition, pVT1 presents a copy number of 9, relatively high for a conjugative plasmid, and appears to belong to a new type of replicon, which may be specific to Vibrionaceae and Shewanelleacae. PMID:21326607

Bidault-Toffin, Adeline; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Bouloc, Philippe; Paillard, Christine; Jacq, Annick

2011-01-01

172

Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains  

SciTech Connect

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V. cholerae clones.

Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

2009-01-01

173

Transformation Experiment Using Bioluminescence Genes of "Vibrio fischeri."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bioluminescence transformation experiments show students the excitement and power of recombinant DNA technology. This laboratory experiment utilizes two plasmids of "Vibrio fischeri" in a transformation experiment. (LZ)

Slock, James

1995-01-01

174

Vibrio cholerae: Measuring Natural Transformation Frequency.  

PubMed

Many bacteria can become naturally competent to take up extracellular DNA across their outer and inner membranes by a dedicated competence apparatus. Whereas some studies show that the DNA delivered to the cytoplasm may be used for genome repair or for nutrition, it can also be recombined onto the chromosome by homologous recombination: a process called natural transformation. Along with conjugation and transduction, natural transformation represents a mechanism for horizontal transfer of genetic material, e.g., antibiotic resistance genes, which can confer new beneficial characteristics onto the recipient bacteria. Described here are protocols for quantifying the frequency of transformation for the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae, one of several Vibrio species recently shown to be capable of natural transformation. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25367272

Watve, Samit S; Bernardy, Eryn E; Hammer, Brian K

2014-01-01

175

Quorum Regulation of Luminescence in Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luminescence in Vibrio fischeri is controlled by a population density-responsive regulatory mechanism called quorum sensing. Elements of the mechanism include: LuxI, an acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) synthase that directs synthesis of the diffusible signal molecule, 3-oxo-hexanoyl-HSL (V. fischeri auto- inducer-1, VAI-1); LuxR, a transcriptional activator protein necessary for response to VAI-1; GroEL, which is necessary for production of active LuxR; and

Paul V. Dunlap

2000-01-01

176

Nontoxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Causing Acute Gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

We investigated the virulence properties of four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains causing acute gastroenteritis following consumption of indigenous mussels in Italy. The isolated strains were cytotoxic and adhesive but, surprisingly, lacked tdh, trh, and type three secretion system 2 (T3SS2) genes. We emphasize that nontoxigenic V. parahaemolyticus can induce acute gastroenteritis, highlighting the need for more investigation of the pathogenicity of this microorganism. PMID:23052317

Leoni, Francesca; Serra, Roberto; Serracca, Laura; Decastelli, Lucia; Rocchegiani, Elena; Masini, Laura; Canonico, Cristina; Talevi, Giulia; Carraturo, Antonio

2012-01-01

177

Fatal necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio damsela.  

PubMed

A patient who succumbed to fulminant necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio damsela after injury by a rabbitfish is described. Despite the absence of any known underlying illness, he did not respond to appropriate antibiotic therapy and radical surgical intervention. This represents the first documented case of necrotizing fasciitis due to this organism, and is also the first reported case in Southeast Asia inflicted by rabbitfish. PMID:8284652

Yuen, K Y; Ma, L; Wong, S S; Ng, W F

1993-01-01

178

Ligand-Induced Asymmetry in Histidine Sensor Kinase Complex Regulates Quorum Sensing  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria sense their environment using receptors of the histidine sensor kinase family, but how kinase activity is regulated by ligand binding is not well understood. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a secreted signaling molecule originally identified in studies of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, regulates quorum-sensing responses and allows communication between different bacterial species. AI-2 signal transduction in V. harveyi requires the integral membrane receptor LuxPQ, comprised of periplasmic binding protein (LuxP) and histidine sensor kinase (LuxQ) subunits. Combined X-ray crystallographic and functional studies show that AI-2 binding causes a major conformational change within LuxP, which in turn stabilizes a quaternary arrangement in which two LuxPQ monomers are asymmetrically associated. We propose that formation of this asymmetric quaternary structure is responsible for repressing the kinase activity of both LuxQ subunits and triggering the transition of V. harveyi into quorum-sensing mode.

Neiditch,M.; Federle, M.; Pompeani, A.; Kelly, R.; Swem, D.; Jeffrey, P.; Bassler, B.; Hughson, F.

2006-01-01

179

Heterogeneous response to a quorum-sensing signal in the luminescence of individual Vibrio fischeri.  

PubMed

The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri regulates its bioluminescence through a quorum sensing mechanism: the bacterium releases diffusible small molecules (autoinducers) that accumulate in the environment as the population density increases. This accumulation of autoinducer (AI) eventually activates transcriptional regulators for bioluminescence as well as host colonization behaviors. Although V. fischeri quorum sensing has been extensively characterized in bulk populations, far less is known about how it performs at the level of the individual cell, where biochemical noise is likely to limit the precision of luminescence regulation. We have measured the time-dependence and AI-dependence of light production by individual V. fischeri cells that are immobilized in a perfusion chamber and supplied with a defined concentration of exogenous AI. We use low-light level microscopy to record and quantify the photon emission from the cells over periods of several hours as they respond to the introduction of AI. We observe an extremely heterogeneous response to the AI signal. Individual cells differ widely in the onset time for their luminescence and in their resulting brightness, even in the presence of high AI concentrations that saturate the light output from a bulk population. The observed heterogeneity shows that although a given concentration of quorum signal may determine the average light output from a population of cells, it provides far weaker control over the luminescence output of each individual cell. PMID:21103327

Pérez, Pablo Delfino; Hagen, Stephen J

2010-01-01

180

Vibrio Factors Cause Rapid Fluid Accumulation in Suckling Mice,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Non-O-1 and O-1 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio fluvialis isolated from clinical and environmental sources were examined for virulence factor production in 3-day-old suckling mice and in Y-1 tissue culture. The responses of the suckling mice to intragastricall...

M. Nishibuchi, R. J. Seidler, D. M. Rollins, S. W. Joseph

1983-01-01

181

Ultrastructural Evidence of Invasive Activity of Vibrio Cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of experimental cholera in suckling rabbits is associated with typical cholerogenic syndrome: the presence of Vibrio cholerae in the blood, bile (in 60 and 70% cases, respectively), small and large intestine (in 100% cases). Simultaneously with enterocyte desquamation and increased permeability of the blood-enterocyte barrier, the vibrios are released into villous stroma and then into the microcirculatory bed.

N. G. Kharlanova; Yu. M. Lomov; I. D. Bardykh; E. V. Monakhova; E. A. Bardakhchyan

2004-01-01

182

Vibrio cholerae non-serogroup O1 cystitis.  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a patient who developed cystitis caused by non-serogroup O1 Vibrio cholerae after swimming in the Chesapeake Bay. Treatment was empirical, with complete symptomatic resolution. Genitourinary tract infections by Vibrio spp. are uncommon but should be considered when cystitis occurs after saltwater exposure in appropriate geographic regions. PMID:2768474

Dumler, J S; Osterhout, G J; Spangler, J G; Dick, J D

1989-01-01

183

Power plays: iron transport and energy transduction in pathogenic vibrios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vibrios are a unique group of bacteria inhabiting a vast array of aquatic environments. Many Vibrio species are capable of infecting a wide assortment of hosts. Some of these species include V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. anguillarum, and V. cholerae. The ability of these organisms to utilize iron is essential in establishing both an infection in their

Ryan J. KustuschCarole; Carole J. Kuehl; Jorge H. Crosa

2011-01-01

184

Vibrio diversity and dynamics in the Monterey Bay upwelling region  

PubMed Central

The Vibrionaceae (Vibrio) are a ubiquitous group of metabolically flexible marine bacteria that play important roles in biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Despite this versatility, little is known about Vibrio diversity and abundances in upwelling regions. The seasonal dynamics of Vibrio populations was examined by analysis of 16S rRNA genes in Monterey Bay (MB), California from April 2006–April 2008 at two long term monitoring stations, C1 and M2. Vibrio phylotypes within MB were diverse, with subpopulations clustering with several different cultured representatives including Allivibrio spp., Vibrio penaecida, and Vibrio splendidus as well as with many unidentified marine environmental bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Total Vibrio population abundances, as well as abundances of a Vibrio sp. subpopulation (MBAY Vib7) and an Allivibrio sp. subpopulation (MBAY Vib4) were examined in the context of environmental parameters from mooring station and CTD cast data. Total Vibrio populations showed some seasonal variability but greater variability was observed within the two subpopulations. MBAY Vib4 was negatively associated with MB upwelling indices and positively correlated with oceanic season conditions, when upwelling winds relax and warmer surface waters are present in MB. MBAY Vib7 was also negatively associated with upwelling indices and represented a deeper Vibrio sp. population. Correlation patterns suggest that larger oceanographic conditions affect the dynamics of the populations in MB, rather than specific environmental factors. This study is the first to target and describe the diversity and dynamics of these natural populations in MB and demonstrates that these populations shift seasonally within the region. PMID:24575086

Mansergh, Sarah; Zehr, Jonathan P.

2013-01-01

185

Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been known that cholera outbreaks can be initiated when Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is present in drinking water in sufficient numbers to constitute an infective dose, if ingested by humans. Outbreaks associated with drinking or bathing in unpurified river or brackish water may directly or indirectly depend on such conditions as water temperature, nutrient concentration, and plankton production that may be favorable for growth and reproduction of the bacterium. Although these environmental parameters have routinely been measured by using water samples collected aboard research ships, the available data sets are sparse and infrequent. Furthermore, shipboard data acquisition is both expensive and time-consuming. Interpolation to regional scales can also be problematic. Although the bacterium, V. cholerae, cannot be sensed directly, remotely sensed data can be used to infer its presence. In the study reported here, satellite data were used to monitor the timing and spread of cholera. Public domain remote sensing data for the Bay of Bengal were compared directly with cholera case data collected in Bangladesh from 1992-1995. The remote sensing data included sea surface temperature and sea surface height. It was discovered that sea surface temperature shows an annual cycle similar to the cholera case data. Sea surface height may be an indicator of incursion of plankton-laden water inland, e.g., tidal rivers, because it was also found to be correlated with cholera outbreaks. The extensive studies accomplished during the past 25 years, confirming the hypothesis that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment and is a commensal of zooplankton, i.e., copepods, when combined with the findings of the satellite data analyses, provide strong evidence that cholera epidemics are climate-linked.

Lobitz, B.; Beck, L.; Huq, A.; Wood, B.; Fuchs, G.; Faruque, A. S.; Colwell, R.

2000-01-01

186

Climate and infectious disease: Use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement  

PubMed Central

It has long been known that cholera outbreaks can be initiated when Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is present in drinking water in sufficient numbers to constitute an infective dose, if ingested by humans. Outbreaks associated with drinking or bathing in unpurified river or brackish water may directly or indirectly depend on such conditions as water temperature, nutrient concentration, and plankton production that may be favorable for growth and reproduction of the bacterium. Although these environmental parameters have routinely been measured by using water samples collected aboard research ships, the available data sets are sparse and infrequent. Furthermore, shipboard data acquisition is both expensive and time-consuming. Interpolation to regional scales can also be problematic. Although the bacterium, V. cholerae, cannot be sensed directly, remotely sensed data can be used to infer its presence. In the study reported here, satellite data were used to monitor the timing and spread of cholera. Public domain remote sensing data for the Bay of Bengal were compared directly with cholera case data collected in Bangladesh from 1992–1995. The remote sensing data included sea surface temperature and sea surface height. It was discovered that sea surface temperature shows an annual cycle similar to the cholera case data. Sea surface height may be an indicator of incursion of plankton-laden water inland, e.g., tidal rivers, because it was also found to be correlated with cholera outbreaks. The extensive studies accomplished during the past 25 years, confirming the hypothesis that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment and is a commensal of zooplankton, i.e., copepods, when combined with the findings of the satellite data analyses, provide strong evidence that cholera epidemics are climate-linked. PMID:10677480

Lobitz, Brad; Beck, Louisa; Huq, Anwar; Wood, Byron; Fuchs, George; Faruque, A. S. G.; Colwell, Rita

2000-01-01

187

Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate.  

PubMed

The three most common pathogenic species of Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, are of major concerns due to increased incidence of water- and seafood-related outbreaks and illness worldwide. Current methods are lengthy and require biochemical and molecular confirmation. A novel label-free forward light-scattering sensor was developed to detect and identify colonies of these three pathogens in real time in the presence of other vibrios in food or water samples. Vibrio colonies grown on agar plates were illuminated by a 635?nm laser beam and scatter-image signatures were acquired using a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera in an automated BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical light-scattering Technology) system. Although a limited number of Vibrio species was tested, each produced a unique light-scattering signature that is consistent from colony to colony. Subsequently a pattern recognition system analysing the collected light-scatter information provided classification in 1-2?min with an accuracy of 99%. The light-scattering signatures were unaffected by subjecting the bacteria to physiological stressors: osmotic imbalance, acid, heat and recovery from a viable but non-culturable state. Furthermore, employing a standard sample enrichment in alkaline peptone water for 6?h followed by plating on selective thiosulphate citrate bile salts sucrose agar at 30°C for ??12?h, the light-scattering sensor successfully detected V.?cholerae, V.?parahaemolyticus and V.?vulnificus present in oyster or water samples in 18?h even in the presence of other vibrios or other bacteria, indicating the suitability of the sensor as a powerful screening tool for pathogens on agar plates. PMID:22613192

Huff, Karleigh; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Littlejohn, Amy E Fleishman; Rajwa, Bartek; Bae, Euiwon; Banada, Padmapriya P; Patsekin, Valery; Hirleman, E Daniel; Robinson, J Paul; Richards, Gary P; Bhunia, Arun K

2012-09-01

188

Screening for a Single-Chain Variable-Fragment Antibody That Can Effectively Neutralize the Cytotoxicity of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Thermolabile Hemolysin  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium that is widely distributed in water resources. The bacterium causes lethal food-borne diseases and poses a serious threat to human and animal health all over the world. The major pathogenic factor of V. parahaemolyticus is thermolabile hemolysin (TLH), encoded by the tlh gene, but its toxicity mechanisms are unknown. A high-affinity antibody that can neutralize TLH activity effectively is not available. In this study, we successfully expressed and purified the TLH antigen and discovered a high-affinity antibody to TLH, named scFv-LA3, by phage display screening. Cytotoxicity analysis showed that scFv-LA3 has strong neutralization effects on TLH-induced cell toxicity. PMID:22562997

Wang, Rongzhi; Fang, Sui; Wu, Dinglong; Lian, Junwei; Fan, Jue; Zhang, Yanfeng

2012-01-01

189

Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae with respect to seasonal fluctuations in temperature and plankton abundance.  

PubMed

Over a 1-year period, bi-monthly estuarine surface water and plankton samples (63-200 and >?200??m fractions) were assayed by polymerase chain reaction for the prevalence of total Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V.?vulnificus and V.?cholerae and select genes associated with clinical strains found in each species. Neither temperature nor plankton abundance was a significant correlate of total V.?parahaemolyticus; however, the prevalence of genes commonly associated with clinical strains (trh, tdh, ORF8) increased with temperature and copepod abundance (P?Vibrio strains were more frequently detected in association with chitinous plankton. We conclude that V.?parahaemolyticus, V.?vulnificus, V.?cholerae and subpopulations that harbour genes common to clinical strains respond distinctly to seasonal changes in temperature as well as shifts in the taxonomic composition of discrete plankton fractions. PMID:24024909

Turner, Jeffrey W; Malayil, Leena; Guadagnoli, Dominic; Cole, D; Lipp, Erin K

2014-04-01

190

Pathogenesis of Vibrio anguillarum in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  

E-print Network

+ ( +2084), t 8 '1', * d ~, 9 d n. ( 69), d fl 1 ll g ll, 1 11 2 ll, *i, ~h 11 b~d' ', ~h) +, ~tt fnb, V'8 ' ~) ~) ( 2078), 8 ' ~) ( 4263), V. ~)) ( 972) . fuscus (m23099), and V. arahaemol ticus (ms544) Enumeration of Bacteria Each of fifty-nine fish... (ms4277-1) 1 b 1 ' ~h (ms2056, 4030, 2058) Nicrococcus ~s. (~Gaffk a ~s. ) Nicrococcus ~s . (Sarcina ~s . ) ~h' u '4 ( 2494) EZH ?" '9 ' ~3' 1 t' ( 2979) Vibrio alclosus (ms4263) Eih 1 ~23 ( 972) Vibrio fuscus (ms3099) Vibrio arahaemol ticus...

Jones, David Munson

2012-06-07

191

Differential metabolic responses of clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus challenges.  

PubMed

Clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the important marine aquaculture species in North China. However, pathogens can often cause diseases and lead to massive mortalities and economic losses of clam. In this work, we compared the metabolic responses induced by Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus challenges towards hepatopancreas of clam using NMR-based metabolomics. Metabolic responses suggested that both V. anguillarum and V. splendidus induced disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation, oxidative and immune stresses with different mechanisms, as indicated by correspondingly differential metabolic biomarkers (e.g., amino acids, ATP, glucose, glycogen, taurine, betaine, choline and hypotaurine) and altered mRNA expression levels of related genes including ATP synthase, ATPase, glutathione peroxidase, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme. However, V. anguillarum caused more severe oxidative and immune stresses in clam hepatopancreas than V. splendidus. Our results indicated that metabolomics could be used to elucidate the biological effects of pathogens to the marine clam R. philippinarum. PMID:24056279

Liu, Xiaoli; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

2013-12-01

192

Occurrence of Vibrio vulnificus and Toxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus on Sea Catfishes from Galveston Bay, Texas.  

PubMed

Dorsal and pectoral fin spines from two species of sea catfishes (Bagre marinus and Ariopsis felis) landed at 54 sites in Galveston Bay, Texas, and its subbays from June to October 2005 were screened with traditional cultivation-based assays and quantitative PCR assays for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. V. vulnificus was present on 51.2% of fish (n = 247), with an average of 403 ± 337 SD cells g(-1). V. parahaemolyticus was present on 94.2% (n = 247); 12.8% tested positive for the virulence-conferring tdh gene, having an average 2,039 ± 2,171 SD cells g(-1). The increasing trend in seafood consumption of "trash fishes" from lower trophic levels, such as sea catfishes, warrants evaluation of their life histories for association with pathogens of concern for human consumption. PMID:25285498

Baumeister, Leslie; Hochman, Mona E; Schwarz, John R; Brinkmeyer, Robin

2014-10-01

193

The N-acetyl-D-glucosamine repressor NagC of Vibrio fischeri facilitates colonization of Euprymna scolopes.  

PubMed

To successfully colonize and persist within a host niche, bacteria must properly regulate their gene expression profiles. The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri establishes a mutualistic symbiosis within the light organ of the Hawaiian squid, Euprymna scolopes. Here, we show that the repressor NagC of V. fischeri directly regulates several chitin- and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-utilization genes that are co-regulated during productive symbiosis. We also demonstrate that repression by NagC is relieved in the presence of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-6-phosphate, the intracellular form of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. We find that gene repression by NagC is critical for efficient colonization of E. scolopes. Further, our study shows that NagC regulates genes that affect the normal dynamics of host colonization. PMID:21992506

Miyashiro, Tim; Klein, Will; Oehlert, Dane; Cao, Xiaodan; Schwartzman, Julia; Ruby, Edward G

2011-11-01

194

Structure of Vibrio cholerae ToxT reveals a mechanism for fatty acid regulation of virulence genes  

PubMed Central

Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. In order for V. cholerae to cause disease, it must produce two virulence factors, the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT), whose expression is controlled by a transcriptional cascade culminating with the expression of the AraC-family regulator, ToxT. We have solved the 1.9 ? resolution crystal structure of ToxT, which reveals folds in the N- and C-terminal domains that share a number of features in common with AraC, MarA, and Rob as well as the unexpected presence of a buried 16-carbon fatty acid, cis-palmitoleate. The finding that cis-palmitoleic acid reduces TCP and CT expression in V. cholerae and prevents ToxT from binding to DNA in vitro provides a direct link between the host environment of V. cholerae and regulation of virulence gene expression. PMID:20133655

Lowden, Michael J.; Skorupski, Karen; Pellegrini, Maria; Chiorazzo, Michael G.; Taylor, Ronald K.; Kull, F. Jon

2010-01-01

195

Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Cooked Seafood at Refrigeration Temperatures  

PubMed Central

The growth and survival of two strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated during food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Japan and surface inoculated on cooked shrimp, shrimp with sauce, or cooked crab were tested at various refrigeration temperatures during a 48-h holding period. On cooked shrimp and crab, the vibrios grew well at 18.3 C, but their numbers declined gradually at 10 C and below. At 12.8 C, vibrios remained static for the most part. Thus, it appeared that 12.8 C was the borderline temperature for growth of the organism on cooked seafood. When cocktail sauce was added to surface-inoculated shrimp at a ratio of 2:1, the vibrio die-off rate was accelerated. In the shrimp and sauce few cells remained after 48 h, but in the sauce alone die-off was complete at 6 h. PMID:4825975

Bradshaw, Joe G.; Francis, David W.; Twedt, Robert M.

1974-01-01

196

Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%), V. mimicus (16.7%), V. parahaemolyticus (10%), V. vulnificus (6.7%), and V. alginolyticus (1.7%). Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp. PMID:22619583

Banerjee, Sanjoy; Ooi, Mei Chen; Shariff, Mohamed; Khatoon, Helena

2012-01-01

197

Central role of the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) in sodium bioenergetics of Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Abstract Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that lives in brackish or sea water environments. Strains of V. cholerae carrying the pathogenicity islands infect the human gut and cause the fatal disease cholera. Vibrio cholerae maintains a Na+ gradient at its cytoplasmic membrane that drives substrate uptake, motility, and efflux of antibiotics. Here, we summarize the major Na+-dependent transport processes and describe the central role of the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR), a primary Na+ pump, in maintaining a Na+-motive force. The Na+-NQR is a membrane protein complex with a mass of about 220 kDa that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH to the transport of Na+ across the cytoplasmic membrane. We describe the molecular architecture of this respiratory complex and summarize the findings how electron transport might be coupled to Na+-translocation. Moreover, recent advances in the determination of the three-dimensional structure of this complex are reported. PMID:25205724

Steuber, Julia; Halang, Petra; Vorburger, Thomas; Steffen, Wojtek; Vohl, Georg; Fritz, Günter

2014-12-01

198

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in the American lobster Homarus americanus: molecular characterization and transcriptional response to Vibrio fluvialis challenge.  

PubMed

Two partial mRNA sequences predicted to encode anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) were identified among expressed sequence tags generated from the American lobster Homarus americanus and complete cDNA sequences were obtained from library clones. Comparison of the translated amino acid sequences to those publicly available confirmed similarity to arthropod anti-lipopolysaccharide factors. Both protein sequences, designated ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2, contained an N-terminal signal peptide and two half-cysteines participating in a disulfide bridge, features conserved in other ALFs. Predicted secondary structures were similar to that described for the ALF from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. As part of an exploratory study of immunity in H. americanus, lobsters were injected with the bacterium Vibrio fluvialis and gill, hematopoietic, and hepatopancreas tissues were sampled for analysis of gene expression of ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2 by quantitative PCR. The relative abundance of ALFHa-2 mRNA was not significantly affected by Vibrio injection in any of the three tissues tested. In contrast, ALFHa-1 mRNA levels in gills were increased by the treatment some 17-fold. Our results support a molecularly specific regulation of antimicrobial proteins in response to bacterial infection in H. americanus. PMID:19956341

Beale, K M; Towle, D W; Jayasundara, N; Smith, C M; Shields, J D; Small, H J; Greenwood, S J

2008-12-01

199

Isolation and experimental infection with Vibrio alginolyticus in the sea horse, Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933 (Osteichthyes: Syngnathidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Vibrio alginolyticus isolated from an outbreak of sea horse Hippocampus reidi reared in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, by experimental infection. Sea horses with necrosis on the mouth epithelium were collected from aquaria at the Aquaculture Department, UFSC and the bacterium isolated from the mouth, liver, heart and blood in thiosulphate citrate bilesalt sucrose agar broth. The strains were identified by API 20E kit with 99.1% probability as Vibrio alginolyticus. Twelve adult sea horses (9.63 +/- 2.42 g and 15.12 +/- 0.87 cm) were distributed in six aquaria of 10 L capacity with aerated sea water. Fish from three aquaria were submitted to an immersion bath in a solution containing 1.0 x 10(7) CFU of V. alginolyticus/mL for 15 minutes. Fish from the other three aquaria received the same procedure without bacteria. Twenty four hours after this challenge, 100% mortality was observed in the animals infected with V. alginolyticus. No mortality was observed in non-infected fish. Hyperplasia, displacement and fusion of secondary lamellae of the gills; leukocyte infiltration and necrotic foci in the kidney; hyperplasia, sinusoidal deformation and necrotic foci in the liver were observed in histopathological analysis. The V. alginolyticus isolated in this study was pathogenic to H. reidi and constitutes an important sanitary problem to its culture. PMID:20231979

Martins, M L; Mouriño, J L P; Fezer, G F; Buglione Neto, C C; Garcia, P; Silva, B C; Jatobá, A; Vieira, F N

2010-02-01

200

Expression of Vibrio salmonicida virulence genes and immune response parameters in experimentally challenged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)  

PubMed Central

The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio salmonicida is the causative agent of cold-water vibriosis (CV), a hemorrhagic septicemia that primarily affects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The mechanisms of disease development, host specificity and adaptation, as well as the immunogenic properties of V. salmonicida are largely unknown. Therefore, to gain more knowledge on the pathogenesis of CV, 90 Atlantic salmon parr were injected intraperitoneally with 6 × 106 CFU of V. salmonicida LFI1238. Samples from blood and spleen tissue were taken at different time points throughout the challenge for gene expression analysis by two-step reverse transcription (RT) quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Out of a panel of six housekeeping genes, accD, gapA, and 16S rDNA were found to be the most suitable references for expression analysis in Vibrio salmonicida. The bacterial proliferation during challenge was monitored based on the expression of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. Before day 4, the concentrations of V. salmonicida in blood and spleen tissue demonstrated a lag phase. From day 4, the bacterial proliferation was exponential. The expression profiles of eight genes encoding potential virulence factors of V. salmonicida were studied. Surprisingly, all tested virulence genes were generally highest expressed in broth cultures compared to the in vivo samples. We hypothesize that this general muting of gene expression in vivo may be a strategy for V. salmonicida to hide from the host immune system. To further investigate this hypothesis, the expression profiles of eight genes encoding innate immune factors were analyzed. The results demonstrated a strong and rapid, but short-lasting innate immune response against V. salmonicida. These results suggest that the bacterium possesses mechanisms that inhibit and/or resist the salmon innate immune system until the host becomes exhausted of fighting the on-going and eventually overwhelming infection. PMID:24391635

Bjelland, Ane M.; Fauske, Aud K.; Nguyen, Anh; Orlien, Ingvild E.; ?stgaard, Ingrid M.; S?rum, Henning

2013-01-01

201

Natural transformation of a marine Vibrio species by plasmid DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio sp. DI9, recently isolated from Tampa Bay, FL, has been found to be naturally transformed by the broad host range plasmid pKT230 in both filter transformation assays and sterile sediment microcosms. This is the first report of natural transformation by plasmid DNA of aVibrio sp. and of a marine bacterial isolate. Transformation frequencies ranged from 0.3 to 3.1×10?8 transformants

Wade H. Jeffrey; John H. Paul; Gregory J. Stewart

1990-01-01

202

Oligotyping reveals community level habitat selection within the genus Vibrio  

PubMed Central

The genus Vibrio is a metabolically diverse group of facultative anaerobic bacteria, common in aquatic environments and marine hosts. The genus contains several species of importance to human health and aquaculture, including the causative agents of human cholera and fish vibriosis. Vibrios display a wide variety of known life histories, from opportunistic pathogens to long-standing symbionts with individual host species. Studying Vibrio ecology has been challenging as individual species often display a wide range of habitat preferences, and groups of vibrios can act as socially cohesive groups. Although strong associations with salinity, temperature and other environmental variables have been established, the degree of habitat or host specificity at both the individual and community levels is unknown. Here we use oligotyping analyses in combination with a large collection of existing Vibrio 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence data to reveal patterns of Vibrio ecology across a wide range of environmental, host, and abiotic substrate associated habitats. Our data show that individual taxa often display a wide range of habitat preferences yet tend to be highly abundant in either substrate-associated or free-living environments. Our analyses show that Vibrio communities share considerable overlap between two distinct hosts (i.e., sponge and fish), yet are distinct from the abiotic plastic substrates. Lastly, evidence for habitat specificity at the community level exists in some habitats, despite considerable stochasticity in others. In addition to providing insights into Vibrio ecology across a broad range of habitats, our study shows the utility of oligotyping as a facile, high-throughput and unbiased method for large-scale analyses of publically available sequence data repositories and suggests its wide application could greatly extend the range of possibilities to explore microbial ecology.

