Sample records for bacterium vibrio harveyi

  1. Molecular Uptake of Chitooligosaccharides through Chitoporin from the Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi

    PubMed Central

    Suginta, Wipa; Chumjan, Watcharin; Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R.; Janning, Petra; Schulte, Albert; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Background Chitin is the most abundant biopolymer in marine ecosystems. However, there is no accumulation of chitin in the ocean-floor sediments, since marine bacteria Vibrios are mainly responsible for a rapid turnover of chitin biomaterials. The catabolic pathway of chitin by Vibrios is a multi-step process that involves chitin attachment and degradation, followed by chitooligosaccharide uptake across the bacterial membranes, and catabolism of the transport products to fructose-6-phosphate, acetate and NH3. Principal Findings This study reports the isolation of the gene corresponding to an outer membrane chitoporin from the genome of Vibrio harveyi. This porin, expressed in E. coli, (so called VhChiP) was found to be a SDS-resistant, heat-sensitive trimer. Immunoblotting using anti-ChiP polyclonal antibody confirmed the expression of the recombinant ChiP, as well as endogenous expression of the native protein in the V. harveyi cells. The specific function of VhChiP was investigated using planar lipid membrane reconstitution technique. VhChiP nicely inserted into artificial membranes and formed stable, trimeric channels with average single conductance of 1.8±0.13 nS. Single channel recordings at microsecond-time resolution resolved translocation of chitooligosaccharides, with the greatest rate being observed for chitohexaose. Liposome swelling assays showed no permeation of other oligosaccharides, including maltose, sucrose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose and raffinose, indicating that VhChiP is a highly-specific channel for chitooligosaccharides. Conclusion/Significance We provide the first evidence that chitoporin from V. harveyi is a chitooligosaccharide specific channel. The results obtained from this study help to establish the fundamental role of VhChiP in the chitin catabolic cascade as the molecular gateway that Vibrios employ for chitooligosaccharide uptake for energy production. PMID:23383078

  2. Chitoporin from Vibrio harveyi, a Channel with Exceptional Sugar Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Suginta, Wipa; Chumjan, Watcharin; Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R.; Schulte, Albert; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Chitoporin (VhChiP) is a sugar-specific channel responsible for the transport of chitooligosaccharides through the outer membrane of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Single channel reconstitution into black lipid membrane allowed single chitosugar binding events in the channel to be resolved. VhChiP has an exceptionally high substrate affinity, with a binding constant of K = 5.0 × 106 m?1 for its best substrate (chitohexaose). The on-rates of chitosugars depend on applied voltages, as well as the side of the sugar addition, clearly indicating the inherent asymmetry of the VhChiP lumen. The binding affinity of VhChiP for chitohexaose is 1–5 orders of magnitude larger than that of other known sugar-specific porins for their preferred substrates. Thus, VhChiP is the most potent sugar-specific channel reported to date, with its high efficiency presumably reflecting the need for the bacterium to take up chitin-containing nutrients promptly under turbulent aquatic conditions to exploit them efficiently as its sole source of energy. PMID:23447539

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Opportunistic Marine Pathogen Vibrio harveyi Strain E385

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mingjia; Ren, Chunhua; Qiu, Jinrong; Luo, Peng; Zhu, Ruyi

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi strain E385 was isolated from a diseased cage-cultured grouper in Daya Bay, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed similarity with V. harveyi strain BAA-1116. We sequenced the pathogenic strain V. harveyi E385 and compared the genome with that of the nonpathogenic strain V. harveyi BAA-1116. PMID:24336361

  4. Quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Darshanee Ruwandeepika, H A; Karunasagar, Indrani; Boon, Nico; Bossier, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards different hosts. Chitinase can be considered as a virulence factor because it helps pathogenic bacteria to attach to the host and to penetrate its tissues (e.g. in case of shrimp). Here, we show that quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in V. harveyi. Chitinolytic activity towards natural chitin from crab shells, the synthetic chitin derivative chitin azure, and fluorogenic chitin oligomers was significantly higher in a mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with a mutant in which the system is maximally active. Furthermore, the addition of signal molecule containing cell-free culture fluids decreased chitinase activity in a Harveyi Autoinducer 1 and Autoinducer 2-deficient double mutant. Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is maximally active when compared with the mutant in which the system is completely inactivated. [Correction added on 25 September 2009, after first online publication: the preceding sentence was corrected from 'Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with the mutant in which the system is maximally active.'] We argue that this regulation might help the vibrios to switch between host-associated and free-living life styles. PMID:23765997

  5. Regulation of expression of Na + -translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase genes in Vibrio harveyi and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria S. Fadeeva; Evgenia A. Yakovtseva; Galina A. Belevich; Yulia V. Bertsova; Alexander V. Bogachev

    2007-01-01

    The expression of genes encoding sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) was studied in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi and in the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. It has been shown that such parameters as NaCl concentration, pH value, and presence of an uncoupler in the growth media\\u000a do not influence significantly the level of nqr expression. However, nqr expression depends on the growth

  6. Autoinducers Act as Biological Timers in Vibrio harveyi

    PubMed Central

    Anetzberger, Claudia; Reiger, Matthias; Fekete, Agnes; Schell, Ursula; Stambrau, Nina; Plener, Laure; Kopka, Joachim; Schmitt-Kopplin, Phillippe; Hilbi, Hubert; Jung, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing regulates cell density-dependent phenotypes and involves the synthesis, excretion and detection of so-called autoinducers. Vibrio harveyi strain ATCC BAA-1116 (recently reclassified as Vibrio campbellii), one of the best-characterized model organisms for the study of quorum sensing, produces and responds to three autoinducers. HAI-1, AI-2 and CAI-1 are recognized by different receptors, but all information is channeled into the same signaling cascade, which controls a specific set of genes. Here we examine temporal variations of availability and concentration of the three autoinducers in V. harveyi, and monitor the phenotypes they regulate, from the early exponential to the stationary growth phase in liquid culture. Specifically, the exponential growth phase is characterized by an increase in AI-2 and the induction of bioluminescence, while HAI-1 and CAI-1 are undetectable prior to the late exponential growth phase. CAI-1 activity reaches its maximum upon entry into stationary phase, while molar concentrations of AI-2 and HAI-1 become approximately equal. Similarly, autoinducer-dependent exoproteolytic activity increases at the transition into stationary phase. These findings are reflected in temporal alterations in expression of the luxR gene that encodes the master regulator LuxR, and of four autoinducer-regulated genes during growth. Moreover, in vitro phosphorylation assays reveal a tight correlation between the HAI-1/AI-2 ratio as input and levels of receptor-mediated phosphorylation of LuxU as output. Our study supports a model in which the combinations of autoinducers available, rather than cell density per se, determine the timing of various processes in V. harveyi populations. PMID:23110227

  7. Vibrio Bacterin and Carboxymethyl ?-1,3-Glucans Protect Penaeus monodon from Vibrio harveyi Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supattra Somapa Klannukarn; Kanokpan Wongprasert; Kornnika Khanobdee; Prasert Meeratana; Pattira Taweepreda; Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of Vibrio bacterin, with or without carboxymethyl ?-1,3-glucans (CMBG), on the protection of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon against V. harveyi infection, and to determine the mechanisms underlying the protection. The study was done with two groups of shrimp, one in short-term treatments in concrete tanks and the other in

  8. Isolation and characterization of Pseudoalteromonas sp. from fermented Korean food, as an antagonist to Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Morya, V K; Choi, Wooyoung; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2014-02-01

    The microbial intervention for sustainable management of aquaculture, especially use of probiotics, is one of the most popular and practical approaches towards controlling pathogens. Vibrio harveyi is a well-known pathogenic bacterium, which is associated to a huge economic loss in the aquaculture system by causing vibriosis. The present study is crafted for screening and characterization of anti-Vibrio strains, which were isolated from various traditional fermented Korean foods. A total of 196 strains have been isolated from soybean paste (78 strains), red chili paste (49 strains), soy sauce (18 strains), jeotgal-a salted fish (34 strains), and the gazami crab-Portunus trituberculatus (17 strains). Fifteen strains showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of V. harveyi when subjected to coculture condition. Among the strains isolated, one has been identified as a significant anti-Vibrio strain. Further biochemical characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed it as Pseudoalteromonas aliena, which had been deposited at the Korean Culture Center of Microorganisms (KCCM), Korea and designated as KCCM 11207P. The culture supernatants did not have any antimicrobial properties either in pure or in coculture condition. The culture supernatant was not toxic when supplemented to the swimming crab, Zoea, and Artemia larvae in aquaculture system. The results were very encouraging and showed a significant reduction in accumulated mortality. Here, we reported that pathogenic vibriosis can be controlled by Pseudoalteromonas sp. under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The results indicated that the biotic treatment offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in crab aquaculture. PMID:23793257

  9. Unexpected photoreactivation of Vibrio harveyi bacteria living in ionization environment

    SciTech Connect

    Alifano, P.; Tala, A.; Tredici, S. M. [Dipartimento Microbiologia, Di.S.Te.B.A., Universita del Salento, via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, C.P. 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Nassisi, V. [Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento and INFN-Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Siciliano, M. V. [Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento and INFN-Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, University of Salento, via Provinciale Lecce- Monteroni, C.P. 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Bacteria undergoing environmental effects is extremely interesting for structural, mechanistic, and evolutionary implications. Luminescent bacteria that have evolved in a specific ambient have developed particular responses and their behavior can give us new suggestions on the task and production of luciferina proteins. To analyze the UV interaction under controlled laboratory conditions, we used photoluminescent bacterial strains belonging to a new species evolutionarily close to Vibrio harveyi sampled from a coastal cave with a high radon content that generates ionizing radiation. The survival of the bacterial strains was analyzed, in the light and in the dark, following a variety of genotoxic treatments including UV radiation exposure. The strains were irradiated by a germicide lamp. The results demonstrated that most of the strains exhibited a low rate of survival after the UV exposure. After irradiation by visible light following the UV exposure, all strains showed a high capability of photoreactivation when grown. This capability was quite unexpected because these bacteria were sampled from a dark ambient without UV radiation. This leads us to hypothesize that the photoreactivation in these bacteria might have been evolved to repair DNA lesions also induced by different radiation sources other than UV (e.g., x-ray) and that the luminescent bacteria might use their own light emission to carry out the photoreactivation. The high capability of photoreactivation of these bacteria was also justified by the results of deconvolution. The deconvolution was applied to the emission spectra and it was able to show evidence of different light peaks. The presence of the visible peak could control the photolysis enzyme.

  10. Lead Precipitation by Vibrio harveyi: Evidence for Novel Quorum-Sensing Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mire, Chad E.; Tourjee, Jeanette A.; O'Brien, William F.; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V.; Hecht, Gregory B.

    2004-01-01

    Three pleiotropic, quorum sensing-defective Vibrio harveyi mutants were observed to precipitate soluble Pb2+ as an insoluble compound. The compound was purified and subjected to X-ray diffraction and elemental analyses. These assays identified the precipitated compound as Pb9(PO4)6, an unusual and complex lead phosphate salt that is produced synthetically at temperatures of ca. 200°C. Regulation of the precipitation phenotype was also examined. Introduction of a luxO::kan allele into one of the mutants abolished lead precipitation, indicating that the well-characterized autoinducer 1 (AI1)-AI2 quorum-sensing system can block lead precipitation in dense cell populations. Interestingly, the V. harveyi D1 mutant, a strain defective for secretion of both AI1 and AI2, was shown to be an effective trans inhibitor of lead precipitation. This suggests that a previously undescribed V. harveyi autoinducer, referred to as AI3, can also negatively regulate lead precipitation. Experiments with heterologous bacterial populations demonstrated that many different species are capable of trans regulating the V. harveyi lead precipitation phenotype. Moreover, one of the V. harveyi mutants in this study exhibited little or no response to intercellular signals from other V. harveyi inocula but was quite responsive to some of the heterologous bacteria. Based on these observations, we propose that V. harveyi carries at least one quorum sensor that is specifically dedicated to receiving cross-species communication. PMID:14766565

  11. Solanum nigrum enhancement of the immune response and disease resistance of tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon against Vibrio harveyi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramasamy Harikrishnan; Chellam Balasundaram; Sundaram Jawahar; Moon-Soo Heo

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different doses of Solanum nigrum extract enriched diets, on the immune response and disease resistance of tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon against Vibrio harveyi, were examined. Total hemocyte count (THC) and hyaline cell (HC) of P. monodon fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of S. nigrum extract enriched diets significantly increased to the control against V. harveyi whereas

  12. Metabolic profiling of the tissue-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis towards Vibrio harveyi challenge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wang, Qing; Li, Fei; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-08-01

    Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a marine aquaculture shellfish distributing widely along the coast in north China. In this work, we studied the differential metabolic responses induced by Vibrio harveyi in digestive gland and gill tissues from M. galloprovincialis using NMR-based metabolomics. The differential metabolic responses in the two tissue types were detected, except the similarly altered taurine and betaine. These metabolic responses suggested that V. harveyi mainly induced osmotic disruption and reduced energy demand via the metabolic pathways of glucose synthesis and ATP/AMP conversion in mussel digestive gland. In mussel gill tissues, V. harveyi basically caused osmotic stress and possible reduced energy demand as shown by the elevated phosphocholine that is involved in one of the metabolic pathways of ATP synthesis from ADP and phosphocholine. The altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (superoxide dismutase with copper and zinc, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme) suggested that V. harveyi induced clear oxidative and immune stresses in both digestive gland and gill tissues. However, the mRNA expression levels of both lysozyme and defensin in digestive gland were more significantly up-regulated than those in gill from V. harveyi-challenged mussel M. galloprovincialis, meaning that the immune organ, digestive gland, was more sensitive than gill. Overall, our results indicated that V. harveyi could induce tissue-specific metabolic responses in mussel M. galloprovincialis. PMID:24911264

  13. Evaluation of RAPD-PCR and protein profile analysis to differentiate Vibrio harveyi strains prevalent along the southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Biswajit; Shekar, Malathi; Khushiramani, Rekha; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2009-12-01

    Sixty five isolates of Vibrio harveyi were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis and protein profiling to investigate the genetic variability among V. harveyi prevalent along the coast and also assess the discriminating ability of these two molecular methods. A total of 10 RAPD primers were assayed for their specificity in detecting V. harveyi, of which only two primers: PM3 and CRA25 were highly reproducible and found suitable for use in RAPD-PCR. The genetic diversity among V. harveyi isolates assessed by RAPD-PCR using PM3 primer yielded 35 different RAPD patterns which clustered the isolates into 15 groups at 72% similarity level. Similarly, RAPD-PCR with CRA25 clustered the 38 patterns into 10 groups at 74% similarity. The discriminatory index (D) value calculated for RAPD fingerprints generated with PM3 and CRA25 were 0.90 and 0.85, respectively. On the other hand, molecular typing of V. harveyi using whole cell proteins generated profiles that showed no major difference indicating the technique to be not useful in typing strains of this bacterium. However, a few of the isolates showed the presence of unique band of 28 kDa that needs to be further investigated to understand the role of the protein in disease process if any. PMID:20086292

  14. VanT, a Homologue of Vibrio harveyi LuxR, Regulates Serine, Metalloprotease, Pigment, and Biofilm Production in Vibrio anguillarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antony Croxatto; Victoria J. Chalker; Johan Lauritz; Jana Jass; Andrea Hardman; Paul Williams; M. Camara; Debra L. Milton

    2002-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum possesses at least two N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing circuits, one of which is related to the luxMN system of Vibrio harveyi. In this study, we have cloned an additional gene of this circuit, vanT, encoding a V. harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional regulator. A V. anguillarum vanT null mutation resulted in a significant decrease in total protease activity due to

  15. Novel ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases from Vibrio harveyi 650: Cloning, expression, enzymatic properties, and subsite identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wipa Suginta; Duangkamon Chuenark; Mamiko Mizuhara; Tamo Fukamizo

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since chitin is a highly abundant natural biopolymer, many attempts have been made to convert this insoluble polysaccharide into commercially valuable products using chitinases and ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases). We have previously reported the structure and function of chitinase A from Vibrio harveyi 650. This study t reports the identification of two GlcNAcases from the same organism and their detailed functional

  16. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host-pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp. PMID:22673627

  17. Two prophenoloxidases are important for the survival of Vibrio harveyi challenged shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2009-02-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) plays an important role in arthropod melanization. Previously, a prophenoloxidase (PmproPO1) gene was cloned and characterized from the hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. In the present study, we report a novel proPO gene (PmproPO2) belonging to the proPO family identified from the P. monodon EST database (http://pmonodon.biotec.or.th). The full-length sequence of PmproPO2 consists of 2513bp encoding a predicted 689 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass and pI of 79.21kDa and 6.69, respectively. It is predicted to possess all the expected features of proPO members, including two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six histidine residues and a thiol ester-like motif, sharing 67% amino acid sequence identity with PmproPO1. Tissue distribution analyses revealed that the two proPO genes are primarily expressed in the hemocyte. Gene silencing of either PmproPO1 or PmproPO2 or both by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in a significant decrease in the respective endogenous proPO mRNA level in hemocytes and a reduction of total PO enzyme activity by 75, 73 and 88%, respectively. Experimental infection of P. monodon with the pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio harveyi, revealed that PmproPO silenced shrimps were more susceptible to bacterial infection than the control GFP injected shrimps, and suggesting that the two proPOs are important components in the shrimp immune defense. PMID:18834900

  18. The early stages of the immune response of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata to a Vibrio harveyi infection.

    PubMed

    Cardinaud, Marion; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V. harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24?h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24?h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V. harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V. harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V. harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone. PMID:25766281

  19. The anguibactin biosynthesis and transport genes are encoded in the chromosome of Vibrio harveyi: a possible evolutionary origin for the pJM1 plasmid–encoded system of Vibrio anguillarum?

    PubMed Central

    Naka, Hiroaki; Actis, Luis A; Crosa, Jorge H

    2013-01-01

    Many Vibrio anguillarum serotype O1 strains carry 65-kb pJM1-type plasmids harboring genes involved in siderophore anguibactin biosynthesis and transport. The anguibactin system is an essential factor for V. anguillarum to survive under iron-limiting conditions, and as a consequence, it is a very important virulence factor of this bacterium. Our comparative analysis of genomic data identified a cluster harboring homologs of anguibactin biosynthesis and transport genes in the chromosome of Vibrio harveyi. We have purified the putative anguibactin siderophore and demonstrated that it is indeed anguibactin by mass spectrometry and specific bioassays. Furthermore, we characterized two genes, angR and fatA, in this chromosome cluster that, respectively, participate in anguibactin biosynthesis and transport as determined by mutagenesis analysis. Furthermore, we found that the V. harveyi FatA protein is located in the outer membrane fractions as previously demonstrated in V. anguillarum. Based on our data, we propose that the anguibactin biosynthesis and transport cluster in the V. anguillarum pJM1 plasmid have likely evolved from the chromosome cluster of V. harveyi or vice versa. PMID:23335587

  20. Quorum Sensing Influences Vibrio harveyi Growth Rates in a Manner Not Fully Accounted For by the Marker Effect of Bioluminescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeena E. Nackerdien; Alexander Keynan; Bonnie L. Bassler; Joshua Lederberg; David S. Thaler; Julian Rutherford

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundThe light-emitting Vibrios provide excellent material for studying the interaction of cellular communication with growth rate because bioluminescence is a convenient marker for quorum sensing. However, the use of bioluminescence as a marker is complicated because bioluminescence itself may affect growth rate, e.g. by diverting energy.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe marker effect was explored via growth rate studies in isogenic Vibrio harveyi (Vh)

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Virulence-Enhancing Siphophage VHS1 from Vibrio harveyi

    PubMed Central

    Khemayan, Krit; Prachumwat, Anuphap; Sonthayanon, Burachai; Intaraprasong, Aungkul; Sriurairatana, Siriporn

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi siphophage 1 (VHS1) is a tailed phage with an icosahedral head of approximately 66 nm in diameter and an unornamented, flexible tail of approximately 153 nm in length. When Vibrio harveyi 1114GL is lysogenized with VHS1, its virulence for the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) increases by more than 100 times, and this coincides with production of a toxin(s) associated with shrimp hemocyte agglutination. Curiously, the lysogen does not show increased virulence for the whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus [Litopenaeus] vannamei). Here we present and annotate the complete, circular genome of VHS1 (81,509 kbp; GenBank accession number JF713456). By software analysis, the genome contains 125 putative open reading frames (ORFs), all of which appear to be located on the same DNA strand, similar to the case for many other bacteriophages. Most of the putative ORFs show no significant homology to known sequences in GenBank. Notable exceptions are ORFs for a putative DNA polymerase and putative phage structural proteins, including a portal protein, a phage tail tape measure protein, and a phage head protein. The last protein was identified as a component of the species-specific toxin mixture described above as being associated with agglutination of hemocytes from P. monodon. PMID:22307287

  2. Cloning and Expression of Vibrio harveyi OmpK* and GAPDH* Genes and Their Potential Application as Vaccines in Large Yellow Croakers Pseudosciaena crocea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chongwen Zhang; Lian Yu; Ronghua Qian

    2008-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a causative agent of vibriosis in the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea and causes severe losses to the aquaculture industry in China. The vaccines based on the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of the pathogens are considered to be the optimum intervention for this disease. In this study, two V. harveyi OMP genes, OmpK* and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH*),

  3. Antibacterial effect of medium-chain fatty acid: caprylic acid on gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana nauplii against shrimp pathogens Vibrio harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Immanuel; M. Sivagnanavelmurugan; A. Palavesam

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the antibacterial effect of caprylic acid in the culture system of Artemia franciscana nauplii inoculated with shrimp pathogens Vibrio harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. To begin with, the antibacterial effect of different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 mM) of caprylic acid against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus was assessed through bacterial growth study. This

  4. Nitric oxide as an antimicrobial molecule against Vibrio harveyi infection in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Wong, Nai-Kei; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Zhang, Lvping; Yang, Dan; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key effector molecule produced in the innate immune systems of many species for antimicrobial defense. However, how NO production is regulated during bacterial infection in invertebrates, especially crustaceans, remains poorly understood. Vibrio harveyi, a Gram-negative marine pathogen, is among the most prevalent and serious threats to the world's shrimp culture industry. Its virulence typically manifests itself through shrimp hepatopancreas destruction. In the current study, we found that NO generated by an in vitro donor system (NOC-18) could rapidly and effectively kill V. harveyi. In addition, injection of heat-killed V. harveyi increased the concentration of NO/nitrite and the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the commercially most significant shrimp species. Live V. harveyi challenge also induced NO/nitrite production and NOS gene expression in primary L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Co-incubation of l-NAME, an inhibitor selective for mammalian constitutive NOSs, dose-dependently blocked V. harveyi-induced NO/nitrite production, without affecting V. harveyi-induced NOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, l-NAME treatment significantly increased the survival rate of infecting V. harveyi in cultured primary hepatopancreatic cells of L. vannamei. As a whole, we have demonstrated that endogenous NO produced by L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells occurs in enzymatically regulated manners and is sufficient to act as a bactericidal molecule for V. harveyi clearance. PMID:25449376

  5. Parallel Quorum Sensing Systems Converge to Regulate Virulence in Vibrio cholerae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa B. Miller; Karen Skorupski; Derrick H. Lenz; Ronald K. Taylor; Bonnie L. Bassler

    2002-01-01

    The marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi possesses two quorum sensing systems (System 1 and System 2) that regulate bioluminescence. Although the Vibrio cholerae genome sequence reveals that a V. harveyi-like System 2 exists, it does not predict the existence of a V. harveyi-like System 1 or any obvious quorum sensing-controlled target genes. In this report we identify and characterize the genes

  6. Evaluation of the vaccine potential of a cytotoxic protease and a protective immunogen from a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi strain.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuang; Zhang, Wei-wei; Zhang, Min; Sun, Li

    2010-01-22

    Vibrio harveyi is an important aquaculture pathogen that can infect a number of fish species and marine invertebrates. A putative protease, Vhp1, was identified from a pathogenic V. harveyi strain isolated from diseased fish as a protein with secretion capacity. Vhp1 is 530 amino acids in length and shares high sequence identities with several extracellular serine proteases of the Vibrio species. In silico analysis identified a protease domain in Vhp1, which is preceded by a subtilisin-N domain and followed by a bacterial pre-peptidase C-terminal domain. Purified recombinant protein corresponding to the protease domain of Vhp1 exhibited apparent proteolytic activity that was relatively heat-stable and reached maximum at pH 8.0 and 50 degrees C. The activity of purified recombinant Vhp1 protease was enhanced by Ca(2+) and inhibited by Mn(2+) and ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid. Cytotoxicity analyses indicated that recombinant Vhp1 protease was toxic to cultured Japanese flounder cells and could cause complete cell lysis. Immunoprotective analysis using Japanese flounder as an animal model showed that purified recombinant Vhp1 in the form of a denatured and proteolytically inactive protein was an effective subunit vaccine. To improve the vaccine potential of Vhp1, an Escherichia coli strain that expresses and secrets a cytotoxically impaired Vhp1 was constructed, which, when used as a live vaccine, afforded a high level of protection upon the vaccinated fish against lethal V. harveyi challenge. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Vhp1 is a cytotoxic protease and an effective vaccine candidate against V. harveyi infection. PMID:19897068

  7. Studies on the immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharide gel extracted from Durio zibethinus in Penaeus monodon shrimp against Vibrio harveyi and WSSV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Komsil Pholdaeng; Sunanta Pongsamart

    2010-01-01

    Oral administration of polysaccharide gel (PG) in shrimp diets revealed immunostimulating potential and disease resistance in Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp). PG from the fruit-rind of Durio zibethinus has been characterized to be a pectic polysaccharide with immunomodulating and antibacterial activities. PG inhibited growth of the shrimp bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi 1526, by agar diffusion and broth microdilution tests. Clear

  8. Sigma E Regulators Control Hemolytic Activity and Virulence in a Shrimp Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi

    E-print Network

    Rattanama, Pimonsri

    Members of the genus Vibrio are important marine and aquaculture pathogens. Hemolytic activity has been identified as a virulence factor in many pathogenic vibrios including V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, ...

  9. Studies on the immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharide gel extracted from Durio zibethinus in Penaeus monodon shrimp against Vibrio harveyi and WSSV.

    PubMed

    Pholdaeng, Komsil; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2010-04-01

    Oral administration of polysaccharide gel (PG) in shrimp diets revealed immunostimulating potential and disease resistance in Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp). PG from the fruit-rind of Durio zibethinus has been characterized to be a pectic polysaccharide with immunomodulating and antibacterial activities. PG inhibited growth of the shrimp bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi 1526, by agar diffusion and broth microdilution tests. Clear inhibition zones on agar plates were observed at the lowest PG concentration of 3.1 mg/ml, where minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for PG were 6.3 and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. Each group of juvenile shrimps, initial mean body weight 0.29 +/- 0.04 g, was housed in a closed-recirculating treated water system and was fed with PG-supplemented diets containing 1, 2 and 3% PG or shrimp basal diet in the control group for 8 and 12 weeks. PG-supplemented diets did not contribute to the overall growth of black tiger shrimp. The immune response was evaluated by analysis of prophenoloxidase activity and total hemocyte count in the shrimp fed PG-supplemented diets for 12 weeks. Prophenoloxidase activity in shrimp fed the 1, 2 and 3% PG-supplemented diet and total hemocyte count in shrimp fed the 1 and 2% PG-supplemented diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group. The percent survival was higher in groups fed the 1-3% PG-supplemented diets in challenge tests with either white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or the bacterium V. harveyi 1526 than that of the control group. Relative percent survival (RPS) values in groups fed the 2% PG-supplemented diet showed the highest RPS value for disease resistance of 100% (at Day 6) and 36% (at Day 4) in treated shrimp against viral and bacterial infection, respectively. Mortality of PG-supplemented diets in treated shrimps against WSSV infection was also found to be much lower (P < 0.05) than that of the control group. PMID:20034573

  10. Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC) in Soil Water Extracts Using Vibrio harveyi BB721 and Its Implication for Microbial Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Leddy, Menu; Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is commonly used to measure the growth potential of microorganisms in water, but has not yet been investigated for measuring microbial growth potential in soils. In this study, a simple, rapid, and non-growth based assay to determine AOC in soil was developed using a naturally occurring luminous strain Vibrio harveyi BB721 to determine the fraction of low molecular weight organic carbon in soil water extract. Calibration of the assay was achieved by measuring the luminescence intensity of starved V. harveyi BB721 cells in the late exponential phase with a concentration range from 0 to 800 µg l?1 glucose (equivalent to 0–16.0 mg glucose C kg?1 soil) with the detection limit of 10 µg l?1 equivalent to 0.20 mg glucose C kg?1 soil. Results showed that bioluminescence was proportional to the concentration of glucose added to soil. The luminescence intensity of the cells was highly pH dependent and the optimal pH was about 7.0. The average AOC concentration in 32 soils tested was 2.9±2.2 mg glucose C kg?1. Our data showed that AOC levels in soil water extracts were significantly correlated (P<0.05) with microbial biomass determined as microbial biomass carbon, indicating that the AOC concentrations determined by the method developed might be a good indicator of soil microbial biomass. Our findings provide a new approach that may be used to determine AOC in environmental samples using a non-growth bioluminescence based assay. Understanding the levels of AOC in soil water extract provides new insights into our ability to estimate the most available carbon pool to bacteria in soil that may be easily assimilated into cells for many metabolic processes and suggest possible the links between AOC, microbial regrowth potential, and microbial biomass in soils. PMID:22679477

  11. Expression of immune-related genes in the digestive organ of shrimp, Penaeus monodon, after an oral infection by Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Soonthornchai, Wipasiri; Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2010-01-01

    In all previous studies, to study shrimp immune response, bacteria were directly injected into the shrimp body and as a consequence the initial step of a natural interaction was omitted. In this study we have instead used an immersion technique, which is a more natural way of establishing an infection, to study immune responses in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Normally, Vibrio harveyi (Vh) is highly pathogenic to post-larval shrimp, but not to juveniles which usually resist an infection. In post-larvae, Vh causes a massive destruction of the digestive system, especially in the hepatopancreas and in the anterior gut. We have therefore investigated changes in transcription levels of fifteen immune-related genes and morphological changes in juvenile shrimp following an immersion of shrimp in Vh suspension. We found that a pathogenic bacterium, Vh, has the capacity to induce a local expression of some immune-related genes in shrimp after such a bacterial immersion. Our results show that in the juvenile gut small changes in expression of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes such as antilipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3, crustin and penaeidin were observed. However some other genes were more strongly induced in their expression compared to the AMP genes. C-type lectin, Tachylectin 5a1 and mucin-like peritrophic membrane were increased in their expression and the C-type lectin was affected most in its expression. Several other examined genes did not change their expression levels. By performing histology studies it was found that Vh infection induced a strong perturbation of the midgut epithelium in some regions. As a consequence, the epithelial cells and basement membrane of the infected site were completely damaged and necrotic and massive hemocyte infiltration occurred underneath the affected tissue to combat the infection. PMID:19646472

  12. Gene silencing of a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon, increases susceptibility to Vibrio harveyi infection.

    PubMed

    Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Amparyup, Piti; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2009-07-01

    The prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system is an important innate immune response against microbial infections in invertebrates. The major enzyme, phenoloxidase (PO), is synthesized as an inactive precursor and its activation to an active enzyme is mediated by a cascade of clip domain serine proteinases (clip-SPs). In this study, a cDNA encoding a proPO activating enzyme (PPAE) from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, designated as PmPPAE1, was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1392bp encoding a predicted protein of 463 amino acids including an 18 amino acid signal peptide. The PmPPAE1 protein exhibits a characteristic sequence structure of clip-SPs consisting of the clip domain at the N-terminus and a SP domain at the C-terminus. Sequence analysis showed that PmPPAE1 exhibited the highest amino acid sequence similarity (70%) to a PPAE of the crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. PmPPAE1 mRNA is abundantly expressed in hemocytes, and this is regulated after systemic Vibrio harveyi infection supporting that it is an immune-responsive gene. RNA interference-mediated suppression of PmPPAE1, performed by injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to the PmPPAE1 gene into shrimp, resulted in a significant reduction of PmPPAE1 but not other clip-SP and related gene transcript levels of P. monodon, suggesting gene-specific knockdown. RNAi-mediated silencing of PmPPAE1 gene significantly decreased the total PO activity (36.7%) in shrimp and additionally increased the mortality of V. harveyi infected shrimp, the latter of which correlated with an increase in the number of viable bacteria in the hemolymph. These results indicate that PmPPAE1 functions in the proPO system and is an important component in the shrimp immune system. PMID:19428482

  13. Chemical and structural characterization of hydroxamate siderophore produced by marine Vibrio harveyi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Murugappan; A. Aravinth; M. Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 22 different bacteria were isolated from open ocean water from the Gulf of Mannar, India. Of the 22\\u000a isolates, 4 were identified as Vibrio spp. (VM1, VM2, VM3 and VM4) and found to produce siderophores (iron-binding chelators) under iron-limited conditions. Different\\u000a media were found to have an influence on siderophore production. Maximum siderophore production was observed

  14. Intracellular generation of superoxide as a by-product of Vibrio harveyi luciferase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    González-Flecha, B; Demple, B

    1994-04-01

    Luciferase genes are widely used as reporters of gene expression because of the high sensitivity of chemiluminescence detection and the possibility of monitoring light production in intact cells. We engineered fusions of the Escherichia coli soxS promoter to the luciferase structural genes (luxAB) from Vibrio harveyi. Since soxS transcription is positively triggered by the activated SoxR protein in response to agents such as paraquat that generate intracellular superoxide, we hoped to use this construct as a sensitive reporter of redox stress agents. Although a soxR+ soxS'::luxAB fusion exhibited a paraquat-inducible synthesis of luciferase, a smaller increase was consistently observed even in the absence of known soxRS inducers. This endogenous induction was soxR dependent and was further characterized by introducing a plasmid carrying the luciferase structural genes without the soxS promoter into a strain carrying a soxS'::lacZ fusion in the bacterial chromosome. These cells exhibited increased beta-galactosidase expression as they grew into mid-log phase. This increase was ascribed to luciferase activity because beta-galactosidase induction was suppressed (but not eliminated) when the substrate n-decanal was present in the medium. The soxS'::luxAB plasmid transformed superoxide dismutase-deficient strains very poorly under aerobic conditions but just as efficiently as a control plasmid under anaerobic conditions. The production of hydrogen peroxide, the dismutation product of superoxide anion, was significantly increased in strains carrying bacterial luciferase and maximal in the absence of n-decanal. Taken collectively, these data point to the generation of significant amounts of intracellular superoxide by bacterial luciferase, the possible mechanism of which is discussed. In addition to providing insights into the role of superoxide in the activation of the SoxR protein, these results suggest caution in the interpretation of experiments using luciferase as a reporter of gene expression. PMID:8157597

  15. Preliminary assessment of mutagenic and anti-mutagenic potential of some aminoalkanolic derivatives of xanthone by use of the Vibrio harveyi assay.