Schmidt, Victor T.; Reveillaud, Julie; Zettler, Erik; Mincer, Tracy J.; Murphy, Leslie; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

2014-01-01

203

Vibrio neptunius sp. nov., Vibrio brasiliensis sp. nov. and Vibrio xuii sp. nov., isolated from the marine aquaculture environment (bivalves, fish, rotifers and shrimps).  

PubMed

The fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) groups A5 (21 isolates), A8 (6 isolates) and A23 (3 isolates) distinguished in an earlier paper (Thompson et al., Syst Appl Microbiol 24, 520-538, 2001) were examined in more depth. These three groups were phylogenetically related to Vibrio tubiashii, but DNA-DNA hybridization experiments proved that the three AFLP groups are in fact novel species. Chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses further revealed several differences among the 30 isolates and known Vibrio species. It is proposed to accommodate these isolates in three novel species, namely Vibrio neptunius (type strain LMG 20536T; EMBL accession no. AJ316171; G +C content of the type strain 46.0 mol%), Vibrio brasiliensis (type strain LMG 20546T; EMBL accession no. AJ316172; G + C content of the type strain 45.9 mol%) and Vibrio xuii (type strain LMG 21346T; EMBL accession no. AJ316181; G +C content of the type strain 46.6 mol%). These species can be differentiated on the basis of phenotypic features, including fatty acid composition (particularly 14:0 iso, 14:0 iso 3-OH, 16:0 iso, 16:0, 17:0 and 17:1 omega8c), enzyme activities and utilization and fermentation of various carbon sources. PMID:12656180

Thompson, F L; Li, Y; Gomez-Gil, B; Thompson, C C; Hoste, B; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Rupp, G S; Pereira, A; De Bem, M M; Sorgeloos, P; Swings, J

2003-01-01

204

Geovibrio ferrireducens, a phylogenetically distinct dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new, phylogenetically distinct, dissimilatory, Fe(III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from surface sediment of a hydrocarbon-contaminated ditch. The isolate, designated strain PAL-1, was an obligately anaerobic, non-fermentative, motile, gram-negative vibrio. PAL-1 grew in a defined medium with acetate as electron donor and ferric pyrophosphate, ferric oxyhydroxide, ferric citrate, Co(III)-EDTA, or elemental sulfur as sole electron acceptor. PAL-1 also used proline, hydrogen, lactate, propionate, succinate, fumarate, pyruvate, or yeast extract as electron donors for Fe(III) reduction. It is the first bacterium known to couple the oxidation of an amino acid to Fe(III) reduction. PAI-1 did not reduce oxygen, Mn(IV), U(VI), Cr(VI), nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate with acetate as the electron donor. Cell suspensions of PAL-1 exhibited dithionite-reduced minus air-oxidized difference spectra that were characteristic of c-type cytochromes. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of PAL-1 showed that the strain is not related to any of the described metal-reducing bacteria in the Proteobacteria and, together with Flexistipes sinusarabici, forms a separate line of descent within the Bacteria. Phenotypically and phylogenetically, strain PAI-1 differs from all other described bacteria, and represents the type strain of a new genus and species. Geovibrio ferrireducens.

Caccavo, F., Jr.; Coates, J.D.; Rossello-Mora, R. A.; Ludwig, W.; Schleifer, K.H.; Lovley, D.R.; McInerney, M.J.

1996-01-01

205

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans  

PubMed Central

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin) and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts. PMID:24093021

Rivas, Amable J.; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

2013-01-01

206

A chimeric siderophore halts swarming Vibrio.  

PubMed

Some bacteria swarm under some circumstances; they move rapidly and collectively over a surface. In an effort to understand the molecular signals controlling swarming, we isolated two bacterial strains from the same red seaweed, Vibrio alginolyticus B522, a vigorous swarmer, and Shewanella algae B516, which inhibits V.?alginolyticus swarming in its vicinity. Plate assays combined with NMR, MS, and X-ray diffraction analyses identified a small molecule, which was named avaroferrin, as a potent swarming inhibitor. Avaroferrin, a previously unreported cyclic dihydroxamate siderophore, is a chimera of two well-known siderophores: putrebactin and bisucaberin. The sequenced genome of S.?algae revealed avaroferrin's biosynthetic gene cluster to be a mashup of putrebactin and bisucaberin biosynthetic genes. Avaroferrin blocks swarming through its ability to bind iron in a form that cannot be pirated by V.?alginolyticus, thereby securing this essential resource for its producer. PMID:24615751

Böttcher, Thomas; Clardy, Jon

2014-03-24

207

Vibrio cholerae: lessons for mucosal vaccine design  

PubMed Central

The ability of Vibrio cholerae to persist in bodies of water will continue to confound our ability to eradicate cholera through improvements to infrastructure, and thus cholera vaccines are needed. We aim for an inexpensive vaccine that can provide long-lasting protection from all epidemic cholera infections, currently caused by O1 or O139 serogroups. Recent insights into correlates of protection, epidemiology and pathogenesis may help us design improved vaccines. This notwithstanding, we have come to appreciate that even marginally protective vaccines, such as oral whole-cell killed vaccines, if widely distributed, can provide significant protection, owing to herd immunity. Further efforts are still required to provide more effective protection of young children. PMID:21162623

Bishop, Anne L; Camilli, Andrew

2011-01-01

208

Viscosity dictates metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber  

PubMed Central

Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment. PMID:22826705

Bori?, Maja; Danev?i?, Tjaša; Stopar, David

2012-01-01

209

Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 'Vaccination'  

PubMed Central

It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens. PMID:21698190

Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.

2011-01-01

210

Biofilm Formation by a Metabolically Versatile Bacterium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a photosynthetic bacterium that has good potential as a biocatalyst for the production of hydrogen gas, a biofuel. With this award we conducted basic studies to facilitate the development of a process where R. palustris cells...

C. S. Harwood

2009-01-01

211

The Regulatory Network of Natural Competence and Transformation of Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic bacterium frequently encountered in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal regions. Within these environmental reservoirs, the bacterium is often found associated with zooplankton and more specifically with their chitinous exoskeleton. Upon growth on such chitinous surfaces, V. cholerae initiates a developmental program termed “natural competence for genetic transformation.” Natural competence for transformation is a mode of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria and contributes to the maintenance and evolution of bacterial genomes. In this study, we investigated competence gene expression within this organism at the single cell level. We provide evidence that under homogeneous inducing conditions the majority of the cells express competence genes. A more heterogeneous expression pattern was observable on chitin surfaces. We hypothesize that this was the case due to the heterogeneity around the chitin surface, which might vary extensively with respect to chitin degradation products and autoinducers; these molecules contribute to competence induction based on carbon catabolite repression and quorum-sensing pathways, respectively. Therefore, we investigated the contribution of these two signaling pathways to natural competence in detail using natural transformation assays, transcriptional reporter fusions, quantitative RT–PCR, and immunological detection of protein levels using Western blot analysis. The results illustrate that all tested competence genes are dependent on the transformation regulator TfoX. Furthermore, intracellular cAMP levels play a major role in natural transformation. Finally, we demonstrate that only a minority of genes involved in natural transformation are regulated in a quorum-sensing-dependent manner and that these genes determine the fate of the surrounding DNA. We conclude with a model of the regulatory circuit of chitin-induced natural competence in V. cholerae. PMID:22737089

Lo Scrudato, Mirella; Blokesch, Melanie

2012-01-01

212

In-vitro anti- Vibrio spp. activity and chemical composition of some Tunisian aromatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of five aromatic plants (Mentha longifolia, M. pulegium, Eugenia caryophyllata, Thymus vulgaris and Rosmarinus officinalis) frequently used in food preparation in Tunisia was analysed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial effect of the essential oils obtained\\u000a from these plants was tested against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio fluvialis strains. Thyme oil exhibited a high level of

Mejdi Snoussi; Hafedh Hajlaoui; Emira Noumi; Donatella Usai; Leonardo Antonio Sechi; Stefania Zanetti; Amina Bakhrouf

2008-01-01

213

Vibrio alfacsensis sp. nov., isolated from marine organisms.  

PubMed

Five strains (CAIM 1831(T), CAIM 1832, CAIM 1833, CAIM 1834 and CAIM 1836) were isolated from cultured sole (Solea senegalensis) in two regions of Spain, two strains (CAIM 404 and CAIM 1294) from wild-caught spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) in Mexico, and one strain (CAIM 1835) from corals in Brazil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel isolates showed similarity to Vibrio ponticus (98.2-98.3%, GenBank accession no. AJ630103) and to a lesser degree to Vibrio furnissii (97.2-97.3%, X76336) and to Vibrio fluvialis (96.9-97.1%, X74703). Multilocus sequence analysis clustered these strains closely together and clearly separated them from phylogenetically related species of the genus Vibrio. Genomic fingerprinting by rep-PCR clustered the novel strains according to their geographical origin. Phenotypic analyses showed a large variation among the new strains, but many tests enabled them to be differentiated from other species of the genus Vibrio. The mean ?T(m) values between the strains analysed here and closely related type strains were above 6.79 °C. The values between the novel isolates were below 2.35 °C, well outside the limit suggested for the delineation of a bacterial species. The phenotypic and genotypic data presented here clearly place these new strains as a coherent group within the genus Vibrio, for which we propose the name Vibrio alfacsensis sp. nov. with CAIM 1831(T) (?= DSM 24595(T) = S277(T)) as the type strain. PMID:22286904

Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Roque, Ana; Chimetto, Luciane; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Lang, Elke; Thompson, Fabiano L

2012-12-01

214

Population structure between environmentally transmitted vibrios and bobtail squids using nested clade analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squids from the genus Euprymna (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) and their symbiotic bacteria Vibrio fischeri form a mutualism in which vibrios inhabit a complex light organ within the squid host. A host-mediated daily expulsion event seeds surrounding seawater with symbiotically capable V. fischeri that environmentally colonize newly hatched axenic Euprymna juveniles. Competition experiments using native and non-native Vibrio have shown that this

B. W. JONES; J. E. LOPEZ; J. HUTTENBURG; M. K. NISHIGUCHI

2006-01-01

215

Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Vibrio navarrensis Isolates Associated with Human Illness.  

PubMed

We characterized 18 Vibrio isolates, including 15 recovered from human clinical specimens, and found that they clustered with two previously characterized Vibrio navarrensis isolates in a phylogenetic analysis. Four of the 18 strains may represent a new Vibrio species, distinct from V. navarrensis. The potential role of V. navarrensis in human disease needs further investigation. PMID:25187632

Gladney, Lori M; Tarr, Cheryl L

2014-11-01

216

Draft Genome Sequence of Hawaiian Sea Slug Symbiont Vibrio sp. Strain ER1A  

PubMed Central

Bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio are prevalent in the marine environment and are known for forming symbiotic relationships with hosts. Vibrio sp. strain ER1A is a dominant symbiont of the Hawaiian sea slug, Elysia rufescens. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. ER1A. PMID:25146136

Davis, Jeanette

2014-01-01

217

Draft Genome Sequence of Hawaiian Sea Slug Symbiont Vibrio sp. Strain ER1A.  

PubMed

Bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio are prevalent in the marine environment and are known for forming symbiotic relationships with hosts. Vibrio sp. strain ER1A is a dominant symbiont of the Hawaiian sea slug, Elysia rufescens. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. ER1A. PMID:25146136

Davis, Jeanette; Hill, Russell T

2014-01-01

218

Isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from Seawater and Emerging Vibrio vulnificus Septicemia on Jeju Island  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen, transmitted from seawater, raw oyster, and shellfish and responsible for severe septicemia. We studied V. vulnificus from surface seawater around Jeju Island between 2010 and 2011. In 2010, V. vulnificus was isolated and V. vulnificus septicemia was reported. Surface seawater temperature is an important factor for growth of V. vulnificus, and here we showed that high surface seawater temperature may influence growth of V. vulnificus and occurrence of emerging V. vulnificus septicemia on Jeju Island. This is the first report of isolation of V. vulnificus and emerging V. vulnificus septicemia on Jeju Island. PMID:25024873

Lee, Keun Hwa; Kim, Young Ree; Pang, Ig-Chan

2014-01-01

219

Intracellular Vibrio parahaemolyticus Escapes the Vacuole and Establishes a Replicative Niche in the Cytosol of Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a globally disseminated Gram-negative marine bacterium and the leading cause of seafood-borne acute gastroenteritis. Pathogenic bacterial isolates encode two type III secretion systems (T3SS), with the second system (T3SS2) considered the main virulence factor in mammalian hosts. For many decades, V. parahaemolyticus has been studied as an exclusively extracellular bacterium. However, the recent characterization of the T3SS2 effector protein VopC has suggested that this pathogen has the ability to invade, survive, and replicate within epithelial cells. Herein, we characterize this intracellular lifestyle in detail. We show that following internalization, V. parahaemolyticus is contained in vacuoles that develop into early endosomes, which subsequently mature into late endosomes. V. parahaemolyticus then escapes into the cytoplasm prior to vacuolar fusion with lysosomes. Vacuolar acidification is an important trigger for this escape. The cytoplasm serves as the pathogen’s primary intracellular replicative niche; cytosolic replication is rapid and robust, with cells often containing over 150 bacteria by the time of cell lysis. These results show how V. parahaemolyticus successfully establishes an intracellular lifestyle that could contribute to its survival and dissemination during infection. PMID:25205094

de Souza Santos, Marcela

2014-01-01

220

Manipulation of intestinal epithelial cell function by the cell contact-dependent type III secretion systems of Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus elicits gastroenteritis by deploying Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS) to deliver effector proteins into epithelial cells of the human intestinal tract. The bacteria must adhere to the human cells to allow colonization and operation of the TTSS translocation apparatus bridging the bacterium and the host cell. This article first reviews recent advances in identifying the molecules responsible for intercellular adherence. V. parahaemolyticus possesses two TTSS, each of which delivers an exclusive set of effectors and mediates unique effects on the host cell. TTSS effectors primarily target and alter the activation status of host cell signaling proteins, thereby bringing about changes in the regulation of cellular behavior. TTSS1 is responsible for the cytotoxicity of V. parahaemolyticus, while TTSS2 is necessary for the enterotoxicity of the pathogen. Recent publications have elucidated the function of several TTSS effectors and their importance in the virulence of the bacterium. This review will explore the ability of the TTSS to manipulate activities of human intestinal cells and how this modification of cell function favors bacterial colonization and persistence of V. parahaemolyticus in the host. PMID:24455490

O'Boyle, Nicky; Boyd, Aoife

2013-01-01

221

Vibrio cholerae Exploits Sub-Lethal Concentrations of a Competitor-Produced Antibiotic to Avoid Toxic Interactions.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogenic marine bacterium inhabiting coastal regions and is vectored into human food and water supplies via attachment to particles including detritus, phytoplankton, and zooplankton. Particle colonization by the pathogen is inhibited by an antagonistic interaction with the particle-associated Vibrionales bacterium SWAT3, a producer of the antibiotic andrimid. By analyzing the individual movement behaviors of V. cholerae exposed to a gradient of andrimid in a microfluidics device, we show that the pathogen has a concentration dependent avoidance response to sub-lethal concentrations of the pure antibiotic and to the metabolites produced by a growing colony of SWAT3-wild-type. This avoidance behavior includes a 25% increase in swimming speeds, 30% increase in run lengths, and a shift in the direction of the bacteria away from the andrimid source. Consequently, these behavioral shifts at low concentrations of andrimid would lead to higher diffusivity and result in the dispersion of bacteria away from the competitor and source of the antibiotic. Such alterations in motility were not elicited in response to a non-andrimid-producing SWAT3 mutant, suggesting andrimid may be a negative effector of chemotaxis for V. cholerae. The behavioral response of colonizing bacteria to sub-inhibitory concentrations of competitor-produced antibiotics is one mechanism that can influence microbial diversity and interspecific competition on particles, potentially affecting human health in coastal communities and element cycling in the ocean. PMID:23386845

Graff, Jason R; Forschner-Dancause, Stephanie R; Menden-Deuer, Susanne; Long, Richard A; Rowley, David C

2013-01-01

222

Identifying the cellular mechanisms of symbiont-induced epithelial morphogenesis in the squid-vibrio association  

PubMed Central

The symbiotic association between the Hawaiian bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri provides a unique opportunity to study epithelial morphogenesis. Shortly after hatching, the squid host harvests bacteria from the seawater using currents created by two elaborate fields of ciliated epithelia on the surface of the juvenile light organ. After light organ colonization, the symbiont population signals the gradual loss of the ciliated epithelia through apoptosis of the cells, which culminates in the complete regression of these tissues. Whereas aspects of this process have been studied at the morphological, biochemical and molecular levels, no in-depth analysis of the cellular events has been reported. Here we describe the cellular structure of the epithelial field and present evidence that the symbiosis-induced regression occurs in two steps. Using confocal microscopic analyses, we observed an initial epithelial remodeling, which serves to disable the function of the harvesting apparatus, followed by a protracted regression involving actin rearrangements and epithelial cell extrusion. We identified a metal-dependent gelatinolytic activity in the symbiont-induced morphogenic epithelial fields, suggesting the involvement of Zn-dependent matrix metalloproteinase(s) (MMP) in light organ morphogenesis. These data show that the bacterial symbionts not only induce apoptosis of the field, but also change the form, function and biochemistry of the cells as part of the morphogenic program. PMID:24648207

Koropatnick, Tanya; Goodson, Michael S.; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A. C.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret

2014-01-01

223

A survey on the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on fish and shellfish, marketed in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out on the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on fish and shellfish, as sold in The Netherlands.THE OPTIMAL MODE OF DETECTION OF THIS BACTERIUM APPEARED TO BE: (i) enrichment of swabs taken from the surface and the gills in freshly prepared meat broth with 5% NaCl; (ii) streaking onto Teepol bromothymol blue agar (BTB) and taurocholate bromothymol blue sucrose agar (TCBS); (iii) confirmation of suspect colonies by testing for mode of growth in butts/slants of a Kligler type glucose sucrose iron thiosulphate agar, formation of indole in 2% NaCl 2% trypticase water, anaerobic utilization of starch in the presence of 5% NaCl and oxidase reaction according to Kovacs (1956).A total of 407 samples, stemming from 17 types of fish and shellfish, taken at three fish shops, was examined by this technique. Only one specimen, i.e. a haddock, was found to contain V. parahaemolyticus. This contamination rate of approximately 0.3% correlates well with data found earlier for fish landed in Northern Germany. PMID:5270202

Kampelmacher, E H; Mossel, D A; Van Noorle Jansen, L M; Vincentie, H

1970-06-01

224

Purification and partial characterization of a toxic serine protease produced by pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus.  

PubMed

An extracellular lethal toxin produced by Vibrio alginolyticus strain Swy originally isolated from diseased kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus) was purified using the AKTA purifier system with hydrophobic interaction chromatography, anion exchange and gel filtration columns. The toxin is an alkaline serine protease, inhibited by phenyl methylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF), antipain and shows maximal activity at pH 8 to 11, having a pI of 4.3 and a molecular weight of approximately 33 kD. The toxin was completely inhibited by FeCl2 but partially inhibited by 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin (3,4-DCI), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylene glycol-bis(beta-amino-ethyl ether) N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), CuCl2 and ZnCl2. The purified protease was lethal for kuruma prawn at an LD50 of 0.29 microgram protein/g body weight. The haemolymph withdrawn from the moribund prawns injected with the toxic protease was unable to clot. The coagulogen in the kuruma prawn plasma showed an increased migration rate after incubation with this serine protease, and a plasma colour change from blue to pink was recorded. The addition of PMSF completely inhibited the lethal toxicity of the purified protease, indicating that this serine protease was a lethal toxin produced by the bacterium. The 33 kD protease was therefore a toxic protease produced by V. alginolyticus strain Swy. PMID:10624008

Chen, F R; Liu, P C; Lee, K K

1999-01-01

225

Effect of low temperature on starvation-survival of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2.  

PubMed Central

At present, no reports exist on the isolation of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 from water samples. Nevertheless, it has recently been demonstrated that this biotype can use water as a route of infection. In the present study, the survival of this pathogen in artificial seawater (ASW) microcosms at different temperatures (25 and 5 degrees C) was investigated during a 50-day period, with biotype 1 as a control, V. vulnificus biotype 2 was able to survive in the culturable state in ASW at 25 degrees C in the free-living form, at least for 50 days, entering into the nonculturable state when exposed to low temperature. In this state, this microorganism survived with reduced rates of activity, showing marked changes in size and morphology. The rate at which cells became nonculturable was dependent on their physiological age. The capsule seems not to be necessary for the survival of biotype 2 in aquatic environments as a free-living organism. Culturability remained the highest on modified salt water yeast extract agar, which is closer in salt and nutrient composition to ASW than heart infusion agar. Biotype 2 cells recovered culturability on solid media after an increase of incubation temperature from 5 to 25 degrees C. Culturable cells of this bacterium maintained infectivity for either eel or mice, while dormant cells seemed to lose their virulence. The former finding suggests that the aquatic environment is a reservoir and vehicle of transmission of this pathogen. PMID:8593047

Biosca, E G; Amaro, C; Marco-Noales, E; Oliver, J D

1996-01-01

226

Transcriptomic analysis of Ruditapes philippinarum hemocytes reveals cytoskeleton disruption after in vitro Vibrio tapetis challenge.  

PubMed

The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is an economically-important, commercial shellfish; harvests are diminished in some European waters by a pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio tapetis, that causes Brown Ring disease. To identify molecular characteristics associated with susceptibility or resistance to Brown Ring disease, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) analyzes were performed to construct cDNA libraries enriched in up- or down-regulated transcripts from clam immune cells, hemocytes, after a 3-h in vitro challenge with cultured V. tapetis. Nine hundred and ninety eight sequences from the two libraries were sequenced, and an in silico analysis identified 235 unique genes. BLAST and "Gene ontology" classification analyzes revealed that 60.4% of the Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) have high similarities with genes involved in various physiological functions, such as immunity, apoptosis and cytoskeleton organization; whereas, 39.6% remain unidentified. From the 235 unique genes, we selected 22 candidates based upon physiological function and redundancy in the libraries. Then, Real-Time PCR analysis identified 3 genes related to cytoskeleton organization showing significant variation in expression attributable to V. tapetis exposure. Disruption in regulation of these genes is consistent with the etiologic agent of Brown Ring disease in Manila clams. PMID:22450167

Brulle, Franck; Jeffroy, Fanny; Madec, Stéphanie; Nicolas, Jean-Louis; Paillard, Christine

2012-10-01

227

Cyclic AMP-receptor protein activates aerobactin receptor IutA expression in Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

The ferrophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can utilize the siderophore aerobactin of Escherichia coli for iron acquisition via its specific receptor IutA. This siderophore piracy by V. vulnificus may contribute to its survival and proliferation, especially in mixed bacterial environments. In this study, we examined the effects of glucose, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) on iutA expression in V. vulnificus. Glucose dose-dependently repressed iutA expression. A mutation in cya encoding adenylate cyclase required for cAMP synthesis severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by in trans complementing cya or the addition of exogenous cAMP. Furthermore, a mutation in crp encoding Crp severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by complementing crp. Accordingly, glucose deprivation under iron-limited conditions is an environmental signal for iutA expression, and Crp functions as an activator that regulates iutA expression in response to glucose availability. PMID:22538662

Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Seong-Jung; Shin, Sung-Heui

2012-04-01

228

Vibriophages and Their Interactions with the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum  

PubMed Central

Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in aquaculture, responsible for the disease vibriosis in many fish and invertebrate species. Disease control by antibiotics is a concern due to potential development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The use of bacteriophages to control the pathogen may offer a non-antibiotic-based approach to reduce vibriosis. A detailed understanding of the phage-host interaction is needed to evaluate the potential of phages to control the pathogen. In this study, we examined the diversity and interactions of 11 vibriophages, 24 V. anguillarum strains, and 13 Vibrio species strains. Together, the host ranges of the 11 phages covered all of the tested 37 Vibrio sp. host strains, which represented considerable temporal (20 years) and geographical (9 countries) differences in their origins of isolation. Thus, despite the occurrence of unique susceptibility patterns of the individual host isolates, key phenotypic properties related to phage susceptibility are distributed worldwide and maintained in the global Vibrio community for decades. The phage susceptibility pattern of the isolates did not show any relation to the physiological relationships obtained from Biolog GN2 profiles, demonstrating that similar phage susceptibility patterns occur across broad phylogenetic and physiological differences in Vibrio strains. Subsequent culture experiments with two phages and two V. anguillarum hosts demonstrated an initial strong lytic potential of the phages. However, rapid regrowth of both phage-resistant and phage-sensitive cells following the initial lysis suggested that several mechanisms of protection against phage infection had developed in the host populations. PMID:24610858

Tan, Demeng; Gram, Lone

2014-01-01

229

New Vibrio species associated to molluscan microbiota: a review  

PubMed Central

The genus Vibrio consists of more than 100 species grouped in 14 clades that are widely distributed in aquatic environments such as estuarine, coastal waters, and sediments. A large number of species of this genus are associated with marine organisms like fish, molluscs and crustaceans, in commensal or pathogenic relations. In the last decade, more than 50 new species have been described in the genus Vibrio, due to the introduction of new molecular techniques in bacterial taxonomy, such as multilocus sequence analysis or fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism. On the other hand, the increasing number of environmental studies has contributed to improve the knowledge about the family Vibrionaceae and its phylogeny. Vibrio crassostreae, V. breoganii, V. celticus are some of the new Vibrio species described as forming part of the molluscan microbiota. Some of them have been associated with mortalities of different molluscan species, seriously affecting their culture and causing high losses in hatcheries as well as in natural beds. For other species, ecological importance has been demonstrated being highly abundant in different marine habitats and geographical regions. The present work provides an updated overview of the recently characterized Vibrio species isolated from molluscs. In addition, their pathogenic potential and/or environmental importance is discussed. PMID:24427157

Romalde, Jesus L.; Dieguez, Ana L.; Lasa, Aide; Balboa, Sabela

2014-01-01

230

Vibrio toranzoniae sp. nov., a new member of the Splendidus clade in the genus Vibrio.  

PubMed

Four motile facultative anaerobic marine isolates (Vb 10.8(T) [CECT 7225(T), CAIM 1869(T)], CMJ 9.4 [CECT 8091, CAIM 1870], CMJ 9.11 and Cmf 13.9), were obtained from cultured clams (Venerupis philippinarum and Venerupis decussata) in Galicia (NW Spain). These isolates were studied by a polyphasic approach, including a phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of 16S rRNA and five housekeeping genes atpA, recA, pyrH, rpoA and rpoD, that supported their inclusion in the Splendidus clade of the genus Vibrio, forming a well-defined group separated from the others species of the clade. DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of species showing more than 98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity rendered values of hybridization below 60%. These isolates could be differentiated from the closest relatives on the basis of several phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features. These results demonstr8ated that the strains constitute a novel specie of the genus for which the name Vibrio toranzoniae sp. nov. is proposed, with Vb 10.8(T) (=CECT 7225(T)CAIM 1869(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23280322

Lasa, Aide; Diéguez, Ana L; Romalde, Jesús L

2013-03-01

231

Multilocus sequence analysis of putative Vibrio mediterranei strains and description of Vibrio thalassae sp. nov.  

PubMed

A multilocus sequence analysis based on partial gyrB, mreB, rpoD and pyrH genes was undertaken with 61 putative Vibrio mediterranei/V. shilonii strains from different hosts (mussels, oysters, clams, coral, fish and plankton) or habitat (seawater and sediment) and geographical origins (Mediterranean, Atlantic and Pacific). A consistent grouping was obtained with individual and concatenated gene sequences, and the clade, comprising 54 strains, was split into three subclades by all methods: subclade A (40 strains, including AK1, the former type strain of Vibrio shilonii), subclade B (8 strains) corresponding to the species V. mediterranei, and subclade C (six strains) representing a new species, V. thalassae sp. nov., with strain MD16(T) (=CECT 8203(T)=KCTC 32373(T)) as the proposed type strain. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) values, determined as a measure of genomic similarity, confirmed these assignments, and supported that strains in subclade C were a different species from V. mediterranei, with ANIb and ANIm figures lower than 90.0%. The synonymy of V. shilonii and V. mediterranei was also stressed by both MLSA and ANI determinations (97.0% between both type strains). No connection was found between geographic origin or sample type and MLSA grouping. PMID:24935234

Tarazona, Eva; Lucena, Teresa; Arahal, David R; Macián, M Carmen; Ruvira, María A; Pujalte, María J

2014-07-01

232

Dynamics in genome evolution of Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of the acute secretary diarrheal disease cholera, is still a major public health concern in developing countries. In former centuries cholera was a permanent threat even to the highly developed populations of Europe, North America, and the northern part of Asia. Extensive studies on the cholera bug over more than a century have made significant advances in our understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients. V. cholerae has more than 200 serogroups, but only few serogroups have caused disease on a worldwide scale. Until the present, the evolutionary relationship of these pandemic causing serogroups was not clear. In the last decades, we have witnessed a shift involving genetically and phenotypically varied pandemic clones of V. cholerae in Asia and Africa. The exponential knowledge on the genome of several representatives V. cholerae strains has been used to identify and analyze the key determinants for rapid evolution of cholera pathogen. Recent comparative genomic studies have identified the presence of various integrative mobile genetic elements (IMGEs) in V. cholerae genome, which can be used as a marker of differentiation of all seventh pandemic clones with very similar core genome. This review attempts to bring together some of the important researches in recent times that have contributed towards understanding the genetics, epidemiology and evolution of toxigenic V. cholerae strains. PMID:24462909

Banerjee, Rachana; Das, Bhabatosh; Balakrish Nair, G; Basak, Surajit

2014-04-01

233

Current perspectives on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of clinically significant Vibrio spp.  

PubMed Central

Recent taxonomic advances have now implicated several different Vibrio species as human pathogens. While the most common clinical presentation of Vibrio infection continues to be gastroenteritis, an increasing number of extraintestinal infections are being reported, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Detection of Vibrio infections requires a good clinical history and the use of appropriate isolation and identification procedures by the laboratory to confirm illnesses attributed to Vibrio species. Except for Vibrio cholerae O1 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, there is little direct evidence linking the production of a myriad of cell-associated or extracellular factors produced by each species with human disease and pathogenesis. Many questions regarding pathogenic Vibrio species remain unanswered, including their frequency and distribution in environmental specimens (water, shellfish), infective doses, virulence potential of individual isolates, and markers associated with such strains. Images PMID:3058295

Janda, J M; Powers, C; Bryant, R G; Abbott, S L

1988-01-01

234

Long-term effects of ocean warming on vibrios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global warming may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover environmental DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with warming sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased in occurrence over the last half century in the southern North Sea, but also prevailed within the particle associated bacterial community of coastal marine waters. These findings provide support for the view that global warming may have a strong impact on the composition of marine bacterial communities with important implications for human and animal health into the future.

Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.

2012-12-01

235

Characterization and distribution of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated in Indonesia.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus can be isolated from similar types of marine samples. In this report, the results of an examination of 567 V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus strains, isolated from seawater in Jakarta Bay and from more than 30 types of seafood from markets in Jakarta, Indonesia, are presented. Most isolates were from mackerel, shrimp, or squid. Numerical taxonomic analyses clustered 337 isolates and three V. alginolyticus reference strains at S greater than or equal to 80%. These strains produced acid from sucrose, but only approximately 80% produced acetoin or grew in the presence of 10% NaCl. The frequency of occurrence of V. alginolyticus in seawater samples ranged from 0% (in February and March 1972) to 100% (in September and December 1972) and was highest in seafood samples from August to December 1972. A second cluster of 230 isolates and seven V. parahaemolyticus reference strains was observed at S greater than or equal to 82%. These strains did not produce acetoin or acid from sucrose, and approximately 20% grew in the presence of 10% NaCl. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in seawater samples each month, with the highest frequency of occurrence (83.3%) in May 1972. Twenty-nine K antigen serotypes were demonstrated in V. parahaemolyticus isolates, and another 40% were untypable. The modal antibiotic resistance pattern for each species included five drugs. Only 12% of the V. parahaemolyticus strains were Kanagawa positive, and 10% elicited fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit ileal loops. All of the 7 V. alginolyticus strains and 94 (70%) of the V. parahaemolyticus strains tested killed mice when inoculated intraperitoneally.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4091566

Molitoris, E; Joseph, S W; Krichevsky, M I; Sindhuhardja, W; Colwell, R R

1985-01-01

236

Bacterium Can Alter Evolution Of Another Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Daily University Science News article reviews scientific evidence that the parasitic bacterium Wolbachia can accelerate the natural evolution of wasps by altering the sperm of its male host, thus making them incompatible with non-infected females. The article discusses this evidence as well as introduces a current debate about Wolbachia's role in host speciation.

Sherwood, Jonathan; Unisci

237

Biofilm Formation by a Metabolically Versatile Bacterium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a photosynthetic bacterium that has good potential to be developed as a biocatalyst for the production of hydrogen, a biofuel. The goal of this project is to conduct basic studies that will facilitate the development of a pro...

C. S. Harwood

2005-01-01

238

Fish as Reservoirs and Vectors of Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments, but despite intensive efforts its ecology remains an enigma. Recently, it was suggested that copepods and chironomids, both considered as natural reservoirs of V. cholerae, are dispersed by migratory waterbirds, thus possibly distributing the bacteria between water bodies within and between continents. Although fish have been implicated

Yigal Senderovich; Ido Izhaki; Malka Halpern; Adam J. Ratner

2010-01-01

239

Antimicrobial susceptibility of potentially pathogenic halophilic vibrios isolated from seafood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility patterns to 27 antimicrobial agents and ?-lactamase production were investigated in potentially pathogenic halophilic vibrios from seafood. The effect of salinity on the response to the drugs in vitro was also studied. All isolates were uniformly sensitive to choramphenicol, imipenem, meropenem but resistant to lincomycin. All were highly sensitive to oxolinic acid, trimethoprim–sulphamethoxazole, doxycycline, flumequine, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid and

Donatella Ottaviani; Isidoro Bacchiocchi; Laura Masini; Francesca Leoni; Antonio Carraturo; Monica Giammarioli; Giovanni Sbaraglia

2001-01-01

240

NATURAL TRANSFORMATION OF A MARINE VIBRIO SPECIES BY PLASMID DNA  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of thirty marine and estuarine bacterial isolates was examined for the ability to naturally transform with plasmid DNA. One isolate from Tampa Bay, Florida, identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, successfully incorporated and maintained the broad host range plasmid pKT23...

241

Luciferase-dependent oxygen consumption by bioluminescent vibrios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen uptake due to luciferase in two luminous Vibrio species was estimated in vivo by utilizing inhibitors having specificities for luciferase (decanol) and cytochromes (cyanide). Cyanide titration of respiration revealed a component of oxygen uptake less sensitive to cyanide which was completely inhibitable by low concentrations of decanol. From this it was estimated that in vivo luciferase is responsible for

Makemson

1986-01-01

242

Covariability of Vibrio cholerae Microdiversity and Environmental Parameters? †  

PubMed Central

Fine-scale diversity of natural bacterial assemblages has been attributed to neutral radiation because correspondence between bacterial phylogenetic signals in the natural environment and environmental parameters had not been detected. Evidence that such correspondence occurs is provided for Vibrio cholerae, establishing a critical role for environmental parameters in bacterial diversity. PMID:18310414

Zo, Young-Gun; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Arakawa, Eiji; Watanabe, Haruo; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

2008-01-01

243

Antibiotic activity of lectins from marine algae against marine vibrios.  

PubMed

Saline and aqueous ethanol extracts of marine algae and the lectins from two red algal species were assayed for their antibiotic activity against marine vibrios. Experimental studies were also carried out on the influence of environmental factors on such activity, using batch cultures. The results indicated that many of the saline extracts of the algal species were active and that the activity was selective against those vibrios assayed. The algal extracts were active against Vibrio pelagius and the fish pathogen V. vulnificus, but inactive against V. neresis. Algal lectins from Eucheuma serra (ESA) and Galaxaura marginata (GMA) strongly inhibited V. vulnificus but were inactive against the other two vibrios. The antibacterial activity of algal extracts was inhibited by pretreatment with various sugars and glycoprotein. Extracts of the two red algae, E. serra and Pterocladia capillacea, in saline and aqueous ethanol, inhibited markedly the growth rate of V. vulnificus at very low concentrations. Culture results indicated that metabolites active against V. vulnificus were invariably produced in P. capillacea over a wide range of temperature, light intensity, and nutritional conditions. Enhanced antibacterial activity occurred when P. capillacea was grown under higher irradiance, severe nutrient stress and moderate temperature (20 degrees C), reflecting the specific antibiotic characteristics of this alga. The strong antibiotic activity of lectins towards fish pathogenic bacteria reveals one of the important roles played by algal lectins, as well as the potential high economic value of those marine algae assayed for aquaculture and for biomedical purposes. PMID:12884128

Liao, W-R; Lin, J-Y; Shieh, W-Y; Jeng, W-L; Huang, R

2003-07-01

244

Necrotizing Fasciitis Due to Vibrio alginolyticus in an Immunocompetent Patient  

PubMed Central

We describe a patient with a history of asthma and remote use of steroids the development of necrotizing fascitis due to Vibrio alginolyticus after an injury from a coral reef during bathing in the Caribbean Sea off Colombia. The patient recovered with aggressive surgical debridement and antibiotics. PMID:12843111

Gomez, Juan M.; Fajardo, Roosevelt; Patiño, Jose F.; Arias, Cesar A.

2003-01-01

245

Vibrio Infections and Surveillance in Maryland, 2002-2008  

PubMed Central

Objective Vibrio is a naturally occurring waterborne pathogen with potential occupational, recreational, and commercial impacts. During the last 15 years in the U.S. and in Maryland, the incidence of vibriosis has increased. Due to the increase in cases in Maryland, warming water temperatures, and public concern about human health effects resulting from exposure to the Chesapeake Bay, we reviewed cases of vibriosis and evaluated the Vibrio surveillance system in Maryland for timeliness and data quality, attributes necessary for successful outbreak investigation and illness prevention. Methods The evaluation included (1) informal qualitative surveys of state and local personnel who report and manage Vibrio cases and (2) a review of Vibrio surveillance data from 2002 through 2008 for data quality and timeliness of the system. Results From 2002 to 2008, 188 laboratory-confirmed cases of vibriosis were reported in Maryland with an annual average of 27 cases. The species of Vibrio that were most frequently responsible for infection, regardless of clinical presentation, were V. parahaemolyticus (43.6%), V. vulnificus (23.9%), V. alginolyticus (9.6%), and non-toxigenic V. cholerae (9.0%). The case fatality rate fluctuated during the study period, but the number of cases increased. Conclusions The surveillance system in Maryland is flexible and captures cases of vibriosis where specimens were collected for testing; however, the system may not adequately capture mild, self-limiting infections. Better integration of data collection for clinical, laboratory, and environmental information and improved completion of variables for shellfish harvest or water exposure locations could improve the system. Quarterly meetings comprising surveillance, public health laboratory, and food-control personnel could direct and ensure the success of improvement efforts. PMID:24179265

Feldman, Katherine A.; Palmer, Amanda; Butler, Erin; Blythe, David; Mitchell, Clifford S.

2013-01-01

246

Design of Vibrio 16S rRNA gene specific primers and their application in the analysis of seawater Vibrio community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pathogenic species of genus Vibrio cause vibriosis, one of the most prevalent diseases of maricultured animals and seafood consumers. Monitoring their kinetics in the chain of seafood production, processing and consumption is of great importance for food and mariculture safety. In order to enrich Vibrio-representing 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) fragments and identify these bacteria further real-timely and synchronously among bacterial flora in the chain, a pair of primers that selectively amplify Vibrio 16S rDNA fragments were designed with their specificities and coverage testified in the analysis of seawater Vibrio community. The specificities and coverage of two primers, VF169 and VR744, were determined theoretically among bacterial 16S rDNAs available in GenBank by using BLAST program and practically by amplifying, Vibrio 16S rDNA fragments from seawater DNA. More than 88.3% of sequences in GenBank, which showed identical matches with VR744, belong to Vibrio genus. A total of 33 clones were randomly selected and sequenced. All of the sequences showed their highest similarities to and clustered around those of diverse known Vibrio species. The primers designed are capable of retrieving a wide range of Vibrio 16S rDNA fragments specifically among bacterial flora in seawater, the most important natural environment of seafood cultivation.

Liu, Yong; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Hualei; Chen, Jixiang; Shi, Xianming; Zou, Guiwei; Wei, Qiwei; Sun, Xiuqin

2006-04-01

247

Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces) to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures. Methodology/Principal Findings Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001–2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1) direct exposure within the household and 2) contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001) occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%–22.8%) risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length). The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%–8.0%). The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%–16.6%) and 8.2% (2.1%–27.1%) through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%–6.7%) and 2.0% (0.5%–7.3%) through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered. Conclusions Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of the transmissibility of endemic cholera within prospectively-followed members of households. The role of direct transmission must be considered when planning cholera control activities. PMID:25411971

Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Koepke, Amanda A.; Kenah, Eben E.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Yang, Yang; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Harris, Jason B.; Longini, Ira M.

2014-01-01

248

Vibrio vulnificus Phage PV94 Is Closely Related to Temperate Phages of V. cholerae and Other Vibrio Species  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1) infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. Results In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5?-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. Conclusion We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species. PMID:24732980

Reetz, Jochen; Strauch, Eckhard; Hertwig, Stefan

2014-01-01

249

Thiomicrospira chilensis sp. nov., a mesophilic obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfuroxidizing bacterium isolated from a Thioploca mat.  

PubMed

A new member of the genus Thiomicrospira, which utilizes thiosulfate as the electron donor and CO2 as the carbon source, was isolated from a sediment sample dominated by the filamentous sulfur bacterium Thioploca. Although the physiological properties investigated are nearly identical to other described species of the genus, it is proposed that strain Ch-1T is a member of a new species, Thiomicrospira chilensis sp. nov., on the basis of differences in genotypic characteristics (16S rRNA sequence, DNA homology, G + C content). Strain Ch-1T was highly motile with a slight tendency to form aggregates in the stationary growth phase. The organism was obligately autotrophic and strictly aerobic. Nitrate was not used as an electron acceptor. Chemolithoautotrophic growth was observed with thiosulfate, tetrathionate, sulfur and sulfide. The isolate was not able to grow heterotrophically. Growth of strain Ch-1T was observed between pH 5.3 and 8.5 with an optimum at pH 7.0. The temperature range for growth was between 3.5 and 42 degrees C; the optimal growth temperature was between 32 and 37 degrees C. The mean maximum growth rate on thiosulfate was 0.4 h-1. This is the second Thiomicrospira species described that has a rod-shaped morphology; therefore discrimination between vibrio-shaped Thiomicrospira and rod-shaped Thiobacilli is no longer valid. PMID:10319513

Brinkhoff, T; Muyzer, G; Wirsen, C O; Kuever, J

1999-04-01

250

Vibrio parahemolyticus septicaemia in a liver transplant patient: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  \\u000a Vibrio parahemolyticus is the leading cause of vibrio-associated gastroenteritis in the United States of America, usually related to poor food handling;\\u000a only rarely has it been reported to cause serious infections including sepsis and soft tissue infections. In contrast, Vibrio vulnificus is a well-known cause of septicaemia, especially in patients with cirrhosis. We present a patient with V. parahemolyticus

Rajeev R Fernando; Sujatha Krishnan; Morgan G Fairweather; Charles D Ericsson

2011-01-01

251

Paradigms: examples from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.  

PubMed

The history of advances in research on Xylella fastidiosa provides excellent examples of how paradigms both advance and limit our scientific understanding of plant pathogens and the plant diseases they cause. I describe this from a personal perspective, having been directly involved with many persons who made paradigm-changing discoveries, beginning with the discovery that a bacterium, not a virus, causes Pierce's disease of grape and other plant diseases in numerous plant species, including important crop and forest species. PMID:23682911

Purcell, Alexander

2013-01-01

252

Biodegradation of heavy oils by halophilic bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A halophilic bacterial strain TM-1 was isolated from the reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. Strain TM-1, which was found to be able to degrade crude oils, is a gram-positive non-motile bacterium with a coccus shape that can grow at temperatures of up to 58°C and in 18% NaCl solution. Depending on the culture conditions, the organism

Ruixia Hao; Anhuai Lu

2009-01-01

253

Determining Vaccination Frequency in Farmed Rainbow Trout Using Vibrio anguillarum O1 Specific Serum Antibody Measurements  

PubMed Central

Background Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid marker for assessing vaccination status in a fish population. For this purpose a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and used to evaluate sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated against V. anguillarum O1. Study Design Immune sera from rainbow trout immunised with an experimental vaccine based on inactivated V. anguillarum O1 bacterin in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant were used for ELISA optimisation. Subsequently, sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated with a commercial vaccine against V. anguillarum were analysed with the ELISA. The measured serum antibody levels were compared with the vaccine status of the fish (vaccinated/unvaccinated) as evaluated through visual examination. Results Repeated immunisation with the experimental vaccine lead to increasing levels of specific serum antibodies in the vaccinated rainbow trout. The farmed rainbow trout responded with high antibody levels to a single injection with the commercial vaccine. However, the diversity in responses was more pronounced in the farmed fish. Primary visual examinations for vaccine status in rainbow trout from the commercial farm revealed a large pool of unvaccinated specimens (vaccination failure rate?=?20%) among the otherwise vaccinated fish. Through serum analyses using the ELISA in a blinded set-up it was possible to separate samples collected from the farmed rainbow trout into vaccinated and unvaccinated fish. Conclusions Much attention has been devoted to development of new and more effective vaccines. Here we present a case from a Danish rainbow trout farm indicating that attention should also be directed to the vaccination procedure in order to secure high vaccination frequencies necessary for optimal protection with a reported effective vaccine. PMID:23185402

Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nylen, J?rgen; Lorenzen, Niels; Buchmann, Kurt

2012-01-01

254

Vibrio cholerae evades neutrophil extracellular traps by the activity of two extracellular nucleases.  

PubMed

The Gram negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the secretory diarrheal disease cholera, which has traditionally been classified as a noninflammatory disease. However, several recent reports suggest that a V. cholerae infection induces an inflammatory response in the gastrointestinal tract indicated by recruitment of innate immune cells and increase of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we describe a colonization defect of a double extracellular nuclease V. cholerae mutant in immunocompetent mice, which is not evident in neutropenic mice. Intrigued by this observation, we investigated the impact of neutrophils, as a central part of the innate immune system, on the pathogen V. cholerae in more detail. Our results demonstrate that V. cholerae induces formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) upon contact with neutrophils, while V. cholerae in return induces the two extracellular nucleases upon presence of NETs. We show that the V. cholerae wild type rapidly degrades the DNA component of the NETs by the combined activity of the two extracellular nucleases Dns and Xds. In contrast, NETs exhibit prolonged stability in presence of the double nuclease mutant. Finally, we demonstrate that Dns and Xds mediate evasion of V. cholerae from NETs and lower the susceptibility for extracellular killing in the presence of NETs. This report provides a first comprehensive characterization of the interplay between neutrophils and V. cholerae along with new evidence that the innate immune response impacts the colonization of V. cholerae in vivo. A limitation of this study is an inability for technical and physiological reasons to visualize intact NETs in the intestinal lumen of infected mice, but we can hypothesize that extracellular nuclease production by V. cholerae may enhance survival fitness of the pathogen through NET degradation. PMID:24039581

Seper, Andrea; Hosseinzadeh, Ava; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Roier, Sandro; Leitner, Deborah R; Röhm, Marc; Grutsch, Andreas; Reidl, Joachim; Urban, Constantin F; Schild, Stefan

2013-01-01

255

H-NOX–mediated nitric oxide sensing modulates symbiotic colonization by Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

The bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri initiates a specific, persistent symbiosis in the light organ of the squid Euprymna scolopes. During the early stages of colonization, V. fischeri is exposed to host-derived nitric oxide (NO). Although NO can be both an antimicrobial component of innate immunity and a key signaling molecule in eukaryotes, potential roles in beneficial host–microbe associations have not been described. V. fischeri hnoX encodes a heme NO/oxygen-binding (H-NOX) protein, a member of a family of bacterial NO- and/or O2-binding proteins of unknown function. We hypothesized that H-NOX acts as a NO sensor that is involved in regulating symbiosis-related genes early in colonization. Whole-genome expression studies identified 20 genes that were repressed in an NO- and H-NOX–dependent fashion. Ten of these, including hemin-utilization genes, have a promoter with a putative ferric-uptake regulator (Fur) binding site. As predicted, in the presence of NO, wild-type V. fischeri grew more slowly on hemin than a hnoX deletion mutant. Host-colonization studies showed that the hnoX mutant was also 10-fold more efficient in initially colonizing the squid host than the wild type; similarly, in mixed inoculations, it outcompeted the wild-type strain by an average of 16-fold after 24 h. However, the presence of excess hemin or iron reversed this dominance. The advantage of the mutant in colonizing the iron-limited light-organ tissues is caused, at least in part, by its greater ability to acquire host-derived hemin. Our data suggest that V. fischeri normally senses a host-generated NO signal through H-NOXVf and modulates the expression of its iron uptake capacity during the early stages of the light-organ symbiosis. PMID:20404170

Wang, Yanling; Dufour, Yann S.; Carlson, Hans K.; Donohue, Timothy J.; Marletta, Michael A.; Ruby, Edward G.

2010-01-01

256

Understanding the Role of Host Hemocytes in a Squid/Vibrio Symbiosis Using Transcriptomics and Proteomics  

PubMed Central

The symbiosis between the squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, serves as a model for understanding interactions between beneficial bacteria and animal hosts. The establishment and maintenance of the association is highly specific and depends on the selection of V. fischeri and exclusion of non-symbiotic bacteria from the environment. Current evidence suggests that the host’s cellular innate immune system, in the form of macrophage-like hemocytes, helps to mediate host tolerance of V. fischeri. To begin to understand the role of hemocytes in this association, we analyzed these cells by high-throughput 454 transcriptomic and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic analyses. 454 high-throughput sequencing produced 650, 686 reads totaling 279.9?Mb while LC-MS/MS analyses of circulating hemocytes putatively identified 702 unique proteins. Several receptors involved with the recognition of microbial-associated molecular patterns were identified. Among these was a complete open reading frame to a putative peptidoglycan recognition protein (EsPGRP5) with conserved residues for amidase activity. Assembly of the hemocyte transcriptome showed EsPGRP5 had high coverage, suggesting it is among the 5% most abundant transcripts in circulating hemocytes. Other transcripts and proteins identified included members of the conserved NF-?B signaling pathway, putative members of the complement pathway, the carbohydrate binding protein galectin, and cephalotoxin. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of complement-like genes, cephalotoxin, EsPGRP5, and a nitric oxide synthase showed differential expression in circulating hemocytes from adult squid with colonized light organs compared to those isolated from hosts where the symbionts were removed. These data suggest that the presence of the symbiont influences gene expression of the cellular innate immune system of E. scolopes. PMID:22590467

Collins, Andrew J.; Schleicher, Tyler R.; Rader, Bethany A.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

2012-01-01

257

Population Structure of Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus from 17 Coastal Countries, Determined through Multilocus Sequence Analysis  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Although this bacterium has been the subject of much research, the population structure of clinical strains from worldwide collections remains largely undescribed, and the recorded outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis highlight the need for the subtyping of this species. We present a broad phylogenetic analysis of 490 clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates from 17 coastal countries through multilocus sequence analysis (MLST). The 490 tested isolates fell into 161 sequence types (STs). The eBURST algorithm revealed that the 161 clinically relevant STs belonged to 8 clonal complexes, 11 doublets, and 94 singletons, showing a high level of genetic diversity. CC3 was found to be a global epidemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus, and ST-3 was the only ST with an international distribution. recA was observed to be evolving more rapidly, exhibiting the highest degree of nucleotide diversity (0.028) and the largest number of polymorphic nucleotide sites (177). We also found that the high variability of recA was an important cause of differences between the results of the eBURST and ME tree analyses, suggesting that recA has a much greater influence on the apparent evolutionary classification of V. parahaemolyticus based on the current MLST scheme. In conclusion, it is evident that a high degree of genetic diversity within the V. parahaemolyticus population and multiple sequence types are contributing to the burden of disease around the world. MLST, with a fully extractable database, is a powerful system for analysis of the clonal relationships of strains at a global scale. With the addition of more strains, the pubMLST database will provide more detailed and accurate information, which will be conducive to our future research on the population structure of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:25225911

Lu, Jun; Wang, Guangzhou; Zhou, Lin; Min, Lingfeng; Han, Chongxu

2014-01-01

258

Activation of Cholera Toxin Production by Anaerobic Respiration of Trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae*  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor. PMID:23019319

Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-il; Yoon, Sang Sun

2012-01-01

259

Activation of cholera toxin production by anaerobic respiration of trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor. PMID:23019319

Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-Il; Yoon, Sang Sun

2012-11-16

260

Contribution of Six Flagellin Genes to the Flagellum Biogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus and In Vivo Invasion  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic pathogenic bacterium that is motile due to the presence of a single polar flagellum. V. vulnificus possesses a total of six flagellin genes organized into two loci (flaFBA and flaCDE). We proved that all six of the flagellin genes were transcribed, whereas only five (FlaA, -B, -C, -D, and -F) of the six flagellin proteins were detected. To understand roles of the six V. vulnificus flagellins in motility and virulence, mutants with single and multiple flagellin deletions were constructed. Mutations in flaB or flaC or the flaCDE locus resulted in a significant decrease in motility, adhesion, and cytotoxicity, whereas single mutations in the other flagellin genes or the flaFBA locus showed little or no effect. The motility was completely abolished only in the mutant lacking all six flagellin genes (flaFBA flaCDE). Surprisingly, a double mutation of flaB and flaD, a gene sharing 99% identity with the flaB at the amino acid level, resulted in the largest decrease in motility, adhesion, and cytotoxicity except for the mutant in which all six genes were deleted (the hexa mutant). Additionally, the 50% lethal doses (LD50s) of the flaB flaD and the flaFBA flaCDE mutants increased 23- and 91-fold in a mouse model, respectively, and the in vitro and in vivo invasiveness of the mutants was significantly decreased compared to that of the wild type. Taken together, the multiple flagellin subunits differentially contribute to the flagellum biogenesis and the pathogenesis of V. vulnificus, and among the six flagellin genes, flaB, flaD, and flaC were the most influential components. PMID:24101693

Kim, Soo Young; Thanh, Xuan Tran Thi; Jeong, Kwangjoon; Kim, Seong Bin; Pan, Sang O; Jung, Che Hun; Hong, Seol Hee

2014-01-01

261

Culturable and VBNC Vibrio cholerae: interactions with chironomid egg masses and their bacterial population.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments. Recently, it was found that chironomid (nonbiting midges) egg masses serve as a reservoir for the cholera bacterium and that flying chironomid adults are possible windborne carriers of V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139. Chironomids are the most widely distributed insect in freshwater. Females deposit egg masses at the water's edge, and each egg mass contains eggs embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Hemagglutinin/protease, an extracellular enzyme of V. cholerae, was found to degrade chironomid egg masses and to prevent them from hatching. In a yearly survey, chironomid populations and the V. cholerae in their egg masses followed phenological succession and interaction of host-pathogen population dynamics. In this report, it is shown via FISH technique that most of the V. cholerae inhabiting the egg mass are in the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. The diversity of culturable bacteria from chironomid egg masses collected from two freshwater habitats was determined. In addition to V. cholerae, representatives of the following genera were isolated: Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Klebsiella, Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Paracoccus, Exiguobacterium, and unidentified bacteria. Three important human pathogens, Aeromonas veronii, A. caviae, and A. hydrophila, were isolated from chironomid egg masses, indicating that chironomid egg masses may be a natural reservoir for pathogenic Aeromonas species in addition to V. cholerae. All isolates of V. cholerae were capable of degrading chironomid egg masses. This may help explain their host-pathogen relationship with chironomids. In contrast, almost none of the other bacteria that were isolated from the egg masses possessed this ability. Studying the interaction between chironomid egg masses, the bacteria inhabiting them, and V. cholerae could contribute to our understanding of the nature of the V. cholerae-egg mass interactions. PMID:17186156

Halpern, Malka; Landsberg, Ori; Raats, Dina; Rosenberg, Eugene

2007-02-01

262

VibrioBase: A Model for Next-Generation Genome and Annotation Database Development  

PubMed Central

To facilitate the ongoing research of Vibrio spp., a dedicated platform for the Vibrio research community is needed to host the fast-growing amount of genomic data and facilitate the analysis of these data. We present VibrioBase, a useful resource platform, providing all basic features of a sequence database with the addition of unique analysis tools which could be valuable for the Vibrio research community. VibrioBase currently houses a total of 252 Vibrio genomes developed in a user-friendly manner and useful to enable the analysis of these genomic data, particularly in the field of comparative genomics. Besides general data browsing features, VibrioBase offers analysis tools such as BLAST interfaces and JBrowse genome browser. Other important features of this platform include our newly developed in-house tools, the pairwise genome comparison (PGC) tool, and pathogenomics profiling tool (PathoProT). The PGC tool is useful in the identification and comparative analysis of two genomes, whereas PathoProT is designed for comparative pathogenomics analysis of Vibrio strains. Both of these tools will enable researchers with little experience in bioinformatics to get meaningful information from Vibrio genomes with ease. We have tested the validity and suitability of these tools and features for use in the next-generation database development.