    PubMed

    S?oczy?ska, Karolina; Waszkielewicz, Anna Maria; Marona, Henryk

    2014-07-01

    The Vibrio harveyi assay was used to evaluate mutagenic and anti-mutagenic effects of four new aminoalkanolic derivatives of xanthone with anticonvulsant activity, to select the potentially safe compounds for further in vivo studies in animal models. The study showed that at a concentration of 40 ng/ml the test compounds were not mutagenic. Additionally, two of the investigated compounds, namely the (R,S)-N-methyl-1-amino-2-propanol derivative of 6-methoxyxanthone (compound III) and the (R)-N-methyl-2-amino-1-butanol derivative of 7-chloroxanthone (compound IV) were strong inhibitors of the mutagenicity induced by 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) in V. harveyi strains BB7M and BB7XM. The inhibition percentages for compound IV were 49 (in BB7M) and 69 (in BB7XM), whereas for compound III these percentages were 47 (in BB7M) and 42 (in BB7XM), respectively. The present study demonstrates that four bioactive derivatives of xanthone display no mutagenic activity in the V. harveyi assay. In addition, compounds III and IV demonstrated considerable anti-mutagenic activity in this test. Based on the results obtained here, these compounds could be selected for further studies in animal models, while compounds III and IV should be tested further for their anti-mutagenic properties. PMID:24769486

  16. Elevated cytokine responses to Vibrio harveyi infection in the Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) treated with Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei (06TCa22) isolated from the Mongolian dairy product.

    PubMed

    Biswas, G; Korenaga, H; Nagamine, R; Kawahara, S; Takeda, S; Kikuchi, Y; Dashnyam, B; Yoshida, T; Kono, T; Sakai, M

    2013-09-01

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of a Mongolian dairy product derived Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei (strain 06TCa22) (Lpp) on the cytokine-mediated immune responses to Vibrio harveyi infection, we examined 16 cytokine expressions in the Japanese pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes. Fish were orally treated with the heat-killed Lpp at 1 mg g(-1) body weight d(-1) for 3 days. At 24 h posttreatment, fish were infected by an intramuscular injection of 0.1 mL V. harveyi bacterial suspension (10(8) cfu mL(-1)). Additionally, superoxide anion production (SAP) and phagocytic activity (PA) of head kidney cells were assessed during 120 h postinfection period. Significant up-regulation of pro-inflammatory (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17A/F-3, TNF-? and TNF-N), cell-mediated immune inducing (IL-12p35, IL-12p40 and IL-18), antiviral/intra-cellular pathogen killing (I-IFN-1 and IFN-?), anti-inflammatory (IL-10) and lymphocyte agonistic (IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, IL-21 and TGF-?1) cytokines was observed in the treated fish compared to control ones during the pathogen infection. Furthermore, significantly increased SAP and PA (P < 0.01; 0.05) were recorded in the treated fish compared to untreated fish. These results suggest the beneficial role of Lpp in enhancement of cytokine-mediated immunity in the Japanese pufferfish against V. harveyi infection and application of this product as a potential fish immunostimulant. PMID:23769874

  17. RNAi knock-down of the Litopenaeus vannamei Toll gene (LvToll) significantly increases mortality and reduces bacterial clearance after challenge with Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Han-Ching Wang, Kc; Tseng, Chun-Wei; Lin, Han-You; Chen, I-Tung; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chen, Yi-Min; Chen, Tzong-Yueh; Yang, Huey-Lang

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we used real-time PCR to simultaneously monitor the responses of 12 key genes of the shrimp innate immune system in Litopenaeus vannamei after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. In the proPO activating system, we found that proPO was up-regulated (3.3x control at 36hpi). The hemolymph clotting genes transglutaminase (TGase) and clotting protein were also up-regulated, as were 5 genes in the antimicrobial peptide system (ALF, Crustin, Lyz, PEN2 and PEN4), with only PEN3 showing no significant changes. In the antioxidant defense system, SOD was slightly elevated while GPx was substantially down-regulated. In the pattern recognition receptor system, at 24hpi, the Toll gene (LvToll) showed the highest relative increase in expression level of all the investigated genes (15x greater than the sterile seawater control). In the second part of this study, when LvToll was knocked down by RNAi silencing, there was no effect on either survival rates or bacterial number in unchallenged shrimp. There was also no difference in mortality rates between control shrimp and LvToll-silenced shrimp when these two groups were challenged with a viral pathogen (white spot syndrome virus; WSSV). However, when LvToll-silenced shrimp were challenged by V. harveyi, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. We note that the increase in bacterial CFU count occurred even though treatment with EGFP dsRNA had the opposite effect of reducing the CFU counts. We conclude that LvToll is an important factor in the shrimp innate immune response to acute V. harveyi infection, but not to WSSV. PMID:19698743

  18. Microbially influenced corrosion of 303 stainless steel by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens: (II) Corrosion mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yansheng Yin; Sha Cheng; Shougang Chen; Jintao Tian; Tao Liu; Xueting Chang

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization curves) and surface analysis (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) were carried out to determine the possible mechanism of the microbially influenced corrosion of 303 stainless steel (303 SS) by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens (V. natriegens). In order to clarify the mechanism, 303 SS coupons were immersed in four different mediums. EIS results

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Oyster Larval Probiotic Bacterium Vibrio sp. Strain OY15

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain OY15, a Gram-negative marine bacterium isolated from an oyster (Crassostrea virginica) digestive tract and shown to possess probiotic activity. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of probiotic activity as well as virulence capacity. PMID:25278542

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Human-Pathogenic Bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus E0666.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, He-Lin; Chen, Ying-Jian; Hu, Cheng-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium with worldwide distribution. In this work, we report the draft genome sequence of a V. alginolyticus strain (E0666) isolated from Epinephelus coioides ascites in the Shantou city of Guangdong Province, China. PMID:23990586

  1. Vibrio azureus sp. nov., a luminous marine bacterium isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Wada, Minoru; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Ikemoto, Eiko; Yokota, Akira; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2009-07-01

    Two luminous marine bacterial strains, LC2-005(T) and LC2-102, were isolated from seawater at Kuroshio Region and Sagami Bay in Japan, respectively. These bacteria were Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive, motile and rod-shaped. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strains LC2-005(T) and LC2-102 formed a cluster within the Vibrio harveyi species group. However, multilocus sequence analysis using five loci (pyrH, ftsZ, mreB, gyrB and gapA) and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated that these strains were distinct from the currently known Vibrio species. Additionally, these strains differ from related Vibrio species in utilization of glucose, mannitol, inositol, sorbitol, rhamnose, sucrose, melibiose and arabinose, production of lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, tryptophan deaminase, esterase (C4), lipase (C4), chymotrypsin, acid phosphatase, alpha-glucosidase, beta-glucosidase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and the ability to reduce nitrate to nitrite. The major fatty acids were C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c, C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(14 : 0). The DNA G+C contents of strains LC2-005(T) and LC2-102 were 45.2 and 45.5 mol%, respectively. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic evidence presented in this study, it can be concluded that strains LC2-005(T) and LC2-102 belong to the same genospecies and represent a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio azureus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LC2-005(T) (=NBRC 104587(T) =KCTC 22352(T)). PMID:19542136

  2. Expression of Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase allows efficient entry of exogenous fatty acids into the Escherichia coli fatty acid and lipid A synthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanfang; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Campbell, John W; Chan, Chi Ho; Cronan, John E

    2010-02-01

    Although the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway is the best studied type II fatty acid synthesis system, a major experimental limitation has been the inability to feed intermediates into the pathway in vivo because exogenously supplied free fatty acids are not efficiently converted to the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesters required by the pathway. We report that expression of Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS), a soluble cytosolic enzyme that ligates free fatty acids to ACP to form acyl-ACPs, allows exogenous fatty acids to enter the E. coli fatty acid synthesis pathway. The free fatty acids are incorporated intact and can be elongated or directly incorporated into complex lipids by acyltransferases specific for acyl-ACPs. Moreover, expression of AasS strains and supplementation with the appropriate fatty acid restored growth to E. coli mutant strains that lack essential fatty acid synthesis enzymes. Thus, this strategy provides a new tool for circumventing the loss of enzymes essential for FAS function. PMID:20028080

  3. Penetration of the Coral-Bleaching Bacterium Vibrio shiloi into Oculina patagonica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Banin; T. Israely; A. Kushmaro; Y. Loya; E. Orr; E. Rosenberg

    2000-01-01

    Inoculation of the coral-bleaching bacterium Vibrio shiloi into seawater containing its host Oculina patagonica led to adhesion of the bacteria to the coral surface via a b-D-galactose receptor, followed by penetration of the bacteria into the coral tissue. The internalized V. shiloi cells were observed inside the exodermal layer of the coral by electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy using specific

  4. Vibrio harveyi NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase: cloning, sequencing and overexpression of the gene and purification and characterization of the cloned enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Lei, B; Liu, M; Huang, S; Tu, S C

    1994-01-01

    NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) from luminous bacteria catalyze the reduction of flavin by NAD(P)H and are believed to provide the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) for luciferase in the bioluminescence reaction. By using an oligonucleotide probe based on the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase (flavin reductase P), a recombinant plasmid, pFRP1, was obtained which contained the frp gene encoding this enzyme. The DNA sequence of the frp gene was determined; the deduced amino acid sequence for flavin reductase P consists of 240 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 26,312. The frp gene was overexpressed, apparently through induction, in Escherichia coli JM109 cells harboring pFRP1. The cloned flavin reductase P was purified to homogeneity by following a new and simple procedure involving FMN-agarose chromatography as a key step. The same chromatography material was also highly effective in concentrating diluted flavin reductase P. The purified enzyme is a monomer and is unusual in having a tightly bound FMN cofactor. Distinct from the free FMN, the bound FMN cofactor showed a diminished A375 peak and a slightly increased 8-nm red-shifted A453 peak and was completely or nearly nonfluorescent. The Kms for FMN and NADPH and the turnover number of this flavin reductase were determined. In comparison with other flavin reductases and homologous proteins, this flavin reductase P shows a number of distinct features with respect to primary sequence, redox center, and/or kinetic mechanism. Images PMID:8206832

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Vibrio vulnificus 93U204, a Bacterium Isolated from Diseased Tilapia in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Chen, Hwajiun; Chen, Chun-Yao; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus 93U204 is a bacterium isolated from a moribund tilapia collected in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its pathogenicity and for comparative analyses with human-pathogenic strains within the same species. PMID:25278541

  6. DNA cloning, characterization, and inhibition studies of an ?-carbonic anhydrase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Sonia; Isik, Semra; Vullo, Daniela; De Luca, Viviana; Carginale, Vincenzo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2012-12-13

    We have cloned, purified, and characterized an ?-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the human pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, VchCA. The new enzyme has significant catalytic activity, and an inhibition study with sulfonamides and sulfamates led to the detection of a large number of low nanomolar inhibitors, among which are methazolamide, acetazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, benzolamide, and indisulam (KI values in the range 0.69-8.1 nM). As bicarbonate is a virulence factor of this bacterium and since ethoxzolamide was shown to inhibit the in vivo virulence, we propose that VchCA may be a target for antibiotic development, exploiting a mechanism of action rarely considered until now. PMID:23181552

  7. Vibrio panuliri sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus and transfer of Vibrio ponticus from Scophthalmi clade to the newly proposed Ponticus clade.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Prabla; Poddar, Abhijit; Schumann, Peter; Das, Subrata K

    2014-12-01

    A novel marine bacterium, strain LBS2(T) was isolated from eggs carried on pleopods of the spiny lobster collected from Andaman Sea. Heterotrophic growth occurred at 1-7% NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity revealed the strain LBS2(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and showed above 97% similarity with eight type strains of the genus Vibrio. Multilocus analysis based on ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH recA, rpoA, and topA revealed LBS2(T) formed a separate cluster with Vibrio ponticus DSM 16217(T) with 89.8% multilocus gene sequence similarity. However, strain LBS2(T) is distantly related with other members of the Scophthalmi clade in terms of 16S rRNA signatures, phenotypic variations and multilocus gene sequence similarity, for which we propose LBS2(T) belongs to a new clade i.e. Ponticus clade with V. ponticus DSM 16217(T) as the representative type strain of the clade. DNA-DNA homologies between strain LBS2(T) and closely related strains were well below 70%. DNA G + C content was 45.3 mol%. On the basis of our polyphasic study, strain LBS2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio panuliri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LBS2(T) (= JCM 19500(T) = DSM 27724(T) = LMG 27902(T)). PMID:25445014

  8. Cell-bound cations of the moderately halophilic bacterium Vibrio costicola.

    PubMed Central

    Shindler, D B; Wydro, R M; Kushner, D J

    1977-01-01

    Over most of the range of salt concentrations in which the moderately halophilic bacterium Vibrio costicola could grow, the sum of the cell-associated Na+ + K+ ions was at least as high as in the external medium. This is in contrast to other moderate halophiles, which have substantially lower internal than external salt concentrations for most of their growth range. The relative amounts of Na+ and K+ in V. costicola varied with environmental conditions. The K+/Na+ ratio fell during anaerobic incubation or when cells were poisoned. As Na+ ions left the cells, K+ ions entered. However, movement of these ions was not tightly coupled, since K+ content of cells could increase without a corresponding decrease in Na+ content. The Mg2+ contents of cells varied little with environmental conditions. PMID:263820

  9. Production of feather protein hydrolysate by keratinolytic bacterium Vibrio sp. kr2.

    PubMed

    Grazziotin, Adriane; Pimentel, Fernanda A; Sangali, Sidnei; de Jong, Erna V; Brandelli, Adriano

    2007-11-01

    A feather protein hydrolysate was produced using the keratinolytic bacterium Vibrio sp. strain kr2. Complete feather degradation was observed in medium containing up to 60 g L(-1) raw feathers. Cultivation on 40, 60 or 80 g L(-1) feathers for five days resulted in similar amounts of soluble protein, reaching maximum values around 2.5 g L(-1). Maximum yields of soluble protein were achieved at 30 degrees C and initial pH ranging from 6.0 to 8.0. Strain kr2 was effective in producing keratin hydrolysate from chicken feathers. Bacterial feather hydrolysate has the potential for utilization as an ingredient in animal feed or as organic fertilizer, thereby reducing the environmental impact of feather waste from the poultry industry. PMID:17223559

  10. Biochemical properties of a new ?-carbonic anhydrase from the human pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Sonia; De Luca, Viviana; Scozzafava, Andrea; Carginale, Vincenzo; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of cholera and colonizes the upper small intestine where sodium bicarbonate is present at a high concentration. Sodium bicarbonate is a potential inducer of virulence gene expression. Bacteria can increase cytosolic bicarbonate levels through the existence of transporter family proteins or through the action of metalloenzymes, called carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1). Vibrio cholerae, lacking of transporter proteins in its genome, utilizes the CA system to accumulate bicarbonate into the cell suggesting a pivotal role of this metalloenzymes in the microbial virulence. Here, we report for the first time the characterization of the ?-CA of V. cholerae (VchCA), which has been identified by translated genome inspection. The ?-CA encoding gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified to homogeneity. This investigation aimed to study the biochemical properties of VchCA and to provide preliminary insights in the field of this pathogen virulence. VchCA has a low esterase activity with 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate, and a high activity for the hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate. PMID:23321008

  11. Copper-induced production of copper-binding supernatant proteins by the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed Central

    Harwood-Sears, V; Gordon, A S

    1990-01-01

    Growth of the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus is temporarily inhibited by micromolar levels of copper. During the copper-induced lag phase, supernatant compounds which complex and detoxify copper are produced. In this study two copper-inducible supernatant proteins having molecular masses of ca. 21 and 19 kilodaltons (CuBP1 and CuBP2) were identified; these proteins were, respectively, 25 and 46 times amplified in supernatants of copper-challenged cultures compared with controls. Experiments in which chloramphenicol was added to cultures indicated that there was de novo synthesis of these proteins in response to copper. When supernatants were separated by gel permeation chromatography, CuBP1 and CuBP2 coeluted with a copper-induced peak in copper-binding activity. CuBP1 and CuBP2 from whole supernatants were concentrated and partially purified by using a copper-charged immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography column, confirming the affinity of these proteins for copper. A comparison of cell pellets and supernatants demonstrated that CuBP1 was more concentrated in supernatants than in cells. Our data are consistent with a model for a novel mechanism of copper detoxification in which excretion of copper-binding protein is induced by copper. Images PMID:2339887

  12. Assessment of mixture toxicity of copper, cadmium, and phenanthrenequinone to the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxi; Lampi, Mark A; Huang, Xiao-Dong; Gerhardt, Karen; Dixon, D George; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2009-04-01

    Transition metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are cocontaminants at many sites. Contaminants in mixtures are known to interact with biological systems in ways that can greatly alter the toxicity of individual compounds. The toxicities (individually and as mixtures) of copper (Cu), a redox-active metal; cadmium (Cd), a nonredox active metal; and phenanthrenequinone (PHQ), a redox-active oxygenated PAH, were examined using the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. We found that the cotoxicity of Cu/PHQ was dependent on the ratio of concentrations of each chemical in the mixture. Different interaction types (synergism, antagonism, and additivity) were observed with different combinations of these toxicants. The interaction types changed from antagonism at a low Cu to PHQ ratio (1:4), to additive at an intermediate Cu to PHQ ratio (2:3), to synergistic at higher Cu to PHQ ratios (3:2 and 4:1). In contrast to Cu/PHQ mixtures, the cotoxicity of Cd/PHQ did not change at different mixture ratios and was found for the most part to be additive. For the individual chemicals and their mixtures, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was observed in V. fischeri, suggesting that individual and mixture toxicity of Cu, Cd, and PHQ to V. fischeri involves ROS-related mechanisms. This study shows that mixture ratios can alter individual chemical toxicity, and should be taken into account in risk assessment. PMID:18561304

  13. Copper-induced production of copper-binding supernatant proteins by the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood-Sears, V.; Gordon, A.S. (Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Growth of the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus is temporarily inhibited by micromolar levels of copper. During the copper-induced lag phase, supernatant compounds and detoxify copper are produced. In this study two copper-inducible supernatant proteins having molecular masses of ca. 21 and 19 kilodaltons (CuBP1 and CuPB2) were identified; these proteins were, respectively, 25 and 46 times amplified in supernatants of copper-challenged cultures compared with controls. Experiments in which chloramphenicol was added to cultures indicated that there was de novo synthesis of these proteins in response to copper. When supernatants were separated by gel permeation chromatography, CuBP1 and CuPB2 coeluted with a copper-induced peak in copper-binding activity. CuBP1 and CuBP2 from whole supernatants were concentrated and partially purified by using a copper-charged immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography column, confirming the affinity of these proteins for copper. A comparison of cell pellets and supernatants demonstrated that CuBP1 was more concentrated in supernatants than in cells. Our data are consistent with a model for a novel mechanism of copper detoxification in which excretion of copper-binding protein is induced by copper.

  14. Antibiofilm Activity of an Exopolysaccharide from Marine Bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101

    PubMed Central

    Han, Feng; Duan, Gaofei; Lu, Xinzhi; Gu, Yuchao; Yu, Wengong

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial exopolysaccharides have always been suggested to play crucial roles in the bacterial initial adhesion and the development of complex architecture in the later stages of bacterial biofilm formation. However, Escherichia coli group II capsular polysaccharide was characterized to exert broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition activity. In this study, we firstly reported that a bacterial exopolysaccharide (A101) not only inhibits biofilm formation of many bacteria but also disrupts established biofilm of some strains. A101 with an average molecular weight of up to 546 KDa, was isolated and purified from the culture supernatant of the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101 by ethanol precipitation, iron-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. High performance liquid chromatography traces of the hydrolyzed polysaccharides showed that A101 is primarily consisted of galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and glucosamine. A101 was demonstrated to inhibit biofilm formation by a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria without antibacterial activity. Furthermore, A101 displayed a significant disruption on the established biofilm produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not by Staphylococcus aureus. Importantly, A101 increased the aminoglycosides antibiotics' capability of killing P. aeruginosa biofilm. Cell primary attachment to surfaces and intercellular aggregates assays suggested that A101 inhibited cell aggregates of both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, while the cell-surface interactions inhibition only occurred in S. aureus, and the pre-formed cell aggregates dispersion induced by A101 only occurred in P. aeruginosa. Taken together, these data identify the antibiofilm activity of A101, which may make it potential in the design of new therapeutic strategies for bacterial biofilm-associated infections and limiting biofilm formation on medical indwelling devices. The found of A101 antibiofilm activity may also promote a new recognition about the functions of bacterial exopolysaccharides. PMID:21490923

  15. Genomic and functional analysis of Vibrio phage SIO-2 reveals novel insights into ecology and evolution of marine siphoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Baudoux, A-C.; Hendrix, R.W.; Lander, G.C.; Bailly, X.; Podell, S.; Paillard, C.; Johnson, J.E.; Potter, C.S.; Carragher, B.; Azam, F.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a genomic and functional analysis of a novel marine siphovirus, the Vibrio phage SIO-2. This phage is lytic for related Vibrio species of great ecological interest including the broadly antagonistic bacterium Vibrio sp. SWAT3 as well as notable members of the Harveyi clade (V. harveyi ATTC BAA-1116 and V. campbellii ATCC 25920). Vibrio phage SIO-2 has a circularly permuted genome of 80,598 bp, which displays unusual features. This genome is larger than that of most known siphoviruses and only 38 of the 116 predicted proteins had homologues in databases. Another divergence is manifest by the origin of core genes, most of which share robust similarities with unrelated viruses and bacteria spanning a wide range of phyla. These core genes are arranged in the same order as in most bacteriophages but they are unusually interspaced at two places with insertions of DNA comprising a high density of uncharacterized genes. The acquisition of these DNA inserts is associated with morphological variation of SIO-2 capsid, which assembles as a large (80 nm) shell with a novel T=12 symmetry. These atypical structural features confer on SIO-2 a remarkable stability to a variety of physical, chemical and environmental factors. Given this high level of functional and genomic novelty, SIO-2 emerges as a model of considerable interest in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:22225728

  16. Experimental and predicted acute toxicity of antibacterial compounds and their mixtures using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Villa, Sara; Vighi, Marco; Finizio, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    This article investigates the bioluminescence inhibition effects of the antimicrobials triclocarban, triclosan and its metabolite methyl triclosan, using the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri as the test organism (Microtox©). The concentration response analysis was performed for the three individual substances and for a mixture in which the three compounds were mixed in a ratio of the IC50 of the individual components (equitoxic ratio). Toxicity values (the median inhibitory concentration value, in mg L(-1)) in the decreasing order of sensitivity were triclosan (0.73)>triclocarban (0.91)>methyl-triclosan (1.76). The comparison of the experimental data with those obtained by using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) equations indicated that triclosan and triclocarban act as polar narcotic compounds towards V. fischeri, whereas methyl-triclosan acts as a narcotic (baseline toxicity). The toxicity of the mixture was measured experimentally and predicted by two models (CA: concentration addition; IA: independent action). The results showed that the observed mixture toxicity (IC50=0.23 mg L(-1)) had no significant differences from those predicted by both CA and IA models. PMID:24529397

  17. Toxicity evaluation of pharmaceutical wastewaters using the alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Zuo, Jiane; Tang, Xinyao; Li, Ruixia; Li, Zaixing; Zhang, Fei

    2014-02-15

    The toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewaters has recently been the focus of the public in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of different raw and treated pharmaceutical wastewaters to algae Scenedesmus obliquus and bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants in China. The results of the conventional parameters analysis indicated that the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH3-N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after treatment. Pharmaceutical effluents were mainly polluted with organics and phosphorus as indicated by the average COD (388 mg/L) and TP (3.16 mg/L) concentrations. The toxicity test results indicated that the influent samples were toxic to both test species. Although the toxicities could be remarkably reduced after treatment, 10 out of the 16 effluent samples exceeded the acute toxicity discharge limit of the Chinese national standards. Spearman rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values of S. obliquus and V. fischeri. Compared with S. obliquus, V. fischeri detected more pharmaceutical effluent samples with toxicities. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the COD and NH3-N concentrations based on a Spearman rank correlation analysis. PMID:24374566

  18. A novel algicide: evidence of the effect of a fatty acid compound from the marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. BS02 on the harmful dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamarense.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Zhang, Huajun; Fu, Lijun; An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Yi, Lin; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-01-01

    Alexandrium tamarense is a notorious bloom-forming dinoflagellate, which adversely impacts water quality and human health. In this study we present a new algicide against A. tamarense, which was isolated from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. BS02. MALDI-TOF-MS, NMR and algicidal activity analysis reveal that this compound corresponds to palmitoleic acid, which shows algicidal activity against A. tamarense with an EC50 of 40 ?g/mL. The effects of palmitoleic acid on the growth of other algal species were also studied. The results indicate that palmitoleic acid has potential for selective control of the Harmful algal blooms (HABs). Over extended periods of contact, transmission electron microscopy shows severe ultrastructural damage to the algae at 40 ?g/mL concentrations of palmitoleic acid. All of these results indicate potential for controlling HABs by using the special algicidal bacterium and its active agent. PMID:24626054

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio sp. Strain Vb278, an Antagonistic Bacterium Isolated from the Marine Sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Ana C. S.; Franco, Telma; Califano, Gianmaria; Dowd, Scot E.; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. Vb278, a biofilm-producing strain isolated from the marine sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus, showing in vitro antibacterial activity. The annotated genome displays a range of symbiotic factors and the potential for the biosynthesis of several biologically active natural products. PMID:26021918

  20. Identification of the gene encoding the major NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase of the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744.

    PubMed Central

    Zenno, S; Saigo, K; Kanoh, H; Inouye, S

    1994-01-01

    The gene encoding the major NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase (flavin reductase) of the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744 was isolated by using synthetic oligonucleotide probes corresponding to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme. Nucleotide sequence analysis suggested that the major flavin reductase of V. fischeri consisted of 218 amino acids and had a calculated molecular weight of 24,562. Cloned flavin reductase expressed in Escherichia coli was purified virtually to homogeneity, and its basic biochemical properties were examined. As in the major flavin reductase in crude extracts of V. fischeri, cloned flavin reductase showed broad substrate specificity and served well as a catalyst to supply reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) to the bioluminescence reaction. The major flavin reductase of V. fischeri not only showed significant similarity in amino acid sequence to oxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H nitroreductases of Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter cloacae, and E. coli but also was associated with a low level of nitroreductase activity. The major flavin reductase of V. fischeri and the nitroreductases of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae would thus appear closely related in evolution and form a novel protein family. Images PMID:8206830

  1. Occurrence and distribution of halophilic vibrios in subtropical coastal waters of Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, K Y; Woo, M L; Lo, K W; French, G L

    1986-01-01

    The summer occurrence and distribution of halophilic vibrios in the subtropical coastal waters of Hong Kong were investigated. The density of vibrios in six sample sites ranged from 90 to 6,700 per ml, which made up 0.41 to 40% of the total bacterial populations of these sample sites. The sucrose-positive vibrios were found to be much more common (88% of total vibrios) than the sucrose-negative ones. A total of 48 strains belonging to six Vibrio species were fully characterized. Among these, Vibrio alginolyticus was the most frequently isolated, followed by V. parahaemolyticus, V. harveyi, V. vulnificus, V. campbellii, and V. fluvialis. The finding that eight of the nine strains of V. harveyi showed a positive Kanagawa reaction warrants further study. PMID:3789725

  2. Inhibición de vibrios patógenos de camarón por mezclas de cepas probióticas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Auxiliadora Sotomayor; José Luis Balcázar

    2003-01-01

    Summary Inhibition of shrimp pathogenic vibrios by mixture of probiotic strains A series of probiotic strain were challenged using an in vitro inhibition test with three pathogenic vibrios (Vibrio harveyi E22, V. vulnificus S2 and V. parahaemolyticus PA2) in order to confirm its antagonistic effect. The mixtures P63-Ili, P62-P64 and P62-P63-Ili presented a percentage of inhibition greater than 50%. This

  3. Aposymbiotic culture of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: role of the symbiotic bacterium Vibrio fischeri in host animal growth, development, and light organ morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Claes, M F; Dunlap, P V

    2000-02-15

    The sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes forms a bioluminescent mutualism with the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri, harboring V. fischeri cells in a complex ventral light organ and using the bacterial light in predator avoidance. To characterize the contribution of V. fischeri to the growth and development of E. scolopes and to define the long-term effects of bacterial colonization on light organ morphogenesis, we developed a mariculture system for the culture of E. scolopes from hatching to adulthood, employing artificial seawater, lighting that mimicked that of the natural environment, and provision of prey sized to match the developmental stage of E. scolopes. Animals colonized by V. fischeri and animals cultured in the absence of V. fischeri (aposymbiotic) grew and survived equally well, developed similarly, and reached sexual maturity at a similar age. Development of the light organ accessory tissues (lens, reflectors, and ink sac) was similar in colonized and aposymbiotic animals with no obvious morphometric or histological differences. Colonization by V. fischeri influenced regression of the ciliated epithelial appendages (CEAs), the long-term growth of the light organ epithelial tubules, and the appearance of the cells composing the ciliated ducts, which exhibit characteristics of secretory tissue. In certain cases, aposymbiotic animals retained the CEAs in a partially regressed state and remained competent to initiate symbiosis with V. fischeri into adulthood. In other cases, the CEAs regressed fully in aposymbiotic animals, and these animals were not colonizable. The results demonstrate that V. fischeri is not required for normal growth and development of the animal or for development of the accessory light organ tissues and that morphogenesis of only those tissues coming in contact with the bacteria (CEAs, ciliated ducts, and light organ epithelium) is altered by bacterial colonization of the light organ. Therefore, V. fischeri apparently makes no major metabolic contribution to E. scolopes beyond light production, and post-embryonic development of the light organ is essentially symbiont independent. J. Exp. Zool. 286:280-296, 2000. PMID:10653967

  4. Polysiphonia harveyi, WNC2005-126

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Wilson Freshwater

    2008-03-07

    WNC2005-126, Polysiphonia harveyi J. Bailey, Floating docks at Banks Channel, Wrightville Beach, New Hanover County, NC, 30 Jan 2005, Coll: DW Freshwater & B Stuercke, Det: DW Freshwater & B Stuercke, Poly NC6

  5. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized...

  6. Novel host-specific iron acquisition system in the zoonotic pathogen Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Pajuelo, David; Lee, Chung-Te; Roig, Francisco J; Hor, Lien-I; Amaro, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a marine bacterium associated with human and fish (mainly farmed eels) diseases globally known as vibriosis. The ability to infect and overcome eel innate immunity relies on a virulence plasmid (pVvbt2) specific for biotype 2 (Bt2) strains. In the present study, we demonstrated that pVvbt2 encodes a host-specific iron acquisition system that depends on an outer membrane receptor for eel transferrin called Vep20. The inactivation of vep20 did not affect either bacterial growth in human plasma or virulence for mice, while bacterial growth in eel blood/plasma was abolished and virulence for eels was significantly impaired. Furthermore, vep20 is an iron-regulated gene overexpressed in eel blood during artificially induced vibriosis both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, homologues to vep20 were identified in the transferable plasmids of two fish pathogen species of broad-host range, Vibrio harveyi (pVh1) and Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (pPHDD1). These data suggest that Vep20 belongs to a new family of plasmid-encoded fish-specific transferrin receptors, and the acquisition of these plasmids through horizontal gene transfer is likely positively selected in the fish-farming environment. Moreover, we propose Ftbp (fish transferrin binding proteins) as a formal name for this family of proteins. PMID:25630302

  7. The occurrence of Vibrio species in tropical shrimp culture environments; implications for food safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shubha Gopal; Subhendu K. Otta; Sanath Kumar; Indrani Karunasagar; Matsuaki Nishibuchi; Iddya Karunasagar

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of various Vibrio species in water, sediment and shrimp samples from multiple shrimp farm environments from the east and west coast of India was studied. The relative abundance was higher in west coast farms (ca. 104 cfu\\/ml water) when compared to the east coast (ca. 102 cfu\\/ml water). Vibrio alginolyticus (3–19%), V. parahaemolyticus (2–13%), V. harveyi (1–7%) and

  8. Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberghe, Johan; Verdonck, Linda; Robles-Arozarena, Rocio; Rivera, Gabriel; Bolland, Annick; Balladares, Marcos; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Calderon, Jorge; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Swings, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages. PMID:10347048

  9. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease...

  10. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria related to human pathogenic Vibrio species.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nur A; Grim, Christopher J; Lipp, Erin K; Rivera, Irma N G; Chun, Jongsik; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Choi, Seon Young; Hoq, Mozammel; Munk, A Christine; Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David; Challacombe, Jean F; Detter, J Chris; Han, Cliff S; Eisen, Jonathan A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-05-26

    Vibrio species are both ubiquitous and abundant in marine coastal waters, estuaries, ocean sediment, and aquaculture settings worldwide. We report here the isolation, characterization, and genome sequence of a novel Vibrio species, Vibrio antiquarius, isolated from a mesophilic bacterial community associated with hydrothermal vents located along the East Pacific Rise, near the southwest coast of Mexico. Genomic and phenotypic analysis revealed V. antiquarius is closely related to pathogenic Vibrio species, namely Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio vulnificus, but sufficiently divergent to warrant a separate species status. The V. antiquarius genome encodes genes and operons with ecological functions relevant to the environment conditions of the deep sea and also harbors factors known to be involved in human disease caused by freshwater, coastal, and brackish water vibrios. The presence of virulence factors in this deep-sea Vibrio species suggests a far more fundamental role of these factors for their bacterial host. Comparative genomics revealed a variety of genomic events that may have provided an important driving force in V. antiquarius evolution, facilitating response to environmental conditions of the deep sea. PMID:25964331

  11. Radiofrequency transmission line for bioluminescent Vibrio sp. irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassisi, V.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Velardi, L.

    2012-07-01

    We present the study and the analyses of a transmission line for radiofrequency (RF) irradiation of bacteria belonging to Vibrio harveyi-related strain PS1, a bioluminescent bacterium living in symbiosis with many marine organisms. The bioluminescence represents a new biologic indicator which is useful for studying the behaviour of living samples in the presence of RF waves due to the modern communication systems. A suitable transmission line, used as an irradiating cell and tested up to the maximum frequency used by the global system for mobile communications and universal mobile telecommunications system transmissions, was characterized. In this experiment, the RF voltage applied to the transmission line was 1 V. Due to short dimensions of the line and the applied high frequencies, standing waves were produced in addition to progressing waves and the electric field strength varies particularly along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic field map was not strongly linked to the electric one due to the presence of standing waves and of the outgoing irradiation. RF fields were measured by two homemade suitable probes able to diagnostic fields of high frequency. The field measurements were performed without any specimens inside the line. Being our sample made of living matter, the real field was modified and its value was estimated by a simulation code. The bioluminescence experiments were performed only at 900 MHz for two different measured electric fields, 53 and 140 V/m. The light emission was measured right from the beginning and after 7 and 25 h. Under RF irradiation, we found that the bioluminescence activity decreased. Compared with the control sample, the diminution was 6.8% and 44% after 7 and 25 h of irradiation, respectively, both with the low or high field. No changes of the survival factor for all the samples were observed. Besides, to understand the emission processes, we operated the deconvolution of the spectra by two Gaussian curves. The Gaussian peaks were approximately centered at 460 nm and 490 nm. The 490 nm peak was higher than the control one. Under RF, the 490 nm peak decreased compared to the 460 nm one. The decreasing was stronger for the sample in the higher field. The ratio of the emission area of the 490 nm to 460 nm was 5 for the control sample. It decreased up to 1.6 for the samples under RF. The bioluminescence improves the DNA repair by photoreactivation, and there is evidence that photolyase is preferentially activated by blue/violet light. Our finding suggests that RF exposure may stimulate DNA repair by shifting the emission spectra from blue/green (490 nm) to blue/violet (460 nm).