Choo, Siew Woh; Tan, Tze King; Mutha, Naresh V. R.; Wong, Guat Jah

2014-01-01

263

Molecular Architecture and Assembly Principles of Vibrio cholerae Biofilms  

PubMed Central

In their natural environment, microbes organize into communities held together by an extracellular matrix composed of polysaccharides and proteins. We developed an in vivo labeling strategy to allow the extracellular matrix of developing biofilms to be visualized with conventional and super-resolution light microscopy. Vibrio cholerae biofilms displayed three distinct levels of spatial organization: cells, clusters of cells, and collections of clusters. Multiresolution imaging of living V. cholerae biofilms revealed the complementary architectural roles of the four essential matrix constituents: RbmA provided cell-cell adhesion, Bap1 allowed the developing biofilm to adhere to surfaces, and heterogeneous mixtures of Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS), RbmC, and Bap1 formed dynamic, flexible and ordered envelopes that encased the cell clusters. PMID:22798614

Berk, Veysel; Fong, Jiunn C. N.; Dempsey, Graham T.; Develioglu, Omer N.; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Liphardt, Jan; Yildiz, Fitnat H.; Chu, Steven

2012-01-01

264

Comparison of methods for the rapid recognition of cholera vibrios  

PubMed Central

A comparison was made of three methods of bacteriological diagnosis during the outbreak of cholera due to Vibrio El Tor in the Republic of the Philippines in the last quarter of 1961. Although the disease was clinically indistinguishable from cholera caused by V. cholerae the etiological agent was a haemolytic, cholera-related vibrio which differed in some respects from what is classically regarded as V. cholerae. Of the three techniques evaluated, the selective-enrichment/fluorescent-antibody technique provided the most rapid and the greatest number of positive results in the 481 specimens examined in parallel. The oblique-light technique was second in sensitivity and rapidity, while the gelatin-agar method also had some advantages. Imagesp329-a PMID:20604143

Finkelstein, Richard A.; Gomez, Cecilia Z.

1963-01-01

265

Genome sequencing of 15 clinical Vibrio isolates, including 13 non-o1/non-o139 serogroup strains.  

PubMed

We present draft genome sequences of 15 clinical Vibrio isolates of various serogroups. These are valuable data for use in studying Vibrio cholerae genetic diversity, epidemic potential, and strain attribution. PMID:25212618

Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Johnson, Shannon L; Verratti, Kathleen; Luu, Truong; Khiani, Amy; Awosika, Joy; Mokashi, Vishwesh P; Chain, Patrick S G; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

2014-01-01

266

Genome Sequencing of 15 Clinical Vibrio Isolates, Including 13 Non-O1/Non-O139 Serogroup Strains  

PubMed Central

We present draft genome sequences of 15 clinical Vibrio isolates of various serogroups. These are valuable data for use in studying Vibrio cholerae genetic diversity, epidemic potential, and strain attribution. PMID:25212618

Johnson, Shannon L.; Verratti, Kathleen; Luu, Truong; Khiani, Amy; Awosika, Joy; Mokashi, Vishwesh P.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

2014-01-01

267

Population Structure of Clinical and Environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Pacific Northwest Coast of the United States  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common marine bacterium and a leading cause of seafood-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although this bacterium has been the subject of much research, the population structure of cold-water populations remains largely undescribed. We present a broad phylogenetic analysis of clinical and environmental V. parahaemolyticus originating largely from the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) separated 167 isolates into 39 groups and subsequent multilocus sequence typing (MLST) separated a subset of 77 isolates into 24 sequence types. The Pacific Northwest population exhibited a semi-clonal structure attributed to an environmental clade (ST3, N?=?17 isolates) clonally related to the pandemic O3:K6 complex and a clinical clade (ST36, N?=?20 isolates) genetically related to a regionally endemic O4:K12 complex. Further, the identification of at least five additional clinical sequence types (i.e., ST43, 50, 65, 135 and 417) demonstrates that V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in the Pacific Northwest is polyphyletic in nature. Recombination was evident as a significant source of genetic diversity and in particular, the recA and dtdS alleles showed strong support for frequent recombination. Although pandemic-related illnesses were not documented during the study, the environmental occurrence of the pandemic clone may present a significant threat to human health and warrants continued monitoring. It is evident that V. parahaemolyticus population structure in the Pacific Northwest is semi-clonal and it would appear that multiple sequence types are contributing to the burden of disease in this region. PMID:23409028

Turner, Jeffrey W.; Paranjpye, Rohinee N.; Landis, Eric D.; Biryukov, Stanley V.; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Nilsson, William B.; Strom, Mark S.

2013-01-01

268

Vibrio species associated with mortality of sharks held in captivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two urease-positiveVibrio spp. were isolated from a brown shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) that died in captivity at a national aquarium. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular genetic studies revealed one of the isolates to beV. damsela; the other isolate was unique and has been classified asV. carchariae sp. nov. BothV. damsela andV. carchariae were found to be virulent for spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias),

D. J. Grimes; J. Stemmler; H. Hada; E. B. May; D. Maneval; F. M. Hetrick; R. T. Jones; M. Stoskopf; R. R. Colwell

1984-01-01

269

Virulence Genes in Environmental Strains of Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virulence of a pathogen is dependent on a discrete set of genetic determinants and their well-regulated expression. The ctxAB and tcpA genes are known to play a cardinal role in maintaining virulence in Vibrio cholerae, and these genes are believed to be exclusively associated with clinical strains of O1 and O139 serogroups. In this study, we examined the presence

SOUMEN CHAKRABORTY; ASISH K. MUKHOPADHYAY; RUPAK KUMAR BHADRA; AMAR NATH GHOSH; RUPAK MITRA; TOSHIO SHIMADA; SHINJI YAMASAKI; SHAH M. FARUQUE; YOSHIFUMI TAKEDA; RITA R. COLWELL; G. B. Nair

2000-01-01

270

Oral vaccination of fish against Vibrio anguillarum using alginate microparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 800gsupernatant fraction of aVibrio anguillarumbacterin was encapsulated in alginate microparticles to protect the vaccine against degradation in the anterior part of the digestive tract. Microparticles can be optimised for different fish species with respect to differences in the digestive tract. Two types of microparticles were tested in carp (stomachless) and trout (stomach-containing). For oral vaccination, alginate microparticles with or

P. H. M. JOOSTEN; E. TIEMERSMA; A. THREELS; C. CAUMARTIN-DHIEUX; J. H. W. M. ROMBOUT

1997-01-01

271

The Winnowing: Establishing the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nature Reviews Microbiology article examines the symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminous bacterial symbiont, Vibrio fischeri. Using image-rich illustrations, it depicts the progression of light-organ colonization as a series of steps and discusses the advent of genomic approaches used to study this model system. A subscription is required to access the full-text version of this article.

Nyholm, Spencer V.; Mcfall-Ngai, Margaret; Microbiology, Nature R.

272

Characterization of the Secretomes of Two Vibrios Pathogenic to Mollusks  

PubMed Central

Vibrio tapetis causes the brown ring disease in the Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum while Vibrio aestuarianus is associated with massive oyster mortalities. As extracellular proteins are often associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria, we undertook a proteomic approach to characterize the secretomes of both vibrios. The extracellular proteins (ECPs) of both species were fractionated by SEC-FPLC and in vitro assays were performed to measure the effects of each fraction on hemocyte cellular parameters (phagocytosis and adhesion). Fractions showing a significant effect were subjected to SDS-PAGE, and proteins were identified by nano LC-MS/MS. 45 proteins were identified for V. aestuarianus and 87 for V. tapetis. Most of them belonged to outer membrane or were periplasmic, including porins or adhesins that were already described as virulence factors in other bacterial species. Others were transporter components, flagella proteins, or proteins of unknown function (14 and 15 respectively). Interestingly, for V. aestuarianus, we noted the secretion of 3 extracellular enzymes including the Vam metalloprotease and two other enzymes (one putative lipase and one protease). For V. tapetis, we identified five extracellular enymes, i.e. two different endochitinases, one protease, one lipase and an adhesin. A comparison of both secretomes also showed that only the putative extracellular lipase was common to both secretomes, underscoring the difference in pathogenicity mechanisms between these two species. Overall, these results characterize for the first time the secretomes of these two marine pathogenic vibrios and constitute a useful working basis to further analyze the contribution of specific proteins in the virulence mechanisms of these species. PMID:25401495

Madec, Stéphanie; Pichereau, Vianney; Jacq, Annick; Paillard, Mathieu; Boisset, Claire; Guérard, Fabienne

2014-01-01

273

Genotype to phenotype: identification of diagnostic vibrio phenotypes using whole genome sequences.  

PubMed

Vibrios are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and can be found in association with animal or plant hosts. The range of ecological relationships includes pathogenic and mutualistic associations. To gain a better understanding of the ecology of these microbes, it is important to determine their phenotypic features. However, the traditional phenotypic characterization of vibrios has been expensive, time-consuming and restricted in scope to a limited number of features. In addition, most of the commercial systems applied for phenotypic characterization cannot characterize the broad spectrum of environmental strains. A reliable and possible alternative is to obtain phenotypic information directly from whole genome sequences. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of whole genome sequences as a source of phenotypic information. We performed a comparison of the vibrio phenotypes obtained from the literature with the phenotypes obtained from whole genome sequences. We observed a significant correlation between the previously published phenotypic data and the phenotypic data retrieved from whole genome sequences of vibrios. Analysis of 26 vibrio genomes revealed that all genes coding for the specific proteins involved in the metabolic pathways responsible for positive phenotypes of the 14 diagnostic features (Voges-Proskauer reaction, indole production, arginine dihydrolase, ornithine decarboxylase, utilization of myo-inositol, sucrose and L-leucine, and fermentation of D-mannitol, D-sorbitol, L-arabinose, trehalose, cellobiose, D-mannose and D-galactose) were found in the majority of the vibrios genomes. Vibrio species that were negative for a given phenotype revealed the absence of all or several genes involved in the respective biochemical pathways, indicating the utility of this approach to characterize the phenotypes of vibrios. The absence of the global regulation and regulatory proteins in the Vibrio parahaemolyticus genome indicated a non-vibrio phenotype. Whole genome sequences represent an important source for the phenotypic identification of vibrios. PMID:24505074

Amaral, Gilda Rose S; Dias, Graciela M; Wellington-Oguri, Michiyo; Chimetto, Luciane; Campeão, Mariana E; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane C

2014-02-01

274

Characterization of a Vibrio alginolyticus Strain, Isolated from Alaskan Oysters, Carrying a Hemolysin Gene Similar to the Thermostable Direct Hemolysin-Related Hemolysin Gene (trh) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus?  

PubMed Central

A Vibrio strain isolated from Alaskan oysters and classified by its biochemical characteristics as Vibrio alginolyticus possessed a thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh) gene previously reported only in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. This trh-like gene was cloned and sequenced and was 98% identical to the trh2 gene of V. parahaemolyticus. This gene seems to be functional since it was transcriptionally active in early-stationary-phase growing cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of V. alginolyticus possessing a trh gene. PMID:17056701

Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Blackstone, George M.; DePaola, Angelo

2006-01-01

275

Effect of Temperature on Growth of Vibrio paraphemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in Flounder, Salmon Sashimi and Oyster Meat  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the major pathogenic Vibrio species which contaminate ready-to-eat seafood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of human illness resulting from consumption of ready-to-eat seafood such as sashimi and raw oyster meat due to the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. We compared the growth kinetics of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus strains in broth and ready-to-eat seafood, including flounder and salmon sashimi, as a function of temperature. The growth kinetics of naturally occurring V. vulnificus in raw oyster meat was also evaluated. The minimum growth temperatures of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in broth were 13 °C and 11 °C, respectively. Overall, significant differences in lag time (LT) and specific growth rate (SGR) values between flounder and salmon sashimi were observed at temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 30 °C (p < 0.05). The growth of naturally occurring V. vulnificus reached stationary phase at ~4 log CFU/g in oysters, regardless of the storage temperature. This data indicates that the population of V. vulnificus in oysters did not reach the maximum population density as observed in the broth, where growth of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters grew up to >8 log CFU/mL. PMID:23330227

Kim, Yoo Won; Lee, Soon Ho; Hwang, In Gun; Yoon, Ki Sun

2012-01-01

276

Lack of Outer Membrane Protein A Enhances the Release of Outer Membrane Vesicles and Survival of Vibrio cholerae and Suppresses Viability of Acanthamoeba castellanii  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the diarrhoeal disease cholera, survives in aquatic environments. The bacterium has developed a survival strategy to grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. It has been shown that V. cholerae expresses outer membrane proteins as virulence factors playing a role in the adherence to interacted host cells. This study examined the role of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) in survival of V. cholerae alone and during its interaction with A. castellanii. The results showed that an OmpA mutant of V. cholerae survived longer than wild-type V. cholerae when cultivated alone. Cocultivation with A. castellanii enhanced the survival of both bacterial strains and OmpA protein exhibited no effect on attachment, engulfment, and survival inside the amoebae. However, cocultivation of the OmpA mutant of V. cholerae decreased the viability of A. castellanii and this bacterial strain released more OMVs than wild-type V. cholerae. Surprisingly, treatment of amoeba cells with OMVs isolated from the OmpA mutant significantly decreased viable counts of the amoeba cells. In conclusion, the results might highlight a regulating rule for OmpA in survival of V. cholerae and OMVs as a potent virulence factor for this bacterium towards eukaryotes in the environment. PMID:24799908

Valeru, Soni Priya; Shanan, Salah; Alossimi, Haifa; Sandström, Gunnar

2014-01-01

277

Grimontia indica AK16T, sp. nov., Isolated from a Seawater Sample Reports the Presence of Pathogenic Genes Similar to Vibrio Genus  

PubMed Central

Grimontia indica strain AK16T sp. nov. is the type strain of G. indica sp. nov. a new species within the genus Grimontia. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from seawater sample collected from southeast coast of Palk Bay, India. G. indica AK16T is a Gram-negative, facultative aerobic rod shaped bacterium. There are only two other strains in the genus Grimontia one of which, Grimontia hollisae CIP 101886T, is a reported human pathogen isolated from human stool sample while the other, ‘Grimontia marina IMCC5001T’, was isolated from a seawater sample. As compared to the pathogenic strain Grimontia hollisae CIP 101886T, the strain AK16T lacks some genes for pathogenesis like the accessory colonization factors AcfA and AcfD, which are required for the colonization of the bacterium in the host body. While it carries some pathogenesis genes like OmpU, which are related to pathogenesis of Vibrio strains. This suggests that the life cycle of AK16T may include some pathogenic interactions with marine animal(s), or it may be an opportunistic pathogen. Study of the Grimontia genus is important because of the severe pathogenic traits exhibited by a member of the genus with only three species reported in total. The study will provide some vital information which may be useful in future clinical studies on the genus. PMID:24465608

Singh, Aditya; Vaidya, Bhumika; Khatri, Indu; Srinivas, T. N. R.; Subramanian, Srikrishna; Korpole, Suresh; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar

2014-01-01

278

The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA  

SciTech Connect

Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

2009-01-01

279

Role of Zooplankton Diversity in Vibrio cholerae Population Dynamics and in the Incidence of Cholera in the Bangladesh Sundarbans ?  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, is the causative agent of cholera, a severe watery, life-threatening diarrheal disease occurring predominantly in developing countries. V. cholerae, including both serogroups O1 and O139, is found in association with crustacean zooplankton, mainly copepods, and notably in ponds, rivers, and estuarine systems globally. The incidence of cholera and occurrence of pathogenic V. cholerae strains with zooplankton were studied in two areas of Bangladesh: Bakerganj and Mathbaria. Chitinous zooplankton communities of several bodies of water were analyzed in order to understand the interaction of the zooplankton population composition with the population dynamics of pathogenic V. cholerae and incidence of cholera. Two dominant zooplankton groups were found to be consistently associated with detection of V. cholerae and/or occurrence of cholera cases, namely, rotifers and cladocerans, in addition to copepods. Local differences indicate there are subtle ecological factors that can influence interactions between V. cholerae, its plankton hosts, and the incidence of cholera. PMID:21764957

de Magny, Guillaume Constantin; Mozumder, Pronob K.; Grim, Christopher J.; Hasan, Nur A.; Naser, M. Niamul; Alam, Munirul; Sack, R. Bradley; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

2011-01-01

280

Functional characterization of EpsC, a component of the type II secretion system, in the pathogenicity of Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

EpsC, one of the components comprising the type II secretion system (T2SS), was isolated from a human-pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio vulnificus, to evaluate its role in eliciting virulence. An espC-deleted mutant of V. vulnificus displayed a reduced cytotoxicity to the human cell line HEp-2 and an attenuated virulence in a mouse model. This mutant exhibited dramatic defects in the secretion of diverse extracellular proteins, such as outer membrane proteins, transporters, and the known secreted factors, notably, a hemolysin (VvhA) and an elastase (VvpE). A defect in its secretion of proteins was restored by in trans complementation of the intact epsC gene. Analyses of cellular fractions revealed that VvhA and VvpE of the ?epsC mutant were not excreted outside the cell but were present mainly in the periplasmic space. Examination of a V. vulnificus mutant deficient in TolC, a component of the T1SS, showed that it is not involved in the secretion of VvhA and VvpE but that it is necessary for the secretion of another major toxin of V. vulnificus, RtxA. Therefore, the T2SS is required for V. vulnificus pathogenicity, which is mediated by at least two secreted factors, VvhA and VvpE, via facilitating the secretion and exposure of these factors to host cells. PMID:21788383

Hwang, Won; Lee, Na Yeon; Kim, Juri; Lee, Mi-Ae; Kim, Kun-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Park, Soon-Jung

2011-10-01

281

Model study on the effect of 15 phenolic olive mill wastewater constituents on seed germination and Vibrio fischeri metabolism.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) can be a severe problem when disposed of as untreated because of their high organic load, elevated concentration of polyphenols, and moderately low biodegradability. In the present study, the acute toxicity of 15 compounds with low molecular weight (<350 Da), catechol, four benzoic acids, three phenylacetic acids, three phenylethanols, and four cinnamic acids, already isolated from the reverse osmosis in the fractionation of OMW, was assessed on the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and on the seeds of two dicotyledonous species Cucumis sativus and Lepidium sativum, and on one monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor. Results of phytotoxicity showed that the most toxic compounds were catechol (EC50s ranging from 0.40 mmol/L for S. bicolor to 1.09 for C. sativus) and hydroxytyrosol, (EC50s ranging from 0.47 mmol/L for S. bicolor to 1.55 for C. sativus) while the toxic potential on bacteria was particularly elevated with EC50 values 1 or 2 orders less than phytotoxicity. These results suggested that the risk of OMW disposal may be more elevated for the water compartment than for the soil. PMID:16218695

Isidori, Marina; Lavorgna, Margherita; Nardelli, Angela; Parrella, Alfredo

2005-10-19

282

Swimming Efficiency of Bacterium Escherichia Coli  

E-print Network

We use in vivo measurements of swimming bacteria in an optical trap to determine fundamental properties of bacterial propulsion. In particular, we determine the propulsion matrix, which relates the angular velocity of the flagellum to the torques and forces propelling the bacterium. From the propulsion matrix dynamical properties such as forces, torques, swimming speed and power can be obtained from measurements of the angular velocity of the motor. We find significant heterogeneities among different individuals even though all bacteria started from a single colony. The propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the propulsive power output to the rotary power input provided by the motors, is found to be 0.2%.

Chattopadhyay, S; Wu, X L; Yeung, C; Chattopadhyay, Suddhashil; Moldovan, Radu; Yeung, Chuck

2005-01-01

283

Reactogenicity of live-attenuated Vibrio cholerae vaccines is dependent on flagellins  

E-print Network

vaccine strains have led to side effects in volunteers. Such side effects, often referred to as vaccineReactogenicity of live-attenuated Vibrio cholerae vaccines is dependent on flagellins Haopeng Ruia disease caused by the motile Gram- negative rod Vibrio cholerae. Live-attenuated V. cholerae vaccines

Mekalanos, John

284

Mechanistic and structural insights into the proteolytic activation of Vibrio cholerae MARTX toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

MARTX toxins modulate the virulence of a number of Gram-negative Vibrio species. This family of toxins is defined by the presence of a cysteine protease domain (CPD), which proteolytically activates the Vibrio cholerae MARTX toxin. Although recent structural studies of the CPD have uncovered a new allosteric activation mechanism, the mechanism of CPD substrate recognition or toxin processing is unknown.

Patrick J Lupardus; Victoria E Albrow; Andrew Guzzetta; James C Powers; K Christopher Garcia; Aimee Shen; Matthew Bogyo

2009-01-01

285

Reduction of biological activity of cholera vibrio culture filtrates by neuraminidase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

With edema of the albino mouse paw as experimental model the action of neuraminidase inhibitors on the cholerogenic effect of cholera vibrio culture filtrates (CVCF) was studied. Addition of inhibitors to CVCF was found to depress their biological activity. Since purified neuraminidase preparations from cholera vibrios had no cholerogenic action it was postulated that the region of the cholerogen responsible

K. V. Durikhin

1976-01-01

286

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE PATHOGENICITY OF VIBRIO MIMICUS STRAINS ISOLATED IN BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio mimicus, a newly described species of the genus Vibrio has been isolated from stools of 14 patients with diarrhoea. Live cells of all the 14 strains tested caused accumulation of fluid in rabbit gut loops and diarrhoea in infant rabbits. Culture filtrates of all the strains caused increased capillary permeability in rabbit skin; however, five of the filtrates resembled

Suhas C Sanyal; Mohammad I Huq; Prodyut KB Neogy; Khorshed Alam; Mohammad I Kabir; Abu SMH Rahaman

1984-01-01

287

LuxU connects quorum sensing to biofilm formation in Vibrio fischeri  

E-print Network

LuxU connects quorum sensing to biofilm formation in Vibrio fischeri Valerie A. Ray and Karen L, USA. Summary Biofilm formation by Vibrio fischeri is a complex process involving multiple regulators polysaccha- ride (syp) locus. To identify other regulators of biofilm formation in V. fischeri, we screened

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

288

CHITINASE DETERMINANTS OF 'VIBRIO VULNIFICUS': GENE CLONING AND APPLICATIONS OF A CHITINASE PROBE  

EPA Science Inventory

To initiate study of the genetic control of chitinolytic activity in vibrios, the chitobiase gene was isolated by cloning chromosomal DNA prepared from Vibrio vulnificus. Chimeric plasmids were constructed from Sau3A I partial digests of chromosomal DNA by ligating 5 to 15-Kiloba...

289

Gene sequences of the pil operon reveal relationships between symbiotic strains of Vibrio  

E-print Network

Gene sequences of the pil operon reveal relationships between symbiotic strains of Vibrio fischeri symbiotic vibrios. The pilA gene was found to be upstream from all other pil genes, and not contiguousB and pilD) are conserved among strains of V. fischeri, but pilC differs in sequence between symbiotic

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

290

Impact of milk fish farming in the tropics on potentially pathogenic vibrios.  

PubMed

Ratios of sucrose-negative to sucrose-positive vibrios on TCBS agar (suc-/suc+) indicate the abundance of potential human pathogenic non-cholera vibrios in coastal mariculture environments of the Lingayen Gulf (Philippines. In guts of adult maricultured milkfish (Chanos chanos) of suc- vibrios reached extreme peak values ranging between 2 and 545 million per g wet weight. Suc- vibrios outnumbered suc+ vibrios in anoxic sediments, too, and were rarely predominant in coastal waters or in oxidized sediments. Suc-/suc+ ratios in sediments increased toward the mariculture areas with distance from the open sea at decreasing redox potentials. There is circumstantial evidence that suc- vibrios can be dispersed from mariculture areas to adjacent environments including coral reefs. An immediate human health risk by pathogenic Vibrio species is discounted, since milkfish guts contained mainly members of the Enterovibrio group. A representative isolate of these contained proteolytic and other virulence factors, but no genes encoding toxins characteristic of clinical Vibrio species. PMID:24079922

Reichardt, W T; Reyes, J M; Pueblos, M J; Lluisma, A O

2013-12-15

291

Temperature-dependent inhibition of opportunistic Vibrio pathogens by native coral commensal bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacteria living within the surface mucus layer of corals compete for nutrients and space. A number of stresses affect the outcome of this competition. The interactions between native microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens largely determine the coral holobiont's overall health and fitness. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that commensal bacteria isolated from the mucus layer of a healthy elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are capable of inhibition of opportunistic pathogens, Vibrio shiloi AK1 and Vibrio coralliilyticus. These vibrios are known to cause disease in corals and their virulence is temperature dependent. Elevated temperature (30 °C) increased the cell numbers of one commensal and both Vibrio pathogens in monocultures. We further tested the hypothesis that elevated temperature favors pathogenic organisms by simultaneously increasing the fitness of vibrios and decreasing the fitness of commensals by measuring growth of each species within a co-culture over the course of 1 week. In competition experiments between vibrios and commensals, the proportion of Vibrio spp. increased significantly under elevated temperature. We finished by investigating several temperature-dependent mechanisms that could influence co-culture differences via changes in competitive fitness. The ability of Vibrio spp. to utilize glycoproteins found in A. palmata mucus increased or remained stable when exposed to elevated temperature, while commensals' tended to decrease utilization. In both vibrios and commensals, protease activity increased at 30 °C, while chiA expression increased under elevated temperatures for Vibrio spp. These results provide insight into potential mechanisms through which elevated temperature may select for pathogenic bacterial dominance and lead to disease or a decrease in coral fitness. PMID:24370863

Frydenborg, Beck R; Krediet, Cory J; Teplitski, Max; Ritchie, Kim B

2014-02-01

292

Vibrio Pathogenicity Island and Cholera Toxin Genetic Element-Associated Virulence Genes and Their Expression in Non-O1 Non-O139 Strains of Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-O1 non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strain, 10259, belonging to the serogroup O53 was shown to harbor genes related to the vibrio pathogenicity island (VPI) and a cholera toxin (CT) genetic element called CTX. While the nucleotide sequence of the strain 10259 tcpA gene differed significantly (26 and 28%) from those of O1 classical and El Tor biotype strains, respectively, partial

Amit Sarkar; Ranjan K. Nandy; G. Balakrish Nair; Asoke C. Ghose

2002-01-01

293

Incidence of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios in a coastal lagoon and seawater influenced by lake discharges along an annual cycle.  

PubMed Central

Most probable numbers of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios were determined in Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain, and in coastal waters under the influence of the lake discharges over the course of an annual cycle. The influence of temperature, kind of water, and characteristics of the different sampling sites on the numbers of vibrios recovered was evaluated. Maximum recovery of vibrios reached 10(3)/ml in both types of waters analyzed. V. cholerae numbers reached 10(3)/ml in the lake and 10(2) in one of the coastal sites. Frequently during the warm season, all vibrios isolated were identified as V. cholerae. Occasionally, no V. cholerae was recovered. The recovery of vibrios was significantly influenced by the temperature of the water and the type of water analyzed. Most of the V. cholerae isolates were included in Heiberg groups I and II, and nearly 50% of the strains used chitin as sole carbon source. Indole was not produced by 100% of the strains. All strains tested were non-O1 serovars. PMID:4051487

Garay, E; Arnau, A; Amaro, C

1985-01-01

294

Direct detection of Vibrio cholerae in stool samples.  

PubMed Central

A direct method to detect Vibrio cholerae in stool samples was developed by using a PCR procedure that did not require a DNA purification step. Dilution (1/100) of stool samples prevented inhibition of the reaction by contaminants, and two consecutive PCRs, the second one with a nested primer, achieved the desired sensitivity. Comparison of the results obtained from stool swab samples processed by the two-step PCR and by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using GM1 as the capture molecule showed that the former is more sensitive and gave positive results even when V. cholerae was not culturable or dead. Images PMID:8051251

Varela, P; Pollevick, G D; Rivas, M; Chinen, I; Binsztein, N; Frasch, A C; Ugalde, R A

1994-01-01

295

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a diazotrophic bacterium  

SciTech Connect

This is the first report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens can fix nitrogen in a free-living condition as shown by its abilities to grown on nitrogen-free medium, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and incorporate {sup 15}N supplied as {sup 15}N{sub 2}. As with most other well-characterized diazotrophic bacteria, the presence of NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the medium and aerobic conditions repress nitrogen fixation by A. tumefaciens. The system requires molybdenum. No evidence for nodulation was found with pea, peanut, or soybean plants. Further understanding of the nitrogen-fixing ability of this bacterium, which has always been considered a pathogen, should cast new light on the evolution of a pathogenic versus symbiotic relationship.

Kanvinde, L.; Sastry, G.R.K. (Univ. of Leeds (England))

1990-07-01

296

?-l-Fucosidase from a Soil Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Intracellular glycosidases were measured in cell-free extracts obtained by ultrasonic disruption of a gram-negative soil coccobacillus (Chase, 1938). From these extracts, ?-l-fucosidase was purified about 120-fold by salting out with (NH4)2SO4, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The approximate molecular weight of the enzyme was 50,000; its pH optimum was 5. The enzyme was inhibited by l-fucose and split this sugar from a purified acid mucopolysaccharide from chicken chorioallantoic fluid. The acid mucopolysaccharide is identical with a component (host antigen) of the hemagglutinin of influenza virus. Its antigenic reactivity is altered by cell-free extracts of the bacterium, in which the responsible enzyme is thought to be an ?-l-fucosidase. PMID:4239704

Mortensson-Egnund, K.; Schoyen, R.; Howe, C.; Lee, L. T.; Harboe, A.

1969-01-01

297

The human pathogenic vibrios--a public health update with environmental perspectives.  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic Vibrio species are naturally-occurring bacteria in freshwater and saline aquatic environments. Counts of free-living bacteria in water are generally less than required to induce disease. Increases in number of organisms towards an infective dose can occur as water temperatures rise seasonally followed by growth and concentration of bacteria on higher animals, such as chitinous plankton, or accumulation by shellfish and seafood. Pathogenic Vibrio species must elaborate a series of virulence factors to elicit disease in humans. Activities which predispose diarrhoeal and extraintestinal infections include ingestion of seafood and shellfish and occupational or recreational exposure to natural aquatic environments, especially those above 20 degrees C. Travel to areas endemic for diseases due to pathogenic Vibrio species may be associated with infections. Host risk factors strongly associated with infections are lack of gastric acid and liver disorders. Involvement of pathogenic Vibrio species in cases of diarrhoea should be suspected especially if infection is associated with ingestion of seafood or shellfish, raw or undercooked, in the previous 72 h. Vibrio species should be suspected in any acute infection associated with wounds sustained or exposed in the marine or estuarine environment. Laboratories serving coastal areas where infection due to pathogenic Vibrio species are most likely to occur should consider routine use of TCBS agar and other detection regimens for culture of Vibrio species from faeces, blood and samples from wound and ear infections. PMID:2673820

West, P. A.

1989-01-01

298

Isolation of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio splendidus from Aquacultured Carpet Shell Clam (Ruditapes decussatus) Larvae Associated with Mass Mortalities  

PubMed Central

Two episodes of mortality of cultured carpet shell clams (Ruditapes decussatus) associated with bacterial infections were recorded during 2001 and 2002 in a commercial hatchery located in Spain. Vibrio alginolyticus was isolated as the primary organism from moribund clam larvae that were obtained during the two separate events. Vibrio splendidus biovar II, in addition to V. alginolyticus, was isolated as a result of a mixed Vibrio infection from moribund clam larvae obtained from the second mortality event. The larval mortality rates for these events were 62 and 73%, respectively. Mortality was also detected in spat. To our knowledge, this is the fist time that these bacterial species have been associated with larval and juvenile carpet shell clam mortality. The bacterial strains were identified by morphological and biochemical techniques and also by PCR and sequencing of a conserved region of the 16S rRNA gene. In both cases bacteria isolated in pure culture were inoculated into spat of carpet shell clams by intravalvar injection and by immersion. The mortality was attributed to the inoculated strains, since the bacteria were obtained in pure culture from the soft tissues of experimentally infected clams. V. alginolyticus TA15 and V. splendidus biovar II strain TA2 caused similar histological lesions that affected mainly the mantle, the velum, and the connective tissue of infected organisms. The general enzymatic activity of both live cells and extracellular products (ECPs), as evaluated by the API ZYM system, revealed that whole bacterial cells showed greater enzymatic activity than ECPs and that the activity of most enzymes ceased after heat treatment (100°C for 10 min). Both strain TA15 and strain TA2 produced hydroxamate siderophores, although the activity was greater in strain TA15. ECPs from both bacterial species at high concentrations, as well as viable bacteria, caused significant reductions in hemocyte survival after 4 h of incubation, whereas no significant differences in viability were observed during incubation with heat-killed bacteria. PMID:15640176

Gomez-Leon, J.; Villamil, L.; Lemos, M. L.; Novoa, B.; Figueras, A.

2005-01-01

299

Cholera outbreaks (2012) in three districts of Nepal reveal clonal transmission of multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae O1  

PubMed Central

Background Although endemic cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality each year in Nepal, lack of information about the causal bacterium often hinders cholera intervention and prevention. In 2012, diarrheal outbreaks affected three districts of Nepal with confirmed cases of mortality. This study was designed to understand the drug response patterns, source, and transmission of Vibrio cholerae associated with 2012 cholera outbreaks in Nepal. Methods V. cholerae (n?=?28) isolated from 2012 diarrhea outbreaks {n?=?22; Kathmandu (n?=?12), Doti (n?=?9), Bajhang (n?=?1)}, and surface water (n?=?6; Kathmandu) were tested for antimicrobial response. Virulence properties and DNA fingerprinting of the strains were determined by multi-locus genetic screening employing polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results All V. cholerae strains isolated from patients and surface water were confirmed to be toxigenic, belonging to serogroup O1, Ogawa serotype, biotype El Tor, and possessed classical biotype cholera toxin (CTX). Double-mismatch amplification mutation assay (DMAMA)-PCR revealed the V. cholerae strains to possess the B-7 allele of ctx subunit B. DNA sequencing of tcpA revealed a point mutation at amino acid position 64 (N???S) while the ctxAB promoter revealed four copies of the tandem heptamer repeat sequence 5'-TTTTGAT-3'. V. cholerae possessed all the ORFs of the Vibrio seventh pandemic island (VSP)-I but lacked the ORFs 498–511 of VSP-II. All strains were multidrug resistant with resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), nalidixic acid (NA), and streptomycin (S); all carried the SXT genetic element. DNA sequencing and deduced amino acid sequence of gyrA and parC of the NAR strains (n?=?4) revealed point mutations at amino acid positions 83 (S???I), and 85 (S???L), respectively. Similar PFGE (NotI) pattern revealed the Nepalese V. cholerae to be clonal, and related closely with V. cholerae associated with cholera in Bangladesh and Haiti. Conclusions In 2012, diarrhea outbreaks in three districts of Nepal were due to transmission of multidrug resistant V. cholerae El Tor possessing cholera toxin (ctx) B-7 allele, which is clonal and related closely with V. cholerae associated with cholera in Bangladesh and Haiti. PMID:25022982

2014-01-01

300

Mannose-Containing Oligosaccharides of Non-Specific Human Secretory Immunoglobulin A Mediate Inhibition of Vibrio cholerae Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

The role of antigen-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) has been studied extensively, whereas there is a limited body of evidence regarding the contribution of non-specific SIgA to innate immune defenses against invading pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the effects of non-specific SIgA against infection with Vibrio cholerae O139 strain MO10 and biofilm formation. Seven day old infant mice deficient in IgA (IgA-/- mice) displayed significantly greater intestinal MO10 burden at 24 hr post-challenge when compared to IgA+/+ pups. Importantly, cross-fostering of IgA-/- pups with IgA+/+ nursing dams reversed the greater susceptibility to MO10 infection, suggesting a role for non-specific SIgA in protection against the infection. Since biofilm formation is associated with virulence of MO10, we further examined the role of human non-specific SIgA on this virulence phenotype of the pathogen. Human non-specific SIgA, in a dose-dependent fashion, significantly reduced the biofilm formation by MO10 without affecting the viability of the bacterium. Such an inhibitory effect was not induced by human serum IgA, IgG, or IgM, suggesting a role for the oligosaccharide-rich secretory component (SC) of SIgA. This was supported by the demonstration that SIgA treated with endoglycosidase H, to cleave the high-mannose containing terminal chitobiose residues, did not induce a reduction in biofilm formation by MO10. Furthermore, the addition of free mannose per se, across a wide dose range, induced significant reduction in MO10 biofilm formation. Collectively, these results suggest that mannose containing oligosacchardies within human non-specific secretory IgA can alter important virulence phenotypes of Vibrio cholerae such as biofilm formation, without affecting viability of the microorganism. Such effects may contribute significantly to innate immune defenses against invading pathogens in vivo in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21347387

Troutman, Ty; Guentzel, M. Neal; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Ali, Syed Khalid; Lauriano, Crystal M.; Chambers, James P.; Klose, Karl E.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

2011-01-01

301

A novel eliminase from a marine bacterium that degrades hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate.  

PubMed

Lyases cleave glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in an eliminative mechanism and are important tools for the structural analysis and oligosaccharide preparation of GAGs. Various GAG lyases have been identified from terrestrial but not marine organisms even though marine animals are rich in GAGs with unique structures and functions. Herein we isolated a novel GAG lyase for the first time from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. FC509 and then recombinantly expressed and characterized it. It showed strong lyase activity toward hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) and was designated as HA and CS lyase (HCLase). It exhibited the highest activities to both substrates at pH 8.0 and 0.5 m NaCl at 30 °C. Its activity toward HA was less sensitive to pH than its CS lyase activity. As with most other marine enzymes, HCLase is a halophilic enzyme and very stable at temperatures from 0 to 40 °C for up to 24 h, but its activity is independent of divalent metal ions. The specific activity of HCLase against HA and CS reached a markedly high level of hundreds of thousands units/mg of protein under optimum conditions. The HCLase-resistant tetrasaccharide ?(4,5)HexUA?1-3GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)?1-4GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)?1-3GalNAc(6-O-sulfate) was isolated from CS-D, the structure of which indicated that HCLase could not cleave the galactosaminidic linkage bound to 2-O-sulfated d-glucuronic acid (GlcUA) in CS chains. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that HCLase may work via a catalytic mechanism in which Tyr-His acts as the Brønsted base and acid. Thus, the identification of HCLase provides a useful tool for HA- and CS-related research and applications. PMID:25122756

Han, Wenjun; Wang, Wenshuang; Zhao, Mei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

2014-10-01

302

Structural characteristics of alkaline phosphatase from the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593  

PubMed Central

Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the moderate halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters over a wide salt-concentration range (1–4?M NaCl). In order to clarify the structural basis of its halophilic characteristics and its wide-range adaptation to salt concentration, the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.1?Å resolution. The unit cell of HaAP contained one dimer unit corresponding to the biological unit. The monomer structure of HaAP contains a domain comprised of an 11-stranded ?-sheet core with 19 surrounding ?-helices similar to those of APs from other species, and a unique ‘crown’ domain containing an extended ‘arm’ structure that participates in formation of a hydrophobic cluster at the entrance to the substrate-binding site. The HaAP structure also displays a unique distribution of negatively charged residues and hydrophobic residues in comparison to other known AP structures. AP from Vibrio sp. G15-21 (VAP; a slight halophile) has the highest similarity in sequence (70.0% identity) and structure (C? r.m.s.d. of 0.82?Å for the monomer) to HaAP. The surface of the HaAP dimer is substantially more acidic than that of the VAP dimer (144 exposed Asp/Glu residues versus 114, respectively), and thus may enable the solubility of HaAP under high-salt conditions. Conversely, the monomer unit of HaAP formed a substantially larger hydrophobic interior comprising 329 C atoms from completely buried residues, whereas that of VAP comprised 264 C atoms, which may maintain the stability of HaAP under low-salt conditions. These characteristics of HaAP may be responsible for its unique functional adaptation permitting activity over a wide range of salt concentrations. PMID:24598750

Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Matsumoto, Fumiko; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Blaber, Michael; Tokunaga, Masao; Kuroki, Ryota

2014-01-01

303

Desulfonatronum Thiodismutans sp. nov., a Novel Alkaliphilic, Sulfate-reducing Bacterium Capable of Lithoautotrophic Growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel alkaliphilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain MLF1(sup T), was isolated from sediments of soda Mono Lake, California. Gram-negative vibrio-shaped cells were observed, which were 0.6-0.7 x 1.2-2.7 microns in size, motile by a single polar flagellum and occurred singly, in pairs or as short spirilla. Growth was observed at 15-48 C (optimum, 37 C), > 1-7 % NaCI, w/v (optimum, 3%) and pH 8.0-10.0 (optimum, 9.5). The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires a high concentration of carbonate in the growth medium and is obligately anaerobic and catalase-negative. As electron donors, strain MLF1(sup T) uses hydrogen, formate and ethanol. Sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate (but not sulfur or nitrate) can be used as electron acceptors. The novel isolate is a lithoheterotroph and a facultative lithoautotroph that is able to grow on hydrogen without an organic source of carbon. Strain MLF1(sup T) is resistant to kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The DNA G+C content is 63.0 mol% (HPLC). DNA-DNA hybridization with the most closely related species, Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951(sup T), exhibited 51 % homology. Also, the genome size (1.6 x 10(exp 9) Da) and T(sub m) value of the genomic DNA (71 +/- 2 C) for strain MLF1(sup T) were significantly different from the genome size (2.1 x 10(exp 9) Da) and T(sub m) value (63 +/- 2 C) for Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951(sup T). On the basis of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered to be a novel species of the genus Desulfonatronum, for which the name Desulfonatronum thiodismutans sp. nov. is proposed (the type strain is MLF1(sup T) = ATCC BAA-395(sup T) = DSM 14708(sup T)).

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Cleland, David; Krader, Paul

2003-01-01

304

[Prevalence of type III secretion system genes in cholera vibrios from different serogroups].  

PubMed

Prevalence of vcs genes coding the type III secretion system (T3SS) in cholera vibrios of different serogroups isolated in Russia and neighboring countries was studied for the first time. Virulent strains of O1 and O139 serogroups as well as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains of other serogroups contained no T3SS genes. Unlike mentioned strains, 29.2% of atoxigenic non O1/non O139 cholera vibrios isolated from patients in Russia and neighboring countries contained the T3SS genes cluster, which might contribute to the pathogenic properties of these strains. PMID:18819403

Eroshenko, G A; Kutyrev, V V; Fadeeva, A V; Shavina, N Iu; Stepanov, A V

2008-01-01

305

Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on Growth and Viability of Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

Six strains of marine bacteria, including three strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, two Vibrio spp isolated from coastal regions, and the deep ocean isolate Pseudomonas bathycetes, were examined for ability to survive and grow at deep ocean hydrostatic pressures. V. parahaemolyticus and the coastal Vibrio spp. were unable to survive or grow at 200, 400, 600, 800, or 1,000 atm of pressure. In contrast, the deep ocean isolate P. bathycetes was capable of survival and growth at these pressures. The evidence strongly supports the neritic or estuarine origin and habitat for V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:4451378

Schwarz, J. R.; Colwell, R. R.

1974-01-01

306

Colonization state influences the hemocyte proteome in a beneficial squid-Vibrio symbiosis.  

PubMed

The squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri form a highly specific beneficial light organ symbiosis. Not only does the host have to select V. fischeri from the environment, but it must also prevent subsequent colonization by non-symbiotic microorganisms. Host macrophage-like hemocytes are believed to play a role in mediating the symbiosis with V. fischeri. Previous studies have shown that the colonization state of the light organ influences the host's hemocyte response to the symbiont. To further understand the molecular mechanisms behind this process, we used two quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic techniques, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and label-free spectral counting, to compare and quantify the adult hemocyte proteomes from colonized (sym) and uncolonized (antibiotic-treated/cured) squid. Overall, iTRAQ allowed for the quantification of 1,024 proteins with two or more peptides. Thirty-seven unique proteins were determined to be significantly different between sym and cured hemocytes (p value < 0.05), with 20 more abundant proteins and 17 less abundant in sym hemocytes. The label-free approach resulted in 1,241 proteins that were identified in all replicates. Of 185 unique proteins present at significantly different amounts in sym hemocytes (as determined by spectral counting), 92 were more abundant and 93 were less abundant. Comparisons between iTRAQ and spectral counting revealed that 30 of the 37 proteins quantified via iTRAQ exhibited trends similar to those identified by the label-free method. Both proteomic techniques mutually identified 16 proteins that were significantly different between the two groups of hemocytes (p value < 0.05). The presence of V. fischeri in the host light organ influenced the abundance of proteins associated with the cytoskeleton, adhesion, lysosomes, proteolysis, and the innate immune response. These data provide evidence that colonization by V. fischeri alters the hemocyte proteome and reveals proteins that may be important for maintaining host-symbiont specificity. PMID:25038065

Schleicher, Tyler R; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh; Nyholm, Spencer V

2014-10-01

307

A novel salt-tolerant endo-beta-1,4-glucanase Cel5A in Vibrio sp. G21 isolated from mangrove soil.  

PubMed

Although cellulases have been isolated from various microorganisms, no functional cellulase gene has been reported in the Vibrio genus until now. In this report, a novel endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene, cel5A, 1,362 bp in length, was cloned from a newly isolated bacterium, Vibrio sp. G21. The deduced protein of cel5A contains a catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5), followed by a cellulose binding domain (CBM2). The GH5 domain shows the highest sequence similarity (69%) to the bifunctional beta 1,4-endoglucanase/cellobiohydrolase from Teredinibacter turnerae T7902. The mature Cel5A enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The optimal pH and temperature of the recombinant enzyme were determined to be 6.5-7.5 and 50 degrees C, respectively. Cel5A was stable over a wide range of pH and retained more than 90% of total activity even after treatment in pH5.5-10.5 for 1 h, indicating high alkali resistance. Moreover, the enzyme was activated after pretreatment with mild alkali, a novel characteristic that has not been previously reported in other cellulases. Cel5A also showed a high level of salt tolerance. Its activity rose to 1.6-fold in 0.5 M NaCl and remained elevated even in 4 M NaCl. Further experimentation demonstrated that the thermostability of Cel5A was improved in 0.4 M NaCl. In addition, Cel5A showed specific activity towards beta-1,4-linkage of amorphous region of lignocellulose, and the main final hydrolysis product of carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cellooligosaccharides was cellobiose. As an alkali-activated and salt-tolerant enzyme, Cel5A is an ideal candidate for further research and industrial applications. PMID:20393708

Gao, Zhaoming; Ruan, Lingwei; Chen, Xiulan; Zhang, Yuzhong; Xu, Xun

2010-07-01

308

The periplasmic, group III catalase of Vibrio fischeri is required for normal symbiotic competence and is induced both by oxidative stress and approach to stationary phase  

E-print Network

The catalase gene, katA, of the sepiolid squid symbiont Vibrio fischeri has been cloned and sequenced. The predicted amino acid sequence of KatA has a high degree of similarity to the recently defined group III catalases, including those found in Haemophilus influenzae, Bacteroides fragilis, and Proteus mirabilis. Upstream of the predicted start codon of katA is a sequence that closely matches the consensus sequence for promoters regulated in Escherichia coli by the alternative sigma factor encoded by rpoS. Further, the level of expression of the cloned katA gene in an E. coli rpoS mutant is much lower than in wild-type E. coli. Catalase activity is induced three- to fourfold both as growing V. fischeri cells approach stationary phase and upon the addition of a small amount of hydrogen peroxide during logarithmic growth. The catalase activity was localized in the periplasm of wild-type V. fischeri cells, where its role could be to detoxify hydrogen peroxide coming from the external environment. No significant catalase activity could be detected in a katA null mutant strain, demonstrating that KatA is the predominately expressed catalase in V. fischeri and indicating that V. fischeri carries only a single catalase gene. The catalase mutant was defective in its ability to competitively colonize the light organs of juvenile squids in coinoculation experiments with the parent strain, suggesting that the catalase enzyme plays an important role in the symbiosis between V. fischeri and its squid host. The luminous marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri occupies a

Karen L. Visick; Edward; G. Ruby

1998-01-01

309

Phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus isolates based on toxR gene sequence.  

PubMed

The Vibrio genus contains a large number of closely related bacterial species differing, in some cases, less than 1% in 16S rRNA gene sequence. The present study evaluated the usefulness of toxR gene for phylogenetic and evolution analysis on Vibrio isolates of environmental or clinical origin belonging to the two closely related species V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus. The phylogenetic analysis based on toxR gene, contrary to 16S rRNA gene, allowed a clear differentiation of the isolates belonging to the two species and showed the presence of two separate, statistically supported clusters in V. alginolyticus (subgroup A and B). Such division, partially reflected in the biochemical features of the isolates, could not be explained by spatial and/or temporal distance in the isolation, leading to the hypothesis of two distinct, co-existing clusters in the V. alginolyticus isolates analysed. The evolutionary analysis on the toxR sequence showed that while the substitutions inferred from the alignment of V. parahaemolyticus are best explained by the negative/neutral selection model, in V. alginolyticus--and particularly in subgroup B--is acting a positive evolutionary pressure. The site detected as under diversifying selection (P164L) could be related to conformational changes of ToxR protein. PMID:21213595

Montieri, Stefania; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Croci, Luciana

2010-10-01

310

In silico modelling for predicting the cationic hydrophobicity and cytotoxicity of ionic liquids towards the Leukemia rat cell line, Vibrio fischeri and Scenedesmus vacuolatus based on molecular interaction potentials of ions.  

PubMed

In this study we present prediction models for estimating in silico the cationic hydrophobicity and the cytotoxicity (log [1/EC50]) of ionic liquids (ILs) towards the Leukemia rat cell line (IPC-81), the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the limnic green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus using linear free energy relationship (LFER) descriptors computed by COSMO calculations. The LFER descriptors used for the prediction model (i.e. excess molar refraction (E), dipolarity/polarizability (S), hydrogen-bonding acidity (A), hydrogen-bonding basicity (B) and McGowan volume (V)) were calculated using sub-descriptors (sig2, sig3, HBD3, HBA4, MR, and volume) derived from COSMO-RS, COSMO and OBPROP. With the combination of two solute descriptors (B, V) of the cation we were able to predict cationic hydrophobicity values (log ko ) with r (2) = 0.987 and standard error (SE) = 0.139 log units. By using the calculated log k o values, we were able to deduce a linear toxicity prediction model. In the second prediction study for the cytotoxicity of ILs, analysis of descriptor sensitivity helped us to determine that the McGowan volume (V) terms of the cation was the most important predictor of cytotoxicity and to simplify prediction models for cytotoxicity of ILs towards the IPC-81 (r (2) of 0.778, SE of 0.450 log units), Vibrio fischeri (r (2) of 0.762, SE of 0.529 log units) and Scenedesmus vacuolatus (r (2) of 0.776, SE of 0.825 log units). The robustness and predictivity of the two models for IPC-81 and Vibrio fischeri were checked by comparing the calculated SE and r (2) (coefficient of determination) values of the test set. PMID:23985014

Cho, C-W; Ranke, J; Arning, J; Thöming, J; Preiss, U; Jungnickel, C; Diedenhofen, M; Krossing, I; Stolte, S

2013-10-01

311

INFLUENCE OF SEASONAL FACTORS ON OYSTER HEMOCYTE KILLING OF VIBRIO PARAHEMOLYTICUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Seasonal variation of cellular defenses of oyster Crassostrea virginica against Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined from June 1997 to December 1998 using a recently developed bactericidal assay that utilizes a tetrazolium dye. Mean hemocyte numbers, plasma lysozyme, and P. mari...

312

Polyphyly of non-bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri sharing a lux-locus deletion  

E-print Network

This study reports the first description and molecular characterization of naturally occurring, non-bioluminescent strains of Vibrio fischeri. These ‘dark’V. fischeri strains remained non-bioluminescent even after treatment ...

Wollenberg, M. S.

313

Local Mobile Gene Pools Rapidly Cross Species Boundaries To Create within Global Vibrio cholerae Populations  

E-print Network

Vibrio cholerae represents both an environmental pathogen and a widely distributed microbial species comprised of closely related strains occurring in the tropical to temperate coastal ocean across the globe (Colwell RR, ...

Boucher, Yan

314

Experimental Reservoirs of Human Pathogens: The Vibrio Cholerae Paradigm (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)  

ScienceCinema

Rita Colwell on "Experimental Reservoirs of Human Pathogens: The Vibrio cholerae paradigm" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Colwell, Rita [University of Maryland

2013-02-12

315

Genes and regulatory mechanisms controlling environmental survival strategies of the waterborne pathogen Vibrio cholerae  

E-print Network

evidence that the Vibrio cholerae monolayer is a distinct stage in biofilmvirulence, biofilm formation and motility. Evidence is alsoevidence that different strains of V. cholerae possess overlapping but distinctive sets of genes for biofilm

Mueller, Ryan S.

2007-01-01

316

Pulmonary Cholera Due to Infection with a Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae Strain  

PubMed Central

We present 2 cases of primary pulmonary non-O1 Vibrio cholerae infection. We believe that these are the first documented cases of primary pulmonary infection due to this organism from a freshwater source. PMID:16954301

Shannon, Jack D.; Kimbrough, Robert C.

2006-01-01

317

Severe septic shock and cardiac arrest in a patient with Vibrio metschnikovii: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vibrio metschnikovii is a very rare species and can be fatal to patients with massive comorbidity. Until now only eight other cases have been reported. Case presentation This case report describes a 78-year-old Danish man who presented with fever, hypotension and unconsciousness and he developed cardiac arrest. Vibrio metschnikovii was identified in all his blood samples and effective antibiotics were initiated. Conclusions The human sources are believed to include shrimps, birds, water, sewage and seafood. We report the first case of Vibrio metschnikovii from a Nordic country and the report shows that even though isolation of Vibrio metschnikovii from human clinical samples is very rare, it still infects humans and may be fatal, despite sufficient treatment. PMID:25331560

2014-01-01

318

Long-term effects of ocean warming on the prokaryotic community: evidence from the vibrios  

PubMed Central

The long-term effects of ocean warming on prokaryotic communities are unknown because of lack of historical data. We overcame this gap by applying a retrospective molecular analysis to the bacterial community on formalin-fixed samples from the historical Continuous Plankton Recorder archive, which is one of the longest and most geographically extensive collections of marine biological samples in the world. We showed that during the last half century, ubiquitous marine bacteria of the Vibrio genus, including Vibrio cholerae, increased in dominance within the plankton-associated bacterial community of the North Sea, where an unprecedented increase in bathing infections related to these bacteria was recently reported. Among environmental variables, increased sea surface temperature explained 45% of the variance in Vibrio data, supporting the view that ocean warming is favouring the spread of vibrios and may be the cause of the globally increasing trend in their associated diseases. PMID:21753799

Vezzulli, Luigi; Brettar, Ingrid; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Reid, Philip C; Colwell, Rita R; Hofle, Manfred G; Pruzzo, Carla

2012-01-01

319

Constitutive Type VI Secretion System Expression Gives Vibrio cholerae Intra- and Interspecific Competitive Advantages  

E-print Network

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates protein translocation across the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae – the causative agent of cholera. All V. cholerae strains examined to date ...

Unterweger, Daniel

320

Quorum-regulated biofilms enhance the development of conditionally viable, environmental Vibrio cholerae  

E-print Network

Quorum-regulated biofilms enhance the development of conditionally viable, environmental Vibrio that this process involves biofilm formation that is dependent on quorum sens- ing, a regulatory response and biofilm formation displayed altered CVEC formation in environmental waterfollowingintestinalinfections

Mekalanos, John

321

Ocean warming and spread of pathogenic vibrios in the aquatic environment.  

PubMed

Vibrios are among the most common bacteria that inhabit surface waters throughout the world and are responsible for a number of severe infections both in humans and animals. Several reports recently showed that human Vibrio illnesses are increasing worldwide including fatal acute diarrheal diseases, such as cholera, gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. Many scientists believe this increase may be associated with global warming and rise in sea surface temperature (SST), although not enough evidence is available to support a causal link between emergence of Vibrio infections and climate warming. The effect of increased SST in promoting spread of vibrios in coastal and brackish waters is considered a causal factor explaining this trend. Field and laboratory studies carried out over the past 40 years supported this hypothesis, clearly showing temperature promotes Vibrio growth and persistence in the aquatic environment. Most recently, a long-term retrospective microbiological study carried out in the coastal waters of the southern North Sea provided the first experimental evidence for a positive and significant relationship between SST and Vibrio occurrence over a multidecadal time scale. As a future challenge, macroecological studies of the effects of ocean warming on Vibrio persistence and spread in the aquatic environment over large spatial and temporal scales would conclusively support evidence acquired to date combined with studies of the impact of global warming on epidemiologically relevant variables, such as host susceptibility and exposure. Assessing a causal link between ongoing climate change and enhanced growth and spread of vibrios and related illness is expected to improve forecast and mitigate future outbreaks associated with these pathogens. PMID:23280498

Vezzulli, Luigi; Colwell, Rita R; Pruzzo, Carla

2013-05-01

322

The Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Modulates Colonial Morphology in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inactivation of the quorum-sensing regulator HapR causes Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype strain C7258 to adopt a rugose colonial morphology that correlates with enhanced biofilm formation. V. cholerae mutants lacking the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) produce very little HapR, which results in elevated expression of Vibrio exopolysaccharide (vps) genes and biofilm compared to the wild type. However, crp

Weili Liang; Anisia J. Silva; Jorge A. Benitez

2007-01-01

323

Probiotic activity of Aeromonas media on the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, when challenged with Vibrio tubiashii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of BLIS-(bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance)-producing Aeromonas media, strain A199, to act as a probiotic was assessed on the host animal, Crassostrea gigas, by testing whether or not strain A199 could prevent death of the oyster larvae when challenged with Vibrio tubiashii. Whereas larvae, challenged with the Vibrio, died within 5 days, the presence of both the pathogen and the

L. F Gibson; J Woodworth; A. M George

1998-01-01

324

Features of cholera and Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhoea endemicity in Calabar, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The clinical and epidemiological features of acute vibrio diarrhoeal disease were studied in 881 patients seen at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, Nigeria, between January and December 1989. Stools and rectal swabs of patients and randomly-selected control subjects were microscopically and culturally examined for the presence of enteric pathogens. Households of vibrio diarrhoea cases and matched controls were visited for ecologic studies. Of a total of 108 (12.3%) culturally-confirmed bacterial diarrhoeas, 47 (43.5%) were due to Escherichia coli, 33 (30.6%) to Vibrio cholerae-01 (classical and El Tor biotypes) and V. parahaemolyticus, while shigellae and salmonellae accounted for 29 (26.9%) and 9 (8.3%) cases, respectively. Most cholera case households clustered within the ancient neighbourhood of the inner city, characterized by poorly developed water and sewage disposal systems. A preponderance of vibrio diarrhoea patients were children < or = 10 years. Adult cases involved mostly females. The only case of diarrhoea-related death involved an eight-month old child with kwashiorkor and V. parahaemolyticus infection. Incidence of vibrio diarrhoeas was seasonal, with most cases occurring during the dry season followed by subsidence at the onset of rainy season. Bimodal peaks of vibrio diarrhoeal episodes observed over the period appeared to coincide with periods of acute water scarcity, high temperature, increased fishing activities and trade traffic on the Calabar River estuary. Of the environments sampled, only clam shells from a case household and river sediments yielded vibrio pathogens on culture. Ecological factors that are capable of stabilizing a focus of vibrio diarrhoea endemicity in this area are highlighted. PMID:1294392

Utsalo, S J; Eko, F O; Antia-Obong, E O

1992-11-01

325

Genome Sequence of Vibrio cholerae Strain O1 Ogawa El Tor, Isolated in Mexico, 2013.  