  12. Vibrio and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... takes over an area after a hurricane or flood may contain Vibrio bacteria. You should try to ... Available at URL: http://www.cdc.gov/vibrio/index.html Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.2013. ...

  13. Sigma E Regulators Control Hemolytic Activity and Virulence in a Shrimp Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi

    E-print Network

    Mekalanos, John

    ,764 mutants screened, five mutants showed reduced hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar and exhibited activity in sheep blood agar, and were 3-to 7-fold attenuated for colonization in shrimp. Comparison

  14. Illuminating Cell Signaling: Using "Vibrio harveyi" in an Introductory Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrizo, Stacy L.; Kaufmann, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Cell signaling is an essential cellular process that is performed by all living organisms. Bacteria communicate with each other using a chemical language in a signaling pathway that allows bacteria to evaluate the size of their population, determine when they have reached a critical mass (quorum sensing), and then change their behavior in unison…

  15. Visick Lab: Home of the Vibrio-Euprymna Symbiosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Karen Visick

    This website features general information about the lab of Karen Visick, which studies the genes needed to establish an interaction between the small Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminescent symbiont, the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It features links to more information about current research in the Visick lab, lab members and events, and the summer research program and microbiology department at Loyola University.

  16. EFFECTS OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL FACTORS AND BACTERIAL COLONY MORPHOTYPE ON ASSOCIATION OF VIBRIO VULNIFICUS WITH HEMOCYTES OF CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vibrio vulnificus is a naturally occurring marine bacterium which causes invasive disease of immunocompromised humans following consumption of raw oysters. t is natural flora of Gulf Coast estuaries and has been found to inhabit tissues of oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, ...

  17. Vibrios adhere to epithelial cells in the intestinal tract of red sea bream, Pagrus major, utilizing GM4 as an attachment site.

    PubMed

    Chisada, Shin-ichi; Shimizu, Kohei; Kamada, Haruna; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Vibrios, distributed in marine and brackish environments, can cause vibriosis in fish and shellfish under appropriate conditions. Previously, we clarified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) overlay assay that (35)S-labeled Vibrio trachuri adhered to GM4 isolated from red sea bream intestine. However, whether GM4 actually functions on epithelial cells as an attachment site for vibrios still remains to be uncovered. We found that six isolates, classified as V. harveyi, V. campbellii, and V. splendidus, from intestinal microflora of red sea bream adhered to GM4 but not galactosylceramide (GalCer) by TLC-overlay assay. Tissue-overlay assays revealed that V. harveyi labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) adhered to epithelial cells of red sea bream intestine where GM4 and GalCer were found to be distributed on the top layer of actin filaments by immunohistochemical analysis using corresponding antibodies. The number of adhering vibrios was diminished by pretreatment with anti-GM4 antibody, but not anti-GalCer antibody. These results clearly indicate that vibrios adhere to epithelial cells of red sea bream intestine utilizing GM4 as an attachment site. PMID:23320941

  18. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  19. Genes Similar to the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Virulence-Related Genes tdh, tlh, and vscC2 Occur in Other Vibrionaceae Species Isolated from a Pristine Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Savannah L.; Gutierrez West, Casandra K.; Mejia, Diana M.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of the human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus often relies on molecular biological analysis of species-specific virulence factor genes. These genes have been employed in determinations of V. parahaemolyticus population numbers and the prevalence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains. Strains of the Vibrionaceae species Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio diabolicus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio natriegens, as well as strains similar to Vibrio tubiashii, were isolated from a pristine salt marsh estuary. These strains were examined for the V. parahaemolyticus hemolysin genes tdh, trh, and tlh and for the V. parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2? gene vscC2 using established PCR primers and protocols. Virulence-related genes occurred at high frequencies in non-V. parahaemolyticus Vibrionaceae species. V. diabolicus was of particular interest, as several strains were recovered, and the large majority (>83%) contained virulence-related genes. It is clear that detection of these genes does not ensure correct identification of virulent V. parahaemolyticus. Further, the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus-like virulence factors in other vibrios potentially complicates tracking of outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus infections. PMID:24212573

  20. Evidence that Water TransmitsVibrio vulnificus Biotype 2 Infections to Eels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARMEN AMARO; ELENA G. BIOSCA; BELEN FOUZ; ELENA ALCAIDE; ANDCONSUELO ESTEVE

    Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is classically considered an obligate eel pathogen. However, it has recently been associated with one human septicemic case. In this paper, the opportunistic behavior of this pathogen is discussed. The bacterium can survive alone in brackish water or attached to eel surfaces for at least 14 days. It is able to spread through water and infect

  1. Alterations in the Proteome of the Euprymna scolopes Light Organ in Response to Symbiotic Vibrio fischeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUDITH DOINO LEMUS; MARGARET J. MCFALL-NGAI

    2000-01-01

    During the onset of the cooperative association between the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the anatomy and morphology of the host's symbiotic organ undergo dramatic changes that require interaction with the bacteria. This morphogenetic process involves an array of tissues, including those in direct contact with, as well as those remote from, the

  2. Ultrasensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 using microcantilever-based biosensor with dynamic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assawapong Sappat; Anurat Wisitsoraat; Chamras Promptmas; Adisorn Tuantranont

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the first demonstration of a cantilever based cholerae sensor. Dynamic force microscopy within atomic force microscope (AFM) is applied to measure the cantilever's resonance frequency shift due to mass of cell bound on microcantilever surface. The Vibrio cholerae O1, a food and waterborne pathogen that caused cholera disease in human, is a target bacterium cell of interest.

  3. Transcription termination Within the iron transport-biosynthesis operon of Vibrio anguillarum requires an antisense RNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iron transport-biosynthesis (ITB) operon in Vibrio anguillarum includes four genes for ferric-siderophore transport, fatD,C,B,A, and two genes for siderophorebiosynthesis, angR and angT and plays an important role in the virulence mechanism of this bacterium. Despite being part of the same polyc...

  4. Environmental reservoirs and mechanisms of persistence of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Carla; Erken, Martina; Noorian, Parisa; Sun, Shuyang; McDougald, Diane

    2013-01-01

    It is now well accepted that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the water-borne disease cholera, is acquired from environmental sources where it persists between outbreaks of the disease. Recent advances in molecular technology have demonstrated that this bacterium can be detected in areas where it has not previously been isolated, indicating a much broader, global distribution of this bacterium outside of endemic regions. The environmental persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment can be attributed to multiple intra- and interspecific strategies such as responsive gene regulation and biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces, as well as interactions with a multitude of other organisms. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms that enable the persistence of this bacterium in the environment. In particular, we will discuss how V. cholerae can survive stressors such as starvation, temperature, and salinity fluctuations as well as how the organism persists under constant predation by heterotrophic protists. PMID:24379807

  5. Antagonistic association of the chlorellavorus bacterium ( “Bdellovibrio” chlorellavorus ) with Chlorella vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Coder; Mortimer P. Starr

    1978-01-01

    The chlorellavorus bacterium (Bdellovibrio chlorellavorus Gromov and Mamkaeva 1972) attaches to (but does not enter) cells of the unicellular green alga,Chlorella, which is killed and the cell contents of which are digested. The bacterium is pleomorphic (vibrios 0.3 ?m wide; cocci 0.6\\u000a ?m wide), and it has a Gram-negative cell wall structure pili, and a single, unsheathed, polar flagellum. Division

  6. Transcriptional Regulation of opaR, qrr2–4 and aphA by the Master Quorum-Sensing Regulator OpaR in Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafang; Guo, Zhaobiao; Yang, Ruifu; Zhou, Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of infectious diarrhea and enterogastritis via the fecal-oral route. V. harveyi is a pathogen of fishes and invertebrates, and has been used as a model for quorum sensing (QS) studies. LuxR is the master QS regulator (MQSR) of V. harveyi, and LuxR-dependent expression of its own gene, qrr2–4 and aphA have been established in V. harveyi. Molecular regulation of target genes by the V. parahaemolyticus MQSR OpaR is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The bioinformatics analysis indicated that V. parahaemolyticus OpaR, V. harveyi LuxR, V. vulnificu SmcR, and V. alginolyticus ValR were extremely conserved, and that these four MQSRs appeared to recognize the same conserved cis-acting signals, which was represented by the consensus constructs manifesting as a position frequency matrix and as a 20 bp box, within their target promoters. The MQSR box-like sequences were found within the upstream DNA regions of opaR, qrr2–4 and aphA in V. parahaemolyticus, and the direct transcriptional regulation of these target genes by OpaR were further confirmed by multiple biochemical experiments including primer extension assay, gel mobility shift assay, and DNase I footprinting analysis. Translation and transcription starts, core promoter elements for sigma factor recognition, Shine-Dalgarno sequences for ribosome recognition, and OpaR-binding sites were determined for the five target genes of OpaR, which gave a structural map of the OpaR-dependent promoters. Further computational promoter analysis indicated the above regulatory circuits were shared by several other closely related Vibrios but with slight exceptions. Conclusions/Significance This study gave a comprehensive computational and characterization of the direct transcriptional regulation of five target genes, opaR, qrr2–4 and ahpA, by OpaR in V. parahaemolyticus. These characterized regulatory circuits were conserved in V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:22506036

  7. The multiple identities of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    McCarter, L

    1999-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a ubiquitous marine bacterium and human pathogen. The organism possesses multiple cell types appropriate for life under different circumstances. The swimmer cell, with a single polar flagellum, is adapted to life in liquid environments. The polar flagellum is powered by the sodium motive force and can propel the bacterium at fast speeds. The swarmer cell, propelled by many proton-powered lateral flagella, can move through highly viscous environments, colonize surfaces, and form multicellular communities which sometimes display highly periodic architecture. Signals that induce differentiation to the surface-adapted cell type are both physical and chemical in nature. Surface-induced gene expression may aid survival, whether attached to inanimate surfaces or in a host organism. Genetic rearrangements create additional phenotypic versatility, which is manifested as variable opaque and translucent colony morphotypes. Discovery that a LuxR homolog controls the opaque cell type implicates intercellular signaling as an additional survival strategy. The alternating identities of V. parahaemolyticus may play important roles in attachment and detachment, how bacterial populations adapt to growth on surfaces, form structured communities, and develop biofilms. PMID:10941784

  8. Release of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Response to Vibrio vulnificus Capsular Polysaccharide in In Vivo and In Vitro Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAN L. POWELL; ANITA C. WRIGHT; STEVEN S. WASSERMAN; DAVID M. HONE; J. GLENN MORRIS

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus produces a severe septic shock syndrome in susceptible individuals. Virulence of the bacterium has been closely linked to the presence of a surface-exposed acidic capsular polysaccharide (CPS). To investigate whether CPS plays an additional role in pathogenesis by modulating inflammatory-associated cytokine production, studies were initiated in a mouse model and followed by investigations of cytokine release from human

  9. Effects of Hypercapnic Hypoxia on the Clearance of Vibrio campbellii in the Atlantic Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEREMY D. HOLMAN; KAREN G. BURNETT; LOUIS E. BURNETT

    2004-01-01

    Callinectes sapidus, the Atlantic blue crab, en- counters hypoxia, hypercapnia (elevated CO2), and bacterial pathogens in its natural environment. We tested the hypoth- esis that acute exposure to hypercapnic hypoxia (HH) alters the crab's ability to clear a pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio campbellii 90 - 69B3, from the hemolymph. Adult male crabs were held in normoxia (well-aerated seawater) or HH (seawater

  10. Alterations in Hemolymph and Extrapallial Fluid Parameters in the Manila Clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, Challenged with the Pathogen Vibrio tapetis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bassem Allam; Christine Paillard; Michel Auffret

    2000-01-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated the presence of defense factors, competent hemocytes and high enzymatic activities (peptidases, hydrolases, lytic, etc.), in the extrapallial fluid, located between the mantle and the shell, of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. In Europe, this species is affected by brown ring disease, an epizootic disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio tapetis. The present work

  11. Control of biofilm formation and colonization in Vibrio fischeri: a role for partner switching?emi_2269 2051..2059

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Minireview Control of biofilm formation and colonization in Vibrio fischeri: a role for partner pro- ceeds via a transient biofilm formed by the bacterium. The production of this bacterial biofilm) gene locus. In addition to this transcriptional control, biofilm formation is regulated by two proteins

  12. Mortalities of Eastern and Pacific Oyster Larvae Caused by the Pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Michael A.; Needleman, David S.; Church, Karlee M.; Häse, Claudia C.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii is reported to be a bacterial pathogen of larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and has been associated with major hatchery crashes, causing shortages in seed oysters for commercial shellfish producers. Another bacterium, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a well-known coral pathogen, has recently been shown to elicit mortality in fish and shellfish. Several strains of V. coralliilyticus, such as ATCC 19105 and Pacific isolates RE22 and RE98, were misidentified as V. tubiashii until recently. We compared the mortalities caused by two V. tubiashii and four V. coralliilyticus strains in Eastern and Pacific oyster larvae. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of V. coralliilyticus in Eastern oysters (defined here as the dose required to kill 50% of the population in 6 days) ranged from 1.1 × 104 to 3.0 × 104 CFU/ml seawater; strains RE98 and RE22 were the most virulent. This study shows that V. coralliilyticus causes mortality in Eastern oyster larvae. Results for Pacific oysters were similar, with LD50s between 1.2 × 104 and 4.0 × 104 CFU/ml. Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19106 and ATCC 19109 were highly infectious toward Eastern oyster larvae but were essentially nonpathogenic toward healthy Pacific oyster larvae at dosages of ?1.1 × 104 CFU/ml. These data, coupled with the fact that several isolates originally thought to be V. tubiashii are actually V. coralliilyticus, suggest that V. coralliilyticus has been a more significant pathogen for larval bivalve shellfish than V. tubiashii, particularly on the U.S. West Coast, contributing to substantial hatchery-associated morbidity and mortality in recent years. PMID:25344234

  13. Mortalities of Eastern and Pacific oyster Larvae caused by the pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A; Needleman, David S; Church, Karlee M; Häse, Claudia C

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii is reported to be a bacterial pathogen of larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and has been associated with major hatchery crashes, causing shortages in seed oysters for commercial shellfish producers. Another bacterium, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a well-known coral pathogen, has recently been shown to elicit mortality in fish and shellfish. Several strains of V. coralliilyticus, such as ATCC 19105 and Pacific isolates RE22 and RE98, were misidentified as V. tubiashii until recently. We compared the mortalities caused by two V. tubiashii and four V. coralliilyticus strains in Eastern and Pacific oyster larvae. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of V. coralliilyticus in Eastern oysters (defined here as the dose required to kill 50% of the population in 6 days) ranged from 1.1 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml seawater; strains RE98 and RE22 were the most virulent. This study shows that V. coralliilyticus causes mortality in Eastern oyster larvae. Results for Pacific oysters were similar, with LD50s between 1.2 × 10(4) and 4.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml. Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19106 and ATCC 19109 were highly infectious toward Eastern oyster larvae but were essentially nonpathogenic toward healthy Pacific oyster larvae at dosages of ?1.1 × 10(4) CFU/ml. These data, coupled with the fact that several isolates originally thought to be V. tubiashii are actually V. coralliilyticus, suggest that V. coralliilyticus has been a more significant pathogen for larval bivalve shellfish than V. tubiashii, particularly on the U.S. West Coast, contributing to substantial hatchery-associated morbidity and mortality in recent years. PMID:25344234

  14. Laboratory studies on the El Tor vibrio

    PubMed Central

    Sayamov, R. M.

    1963-01-01

    The identity of the El Tor vibrio is a controversial question that the usual methods of bacteriological investigation have as yet failed to settle. In this paper, the author presents the results of a study of the interrelationships between El Tor vibrios, true cholera vibrios and water vibrios, as revealed by the behaviour of the vibrios in the bile system and in the small intestine of experimental animals. The vibrios investigated included two strains isolated at the El Tor quarantine station on the Sinai Peninsula in 1934, two strains isolated at Makassar, Celebes, during a cholera epidemic in 1937 and identified as “El Tor” vibrios, four strains of true cholera vibrios and five strains of water vibrios. On the whole, the behaviour of the El Tor and Makassar vibrios was similar, closely resembling that of the cholera vibrios and differing markedly from that of the water vibrios. The author therefore considers that the strains of El Tor and Makassar vibrios examined are varieties of Vibrio cholerae and suggests that carriers of such strains should be subjected to the same measures as carriers of true cholera vibrios. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13986981

  15. Vibrio vulnificus: death on the half shell. A personal journey with the pathogen and its ecology.

    PubMed

    Oliver, James D

    2013-05-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium which occurs in high numbers in filter-feeding molluscan shellfish, such as oysters. In individuals with certain underlying diseases, ingestion of the bacterium, e.g., in raw or undercooked oysters, can lead to a rapid and extremely fatal infection. Indeed, this one bacterium is responsible for 95 % of all seafood-borne deaths. In addition, the bacterium is capable of entering a preexisting lesion or cut obtained during coastal recreational activities, resulting in potentially fatal wound infections. This brief review, which comprised a presentation made at the Gordon Research Conference on "Oceans and Human Health," reflects over 35 years of research on this bacterium in the author's laboratory. It describes some of the known virulence factors and why males account for ca 85 % of all V. vulnificus cases. It notes the two genotypes now known to exist and how this pathogen enters a dormant, "viable but nonculturable" state during the winter months. Finally, the review discusses how global warming may be causing worldwide increases in the frequency and geographical extent of Vibrio infections. PMID:23263234

  16. Functional Characterization of Two Type III Secretion Systems of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwon-Sam Park; Takahiro Ono; Mitsuhiro Rokuda; Myoung-Ho Jang; Kazuhisa Okada; Tetsuya Iida; Takeshi Honda

    2004-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a gram-negative marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of food-borne gastroen- teritis. Recent genome sequencing of the clinical V. parahaemolyticus strain RIMD2210633 identified two sets of genes for the type III secretion system (TTSS), TTSS1 and TTSS2. Here, we constructed a series of mutant strains from RIMD2210633 to determine whether the two putative TTSS apparatus are functional. The

  17. Identification of Proteins Secreted via Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion System 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Ono; Kwon-Sam Park; Mayumi Ueta; Tetsuya Iida; Takeshi Honda

    2006-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a gram-negative marine bacterium, is an important pathogen causing food-borne gas- troenteritis or septicemia. Recent genome sequencing of the RIMD2210633 strain (a Kanagawa phenomenon- positive clinical isolate of serotype O3:K6) revealed that the strain has two sets of gene clusters that encode the type III secretion system (TTSS) apparatus. The first cluster, TTSS1, is located on the large

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Vibrio fluvialis Strains 560 and 539, Isolated from Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Veras, Adonney Allan; da Silva, Miriam Lopes; Gomes, Jaqueline Conceição Meireles; Dias, Larissa Maranhão; de Sá, Pablo Caracciolo Gomes; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Castro, Wendel; Miranda, Fábio; Kazuo, Ehilton; Marinho, Diogo; Rodrigues, Mateus; Freire, Matheus; Zahlouth, Ramiro; Renan, Wendel; Lopes, Thiago Souza; Matté, Maria Helena; da Silva Mayer, Cintia Carolina; de Almeida Vasconcelos Barboni, Suzi; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Silva, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio fluvialis is a halophilic bacterium found in many environments and is mainly associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans. Here, we describe the genome sequences of environmental strains of V. fluvialis 560 (Vf560) and V. fluvialis 539 (Vf539) possessing a variant of the integrative and conjugative element (ICE) SXT for the first time in Brazil and South America. PMID:25573928

  19. Vibrio campbellii hmgA-mediated pyomelanization impairs quorum sensing, virulence, and cellular fitness

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Lin, Baochuan; Mostaghim, Anahita; Rubin, Robert A.; Glaser, Evan R.; Mittraparp-arthorn, Pimonsri; Thompson, Janelle R.; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Vora, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Melanization due to the inactivation of the homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase gene (hmgA) has been demonstrated to increase stress resistance, persistence, and virulence in some bacterial species but such pigmented mutants have not been observed in pathogenic members of the Vibrio Harveyi clade. In this study, we used Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 as model organism to understand how melanization affected cellular phenotype, metabolism, and virulence. An in-frame deletion of the hmgA gene resulted in the overproduction of a pigment in cell culture supernatants and cellular membranes that was identified as pyomelanin. Unlike previous demonstrations in Vibrio cholerae, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the pigmented V. campbellii mutant did not show increased UV resistance and was found to be ~2.7 times less virulent than the wild type strain in Penaeus monodon shrimp virulence assays. However, the extracted pyomelanin pigment did confer a higher resistance to oxidative stress when incubated with wild type cells. Microarray-based transcriptomic analyses revealed that the hmgA gene deletion and subsequent pyomelanin production negatively effected the expression of 129 genes primarily involved in energy production, amino acid, and lipid metabolism, and protein translation and turnover. This transcriptional response was mediated in part by an impairment of the quorum sensing regulon as transcripts of the quorum sensing high cell density master regulator LuxR and other operonic members of this regulon were significantly less abundant in the hmgA mutant. Taken together, the results suggest that the pyomelanization of V. campbellii sufficiently impairs the metabolic activities of this organism and renders it less fit and virulent than its isogenic wild type strain. PMID:24376440

  20. Vibrio parahaemolyticus ToxRS regulator is required for stress tolerance and colonization in a novel orogastric streptomycin-induced adult murine model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a marine bacterium, is the causative agent of gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of seafood. It contains a homologue of the toxRS operon that in V. cholerae is the key regulator of virulence gene expression. We examined a non-polar mutation in toxRS to determi...

  1. Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Cantet, Franck; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Caro, Audrey; Le Mennec, Cécile; Monteil, Caroline; Quéméré, Catherine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Colwell, Rita R.; Monfort, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae are human pathogens. Little is known about these Vibrio spp. in the coastal lagoons of France. The purpose of this study was to investigate their incidence in water, shellfish and sediment of three French Mediterranean coastal lagoons using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). In summer, the total number of V. parahaemolyticus in water, sediment, mussels and clams collected from the three lagoons varied from 1 to >1.1 × 103 MPN/l, 0.09 to 1.1 × 103 MPN/ml, 9 to 210 MPN/g and 1.5 to 2.1 MPN/g, respectively. In winter, all samples except mussels contained V. parahaemolyticus, but at very low concentrations. Pathogenic (tdh- or trh2-positive) V. parahaemolyticus were present in water, sediment and shellfish samples collected from these lagoons. The number of V. vulnificus in water, sediment and shellfish samples ranged from 1 to 1.1 × 103 MPN/l, 0.07 to 110 MPN/ml and 0.04 to 15 MPN/g, respectively, during summer. V. vulnificus was not detected during winter. V. cholerae was rarely detected in water and sediment during summer. In summary, results of this study highlight the finding that the three human pathogenic Vibrio spp. are present in the lagoons and constitute a potential public health hazard. PMID:23770313

  2. Genomics of Pathogenic Vibrio Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziejman, Michelle; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    Members of the heterotrophic bacterial family Vibrionaceae are native inhabitants of aquatic environments worldwide, constituting a diverse and abundant component of marine microbial organisms. Over 60 species of the genus Vibrio have been identified (Thompson et al., 2004) and their phenotypic heterogeneity is well documented. The ecology of the genus remains less well understood, however, despite reports that vibrios are the dominant microorganisms inhabiting the superficial water layer and colonizing the chitinous exoskeleton of zooplankton (e.g., copepods, Thompson et al., 2004). Although some species were originally isolated from seawater as free living organisms, most were isolated in association with marine life such as bivalves, fish, eels, or shrimp.

  3. Uptake and depuration of the opaque and translucent morphotypes of Vibrio vulnificus, and the effects of oyster passage on virulence Absorption et purification des morphotypes opaque et translucide de Vibrio vulnificus, et effets du passage sur l'huître sur leur virulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TRUDI GROUBERT; JAMES D. OLIVER

    Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium which is known to be a significant human pathogen. It occurs in high numbers in oysters and other molluscan shellfish, where it is part of the animals' normal flora. V. vulnificus occurs in two colony morphotypes ; the opaque, encapsulated variety is virulent, whereas the translucent, non encapsulated variety is avirulent. Studies were carried

  4. Vibrio cholerae as a predator: lessons from evolutionary principles

    PubMed Central

    Pukatzki, Stefan; Provenzano, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are the second-most common cause of death among children under the age of five worldwide. Cholera alone, caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae, is responsible for several million cases and over 120,000 deaths annually. When contaminated water is ingested, V. cholerae passes through the gastric acid barrier, penetrates the mucin layer of the small intestine, and adheres to the underlying epithelial lining. V. cholerae multiplies rapidly, secretes cholera toxin, and exits the human host in vast numbers during diarrheal purges. How V. cholerae rapidly reaches such high numbers during each purge is not clearly understood. We propose that V. cholerae employs its bactericidal type VI secretion system to engage in intraspecies and intraguild predation for nutrient acquisition to support rapid growth and multiplication. PMID:24368907

  5. Identification of a Wzy Polymerase Required for Group IV Capsular Polysaccharide and Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis in Vibrio vulnificus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alina Nakhamchik; Caroline Wilde; Dean A. Rowe-Magnus

    2007-01-01

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio vulnificus is a human and animal pathogen. The expression of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is essential for virulence. We used a new mini-Tn10 delivery vector, pNKTXI-SceI, to generate a mutant library and identify genes essential for CPS biosynthesis. Twenty-one acapsular mutants were isolated, and the disrupted gene in one mutant, coding for a polysaccharide polymerase (wzy), is

  6. Role of sodium bioenergetics in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Häse, C C; Barquera, B

    2001-05-01

    The ability of the bacterium to use sodium in bioenergetic processes appears to play a key role in both the environmental and pathogenic phases of Vibrio cholerae. Aquatic environments, including fresh, brackish, and coastal waters, are an important factor in the transmission of cholera and an autochthonous source. The organism is considered to be halophilic and has a strict requirement for Na(+) for growth. Furthermore, expression of motility and virulence factors of V. cholerae is intimately linked to sodium bioenergetics and to each other. Several lines of evidence indicated that the activity of the flagellum of V. cholerae might have an impact on virulence gene regulation. As the V. cholerae flagellum is sodium-driven and the Na(+)-NQR enzyme is known to create a sodium motive force across the bacterial membrane, it was recently suggested that the increased toxT expression observed in a nqr-negative strain is mediated by affecting flagella activity. It was suggested that the V. cholerae flagellum might respond to changes in membrane potential and the resulting changes in flagellar rotation might serve as a signal for virulence gene expression. However, we recently demonstrated that although the flagellum of V. cholerae is not required for the effects of ionophores on virulence gene expression, changes in the sodium chemical potential are sensed and thus alternative mechanisms, perhaps involving the TcpP/H proteins, for the detection of these conditions must exist. Analyzing the underlying mechanisms by which bacteria respond to changes in the environment, such as their ability to monitor the level of membrane potential, will probably reveal complex interplays between basic physiological processes and virulence factor expression in a variety of pathogenic species. PMID:11248198

  7. Arp2/3-independent assembly of actin by Vibrio type III effector VopL.

    PubMed

    Liverman, Amy D B; Cheng, Hui-Chun; Trosky, Jennifer E; Leung, Daisy W; Yarbrough, Melanie L; Burdette, Dara L; Rosen, Michael K; Orth, Kim

    2007-10-23

    Microbial pathogens use a variety of mechanisms to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton during infection. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. para) is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, and new pandemic strains are emerging throughout the world. Analysis of the V. para genome revealed a type III secretion system effector, VopL, encoding three Wiskott-Aldrich homology 2 domains that are interspersed with three proline-rich motifs. Infection of HeLa cells with V. para induces the formation of long actin fibers in a VopL-dependent manner. Transfection of VopL promotes the assembly of actin stress fibers. In vitro, recombinant VopL potently induces assembly of actin filaments that grow at their barbed ends, independent of eukaryotic factors. Vibrio VopL is predicted to be a bacterial virulence factor that disrupts actin homeostasis during an enteric infection of the host. PMID:17942696

  8. Multiplex Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jie Yeun; Jeon, Semi; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Misun; Kim, Seonghan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for the identification of three Vibrio species: Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Methods Specific primers and probes targeting the hlyA, tlh, and vvhA genes were selected and used for multiplex real-time PCR to confirm the identification of V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus, respectively. This method was applied to screen Vibrio species from environmental samples and combining it with a culture-based method, its effectiveness was evaluated in comparison with culture-based methods alone. Results Specific PCR fragments were obtained from isolates belonging to the target species, indicating a high specificity of this multiplex real-time PCR. No cross-reactivity with the assay was observed between the tested bacteria. The sensitivity of the multiplex real-time PCR was found to have a lower limit of 104 colony-forming units/reaction for all three Vibrio species. The combination strategy raised the isolation ratio of all three Vibrio species 1.26- to 2.75-fold. Conclusion This assay provides a rapid, sensitive, and specific technique to detect these three Vibrio species in the environment. PMID:24159544

  9. Properties of proteolytic toxin of Vibrio anguilolarum from diseased flounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhao-Lan; Chen, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2002-12-01

    Extracellular products (ECP) produced by Vibrio anguillarum strain M3 originally isolated from diseased flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) were prepared. ECP of M3 showed gelatinase, casinase, amylase and haemolytic activity on agarose plates. High protease activity against azocasin was detected. Bacterium M2 showed highest growth and protease activity at 25°C. The protease present in ECP showed maximal activity at pH 8 and 55°C; was completely inactivated by application of 80°C heat for 30 min; was completely inhibited by EDTA and HgCl2, and was partially inhibited by PMSF, SDS, MnCl2 and iodoacetic acid; but not inhibited by CaCl2 and MgCl2. The ECP was toxic to flounder fish at LD50 values of 3.1 ?g protein/g body weight. The addition of HgCl2 and application of heat at 50°C decreased the lethal toxicity of ECP. When heated at 100°C, ECP lethality to flounder was completely inhibited. After intramuscular injection of ECP into flounder, it showed evident histopathological changes including necrosis of muscle, extensive deposition of haemosiderin in the spleen, dilated blood vessels congested with numerious lymphocytes in the liver. These results showed that ECP protease was a lethal factor produced by the bacterium V. anguillarum M3.

  10. Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106)

    PubMed Central

    Temperton, Ben; Thomas, Simon; Tait, Karen; Parry, Helen; Emery, Matt; Allen, Mike; Quinn, John; MacGrath, John; Gilbert, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes. PMID:21677855

  11. Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106).

    SciTech Connect

    Temperton, B.; Thomas, S.; Tait, K.; Parry, H.; Emery, M.; Allen, M.; Quinn, J.; McGrath, J.; Gilbert, J. (CLS-GSB); (Plymouth Marine Lab.); (Queen's Univ.); (Univ. of Plymouth); (Univ. of Chicago)

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.