PubMed

We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTX? and RS1?. PMID:25359919

Díaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; López-Martínez, Irma; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna; González-Durán, Elizabeth; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

2014-01-01

326

Influence of Catastrophic Climatic Events and Human Waste on Vibrio Distribution in the Karnaphuli Estuary, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrios are bacteria of marine and estuarine origin that can cause human diseases, such as cholera, and also affect aquatic\\u000a organisms. The impact of storm-driven changes in salinity and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on cultivable Vibrio counts (CVC) and distribution in Karnaphuli estuary, Bangladesh, was compared before and after a strong cyclone in mid May\\u000a 2007 and after a monsoon

Rubén J. Lara; Sucharit B. Neogi; Mohammad S. Islam; Zahid H. Mahmud; Shinji Yamasaki; Gopinath B. Nair

2009-01-01

327

Certain characteristics of Kanagawa positive and Kanagawa negative strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

E-print Network

CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF KANAGAWA POSITIVE AND KANAGAWA NEGATIVE STRAINS OF VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS A Thesis by Donald larry Zink Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Ma jor Sub j ect: Microbiology CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF KANAGAWA POSITIVE AND KANAGAWA NEGATIVE STRAINS OF VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS A Thesis by Donald Larry Zink Approved as to style and content by...

Zink, Donald Larry

2012-06-07

328

Characterizations of intracellular arsenic in a bacterium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life requires a key set of chemical elements to sustain growth. Yet, a growing body of literature suggests that microbes can alter their nutritional requirements based on the availability of these chemical elements. Under limiting conditions for one element microbes have been shown to utilize a variety of other elements to serve similar functions often (but not always) in similar molecular structures. Well-characterized elemental exchanges include manganese for iron, tungsten for molybdenum and sulfur for phosphorus or oxygen. These exchanges can be found in a wide variety of biomolecules ranging from protein to lipids and DNA. Recent evidence suggested that arsenic, as arsenate or As(V), was taken up and incorporated into the cellular material of the bacterium GFAJ-1. The evidence was interpreted to support As(V) acting in an analogous role to phosphate. We will therefore discuss our ongoing efforts to characterize intracellular arsenate and how it may partition among the cellular fractions of the microbial isolate GFAJ-1 when exposed to As(V) in the presence of various levels of phosphate. Under high As(V) conditions, cells express a dramatically different proteome than when grown given only phosphate. Ongoing studies on the diversity and potential role of proteins and metabolites produced in the presence of As(V) will be reported. These investigations promise to inform the role and additional metabolic potential for As in biology. Arsenic assimilation into biomolecules contributes to the expanding set of chemical elements utilized by microbes in unusual environmental niches.

Wolfe-Simon, F.; Yannone, S. M.; Tainer, J. A.

2011-12-01

329

Interactions of rumen chitinolytic bacterium, Clostridium tertium with anaerobic fungi  

E-print Network

Interactions of rumen chitinolytic bacterium, Clostridium tertium with anaerobic fungi B Hodrova J spore forming, Gram- positive rods. The isolate ChK5 was identified as Clostridium tertium and further

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

Eliminating a Common Bacterium Reduces Risk of Second Gastric Cancer  

Cancer.gov

When the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is eliminated in patients who are treated for early stage gastric cancer, the risk of developing a second gastric cancer decreases by two-thirds, according to the Aug. 2, 2008, issue of The Lancet.

331

Electron Micrograph of the Meat Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus sake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image is of the meat spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus sake. This strain was originally isolated from a vacuum-packaged meat product. To enhance its aesthetic appeal, the original black and white image was colored using Adobe Photoshop.

American Society For Microbiology;

2003-09-22

332

Growth and flocculation of a marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulum sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A marine photosynthetic bacterium (PS88), identified as Rhodovulum sp., with flocculating ability was isolated from the sea sediment mud of a shrimp cultivation farm in Thailand. This bacterium\\u000a flocculated in glutamate\\/malate medium during aerobic dark or anaerobic light cultivation. The flocculating ability was enhanced\\u000a with the increase of NaCl concentration to 6% (w\\/v). When PS88 was grown in glutamate\\/malate medium

M. Watanabe; K. Sasaki; Y. Nakashimada; T. Kakizono; N. Noparatnaraporn; N. Nishio

1998-01-01

333

Prevalence of listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in Turkey.  

PubMed

A total of 78 raw retail fish samples from 30 freshwater and 48 marine fish were examined for the presence of Listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species. The overall incidence of Listeria spp. was 30% in freshwater samples and 10.4% in marine fish samples. Listeria monocytogenes (44.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in freshwater fish, and Listeria murrayi (83.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in marine fish samples. Motile aeromonads were more common in marine fish samples (93.7%) than in freshwater fish samples (10%). Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, and Vibrio damsela were isolated only in marine fish samples, representing 40.9, 38.6, and 36.3% of Vibrio isolates, respectively. In freshwater and marine fish, the highest incidences of Listeria and Aeromonas were found in skin samples; the highest incidence of Vibrio in marine fish was found in gill samples. The location of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in a fish was significantly different among freshwater fish. A high incidence of these bacterial pathogens was found in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Handling of contaminated fish, cross-contamination, or eating raw fish might pose a health hazard, especially in immunosuppressed individuals, elderly people, and children. This study highlights the importance of bacterial pathogens in fish intended for human consumption, but more study is needed. PMID:20132688

Yücel, Nihal; Balci, Senay

2010-02-01

334

Production of the Phytohormone Indole-3-Acetic Acid by Estuarine Species of the Genus Vibrio?  

PubMed Central

Strains of Vibrio spp. isolated from roots of the estuarine grasses Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The colorimetric Salkowski assay was used for initial screening of IAA production. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was then employed to confirm and quantify IAA production. The accuracy of IAA quantification by the Salkowski assay was examined by comparison to GC-MS assay values. Indole-3-acetamide, an intermediate in IAA biosynthesis by the indole-3-acetamide pathway, was also identified by GC-MS. Multilocus sequence typing of concatenated 16S rRNA, recA, and rpoA genes was used for phylogenetic analysis of environmental isolates within the genus Vibrio. Eight Vibrio type strains and five additional species-level clades containing a total of 16 environmental isolates and representing five presumptive new species were identified as IAA-producing Vibrio species. Six additional environmental isolates similar to four of the Vibrio type strains were also IAA producers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IAA production by species of the genus Vibrio or by bacteria isolated from an estuarine environment. PMID:19218411

Gutierrez, Casandra K.; Matsui, George Y.; Lincoln, David E.; Lovell, Charles R.

2009-01-01

335

Characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIMB 10462  

SciTech Connect

The gram-negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIMB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulose. Because of renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in the bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIMB 10462 revealed that this is an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram-negative, oxidase-positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium has few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens and a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. However, total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIMB 10462 grows best aerobically, but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIMB 10462 grows slowly under anaerobic conditions on complex media, but growth on cellulosic media occurred only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIMB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is its ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest that it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

Dees, C.; Scott, T.C.; Phelps, T.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab, TN (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

336

Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462  

SciTech Connect

The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phelps, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-06-01

337

Pre-earthquake non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in Haiti  

PubMed Central

Introduction To our knowledge, there was no record of Vibrio cholerae in Haiti until the 2010 post earthquake outbreak. Methodology This study describes the analysis of 301 stool samples from 117 infants in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, who participated in a pediatric nutrition study between July 2008 and October 2009. Results Nine samples were identified positive with both SYBR Green and Taqman-MGB probe based molecular assays targeting V. cholerae hlyA and toxR, respectively (Ct = 33 – 40), but none were O1 or O139. Conclusions Our results from multiple molecular assays demonstrate the presence of non-O1/O139 V. cholerae DNA in stools collected from nine asymptomatic Haitian infants two years prior to the 2010 earthquake. PMID:24423722

Liu, Jie; Winstead-Derlega, Christopher; Houpt, Eric; Heidkamp, Rebecca; Pape, Jean; Dillingham, Rebecca

2014-01-01

338

Vibrio cholerae in an Historically Cholera-Free Country.  

PubMed

We report the autochthonous existence of Vibrio cholerae in coastal waters of Iceland, a geothermally active country where cholera is absent and has never been reported. Seawater, mussel, and macroalgae samples were collected close to and distant from sites where geothermal activity causes a significant increase in water temperature during low tides. V. cholerae was detected only at geothermal-influenced sites during low-tides. None of the V. cholerae isolates encoded cholera toxin (ctxAB) and all were non-O1/non-O139 serogroups. However, all isolates encoded other virulence factors that are associated with cholera as well as extra-intestinal V. cholerae infections. The virulence factors were functional at temperatures of coastal waters of Iceland, suggesting an ecological role. It is noteworthy that V. cholerae was isolated from samples collected at sites distant from anthropogenic influence, supporting the conclusion that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment of Iceland. PMID:23185212

Haley, Bradd J; Chen, Arlene; Grim, Christopher J; Clark, Philip; Diaz, Celia Municio; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A; Sancomb, Elizabeth; Elnemr, Wessam Mahmoud; Islam, Muhammad A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Benediktsdóttir, Eva

2012-08-01

339

Studies on the haemolytic activity of El Tor vibrios*  

PubMed Central

In view of reports of inconsistent results with the haemolytic test for identification of the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae, a study was made of the experimental variables involved in order to achieve more precise standardization of the procedure. It was found that different types of media and different incubation times of a culture in a particular medium exerted a profound influence on the results. The authors describe the materials and conditions for performance of a reliable haemolytic test, and consider that, when properly performed, the haemolytic test should be a valuable epidemiological tool. The persistence of haemolysin in cultures of strains from the El Tor Quarantine Station during incubation is in contrast to its early disappearance in cultures of more recent isolates. Evidence is presented that the haemolytic activity of a strain may become altered during subculture, since rugose variants of recent strains resemble the old El Tor strains in haemolysin persistence. PMID:13944689

Feeley, John. C.; Pittman, Margaret

1963-01-01

340

Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters by high-hydrostatic pressure and mild heat.  

PubMed

Several recent outbreaks associated with oysters have heightened safety concerns of raw shellfish consumptions, with the majority being attributed to Vibrio spp. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) followed by mild heating on the inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in live oysters. Inoculated oysters were randomly subjected to: a) pressurization at 200-300 MPa for 2 min at 21 °C, b) mild heat treatment at 40, 45 or 50 °C for up to 20 min and c) pressure treatment of 200-300 MPa for 2 min at 21 °C followed by heat treatment at 40-50 °C. Counts of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus were then determined using the most probable number (MPN) method. Pressurization at 200-300 MPa for 2 min resulted in various degrees of inactivation, from 1.2 to >7 log MPN/g reductions. Heat treatment at 40 and 45 °C for 20 min only reduced V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus by 0.7-2.5 log MPN/g while at 50 °C for 15 min achieved >7 log MPN/g reduction. HHP and mild heat had synergistic effects. Combinations such as HHP at 250 MPa for 2 min followed by heat treatment at 45 °C for 15 min and HHP at 200 MPa for 2 min followed by heat treatment at 50 °C for 5 min reduced both V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus to non-detectable levels by the MPN method (<3 MPN/g). HHP at ?275 MPa for 2 min followed by heat treatment at 45 °C for 20 min and HHP at ?200 MPa for 2 min followed by heat treatment at 50 °C for 15 min completely eliminated both pathogens in oysters (negative enrichment results). This study demonstrated the efficiency of HHP followed by mild heat treatments on inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus and could help the industry to establish parameters for processing oysters. PMID:22850390

Ye, Mu; Huang, Yaoxin; Chen, Haiqiang

2012-10-01

341

Connecting actin monomers by iso-peptide bond is a toxicity mechanism of the Vibrio cholerae MARTX toxin  

PubMed Central

The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of a severe diarrheal disease that afflicts three to five million persons annually, causing up to 200,000 deaths. Nearly all V. cholerae strains produce a large multifunctional-autoprocessing RTX toxin (MARTXVc), which contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of cholera in model systems. The actin cross-linking domain (ACD) of MARTXVc directly catalyzes a covalent cross-linking of monomeric G-actin into oligomeric chains and causes cell rounding, but the nature of the cross-linked bond and the mechanism of the actin cytoskeleton disruption remained elusive. To elucidate the mechanism of ACD action and effect on actin, we identified the covalent cross-link bond between actin protomers using limited proteolysis, X-ray crystallography, and mass spectrometry. We report here that ACD catalyzes the formation of an intermolecular iso-peptide bond between residues E270 and K50 located in the hydrophobic and the DNaseI-binding loops of actin, respectively. Mutagenesis studies confirm that no other residues on actin can be cross-linked by ACD both in vitro and in vivo. This cross-linking locks actin protomers into an orientation different from that of F-actin, resulting in strong inhibition of actin polymerization. This report describes a microbial toxin mechanism acting via iso-peptide bond cross-linking between host proteins and is, to the best of our knowledge, the only known example of a peptide linkage between nonterminal glutamate and lysine side chains. PMID:19015515

Kudryashov, Dmitri S.; Durer, Zeynep A. Oztug; Ytterberg, A. Jimmy; Sawaya, Michael R.; Pashkov, Inna; Prochazkova, Katerina; Yeates, Todd O.; Loo, Rachel R. Ogorzalek; Loo, Joseph A.; Satchell, Karla J. Fullner; Reisler, Emil

2008-01-01

342

Implications of Chitin Attachment for the Environmental Persistence and Clinical Nature of the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus naturally inhabits a variety of aquatic organisms, including oysters, and is the leading cause of seafood-related death in the United States. Strains of this bacterium are genetically classified into environmental (E) and clinical (C) genotypes, which correlate with source of isolation. E-genotype strains integrate into marine aggregates more efficiently than do C-genotype strains, leading to a greater uptake of strains of this genotype by oysters feeding on these aggregates. The causes of this increased integration of E-type strains into marine “snow” have not been demonstrated. Here, we further investigate the physiological and genetic causalities for this genotypic heterogeneity by examining the ability of strains of each genotype to attach to chitin, a major constituent of marine snow. We found that E-genotype strains attach to chitin with significantly greater efficiency than do C-genotype strains when incubated at 20°C. Type IV pili were implicated in chitin adherence, and even in the absence of chitin, the expression level of type IV pilin genes (pilA, pilD, and mshA) was found to be inherently higher by E genotypes than by C genotypes. In contrast, the level of expression of N-acetylglucosamine binding protein A (gbpA) was significantly higher in C-genotype strains. Interestingly, incubation at a clinically relevant temperature (37°C) resulted in a significant increase in C-genotype attachment to chitin, which subsequently provided a protective effect against exposure to acid or bile, thus offering a clue into their increased incidence in human infections. This study suggests that C- and E-genotype strains have intrinsically divergent physiological programs, which may help explain the observed differences in the ecology and pathogenic potential between these two genotypes. PMID:24362430

Williams, Tiffany C.; Ayrapetyan, Mesrop

2014-01-01

343

Snapshot of Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities in open and closed shellfish beds in Coastal South Carolina and Mississippi.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram negative, halophilic bacterium that is ubiquitous in warm, tropical waters throughout the world. It is a major cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis and is generally associated with consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, especially oysters. This study presents a snapshot of total V. parahaemolyticus densities in surface waters and shellstock American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from open and closed shellfish harvesting areas, as well as "more rural areas" on two different US coasts, the Atlantic and the Gulf. Sampling was conducted from 2001 to 2003 at five sites near Charleston/Georgetown, SC and at four locations in the Gulfport/Pascagoula, MS area. V. parahaemolyticus numbers were determined by a direct plating method using an alkaline-phosphatase-labeled DNA probe targeting the species-specific thermolabile hemolysin gene (tlh) that was used for identification of bacterial isolates. The greatest difference between the two coasts was salinity; mean salinity in SC surface waters was 32.9 ppt, whereas the mean salinity in MS waters was 19.2 ppt, indicating more freshwater input into MS shellfish harvesting areas during the study period. The mean V. parahaemolyticus numbers in oysters were almost identical between the two states (567.4 vs. 560.1 CFU/g). Bacterial numbers in the majority of surface water samples from both states were at or below the limit of detection (LOD?=?<10 CFU/mL). The bacterial concentrations determined during this study predict a low public health risk from consumption of oysters in shellfish growing areas on either the Gulf or the Atlantic US coast. PMID:25106119

Moore, J Gooch; Ruple, A; Ballenger-Bass, K; Bell, S; Pennington, P L; Scott, G I

2014-11-01

344

Implications of chitin attachment for the environmental persistence and clinical nature of the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus naturally inhabits a variety of aquatic organisms, including oysters, and is the leading cause of seafood-related death in the United States. Strains of this bacterium are genetically classified into environmental (E) and clinical (C) genotypes, which correlate with source of isolation. E-genotype strains integrate into marine aggregates more efficiently than do C-genotype strains, leading to a greater uptake of strains of this genotype by oysters feeding on these aggregates. The causes of this increased integration of E-type strains into marine "snow" have not been demonstrated. Here, we further investigate the physiological and genetic causalities for this genotypic heterogeneity by examining the ability of strains of each genotype to attach to chitin, a major constituent of marine snow. We found that E-genotype strains attach to chitin with significantly greater efficiency than do C-genotype strains when incubated at 20°C. Type IV pili were implicated in chitin adherence, and even in the absence of chitin, the expression level of type IV pilin genes (pilA, pilD, and mshA) was found to be inherently higher by E genotypes than by C genotypes. In contrast, the level of expression of N-acetylglucosamine binding protein A (gbpA) was significantly higher in C-genotype strains. Interestingly, incubation at a clinically relevant temperature (37°C) resulted in a significant increase in C-genotype attachment to chitin, which subsequently provided a protective effect against exposure to acid or bile, thus offering a clue into their increased incidence in human infections. This study suggests that C- and E-genotype strains have intrinsically divergent physiological programs, which may help explain the observed differences in the ecology and pathogenic potential between these two genotypes. PMID:24362430

Williams, Tiffany C; Ayrapetyan, Mesrop; Oliver, James D

2014-03-01

345

Relative Contributions of Vibrio Polysaccharide and Quorum Sensing to the Resistance of Vibrio cholerae to Predation by Heterotrophic Protists  

PubMed Central

Protozoan grazing is a major mortality factor faced by bacteria in the environment. Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera, is a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems, and its survival depends on its ability to respond to stresses, such as predation by heterotrophic protists. Previous results show that grazing pressure induces biofilm formation and enhances a smooth to rugose morphotypic shift, due to increased expression of Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS). In addition to negatively controlling vps genes, the global quorum sensing (QS) regulator, HapR, plays a role in grazing resistance as the ?hapR strain is efficiently consumed while the wild type (WT) is not. Here, the relative and combined contributions of VPS and QS to grazing resistance were investigated by exposing VPS and HapR mutants and double mutants in VPS and HapR encoding genes at different phases of biofilm development to amoeboid and flagellate grazers. Data show that the WT biofilms were grazing resistant, the VPS mutants were less resistant than the WT strain, but more resistant than the QS mutant strain, and that QS contributes to grazing resistance mainly in mature biofilms. In addition, grazing effects on biofilms of mixed WT and QS mutant strains were investigated. The competitive fitness of each strain in mixed biofilms was determined by CFU and microscopy. Data show that protozoa selectively grazed the QS mutant in mixed biofilms, resulting in changes in the composition of the mixed community. A small proportion of QS mutant cells which comprised 4% of the mixed biofilm biovolume were embedded in grazing resistant WT microcolonies and shielded from predation, indicating the existence of associational protection in mixed biofilms. PMID:23441178

Sun, Shuyang; Kjelleberg, Staffan; McDougald, Diane

2013-01-01

346

Two Regulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Play Important Roles in Enterotoxicity by Controlling the Expression of Genes in the Vp-PAI Region  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important pathogen causing food-borne disease worldwide. An 80-kb pathogenicity island (Vp-PAI), which contains two tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin) genes and a set of genes for the type III secretion system (T3SS2), is closely related to the pathogenicity of this bacterium. However, the regulatory mechanisms of Vp-PAI's gene expression are poorly understood. Here we report that two novel ToxR-like transcriptional regulatory proteins (VtrA and VtrB) regulate the expression of the genes encoded within the Vp-PAI region, including those for TDH and T3SS2-related proteins. Expression of vtrB was under control of the VtrA, as vector-expressed vtrB was able to recover a functional protein secretory capacity for T3SS2, independent of VtrA. Moreover, these regulatory proteins were essential for T3SS2-dependent biological activities, such as in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo enterotoxicity. Enterotoxic activities of vtrA and/or vtrB deletion strains derived from the wild-type strain were almost absent, showing fluid accumulation similar to non-infected control. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of vtrA or vtrB deletion strains revealed that the expression levels of over 60 genes were downregulated significantly in these deletion mutant strains and that such genes were almost exclusively located in the Vp-PAI region. These results strongly suggest that VtrA and VtrB are master regulators for virulence gene expression in the Vp-PAI and play critical roles in the pathogenicity of this bacterium. PMID:20084267

Kodama, Toshio; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Hiyoshi, Hirotaka; Morita, Mikiharu; Izutsu, Kaori; Akeda, Yukihiro; Park, Kwon-Sam; Cantarelli, Vlademir V.; Dryselius, Rikard; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

2010-01-01

347

Molecular cloning, expression and properties of an alpha/beta-Galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase from Vibrio sp. JT-FAJ-16.  

PubMed

We cloned, expressed and characterized a novel alpha/beta-galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase from Vibrio sp. bacterium JT-FAJ-16. Using a alpha2,3-sialyltransferase gene from a marine bacterium as a probe, a DNA sequence encoding a 402-amino-acid protein was identified from the JT-FAJ-16 genomic library. The protein showed 27.3-64.7% identity to the bacterial sialyltransferases classified into glycosyltransferase family 80. The protein showed sialyltransferase activity when expressed in Escherichia coli. The N-terminal truncated form of the enzyme was amplified in E. coli and its recovered activity was 215.7 unit/l culture medium. It was purified as a single band on SDS-PAGE through the three chromatographic steps. The specific activity of the purified recombinant enzyme reached 57.5 unit/mg protein. The alpha2,3sialylation was confirmed by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analyses of the reaction products. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 5.5 and at 20 degrees C. Interestingly, the enzyme used both the alpha- and beta-anomers of galactosides as acceptors, suggesting that it can be described as an alpha/beta-galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase. The enzyme had a wide range of acceptor substrate specificities. It transferred N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) to various monosaccharides and various oligosaccharides, and both N-linked and O-linked asialo-glycoprotein. These results suggest that the enzyme can be used as a powerful tool for the study for glycotechnology. PMID:17673486

Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Takeshi

2007-09-01

348

Association of a d-Alanyl-d-Alanine Carboxypeptidase Gene with the Formation of Aberrantly Shaped Cells during the Induction of Viable but Nonculturable Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic Gram-negative bacterium that causes human gastroenteritis. When the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of this bacterium was induced by incubation at 4°C in Morita minimal salt solution containing 0.5% NaCl, the rod-shaped cells became coccoid, and various aberrantly shaped intermediates were formed in the initial stage. This study examined the factors that influence the formation of these aberrantly shaped cells. The proportion of aberrantly shaped cells was not affected in a medium containing d-cycloserine (50 ?g/ml) but was lower in a medium containing cephalosporin C (10 ?g/ml) than in the control medium without antibiotics. The proportion of aberrantly shaped cells was higher in a culture medium that contained 0.5% NaCl than in culture media containing 1.0 or 1.5% NaCl. The expression of 15 of 17 selected genes associated with cell wall synthesis was enhanced, and the expression of VP2468 (dacB), which encodes d-alanyl-d-alanine carboxypeptidase, was enhanced the most. The proportion of aberrantly shaped cells was significantly lower in the dacB mutant strain than in the parent strain, but the proportion was restored in the presence of the complementary dacB gene. This study suggests that disturbance of the dynamics of cell wall synthesis by enhanced expression of the VP2468 gene is associated with the formation of aberrantly shaped cells in the initial stage of induction of VBNC V. parahaemolyticus cells under specific conditions. PMID:24056454

Hung, Wei-cheng; Jane, Wann-Neng

2013-01-01

349

Examination of Diverse Toxin-Coregulated Pilus-Positive Vibrio cholerae Strains Fails To Demonstrate Evidence for Vibrio Pathogenicity Island Phage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major virulence factors of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae are cholera toxin, which is encoded by a lysogenic filamentous bacteriophage (CTX), and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), an essential colonization factor that is also the receptor for CTX. The genes involved in the biosynthesis of TCP reside in a pathogenicity island, which has been reported to correspond to the genome of another filamentous

Shah M. Faruque; Jun Zhu; Asadulghani; M. Kamruzzaman; J. J. Mekalanos

2003-01-01

350

Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of the Halophilic Bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus Isolated from Marine Invertebrates of Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred strains of halophilic vibrios were isolated from 16 species of marine invertebrates of Peter the Great Bay. Based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics, the bacteria were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. Bacterial isolates possessed virulence enzymes (DNAase, lecithinase, catalase) and were characterized by a high enterotoxigenicity. It was determined that 76% of the V. parahaemolyticus

I. A. Beleneva; E. F. Maslennikova; T. Yu. Magarlamov

2004-01-01

351

Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus by molecular and culture based methods from source water to household container-stored water at the point-of-use in South African rural communities.  

PubMed

Detection methods for Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus which included the culture based approach with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation, PCR detection without enrichment and PCR with a pre-enrichment were developed and their performance evaluated. PCR assays targeted the SodB (V. cholerae species), Flae (V. parahaemolyticus species), 16S rRNA (Vibrio and Enterobacteriacea species) genes (Multiplex 1) and V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 rfb genes, ctxA (cholera toxin) gene and 16S rRNA gene (Multiplex 2). These methods were used to determine the occurrence of selected Vibrios in source water as well as in household container-stored water. The combination of filtration, enrichment and PCR method provided a sensitive and specific method for the detection of selected Vibrios in water samples. The PCR with a pre-enrichment method detected as few as 4-10 cfu/100 mL of selected Vibrios and PCR detection without the enrichment method detected as few as 40-100 cfu/100 mL of selected Vibrios. The inclusion of an enrichment period allows detection of culturable bacteria. As an application of the developed methods, V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus were detected in the source water used by the population and in the water-storage containers. The results indicate that Vibrio species in the containers could have originated from the source water and survive in biofilms inside the containers. PMID:20555205

Ntema, V M; Potgieter, N; Barnard, T G

2010-01-01

352

Vibrio cholerae Persisted in Microcosm for 700 Days Inhibits Motility but Promotes Biofilm Formation in Nutrient-Poor Lake Water Microcosms  

PubMed Central

Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, ubiquitous in aquatic environments, is responsible for cholera; humans can become infected after consuming food and/or water contaminated with the bacterium. The underlying basis of persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment remains poorly understood despite decades of research. We recently described a “persister” phenotype of V. cholerae that survived in nutrient-poor “filter sterilized” lake water (FSLW) in excess of 700-days. Previous reports suggest that microorganisms can assume a growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype in response to long-term survival during stationary phase of growth. Here we report a V. cholerae GASP phenotype (GASP-700D) that appeared to result from 700 day-old persister cells stored in glycerol broth at ?80°C. The GASP-700D, compared to its wild-type N16961, was defective in motility, produced increased biofilm that was independent of vps (p<0.005) and resistant to oxidative stress when grown specifically in FSLW (p<0.005). We propose that V. cholerae GASP-700D represents cell populations that may better fit and adapt to stressful survival conditions while serving as a critical link in the cycle of cholera transmission. PMID:24667909

Jubair, Mohammad; Atanasova, Kalina R.; Rahman, Mustafizur; Klose, Karl E.; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Yilmaz, Özlem; Morris, J. Glenn; Ali, Afsar

2014-01-01

353

The alternative oxidase (AOX) gene in Vibrio fischeri is controlled by NsrR and upregulated in response to nitric oxide  

PubMed Central

Summary Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a respiratory oxidase found in certain eukaryotes and bacteria; however, its role in bacterial physiology is unclear. Exploiting the genetic tractability of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, we explore the regulation of aox expression and AOX function. Using quantitative PCR and reporter assays, we demonstrate that aox expression is induced in the presence of nitric oxide (NO), and that the NO-responsive regulatory protein NsrR mediates the response. We have identified key amino acid residues important for NsrR function and experimentally confirmed a bioinformatically predicted NsrR binding site upstream of aox. Microrespirometry demonstrated that oxygen consumption by V. fischeri CydAB quinol oxidase is inhibited by NO treatment, whereas oxygen consumption by AOX is less sensitive to NO. NADH oxidation assays using inverted membrane vesicles confirmed that NO directly inhibits CydAB, and that AOX is resistant to NO inhibition. These results indicate a role for V. fischeri AOX in aerobic respiration during NO stress. PMID:20487270

Dunn, Anne K.; Karr, Elizabeth A.; Wang, Yanling; Batton, Aaron R.; Ruby, Edward G.; Stabb, Eric V.

2013-01-01

354

A functional VipA-VipB interaction is required for the type VI secretion system activity of Vibrio cholerae O1 strain A1552  

PubMed Central

Background Many Gram-negative bacteria rely on a type VI secretion system (T6SS) to infect eukaryotic cells or to compete against other microbes. Common to these systems is the presence of two conserved proteins, in Vibrio cholerae denoted VipA and VipB, which have been shown to interact in many clinically relevant pathogens. In this study, mutagenesis of a defined region within the VipA protein was used to identify residues important for VipB binding in V. cholerae O1 strain A1552. Results A dramatically diminished interaction was shown to correlate with a decrease in VipB stability and a loss of hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp) secretion and rendered the bacterium unable to compete with Escherichia coli in a competition assay. Conclusions This confirms the biological relevance of the VipA-VipB interaction, which is essential for the T6SS activity of many important human pathogens. PMID:23642157

2013-01-01

355

Phenotypic Characteristics and Virulence of Vibrio anguillarum-Related Organisms  

PubMed Central

The phenotypic, molecular, and virulence properties of 46 Vibrio anguillarum-related (VAR) strains isolated from diseased fish and shellfish and from the environment were investigated. Twelve reference strains belonging to the 10 serotypes of V. anguillarum and the Vibrio splendidus type strain were included for comparison. Numerical taxonomy studies allowed us to group the isolates into four phena. The main phenotypic traits to differentiate VAR strains from V. anguillarum were fermentation of arabinose and mannitol, indole and Voges-Proskauer reactions, gelatin and casein hydrolysis, hemolytic activity, growth at 37 and 4°C, and resistance to ampicillin. Serological analysis confirmed that phena I and II were composed mainly of strains of V. anguillarum, while phena III and IV included VAR strains. Excluding the reference strains, the typeable isolates belonged to serotypes O3 (15 strains), O4 (3 strains), and O5 (2 strains) of V. anguillarum. The infectivity trials showed that only 9 of a total of 24 strains tested displayed virulence for rainbow trout. Virulent strains (50% lethal dose ranging from 102 to 106 cells) included V. anguillarum strains belonging to serotypes O1 (one strain), O2 (one strain), O3 (three isolates), and O4 (one isolate) and only three strains of the VAR group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane proteins showed heterogeneity not only among the 10 V. anguillarum serotypes but also within the VAR group. Immunoblot assays demonstrated a close relationship among V. anguillarum strains from the same serotype, while strains from different serotypes were not antigenically related. The VAR strains did not share antigenic components with the serotypes of V. anguillarum tested (serotypes O1 to O5). Plasmids were detected in only 19 of the total of 59 strains. The majority of the strains carrying plasmids were grouped within phenon IV, in which plasmid bands of 27 and 36 MDa were found in all the isolates. No correlation between the plasmid content of VAR microorganisms and their phenotypic or virulence characteristics was observed. From these results it can be concluded that VAR strains associated with disease should be included together with V. anguillarum in the formulation of vaccines against vibriosis. Images PMID:16349042

Pazos, F.; Santos, Y.; Magarinos, B.; Bandin, I.; Nunez, S.; Toranzo, A. E.

1993-01-01

356

The chemoreceptor VfcA mediates amino acid chemotaxis in Vibrio fischeri1 Caitlin A. Brennan1  

E-print Network

0 The chemoreceptor VfcA mediates amino acid chemotaxis in Vibrio fischeri1 2 Caitlin A. Brennan1 of the tested compounds; the disrupted gene was thus named vfcA (Vibrio31 fischeri chemoreceptor A; locus tag VF_0777). In soft-agar plates, mutants disrupted in vfcA did32 not exhibit the serine-sensing chemotactic

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

357

MODIFICATIONS OF THE LOCAL IMMUNE RESPONSE TO VIBRIO CHOLERAE ATTRIBUTED TO THE INTESTINAL MICROBIAL FLORA OF THE MOUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral immunisation studies in germfree, specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventionalised mice illustrated that the autochthonous gut flora can have a suppressive effect on the induction of a local intestinal immune response to Vibrio cholerae. Temporary colonisation of the small bowel by viable vibrios occurred only in the germfree animal. The lack of colonisation in SPF and conventionalised mice was presumably

DJ Horsfall; D Rowley

1978-01-01

358

Interplay between Cyclic AMP-Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and Cyclic di-GMP Signaling in Vibrio cholerae Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae is a facultative human pathogen. The ability of V. cholerae to form biofilms is crucial for its survival in aquatic habitats between epidemics and is advantageous for host-to-host transmission during epidemics. Formation of mature biofilms requires the production of extracellular matrix components, includ- ing Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) and matrix proteins. Biofilm formation is positively controlled by the tran-

Jiunn C. N. Fong; Fitnat H. Yildiz

2008-01-01

359

Draft Genome Sequence of Environmental Vibrio cholerae 2012EL-1759 with Similarities to the V. cholerae O1 Classical Biotype.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae 2012EL-1759 is an environmental isolate from Haiti that was recovered in 2012 during a cholera outbreak. The genomic backbone is similar to that of the prototypical V. cholerae O1 classical biotype strain O395, and it carries the Vibrio pathogenicity islands (VPI-1 and VPI-2) and a cholera toxin (CTX) prephage. PMID:25013135

Katz, Lee S; Turnsek, Maryann; Kahler, Amy; Hill, Vincent R; Boyd, E Fidelma; Tarr, Cheryl L

2014-01-01

360

Dominance of Vibrio fischeri in Secreted Mucus outside the Light Organ of Euprymna scolopes: the First Site of Symbiont Specificity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Applied and Environmental Microbiology article provides evidence that the specificity of the squid-vibrio (Euprymna scolopes - Vibrio fischeri) symbiosis begins early in their interaction, when they aggregate in the mucus surrounding the light organ. Links are provided to cited references and a PDF version.

Mcfall-Ngai, Margaret J.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

2010-03-04

361

Draft Genome Sequence of Environmental Vibrio cholerae 2012EL-1759 with Similarities to the V. cholerae O1 Classical Biotype  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae 2012EL-1759 is an environmental isolate from Haiti that was recovered in 2012 during a cholera outbreak. The genomic backbone is similar to that of the prototypical V. cholerae O1 classical biotype strain O395, and it carries the Vibrio pathogenicity islands (VPI-1 and VPI-2) and a cholera toxin (CTX) prephage. PMID:25013135

Katz, Lee S.; Turnsek, Maryann; Kahler, Amy; Hill, Vincent R.; Boyd, E. Fidelma

2014-01-01

362

Natural transformation of Vibrio fischeri requires tfoX and tfoYemi_2250 1..10  

E-print Network

indicated that natural genetic transformation occurs in Vibrio cholerae, and that it requires both induction derivatives are genetically competent for transformation. We further investigated whether the V. fischeriNatural transformation of Vibrio fischeri requires tfoX and tfoYemi_2250 1..10 Amber Pollack

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

363

Natural transformation of Vibrio fischeri requires tfoX and tfoYemi_2250 2302..2311  

E-print Network

indicated that natural genetic transformation occurs in Vibrio cholerae, and that it requires both induction derivatives are genetically competent for transformation. We further investigated whether the V. fischeriNatural transformation of Vibrio fischeri requires tfoX and tfoYemi_2250 2302..2311 Amber Pollack

Ruby, Edward G.

364

Diversity of Vibrios associated with reared clams in Galicia (NW Spain).  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify vibrios isolated from cultured clams in Galicia (NW Spain). A total of 759 isolates were obtained, phenotypically characterized, grouped and assigned to the genus Vibrio. Subsequently, the genomic diversity of 145 representative strains was analyzed by means of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), which revealed a high genetic diversity amongst these isolates. Only 57 out of 145 strains could be identified to the species level, and they were distributed in 13 AFLP clusters. V. cyclitrophicus, V. splendidus and V. alginolyticus were the most abundantly represented species. Eighty-eight isolates remained unidentified, 59 were distributed over 16 clusters, while 29 were unclustered. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA and two house-keeping genes (rpoA and recA) from representative strains belonging to eight unidentified clusters with the highest number of isolates confirmed their assignation to the Vibrionaceae family, and some of these probably represent new species within the genus. The present study confirmed that the phenotypic characterization of vibrios is not sufficient to identify them at the species level. A wide diversity of vibrios was found in cultured clams from all four geographic locations analyzed. In total, more than 12 Vibrio species and at least three potential new species in this genus were identified. PMID:18482814

Beaz Hidalgo, Roxana; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Balboa, Sabela; De Wachter, Marjan; Thompson, Fabiano L; Swings, Jean; De Vos, Paul; Romalde, Jesús L

2008-08-01

365

Increases in the Amounts of Vibrio spp. in Oysters upon Addition of Exogenous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus is found naturally in brackish coastal waters but can be greatly concentrated by filter-feeding organisms such as shellfish. Numerous experiments in which exogenous V. vulnificus cells are added to oysters in an attempt to measure uptake and depuration have been performed. In nearly all cases, results have shown that laboratory-grown bacteria are rapidly taken up by the oysters but ultimately eliminated, while naturally present Vibrio populations in oysters are resistant to depuration. In this study, oysters harvested during winter months, with low culturable Vibrio concentrations, were incubated in aquaria supplemented with strains of V. vulnificus that were either genotypically or phenotypically distinct from the background bacteria. These exogenous cells were eliminated from the oysters, as previously seen, but other vibrios already inhabiting the oysters responded to the V. vulnificus inoculum by rapidly increasing in number and maintaining a large stable population. The presence of such an oyster-adapted Vibrio population would be expected to prevent colonization by exogenous V. vulnificus cells, thus explaining the rapid depuration of these added bacteria. PMID:23793640

Oliver, James

2013-01-01

366

Coral-mucus-associated Vibrio integrons in the Great Barrier Reef: genomic hotspots for environmental adaptation.  

PubMed

Integron cassette arrays in a dozen cultivars of the most prevalent group of Vibrio isolates obtained from mucus expelled by a scleractinian coral (Pocillopora damicornis) colony living on the Great Barrier Reef were sequenced and compared. Although all cultivars showed >99% identity across recA, pyrH and rpoB genes, no two had more than 10% of their integron-associated gene cassettes in common, and some individuals shared cassettes exclusively with distantly-related members of the genus. Of cassettes shared within the population, a number appear to have been transferred between Vibrio isolates, as assessed by phylogenetic analysis. Prominent among the mucus Vibrio cassettes with potentially inferable functions are acetyltransferases, some with close similarity to known antibiotic-resistance determinants. A subset of these potential resistance cassettes were shared exclusively between the mucus Vibrio cultivars, Vibrio coral pathogens and human pathogens, thus illustrating a direct link between these microbial niches through exchange of integron-associated gene cassettes. PMID:21270840

Koenig, Jeremy E; Bourne, David G; Curtis, Bruce; Dlutek, Marlena; Stokes, H W; Doolittle, W Ford; Boucher, Yan

2011-06-01

367

Coiled to diffuse: Brownian motion of a helical bacterium.  

PubMed

We employ real-time three-dimensional confocal microscopy to follow the Brownian motion of a fixed helically shaped Leptospira interrogans (LI) bacterium. We extract from our measurements the translational and the rotational diffusion coefficients of this bacterium. A simple theoretical model is suggested, perfectly reproducing the experimental diffusion coefficients, with no tunable parameters. An older theoretical model, where edge effects are neglected, dramatically underestimates the observed rates of translation. Interestingly, the coiling of LI increases its rotational diffusion coefficient by a factor of 5, compared to a (hypothetical) rectified bacterium of the same contour length. Moreover, the translational diffusion coefficients would have decreased by a factor of ~1.5, if LI were rectified. This suggests that the spiral shape of the spirochaete bacteria, in addition to being employed for their active twisting motion, may also increase the ability of these bacteria to explore the surrounding fluid by passive Brownian diffusion. PMID:22891749

Butenko, Alexander V; Mogilko, Emma; Amitai, Lee; Pokroy, Boaz; Sloutskin, Eli

2012-09-11

368

Signaling System in Porphyromonas gingivalis Based on a LuxS Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The luxS gene of quorum-sensing Vibrio harveyi is required for type 2 autoinducer production. We identified a Porphyromonas gingivalis open reading frame encoding a predicted peptide of 161 aa that shares 29% identity with the amino acid sequence of the LuxS protein of V. harveyi. Conditioned medium from a late-log-phase P. gingivalis culture induced the luciferase operon of V. harveyi,

WHASUN O. CHUNG; RICHARD J. LAMONT; ROD MCNAB; BRUNO BARBIERI; DONALD R. DEMUTH

2001-01-01

369

Improved Method for Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Seafood  

PubMed Central

We have developed a new, effective procedure for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods using enrichment and plating onto a chromogenic agar medium. Samples were cultured in salt Trypticase soy broth, which is a nonselective medium, and then a portion of the culture was cultured with salt polymyxin broth, which is a selective medium for V. parahaemolyticus. This two-step enrichment was more effective than the one-step enrichment in salt polymyxin broth alone. The enrichment cultures were then plated onto a new chromogenic agar containing substrates for beta-galactosidase. The V. parahaemolyticus colonies developed a purple color on this growth medium that distinguished them from other related bacterial strains. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated more frequently from naturally contaminated seafood samples using the chromogenic agar than thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar medium, which is currently used for the isolation of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings suggest that this new enrichment and isolation scheme is more sensitive and accurate for identifying V. parahaemolyticus in seafood samples than previously used methods. PMID:11722939

Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishina, Tokuhiro; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hasegawa, Junko; Kumagai, Susumu

2001-01-01

370

Proteomic analysis of Vibrio cholerae outer membrane vesicles  

PubMed Central

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria provide an interesting research material for defining cell-envelope proteins without experimental cell disruption. OMVs are also promising immunogenic platforms and may play important roles in bacterial survival and pathogenesis. We used in-solution trypsin digestion coupled to mass spectrometry to identify 90 proteins present in OMVs of Vibrio cholerae when grown under conditions that activate the TCP pilus virulence regulatory protein (ToxT) virulence regulon. The ToxT expression profile and potential contribution to virulence of these proteins were assessed using ToxT and in vivo RNA-seq, Tn-seq, and cholera stool proteomic and other genome-wide data sets. Thirteen OMV-associated proteins appear to be essential for cell growth, and therefore may represent antibacterial drug targets. Another 12 nonessential OMV proteins, including DegP protease, were required for intestinal colonization in rabbits. Comparative proteomics of a degP mutant revealed the importance of DegP in the incorporation of nine proteins into OMVs, including ones involved in biofilm matrix formation and various substrates of the type II secretion system. Taken together, these results suggest that DegP plays an important role in determining the content of OMVs and also affects phenotypes such as intestinal colonization, proper function of the type II secretion system, and formation of biofilm matrix. PMID:24706774

Altindis, Emrah; Fu, Yang; Mekalanos, John J.

2014-01-01

371

Whole-genome microarray analyses of Synechococcus-Vibrio interactions.  

PubMed

Microbes live in diverse communities yet their physiologies are typically studied in axenic culture. To begin to address this dichotomy, whole-genome microarray analyses were used and revealed that several major metabolic pathways were affected in Synechococcus sp. WH8102, a model phototroph, when grown with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a model heterotroph. In co-cultures with V. parahaemolyticus, although phosphate was not depleted, Synechococcus sp. WH8102 may have experienced phosphate stress since the expression of phosphate acquisition genes increased and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher than in monocultures. Expression of cell wall synthesis genes and the components of a zinc transporter were also upregulated. In contrast, a ferric uptake regulation (Fur) family gene was downregulated as were genes that encode proteins rich in iron or involved in detoxifying oxygen radicals. Nitrogen use may also have been affected in co-cultures as the gene expression changes share similarities with ammonia-grown Synechococcus. This study demonstrates the multiple impacts that interspecific microbial interactions can have on the physiology of a major primary producer and the importance of investigating microbial physiology from a community perspective. PMID:19659554

Tai, Vera; Paulsen, Ian T; Phillippy, Katherine; Johnson, D Aaron; Palenik, Brian

2009-10-01

372

Rapid spread of Vibrio cholerae O1 throughout Kenya, 2005.  

PubMed

Between January and June 2005, 5 distinct cholera outbreaks occurred in Kenya. Overall, 990 cases and 25 deaths (2.5%) were reported. Four outbreaks occurred in towns along major highways, and 1 occurred in a refugee camp near the Sudanese border, accessible to Nairobi by daily flights. Matched case-control studies from 2 outbreaks showed that failure to treat drinking water and storing drinking water in wide-mouthed containers were significantly associated with disease. Isolates from all 5 outbreaks were Vibrio cholerae O1, Inaba serotype, and had genetically similar PFGE patterns of SfiI-digested chromosomal DNA. Linkage of the outbreak locations by major transportation routes, their temporal proximity, and similar PFGE patterns of isolates suggests the outbreaks might have been linked epidemiologically, showing the speed and distance of cholera spread in countries like Kenya with pockets of susceptible populations connected by modern transportation. Prevention measures remain implementation of point-of-use safe water systems and case finding and referral. PMID:18337355

Mugoya, Isaac; Kariuki, Samuel; Galgalo, Tura; Njuguna, Charles; Omollo, Jared; Njoroge, Jackson; Kalani, Rosalia; Nzioka, Charles; Tetteh, Christopher; Bedno, Sheryl; Breiman, Robert F; Feikin, Daniel R

2008-03-01

373

Survival of Vibrio cholerae in African domestic water storage containers.  

PubMed

Although much has been published about growth of Vibrio cholerae in natural sources of water, little or nothing has been written on its survival in common household water storage containers. This study compared the behaviour of the El Tor and Classical biotypes of V. cholerae in different containers commonly used in Africa for domestic water storage. These included traditional clay pots, wooden barrels, galvanised iron drums (corroded and non-corroded) and plastic (polyethylene) drums. The findings are considered to be of public health interest with reference to selection of the most suitable containers for the storage of water drawn from a treated source. Although survival of V. cholerae was much shorter in clay pots than in any of the other containers, the numbers of viable V. cholerae were higher than in non-corroding iron drums and plastic drums. The clay pots, being porous, also showed a tendency to constant outward seepage of water which, when collected, was also shown to harbour cholera bacilli. These containers are therefore considered hazardous as pathogens in the stored water are easily disseminated to contaminate either hands or food prepared in the vicinity. The longest survival occurred in damaged metal drums. Presence of other bacteria greatly inhibited survival of V. cholerae. The response of the two biotypes was much the same in all the experiments. PMID:2799584

Patel, M; Isaäcson, M

1989-10-01

374

Arctic actinomycetes as potential inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae biofilm.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify novel biofilm inhibitors from actinomycetes isolated from the Arctic against Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. The biofilm inhibitory activity of actinomycetes was assessed using biofilm assay and was confirmed using air-liquid interphase coverslip assay. The potential isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of all, three isolates showed significant biofilm inhibition against V. cholerae. The results showed that 20% of the actinomycetes culture supernatant could inhibit up to 80% of the biofilm formation. When different extracted fractions were assessed, significant biofilm inhibition activity was only seen in the diethyl ether fraction of A745. At 200 ?g ml(-1) of diethyl ether fraction, 60% inhibition of V. cholerae biofilm was observed. The two potential isolates were found to be Streptomyces sp. and one isolate belonged to Nocardiopsis sp. This is the first report showing a Streptomyces sp. and Nocardiopsis sp. isolated from the Arctic having a biofilm inhibitory activity against V. cholerae. The spread of drug resistant V. cholerae strains is a major clinical problem and the ineffectiveness in antibiotic treatment necessitates finding new modes of prevention and containment of the disease, cholera. The formation of biofilms during the proliferation of V. cholerae is linked to its pathogenesis. Hence, the bioactive compound from the culture supernatant of the isolates identified in this study may be a promising source for the development of a potential quorum sensing inhibitors against V. cholerae. PMID:22231452

Augustine, Nimmy; Wilson, Peter A; Kerkar, Savita; Thomas, Sabu

2012-04-01

375

Vibrio coralliilyticus Search Patterns across an Oxygen Gradient  

PubMed Central

The coral pathogen, Vibrio coralliilyticus shows specific chemotactic search pattern preference for oxic and anoxic conditions, with the newly identified 3-step flick search pattern dominating the patterns used in oxic conditions. We analyzed motile V. coralliilyticus cells for behavioral changes with varying oxygen concentrations to mimic the natural coral environment exhibited during light and dark conditions. Results showed that 3-step flicks were 1.4× (P?=?0.006) more likely to occur in oxic conditions than anoxic conditions with mean values of 18 flicks (95% CI?=?0.4, n?=?53) identified in oxic regions compared to 13 (95% CI?=?0.5, n?=?38) at anoxic areas. In contrast, run and reverse search patterns were more frequent in anoxic regions with a mean value of 15 (95% CI?=?0.7, n?=?46), compared to a mean value of 10 (95% CI?=?0.8, n?=?29) at oxic regions. Straight swimming search patterns remained similar across oxic and anoxic regions with a mean value of 13 (95% CI?=?0.7, n?=?oxic: 13, anoxic: 14). V. coralliilyticus remained motile in oxic and anoxic conditions, however, the 3-step flick search pattern occurred in oxic conditions. This result provides an approach to further investigate the 3-step flick. PMID:23874480

Winn, Karina M.; Bourne, David G.; Mitchell, James G.

2013-01-01

376

Predation Response of Vibrio fischeri Biofilms to Bacterivorus Protists  

PubMed Central

Vibrio fischeri proliferates in a sessile, stable community known as a biofilm, which is one alternative survival strategy of its life cycle. Although this survival strategy provides adequate protection from abiotic factors, marine biofilms are still susceptible to grazing by bacteria-consuming protozoa. Subsequently, grazing pressure can be controlled by certain defense mechanisms that confer higher biofilm antipredator fitness. In the present work, we hypothesized that V. fischeri exhibits an antipredator fitness behavior while forming biofilms. Different predators representing commonly found species in aquatic populations were examined, including the flagellates Rhynchomonas nasuta and Neobodo designis (early biofilm feeders) and the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis (late biofilm grazer). V. fischeri biofilms included isolates from both seawater and squid hosts (Euprymna and Sepiola species). Our results demonstrate inhibition of predation by biofilms, specifically, isolates from seawater. Additionally, antiprotozoan behavior was observed to be higher in late biofilms, particularly toward the ciliate T. pyriformis; however, inhibitory effects were found to be widespread among all isolates tested. These results provide an alternative explanation for the adaptive advantage and persistence of V. fischeri biofilms and provide an important contribution to the understanding of defensive mechanisms that exist in the out-of-host environment. PMID:23144127

Chavez-Dozal, Alba; Gorman, Clayton; Erken, Martina; Steinberg, Peter D.; McDougald, Diane

2013-01-01

377

Functional analysis of TolC homologs in Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

Gram-negative bacteria use tripartite pumps to transport antibacterial drugs and other toxic compounds across the inner and outer membranes, which are separated by the periplasmic space. The TolC protein is an outer membrane factor that participates in the formation of tripartite efflux pumps. The genome of Vibrio vulnificus encodes two E. coli TolC homologs, TolCV1 and TolCV2. Here, we show that both TolCV1 and TolCV2 are involved in the efflux of antimicrobial agents. Deletion of tolCV1 resulted in increased susceptibility of V. vulnificus to chemical detergents, DNA intercalating agents, and antibiotics including erythromycin, novobiocin, and tetracycline, whereas deletion of tolCV2 rendered V. vulnificus more susceptible to the above mentioned antibiotics only. We also observed that tolCV1 deletion resulted in reduced motility of V. vulnificus. Our results indicate active roles for TolCV1 and TolCV2 in the physiology of V. vulnificus. PMID:24515351

Lee, Seunghwa; Song, Saemee; Lee, Kangseok

2014-06-01

378

Complete genomic sequence of the Vibrio alginolyticus lytic bacteriophage PVA1.  

PubMed

A novel Vibrio alginolyticus lytic bacteriophage was isolated from sewage samples obtained from a local aquatic market. Morphological analysis revealed that the phage, designated as PVA1, belonged to the family Podoviridae. The complete genomic sequence of phage PVA1 contained 41,529 bp with a G + C content of 43.7 % and 75 putative open reading frames. The genome was grouped into four modules, including phage structure, DNA packaging, DNA replication and regulation, and some additional functions. Further genomic comparison of the phage PVA1 with other known phages showed no significant similarities. Genes related to virulence and lysogeny were not detected in the phage genome. Our results suggest that phage PVA1 may be classified as a new Vibrio phage. We believe that these phage genomic sequence data will provide useful basic information for further molecular research on this Vibrio phage and its host as well for determining its infection/interaction mechanisms. PMID:25161033

Zhang, Jiancheng; Cao, Zhenhui; Xu, Yongping; Li, Xiaoyu; Li, Huaqiang; Wu, Feifei; Wang, Lili; Cao, Fang; Li, Zhen; Li, Shuying; Jin, Liji

2014-12-01

379

Detection and localisation of the abalone probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and its extracellular protease, VmproA, within the digestive tract of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.  

PubMed

Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone. PMID:24466176

Huddy, Robert J; Coyne, Vernon E

2014-01-01

380

Detection and Localisation of the Abalone Probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and Its Extracellular Protease, VmproA, within the Digestive Tract of the South African Abalone, Haliotis midae  

PubMed Central

Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone. PMID:24466176

Huddy, Robert J.; Coyne, Vernon E.

2014-01-01

381

Impact of Hurricane Irene on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in surface water, sediment, and cultured oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, MD, USA  

PubMed Central

To determine if a storm event (i.e., high winds, large volumes of precipitation) could alter concentrations of Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in aquacultured oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and associated surface water and sediment, this study followed a sampling timeline before and after Hurricane Irene impacted the Chesapeake Bay estuary in late August 2011. Aquacultured oysters were sampled from two levels in the water column: surface (0.3 m) and near-bottom (just above the sediment). Concentrations of each Vibrio spp. and associated virulence genes were measured in oysters with a combination of real-time PCR and most probable number (MPN) enrichment methods, and in sediment and surface water with real-time PCR. While concentration shifts of each Vibrio species were apparent post-storm, statistical tests indicated no significant change in concentration for either Vibrio species by location (surface or near bottom oysters) or date sampled (oyster tissue, surface water, and sediment concentrations). V. vulnificus in oyster tissue was correlated with total suspended solids (r = 0.41, P = 0.04), and V. vulnificus in sediment was correlated with secchi depth (r = -0.93, P <0.01), salinity (r = -0.46, P = 0.02), tidal height (r = -0.45, P = 0.03), and surface water V. vulnificus (r = 0.98, P <0.01). V. parahaemolyticus in oyster tissue did not correlate with environmental measurements, but V. parahaemolyticus in sediment and surface water correlated with several measurements including secchi depth [r = -0.48, P = 0.02 (sediment); r = -0.97, P <0.01 (surface water)] and tidal height [r = -0.96, P <0.01 (sediment), r = -0.59, P <0.01 (surface water)]. The concentrations of Vibrio spp. were higher in oysters relative to other studies (average V. vulnificus 4 × 105 MPN g-1, V. parahaemolyticus 1 × 105 MPN g-1), and virulence-associated genes were detected in most oyster samples. This study provides a first estimate of storm-related Vibrio density changes in oyster tissues, sediment, and surface water at an aquaculture facility in the Chesapeake Bay. PMID:24847319

Shaw, Kristi S.; Jacobs, John M.; Crump, Byron C.