  12. Desulfovibrio inopinatus, sp. nov., a new sulfate-reducing bacterium that degrades hydroxyhydroquinone (1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfram Reichenbecher; Bernhard Schink

    1997-01-01

    A new sulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated from marine sediment with hydroxyhydroquinone (1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene) as\\u000a the sole electron and carbon source. Strain HHQ 20 grew slowly with doubling times of > 20 h and oxidized hydroxyhydroquinone,\\u000a lactate, pyruvate, ethanol, fructose, and ribose incompletely to acetate and carbon dioxide, with concomitant reduction of\\u000a sulfate to sulfide. Cells were large, vibrio-shaped, and gram-negative with

  13. Modified Dakin's solution for cutaneous vibrio infections.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi, B J; Calianos, T A; Appelt, E A; Ortiz, M E; Heggers, J P; Phillips, L G

    1999-10-01

    Vibrio species, specifically Vibrio vulnificus, are known to be endemic to warm saltwater environments. As a human pathogen they are capable of causing severe, progressive, necrotizing infections. The lesions are bullous in nature and often require wide surgical debridement due to the aggressiveness of this organism. The literature supports prophylactic antibiotic therapy for those with preexisting hepatic dysfunction or immunocompromise. The authors routinely implement prophylactic antibiotic coverage with doxycycline 100 mg every 12 hours for vibrio in patients with wounds exposed to or acquired in saltwater. In addition, they institute topical therapy with 0.025% sodium hypochlorite solution (modified Dakin's), based on their in vitro study of vibrio sensitivity to antimicrobials. Over the past 2 years, the authors have treated 10 patients with this protocol for cutaneous vibrio infections confirmed by quantitative cultures. None of these patients experienced progression of infection requiring operative debridement-contrary to the aggressive nature of this organism documented in other reports. PMID:10517465

  14. Non-Lethal Heat Shock Increased Hsp70 and Immune Protein Transcripts but Not Vibrio Tolerance in the White-Leg Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Loc, Nguyen Hong; MacRae, Thomas H.; Musa, Najiah; Bin Abdullah, Muhd Danish Daniel; Abdul Wahid, Mohd. Effendy; Sung, Yeong Yik

    2013-01-01

    Non-lethal heat shock boosts bacterial and viral disease tolerance in shrimp, possibly due to increases in endogenous heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and/or immune proteins. To further understand the mechanisms protecting shrimp against infection, Hsp70 and the mRNAs encoding the immune-related proteins prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and hemocyanin were studied in post-larvae of the white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, following a non-lethal heat shock. As indicated by RT-qPCR, a 30 min abrupt heat shock increased Hsp70 mRNA in comparison to non-heated animals. Immunoprobing of western blots and quantification by ELISA revealed that Hsp70 production after heat shock was correlated with enhanced Hsp70 mRNA. proPO and hemocyanin mRNA levels were augmented, whereas peroxinectin and crustin mRNA levels were unchanged following non-lethal heat shock. Penaeidin mRNA was decreased by all heat shock treatments. Thirty min abrupt heat shock failed to improve survival of post-larvae in a standardized challenge test with Vibrio harveyi, indicating that under the conditions of this study, L. vannamei tolerance to Vibrio infection was influenced neither by Hsp70 accumulation nor the changes in the immune-related proteins, observations dissimilar to other shrimp species examined. PMID:24039886

  15. Growth, nonspecific immune characteristics, and survival upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi in Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) raised on diets containing algal meal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thasanee Nonwachai; Watchariya Purivirojkul; Chalor Limsuwan; Niti Chuchird; Mario Velasco; Arun K. Dhar

    2010-01-01

    A 70-day growth trial was conducted with postlarvae 12 (PL12) Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to study the suitability of soybean meal and oil originating from a single-celled microorganism (thraustochytrid) as fishmeal and fish oil substitutes in practical diets for L. vannamei. The growth, survival rate and immune characteristics were evaluated. Seven experimental diets were designed with soybean meal used

  16. The Vibrio harveyi master quorum-sensing regulator, LuxR, a TetR-type protein is both an activator and a repressor: DNA

    E-print Network

    Bulyk, Martha L.

    of these AIs requires three cognate two-component sensors that function in a phosphorelay cascade that impinges (AI). As cell population density increases, AIs accumulate and trigger population-wide changes and responds to at least three different AIs; HAI-1 (3-hydroxybutanoyl homoserine lactone) (Cao and Meighen

  17. Study of the variation of ecotoxicity at different stages of domestic wastewater treatment using Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp.-Q67

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyan Y. Ma; Xiaochang C. Wang; Yongjun J. Liu

    2011-01-01

    A bioassay using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 associated with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for evaluating the variation of ecotoxicity along with the reduction of organic substances in a domestic wastewater treatment plant employing an oxidation ditch process. With effective elimination of the interference from all inorganic substances by the SPE operation, the ecotoxicity of the water, as expressed

  18. Two cases of bacteriemia caused by nontoxigenic, non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolates in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Yen, Nguyen Thi Thu; Dung, Le Thi; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Campbell, James I; Whitehorn, Jamie; Thwaites, Guy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Baker, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The toxigenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae belonging to the O1 and O139 serogroups is commonly associated with epidemic diarrhea in tropical settings; other diseases caused by this environmental pathogen are seldom identified. Here we report two unassociated cases of nonfatal, nontoxigenic V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 bacteremia in patients with comorbidities in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, that occurred within a 4-week period. PMID:25122858

  19. Two Cases of Bacteriemia Caused by Nontoxigenic, Non-O1, Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Isolates in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Yen, Nguyen Thi Thu; Dung, Le Thi; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Campbell, James I.; Whitehorn, Jamie; Thwaites, Guy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh

    2014-01-01

    The toxigenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae belonging to the O1 and O139 serogroups is commonly associated with epidemic diarrhea in tropical settings; other diseases caused by this environmental pathogen are seldom identified. Here we report two unassociated cases of nonfatal, nontoxigenic V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 bacteremia in patients with comorbidities in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, that occurred within a 4-week period. PMID:25122858

  20. pIIICTX, a Predicted CTX  Minor Coat Protein, Can Expand the Host Range of Coliphage fd To Include Vibrio cholerae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Heilpern; Matthew K. Waldor

    2003-01-01

    CTX is a filamentous bacteriophage that encodes cholera toxin. CTX infection of its host bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, requires the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and the products of the V. cholerae tolQRA genes. Here, we have explored the role of OrfU, a predicted CTX minor coat protein, in CTX infection. Prior to the discovery that it was part of a prophage, orfU

  1. Development of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay with an Internal Amplification Control for the Detection of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Bacteria in Oysters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica L. Nordstrom; Michael C. L. Vickery; George M. Blackstone; Shelley L. Murray; Angelo DePaola

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an estuarine bacterium that is the leading cause of shellfish-associated cases of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. Our laboratory developed a real-time multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of the thermolabile hemolysin (tlh), thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh), and thermostable-related hemolysin (trh) genes of V. parahaemolyticus. The tlh gene is a species- specific marker, while the

  2. Predatory bacteria as natural modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seawater and oysters.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gary P; Fay, Johnna P; Dickens, Keyana A; Parent, Michelle A; Soroka, Douglas S; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2012-10-01

    This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. The pathogens examined were V. vulnificus strain VV1003, V. parahaemolyticus O1:KUT (KUT stands for K untypeable), and V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and corresponding O3:K6 mutants deficient in the toxRS virulence regulatory gene or the rpoS alternative stress response sigma factor gene. Vibrios were selected for streptomycin resistance, which facilitated their enumeration. In natural seawater, oysters bioconcentrated each Vibrio strain for 24 h at 22°C; however, counts rapidly declined to near negligible levels by 72 h. In natural seawater with or without oysters, vibrios decreased more than 3 log units to near negligible levels within 72 h. Neither toxRS nor rpoS had a significant effect on Vibrio levels. In autoclaved seawater, V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 counts increased 1,000-fold over 72 h. Failure of the vibrios to persist in natural seawater and oysters led to screening of the water samples for VPB on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 host cells. Many VPB, including Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs; Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Bacteriovorax stolpii) and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus-like predators, were detected by plaque assay and electron microscopic analysis of plaque-purified isolates from Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Hawaiian seawater. When V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 was added to natural seawater containing trace amounts of VPB, Vibrio counts diminished 3 log units to nondetectable levels, while VPB increased 3 log units within 48 h. We propose a new paradigm that VPB are important modulators of pathogenic vibrios in seawater and oysters. PMID:22904049

  3. Vibrio species as agents of elasmobranch disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Grimes; R. R. Colwell; J. Stemmler; H. Hada; D. Maneval; F. M. Hetrick; E. B. May; R. T. Jones; M. Stoskopf

    1984-01-01

    TwoVibrio species identified asV. damsela and a new sucrose-positiveVibrio sp.,V. carchariae sp. nov., were simultaneously isolated from a brown shark which died while being held in captivity at a large aquarium. Pathogenicity studies were subsequently conducted using a variety of elasmobranchs, including smooth dogfish and lemon sharks. Both bacterial strains proved pathogenic, causing death in nearly all of the elasmobranch

  4. Vibrio zhanjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from sea water of shrimp farming pond.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunying; Luo, Peng; Zuo, Huali; Chen, Jianming; Chen, Mingliang; Wang, Wei

    2012-05-01

    A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile by means of single polar flagellum, rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated strain E414, was isolated from sea water collected from a farming pond rearing marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in Zhanjiang, Guangdong province, PRC. The strain was able to grow in the presence of 0.5-6% (w/v) NaCl (optimally in 3-6% (w/v) NaCl), between pH 6 and 9 (optimally at pH 7-8), between 15 and 37°C (optimally at 25-30°C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences locate strain E414 in the vicinity of the coralliilyticus clade within the genus Vibrio. DNA-DNA relatedness data and multigene phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of four genes (16S rRNA, rpoA, recA and pyrH) clearly differentiated strain E414 from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Analysis of phenotypic features, including enzyme activities and utilization and fermentation of various carbon sources, further revealed discrimination between strain E414 and phylogenetically related Vibrio species. The major fatty acid components are C(16:1)?6c and/or C(16:1)?7c (27.4%), C(18:1)?7c and/or C(18:1)?6c (19.3%) and C(16:0) (18.2%). The DNA G+C content of strain E414 was 38.7 mol%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA relatedness values, it can be concluded that E414 should be placed in the genus Vibrio as representing a novel species, for which the name Vibrio zhanjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain E414 (=CCTCC AB 2011110(T) = NBRC 108723(T) = DSM 24901). PMID:22205376

  5. Occurrence of virulence genes among Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from treated wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Khouadja, Sadok; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Baccouche, Besma; Croci, Luciana; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2014-10-01

    Pathogenic Vibrio species are an important cause of foodborne illnesses. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species in the final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant and the risk that they may pose to public health. During the 1-year monitoring, a total of 43 Vibrio strains were isolated: 23 Vibrio alginolyticus, 1 Vibrio cholerae, 4 Vibrio vulnificus, and 15 Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The PCR investigation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae virulence genes (tlh, trh, tdh, toxR, toxS, toxRS, toxT, zot, ctxAB, tcp, ace, vpi, nanH) revealed the presence of some of these genes in a significant number of strains. Intraspecies variability and genetic relationships among the environmental isolates were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR). We report the results of the first isolation and characterization of an environmental V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 and of a toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus strain in Tunisia. We suggest that non-pathogenic Vibrio might represent a marine reservoir of virulence genes that can be transmitted between strains by horizontal transfer. PMID:25023745

  6. Climate anomalies and the increasing risk of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus illnesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Martinez-Urtaza; John C. Bowers; Joaquin Trinanes; Angelo DePaola

    2010-01-01

    We examined the potential influence of climate anomalies in expanding the geographical and seasonal range of seafood-borne illnesses from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. Archived climate data from areas of implicated seafood production were obtained from various sources, including in situ monitoring devices and satellite imagery. The geographical expansion of V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks into Peru and Alaska corresponded closely with

  7. Control of luminous Vibrio species in penaeid aquaculture ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. W Moriarty

    1998-01-01

    A crisis has arisen in the prawn industry in many regions with the onset of disease, with Vibrio spp. being important major causal factors. The value of adding selected strains of Bacillus as probiotic bacteria to control the Vibrio is shown by comparing farms in Indonesia using the same water sources, which contained luminous Vibrio strains. The farms that did

  8. The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system displays antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Dana L.; Miyata, Sarah T.; Kitaoka, Maya; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The acute diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae. A type VI secretion system (T6SS), which is structurally similar to the bacteriophage cell-puncturing device, has been recently identified in V. cholerae and is used by this organism to confer virulence toward phagocytic eukaryotes, such as J774 murine macrophages and Dictyostelium discoideum. We tested the interbacterial virulence of V. cholerae strain V52, an O37 serogroup with a constitutively active T6SS. V52 was found to be highly virulent toward multiple Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium, and caused up to a 100,000-fold reduction in E. coli survival. Because the T6SS-deficient mutants V52?vasK and V52?vasH showed toxicity defects that could be complemented, virulence displayed by V. cholerae depends on a functional T6SS. V. cholerae V52 and strains of the O1 serogroup were resistant to V52, suggesting that V. cholerae has acquired immunity independently of its serogroup. We hypothesize that the T6SS, in addition to targeting eukaryotic host cells, confers toxicity toward other bacteria, providing a means of interspecies competition to enhance environmental survival. Thus, the V. cholerae T6SS may enhance the survival of V. cholerae in its aquatic ecosystem during the transmission of cholera and between epidemics. PMID:20974937

  9. The pathogenesis, detection, and prevention of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongzhi; Zhong, Yanfang; Gu, Xiaosong; Yuan, Jun; Saeed, Abdullah F.; Wang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a Gram-negative motile bacterium that inhabits marine and estuarine environments throughout the world, is a major food-borne pathogen that causes life-threatening diseases in humans after the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. The global occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus accentuates the importance of investigating its virulence factors and their effects on the human host. This review describes the virulence factors of V. parahaemolyticus reported to date, including hemolysin, urease, two type III secretion systems and two type VI secretion systems, which both cause both cytotoxicity in cultured cells and enterotoxicity in animal models. We describe various types of detection methods, based on virulence factors, that are used for quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood. We also discuss some useful preventive measures and therapeutic strategies for the diseases mediated by V. parahaemolyticus, which can reduce, to some extent, the damage to humans and aquatic animals attributable to V. parahaemolyticus. This review extends our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus mediated by virulence factors and the diseases it causes in its human host. It should provide new insights for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of V. parahaemolyticus infection. PMID:25798132

  10. Antibiotic-Resistant Vibrios in Farmed Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque Costa, Renata; Araújo, Rayza Lima; Souza, Oscarina Viana; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75%) was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (n = 42), cross-resistance to ?-lactams (n = 20) and multiple resistance (n = 13). Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (n = 11), penicillin + ampicillin (n = 1), penicillin + aztreonam (n = 1), and ampicillin (n = 1). Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains (n = 86) was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to ?-lactam and tetracycline. PMID:25918714

  11. Thermal Stress Triggers Broad Pocillopora damicornis Transcriptomic Remodeling, while Vibrio coralliilyticus Infection Induces a More Targeted Immuno-Suppression Response

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Dheilly, Nolwenn M.; Rondon, Rodolfo; Grunau, Christoph; Cosseau, Céline; Smith, Kristina M.; Freitag, Michael; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Mitta, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Global change and its associated temperature increase has directly or indirectly changed the distributions of hosts and pathogens, and has affected host immunity, pathogen virulence and growth rates. This has resulted in increased disease in natural plant and animal populations worldwide, including scleractinian corals. While the effects of temperature increase on immunity and pathogen virulence have been clearly identified, their interaction, synergy and relative weight during pathogenesis remain poorly documented. We investigated these phenomena in the interaction between the coral Pocillopora damicornis and the bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus, for which the infection process is temperature-dependent. We developed an experimental model that enabled unraveling the effects of thermal stress, and virulence vs. non-virulence of the bacterium. The physiological impacts of various treatments were quantified at the transcriptome level using a combination of RNA sequencing and targeted approaches. The results showed that thermal stress triggered a general weakening of the coral, making it more prone to infection, non-virulent bacterium induced an ‘efficient’ immune response, whereas virulent bacterium caused immuno-suppression in its host. PMID:25259845

  12. The lipopolysaccharide O side chain of Vibrio vulnificus serogroup E is a virulence determinant for eels.

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, C; Fouz, B; Biosca, E G; Marco-Noales, E; Collado, R

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a gram-negative bacterium capable of producing septicemic infections in eels and immunocompromised humans. Two biotypes are classically recognized, with the virulence for eels being specific to strains belonging to biotype 2, which constitutes a homogeneous lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based O serogroup (which we have designated serogroup E). In the present study we demonstrated that the O side chain of this LPS determines the selective virulence of biotype 2 for eels: (i) biotype 1 strains (which do not belong to serogroup E) are destroyed by the bactericidal action of nonimmune eel serum (NIS) through activation of the alternative pathway of complement, (ii) biotype 2 strains (of serogroup E) are resistant to NIS, and (iii) rough mutants of biotype 2 lacking the O polysaccharide side chain are sensitive to NIS and avirulent for eels. PMID:9169795

  13. The structure of a GFP-based antibody (fluorobody) to TLH, a toxin from Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaoguang; Huang, Xiaocheng; Wang, Rongzhi; Wang, Shihua; Shi, Ning

    2015-07-01

    A fluorobody is a manmade hybrid molecule that is composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a fragment of antibody, which combines the affinity and specificity of an antibody with the visibility of a GFP. It is able to provide a real-time indication of binding while avoiding the use of tags and secondary binding reagents. Here, the expression, purification and crystal structure of a recombinant fluorobody for TLH (thermolabile haemolysin), a toxin from the lethal food-borne disease bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are presented. This is the first structure of a fluorobody to be reported. Crystals belonging to space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 63.35, c = 125.90?Å, were obtained by vapour diffusion in hanging drops and the structure was refined to an Rfree of 16.7% at 1.5?Å resolution. The structure shows a CDR loop of the antibody on the GFP scaffold. PMID:26144238

  14. Factors affecting the uptake and retention of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Brett A; Noble, Rachel T

    2014-12-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a bacterium ubiquitous in oysters and coastal water, is capable of causing ailments ranging from gastroenteritis to grievous wound infections or septicemia. The uptake of these bacteria into oysters is often examined in vitro by placing oysters in seawater amended with V. vulnificus. Multiple teams have obtained similar results in studies where laboratory-grown bacteria were observed to be rapidly taken up by oysters but quickly eliminated. This technique, along with suggested modifications, is reviewed here. In contrast, the natural microflora within oysters is notoriously difficult to eliminate via depuration. The reason for the transiency of exogenous bacteria is that those bacteria are competitively excluded by the oyster's preexisting microflora. Evidence of this phenomenon is shown using in vitro oyster studies and a multiyear in situ case study. Depuration of the endogenous oyster bacteria occurs naturally and can also be artificially induced, but both of these events require extreme conditions, natural or otherwise, as explained here. Finally, the "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) state of Vibrio is discussed. This bacterial torpor can easily be confused with a reduction in bacterial abundance, as bacteria in this state fail to grow on culture media. Thus, oysters collected from colder months may appear to be relatively free of Vibrio but in reality harbor VBNC cells that respond to exogenous bacteria and prevent colonization of oyster matrices. Bacterial-uptake experiments combined with studies involving cell-free spent media are detailed that demonstrate this occurrence, which could explain why the microbial community in oysters does not always mirror that of the surrounding water. PMID:25261513

  15. Factors Affecting the Uptake and Retention of Vibrio vulnificus in Oysters

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Rachel T.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a bacterium ubiquitous in oysters and coastal water, is capable of causing ailments ranging from gastroenteritis to grievous wound infections or septicemia. The uptake of these bacteria into oysters is often examined in vitro by placing oysters in seawater amended with V. vulnificus. Multiple teams have obtained similar results in studies where laboratory-grown bacteria were observed to be rapidly taken up by oysters but quickly eliminated. This technique, along with suggested modifications, is reviewed here. In contrast, the natural microflora within oysters is notoriously difficult to eliminate via depuration. The reason for the transiency of exogenous bacteria is that those bacteria are competitively excluded by the oyster's preexisting microflora. Evidence of this phenomenon is shown using in vitro oyster studies and a multiyear in situ case study. Depuration of the endogenous oyster bacteria occurs naturally and can also be artificially induced, but both of these events require extreme conditions, natural or otherwise, as explained here. Finally, the “viable but nonculturable” (VBNC) state of Vibrio is discussed. This bacterial torpor can easily be confused with a reduction in bacterial abundance, as bacteria in this state fail to grow on culture media. Thus, oysters collected from colder months may appear to be relatively free of Vibrio but in reality harbor VBNC cells that respond to exogenous bacteria and prevent colonization of oyster matrices. Bacterial-uptake experiments combined with studies involving cell-free spent media are detailed that demonstrate this occurrence, which could explain why the microbial community in oysters does not always mirror that of the surrounding water. PMID:25261513

  16. The evaluation of four recent culture-based methods for the isolation and enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus bacteria from oyster meat.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Brett A; Weiss, Mary Jo; Noble, Rachel T

    2014-02-01

    The most common cause of seafood-borne death in the United States is the bacterium Vibrio vulnificus which can be concentrated into high numbers in the tissues of oysters or other shellfish. The ability to quickly, accurately, and inexpensively isolate living strains of this organism from oyster tissues is crucial for effective research on this pathogen. In this report, we evaluate four methods for isolating and quantifying V. vulnificus from oyster tissues, the solid media CPC+ (a refined version of cellobiose-polymyxin B-colistin medium), CHROMagar Vibrio, VVX (Vibrio vulnificus X-gal), and a method termed "Triple plating". Up to 1225 presumptive isolates were detected by each method, and 335 were subjected to molecular typing. The selectivity and sensitivity of each method was examined and VVX was found to be the most accurate method, with each of the other methods being recommended for task-specific uses. CHROMagar Vibrio is recommended for ease of use and relative accuracy, CPC+ is best used to differentiate between clinically associated and environmental strains. PMID:24355773

  17. The dual nature of haemocyanin in the establishment and persistence of the squid-vibrio symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Natacha; Schwartzman, Julia; Augustin, René; Zhou, Lawrence; Ruby, Edward G; Hourdez, Stéphane; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

    2014-06-22

    We identified and sequenced from the squid Euprymna scolopes two isoforms of haemocyanin that share the common structural/physiological characteristics of haemocyanin from a closely related cephalopod, Sepia officinalis, including a pronounced Bohr effect. We examined the potential roles for haemocyanin in the animal's symbiosis with the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Our data demonstrate that, as in other cephalopods, the haemocyanin is primarily synthesized in the gills. It transits through the general circulation into other tissues and is exported into crypt spaces that support the bacterial partner, which requires oxygen for its bioluminescence. We showed that the gradient of pH between the circulating haemolymph and the matrix of the crypt spaces in adult squid favours offloading of oxygen from the haemocyanin to the symbionts. Haemocyanin is also localized to the apical surfaces and associated mucus of a juvenile-specific epithelium on which the symbionts gather, and where their specificity is determined during the recruitment into the association. The haemocyanin has an antimicrobial activity, which may be involved in this enrichment of V. fischeri during symbiont initiation. Taken together, these data provide evidence that the haemocyanin plays a role in shaping two stages of the squid-vibrio partnership. PMID:24807261

  18. Construction of a new plasmid for surface display on cells of Yarrowia lipolytica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lixi Yue; Zhenming Chi; Lin Wang; Jia Liu; Catherine Madzak; Jing Li; Xianghong Wang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a new surface display plasmid (pINA1317-YlCWP110) was constructed in Yarrowia lipolytica using C-terminal anchor domain of YlCWP1 from Y. lipolytica based on plasmid pINA1317, a pre-existing auto-cloning system for heterologous protein production in Y. lipolytica. When the genes encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and haemolysin derived from the bacterium Vibrio harveyi were cloned into the newly

  19. Recreational swimmers' exposure to Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kristi S; Sapkota, Amy R; Jacobs, John M; He, Xin; Crump, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are ubiquitous in the marine-estuarine environment, but the magnitude of human non-ingestion exposure to these waterborne pathogens is largely unknown. We evaluated the magnitude of dermal exposure to V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus among swimmers recreating in Vibrio-populated waters by conducting swim studies at four swimming locations in the Chesapeake Bay in 2009 and 2011. Volunteers (n=31) swam for set time periods, and surface water (n=25) and handwash (n=250) samples were collected. Samples were analyzed for Vibrio concentrations using quantitative PCR. Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate factors associated with recreational exposures. Mean surface water V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus concentrations were 1128CFUmL(-1) (95% confidence interval (CI): 665.6, 1591.4) and 18CFUmL(-1) (95% CI: 9.8, 26.1), respectively, across all sampling locations. Mean Vibrio concentrations in handwash samples (V. vulnificus, 180CFUcm(-2) (95% CI: 136.6, 222.5); V. parahaemolyticus, 3CFUcm(-2) (95% CI: 2.4, 3.7)) were significantly associated with Vibrio concentrations in surface water (V. vulnificus, p<0.01; V. parahaemolyticus, p<0.01), but not with salinity or temperature (V. vulnificus, p=0.52, p=0.17; V. parahaemolyticus, p=0.82, p=0.06). Handwashing reduced V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus on subjects' hands by approximately one log (93.9%, 89.4%, respectively). It can be concluded that when Chesapeake Bay surface waters are characterized by elevated concentrations of Vibrio, swimmers and individuals working in those waters could experience significant dermal exposures to V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus, increasing their risk of infection. PMID:25454225

  20. Mechanistic insights into filamentous phage integration in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bhabatosh

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of acute diarrhoeal disease cholera, harbors large numbers of lysogenic filamentous phages, contribute significantly to the host pathogenesis and provide fitness factors to the pathogen that help the bacterium to survive in natural environment. Most of the vibriophage genomes are not equipped with integrase and thus exploit two host-encoded tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, for lysogenic conversion. Integration is site-specific and it occurs at dimer resolution site (dif) of either one or both chromosomes of V. cholerae. Each dif sequence contains two recombinase-binding sequences flanking a central region. The integration follows a sequential strand exchanges between dif and attP sites within a DNA-protein complex consisting of one pair of each recombinase and two DNA fragments. During entire process of recombination, both the DNA components and recombinases of the synaptic complex keep transiently interconnected. Within the context of synaptic complex, both of the actuated enzymes mediate cleavage of phosphodiester bonds. First cleavage generates a phosphotyrosyl-linked recombinase-DNA complex at the recombinase binding sequence and free 5?-hydroxyl end at the first base of the central region. Following the cleavage, the exposed bases with 5?-hydroxyl ends of the central region of dif and attP sites melt from their complementary strands and react with the recombinase-DNA phosphotyrosyl linkage of their recombining partner. Subsequent ligation between dif and attP strands requires complementary base pair interactions at the site of phosphodiester bond formation. Integration mechanism is mostly influenced by the compatibility of dif and attP sequences. dif sites are highly conserved across bacterial phyla. Different phage genomes have different attP sequences; therefore they rely on different mechanisms for integration. Here, I review our current understanding of integration mechanisms used by the vibriophages. PMID:25506341

  1. Applied studies on the viability of El Tor vibrios*

    PubMed Central

    Pesigan, T. P.; Plantilla, J.; Rolda, M.

    1967-01-01

    The viability of El Tor vibrios was tested at various temperatures in foodstuffs, kitchen utensils, and water after these materials had been directly contaminated with stools of cholera patients or carriers from the Philippines, collected in 1963-64. The period of survival of vibrios in foodstuffs was 2-5 days at room temperature (30°C-32°C) and as long as 9 days under refrigeration (5°C-10°C). Vibrios survived even longer in refrigerated water. The period of survival was shorter for all materials contaminated with carriers' stools, which contain fewer vibrios. Chlorinated lime was more effective than potassium permanganate as a decontaminant. PMID:4870081

  2. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  3. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  4. Vibrio fluvialis: an emerging human pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Shinoda, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio fluvialis is a pathogen commonly found in coastal environs. Considering recent increase in numbers of diarrheal outbreaks and sporadic extraintestinal cases, V. fluvialis has been considered as an emerging pathogen. Though this pathogen can be easily isolated by existing culture methods, its identification is still a challenging problem due to close phenotypic resemblance either with Vibrio cholerae or Aeromonas spp. However, using molecular tools, it is easy to identify V. fluvialis from clinical and different environmental samples. Many putative virulence factors have been reported, but its mechanisms of pathogenesis and survival fitness in the environment are yet to be explored. This chapter covers some of the major discoveries that have been made to understand the importance of V. fluvialis. PMID:24653717

  5. Vibrio species as agents of elasmobranch disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, D. J.; Colwell, R. R.; Stemmler, J.; Hada, H.; Maneval, D.; Hetrick, F. M.; May, E. B.; Jones, R. T.; Stoskopf, M.

    1984-03-01

    Two Vibrio species identified as V. damsela and a new sucrose-positive Vibrio sp., V. carchariae sp. nov., were simultaneously isolated from a brown shark which died while being held in captivity at a large aquarium. Pathogenicity studies were subsequently conducted using a variety of elasmobranchs, including smooth dogfish and lemon sharks. Both bacterial strains proved pathogenic, causing death in nearly all of the elasmobranch hosts challenged. Virulence studies revealed that both bacterial strains were cytotoxic for Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. The V. damsela strain was highly cytotoxic causing Y-1 cellular damage at culture supernatant dilutions up to 1 : 128. Both strains were hemolytic, but neither exhibited the Kanagawa phenomenon. They were both capable of urea hydrolysis, an interesting trait, considering that elasmobranchs retain large (ca 300 milliosmolal) urea concentration in their tissue.

  6. Extended serotyping scheme for Vibrio cholerae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Shimada; Eiji Arakawa; Kenichiro Itoh; Tadayuki Okitsu; Akiyoshi Matsushima; Yoshio Asai; Shiro Yamai; Tamotsu Nakazato; G. Balakrish Nair; M. John Albert; Yoshifumi Takeda

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-seven new O serogroups have been added to the existing serotyping scheme ofVibrio cholerae to extend the scheme from O84 to O140. Prominent new additions were serogroups O139 and O140. The reference strain of O139 was isolated from a patient from an epidemic of cholera-like diarrhea in Madras, Southern India. Serogroup O140 was assigned to a group ofV. cholerae strains

  7. Proline-Rich Peptide from the Coral Pathogen Vibrio shiloi That Inhibits Photosynthesis of Zooxanthellae

    PubMed Central

    Banin, Ehud; Khare, Sanjay K.; Naider, Fred; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    The coral-bleaching bacterium Vibrio shiloi biosynthesizes and secretes an extracellular peptide, referred to as toxin P, which inhibits photosynthesis of coral symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae). Toxin P was produced during the stationary phase when the bacterium was grown on peptone or Casamino Acids media at 29°C. Glycerol inhibited the production of toxin P. Toxin P was purified to homogeneity, yielding the following 12-residue peptide: PYPVYAPPPVVP (molecular weight, 1,295.54). The structure of toxin P was confirmed by chemical synthesis. In the presence of 12.5 mM NH4Cl, pure natural or synthetic toxin P (10 ?M) caused a 64% decrease in the photosynthetic quantum yield of zooxanthellae within 5 min. The inhibition was proportional to the toxin P concentration. Toxin P bound avidly to zooxanthellae, such that subsequent addition of NH4Cl resulted in rapid inhibition of photosynthesis. When zooxanthellae were incubated in the presence of NH4Cl and toxin P, there was a rapid decrease in the pH (pH 7.8 to 7.2) of the bulk liquid, suggesting that toxin P facilitates transport of NH3 into the cell. It is known that uptake of NH3 into cells can destroy the pH gradient and block photosynthesis. This mode of action of toxin P can help explain the mechanism of coral bleaching by V. shiloi. PMID:11282602

  8. Role of Type IV Pilins in Persistence of Vibrio vulnificus in Crassostrea virginica Oysters?

    PubMed Central

    Paranjpye, Rohinee N.; Johnson, Asta B.; Baxter, Anne E.; Strom, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is part of the natural estuarine microflora and accumulates in shellfish through filter feeding. It is responsible for the majority of seafood-associated fatalities in the United States mainly through consumption of raw oysters. Previously we have shown that a V. vulnificus mutant unable to express PilD, the type IV prepilin peptidase, does not express pili on the surface of the bacterium and is defective in adherence to human epithelial cells (R. N. Paranjpye, J. C. Lara, J. C. Pepe, C. M. Pepe, and M. S. Strom, Infect. Immun. 66:5659-5668, 1998). A mutant unable to express one of the type IV pilins, PilA, is also defective in adherence to epithelial cells as well as biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces (R. N. Paranjpye and M. S. Strom, Infect. Immun. 73:1411-1422, 2005). In this study we report that the loss of PilD or PilA significantly reduces the ability of V. vulnificus to persist in Crassostrea virginica over a 66-h interval, strongly suggesting that pili expressed by this bacterium play a role in colonization or persistence in oysters. PMID:17557854

  9. Information processing and signal integration in bacterial quorum sensing

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Pankaj; Goyal, Sidhartha; Long, Tao; Bassler, Bonnie L; Wingreen, Ned S

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria communicate using secreted chemical signaling molecules called autoinducers in a process known as quorum sensing. The quorum-sensing network of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi uses three autoinducers, each known to encode distinct ecological information. Yet how cells integrate and interpret the information contained within these three autoinducer signals remains a mystery. Here, we develop a new framework for analyzing signal integration on the basis of information theory and use it to analyze quorum sensing in V. harveyi. We quantify how much the cells can learn about individual autoinducers and explain the experimentally observed input–output relation of the V. harveyi quorum-sensing circuit. Our results suggest that the need to limit interference between input signals places strong constraints on the architecture of bacterial signal-integration networks, and that bacteria probably have evolved active strategies for minimizing this interference. Here, we analyze two such strategies: manipulation of autoinducer production and feedback on receptor number ratios. PMID:19920810

  10. Ligand-Induced Asymmetry in Histidine Sensor Kinase Complex Regulates Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Neiditch,M.; Federle, M.; Pompeani, A.; Kelly, R.; Swem, D.; Jeffrey, P.; Bassler, B.; Hughson, F.

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria sense their environment using receptors of the histidine sensor kinase family, but how kinase activity is regulated by ligand binding is not well understood. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a secreted signaling molecule originally identified in studies of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, regulates quorum-sensing responses and allows communication between different bacterial species. AI-2 signal transduction in V. harveyi requires the integral membrane receptor LuxPQ, comprised of periplasmic binding protein (LuxP) and histidine sensor kinase (LuxQ) subunits. Combined X-ray crystallographic and functional studies show that AI-2 binding causes a major conformational change within LuxP, which in turn stabilizes a quaternary arrangement in which two LuxPQ monomers are asymmetrically associated. We propose that formation of this asymmetric quaternary structure is responsible for repressing the kinase activity of both LuxQ subunits and triggering the transition of V. harveyi into quorum-sensing mode.

  11. Ligand-Induced Asymmetry in Histidine Sensor Kinase Complex Regulates Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Neiditch, Matthew B.; Federle, Michael J.; Pompeani, Audra J.; Kelly, Robert C.; Swem, Danielle L.; Jeffrey, Philip D.; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Hughson, Frederick M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacteria sense their environment using receptors of the histidine sensor kinase family, but how kinase activity is regulated by ligand binding is not well understood. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a secreted signaling molecule originally identified in studies of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, regulates quorum-sensing responses and allows communication between different bacterial species. AI-2 signal transduction in V. harveyi requires the integral membrane receptor LuxPQ, comprised of periplasmic binding protein (LuxP) and histidine sensor kinase (LuxQ) subunits. Combined X-ray crystallographic and functional studies show that AI-2 binding causes a major conformational change within LuxP, which in turn stabilizes a quaternary arrangement in which two LuxPQ monomers are asymmetrically associated. We propose that formation of this asymmetric quaternary structure is responsible for repressing the kinase activity of both LuxQ subunits and triggering the transition of V. harveyi into quorum-sensing mode. PMID:16990134

  12. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, B.; Beck, L.; Huq, A.; Wood, B.; Fuchs, G.; Faruque, A. S.; Colwell, R.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been known that cholera outbreaks can be initiated when Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is present in drinking water in sufficient numbers to constitute an infective dose, if ingested by humans. Outbreaks associated with drinking or bathing in unpurified river or brackish water may directly or indirectly depend on such conditions as water temperature, nutrient concentration, and plankton production that may be favorable for growth and reproduction of the bacterium. Although these environmental parameters have routinely been measured by using water samples collected aboard research ships, the available data sets are sparse and infrequent. Furthermore, shipboard data acquisition is both expensive and time-consuming. Interpolation to regional scales can also be problematic. Although the bacterium, V. cholerae, cannot be sensed directly, remotely sensed data can be used to infer its presence. In the study reported here, satellite data were used to monitor the timing and spread of cholera. Public domain remote sensing data for the Bay of Bengal were compared directly with cholera case data collected in Bangladesh from 1992-1995. The remote sensing data included sea surface temperature and sea surface height. It was discovered that sea surface temperature shows an annual cycle similar to the cholera case data. Sea surface height may be an indicator of incursion of plankton-laden water inland, e.g., tidal rivers, because it was also found to be correlated with cholera outbreaks. The extensive studies accomplished during the past 25 years, confirming the hypothesis that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment and is a commensal of zooplankton, i.e., copepods, when combined with the findings of the satellite data analyses, provide strong evidence that cholera epidemics are climate-linked.

  13. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement.

    PubMed

    Lobitz, B; Beck, L; Huq, A; Wood, B; Fuchs, G; Faruque, A S; Colwell, R

    2000-02-15

    It has long been known that cholera outbreaks can be initiated when Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is present in drinking water in sufficient numbers to constitute an infective dose, if ingested by humans. Outbreaks associated with drinking or bathing in unpurified river or brackish water may directly or indirectly depend on such conditions as water temperature, nutrient concentration, and plankton production that may be favorable for growth and reproduction of the bacterium. Although these environmental parameters have routinely been measured by using water samples collected aboard research ships, the available data sets are sparse and infrequent. Furthermore, shipboard data acquisition is both expensive and time-consuming. Interpolation to regional scales can also be problematic. Although the bacterium, V. cholerae, cannot be sensed directly, remotely sensed data can be used to infer its presence. In the study reported here, satellite data were used to monitor the timing and spread of cholera. Public domain remote sensing data for the Bay of Bengal were compared directly with cholera case data collected in Bangladesh from 1992-1995. The remote sensing data included sea surface temperature and sea surface height. It was discovered that sea surface temperature shows an annual cycle similar to the cholera case data. Sea surface height may be an indicator of incursion of plankton-laden water inland, e.g., tidal rivers, because it was also found to be correlated with cholera outbreaks. The extensive studies accomplished during the past 25 years, confirming the hypothesis that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment and is a commensal of zooplankton, i.e., copepods, when combined with the findings of the satellite data analyses, provide strong evidence that cholera epidemics are climate-linked. PMID:10677480

  14. Extracellular and surface-bound biological activities of Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio furnissii and related species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Myatt; G. H. G. Davis

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-seven Vibrio strains were assessed for virulence-associated biological activities, including iron chelation, hydrolases, haemolysis and haemagglutination. All strains hydrolysed DNA, chitin, gelatin and casein, produced siderophores, and lysed red blood cells. All V. fluvialis, V. cholerae and V. mimicus strains exhibited diverse lipolytic activity distinct from more discriminate lipolysis by V. furnissii. V. furnissii manifested fibrin and mucin hydrolysis but

  15. Molecular cloning of a C-type lectin with one carbohydrate recognition domain from Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and its expression upon challenging by pathogenic bacterium or virus.

    PubMed

    Thepnarong, Supattra; Runsaeng, Phanthipha; Rattanaporn, Onnicha; Utarabhand, Prapaporn

    2015-02-01

    Lectins, one type of pattern recognition proteins, play important roles in an innate immunity of crustaceans including shrimp. A new C-type lectin designated FmLC1 was cloned from the hepatopancreas of banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis by procedures of PCR and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA is composed of 706bp with a single open reading frame of 477bp, encoding a peptide of 158 amino acid residues. Its deduced amino acid sequence comprises a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acids and has an estimated molecular mass of 17,934Da with a theoretical pI of 4.46. The primary sequence of FmLC1 contains a single carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with an EPS (Glu-Pro-Ser) motif and one Ca(2+) binding site, stabilized by two disulfide bonds. FmLC1 mRNA was detected to express specifically in the hepatopancreas, a master organ in shrimp. Its expression in the hepatopancreas was up-regulated to reach the maximum at 12 or 48h following challenge of shrimp with Vibrio harveyi or white spot syndrome virus, respectively. These results suggest that FmLC1 may participate in recognition of invading pathogens such as bacteria and viruses, and play roles in the immune response of shrimp even at different stages of the clearance of pathogens. PMID:25542510

  16. Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate.

    PubMed

    Huff, Karleigh; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Littlejohn, Amy E Fleishman; Rajwa, Bartek; Bae, Euiwon; Banada, Padmapriya P; Patsekin, Valery; Hirleman, E Daniel; Robinson, J Paul; Richards, Gary P; Bhunia, Arun K

    2012-09-01

    The three most common pathogenic species of Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, are of major concerns due to increased incidence of water- and seafood-related outbreaks and illness worldwide. Current methods are lengthy and require biochemical and molecular confirmation. A novel label-free forward light-scattering sensor was developed to detect and identify colonies of these three pathogens in real time in the presence of other vibrios in food or water samples. Vibrio colonies grown on agar plates were illuminated by a 635?nm laser beam and scatter-image signatures were acquired using a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera in an automated BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical light-scattering Technology) system. Although a limited number of Vibrio species was tested, each produced a unique light-scattering signature that is consistent from colony to colony. Subsequently a pattern recognition system analysing the collected light-scatter information provided classification in 1-2?min with an accuracy of 99%. The light-scattering signatures were unaffected by subjecting the bacteria to physiological stressors: osmotic imbalance, acid, heat and recovery from a viable but non-culturable state. Furthermore, employing a standard sample enrichment in alkaline peptone water for 6?h followed by plating on selective thiosulphate citrate bile salts sucrose agar at 30°C for ??12?h, the light-scattering sensor successfully detected V.?cholerae, V.?parahaemolyticus and V.?vulnificus present in oyster or water samples in 18?h even in the presence of other vibrios or other bacteria, indicating the suitability of the sensor as a powerful screening tool for pathogens on agar plates. PMID:22613192

  17. Distribution of Vibrio vulnificus and Other Lactose-Fermenting Vibrios in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, James D.; Warner, Robert A.; Cleland, David R.

    1983-01-01

    During the summer of 1981, 3,887 sucrose-negative vibrios were isolated from seawater, sediment, plankton, and animal samples taken from 80 sites from Miami, Fla., to Portland, Maine. Of these, 4.2% were able to ferment lactose. The lactose-positive strains isolated from the various samples correlated positively with pH and turbidity of the water, vibrios in the sediment and oysters, and total bacterial counts in oysters. Negative correlations were obtained for water salinity. Numerical taxonomy was performed on 95 of the lactose-fermenting environmental isolates and 23 reference strains. Five clusters resulted, with the major cluster containing 33 of the environmental isolates and all of the Vibrio vulnificus reference strains. The 33 isolates, which produced an acid reaction in lactose broth within hours of initial inoculation, represented 20% of all lactose-fermenting vibrios studied. These isolates were nearly identical phenotypically to clinical strains of V. vulnificus studied by the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga., and by our laboratory, and their identification was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies. V. vulnificus was isolated from all sample types and from Miami to Cape Cod, Mass., and comparison of the environmental parameters of the eight subsites yielding this species with those of all 80 subsites revealed no significant differences. The majority of the isolates were obtained from animals, with clams providing most (84%) of these. On injection into mice, 82% of the V. vulnificus isolates resulted in death. Members of the remaining four clusters contained strains which differed from V. vulnificus in such phenotypic traits as luminescence and in urease or H2S production. None of the other reference cultures, including nine other Vibrio species, were contained in the remaining clusters, and these isolates could not be identified. Most of these were also lethal for mice. Phenotypic differences, potential pathogenicity, and geographic distribution of the five clusters were examined. It is concluded that V. vulnificus is a ubiquitous organism, both geographically and in a variety of environmental sources, although it occurs in relatively low numbers. The public health significance of this organism and of the other unidentified lactose-fermenting Vibrio species is discussed. PMID:6847190

  18. [Transmission of Vibrio cholerae. Possible role of the camel].

    PubMed

    Dodin, A; Chamoiseau, G; Lepers, J P; Chartier, C

    1986-01-01

    Choleraic vibrio uses the moving means that man discovers to his own use. Camels (passive and active vehicles of large quantity of crude water) were experimentally infected with a Vibrio (tox. +) and an Aeromonas (tox. +). Suckling young camels eliminate them for 6 days and grown-up camels for 25 days. This experience, associated with the discovery of Vibrio non 01 and Shigella in the caravan camel dungs, lead them to become a potential vector of spreading from one oasis to another. PMID:3096512

  19. Purification and characterization of Vibrio metschnikovii cytolysin.

    PubMed

    Miyake, M; Honda, T; Miwatani, T

    1988-04-01

    An extracellular cytolysin produced by Vibrio metschnikovii was purified by acid precipitation, phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B chromatography, and rechromatography on a phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B column and high-performance liquid chromatography on a Mono Q (anion-exchange) column. The purified cytolysin had a molecular weight of 50,000 and an isoelectric point of 5.1. It was inactivated by heating at 60 degrees C for 5 min and was inhibited by Zn2+, Cu2+, and high concentrations of cholesterol. Lysis of calf erythrocytes by cytolysin was temperature dependent and occurred only above 18 degrees C. Moreover, no lysis was observed at high concentrations of erythrocytes, suggesting that the cytolysin lyses erythrocytes by a multihit mechanism. This cytolysin had no immunological cross-reactivities with hemolysins from other Vibrio species tested, indicating that it is a new cytolysin. V. metschnikovii cytolysin lysed erythrocytes from several animal species (calf, rabbit, guinea pig, mouse, human, sheep, chicken, and horse) and cultured cells (Vero and Chinese hamster ovary), caused fluid accumulation in the intestines of infant mice, and increased vascular permeability in rabbit skin. PMID:3126150

  20. Genome anatomy of the gastrointestinal pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus of crustacean origin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an important human pathogen, is associated with gastroenteritis and transmitted through partially cooked seafood. It has become a major concern in the production and trade of marine food products. The prevalence of potentially virulent and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in raw seafood is of public health significance. Here we describe the genome sequence of a V. parahaemolyticus isolate of crustacean origin which was cultured from prawns in 2008 in Selangor, Malaysia (isolate PCV08-7). The next generation sequencing and analysis revealed that the genome of isolate PCV08-7 has closest similarity to that of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633. However, there are certain unique features of the PCV08-7 genome such as the absence of TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), and the presence of HU-alpha insertion. The genome of isolate PCV08-7 encodes a thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), an important virulence factor that classifies PCV08-7 isolate to be a serovariant of O3:K6 strain. Apart from these, we observed that there is certain pattern of genetic rearrangements that makes V. parahaemolyticus PCV08-7 a non-pandemic clone. We present detailed genome statistics and important genetic features of this bacterium and discuss how its survival, adaptation and virulence in marine and terrestrial hosts can be understood through the genomic blueprint and that the availability of genome sequence entailing this important Malaysian isolate would likely enhance our understanding of the epidemiology, evolution and transmission of foodborne Vibrios in Malaysia and elsewhere. PMID:24330647

  1. FIGURE 2. -Immunodiffusion comparison of Vibrio anguil-larum 775 and Vibrio sp. 1669. Wells I, 3, and 5 contain V. an-

    E-print Network

    . The center well contains rabbit anti-V. anguil- larum 775 serum. V anguillarum 775 in rabbit anti-Vibrio sp a vaccine containing antigens from both vibrios would be more protective than vac- cines containing antigens from only one of the TABLE 2. - Agglutinin titers of rabbit anti-Vibrio sp. 1669 serum unabsorbed

  2. Structure of Vibrio cholerae ToxT reveals a mechanism for fatty acid regulation of virulence genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lowden, Michael J.; Skorupski, Karen; Pellegrini, Maria; Chiorazzo, Michael G.; Taylor, Ronald K.; Kull, F. Jon (Dartmouth)

    2010-03-04

    Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. In order for V. cholerae to cause disease, it must produce two virulence factors, the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT), whose expression is controlled by a transcriptional cascade culminating with the expression of the AraC-family regulator, ToxT. We have solved the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of ToxT, which reveals folds in the N- and C-terminal domains that share a number of features in common with AraC, MarA, and Rob as well as the unexpected presence of a buried 16-carbon fatty acid, cis-palmitoleate. The finding that cis-palmitoleic acid reduces TCP and CT expression in V. cholerae and prevents ToxT from binding to DNA in vitro provides a direct link between the host environment of V. cholerae and regulation of virulence gene expression.

  3. Activities of Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase Subunits C1 and C2 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus against Different Peroxides

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chun-Hui; Ma, Tsung-yong; Fen, Shin-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C gene (ahpC) functions were characterized in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a commonly occurring marine food-borne enteropathogenic bacterium. Two ahpC genes, ahpC1 (VPA1683) and ahpC2 (VP0580), encoded putative two-cysteine peroxiredoxins, which are highly similar to the homologous proteins of Vibrio vulnificus. The responses of deletion mutants of ahpC genes to various peroxides were compared with and without gene complementation and at different incubation temperatures. The growth of the ahpC1 mutant and ahpC1 ahpC2 double mutant in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by organic peroxides, cumene hydroperoxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. However, inhibition was higher at 12°C and 22°C than at 37°C. Inhibiting effects were prevented by the complementary ahpC1 gene. Inconsistent detoxification of H2O2 by ahpC genes was demonstrated in an agar medium but not in a liquid medium. Complementation with an ahpC2 gene partially restored the peroxidase effect in the double ahpC1 ahpC2 mutant at 22°C. This investigation reveals that ahpC1 is the chief peroxidase gene that acts against organic peroxides in V. parahaemolyticus and that the function of the ahpC genes is influenced by incubation temperature. PMID:25239899

  4. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in the American lobster Homarus americanus: molecular characterization and transcriptional response to Vibrio fluvialis challenge.

    PubMed

    Beale, K M; Towle, D W; Jayasundara, N; Smith, C M; Shields, J D; Small, H J; Greenwood, S J

    2008-12-01

    Two partial mRNA sequences predicted to encode anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) were identified among expressed sequence tags generated from the American lobster Homarus americanus and complete cDNA sequences were obtained from library clones. Comparison of the translated amino acid sequences to those publicly available confirmed similarity to arthropod anti-lipopolysaccharide factors. Both protein sequences, designated ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2, contained an N-terminal signal peptide and two half-cysteines participating in a disulfide bridge, features conserved in other ALFs. Predicted secondary structures were similar to that described for the ALF from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. As part of an exploratory study of immunity in H. americanus, lobsters were injected with the bacterium Vibrio fluvialis and gill, hematopoietic, and hepatopancreas tissues were sampled for analysis of gene expression of ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2 by quantitative PCR. The relative abundance of ALFHa-2 mRNA was not significantly affected by Vibrio injection in any of the three tissues tested. In contrast, ALFHa-1 mRNA levels in gills were increased by the treatment some 17-fold. Our results support a molecularly specific regulation of antimicrobial proteins in response to bacterial infection in H. americanus. PMID:19956341

  5. Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus detected in seafood products from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Coly, Ignace; Sow, Amy Gassama; Seydi, Malang; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    The detection of pathogenic Vibrio in seafood from Senegal has generated five food alerts in the European Union. To investigate the presence and abundance Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood and coastal and estuarine waters, 123 seafood samples and 52 water samples were collected during 2007-2009 from two large seafood markets in Dakar, and from different oceanic and estuarine areas of the country. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 30.1% of seafood samples, whereas presence of V. cholerae was only found in 1.6%. In water samples, V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae were detected in 28.8% and 5.7% of the samples, respectively. Abundance of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood from the fishing areas ranged from <0.3 to 7.5 most probable number (MPN) per gram. In samples from markets, densities of V. parahaemolyticus showed higher values ranging from 0.61 to >110 MPN/g. Densities of V. cholerae in the two positive seafood samples reached values of 0.36 and 0.61 MPN/g, repectively. V. parahaemolyticus strains were found to possess tlh, but not tdh and trh by polymerase chain reaction, and all the strains of V. cholerae were non-O1 or non-O139. These results suggest that the prevalence of high salinities in coastal and estuarine environments of Senegal limits the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae, despite warmer temperatures prevailing in seawater environments throughout the year. Furthermore, temperature abuse driven by a deficient cold chain over the distribution and retail sales may represent a major risk due to the postharvest multiplication of these Vibrio pathogens. PMID:24147655

  6. Establishment of an animalbacterial association: Recruiting symbiotic vibrios from

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Establishment of an animal­bacterial association: Recruiting symbiotic vibrios from the environment of being colonized by appropriate microbes, while discouraging colonization by nonspecific ones. One are specifically detected and me- tabolized by symbiotically competent bacteria in the family Rhizobiaceae

  7. Vibrio vulnificus dynamics in a south Texas bay

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Shelli Lee

    2009-05-15

    Vibrio vulnificus is a human pathogen commonly found in coastal and estuarine waters in temperate and subtropical regions across the world. The ecology of V. vulnificus has been studied in these regions primarily using cultured-based methods...

  8. Pathogenesis of Vibrio anguillarum in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) 

    E-print Network

    Jones, David Munson

    1976-01-01

    cholera. Similar pteridine compounds were shown to "powerfully inhibit the growth of ~Stre to- coccus faecalis" (11). Its use as an agent for identifying vibrios was first suggested by Shewan et al. (50). However, Merkel emphasized that salts interfere...

  9. Effect of Mukerjee's group IV phage on El Tor vibrios*

    PubMed Central

    Monsur, K. A.; Rizvi, S. S. H.; Huq, M. I.; Benenson, A. S.

    1965-01-01

    El Tor vibrios are characterized by their insusceptibility to Mukerjee's group IV phage in routine test dilutions. This study shows that group IV phage in sufficient titre will produce, on lawns of El Tor vibrios, clearing resembling phage lysis. However, when the phage is mixed with El Tor cultures, a fall occurs in the viable count of both bacteria and phage. Darkfield microscopy shows that the bacteria lose their motility; measurement of the mixture's optical density indicates that bacterial lysis does occur. Evidence to date provides no indication that group IV phage undergoes multiplication in the El Tor vibrios tested, all of which were isolated during several recent outbreaks of cholera. Because of the marked difference in its behaviour towards them, phage IV is valuable in differentiating true cholera from El Tor vibrios. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:14310908

  10. A Chimeric Siderophore Halts Swarming Vibrio**

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Thomas; Clardy, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Some bacteria under some circumstances swarm; they move rapidly and collectively over a surface. In an effort to understand the molecular signals controlling swarming, we isolated two strains from the same red seaweed – Vibrio alginolyticus B522, a vigorous swarmer, and Shewanella algae B516, which inhibits V. alginolyticus swarming in its vicinity. Plate assays combined with NMR, MS, and X-ray diffraction analyses identified a small molecule, which was named avaroferrin, as a potent swarming inhibitor. Avaroferrin, a previously unreported cyclic dihydroxamate siderophore, is a chimera of two well-known siderophores: putrebactin and bisucaberin. The sequenced genome of S. algae revealed avaroferrin’s biosynthetic gene cluster to be a mashup of putrebactin and bisucaberin biosynthetic genes. Avaroferrin blocks swarming through its ability to bind iron in a form that cannot be pirated by V. alginolyticus, thereby securing this essential resource for its producer. PMID:24615751

  11. Vibrio cholerae: lessons for mucosal vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Anne L; Camilli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Vibrio cholerae to persist in bodies of water will continue to confound our ability to eradicate cholera through improvements to infrastructure, and thus cholera vaccines are needed. We aim for an inexpensive vaccine that can provide long-lasting protection from all epidemic cholera infections, currently caused by O1 or O139 serogroups. Recent insights into correlates of protection, epidemiology and pathogenesis may help us design improved vaccines. This notwithstanding, we have come to appreciate that even marginally protective vaccines, such as oral whole-cell killed vaccines, if widely distributed, can provide significant protection, owing to herd immunity. Further efforts are still required to provide more effective protection of young children. PMID:21162623

  12. Protease and virulence of the extracellular products produced by Vibrio carchariae after growth on various media.

    PubMed

    Lee, K K; Yii, K C; Yang, T I; Hong, H I; Liu, P C

    1999-01-01

    Protease and virulence of the extracellular products (ECP) of Vibrio carchariae strain EmI82KL, a causative agent of gastroenteritis in Epinephelus coioides, cultured on different media were studied. The bacteria grown on peptone agar, nutrient agar or brain heart infusion agar produced higher protease activities than that grown on tryptic soy agar (TSA) in terms of protein content. The addition of ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) or horse serum in TSA enhanced the ECP protease production while the addition of grouper serum apparently reduced the enzyme activity indicating the presence of protease inhibitor(s) in the fish serum. Furthermore, the use of grouper meat or peptone as a single nutrient source remarkably enhanced the production of ECP protease. Adding proteinaceous materials from animal sources (horse serum, grouper meat or peptone) on agar manifested higher ECP protease activity than that from plant source (TSA), indicating the intestine of carnivorous groupers might favour the existence, survival or infection of the bacterium. The protease was a metal-chelator-sensitive serine protease since it was inhibited by 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride while about 80% of its activity inhibited by chelating agents (ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid and ethylene glycol-bis(beta-amino-ethylether) N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid). The ECP obtained from each medium was not lethal to the groupers suggesting that the bacterium is low virulent. As grouper is carnivorous, therefore, the role of the protease played in the fish intestine probably is competing for nutrients and/or associated with the cause of edema leading to gastroenteritis. PMID:10431390

  13. Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after ‘Vaccination’

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens. PMID:21698190

  14. Integration of a laterally acquired gene into a cell network important for growth in a strain of Vibrio rotiferianus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) is a major contributor to bacterial evolution and up to 25% of a bacterium's genome may have been acquired by this process over evolutionary periods of time. Successful LGT requires both the physical transfer of DNA and its successful incorporation into the host cell. One system that contributes to this latter step by site-specific recombination is the integron. Integrons are found in many diverse bacterial Genera and is a genetic system ubiquitous in vibrios that captures mobile DNA at a dedicated site. The presence of integron-associated genes, contained within units of mobile DNA called gene cassettes makes up a substantial component of the vibrio genome (1-3%). Little is known about the role of this system since the vast majority of genes in vibrio arrays are highly novel and functions cannot be ascribed. It is generally regarded that strain-specific mobile genes cannot be readily integrated into the cellular machinery since any perturbation of core metabolism is likely to result in a loss of fitness. Results In this study, at least one mobile gene contained within the Vibrio rotiferianus strain DAT722, but lacking close relatives elsewhere, is shown to greatly reduce host fitness when deleted and tested in growth assays. The precise role of the mobile gene product is unknown but impacts on the regulation of outermembrane porins. This demonstrates that strain specific laterally acquired mobile DNA can be integrated rapidly into bacterial networks such that it becomes advantageous for survival and adaptation in changing environments. Conclusions Mobile genes that are highly strain specific are generally believed to act in isolation. This is because perturbation of existing cell machinery by the acquisition of a new gene by LGT is highly likely to lower fitness. In contrast, we show here that at least one mobile gene, apparently unique to a strain, encodes a product that has integrated into central cellular metabolic processes such that it greatly lowers fitness when lost under those conditions likely to be commonly encountered for the free living cell. This has ramifications for our understanding of the role mobile gene encoded products play in the cell from a systems biology perspective. PMID:22093957

  15. Vibrio alfacsensis sp. nov., isolated from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Roque, Ana; Chimetto, Luciane; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Lang, Elke; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-12-01

    Five strains (CAIM 1831(T), CAIM 1832, CAIM 1833, CAIM 1834 and CAIM 1836) were isolated from cultured sole (Solea senegalensis) in two regions of Spain, two strains (CAIM 404 and CAIM 1294) from wild-caught spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) in Mexico, and one strain (CAIM 1835) from corals in Brazil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel isolates showed similarity to Vibrio ponticus (98.2-98.3%, GenBank accession no. AJ630103) and to a lesser degree to Vibrio furnissii (97.2-97.3%, X76336) and to Vibrio fluvialis (96.9-97.1%, X74703). Multilocus sequence analysis clustered these strains closely together and clearly separated them from phylogenetically related species of the genus Vibrio. Genomic fingerprinting by rep-PCR clustered the novel strains according to their geographical origin. Phenotypic analyses showed a large variation among the new strains, but many tests enabled them to be differentiated from other species of the genus Vibrio. The mean ?T(m) values between the strains analysed here and closely related type strains were above 6.79 °C. The values between the novel isolates were below 2.35 °C, well outside the limit suggested for the delineation of a bacterial species. The phenotypic and genotypic data presented here clearly place these new strains as a coherent group within the genus Vibrio, for which we propose the name Vibrio alfacsensis sp. nov. with CAIM 1831(T) (?= DSM 24595(T) = S277(T)) as the type strain. PMID:22286904

  16. Intracellular Vibrio parahaemolyticus Escapes the Vacuole and Establishes a Replicative Niche in the Cytosol of Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Santos, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a globally disseminated Gram-negative marine bacterium and the leading cause of seafood-borne acute gastroenteritis. Pathogenic bacterial isolates encode two type III secretion systems (T3SS), with the second system (T3SS2) considered the main virulence factor in mammalian hosts. For many decades, V. parahaemolyticus has been studied as an exclusively extracellular bacterium. However, the recent characterization of the T3SS2 effector protein VopC has suggested that this pathogen has the ability to invade, survive, and replicate within epithelial cells. Herein, we characterize this intracellular lifestyle in detail. We show that following internalization, V. parahaemolyticus is contained in vacuoles that develop into early endosomes, which subsequently mature into late endosomes. V. parahaemolyticus then escapes into the cytoplasm prior to vacuolar fusion with lysosomes. Vacuolar acidification is an important trigger for this escape. The cytoplasm serves as the pathogen’s primary intracellular replicative niche; cytosolic replication is rapid and robust, with cells often containing over 150 bacteria by the time of cell lysis. These results show how V. parahaemolyticus successfully establishes an intracellular lifestyle that could contribute to its survival and dissemination during infection. PMID:25205094

  17. Role of polyphosphate kinase gene (ppk) for survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in surface water of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Hasan, Md Mahmud; Abdul Matin, Mohammad; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Uddin, Md Hafiz; Islam, Md Sirajul

    2013-11-15

    Polyphosphate provides a substitute for ATP and energy source when phosphorus is a limiting resource in nature. The present study focuses on the role ofpolyphosphate for the survival of Vibrio cholerae in the aquatic habitats as an autochthonous bacterium. The survival advantages of polyphosphate of V. cholerae O1 having (wild type) and lacking (mutant) polyphosphate kinase (ppk) gene in surface water and with Anabaena variabilis were compared by cultural, Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) and polymerase chain reaction methods in natural water microcosms. The microcosm's water was prepared by filtering and physicochemical parameters were also investigated by standard methods. The results revealed that both fresh and saline water, the wild type strain enhanced survival in cultural conditioned than ppk mutant strain. However, Fluorescent Antibody Direct Viable Counts (FADVC) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) results noted both strains have the equal survival strategy in viable but nonculturable state (VNC). In conclusion, it could be hypothesized that the polyphosphate inclusion body might keep cultivable and survivable at low phosphate natural environment of the aquatic bacterium. PMID:24511696

  18. Vibrio cholerae Exploits Sub-Lethal Concentrations of a Competitor-Produced Antibiotic to Avoid Toxic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Jason R.; Forschner-Dancause, Stephanie R.; Menden-Deuer, Susanne; Long, Richard A.; Rowley, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogenic marine bacterium inhabiting coastal regions and is vectored into human food and water supplies via attachment to particles including detritus, phytoplankton, and zooplankton. Particle colonization by the pathogen is inhibited by an antagonistic interaction with the particle-associated Vibrionales bacterium SWAT3, a producer of the antibiotic andrimid. By analyzing the individual movement behaviors of V. cholerae exposed to a gradient of andrimid in a microfluidics device, we show that the pathogen has a concentration dependent avoidance response to sub-lethal concentrations of the pure antibiotic and to the metabolites produced by a growing colony of SWAT3-wild-type. This avoidance behavior includes a 25% increase in swimming speeds, 30% increase in run lengths, and a shift in the direction of the bacteria away from the andrimid source. Consequently, these behavioral shifts at low concentrations of andrimid would lead to higher diffusivity and result in the dispersion of bacteria away from the competitor and source of the antibiotic. Such alterations in motility were not elicited in response to a non-andrimid-producing SWAT3 mutant, suggesting andrimid may be a negative effector of chemotaxis for V. cholerae. The behavioral response of colonizing bacteria to sub-inhibitory concentrations of competitor-produced antibiotics is one mechanism that can influence microbial diversity and interspecific competition on particles, potentially affecting human health in coastal communities and element cycling in the ocean. PMID:23386845

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Vibrio sp. Strains Isolated from Tetrodotoxin-Bearing Scavenging Gastropod.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Toshiaki; Kawauchi, Ayumi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Zhang, Xiaochi; Taniyama, Shigeto; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Iino, Takao; Inoue, Tetsushi; Hongoh, Yuichi; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio sp. strains JCM 18905 and JCM 19053 were isolated from a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-bearing scavenging gastropod, and Vibrio sp. strain JCM 18904 was isolated from a sea cucumber. All these are closely related to Vibrio alginolyticus. Their comparative genome information is useful for studies of TTX production in bacteria. PMID:24948773

  20. Cyclic AMP-receptor protein activates aerobactin receptor IutA expression in Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Seong-Jung; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2012-04-01

    The ferrophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can utilize the siderophore aerobactin of Escherichia coli for iron acquisition via its specific receptor IutA. This siderophore piracy by V. vulnificus may contribute to its survival and proliferation, especially in mixed bacterial environments. In this study, we examined the effects of glucose, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) on iutA expression in V. vulnificus. Glucose dose-dependently repressed iutA expression. A mutation in cya encoding adenylate cyclase required for cAMP synthesis severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by in trans complementing cya or the addition of exogenous cAMP. Furthermore, a mutation in crp encoding Crp severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by complementing crp. Accordingly, glucose deprivation under iron-limited conditions is an environmental signal for iutA expression, and Crp functions as an activator that regulates iutA expression in response to glucose availability. PMID:22538662

  1. Identifying the cellular mechanisms of symbiont-induced epithelial morphogenesis in the squid-Vibrio association.

    PubMed

    Koropatnick, Tanya; Goodson, Michael S; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    2014-02-01

    The symbiotic association between the Hawaiian bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri provides a unique opportunity to study epithelial morphogenesis. Shortly after hatching, the squid host harvests bacteria from the seawater using currents created by two elaborate fields of ciliated epithelia on the surface of the juvenile light organ. After light organ colonization, the symbiont population signals the gradual loss of the ciliated epithelia through apoptosis of the cells, which culminates in the complete regression of these tissues. Whereas aspects of this process have been studied at the morphological, biochemical, and molecular levels, no in-depth analysis of the cellular events has been reported. Here we describe the cellular structure of the epithelial field and present evidence that the symbiosis-induced regression occurs in two steps. Using confocal microscopic analyses, we observed an initial epithelial remodeling, which serves to disable the function of the harvesting apparatus, followed by a protracted regression involving actin rearrangements and epithelial cell extrusion. We identified a metal-dependent gelatinolytic activity in the symbiont-induced morphogenic epithelial fields, suggesting the involvement of Zn-dependent matrix metalloproteinase(s) (MMP) in light organ morphogenesis. These data show that the bacterial symbionts not only induce apoptosis of the field, but also change the form, function, and biochemistry of the cells as part of the morphogenic program. PMID:24648207

  2. Identification and characterization of a zinc metalloprotease associated with invasion by the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed Central

    Norqvist, A; Norrman, B; Wolf-Watz, H

    1990-01-01

    An invasiveness-defective mutant of the fish-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum was isolated. Compared with the wild type, this mutant had a 1,000-fold higher 50% lethal dose after immersion infection of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, while after intraperitoneal infection, the mutant had only a 10-fold higher 50% lethal dose. In addition, the mutant showed a lower level of protease activity. Two forms of the protease (Pa and Pb) were found after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of nonheated samples. Pa was found predominantly in protease preparations of the wild type, while Pb was the predominant form in the mutant. Conversion of Pb to Pa was observed in protease preparations after incubation at 4 degrees C. Characterization of the protease showed that it was an elastolytic enzyme which required Zn2+ for activity and Ca2+ for stability. The molecular mass of the protease was 36 kilodaltons. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the protease of V. anguillarum revealed homology to the elastase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the protease of Legionella pneumophila. Images PMID:2228244

  3. Bile Acids and Bicarbonate Inversely Regulate Intracellular Cyclic di-GMP in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Koestler, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in aquatic reservoirs and causes the diarrheal disease cholera upon entry into a human host. V. cholerae employs the second messenger molecule 3?,5?-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) to transition between these two distinct lifestyles. c-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. Bacteria typically encode many different DGCs and PDEs within their genomes. Presumably, each enzyme senses and responds to cognate environmental cues by alteration of enzymatic activity. c-di-GMP represses the expression of virulence factors in V. cholerae, and it is predicted that the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is low during infection. Contrary to this model, we found that bile acids, a prevalent constituent of the human proximal small intestine, increase intracellular c-di-GMP in V. cholerae. We identified four c-di-GMP turnover enzymes that contribute to increased intracellular c-di-GMP in the presence of bile acids, and deletion of these enzymes eliminates the bile induction of c-di-GMP and biofilm formation. Furthermore, this bile-mediated increase in c-di-GMP is quenched by bicarbonate, the intestinal pH buffer secreted by intestinal epithelial cells. Our results lead us to propose that V. cholerae senses distinct microenvironments within the small intestine using bile and bicarbonate as chemical cues and responds by modulating the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP. PMID:24799624

  4. Insights into the environmental reservoir of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus using comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Tracy H.; Lafon, Patricia C.; Garrett, Nancy M.; Lowe, Tiffany M.; Silberger, Daniel J.; Rowe, Lori A.; Frace, Michael; Parsons, Michele B.; Bopp, Cheryl A.; Rasko, David A.; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an aquatic halophilic bacterium that occupies estuarine and coastal marine environments, and is a leading cause of seafood-borne food poisoning cases. To investigate the environmental reservoir and potential gene flow that occurs among V. parahaemolyticus isolates, the virulence-associated gene content and genome diversity of a collection of 133 V. parahaemolyticus isolates were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, demonstrated that there is genetic similarity among V. parahaemolyticus clinical and environmental isolates. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis of six representative V. parahaemolyticus isolates was used to identify genes that are unique to the clinical and environmental isolates examined. Comparative genomics demonstrated an O3:K6 environmental isolate, AF91, which was cultured from sediment collected in Florida in 2006, has significant genomic similarity to the post-1995 O3:K6 isolates. However, AF91 lacks the majority of the virulence-associated genes and genomic islands associated with these highly virulent post-1995 O3:K6 genomes. These findings demonstrate that although they do not contain most of the known virulence-associated regions, some V. parahaemolyticus environmental isolates exhibit significant genetic similarity to clinical isolates. This highlights the dynamic nature of the V. parahaemolyticus genome allowing them to transition between aquatic and host-pathogen states. PMID:25852665

  5. Quorum-sensing autoinducers resuscitate dormant Vibrio cholerae in environmental water samples

    PubMed Central

    Bari, S. M. Nayeemul; Roky, M. Kamruzzaman; Mohiuddin, M.; Kamruzzaman, M.; Mekalanos, John J.; Faruque, Shah M.