2013-01-01

382

Perkinsus marinus Extracellular Protease Modulates Survival of Vibrio vulnificus in Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Hemocytes†  

PubMed Central

The in vitro effects of the Perkinsus marinus serine protease on the intracellular survival of Vibrio vulnificus in oyster hemocytes were examined by using a time-course gentamicin internalization assay. Results showed that protease-treated hemocytes were initially slower to internalize V. vulnificus than untreated hemocytes. After 1 h, the elimination of V. vulnificus by treated hemocytes was significantly suppressed compared with hemocytes infected with invasive and noninvasive controls. Our data suggest that the serine protease produced by P. marinus suppresses the vibriocidal activity of oyster hemocytes to effectively eliminate V. vulnificus, potentially leading to conditions favoring higher numbers of vibrios in oyster tissues. PMID:10473449

Tall, B. D.; La Peyre, J. F.; Bier, J. W.; Miliotis, M. D.; Hanes, D. E.; Kothary, M. H.; Shah, D. B.; Faisal, M.

1999-01-01

383

Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in retail raw oysters from the eastern coast of Thailand.  

PubMed

Occurrence, population density and virulence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in 240 retail raw oysters collected monthly between March 2010 and February 2011 from Ang Sila coast, Chon Buri Province, Thailand were determined using most probable number (MPN) multiplex PCR. Multiplex PCR detected V. parahaemolyticus in 219 raw oyster samples, of which 29 samples contained the virulence tdh. MPN values for V. parahaemolyticus and pathogenic strains in most samples ranged from 10 to 10(2) and from 3 to 10 MPN/g, respectively. The presence of V. vulnificus was found in 53 oyster samples in amounts between 10 and 10(2) MPN/g. Of 1,087 V. parahaemolyticus isolates, 14 and 2 isolates carried tdh and virulence trh, respectively but none with both genes. However, none of the presumptive isolates was shown to be V. vulnificus. The detection of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in raw oysters has rendered high awareness of risk in consumption of raw or undercooked oysters. PMID:24974651

Changchai, Nuttawee; Saunjit, Sudarat

2014-05-01

384

Phenotypic characterization of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2, a lipopolysaccharide-based homogeneous O serogroup within Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we have reevaluated the taxonomic position of biotype 2 of Vibrio vulnificus. For this purpose, we have biochemically and serologically characterized 83 biotype 2 strains from diseased eels, comparing them with 17 biotype 1 strains from different sources. Selected strains were also molecularly analyzed and tested for eel and mouse pathogenicity. Results have shown that biotype 2 (i) is biochemically homogeneous, indole production being the main trait that distinguishes it from biotype 1, (ii) presents small variations in DNA restriction profiles and outer membrane protein patterns, some proteins being immunologically related to outer membrane proteins from biotype 1, (iii) expresses a common lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profile, which is immunologically identical among strains and distinct from that of LPS of tested biotype 1 strains, and (iv) contains at least two high-Mr plasmids. Regarding host range, we have confirmed that both biotypes are pathogenic for mice but only biotype 2 is pathogenic for eels. On the basis of these data, we propose that biotype 2 of V. vulnificus constitutes an LPS-based O serogroup which is phenotypically homogeneous and pathogenic for eels. In this article, the serogroup is designated serogroup E (for eels). PMID:8975619

Biosca, E G; Oliver, J D; Amaro, C

1996-01-01

385

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of the Bacterium Coxiella burnetii in Wild  

E-print Network

is a zoonotic bacterium that can cause Q fever that has been reported in agricultural settings, yet little of rodents in a natural environment park. · Ecotourists and park visitors may be at risk for acquiring Q fever. Introduction Reservoir species are epidemiologically connected popula- tions or environments

Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

386

Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7  

SciTech Connect

Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

Suen, Garret [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stevenson, David M [USDA-ARS, Madison WI; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Boyum, Julie [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Mead, David [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Weimer, Paul J [USDA-ARS, Madison WI

2011-01-01

387

Biogeography of the Purple Nonsulfur Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeography of the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris on a local scale was investigated. Thirty clones of phototrophic bacteria were isolated from each of five unevenly spaced sampling locations in freshwater marsh sediments along a linear 10-m transect, and a total of 150 clones were charac- terized by BOX-PCR genomic DNA fingerprinting. Cluster analysis of 150 genomic fingerprints yielded

Yasuhiro Oda; Bastiaan Star; Louis A. Huisman; Jan C. Gottschal; Larry J. Forney

2003-01-01

388

Spite and virulence in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

E-print Network

models, we carried out experiments using the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa to test under what social conditions toxin (bacteriocin) production is favored and how this in turn affects virulence in the larvae. That is, the relatedness between the recipient and the actor is negative (2­8). Spiteful behaviors found

Gardner, Andy

389

Recycling of bakery wastes using an amylolytic lactic acid bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of lactic acid from discarded bread by using an amylolytic lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus amylovorus, was investigated to recycle bakery wastes. Addition of 2.0% yeast extract in the medium containing 3.58% bread crust caused maximum acid production. The stimulation of lactic acid production by less expensive materials such as corn steep liquor, defatted soybean powder, rice bran and wheat

Yuji Oda; Bong-Sun Park; Kook-Hyun Moon; Kenzo Tonomura

1997-01-01

390

Death of a hadal deep-sea bacterium after decompression  

SciTech Connect

An obligately barophilic bacterium that was recovered from a depth of 10746 meters in the Pacific Ocean slowly lost colony-forming ability (assayed at 101.3 megapascals and 2 degrees C) during incubation at atmospheric pressure and 0 degrees C.

Yayanos, A.A.; Dietz, A.S.

1983-04-01

391

Properties of an extracellular adhesive polymer from the marine bacterium, Shewanella Colwelliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shewanella colwelliana, a marine bacterium which grows in association with oysters, has been found to produce an unusual extracellular polymer which mediates irreversible adhesion of the bacterium to surfaces. Production of the polymer was enhanced when the bacterium was grown on marine agar, overlaid with a dialysis membrane, and seeded with a liquid suspension of the cells. Purified exopolymer was

G. O. Abu; R. M. Weiner; J. Rice; R. R. Colwell

1991-01-01

392

Science Blog -Bacterium cleans up uranium, generates electricity Create an account  

E-print Network

Science Blog - Bacterium cleans up uranium, generates electricity Create an account :: Home bits in an easily read format; updated daily. Read more... Bacterium cleans up uranium, generates of Energy : Scientists decode DNA of bacterium that cleans up uranium contamination and generates

Lovley, Derek

393

Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a new anaerobic, slightly halophilic, thiosulfate-reducing bacterium from corroding offshore oil wells.  

PubMed

A strictly anaerobic thiosulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated from a corroding offshore oil well in Congo and was designated strain SEBR 4207T. Pure culture of the strain induced a very active pitting corrosion of mild steel, with penetration rates of up to 4 mm per year. This constitutes the first experimental evidence of the involvement of thiosulfate reduction in microbial corrosion of steel. Strain SEBR 4207T cells were vibrios (3 to 5 by 1 microns), stained gram negative, and possessed lateral flagella. Spores were not detected. Optimum growth occurred in the presence of 3% NaCl at pH 7.0 and 42 degrees C. Strain SEBR 4207T utilized peptides and amino acids, but not sugars or fatty acids. It fermented serine, histidine, and Casamino Acids, whereas arginine, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, methionine, and asparagine were only used in the presence of thiosulfate. Peptides were fermented to acetate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, 2-methylbutyrate, H2, and CO2. The addition of either thiosulfate or sulfur but not sulfate increased peptide utilization, growth rate, and biomass; during growth, H2S was produced and a concomitant decrease in H2 was observed. The addition of either thiosulfate or sulfur also reversed H2 inhibition. 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicates that strain SEBR 4207T is distantly related to members of the genus Thermoanaerobacter (83% similarity). Because the phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics cannot be assigned to any described genus, strain SEBR 4207T is designated as a new species of a new genus, Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain SEBR 4207T has been deposited in the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und zellkulturen GmbH (= DSM 11002). PMID:9226912

Magot, M; Ravot, G; Campaignolle, X; Ollivier, B; Patel, B K; Fardeau, M L; Thomas, P; Crolet, J L; Garcia, J L

1997-07-01

394

Like a stealth invader, a disease-causing bacterium strikes where plants are weakest. By following the bacterium  

E-print Network

Like a stealth invader, a disease-causing bacterium strikes where plants are weakest. By following' defenses against a broad range of diseases. James Alfano, Charles Bessey Professor of Plant Pathology, studies Pseudomonas syringae, a bacterial pathogen that disables a plant's immune response by using

395

Abundance and distribution of Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus following a major freshwater intrusion into the Mississippi Sound.  

PubMed

In response to a major influx of freshwater to the Mississippi Sound following the opening of the Bonnet Carre Spillway, water samples were collected from three sites along the Mississippi shoreline to assess the impact of altered salinity on three pathogenic Vibrio species. Salinity readings across the affected area during the 2011 sample period ranged from 1.4 to 12.9 ppt (mean = 7.0) and for the 2012 sample period from 14.1 to 23.6 ppt (mean = 19.8). Analyses of the data collected in 2011 showed a reduction in densities of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus with a concurrent increase of Vibrio cholerae numbers, with V. cholerae becoming the only Vibrio detected once salinity readings dropped to 6 ppt. Follow-up samples taken in 2012 after recovery of the salinity in the sound showed that the relative densities of the three pathogenic vibrios had reverted back to normal levels. This study shows that although the spillway was open but a few weeks and the effects were therefore time limited, the Mississippi River water had a profound, if temporary, effect on Vibrio ecology in the Mississippi Sound. PMID:23494573

Griffitt, Kimberly J; Grimes, D Jay

2013-04-01

396

Vibrio cholerae classical biotype strains reveal distinct signatures in Mexico.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. Antibiograms revealed the majority of the Bangladeshi strains to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, furazolidone, ampicillin, and gentamicin, while the Mexican strains were sensitive to all of these drugs, as well as to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed characteristic banding patterns for all of the CL biotype strains although the Mexican strains differed from the Bangladeshi strains in 1 to 2 DNA bands. The difference was subtle but consistent, as confirmed by the subclustering patterns in the PFGE-based dendrogram, and can serve as a regional signature, suggesting the pre-1991 existence and evolution of the CL biotype strains in the Americas, independent from Asia. PMID:22518867

Alam, Munirul; Islam, M Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

2012-07-01

397

A cyanide-aldehyde complex inhibits bacterial luciferase.  

PubMed Central

Cyanide at high (millimolar) concentrations inhibited in the in vitro Vibrio harveyi luciferase reaction. Cyanide reacted with free aldehyde to form an inhibitor. Inhibitor formation was accelerated by alkaline conditions and bovine serum albumin. PMID:2376571

Makemson, J C

1990-01-01

398

Effectiveness of icing as a postharvest treatment for control of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica).  

PubMed

The focus of this research was to investigate the efficacy of icing as a postharvest treatment for reduction of the levels of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in commercial quantities of shellstock oysters. The experiments were conducted in June and August of 2006 and consisted of the following treatments: (i) on-board icing immediately after harvest; (ii) dockside icing approximately 1 to 2 h prior to shipment; and (iii) no icing (control). Changes in the levels of pathogenic Vibrio spp. during wholesale and retail handling for 2 weeks postharvest were also monitored. On-board icing achieved temperature reductions in all sacks in accordance with the National Shellfish Sanitation Program standard, but dockside icing did not meet this standard. Based on one-way analysis of variance, the only statistically significant relationship between Vibrio levels and treatment occurred for samples harvested in August; in this case, the levels of V. vulnificus in the noniced oysters were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than were the levels in the samples iced on-board. When analyzing counts over the 14-day storage period, using factorial analysis, there were statistically significant differences in V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus levels by sample date and/or treatment (P < 0.05), but these relationships were not consistent. Treated (iced) oysters had significantly higher gaping (approximately 20%) after 1 week in cold storage than did noniced oysters (approximately 10%) and gaping increased significantly by day 14 of commercial storage. On-board and dockside icing did not predictably reduce the levels of V. vulnificus or V. parahaemolyticus in oysters, and icing negatively impacted oyster survival during subsequent cold storage. PMID:18680950

Melody, Kevin; Senevirathne, Reshani; Janes, Marlene; Jaykus, Lee Ann; Supan, John

2008-07-01

399

Crystal Structure of the Extracellular Protein Secretion NTPase EpsE of Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type II secretion systems consist of an assembly of 12–15 Gsp proteins responsible for transporting a variety of virulence factors across the outer membrane in several pathogenic bacteria. In Vibrio cholerae, the major virulence factor cholera toxin is secreted by the Eps Type II secretion apparatus consisting of 14 Eps proteins. One of these, EpsE, is a cytoplasmic putative NTPase

Mark A. Robien; Brian E. Krumm; Maria Sandkvist; Wim G. J. Hol

2003-01-01

400

The lysosome and lysozyme response in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis to Vibrio anguillarum and laminarin stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of laminarin and Vibrio anguillarum on neutral red retention (NRR) time of lysosome and lysozyme activity in blood cells was investigated in Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. In addition, the variation of total haemocyte counts (THC) and differential haemocyte counts (DHC) were dtermined simultaneously. The results showed that the lysosome membrane stability was significantly elongated with the longest NRR

Cui-Luan Yao; Chang-Gong Wu; Jian-Hai Xiang; Fuhua Li; Zhi-Yong Wang; Xuezhe Han

2008-01-01

401

Correlation between Osmolarity and Luminescence of Symbiotic Vibrio fischeri Strain ES114  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio fischeri isolates from Euprymna scolopes are dim in culture but bright in the host. We found the luminescence of V. fischeri to be correlated with external osmolarity both in culture and in this symbiosis. Luminescence enhancement by osmolarity was independent of the lux promoter and unaffected by autoinducers or the level of lux expression, but the addition of an

Eric V. Stabb; Melissa S. Butler; Dawn M. Adin

2004-01-01

402

Determination of the transcriptome of Vibrio cholerae during intraintestinal growth and midexponential phase in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae is the etiologic bacterial agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal disease endemic in much of the developing world. The V. cholerae genome contains 3,890 genes distributed between a large and a small chromosome. Although the large chromosome encodes the majority of recognizable gene products and virulence determinants, the small chromosome carries a disproportionate number of hypothetical genes. Thus,

Qing Xu; Michelle Dziejman; John J. Mekalanos

2003-01-01

403

Recovery and evolutionary analysis of complete integron gene cassette arrays from Vibrio  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Integrons are genetic elements capable of the acquisition, rearrangement and expression of genes contained in gene cassettes. Gene cassettes generally consist of a promoterless gene associated with a recombination site known as a 59-base element (59-be). Multiple insertion events can lead to the assembly of large integron-associated cassette arrays. The most striking examples are found in Vibrio, where such

Yan Boucher; Camilla L Nesbø; Michael J Joss; Andrew Robinson; Bridget C Mabbutt; Michael R Gillings; W Ford Doolittle; HW Stokes

2006-01-01

404

Vibrio natriegens: A Rapidly Growing Micro-Organism Ideally Suited for Class Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes five microbiological experiments using the marine organism Vibrio natriegens. This organism is highly suitable for laboratory work because it is non-pathogenic and grows extremely rapidly, having the distinction of the lowest mean generation time yet recorded (9.8 minutes). (JR)

Mullenger, L.; Gill, Nijole R.

1973-01-01

405

The complete genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae: a tale of two chromosomes and of two lifestyles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae O1 has figured prominently in the history of infectious diseases as a cause of periodic global epidemics, an affliction of refugees in areas of social strife and as the disease first subjected to modern epidemiological analysis during the classic investigations of John Snow in mid-19th century London [1]. Thus, publication of the entire genome sequence of V. cholerae

Gary K Schoolnik; Fitnat H Yildiz

2000-01-01

406

Tracing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters ( Tiostrea chilensis) using a Green Fluorescent Protein tag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oysters feed by removing particles from the water. This food is composed of complex mixtures of living microorganisms, detritus, and inorganic particles that widely range in size. It has been speculated that some marine heterotrophic microorganisms, such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, could enter in this digestive process and persist in the oyster tissue. Since some strains of V. parahaemolyticus are pathogenic

Alicia E. Cabello; Romilio T. Espejo; Jaime Romero

2005-01-01

407

Bacterial Bioluminescence Regulates Expression of a Host Cryptochrome Gene in the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis  

E-print Network

-Vibrio Symbiosis Elizabeth A. C. Heath-Heckman,a Suzanne M. Peyer,a Cheryl A. Whistler,b Michael A. Apicella, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USAd ABSTRACT The symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its affect host transcriptional rhythms. We identified two transcripts in host tissues (E. scolopes cry1

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

408

Molecular analysis of rugosity in a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor phase variant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Reversible phase variation between the rugose and smooth colony variants is predicted to be important for the survival of Vibrio cholerae in natural aquatic habitats. Microarray expression profiling studies of the rugose and smooth variants of the same strain led to the identification of 124 differentially regulated genes. Further expression profiling experiments showed how these genes are regulated by

Fitnat H. Yildiz; Xiaole S. Liu; Arne Heydorn; Gary K. Schoolnik

409

Characterization of Vibrio fluvialis-Like Strains Implicated in Limp Lobster Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to characterize and determine the pathogenic mechanisms involved in a newly described systemic disease in Homarus americanus (American lobster) caused by a Vibrio fluvialis-like micro- organism. Nineteen isolates were obtained from eight of nine lobsters sampled. Biochemically, the isolates resembled V. fluvialis, and the isolates grew optimally at 20°C; none could grow at temperatures above 23°C. The

B. D. Tall; S. Fall; M. R. Pereira; M. Ramos-Valle; S. K. Curtis; M. H. Kothary; D. M. T. Chu; S. R. Monday; L. Kornegay; T. Donkar; D. Prince; R. L. Thunberg; K. A. Shangraw; D. E. Hanes; F. M. Khambaty; K. A. Lampel; J. W. Bier; R. C. Bayer

2003-01-01

410

Vibrio cholerae (non-O1) isolated from California coastal waters.  

PubMed Central

Nineteen strains of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 were isolated from five separate marine sites along the Santa Cruz County coast. This environmental study was initiated after a human case of non-O1 cholera-like diarrhea was acquired endemically. PMID:6651299

Kenyon, J E; Gillies, D C; Piexoto, D R; Austin, B

1983-01-01

411

Vibrio gallaecicus sp. nov. isolated from cultured clams in north-western Spain.  

PubMed

A group of three motile facultative anaerobic marine bacteria were isolated from cultured Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in Galicia, north-western Spain. The strains were characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and four housekeeping genes, RNA polymerase alpha-chain (rpoA), RecA protein (recA), the alpha-subunit of bacterial ATP synthase (atpA) and the uridine monophosphate (UMP) kinase (pyrH), indicated that these strains were closely related to the Vibrio splendidus clade. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints, DNA-DNA hybridizations and phylogenies of the housekeeping and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the three strains represented a different species from all currently described vibrios. The new species could be differentiated from its nearest neighbours on the basis of several phenotypic features. The three strains are therefore a novel species within the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio gallaecicus is proposed, with the type strain being VB 8.9T(=CECT 7244T=LMG 24045T). PMID:19186015

Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Doce, Alejandra; Pascual, Javier; Toranzo, Alicia E; Romalde, Jesús L

2009-04-01

412

Isolation of Candida albicans and halophilic Vibrio spp. from aquatic birds in Connecticut and Florida.  

PubMed Central

Halophilic vibrios were recovered from feces of six types of aquatic birds (gulls, pelicans, Canada geese, swans, egrets, cormorants) from Connecticut and/or Florida shorelines. Candida albicans was isolated from gulls and Canada geese in Connecticut and from gulls and cormorants in Florida. PMID:2180374

Buck, J D

1990-01-01

413

Cell-Cell Communication and the lux operon in Vibrio fischeri  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to a Carnegie Mellon University online term paper which discusses bioluminescence and the lux (luminescent) operon in Vibrio fischeri. It includes an introduction to bioluminescence, cell-density dependent communication, the lux operon in V. fischeri, evolutionary development of the lux genes, and applications of the lux system.

Bluth, Brian J.; Frew, Sarah E.; Mcnally, Brian

2010-04-02

414

Detection of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster enrichments by real time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed and evaluated to detect the presence of the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh), a current marker of pathogenicity in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The real time PCR fluorogenic probe and primer set was tested against a panel of numerous strains from 13 different bacterial species. Only V. parahaemolyticus strains possessing the tdh

George M Blackstone; Jessica L Nordstrom; Michael C. L Vickery; Michael D Bowen; Richard F Meyer; Angelo DePaola

2003-01-01

415

Filamentous Bacteriophages of Vibrio parahaemolyticus as a Possible Clue to Genetic Transmission  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported the isolation and characterization of two filamentous bacteriophages of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, designated Vf12 and Vf33. In this study, to understand the potential of these phages as tools for genetic transmission, we investigated the gene structures of replicative-form (RF) DNAs of their genomes and the distribution of these DNAs on chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNAs. The 7,965-bp nucleotide sequences of Vf12 and Vf33 were determined. An analysis of the overall gene structures revealed that Vf12 and Vf33 had conserved regions and distinctive regions. The gene organization of their conserved regions was similar to that of CTX phage of Vibrio cholerae and coliphage Ff of Escherichia coli, while their distinctive regions were characteristic of Vf12 and Vf33 phage genomes. Southern blot hybridization testing revealed that the filamentous phage genomes integrated into chromosomal DNA of V. parahaemolyticus at the distinctive region of the phage genome and were also distributed on some plasmids of V. parahaemolyticus and total cellular DNAs of one Vibrio damsela and one nonagglutinable Vibrio strain tested. These results strongly suggest the possibilities of genetic interaction among the bacteriophage Vf12 and Vf33 genomes and chromosomal and plasmid-borne DNAs of V. parahaemolyticus strains and of genetic transmission among strains through these filamentous phages. PMID:9748441

Chang, Bin; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

1998-01-01

416

Genome Sequence of Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae PS15  

PubMed Central

The draft genome sequence of a non-O1 Vibrio cholerae strain, PS15, organized into 3,512 open reading frames within a 3.9-Mb genome, was determined. The PS15 genome sequence will allow for the study of the evolution of virulence and environmental adaptation in V. cholerae. PMID:23409261

Kumar, Sanath; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Sundararajan, Anitha; Rajanna, Chythanya; Floyd, Jared T.; Smith, Kenneth P.; Andersen, Jody L.; He, Guixin; Ayers, Ryan M.; Johnson, Judith A.; Werdann, James J.; Sandoval, Ava A.; Mojica, Nadia M.; Schilkey, Faye D.; Mudge, Joann

2013-01-01

417

Roles of Bacterial Regulators in the Symbiosis between Vibrio fischeri and Euprymna scolopes  

E-print Network

Roles of Bacterial Regulators in the Symbiosis between Vibrio fischeri and Euprymna scolopes 1 Introduction In a symbiosis, two or more evolutionarily distinct organisms communicate with one another in order to co-exist and co-adapt in their shared environment. The mutualistic symbiosis between

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

418

Vibrio scophthalmi sp. nov., a New Species from Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six strains isolated from the intestines of juvenile turbot in a fish hatchery in the north of Spain were found to be phenotypically members of the genus V?brio. However, the phenotypic traits of these organisms did not place them in any of the currently known Vibrio species. These isolates formed an homogeneous group in which the DNA-DNA similarity values (the

MARTA CERDA-CUELLAR; RAMON A. ROSSELLO-MORA; JORDI LALUCAT; JOAN JOFRE

419

A model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine Anna Maria Spagnuolo a  

E-print Network

). The dynamics of colonization by the bacteria of the intestines are largely unknown. Although a large initialA model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine Anna Maria Spagnuolo a , Victor Di that has re-emerged as a new threat since the early 1990s. V. cholerae colonizes the upper, small intestine

Kirschner, Denise

420

Investigation on Streptomycin Inhibitors with the Aid of a Streptomycin-dependent Vibrio comma  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The growth and amylase activity of a streptomycin-dependent Vibrio comma on starch agar plates was gradually decreased with decrease of the strepto- mycin-concentration. The concentrations of streptomycin and the streptomycin- antagonizing properties of bacterial products also could be assayed by a cup plate method. The diameters of the zones of decomposed starch around the cups were proportional to the

A. L. Olitzki; DINAH GODINGER

1959-01-01

421

Effects of mixtures of oleic acid with chlorinated herbicides on Vibrio fischeri bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abbreviations: D, diuron; EC50, effective concentration,causing the inhibition of function fifty per cent; EDTA, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid; FAs, fatty acids; M, monuron; OA, oleic acid; OP, organochlorine pollutants; POM, par- ticular organic matter The toxicity of chlorinated phenylurea herbicides and their mixtures with monoun- saturated oleic (fatty) acid, OA, to bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri was investiga- ted. The EC50 of

A. Èetkauskaitë; J. Braþënaitë

422

Salinity and Temperature Effects on Physiological Responses of Vibrio fischeri from Diverse Ecological Niches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio fischeri is a bioluminescent bacterial symbiont of sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) and monocentrid fishes (Actinopterygii:\\u000a Monocentridae). V. fischeri exhibit competitive dominance within the allopatrically distributed squid genus Euprymna, which have led to the evolution of V. fischeri host specialists. In contrast, the host genus Sepiola contains sympatric species that is thought to have given rise to V. fischeri that

W. Soto; J. Gutierrez; M. D. Remmenga; M. K. Nishiguchi

2009-01-01

423

Nitrogen Fixation by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Its Implications for a New Ecological Niche?  

PubMed Central

A Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain isolated from the rhizosphere of the ecosystem dominant estuarine grass, Spartina alterniflora, was characterized and shown to carry nifH, the gene encoding the nitrogenase iron protein, and to fix N2. Nitrogen fixation may contribute substantially to the adaptability, niche breadth, and ecological significance of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:17675440

Criminger, J. D.; Hazen, T. H.; Sobecky, P. A.; Lovell, C. R.

2007-01-01

424

A Two-Step Synthesis of Virstatin, a Virulence Inhibitor of "Vibrio cholerae"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virstatin, an "N"-butanoic acid substituted naphthalimide, inhibits the ability of "Vibrio cholerae" to cause disease. A three-week experiment involving synthesis, purification, and spectral characterization of this compound is described. This experiment is appropriate for organic chemistry. It has been performed with three lab sections of about…

McDonald, Chriss E.

2009-01-01

425

Non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae bacteraemia: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is a serious public health problem worldwide, but in the UK, V. cholerae infections are rare. Here, we report a case of V. cholerae bacteraemia in an elderly patient. To our knowledge, this is the first non-travel-related V cholerae bacteraemia in the UK. PMID:23722436

Marek, Aleksandra; Inkster, Teresa; Anderson, Eleanor; Jenkins, Claire; Boyd, John; Kerr, Stuart; Cowden, John

2013-09-01

426

Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Rhode Island Coastal Ponds and the Estuarine Environment of Narragansett Bay  

PubMed Central

Quantification of the abundance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in water and oysters from Rhode Island showed the presence of environmental strains and low levels of potentially pathogenic strains when water temperatures were ?18°C, with peak levels in late July to early August. A higher abundance of the trh gene than of the tdh gene was observed. PMID:22307298

Cox, Annie M.

2012-01-01

427

Integrative genome-scale metabolic analysis of Vibrio vulnificus for drug targeting and discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the genomes of many microbial pathogens have been studied to help identify effective drug targets and novel drugs, such efforts have not yet reached full fruition. In this study, we report a systems biological approach that efficiently utilizes genomic information for drug targeting and discovery, and apply this approach to the opportunistic pathogen Vibrio vulnificus CMCP6. First, we partially

Hyun Uk Kim; Soo Young Kim; Haeyoung Jeong; Tae Yong Kim; Jae Jong Kim; Hyon E Choy; Kyu Yang Yi; Joon Haeng Rhee; Sang Yup Lee

2011-01-01

428

Cytochrome c Maturation and the Physiological Role of c-Type Cytochromes in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae lives in different habitats, varying from aquatic ecosystems to the human intestinal tract. The organism has acquired a set of electron transport pathways for aerobic and anaerobic respiration that enable adaptation to the various environmental conditions. We have inactivated the V. cholerae ccmE gene, which is required for cytochrome c biogenesis. The resulting strain is deficient of all

Martin Braun; Linda Thony-Meyer

2005-01-01

429

Biosynthetic pathways of Vibrio succinogenes growing with fumarate as terminal electron acceptor and sole carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.With fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor and either H2 or formate as donor, Vibrio succinogenes could grow anaerobically in a mineral medium using fumarate as the sole carbon source. Both the growth rate and the cell yield were increased when glutamate was also present in the medium.2.Glutamate was incorporated only into the amino acids of the glutamate family (glutamate,

Margret Bronder; Hildegard Mell; Erhard Stupperich; Achim Kröger

1982-01-01