    2013-01-01

    Cholera epidemics have long been known to spread through water contaminated with human fecal material containing the toxigenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. However, detection of V. cholerae in water is complicated by the existence of a dormant state in which the organism remains viable, but resists cultivation on routine bacteriological media. Growth in the mammalian intestine has been reported to trigger “resuscitation” of such dormant cells, and these studies have prompted the search for resuscitation factors. Although some positive reports have emerged from these investigations, the precise molecular signals that activate dormant V. cholerae have remained elusive. Quorum-sensing autoinducers are small molecules that ordinarily regulate bacterial gene expression in response to cell density or interspecies bacterial interactions. We have found that isolation of pathogenic clones of V. cholerae from surface waters in Bangladesh is dramatically improved by using enrichment media containing autoinducers either expressed from cloned synthase genes or prepared by chemical synthesis. These results may contribute to averting future disasters by providing a strategy for early detection of V. cholerae in surface waters that have been contaminated with the stools of cholera patients or asymptomatic infected human carriers. PMID:23716683

  6. Expression and immunogenicity analysis of accessory colonization factor A from Vibrio alginolyticus strain HY9901.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang-Hu; Huang, Yu-Cong; Lu, Yi-Shan; Wu, Zao-He; Wang, Bei; Tang, Ju-Fen; Jian, Ji-Chang

    2013-02-01

    The accessory colonization factor A (ACFA) of Vibrio alginolyticus plays an important role in the efficient colonization of the bacterium and is potential candidates for vaccine development. In present study, the acfA gene was cloned, expressed and purified. Western blot analysis revealed protein recognition with the native ACFA in different V. alginolyticus strains. To analyze the immunogenicity of the recombinant ACFA, Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch were immunized by intraperitoneal injection, and the results demonstrated that the recombinant ACFA produced an observable antibody response in all sera of the vaccinated fish. The differential expressions of RAG1 gene in various tissues of L. erythropterus were analyzed by fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR, and the results showed the RAG1 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in thymus, head kidney and spleen tissue. Furthermore, the protective property of recombinant ACFA was evaluated through challenge with six heterogeneous virulent V. alginolyticus strains, and the immunohistochemical analysis in different tissues after challenge with V. alginolyticus. The results showed L. erythropterus vaccinated with recombinant ACFA were more tolerant of the infection by virulent V. alginolyticus strains. The data indicate that the recombinant ACFA could provide heterologous protection for the different virulent V. alginolyticus strains. PMID:23261505

  7. Survival of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli in estuarine waters and sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E

    1982-01-01

    In in vitro estuarine water and sediment chambers, the survival of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli was determined by plate counting and direct counting techniques. V. cholerae strains included environmental, clinical, and serotype O1 and non-O1 isolates, whereas E. coli strains included ATCC 25922 and a freshly cultured human isolate. Recovery of V. cholerae varied significantly with incubation temperature. Growth and extended periods of survival occurred in sterile sediments, sterile waters, and nonsterile waters, but not in nonsterile sediments. In contrast to V. cholerae, viable cells of E. coli decreased rapidly in both sterile and nonsterile estuarine waters. Direct counts revealed that E. coli cells were intact in the estuarine water, but attempts to resuscitate them were unsuccessful. The data suggest that V. cholerae survives better in estuarine waters than E. coli. The results may explain the recent observations that V. cholerae levels do not correlate well with fecal coliform concentrations in estuarine waters. Furthermore, the results add increasing evidence to support the theory that V. cholerae is an autochthonous bacterium in estuaries. PMID:7041820

  8. Purification and characterization of an extracellular cytolysin produced by Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, L D; Kreger, A S

    1985-01-01

    An extracellular cytolytic toxin produced by the halophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus was isolated free of detectable contamination with medium constituents and other bacterial products by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration with Sephadex G-75, hydrophobic interaction chromatography with phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, and isoelectric focusing in an ethylene glycol density gradient. The cytolysin is a heat-labile, hydrophobic protein that is inhibited by large amounts of cholesterol, is partially inactivated by proteases and trypan blue, has a molecular weight (estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by amino acid analysis) of ca. 56,000, and has an isoelectric point of ca. 7.1. The first 10 amino-terminal amino acid residues of the cytolysin are Gln-Glu-Tyr-Val-Pro-Ile-Val-Glu-Lys-Pro. Lysis of mouse erythrocytes by the purified cytolysin is a multi-hit, at least two-step process consisting of a temperature-independent, toxin-binding step, followed by a temperature-dependent, membrane-perturbation step(s). In addition to possessing cytolytic activity against erythrocytes from 17 animal species and against Chinese hamster ovary cells in tissue culture, the purified cytolysin preparation was lethal for mice (ca. 3 micrograms/kg, intravenous 50% lethal dose) and had vascular permeability factor activity in guinea pig skin. Images PMID:3980095

  9. Visualization of coral host-pathogen interactions using a stable GFP-labeled Vibrio coralliilyticus strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, F. Joseph; Krediet, Cory J.; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman; Winn, Karina; Wilson, Bryan; Huete-Stauffer, Carla; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2015-06-01

    The bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus has been implicated as the causative agent of coral tissue loss diseases (collectively known as white syndromes) at sites across the Indo-Pacific and represents an emerging model pathogen for understanding the mechanisms linking bacterial infection and coral disease. In this study, we used a mini-Tn7 transposon delivery system to chromosomally label a strain of V. coralliilyticus isolated from a white syndrome disease lesion with a green fluorescent protein gene (GFP). We then tested the utility of this modified strain as a research tool for studies of coral host-pathogen interactions. A suite of biochemical assays and experimental infection trials in a range of model organisms confirmed that insertion of the GFP gene did not interfere with the labeled strain's virulence. Using epifluorescence video microscopy, the GFP-labeled strain could be reliably distinguished from non-labeled bacteria present in the coral holobiont, and the pathogen's interactions with the coral host could be visualized in real time. This study demonstrates that chromosomal GFP labeling is a useful technique for visualization and tracking of coral pathogens and provides a novel tool to investigate the role of V. coralliilyticus in coral disease pathogenesis.

  10. Increased Isolation Frequency of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from Environmental Monitoring Sites in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Meer T.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Longini, Ira; De Rochars, Valery Madsen Beau; Morris, John Glenn; Ali, Afsar

    2015-01-01

    Since the identification of the first cholera case in 2010, the disease has spread in epidemic form throughout the island nation of Haiti; as of 2014, about 700,000 cholera cases have been reported, with over 8,000 deaths. While case numbers have declined, the more fundamental question of whether the causative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae has established an environmental reservoir in the surface waters of Haiti remains to be elucidated. In a previous study conducted between April 2012 and March 2013, we reported the isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department. After a second year of surveillance (April 2013 to March 2014) using identical methodology, we observed a more than five-fold increase in the number of water samples containing culturable V. cholerae O1 compared to the previous year (1.7% vs 8.6%), with double the number of sites having at least one positive sample (58% vs 20%). Both seasonal water temperatures and precipitation were significantly related to the frequency of isolation. Our data suggest that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 are becoming more common in surface waters in Haiti; while the basis for this increase is uncertain, our findings raise concerns that environmental reservoirs are being established. PMID:25853552

  11. Ultrasensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 using microcantilever-based biosensor with dynamic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sungkanak, Usa; Sappat, Assawapong; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Promptmas, Chamras; Tuantranont, Adisorn

    2010-10-15

    This work presents the first demonstration of a cantilever based cholerae sensor. Dynamic force microscopy within atomic force microscope (AFM) is applied to measure the cantilever's resonance frequency shift due to mass of cell bound on microcantilever surface. The Vibrio cholerae O1, a food and waterborne pathogen that caused cholera disease in human, is a target bacterium cell of interest. Commercial gold-coated AFM microcantilevers are immobilized with monoclonal antibody (anti-V. cholerae O1) by self-assembled monolayer method. V. cholerae O1 detection experiment is then conducted in concentrations ranging from 1×10(3) to 1×10(7) CFU/ml. The microcantilever-based sensor has a detection limit of ?1×10(3) CFU/ml and a mass sensitivity, ?m/?F, of ?146.5 pg/Hz, which is at least two orders of magnitude lower than other reported techniques and sufficient for V. cholerae detection in food products without pre-enrichment steps. In addition, V. cholerae O1 antigen-antibody binding on microcanilever is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the new biosensor is promising for high sensitivity, uncomplicated and rapid detection of V. cholerae O1. PMID:20637589

  12. In silico phylogenetic analysis of Vibrio cholerae isolates based on three housekeeping genes.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Tayebeh; Nezafat, Navid; Ghasemi, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholera, a gram-negative bacterium, has been categorised into clinical and environmental species. Phylogenetic studies have been performed to investigate the relationships of the V. cholerae populations in worldwide. In this study, phylogenetic relationship between V. cholerae isolates from Iran and other regions of the world was determined, based on three housekeeping genes analysis. Results for Iranian strains showed that congruency of asd and hlyA phylogenetic trees were remarkably higher than recA tree. Iranian strains displayed 2-3%, 1-14% and 3-5% deference in asd, hlyA and recA nucleotide sequences, respectively. Sequence similarity degrees were variable between Iranian and other region's strains. Furthermore, the non-congruence in the phylogeny of the pathogenic clones in cladograms is probably due to horizontal gene transfer. Finally, results of this study suggest that monitoring of surface waters for housekeeping genes of V. cholerae in the cholera endemic areas may be valuable for forecasting the expected cholera outbreaks. PMID:25869320

  13. Identifying the cellular mechanisms of symbiont-induced epithelial morphogenesis in the squid-vibrio association

    PubMed Central

    Koropatnick, Tanya; Goodson, Michael S.; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A. C.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic association between the Hawaiian bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri provides a unique opportunity to study epithelial morphogenesis. Shortly after hatching, the squid host harvests bacteria from the seawater using currents created by two elaborate fields of ciliated epithelia on the surface of the juvenile light organ. After light organ colonization, the symbiont population signals the gradual loss of the ciliated epithelia through apoptosis of the cells, which culminates in the complete regression of these tissues. Whereas aspects of this process have been studied at the morphological, biochemical and molecular levels, no in-depth analysis of the cellular events has been reported. Here we describe the cellular structure of the epithelial field and present evidence that the symbiosis-induced regression occurs in two steps. Using confocal microscopic analyses, we observed an initial epithelial remodeling, which serves to disable the function of the harvesting apparatus, followed by a protracted regression involving actin rearrangements and epithelial cell extrusion. We identified a metal-dependent gelatinolytic activity in the symbiont-induced morphogenic epithelial fields, suggesting the involvement of Zn-dependent matrix metalloproteinase(s) (MMP) in light organ morphogenesis. These data show that the bacterial symbionts not only induce apoptosis of the field, but also change the form, function and biochemistry of the cells as part of the morphogenic program. PMID:24648207

  14. Vibriophages and Their Interactions with the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Demeng; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in aquaculture, responsible for the disease vibriosis in many fish and invertebrate species. Disease control by antibiotics is a concern due to potential development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The use of bacteriophages to control the pathogen may offer a non-antibiotic-based approach to reduce vibriosis. A detailed understanding of the phage-host interaction is needed to evaluate the potential of phages to control the pathogen. In this study, we examined the diversity and interactions of 11 vibriophages, 24 V. anguillarum strains, and 13 Vibrio species strains. Together, the host ranges of the 11 phages covered all of the tested 37 Vibrio sp. host strains, which represented considerable temporal (20 years) and geographical (9 countries) differences in their origins of isolation. Thus, despite the occurrence of unique susceptibility patterns of the individual host isolates, key phenotypic properties related to phage susceptibility are distributed worldwide and maintained in the global Vibrio community for decades. The phage susceptibility pattern of the isolates did not show any relation to the physiological relationships obtained from Biolog GN2 profiles, demonstrating that similar phage susceptibility patterns occur across broad phylogenetic and physiological differences in Vibrio strains. Subsequent culture experiments with two phages and two V. anguillarum hosts demonstrated an initial strong lytic potential of the phages. However, rapid regrowth of both phage-resistant and phage-sensitive cells following the initial lysis suggested that several mechanisms of protection against phage infection had developed in the host populations. PMID:24610858

  15. Enterotoxin production by Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus grown in continuous culture with microbial cell recycle.

    PubMed Central

    Spira, W M; Fedorka-Cray, P J

    1983-01-01

    We have examined the effect of complete cell recycle on the production of cholera toxin (CT) by Vibrio cholerae and CT-like toxin by Vibrio mimicus in continuous culture fermentations. Complete cell recycle was obtained by filtering culture fluids through Amicon hollow fibers with an exclusion limit of 100,000 daltons (H1P100-20) and returning the concentrated cell slurry to the fermentor. A single 1-liter laboratory fermentor system modified with this recycle loop was capable of producing over 20 liters of cell-free culture filtrate per day. Toxin production in this system was compared with yields obtained in traditional continuous cultures and in shake flask cultures. Yields of CT from V. cholerae 569B in the recycle fermentor were highest at the highest dilution rate employed (1.0 vol/vol per h). The use of complete cell recycle dramatically increased yields over those obtained in continuous culture and equaled those obtained in shake flasks. The concentration of CT in the filtrate was slightly less than half of that measured in culture fluids sampled at the same time. Similarly, V. mimicus 61892 grown in the presence of 50 micrograms of lincomycin per ml produced 280 ng of CT per ml in the recycle fermentor, compared with 210 ng/ml in shake flasks under optimal conditions. The sterile filtrate from this fermentation contained 110 ng/ml. PMID:6357081

  16. Rapid identification of Vibrio cholerae by darkfield microscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Benenson, A. S.; Islam, M. R.; Greenough, W. B.

    1964-01-01

    This article describes a rapid, simple and reproducible method for detecting Vibrio cholerae in diarrhoeal patients. The method involves darkfield examination of a liquid stool specimen or a rectal swab immersed in broth and immobilization of V. cholerae by the addition of specific vibrio antisera. The authors state that in 80% of cases a definitive diagnosis is available within five minutes. There is no need for elaborate equipment or long training of technicians and the method is easily performed by one person in the field. PMID:14215188

  17. RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE BY DARKFIELD MICROSCOPY.

    PubMed

    BENENSON, A S; ISLAM, M R; GREENOUGH, W B

    1964-01-01

    This article describes a rapid, simple and reproducible method for detecting Vibrio cholerae in diarrhoeal patients. The method involves darkfield examination of a liquid stool specimen or a rectal swab immersed in broth and immobilization of V. cholerae by the addition of specific vibrio antisera. The authors state that in 80% of cases a definitive diagnosis is available within five minutes. There is no need for elaborate equipment or long training of technicians and the method is easily performed by one person in the field. PMID:14215188

  18. Mycorrhizae Effect of the rhizosphere bacterium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the symbiotic fungus and the bacterium. Growth substrate composition (optimal content of commercial absorbent and substrate composition on the growth of strawberry * M Vosatka M Gryndler Z Prikryl 1 Botanical Institute composition du substrat sur la croissance de fraisier. Les plantes micropropagées et «frigo» de fraisier ont

  19. Bacterium Can Alter Evolution Of Another Species

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jonathan Sherwood

    This Daily University Science News article reviews scientific evidence that the parasitic bacterium Wolbachia can accelerate the natural evolution of wasps by altering the sperm of its male host, thus making them incompatible with non-infected females. The article discusses this evidence as well as introduces a current debate about Wolbachia's role in host speciation.

  20. Behavior of Vibrio cholerae in hot foods.

    PubMed Central

    Makukutu, C A; Guthrie, R K

    1986-01-01

    Four food types held hot at 45 to 60 degrees C were deliberately contaminated with O1 and non-O1 Vibrio cholerae strains. These organisms were assayed for survival and recovery from the foods within 1 h of the time the food was kept hot. The results showed no growth of V. cholerae non-O1 on thiosulfate-citrate bile-sucrose agar plates after 24 h of incubation at 37 degrees C for food held hot at 50 to 60 degrees C. Growth was low for V. cholerae O1 and was not achieved in some instances in which foods were held at either 55 or 60 degrees C after 40 or 60 min of from the time the food was kept hot. Both organisms, however, were recovered equally from all food types held at all temperatures after 48 h of incubation. When incubated for an additional 24 h, the organisms grew to unusually small-sized colonies, measuring 0.1 to 0.3 mm in diameter, on the same agar plates that were negative for growth after an initial 24 h of incubation. It was concluded that V. cholerae survived the period of time held at hot temperatures. Although the organisms were not recovered from some foods when held at some of the temperatures and times after 24 h of incubation, they remained viable. An incubation period of 48 h at 37 degrees C was found to be appropriate for the recovery of V. cholerae from hot foods. PMID:3777928

  1. Characterization of tryptophanase from Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Nuidate, Taiyeebah; Tansila, Natta; Chomchuen, Piraporn; Phattaranit, Phattiphong; Eangchuan, Supachok; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2015-01-01

    Tryptophanase (Trpase) is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme responsible for the production of indole, an important intra- and interspecies signaling molecule in bacteria. In this study, the tnaA gene of Vibrio cholerae coding for VcTrpase was cloned into the pET-20b(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) tn5:tnaA. Using Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) chromatography, VcTrpase was purified, and it possessed a molecular mass of ?49 kDa with specific absorption peaks at 330 and 435 nm and a specific activity of 3 U/mg protein. The VcTrpase had an 80 % homology to the Trpase of Haemophilus influenzae and E. coli, but only around 50 % identity to the Trpase of Proteus vulgaris and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The optimum conditions for the enzyme were at pH 9.0 and 45 °C. Recombinant VcTrpase exhibited analogous kinetic reactivity to the EcTrpase with K m and k cat values of 0.612?×?10(-3) M and 5.252 s(-1), respectively. The enzyme catalyzed S-methyl-L-cysteine and S-benzyl-L-cysteine degradation, but not L-phenylalanine and L-serine. Using a site-directed mutagenesis technique, eight residues (Thr52, Tyr74, Arg103, Asp137, Arg230, Lys269, Lys270, and His463) were conserved for maintaining enzyme catalysis. All amino acid substitutions at these sites either eliminated or remarkably diminished Trpase activity. These sites are thus potential targets for the design of drugs to control the V. cholerae Trpase and to further investigate its functions. PMID:25253268

  2. Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in cockle ( Anadara granosa) by PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesley Maurice Bilung; Son Radu; Abdul Rani Bahaman; Raha Abdul Rahim; Suhaimi Napis; Michael Wong Clemente Vui Ling; Gwendelynne Bulan Tanil; Mitsuaki Nishibuchi

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in cockles (Anadara granosa) at a harvesting area and to detect the presence of virulent strains carrying the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and TDH-related hemolysin genes (trh) using PCR. Of 100 samples, 62 were positive for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus with an MPN (most probable number) value greater than

  3. Origin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 pandemic clone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoxiang Chao; Fang Wang; Xiaohui Zhou; Xinan Jiao; Jinlin Huang; Zhiming Pan; Liping Zhou; Xiaoqin Qian

    2011-01-01

    O3:K6 pandemic clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has caused outbreaks in coastal countries since 1996. Mutilocus sequence typing (MLST) is an important tool to trace the source and analysis the evolution of bacteria. Based on MLST, the first pandemic clonal complex (CC) of V. parahaemolyticus has been confirmed. In this study, 57 pandemic strains, 27 pathogenic strains (tdh or trh positive)

  4. Recombinant nontoxinogenic Vibrio cholerae strains as attenuated cholera vaccine candidates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James B. Kaper; Hank Lockman; Mary M. Baldini; Myron M. Levine

    1984-01-01

    An ideal vacine does not yet exist to prevent cholera, a significant health problem in many less developed countries. Vibrio cholerae, the agent of epidemic and endemic cholera, colonizes the small bowel and secretes a potent enterotoxin that consists of a single A subunit, which stimulates adenylate cyclase activity, and five identical B summits which bind to the ganglioside GM1

  5. Proteolysis of virulence regulator ToxR is associated with entry of Vibrio cholerae into a dormant state.

    PubMed

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Kim, Tae K; Skorupski, Karen; Taylor, Ronald K

    2015-04-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 is a natural inhabitant of aquatic environments and causes the diarrheal disease, cholera. Two of its primary virulence regulators, TcpP and ToxR, are localized in the inner membrane. TcpP is encoded on the Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI), a horizontally acquired mobile genetic element, and functions primarily in virulence gene regulation. TcpP has been shown to undergo regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) in response to environmental conditions that are unfavorable for virulence gene expression. ToxR is encoded in the ancestral genome and is present in non-pathogenic strains of V. cholerae, indicating it has roles outside of the human host. In this study, we show that ToxR undergoes RIP in V. cholerae in response to nutrient limitation at alkaline pH, a condition that occurs during the stationary phase of growth. This process involves the site-2 protease RseP (YaeL), and is dependent upon the RpoE-mediated periplasmic stress response, as deletion mutants for the genes encoding these two proteins cannot proteolyze ToxR under nutrient limitation at alkaline pH. We determined that the loss of ToxR, genetically or by proteolysis, is associated with entry of V. cholerae into a dormant state in which the bacterium is normally found in the aquatic environment called viable but nonculturable (VBNC). Strains that can proteolyze ToxR, or do not encode it, lose culturability, experience a change in morphology associated with cells in VBNC, yet remain viable under nutrient limitation at alkaline pH. On the other hand, mutant strains that cannot proteolyze ToxR remain culturable and maintain the morphology of cells in an active state of growth. Overall, our findings provide a link between the proteolysis of a virulence regulator and the entry of a pathogen into an environmentally persistent state. PMID:25849031

  6. Induction of the lateral flagellar system of Vibrio shilonii is an early event after inhibition of the sodium ion flux in the polar flagellum.

    PubMed

    González, Yael; Camarena, Laura; Dreyfus, Georges

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we show the induction of lateral flagella by the action of the sodium channel blocker phenamil, in the marine bacterium Vibrio shilonii, a coral pathogen that causes bleaching. We analyzed the growth and morphology of cells treated with phenamil. A time course analysis showed that after 30 min of exposure to the sodium channel blocker, lateral flagella were present and could be detected by electron microscopy. Detection of the mRNA of the master regulator (lafK) and lateral flagellin (lafA) by RT-PCR confirmed the expression of lateral flagellar genes. We show the simultaneous isolation of polar and, for the first time, lateral flagellar hook-basal bodies. This allowed us to compare the dimensions and morphological characteristics of the 2 structures. PMID:25639364

  7. Vibrio Infections and Surveillance in Maryland, 2002–2008

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Katherine A.; Palmer, Amanda; Butler, Erin; Blythe, David; Mitchell, Clifford S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Vibrio is a naturally occurring waterborne pathogen with potential occupational, recreational, and commercial impacts. During the last 15 years in the U.S. and in Maryland, the incidence of vibriosis has increased. Due to the increase in cases in Maryland, warming water temperatures, and public concern about human health effects resulting from exposure to the Chesapeake Bay, we reviewed cases of vibriosis and evaluated the Vibrio surveillance system in Maryland for timeliness and data quality, attributes necessary for successful outbreak investigation and illness prevention. Methods The evaluation included (1) informal qualitative surveys of state and local personnel who report and manage Vibrio cases and (2) a review of Vibrio surveillance data from 2002 through 2008 for data quality and timeliness of the system. Results From 2002 to 2008, 188 laboratory-confirmed cases of vibriosis were reported in Maryland with an annual average of 27 cases. The species of Vibrio that were most frequently responsible for infection, regardless of clinical presentation, were V. parahaemolyticus (43.6%), V. vulnificus (23.9%), V. alginolyticus (9.6%), and non-toxigenic V. cholerae (9.0%). The case fatality rate fluctuated during the study period, but the number of cases increased. Conclusions The surveillance system in Maryland is flexible and captures cases of vibriosis where specimens were collected for testing; however, the system may not adequately capture mild, self-limiting infections. Better integration of data collection for clinical, laboratory, and environmental information and improved completion of variables for shellfish harvest or water exposure locations could improve the system. Quarterly meetings comprising surveillance, public health laboratory, and food-control personnel could direct and ensure the success of improvement efforts. PMID:24179265

  8. Characterization of a novel Vibrio pathogenicity island (VPI-2) encoding neuraminidase (nanH) among toxigenic Vibrio cholerae isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William S. Jermyn; E. Fidelma Boyd

    Acquisition of virulence genes encoded on mobile genetic elements has played an important role in the emergence of pathogenic isolates of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the diarrhoeal disease cholera. The genes encoding cholera toxin (ctxAB), the main cause of profuse secretory diarrhoea in cholera, are encoded on a filamentous bacteriophage CTXu. The toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), an essential

  9. Regulation of phagocytosis against bacterium by Rab GTPase in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zong, Rongrong; Wu, Wenlin; Xu, Jianyang; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2008-09-01

    Rab GTPases, members of the Ras superfamily, play important roles in phagosome formation and maturation. However, the involvement of Rab protein in phagocytosis against invading pathogens in crustacean remains unknown. In the present study, the RNAi and mRNA overexpression assays were conducted to elucidate the function of shrimp Rab gene (designated as PjRab) in hemocytic phagocytosis against bacterium. The results indicated that the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index using FITC-labeled Vibrio parahemolyticus were significantly decreased when the PjRab gene was silenced by sequence-specific siRNA, suggesting that the PjRab protein was essential in hemocytic phagocytosis. On the other hand, the overexpression of PjRab gene leaded to the increase of phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index. The findings indicated that the PjRab protein was involved in the regulation of hemocytic phagocytosis of shrimp. Our report on the regulation of phagocytosis by Rab GTPase would contribute a better clue to realize the still poorly understood molecular events involved in shrimp as well as crustacean immune response. PMID:18650102

  10. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Koepke, Amanda A.; Kenah, Eben E.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Yang, Yang; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Harris, Jason B.; Longini, Ira M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces) to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures. Methodology/Principal Findings Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001–2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1) direct exposure within the household and 2) contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001) occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%–22.8%) risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length). The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%–8.0%). The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%–16.6%) and 8.2% (2.1%–27.1%) through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%–6.7%) and 2.0% (0.5%–7.3%) through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered. Conclusions Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of the transmissibility of endemic cholera within prospectively-followed members of households. The role of direct transmission must be considered when planning cholera control activities. PMID:25411971

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Biosecur® Citrus Extract Surface Cleaner Against Vibrio Vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Jiemin; Scott, Ronson; Janes, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of Biosecur® citrus extract surface cleaner against Vibrio vulnificus using plate count method. Two concentrations, 0.5% and 2% of Biosecur® surface cleaner were plated on Vibrio vulnificus Agar (VVA) and tested for reduction of Vibrio vulnificus. In order to investigate the lasting residual activity of Biosecur®, antibacterial activity tests were also performed at time intervals up to 2.5 h after Biosecur® was plated on VVA. Biosecur® showed 6-log reduction of Vibrio vulnificus at 2%, and 3-log reduction of Vibrio vulnificus at 0.5%. The antibacterial activity of 2% Biosecur® against Vibrio vulnificus was shown to be equivalent to that of tetracycline. The residual activity of 2% Biosecur® was shown to maintain for at least 2.5 h after application. This study confirmed the high activity and long lasting residual effect of a safe, non-toxic organic food grade surface cleaner. PMID:24302976

  12. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanaotes by a novel facultatively anaerobic Vibrio sp. under marine conditions.

    PubMed

    Numata, Keiji; Doi, Yoshiharu

    2012-06-01

    Marine bacteria have recently attracted attention as potentially useful candidates for the production of practical materials from marine ecosystems, including the oceanic carbon dioxide cycle. The advantages of using marine bacteria for the biosynthesis of poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA), one of the eco-friendly bioplastics, include avoiding contamination with bacteria that lack salt-water resistance, ability to use filtered seawater as a culture medium, and the potential for extracellular production of PHA, all of which would contribute to large-scale industrial production of PHA. A novel marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain KN01, was isolated and characterized in PHA productivity using various carbon sources under aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic marine conditions. The PHA contents of all the samples under the aerobic-anaerobic condition, especially when using soybean oil as the sole carbon source, were enhanced by limiting the amount of dissolved oxygen. The PHA accumulated using soybean oil as a sole carbon source under the aerobic-anaerobic condition contained 14% 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP) and 3% 5-hydroxyvalerate (5HV) units in addition to (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) units and had a molecular weight of 42?×?10³ g/mol. The present result indicates that the activity of the beta-oxidation pathway under the aerobic-anaerobic condition is reduced due to a reduction in the amount of dissolved oxygen. These findings have potential for use in controlling the biosynthesis of long main-chain PHA by regulating the activity of the beta-oxidation pathway, which also could be regulated by varying the dissolved oxygen concentration. PMID:22068389

  13. Pathoadaptive Conditional Regulation of the Type VI Secretion System in Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takahiko; Sabharwal, Dharmesh; Bröms, Jeanette; Milton, Debra L.; Sjöstedt, Anders; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2012-01-01

    The most recently discovered secretion pathway in Gram-negative bacteria, the type VI secretion system (T6SS), is present in many species and is considered important for the survival of non-O1 non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in aquatic environments. Until now, it was not known whether there is a functionally active T6SS in wild-type V. cholerae O1 strains, the cause of cholera disease in humans. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a functionally active T6SS in wild-type V. cholerae O1 strains, as evidenced by the secretion of the T6SS substrate Hcp, which required several gene products encoded within the putative vas gene cluster. Our analyses showed that the T6SS of wild-type V. cholerae O1 strain A1552 was functionally activated when the bacteria were grown under high-osmolarity conditions. The T6SS was also active when the bacteria were grown under low temperature (23°C), suggesting that the system may be important for the survival of the bacterium in the environment. A test of the interbacterial virulence of V. cholerae strain A1552 against an Escherichia coli K-12 strain showed that it was strongly enhanced under high osmolarity and that it depended on the hcp genes. Interestingly, we found that the newly recognized osmoregulatory protein OscR plays a role in the regulation of T6SS gene expression and secretion of Hcp from V. cholerae O1 strains. PMID:22083711

  14. Activation of Cholera Toxin Production by Anaerobic Respiration of Trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-il; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor. PMID:23019319

  15. Determining Vaccination Frequency in Farmed Rainbow Trout Using Vibrio anguillarum O1 Specific Serum Antibody Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nylén, Jørgen; Lorenzen, Niels; Buchmann, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid marker for assessing vaccination status in a fish population. For this purpose a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and used to evaluate sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated against V. anguillarum O1. Study Design Immune sera from rainbow trout immunised with an experimental vaccine based on inactivated V. anguillarum O1 bacterin in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant were used for ELISA optimisation. Subsequently, sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated with a commercial vaccine against V. anguillarum were analysed with the ELISA. The measured serum antibody levels were compared with the vaccine status of the fish (vaccinated/unvaccinated) as evaluated through visual examination. Results Repeated immunisation with the experimental vaccine lead to increasing levels of specific serum antibodies in the vaccinated rainbow trout. The farmed rainbow trout responded with high antibody levels to a single injection with the commercial vaccine. However, the diversity in responses was more pronounced in the farmed fish. Primary visual examinations for vaccine status in rainbow trout from the commercial farm revealed a large pool of unvaccinated specimens (vaccination failure rate?=?20%) among the otherwise vaccinated fish. Through serum analyses using the ELISA in a blinded set-up it was possible to separate samples collected from the farmed rainbow trout into vaccinated and unvaccinated fish. Conclusions Much attention has been devoted to development of new and more effective vaccines. Here we present a case from a Danish rainbow trout farm indicating that attention should also be directed to the vaccination procedure in order to secure high vaccination frequencies necessary for optimal protection with a reported effective vaccine. PMID:23185402

  16. Population structure of clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus from 17 coastal countries, determined through multilocus sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Dongsheng; Tang, Hui; Lu, Jun; Wang, Guangzhou; Zhou, Lin; Min, Lingfeng; Han, Chongxu

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Although this bacterium has been the subject of much research, the population structure of clinical strains from worldwide collections remains largely undescribed, and the recorded outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis highlight the need for the subtyping of this species. We present a broad phylogenetic analysis of 490 clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates from 17 coastal countries through multilocus sequence analysis (MLST). The 490 tested isolates fell into 161 sequence types (STs). The eBURST algorithm revealed that the 161 clinically relevant STs belonged to 8 clonal complexes, 11 doublets, and 94 singletons, showing a high level of genetic diversity. CC3 was found to be a global epidemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus, and ST-3 was the only ST with an international distribution. recA was observed to be evolving more rapidly, exhibiting the highest degree of nucleotide diversity (0.028) and the largest number of polymorphic nucleotide sites (177). We also found that the high variability of recA was an important cause of differences between the results of the eBURST and ME tree analyses, suggesting that recA has a much greater influence on the apparent evolutionary classification of V. parahaemolyticus based on the current MLST scheme. In conclusion, it is evident that a high degree of genetic diversity within the V. parahaemolyticus population and multiple sequence types are contributing to the burden of disease around the world. MLST, with a fully extractable database, is a powerful system for analysis of the clonal relationships of strains at a global scale. With the addition of more strains, the pubMLST database will provide more detailed and accurate information, which will be conducive to our future research on the population structure of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:25225911

  17. Population Structure of Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus from 17 Coastal Countries, Determined through Multilocus Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun; Wang, Guangzhou; Zhou, Lin; Min, Lingfeng; Han, Chongxu

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Although this bacterium has been the subject of much research, the population structure of clinical strains from worldwide collections remains largely undescribed, and the recorded outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis highlight the need for the subtyping of this species. We present a broad phylogenetic analysis of 490 clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates from 17 coastal countries through multilocus sequence analysis (MLST). The 490 tested isolates fell into 161 sequence types (STs). The eBURST algorithm revealed that the 161 clinically relevant STs belonged to 8 clonal complexes, 11 doublets, and 94 singletons, showing a high level of genetic diversity. CC3 was found to be a global epidemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus, and ST-3 was the only ST with an international distribution. recA was observed to be evolving more rapidly, exhibiting the highest degree of nucleotide diversity (0.028) and the largest number of polymorphic nucleotide sites (177). We also found that the high variability of recA was an important cause of differences between the results of the eBURST and ME tree analyses, suggesting that recA has a much greater influence on the apparent evolutionary classification of V. parahaemolyticus based on the current MLST scheme. In conclusion, it is evident that a high degree of genetic diversity within the V. parahaemolyticus population and multiple sequence types are contributing to the burden of disease around the world. MLST, with a fully extractable database, is a powerful system for analysis of the clonal relationships of strains at a global scale. With the addition of more strains, the pubMLST database will provide more detailed and accurate information, which will be conducive to our future research on the population structure of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:25225911

  18. CysK Plays a Role in Biofilm Formation and Colonization by Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Brooks, John F; Ray, Valerie A; Mandel, Mark J; Visick, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    A biofilm, or a matrix-embedded community of cells, promotes the ability of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri to colonize its symbiotic host, the Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes. Biofilm formation and colonization depend on syp, an 18-gene polysaccharide locus. To identify other genes necessary for biofilm formation, we screened for mutants that failed to form wrinkled colonies, a type of biofilm. We obtained several with defects in genes required for cysteine metabolism, including cysH, cysJ, cysK, and cysN. The cysK mutant exhibited the most severe wrinkling defect. It could be complemented with a wild-type copy of the cysK gene, which encodes O-acetylserine sulfhydrolase, or by supplementing the medium with additional cysteine. None of a number of other mutants defective for biosynthetic genes negatively impacted wrinkled colony formation, suggesting a specific role for CysK. CysK did not appear to control activation of Syp regulators or transcription of the syp locus, but it did influence production of the Syp polysaccharide. Under biofilm-inducing conditions, the cysK mutant retained the same ability as that of the parent strain to adhere to the agar surface. The cysK mutant also exhibited a defect in pellicle production that could be complemented by the cysK gene but not by cysteine, suggesting that, under these conditions, CysK is important for more than the production of cysteine. Finally, our data reveal a role for cysK in symbiotic colonization by V. fischeri. Although many questions remain, this work provides insights into additional factors required for biofilm formation and colonization by V. fischeri. PMID:26025891

  19. Modeling Analysis of Signal Sensitivity and Specificity by Vibrio fischeri LuxR Variants

    PubMed Central

    Colton, Deanna M.; Stabb, Eric V.; Hagen, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The LuxR protein of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri belongs to a family of transcriptional activators that underlie pheromone-mediated signaling by responding to acyl-homoserine lactones (-HSLs) or related molecules. V. fischeri produces two acyl-HSLs, N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-HSL (3OC6-HSL) and N-octanoyl-HSL (C8-HSL), each of which interact with LuxR to facilitate its binding to a “lux box” DNA sequence, thereby enabling LuxR to activate transcription of the lux operon responsible for bioluminescence. We have investigated the HSL sensitivity of four different variants of V. fischeri LuxR: two derived from wild-type strains ES114 and MJ1, and two derivatives of LuxRMJ1 generated by directed evolution. For each LuxR variant, we measured the bioluminescence induced by combinations of C8-HSL and 3OC6-HSL. We fit these data to a model in which the two HSLs compete with each other to form multimeric LuxR complexes that directly interact with lux to activate bioluminescence. The model reproduces the observed effects of HSL combinations on the bioluminescence responses directed by LuxR variants, including competition and non-monotonic responses to C8-HSL and 3OC6-HSL. The analysis yields robust estimates for the underlying dissociation constants and cooperativities (Hill coefficients) of the LuxR-HSL complexes and their affinities for the lux box. It also reveals significant differences in the affinities of LuxRMJ1 and LuxRES114 for 3OC6-HSL. Further, LuxRMJ1 and LuxRES114 differed sharply from LuxRs retrieved by directed evolution in the cooperativity of LuxR-HSL complex formation and the affinity of these complexes for lux. These results show how computational modeling of in vivo experimental data can provide insight into the mechanistic consequences of directed evolution. PMID:25962099

  20. Pathogenicity of Vibrio tapetis, the etiological agent of brown ring disease in clams.

    PubMed

    Allam, Bassem; Paillard, Christine; Ford, Susan E

    2002-04-01

    Brown ring disease (BRD) causes high mortalities in the introduced Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum cultured in western Europe. The etiological agent of BRD, Vibrio tapetis, adheres to and disrupts the production of the periostracal lamina, causing the anomalous deposition of periostracum around the inner shell. Because the primary sign of BRD is found outside the soft tissues, the processes leading to death are not as obvious as those for internal pathogens. This study was designed to evaluate the pathogenicity of V. tapetis, in an attempt to help explain the mechanisms of mortality. We found high mortalities (up to 100%) for clams following the inoculation of V. tapetis into the extrapallial space (between mantle and inner shell) or the posterior adductor muscle of healthy R. philippinarum. Microscopy and immunological detection methods showed that the pathogen was rapidly eliminated from tissues and hemolymph of animals that survived the inoculation. In clams that died, the bacteria were found to have proliferated, resulting in severe tissue disruption. Bacteria were able to penetrate into tissues from the extrapallial space through the external epithelium of the mantle. In contrast, no mortalities were observed following injection of V. tapetis in the native European clam Ruditapes decussatus, which is resistant to BRD. This clam rapidly eliminated the bacterium from hemolymph and soft tissues. Clam mortality associated with BRD in the field is likely to result from the penetration of V. tapetis into the clam's extrapallial space through the disrupted periostracal lamina and from there into the soft tissues through the irritated mantle epithelium. Some bacteria also penetrate through the digestive epithelia. In either case, bacteria proliferate rapidly in the soft tissues, causing severe damage and subsequent death. PMID:12033709

  1. VibrioBase: A Model for Next-Generation Genome and Annotation Database Development

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Siew Woh; Tan, Tze King; Mutha, Naresh V. R.; Wong, Guat Jah

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate the ongoing research of Vibrio spp., a dedicated platform for the Vibrio research community is needed to host the fast-growing amount of genomic data and facilitate the analysis of these data. We present VibrioBase, a useful resource platform, providing all basic features of a sequence database with the addition of unique analysis tools which could be valuable for the Vibrio research community. VibrioBase currently houses a total of 252 Vibrio genomes developed in a user-friendly manner and useful to enable the analysis of these genomic data, particularly in the field of comparative genomics. Besides general data browsing features, VibrioBase offers analysis tools such as BLAST interfaces and JBrowse genome browser. Other important features of this platform include our newly developed in-house tools, the pairwise genome comparison (PGC) tool, and pathogenomics profiling tool (PathoProT). The PGC tool is useful in the identification and comparative analysis of two genomes, whereas PathoProT is designed for comparative pathogenomics analysis of Vibrio strains. Both of these tools will enable researchers with little experience in bioinformatics to get meaningful information from Vibrio genomes with ease. We have tested the validity and suitability of these tools and features for use in the next-generation database development. PMID:25243218

  2. Population structure of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jeffrey W; Paranjpye, Rohinee N; Landis, Eric D; Biryukov, Stanley V; González-Escalona, Narjol; Nilsson, William B; Strom, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common marine bacterium and a leading cause of seafood-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although this bacterium has been the subject of much research, the population structure of cold-water populations remains largely undescribed. We present a broad phylogenetic analysis of clinical and environmental V. parahaemolyticus originating largely from the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) separated 167 isolates into 39 groups and subsequent multilocus sequence typing (MLST) separated a subset of 77 isolates into 24 sequence types. The Pacific Northwest population exhibited a semi-clonal structure attributed to an environmental clade (ST3, N?=?17 isolates) clonally related to the pandemic O3:K6 complex and a clinical clade (ST36, N?=?20 isolates) genetically related to a regionally endemic O4:K12 complex. Further, the identification of at least five additional clinical sequence types (i.e., ST43, 50, 65, 135 and 417) demonstrates that V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in the Pacific Northwest is polyphyletic in nature. Recombination was evident as a significant source of genetic diversity and in particular, the recA and dtdS alleles showed strong support for frequent recombination. Although pandemic-related illnesses were not documented during the study, the environmental occurrence of the pandemic clone may present a significant threat to human health and warrants continued monitoring. It is evident that V. parahaemolyticus population structure in the Pacific Northwest is semi-clonal and it would appear that multiple sequence types are contributing to the burden of disease in this region. PMID:23409028

  3. Genome-Wide SNP-Genotyping Array to Study the Evolution of the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 3

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, Ryan B.; Bar-On, Yudi; Linetsky, Alex; Shmoish, Michael; Sanjuán, Eva; Amaro, Carmen; Walt, David R.; Kashi, Yechezkel

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an aquatic bacterium and an important human pathogen. Strains of V. vulnificus are classified into three different biotypes. The newly emerged biotype 3 has been found to be clonal and restricted to Israel. In the family Vibrionaceae, horizontal gene transfer is the main mechanism responsible for the emergence of new pathogen groups. To better understand the evolution of the bacterium, and in particular to trace the evolution of biotype 3, we performed genome-wide SNP genotyping of 254 clinical and environmental V. vulnificus isolates with worldwide distribution recovered over a 30-year period, representing all phylogeny groups. A custom single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array implemented on the Illumina GoldenGate platform was developed based on 570 SNPs randomly distributed throughout the genome. In general, the genotyping results divided the V. vulnificus species into three main phylogenetic lineages and an additional subgroup, clade B, consisting of environmental and clinical isolates from Israel. Data analysis suggested that 69% of biotype 3 SNPs are similar to SNPs from clade B, indicating that biotype 3 and clade B have a common ancestor. The rest of the biotype 3 SNPs were scattered along the biotype 3 genome, probably representing multiple chromosomal segments that may have been horizontally inserted into the clade B recipient core genome from other phylogroups or bacterial species sharing the same ecological niche. Results emphasize the continuous evolution of V. vulnificus and support the emergence of new pathogenic groups within this species as a recurrent phenomenon. Our findings contribute to a broader understanding of the evolution of this human pathogen. PMID:25526263

  4. A quorum sensing-disrupting brominated thiophenone with a promising therapeutic potential to treat luminescent vibriosis.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Benneche, Tore; Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Scheie, Anne Aamdal

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is amongst the most important bacterial pathogens in aquaculture. Novel methods to control this pathogen are needed since many strains have acquired resistance to antibiotics. We previously showed that quorum sensing-disrupting furanones are able to protect brine shrimp larvae against vibriosis. However, a major problem of these compounds is that they are toxic toward higher organisms and therefore, they are not safe to be used in aquaculture. The synthesis of brominated thiophenones, sulphur analogues of the quorum sensing-disrupting furanones, has recently been reported. In the present study, we report that these compounds block quorum sensing in V. harveyi at concentrations in the low micromolar range. Bioluminescence experiments with V. harveyi quorum sensing mutants and a fluorescence anisotropy assay indicated that the compounds disrupt quorum sensing in this bacterium by decreasing the ability of the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR to bind to its target promoter DNA. In vivo challenge tests with gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae showed that thiophenone compound TF310, (Z)-4-((5-(bromomethylene)-2-oxo-2,5-dihydrothiophen-3-yl)methoxy)-4-oxobutanoic acid, completely protected the larvae from V. harveyi BB120 when dosed to the culture water at 2.5 µM or more, whereas severe toxicity was only observed at 250 µM. This makes TF310 showing the highest therapeutic index of all quorum sensing-disrupting compounds tested thus far in our brine shrimp model system. PMID:22848604

  5. Genome Sequencing of 15 Clinical Vibrio Isolates, Including 13 Non-O1/Non-O139 Serogroup Strains

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Verratti, Kathleen; Luu, Truong; Khiani, Amy; Awosika, Joy; Mokashi, Vishwesh P.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    We present draft genome sequences of 15 clinical Vibrio isolates of various serogroups. These are valuable data for use in studying Vibrio cholerae genetic diversity, epidemic potential, and strain attribution. PMID:25212618

  6. Polyphyly of non-bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri sharing a lux-locus deletionemi_2608 655..668

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Polyphyly of non-bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri sharing a lux-locus deletionemi_2608 655..668 M. S to be composed only of bioluminescent strains is Vibrio fischeri. Why, in all environmental samples analysed

  7. Bacteriocin production by indigenous marine catfish associated Vibrio spp.

    PubMed

    Zai, Arsalan Saeed; Ahmad, Samia; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz

    2009-04-01

    Fifty strains of genus Vibrio were isolated (identified) from healthy and diseased marine catfish(es). The isolates were screened for bacteriocin (vibriocin) production. About 32% isolates were found bacteriocin producers. The best producer was identified as Vibrio anguillarum AVP10. The maximum production of vibriocin AVP10 was manifested at 29 degrees C at pH 7, after 18-20 h of incubation. Vibriocin activity was enhanced in the presence of citrate-phosphate buffer. The vibriocin AVP10 withstands autoclaving temperature and showed activity even after prolonged chloroform treatment. Proteolytic enzymes inhibited its activity, while lipolytic enzyme had no effect. It was found bioactive only against intrageneric bacterial strains. Mode of action of vibriocin AVP10 varies with the indicator (sensitive) culture used i.e. bactericidal effects was exerted against V. anguillarum AVS9 while bacteriostatic effect was shown against entero-toxigenic E. coli. PMID:19339226

  8. Motility as a virulence factor for Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Guentzel, M N; Berry, L J

    1975-01-01

    The ability of motile strains of the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes of classical Vibrio cholerae and of the El Tor biotypes to kill suckling mice after oral challenge with 10-8 colony-forming units (representing at least 100 to 1,000 minimal lethal doses) was compared to that of nonmotile derivatives of the same strains. Loss of motility, in each case, resulted in a marked reduction in virulence. The mortality (at 36 h) caused by 10 of the 13 nonmotile strains was 32% or less. whereas the motile wild-type strains resulted in nearly 100% deaths. The reduced virulence of the nonmotile strains was associated with reduced capacity to adsorb to the surface of segments of mouse intestine. The mutants were tested for alterations in enterotoxin production and surface properties. The results suggest that motility may contribute to virulence by increasing the chance for association of the vibrios with the intestinal mucosa. PMID:1091563

  9. Cyclic Diguanylate Regulates Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna D. Tischler; Andrew Camilli

    2005-01-01

    The cyclic dinucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-diGMP) has been implicated in regulation of cell surface properties in several bacterial species, including Vibrio cholerae. Expression of genes required for V. cholerae biofilm formation is activated by an increased intracellular c-diGMP concentration. The response regulator VieA, which contains a domain responsible for degradation of c-diGMP, is required to maintain a low

  10. Filamentous phage fs1 of Vibrio cholerae O139.

    PubMed

    Nakasone, N; Honma, Y; Toma, C; Yamashiro, T; Iwanaga, M

    1998-01-01

    Filamentous phage, fs1, was obtained from Vibrio cholerae O139. The lysogenized strains produced a large amount of fs1 phage in the culture supernatant. This phage was previously reported as novel fimbriae of that organism. The genome of the phage was a 6.5 kb single-stranded DNA. The capsid of fsl consists of a small molecule peptide (about 2.5 kDa). PMID:9570290

  11. Quartz crystal microbalance detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 serotype.

    PubMed

    Carter, R M; Mekalanos, J J; Jacobs, M B; Lubrano, G J; Guilbault, G G

    1995-11-16

    A piezoelectric (PZ) quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor for the rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae serotype O139 has been developed. The antibody to this serotype was immobilized on the gold transducer surface of a 10 MHz AT cut PZ crystal. Solutions containing known antigen concentrations were then incubated for 1 h on the antibody-bound transducer. The biosensor was able to detect 10(5) cells per ml of O139 versus a background of O1 (Ogawa) serotype. PMID:7490448

  12. Vibrio species associated with mortality of sharks held in captivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Grimes; J. Stemmler; H. Hada; E. B. May; D. Maneval; F. M. Hetrick; R. T. Jones; M. Stoskopf; R. R. Colwell

    1984-01-01

    Two urease-positiveVibrio spp. were isolated from a brown shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) that died in captivity at a national aquarium. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular genetic studies revealed one of the isolates to beV. damsela; the other isolate was unique and has been classified asV. carchariae sp. nov. BothV. damsela andV. carchariae were found to be virulent for spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias),

  13. Siderophore production by New Zealand strains of Vibrio anguillarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivien Pybus; Margaret W. Loutit; John R. Tagg

    1994-01-01

    New Zealand isolates of Vibrio anguillarum from water, sediments and healthy salmon were tested for their ability to grow under iron?limiting conditions and to produce sidero?phores. Their growth in the presence of the iron chelator ethylenediamine?di(o?hydroxyphenyl?acetic acid) (EDDA) suggested they could withstand conditions of iron limitation, with a 200 ?M EDDA MIC recorded for the majority of strains. A positive

  14. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshu; Baral, Dinesh; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R; Bohidar, H B

    2015-05-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe(3)O(4))) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe(3)O(4) and CA-Fe(3)O(4)/ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe(3)O(4), CA-Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe(3)O(4)) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe(3)O(4)) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe(2)O(3)/ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5-500 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL(-1), sensitivity 0.03 ?/ng ml(-1) cm(-2), and reproducibility more than 11 times. PMID:25850702

  15. Distribution ofVibrio cholerae in two Florida estuaries.

    PubMed

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-04-01

    The distribution ofVibrio cholerae was examined in 2 Florida estuaries, Apalachicola and Tampa Bay.Vibrio cholerae serotype non-01 was the most abundant serotype, being isolated from 45% of the oyster samples, 30% of the sediments, 50% of the waters, and 75% of the blue crabs.Vibrio cholerae serotype 01 was isolated from only one oyster sample. Strong linear correlations betweenV. cholerae and temperature, salinity, or the other physical/chemical parameters measured,Escherichia coli, or fecal coliforms were not observed, but a range of temperatures and salinities appeared relevant to the distribution of the organism. The organism was present in the highest concentrations when salinities were 10‰-25‰ and temperatures were 20‡C-35‡C.In vitro growth curves of 95V. cholerae environmental isolates further supported that 10‰-25‰ was an ideal salinity range for the organisms. The results suggest thatV. cholerae is a widely distributed organism in the nutrient-rich warm waters of the Gulf Coast estuaries. PMID:24221617

  16. Vibrio factors cause rapid fluid accumulation in suckling mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nishibuchi, M; Seidler, R J; Rollins, D M; Joseph, S W

    1983-01-01

    Non-O-1 and O-1 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio fluvialis isolated from clinical and environmental sources were examined for virulence factor production in 3-day-old suckling mice and in Y-1 tissue culture. The responses of the suckling mice to intragastrically administered bacterial cultures were measured by intestinal fluid accumulation (FA), diarrhea, and mortality. Regardless of the O-serovar, source of isolation, or ability to produce cholera toxin, all strains of V. cholerae stimulated increased FA, which was measurable in the mice at 4 h post-inoculation. The factor(s) causing these symptoms was found to be distinct from cholera toxin by the kinetics of FA and serological difference from cholera toxin based on in vivo neutralization tests. In most instances, FA was followed by high rates of mortality. Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell assays also showed that many V. cholerae produced extracellular heat-labile cytotoxic factor(s), and many cholera toxin-negative strains also caused a cytotonic-like morphological response. The majority of V. fluvialis strains produced smaller amounts of cytotoxic factor(s) but no cytotoxic reactions. The factor which stimulates rapid FA in suckling mice could be one of several virulence-associated factors contributing to diarrheal disease by nontoxigenic vibrios, but this is not verified at present. PMID:6852913

  17. Examination of the mechanism of phenanthrenequinone toxicity to Vibrio fischeri: evidence for a reactive oxygen species-mediated toxicity mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxi; Nykamp, Julie; Huang, Xiao-Dong; Gerhardt, Karen; Dixon, D George; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2009-08-01

    Phenanthrenequinone (PHQ) is a photoproduct of phenanthrene, one of the most prevalent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment. Phenanthrenequinone is a compound of substantial interest, because its toxicity can be much greater than its parent chemical to aquatic organisms. The toxicity mechanisms of PHQ to the luminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri were examined in the present study. Phenanthrenequinone can redox cycle in bacterial cells and transfer electrons to O2, enhancing the production of superoxide (O*2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exposure of cells to PHQ increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), which detoxifies the ROS superoxide. Concentrations of PHQ that induced the production of H2O2 and other ROS, as well as the elevated levels of Fe-SOD, were correlated with its toxicity as measured by luminescence. Furthermore, toxicity of PHQ to V. fischeri was lowered under the anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the absence of oxygen, which would limit the production of ROS, alleviated toxicity of PHQ. Thus, a ROS-mediated toxicity mechanism of PHQ is highly implicated by in the present study. PMID:19265456

  18. Sediment and vegetation as reservoirs of Vibrio vulnificus in the Tampa Bay Estuary and Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chase, Eva; Young, Suzanne; Harwood, Valerie J

    2015-04-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Vibrio vulnificus occurs naturally in estuarine habitats and is readily cultured from water and oysters under warm conditions but infrequently at ambient conditions of <15°C. The presence of V. vulnificus in other habitats, such as sediments and aquatic vegetation, has been explored much less frequently. This study investigated the ecology of V. vulnificus in water by culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) and in sediment, oysters, and aquatic vegetation by culture. V. vulnificus samples were taken from five sites around Tampa Bay, FL. Levels determined by qPCR and culture were significantly correlated (P = 0.0006; r = 0.352); however, V. vulnificus was detected significantly more frequently by qPCR (85% of all samples) compared to culture (43%). Culturable V. vulnificus bacteria were recovered most frequently from oyster samples (70%), followed by vegetation and sediment (?50%) and water (43%). Water temperature, which ranged from 18.5 to 33.4°C, was positively correlated with V. vulnificus concentrations in all matrices but sediments. Salinity, which ranged from 1 to 35 ppt, was negatively correlated with V. vulnificus levels in water and sediments but not in other matrices. Significant interaction effects between matrix and temperature support the hypothesis that temperature affects V. vulnificus concentrations differently in different matrices and that sediment habitats may serve as seasonal reservoirs for V. vulnificus. V. vulnificus levels in vegetation have not been previously measured and reveal an additional habitat for this autochthonous estuarine bacterium. PMID:25636843

  19. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Robert C.; Bolitho, Megan E.; Higgins, Douglas A.; Lu, Wenyun; Ng, Wai-Leung; Jeffrey, Philip D.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Hughson, Frederick M.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release ?100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anti-cholera treatment. PMID:19838203

  20. Solar-photocatalytic disinfection of Vibrio cholerae by using Ag@ZnO core-shell structure nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Das, Sourav; Sinha, Sayantan; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Yun, Soon-Il; Mishra, Amrita; Tripathy, Suraj K

    2015-01-01

    Disinfection of Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae 569B in aqueous matrix by solar-photocatalysis mediated by Ag@ZnO core-shell structure nanocomposite particles was investigated. Silver nanoparticles are synthesized by the reduction of silver perchlorate followed by precipitation of zinc oxide shell and are employed in the photocatalytic disinfection of the model pathogen. Effect of photocatalyst loading and reaction temperature on the disinfection kinetics was studied. Disinfection efficiency in laboratory as well as real water samples was compared with that of pure-ZnO and TiO2 (Degussa P25). Nanocomposite system has shown optimum disinfection (?98%) at 40-60min of sun-light exposure with a catalyst loading of 0.5mg/L of the reaction solution. The reduction of aquatic bacterial densities by photocatalytically active Ag@ZnO core-shell nanocomposite in presence of natural sun-light may have potential ex situ application in water decontamination at ambient conditions. PMID:25523714

  1. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  2. Enzymatic, outer membrane proteins and plasmid alterations of starved Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus cells in seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fethi Ben Abdallah; Héla Kallel; Amina Bakhrouf

    2009-01-01

    The marine bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus were incubated in seawater for 8 months to evaluate their adaptative responses to starvation. The starved cells showed an\\u000a altered biochemical and enzymatic profiles, respectively, on Api 20E and Api ZYM systems and an evolution to the filterable\\u000a minicells state capable to pass membrane pore size 0.45 ?m. Outer membrane proteins patterns of stressed

  3. Specific Inhibition of Chemiluminescent Activity by Pathogenic Vibrios in Hemocytes of Two Marine Bivalves

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Specific Inhibition of Chemiluminescent Activity by Pathogenic Vibrios in Hemocytes of Two Marine particles were added to the hemocytes and the chemiluminescent (CL) activity of the cells was measured over; Crassostrea gigas; bacteria; chemiluminescence; hemocytes; respiratory burst; Vibrio sp. INTRODUCTION

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio fortis Dalian14 Isolated from Diseased Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Dou, Yan; Wang, Yinan

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio fortis Dalian14 isolated from diseased sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius) during disease outbreaks in North China. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of pathogenicity and evolution of Vibrio species. PMID:24994792

  5. Localization and bacteriostasis of Vibrio introduced into the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Louis E.

    Localization and bacteriostasis of Vibrio introduced into the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus a major role in bacterial uptake and bacteriostasis in penaeid shrimp. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lymphoid organ; Vibrio; Real-time PCR; Penaeid shrimp; Decapod crustaceans

  6. Features of cholera and Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhoea endemicity in Calabar, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Utsalo; F. O. Eko; E. O. Antia-Obong

    1992-01-01

    The clinical and epidemiological features of acute vibrio diarrhoeal disease were studied in 881 patients seen at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, Nigeria, between January and December 1989. Stools and rectal swabs of patients and randomly-selected control subjects were microscopically and culturally examined for the presence of enteric pathogens. Households of vibrio diarrhoea cases and matched controls

  7. CHITINASE DETERMINANTS OF 'VIBRIO VULNIFICUS': GENE CLONING AND APPLICATIONS OF A CHITINASE PROBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To initiate study of the genetic control of chitinolytic activity in vibrios, the chitobiase gene was isolated by cloning chromosomal DNA prepared from Vibrio vulnificus. Chimeric plasmids were constructed from Sau3A I partial digests of chromosomal DNA by ligating 5 to 15-Kiloba...

  8. A SIMPLE FLUOROGENIC METHOD TO ASSESS VIBRIO CHOLERAE AND AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA IN WELL WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present the colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP), a simple, fluorogenic assay for the rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae and Aeromonas hydrophila in fresh well water. Substrate cleavage by enzymes present in Vibrio and Aeromonas species produces fluorescent foci on UV-light irradiated ...

  9. Natural transformation of Vibrio cholerae as a tool - Optimizing the procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasmus L. Marvig; Melanie Blokesch

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae gains natural competence upon growth on chitin. This allows the organism to take up free DNA from the environment and to incorporate it into its genome by homologous recombination. RESULTS: Making use of this developmental program in order to use it as a tool to genetically manipulate V. cholerae and potentially also others Vibrio species was envisaged.

  10. Immunological Biosensor for Detection of Vibrio cholerae O1in Environmental Water Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Sharma; A. K. Goel; L. Singh; V. K. Rao

    2006-01-01

    Environmental surveillance for the presence of Vibrio cholerae O1 is of utmost importance for the effective public health protection of cholera. In the present study, an amperometric immunosensor was developed for detection of Vibrio cholerae in environmental samples by using disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). For this purpose, the experiments done include fabrication of SPEs by using carbon ink, electrochemical characterization

  11. THE EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF A SEPIOLID SQUID-VIBRIO ASSOCIATION: FROM CELL TO ENVIRONMENT

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    THE EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF A SEPIOLID SQUID-VIBRIO ASSOCIATION: FROM CELL TO ENVIRONMENT S the evolution of these beneficial partnerships. The symbiosis between sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae), and luminous bacteria (from the genera Vibrio and Photobacterium

  12. Complete genome sequence for the shellfish pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 isolated from a shellfish hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp), and two...

  13. Rickettsia-like Bacterium Associated with Pierce's Disease of Grapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Hopkins; Hilton H. Mollenhauer

    1973-01-01

    A pleomorphic bacterium was observed by electron microscopy in grape plants infected with Pierce's disease. The organism was located in xylem tissue, and its occurrence was closely associated with symptoms of Pierce's disease. The bacterium resembled a rickettsia in morphology, in its failure to grow on cell-free media, and in its sensitivity to tetracycline antibiotics.

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of the Bacterium Coxiella burnetii in Wild

    E-print Network

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of the Bacterium Coxiella burnetii in Wild Rodents from a Canadian, McGill University ­ MacDonald Campus, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada Impacts · Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium that can cause Q fever that has been reported in agricultural settings, yet little

  15. Molecular analysis of the emergence of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, E Fidelma; Cohen, Ana Luisa V; Naughton, Lynn M; Ussery, David W; Binnewies, Tim T; Stine, O Colin; Parent, Michelle A

    2008-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Prior to 1995, numerous V. parahaemolyticus serogroups were associated with disease, however, in that year an O3:K6 serogroup emerged in Southeast Asia causing large outbreaks and rapid hospitalizations. This new highly virulent strain is now globally disseminated. Results We performed a four-way BLAST analysis on the genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633, an O3:K6 isolate from Japan recovered in 1996, versus the genomes of four published Vibrio species and constructed genome BLAST atlases. We identified 24 regions, gaps in the genome atlas, of greater than 10 kb that were unique to RIMD2210633. These 24 regions included an integron, f237 phage, 2 type III secretion systems (T3SS), a type VI secretion system (T6SS) and 7 Vibrio parahaemolyticus genomic islands (VPaI-1 to VPaI-7). Comparative genomic analysis of our fifth genome, V. parahaemolyticus AQ3810, an O3:K6 isolate recovered in 1983, identified four regions unique to each V. parahaemolyticus strain. Interestingly, AQ3810 did not encode 8 of the 24 regions unique to RMID, including a T6SS, which suggests an additional virulence mechanism in RIMD2210633. The distribution of only the VPaI regions was highly variable among a collection of 42 isolates and phylogenetic analysis of these isolates show that these regions are confined to a pathogenic clade. Conclusion Our data show that there is considerable genomic flux in this species and that the new highly virulent clone arose from an O3:K6 isolate that acquired at least seven novel regions, which included both a T3SS and a T6SS. PMID:18590559

  16. Vibrio cincinnatiensis sp. nov., a new human pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Brayton, P R; Bode, R B; Colwell, R R; MacDonell, M T; Hall, H L; Grimes, D J; West, P A; Bryant, T N

    1986-01-01

    A halophilic gram-negative rod was isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid collected from a 70-year-old male having no known contact with seafood or salt water. Positive biochemical tests included oxidase, sensitivity to 0/129, O-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, lysine decarboxylase and fermentation of glucose, salicin, n-inositol, sucrose, L-mannose, L-arabinose, and arbutin. Negative tests included indole, ornithine decarboxylase, arginine dihydrolase fermentation of lactose, and production of gelatinase and urease. The DNA base composition was 45.0 mol% guanine plus cytosine. Numerical taxonomy indicated 70% similarity with known reference Vibrio sp. strains. The 5S rRNA sequence for this strain has been determined: 5'-U G C C U G G C G A C C A U A G C G U U U U G G A C C C A C C U G A U U C C A U G C C G A A C U C A G U A G U G A A A C G A A A C A G C G U C G A U G G U A G U G U G G G G U C U C C C C A U G U G A G A G U A G A A C A U C G C C A G G C A U-3'. Based on the phenetic, molecular genetic, and nucleic acid sequencing data, it is concluded that Vibrio cincinnatiensis represents a new species of the genus Vibrio sensu strictu (as defined by 5S rRNA sequencing results). On a basis of 5S rRNA comparative sequence analysis, the organism appears to share a recent common ancestor with V. gazogenes (98% homology) and close ancestry with V. mimicus, V. fluvialis, and V. metschnikovii. PMID:2422196

  17. Structural characteristics of alkaline phosphatase from the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Matsumoto, Fumiko; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Blaber, Michael; Tokunaga, Masao; Kuroki, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the moderate halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters over a wide salt-concentration range (1–4?M NaCl). In order to clarify the structural basis of its halophilic characteristics and its wide-range adaptation to salt concentration, the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.1?Å resolution. The unit cell of HaAP contained one dimer unit corresponding to the biological unit. The monomer structure of HaAP contains a domain comprised of an 11-stranded ?-sheet core with 19 surrounding ?-helices similar to those of APs from other species, and a unique ‘crown’ domain containing an extended ‘arm’ structure that participates in formation of a hydrophobic cluster at the entrance to the substrate-binding site. The HaAP structure also displays a unique distribution of negatively charged residues and hydrophobic residues in comparison to other known AP structures. AP from Vibrio sp. G15-21 (VAP; a slight halophile) has the highest similarity in sequence (70.0% identity) and structure (C? r.m.s.d. of 0.82?Å for the monomer) to HaAP. The surface of the HaAP dimer is substantially more acidic than that of the VAP dimer (144 exposed Asp/Glu residues versus 114, respectively), and thus may enable the solubility of HaAP under high-salt conditions. Conversely, the monomer unit of HaAP formed a substantially larger hydrophobic interior comprising 329 C atoms from completely buried residues, whereas that of VAP comprised 264 C atoms, which may maintain the stability of HaAP under low-salt conditions. These characteristics of HaAP may be responsible for its unique functional adaptation permitting activity over a wide range of salt concentrations. PMID:24598750

  18. Desulfonatronum Thiodismutans sp. nov., a Novel Alkaliphilic, Sulfate-reducing Bacterium Capable of Lithoautotrophic Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Cleland, David; Krader, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A novel alkaliphilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain MLF1(sup T), was isolated from sediments of soda Mono Lake, California. Gram-negative vibrio-shaped cells were observed, which were 0.6-0.7 x 1.2-2.7 microns in size, motile by a single polar flagellum and occurred singly, in pairs or as short spirilla. Growth was observed at 15-48 C (optimum, 37 C), > 1-7 % NaCI, w/v (optimum, 3%) and pH 8.0-10.0 (optimum, 9.5). The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires a high concentration of carbonate in the growth medium and is obligately anaerobic and catalase-negative. As electron donors, strain MLF1(sup T) uses hydrogen, formate and ethanol. Sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate (but not sulfur or nitrate) can be used as electron acceptors. The novel isolate is a lithoheterotroph and a facultative lithoautotroph that is able to grow on hydrogen without an organic source of carbon. Strain MLF1(sup T) is resistant to kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The DNA G+C content is 63.0 mol% (HPLC). DNA-DNA hybridization with the most closely related species, Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951(sup T), exhibited 51 % homology. Also, the genome size (1.6 x 10(exp 9) Da) and T(sub m) value of the genomic DNA (71 +/- 2 C) for strain MLF1(sup T) were significantly different from the genome size (2.1 x 10(exp 9) Da) and T(sub m) value (63 +/- 2 C) for Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951(sup T). On the basis of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered to be a novel species of the genus Desulfonatronum, for which the name Desulfonatronum thiodismutans sp. nov. is proposed (the type strain is MLF1(sup T) = ATCC BAA-395(sup T) = DSM 14708(sup T)).

  19. Ferrovibrio xuzhouensis sp. nov., a cyhalothrin-degrading bacterium isolated from cyhalothrin contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Song, Man; Zhang, Long; Sun, Bin; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Hui; Li, Qiang; Guo, Suhui; Huang, Xing

    2015-08-01

    A novel cyhalothrin-degrading strain, designated as LM-6(T), was isolated from a cyhalothrin contaminated wastewater sample. The bacterium was found to be Gram stain-negative, non-spore-forming, vibrio-shaped, and motile with a single polar flagellum. Strain LM-6(T) was observed to grow optimally at 28-30 °C, pH 6.0 and in the absence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain LM-6(T) is a member of the genus Ferrovibrio, and showed the highest sequence similarity with Ferrovibrio denitrificans Sp-1(T) (97.7 %), followed by Taonella mepensis H1(T) (93.3 %). The major fatty acids of strain LM-6(T) (>5 %) were determined to be C18:1 ?7c and/or C18:1 ?6c, C16:0, C18:1 2-OH and C17:1 iso I and/or anteiso B. The major polar lipids were identified to be phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylmethylethanolamine. The major respiratory quinone was determined to be ubiquinone-10. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain LM-6(T) is 66.5 mol %. Strain LM-6(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with F. denitrificans Sp-1(T) (53.1 ± 0.5 %). On the basis of phylogenetic, genomic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain LM-6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Ferrovibrio, for which the name Ferrovibrio xuzhouensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ferrovibrio xuzhouensis LM-6(T) (=KCTC 42182(T) = ACCC 19710(T)). PMID:26002076

  20. Population dynamics of vibrio species in the river Narmada at Jabalpur.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anjana; Chaturvedi, Animesh Navin

    2007-10-01

    Several studies on the presence and ecology of various Vibrio sp have been reported in coastal and estuarine waters throughout the world, but there is trifling information available on the distribution of this organism of colossal pathogenic potential in the fresh water riverine environment. Thus, we conducted a multiyearenvironmental study to scrutinize the occurrence of members of genus Vibrio in the largest west flowing river of the Indian subcontinent, which is also the largest river of central India, the Narmada. Statistical analysis was done to reveal major environmental factors controlling the presence of Vibrio sp in the river Narmada. Monthly field samplings were conducted between January 2002 and December 2003 at four different sites in Jabalpur (MP), India. At each site, water samples were taken and physicochemical and bacteriological parameters were measured. The identity of the isolates was confirmed by employing 16S rRNA analysis. The organisms were found to be widely distributed in the river with regular seasonal variations. The density of Vibrio was found to be correlated with temperature, coliforms and other heterotrophic bacteria. Water temperature accounted for most of the variability in the concentration of Vibrio spAs typical fecal pollution indicators may not access public health risk from potential pathogens such as vibrios, hence special monitoring programme for vibrios may adequately be included in the water quality management. PMID:18405107

  1. Persistence, Seasonal Dynamics and Pathogenic Potential of Vibrio Communities from Pacific Oyster Hemolymph

    PubMed Central

    Wendling, Carolin C.; Batista, Frederico M.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Vibrio occur at a continuum from free-living to symbiotic life forms, including opportunists and pathogens, that can contribute to severe diseases, for instance summer mortality events of Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. While most studies focused on Vibrio isolated from moribund oysters during mortality outbreaks, investigations of the Vibrio community in healthy oysters are rare. Therefore, we characterized the persistence, diversity, seasonal dynamics, and pathogenicity of the Vibrio community isolated from healthy Pacific oysters. In a reciprocal transplant experiment we repeatedly sampled hemolymph from adult Pacific oysters to differentiate population from site-specific effects during six months of in situ incubation in the field. We characterized virulence phenotypes and genomic diversity based on multilocus sequence typing in a total of 70 Vibrio strains. Based on controlled infection experiments we could show that strains with the ability to colonize healthy adult oysters can also have the potential to induce high mortality rates on larvae. Diversity and abundance of Vibrio varied significantly over time with highest values during and after spawning season. Vibrio communities from transplanted and stationary oysters converged over time, indicating that communities were not population specific, but rather assemble from the surrounding environment forming communities, some of which can persist over longer periods. PMID:24728233

  2. New insights into Oculina patagonica coral diseases and their associated Vibrio spp. communities.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Portillo, Esther; Yarza, Pablo; Peñalver, Cindy; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso A; Antón, Josefa

    2014-09-01

    Bleaching of Oculina patagonica has been extensively studied in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, although no studies have been carried out in the Western basin. In 1996 Vibrio mediterranei was reported as the causative agent of bleaching in O. patagonica but it has not been related to bleached or healthy corals since 2003, suggesting that it was no longer involved in bleaching of O. patagonica. In an attempt to clarify the relationship between Vibrio spp., seawater temperature and coral diseases, as well as to investigate the putative differences between Eastern and Western Mediterranean basins, we have analysed the seasonal patterns of the culturable Vibrio spp. assemblages associated with healthy and diseased O. patagonica colonies. Two sampling points located in the Spanish Mediterranean coast were chosen for this study: Alicante Harbour and the Marine Reserve of Tabarca. A complex and dynamic assemblage of Vibrio spp. was present in O. patagonica along the whole year and under different environmental conditions and coral health status. While some Vibrio spp. were detected all year around in corals, the known pathogens V. mediteranei and V. coralliilyticus were only present in diseased specimens. The pathogenic potential of these bacteria was studied by experimental infection under laboratory conditions. Both vibrios caused diseased signs from 24?°C, being higher and faster at 28?°C. Unexpectedly, the co-inoculation of these two Vibrio species seemed to have a synergistic pathogenic effect over O. patagonica, as disease signs were readily observed at temperatures at which bleaching is not normally observed. PMID:24621525

  3. Isolation of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio splendidus from aquacultured carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus) larvae associated with mass mortalities.

    PubMed

    Gómez-León, J; Villamil, L; Lemos, M L; Novoa, B; Figueras, A

    2005-01-01

    Two episodes of mortality of cultured carpet shell clams (Ruditapes decussatus) associated with bacterial infections were recorded during 2001 and 2002 in a commercial hatchery located in Spain. Vibrio alginolyticus was isolated as the primary organism from moribund clam larvae that were obtained during the two separate events. Vibrio splendidus biovar II, in addition to V. alginolyticus, was isolated as a result of a mixed Vibrio infection from moribund clam larvae obtained from the second mortality event. The larval mortality rates for these events were 62 and 73%, respectively. Mortality was also detected in spat. To our knowledge, this is the fist time that these bacterial species have been associated with larval and juvenile carpet shell clam mortality. The bacterial strains were identified by morphological and biochemical techniques and also by PCR and sequencing of a conserved region of the 16S rRNA gene. In both cases bacteria isolated in pure culture were inoculated into spat of carpet shell clams by intravalvar injection and by immersion. The mortality was attributed to the inoculated strains, since the bacteria were obtained in pure culture from the soft tissues of experimentally infected clams. V. alginolyticus TA15 and V. splendidus biovar II strain TA2 caused similar histological lesions that affected mainly the mantle, the velum, and the connective tissue of infected organisms. The general enzymatic activity of both live cells and extracellular products (ECPs), as evaluated by the API ZYM system, revealed that whole bacterial cells showed greater enzymatic activity than ECPs and that the activity of most enzymes ceased after heat treatment (100 degrees C for 10 min). Both strain TA15 and strain TA2 produced hydroxamate siderophores, although the activity was greater in strain TA15. ECPs from both bacterial species at high concentrations, as well as viable bacteria, caused significant reductions in hemocyte survival after 4 h of incubation, whereas no significant differences in viability were observed during incubation with heat-killed bacteria. PMID:15640176

  4. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Recovered from Recreational and Commercial Areas of Chesapeake Bay and Maryland Coastal Bays

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Kristi S.; Rosenberg Goldstein, Rachel E.; He, Xin; Jacobs, John M.; Crump, Byron C.; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in the estuarine-marine environment are of human health significance and may be increasing in pathogenicity and abundance. Vibrio illness originating from dermal contact with Vibrio laden waters or through ingestion of seafood originating from such waters can cause deleterious health effects, particularly if the strains involved are resistant to clinically important antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility among these pathogens. Surface-water samples were collected from three sites of recreational and commercial importance from July to September 2009. Samples were plated onto species-specific media and resulting V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus strains were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction assays and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using the Sensititre® microbroth dilution system. Descriptive statistics, Friedman two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Vibrio vulnificus (n?=?120) and V. parahaemolyticus (n?=?77) were isolated from all sampling sites. Most isolates were susceptible to antibiotics recommended for treating Vibrio infections, although the majority of isolates expressed intermediate resistance to chloramphenicol (78% of V. vulnificus, 96% of V. parahaemolyticus). Vibrio parahaemolyticus also demonstrated resistance to penicillin (68%). Sampling location or month did not significantly impact V. parahaemolyticus resistance patterns, but V. vulnificus isolates from St. Martin's River had lower overall intermediate resistance than that of the other two sampling sites during the month of July (p?=?0.0166). Antibiotics recommended to treat adult Vibrio infections were effective in suppressing bacterial growth, while some antibiotics recommended for pediatric treatment were not effective against some of the recovered isolates. To our knowledge, these are the first antimicrobial susceptibility data of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus recovered from the Chesapeake Bay. These data can serve as a baseline against which future studies can be compared to evaluate whether susceptibilities change over time. PMID:24586914

  5. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Falero, G; Rodríguez, B L; Valmaseda, T; Pérez, M E; Pérez, J L; Fando, R; Robert, A; Campos, J; Silva, A; Sierra, G; Benítez, J A

    1998-02-01

    We have generated murine monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against Vibrio cholerae mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) using conventional hybridoma procedures. Seven hybridomas were obtained and one characterized. Hybridoma 2F12/F1 secreted an antibody of the IgG3 type that reacted with a 17-kDa antigen corresponding to the product of the mshA gene. This MAb inhibited mannose-sensitive agglutination of chicken erythrocytes by EL tor and O139 vibrios. Vibrios expressing MSHA activity inhibited binding of the antibody secreted by 2F12/F1 to MSHA-coated microtiter plates. PMID:9523239

  6. Detection and quantification of Vibrio populations using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Eiler, Alexander; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2006-11-01

    Bacteria affiliated with the genus Vibrio are endemic in marine and estuarine ecosystems and are also found in many freshwater environments. Vibrios can enter viable but non-culturable states and since many species are pathogenic, there is a great need for culture-independent methods that identify and quantify multiple Vibrio populations. We adopted Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA-directed primers and a competitive PCR protocol (QC-PCR; [Thompson, J.R., Randa, M.A., Marcelino, L.A., Tomita-Mitchell, A., Lim, E., Polz, M.F., 2004b. Diversity and dynamics of a North Atlantic coastal Vibrio community. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 4103-4110]) for separation and quantification of Vibrio populations using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Sixteen Vibrio isolates and eight environmental samples were used to assess the precision and resolution of the method. A 45-70% gradient of Urea and formamide enabled separation of Vibrio populations with single nucleotide differences in the amplified fragment. A titration curve for the QC-PCR-DGGE, verified by amending surface water bacterioplankton samples with up to 3 x 10(5)Vibrio cholerae cells, could be approximated by a linear regression of log-transformed values (R(2)=0.96). The limit of detection for single populations was 180 cells per extracted sample or about 4 cells per PCR reaction. Environmental samples from the southern Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea and the more saline coastal waters of Skagerrak each carried between 2 and 6 Vibrio populations, and there were major differences between the locations. Notably, multiple Vibrio populations could be detected and quantified against a background of native bacterioplankton exceeding Vibrio population abundance by more than 6 orders of magnitude. Putative identification based on migration in the DGGE gel was verified by parallel cloning and sequencing of PCR products, and representative clones were also characterized by DGGE. This general approach could also be useful for targeting other phylogenetically constrained bacterial groups and assess their abundance and distribution in complex environmental settings. PMID:16730823

  7. Extracellular proteolytic enzymes produced by human pathogenic vibrio species

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Vibrio produce extracellular proteolytic enzymes to obtain nutrients via digestion of various protein substrates. However, the enzymes secreted by human pathogenic species have been documented to modulate the bacterial virulence. Several species including Vibrio cholerae and V. vulnificus are known to produce thermolysin-like metalloproteases termed vibriolysin. The vibriolysin from V. vulnificus, a causative agent of serious systemic infection, is a major toxic factor eliciting the secondary skin damage characterized by formation of the hemorrhagic brae. The vibriolysin from intestinal pathogens may play indirect roles in pathogenicity because it can activate protein toxins and hemagglutinin by the limited proteolysis and can affect the bacterial attachment to or detachment from the intestinal surface by degradation of the mucus layer. Two species causing wound infections, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus, produce another metalloproteases so-called collagenases. Although the detailed pathological roles have not been studied, the collagenase is potent to accelerate the bacterial dissemination through digestion of the protein components of the extracellular matrix. Some species produce cymotrypsin-like serine proteases, which may also affect the bacterial virulence potential. The intestinal pathogens produce sufficient amounts of the metalloprotease at the small intestinal temperature; however, the metalloprotease production by extra-intestinal pathogens is much higher around the body surface temperature. On the other hand, the serine protease is expressed only in the absence of the metalloprotease. PMID:24302921

  8. Vibrio cholerae O139 Conjugate Vaccines: Synthesis and Immunogenicity of V. cholerae O139 Capsular Polysaccharide Conjugates with Recombinant Diphtheria Toxin Mutant in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kossaczka, Zuzana; Shiloach, Joseph; Johnson, Virginia; Taylor, David N.; Finkelstein, Richard A.; Robbins, John B.; Szu, Shousun C.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental data provide evidence that a critical level of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the surface polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 (lipopolysaccharide) and of Vibrio cholerae O139 (capsular polysaccharide [CPS]) is associated with immunity to the homologous pathogen. The immunogenicity of polysaccharides, especially in infants, may be enhanced by their covalent attachment to proteins (conjugates). Two synthetic schemes, involving 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) as activating agents, were adapted to prepare four conjugates of V. cholerae O139 CPS with the recombinant diphtheria toxin mutant, CRMH21G. Adipic acid dihydrazide was used as a linker. When injected subcutaneously into young outbred mice by a clinically relevant dose and schedule, these conjugates elicited serum CPS antibodies of the IgG and IgM classes with vibriocidal activity to strains of capsulated V. cholerae O139. Treatment of these sera with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) reduced, but did not eliminate, their vibriocidal activity. These results indicate that the conjugates elicited IgG with vibriocidal activity. Conjugates also elicited high levels of serum diphtheria toxin IgG. Convalescent sera from 20 cholera patients infected with V. cholerae O139 had vibriocidal titers ranging from 100 to 3,200: absorption with the CPS reduced the vibriocidal titer of all sera to ?50. Treatment with 2-ME reduced the titers of 17 of 20 patients to ?50. These data show that, like infection with V. cholerae O1, infection with V. cholerae O139 induces vibriocidal antibodies specific to the surface polysaccharide of this bacterium (CPS) that are mostly of IgM class. Based on these data, clinical trials with the V. cholerae O139 CPS conjugates with recombinant diphtheria toxin are planned. PMID:10948122

  9. LitR Is a Repressor of syp Genes and Has a Temperature-Sensitive Regulatory Effect on Biofilm Formation and Colony Morphology in Vibrio (Aliivibrio) salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Bjelland, Ane Mohn; Ronessen, Maria; Robertsen, Espen; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio (Aliivibrio) salmonicida is the etiological agent of cold water vibriosis, a disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that is kept under control due to an effective vaccine. A seawater temperature below 12°C is normally required for disease development. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-regulated communication system that bacteria use to coordinate activities involved in colonization and pathogenesis, and we have previously shown that inactivation of the QS master regulator LitR attenuates the V. salmonicida strain LFI1238 in a fish model. We show here that strain LFI1238 and a panel of naturally occurring V. salmonicida strains are poor biofilm producers. Inactivation of litR in the LFI1238 strain enhances medium- and temperature-dependent adhesion, rugose colony morphology, and biofilm formation. Chemical treatment and electron microscopy of the biofilm identified an extracellular matrix consisting mainly of a fibrous network, proteins, and polysaccharides. Further, by microarray analysis of planktonic and biofilm cells, we identified a number of genes regulated by LitR and, among these, were homologues of the Vibrio fischeri symbiosis polysaccharide (syp) genes. The syp genes were regulated by LitR in both planktonic and biofilm lifestyle analyses. Disruption of syp genes in the V. salmonicida ?litR mutant alleviated adhesion, rugose colony morphology, and biofilm formation. Hence, LitR is a repressor of syp transcription that is necessary for expression of the phenotypes examined. The regulatory effect of LitR on colony morphology and biofilm formation is temperature sensitive and weak or absent at temperatures above the bacterium's upper threshold for pathogenicity. PMID:24973072

  10. Characterization and PCR Detection Of Binary, Pir-Like Toxins from Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates that Cause Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) in Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Sirikharin, Ratchanok; Taengchaiyaphum, Suparat; Sanguanrut, Piyachat; Chi, Thanh Duong; Mavichak, Rapeepat; Proespraiwong, Porranee; Nuangsaeng, Bunlung; Thitamadee, Siripong; Flegel, Timothy W.; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2015-01-01

    Unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND) have previously been identified as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. AHPND is characterized by massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas (HP), proposed to be induced by soluble toxins released from VPAHPND that colonize the shrimp stomach. Since these toxins (produced in broth culture) have been reported to cause AHPND pathology in reverse gavage bioassays with shrimp, we used ammonium sulfate precipitation to prepare protein fractions from broth cultures of VPAHPND isolates for screening by reverse gavage assays. The dialyzed 60% ammonium sulfate fraction caused high mortality within 24–48 hours post-administration, and histological analysis of the moribund shrimp showed typical massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells characteristic of AHPND. Analysis of the active fraction by SDS-PAGE revealed two major bands at marker levels of approximately 16 kDa (ToxA) and 50 kDa (ToxB). Mass spectrometry analysis followed by MASCOT analysis revealed that both proteins had similarity to hypothetical proteins of V. parahaemolyticus M0605 (contig034 GenBank accession no. JALL01000066.1) and similarity to known binary insecticidal toxins called 'Photorhabdus insect related' proteins A and B (Pir-A and Pir-B), respectively, produced by the symbiotic, nematode bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. In in vivo tests, it was shown that recombinant ToxA and ToxB were both required in a dose dependent manner to cause AHPND pathology, indicating further similarity to Pir-A and -B. A single-step PCR method was designed for detection of the ToxA gene and was validated using 104 bacterial isolates consisting of 51 VPAHPND isolates, 34 non-AHPND VP isolates and 19 other isolates of bacteria commonly found in shrimp ponds (including other species of Vibrio and Photobacterium). The results showed 100% specificity and sensitivity for detection of VPAHPND isolates in the test set. PMID:26017673

  11. Electron Micrograph of the Meat Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus sake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Society For Microbiology

    2003-09-22

    This image is of the meat spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus sake. This strain was originally isolated from a vacuum-packaged meat product. To enhance its aesthetic appeal, the original black and white image was colored using Adobe Photoshop.

  12. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Jantinobacterium sp. KBS0711

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, William R.; Muscarella, Mario E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments.

  13. Trichloroethylene biodegradation by a methane-oxidizing bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Little; A. V. Palumbo; S. E. Herbes; M. E. Lidstrom; R. L. Tyndall; P. J. Gilmer

    1988-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common ground water contaminant, is a suspected carcinogen that is highly resistant to aerobic biodegradation. An aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacterium was isolated that degrades TCE in pure culture at concentrations commonly observed in contaminated ground water. Strain 46-1, a type I methanotrophic bacterium, degraded TCE if grown on methane or methanol, producing COâ and water-soluble products. Gas chromatography

  14. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phelps, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  15. Drug-sensitivity of El Tor vibrio strains isolated in the Philippines in 1964 and 1965*

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Shogo; Goto, Sachiko; Kimura, Masatake; Abe, Hisao

    1967-01-01

    About 1500 strains of El Tor vibrios, isolated in 1964 and 1965 in the Philippines, were examined for their susceptibilities to 17 drugs. All the strains tested were highly sensitive to dihydroxymethyl-furalazine, and most were highly sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, chloramphenicol and erythromycin, and moderately sensitive to novobiocin, dihydrostreptomycin sulfate, kanamycin and neomycin. They showed a remarkable fluctuation of sensitivity to ampicillin, cefaloridine, cefalotin and sulfafurazole, and a high resistance to benzylpenicillin sodium, oleandomycin and spiramycin. Experimental confirmation was provided of the fact that El Tor vibrios and non-agglutinable vibrios can be distinguished from classical cholera vibrios by their resistance to polymyxin B and colistin. Highly streptomycin-resistant strains, and to a lesser extent ampicillin- and sulfafurazole-resistant strains, were relatively often isolated from cholera patients who had been treated with antibiotics. One patient yielded a strain resistant to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and sulfafurazole. PMID:4870079

  16. H-NOXmediated nitric oxide sensing modulates symbiotic colonization by Vibrio fischeri

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    H-NOX­mediated nitric oxide sensing modulates symbiotic colonization by Vibrio fischeri Yanling | colonization Small molecules have important signaling functions in microbe­ microbe and microbe in the mutualistic symbiotic asso- ciationbetweentheHawa

  17. Constitutive Type VI Secretion System Expression Gives Vibrio cholerae Intra- and Interspecific Competitive Advantages

    E-print Network

    Unterweger, Daniel

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates protein translocation across the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae – the causative agent of cholera. All V. cholerae strains examined to date ...

  18. The Association of Virulent Vibrio Spp. Bacteria on Gafftopsail and Hardhead Catfish in Galveston Bay 

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Leslie Deanne

    2011-10-21

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) are gram negative, halophilic bacteria that occur naturally in estuarine waters of Galveston Bay. Both bacteria have the potential to cause infections in humans either ...

  19. Lysozyme gene expression by hemocytes of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after injection with Vibrio

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Louis E.

    Lysozyme gene expression by hemocytes of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after antibacterial protein produced by shrimp hemocytes, within tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in response rights reserved. Keywords: Litopenaeus vannamei; Shrimp; Hemocyte; Vibrio; Lysozyme; Gene expression

  20. RESPONSES OF OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) HEMOCYTES TO NONPATHOGENIC AND CLINICAL ISOLATES OF VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial uptake by oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and bactericidal activity of oyster hemocytes were studied using four environmental isolates and three clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Clinical isolates (2030, 2062, 2107) were obtained from gastroenteritis patien...

  1. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) DEFENSES ON CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF VIBRIO PARAHEMOLYTICUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three clinical (2030, 2062, and 2107) and three environmental (1094, 1163, and ATCC 17802) isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were exposed to hemocytes and plasma collected from oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to determine their susceptibility to putative oyster defenses. Clinic...

  2. INFLUENCE OF SEASONAL FACTORS ON OYSTER HEMOCYTE KILLING OF VIBRIO PARAHEMOLYTICUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation of cellular defenses of oyster Crassostrea virginica against Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined from June 1997 to December 1998 using a recently developed bactericidal assay that utilizes a tetrazolium dye. Mean hemocyte numbers, plasma lysozyme, and P. mari...

  3. Experimental Reservoirs of Human Pathogens: The Vibrio Cholerae Paradigm (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, Rita [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland

    2012-06-01

    Rita Colwell on "Experimental Reservoirs of Human Pathogens: The Vibrio cholerae paradigm" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  4. Local Mobile Gene Pools Rapidly Cross Species Boundaries To Create within Global Vibrio cholerae Populations

    E-print Network

    Boucher, Yan

    Vibrio cholerae represents both an environmental pathogen and a widely distributed microbial species comprised of closely related strains occurring in the tropical to temperate coastal ocean across the globe (Colwell RR, ...

  5. Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in-situ hybridization for identification of Vibrio spp. in aquatic products and environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Ke; Wu, Shan; Shuai, Jiangbing; Fang, Weihuan

    2015-08-01

    A peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) method was developed for specific detection of the Vibrio genus. In silico analysis by BLAST and ProbeCheck showed that the designed PNA probe targeting the 16S rRNAs was suitable for specific identification of Vibrio. Specificity and sensitivity of the probe Vib-16S-1 were experimentally verified by its reactivity against 18 strains of 9 Vibrio species and 14 non-Vibrio strains of 14 representative species. The PNA-FISH assay was able to identify 47 Vibrio positive samples from selectively enriched cultures of 510 samples of aquatic products and environments, comparable with the results obtained by biochemical identification and real-time PCR. We conclude that PNA-FISH can be an alternative method for rapid identification of Vibrio species in a broad spectrum of seafood or related samples. PMID:25955286

  6. Genome Sequence of Vibrio cholerae Strain O1 Ogawa El Tor, Isolated in Mexico, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Monroy, Irma; López-Martínez, Irma; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna; González-Durán, Elizabeth; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTX? and RS1?. PMID:25359919

  7. Random Amplified Polymorphic Dna-PCR Typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Local Cockles (Anadara granosa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesley Maurice Bilung; Son Radu; Abdul Rani Bahaman; Raha Abdul Rahim; Suhaimi Napis; Cheah Yoke Kqueen; Chandrika Murugaiah; Yousr Abdul Hadi; Tunung Robin; Mitsuaki Nishibuchi

    2005-01-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used in this study to examine the genetic relatedness among the Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains. In the analysis by RAPD-PCR, the size for RAPD fragments ranged from 0.25 to 10.0 kb with average number of ten bands. The RAPD profiles revealed a high level of DNA sequence diversity within the Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains tested. Hence,

  8. Presence of genes for type III secretion system 2 in Vibrio mimicus strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natsumi Okada; Shigeaki Matsuda; Junko Matsuyama; Kwon-Sam Park; Calvin de los Reyes; Kazuhiro Kogure; Takeshi Honda; Tetsuya Iida

    2010-01-01

    Background  Vibrios, which include more than 100 species, are ubiquitous in marine and estuarine environments, and several of them e.g.\\u000a Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. mimicus, are pathogens for humans. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains possess two sets of genes for type III secretion system (T3SS), T3SS1 and T3SS2. The latter are critical for virulence\\u000a of the organism and

  9. Complete Genome Sequence for the Shellfish Pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 Isolated from a Shellfish Hatchery

    PubMed Central

    Bono, James L.; Watson, Michael A.; Needleman, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp) and two megaplasmids (380,714 and 319,400 bp). PMID:25523764

  10. Dominant Bacterial Genera of a Tilapia Fish Farm and RAPD Typing of Vibrio Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuxia Lu; Robert E. Levin

    2008-01-01

    The predominant bacterial genera present in the fish tank water of a sustainable tilapia fish farm system were found to be Vibrio (39.7-69%), Aeromonas (16-21.6%), Pseudomanas (1.8-2.0%), and Shewanella (4.0-9.9%). Each of the 69 Vibrio isolates obtained on March 5, 2003 from tilapia fish tank water was subjected to RAPD-PCR analysis separately with three decamer primers PB1, PB4 and HLWL74.

  11. Genome Sequence of Vibrio cholerae Strain O1 Ogawa El Tor, Isolated in Mexico, 2013.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; López-Martínez, Irma; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna; González-Durán, Elizabeth; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTX? and RS1?. PMID:25359919

  12. The Association of Virulent Vibrio Spp. Bacteria on Gafftopsail and Hardhead Catfish in Galveston Bay

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Leslie Deanne

    2011-10-21

    THE ASSOCIATION OF VIRULENT VIBRIO SPP. BACTERIA ON GAFFTOPSAIL AND HARDHEAD CATFISH IN GALVESTON BAY A Thesis by LESLIE DEANNE GILBERT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Catfish in Galveston Bay Copyright 2010 Leslie Deanne Gilbert THE ASSOCIATION OF VIRULENT VIBRIO SPP. BACTERIA ON GAFFTOPSAIL AND HARDHEAD CATFISH IN GALVESTON BAY A Thesis by LESLIE DEANNE GILBERT Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

  13. Distribution of Vibrio alginolyticus-like species in Shenzhen coastal waters, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Xia; Li, He-Yang; Li, Gang; Zheng, Tian-Ling

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of vibrios in Shenzhen coastal waters in order to obtain valuable information for the aquaculture industry and a health warning system. Quantities of vibrios from surface waters ranged from 0 to 4.40×104 CFUs mL-1 in April (spring), while from 0 to 2.57×103 CFUs mL-1 in September (autumn); the abundance of V. alginolyticus-like species from surface water ranged from 0 to 6.72×103 CFUs mL-1 in April (spring) and from 0 to 1.28×103 CFUs mL-1 in September (autumn); higher counts were observed in spring. The V. alginolyticus-like species was dominant in Shenzhen coastal waters, with the highest abundance in the clean region (stations YMK001 and GDN064) in April, suggesting that Vibrio spp. were naturally occurring bacteria in marine environments. The correlation between the abundance of vibrios (including V. alginolyticus-like species) and environmental factors varied in different regions and different seasons. There were no vibrios detected when the salinity was less than 11.15‰ in the Zhujiang River estuary, which indicated that salinity played a key role in the distribution of vibrios and V. alginolyticus-like species. PMID:24031704

  14. Immunochemical studies on lipopolysaccharide from agglutinable and non-agglutinable vibrios.

    PubMed

    Guhathakurta, B; Dutta, G C

    1974-04-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prepared from Vibrio cholerae and a non-agglutinable (NAG; not agglutinable with O-group I serum according to Gardner and Venkatraman [13]) vibrio strain, isolated from a patient with cholera-like clinical symptoms, have been compared with respect to their chemical composition and immunological behavior. In addition to a significant difference in the chemical composition between the two lipopolysaccharides, the LPS from V. cholerae, unlike that from the NAG vibrio, requires prior treatment with alkali for it to be an effective antigen in the indirect hemagglutination test with sheep cells. It has been suggested that the alkali acts by removing excess O-acetyl group from LPS of agglutinable vibrios. LPS from the NAG vibrio consistently showed a lower antibody response in rabbits in terms of agglutinin and vibriocidal titer. Also, the class of agglutinin antibody elicited by LPS of the NAG vibrio was predominantly immunoglobin M, and that from V. cholerae was immunoglobulin G under comparable conditions. PMID:4207760

  15. Immunochemical Studies on Lipopolysaccharide from Agglutinable and Non-Agglutinable Vibrios

    PubMed Central

    Guhathakurta, Bhakti; Dutta, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prepared from Vibrio cholerae and a non-agglutinable (NAG; not agglutinable with O-group I serum according to Gardner and Venkatraman [13]) vibrio strain, isolated from a patient with cholera-like clinical symptoms, have been compared with respect to their chemical composition and immunological behavior. In addition to a significant difference in the chemical composition between the two lipopolysaccharides, the LPS from V. cholerae, unlike that from the NAG vibrio, requires prior treatment with alkali for it to be an effective antigen in the indirect hemagglutination test with sheep cells. It has been suggested that the alkali acts by removing excess O-acetyl group from LPS of agglutinable vibrios. LPS from the NAG vibrio consistently showed a lower antibody response in rabbits in terms of agglutinin and vibriocidal titer. Also, the class of agglutinin antibody elicited by LPS of the NAG vibrio was predominantly immunoglobin M, and that from V. cholerae was immunoglobulin G under comparable conditions. PMID:4207760

  16. Implications of Chitin Attachment for the Environmental Persistence and Clinical Nature of the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tiffany C.; Ayrapetyan, Mesrop

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus naturally inhabits a variety of aquatic organisms, including oysters, and is the leading cause of seafood-related death in the United States. Strains of this bacterium are genetically classified into environmental (E) and clinical (C) genotypes, which correlate with source of isolation. E-genotype strains integrate into marine aggregates more efficiently than do C-genotype strains, leading to a greater uptake of strains of this genotype by oysters feeding on these aggregates. The causes of this increased integration of E-type strains into marine “snow” have not been demonstrated. Here, we further investigate the physiological and genetic causalities for this genotypic heterogeneity by examining the ability of strains of each genotype to attach to chitin, a major constituent of marine snow. We found that E-genotype strains attach to chitin with significantly greater efficiency than do C-genotype strains when incubated at 20°C. Type IV pili were implicated in chitin adherence, and even in the absence of chitin, the expression level of type IV pilin genes (pilA, pilD, and mshA) was found to be inherently higher by E genotypes than by C genotypes. In contrast, the level of expression of N-acetylglucosamine binding protein A (gbpA) was significantly higher in C-genotype strains. Interestingly, incubation at a clinically relevant temperature (37°C) resulted in a significant increase in C-genotype attachment to chitin, which subsequently provided a protective effect against exposure to acid or bile, thus offering a clue into their increased incidence in human infections. This study suggests that C- and E-genotype strains have intrinsically divergent physiological programs, which may help explain the observed differences in the ecology and pathogenic potential between these two genotypes. PMID:24362430

  17. First Characterization of Bacterial Pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus, for Porites andrewsi White Syndrome in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Chaoqun, Hu; Zhixiong, Zhu; Shifeng, Wang; Yongcan, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Background White syndrome, a term for scleractinian coral disease with progressive tissue loss, is known to cause depressed growth and increased morality of coral reefs in the major oceans around the world, and the occurrence of this disease has been frequently reported in the past few decades. Investigations during April to September in both 2010 and 2011 identified widespread Poritesandrewsi White syndrome (PAWS) in Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea. However, the causes and etiology of PAWS have been unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings A transmission experiment was performed on P. andrewsi in the Qilianyu Subgroup (QLY). The results showed that there was a significant (P ? 0.05) difference between test and control groups after 28 days if the invalid replicates were excluded. Rates of tissue loss ranged from 0.90-10.76 cm2 d-1 with a mean of 5.40 ± 3.34 cm2 d-1 (mean ± SD). Bacterial strains were isolated from the PAWS corals at the disease outbreak sites in QLY of the Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea, and included in laboratory-based infection trials to satisfy Koch’s postulates for establishing causality. Following exposure to bacterial concentrations of 105 cells mL-1, the infected colonies exhibited similar signs to those observed in the field. Using phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene analysis, classical phenotypic trait comparison, Biolog automatic identification system, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and MALDI Biotyper method, two pathogenic strains were identified as Vibrioalginolyticus. Conclusion/Significance This is the first report of V. alginolyticus as a pathogenic agent of PAWS in the South China Sea. Our results point out an urgent need to develop sensitive detection methods for V. alginolyticus virulence strains and robust diagnostics for coral disease caused by this and Vibrio pathogenic bacterium in the South China Sea. PMID:24086529

  18. Persistence of Vibrio vulnificus in tissues of Gulf Coast oysters, Crassostrea virginica, exposed to seawater disinfected with UV light.

    PubMed Central

    Tamplin, M L; Capers, G M

    1992-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium which can cause opportunistic infections in humans consuming raw Gulf Coast oysters, Crassostrea virginica. Although V. vulnificus is known as a ubiquitous organism in the Gulf of Mexico, its ecological relationship with C. virginica has not been adequately defined. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that V. vulnificus is a persistent microbial flora of oysters and unamenable to traditional methods of controlled purification, such as UV light depuration. Experimental depuration systems consisted of aquaria containing temperature-controlled seawater treated with UV light and 0.2-microns-pore-size filtration. V. vulnificus was enumerated in seawater, oyster shell biofilms, homogenates of whole oyster meats, and tissues including the hemolymph, digestive region, gills, mantle, and adductor muscle. Results showed that depuration systems conducted at temperatures greater than 23 degrees C caused V. vulnificus counts to increase in oysters, especially in the hemolymph, adductor muscle, and mantle. Throughout the process, depuration water contained high concentrations of V. vulnificus, indicating that the disinfection properties of UV radiation and 0.2-microns-pore-size filtration were less than the rate at which V. vulnificus was released into seawater. Approximately 10(5) to 10(6) V. vulnificus organisms were released from each oyster per hour, with 0.05 to 35% originating from shell surfaces. These surfaces contained greater than 10(3) V. vulnificus organisms per cm2. In contrast, when depuration seawater was maintained at 15 degrees C, V. vulnificus was not detected in seawater and multiplication in oyster tissues was inhibited. PMID:1622218

  19. Quorum sensing-dependent metalloprotease VvpE is important in the virulence of Vibrio vulnificus to invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ha, Changwan; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Lee, Mi-Nan; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a Gram-negative bacterium, is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for fatal septicemia caused by contaminated sea foods in eastern Asia. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-density dependent gene regulation mechanism that controls the expression of many virulence genes in various bacteria and V. vulnificus has been also suggested to express their virulence genes through the QS system. In this study, we investigated the role of QS system and QS-regulated exoproteases in the virulence of V. vulnificus using several invertebrate host models, Tenebrio molitor, an insect, Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode, and brine shrimp (Artemia), an aquatic crustacean. When the culture supernatant of smcR (major QS regulator of V. vulnificus) mutant was injected to T. molitor larvae, it failed to induce the melanization of T. molitor larvae, while the culture supernatant of luxO (upstream negative regulator of smcR) mutant more strongly induced the melanization than wild type. These results demonstrated that QS system of V. vulnificus is crucial for virulence to T. molitor larvae. Among several QS-dependently expressed exoproteases of V. vulnificus, vvpE encoding a metalloprotease was mainly responsible for the melanization of T. molitor larvae, in that the culture supernatant of vvpE mutant failed to induce the melanization. This result was confirmed using the C. elegans and Artemia salina model systems, in which the vvpE mutant strains were attenuated in killing C. elegans and A. salina, compared with wild type, indicating that VvpE is important in the infection of V. vulnificus. In conclusion, we suggest that QS system and a QS-dependent exoprotease, VvpE are crucial for the V. vulnificus virulence to invertebrates. PMID:24769338

  20. Genetic Relationships of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates from Clinical, Human Carrier, and Environmental Sources in Thailand, Determined by Multilocus Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Theethakaew, Chonchanok; Feil, Edward J.; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; Aanensen, David M.; Suthienkul, Orasa; Neil, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a seafood-borne pathogenic bacterium that is a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. We investigated the genetic and evolutionary relationships of 101 V. parahaemolyticus isolates originating from clinical, human carrier, and various environmental and seafood production sources in Thailand using multilocus sequence analysis. The isolates were recovered from clinical samples (n = 15), healthy human carriers (n = 18), various types of fresh seafood (n = 18), frozen shrimp (n = 16), fresh-farmed shrimp tissue (n = 18), and shrimp farm water (n = 16). Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high degree of genetic diversity within the V. parahaemolyticus population, although isolates recovered from clinical samples and from farmed shrimp and water samples represented distinct clusters. The tight clustering of the clinical isolates suggests that disease-causing isolates are not a random sample of the environmental reservoir, although the source of infection remains unclear. Extensive serotypic diversity occurred among isolates representing the same sequence types and recovered from the same source at the same time. These findings suggest that the O- and K-antigen-encoding loci are subject to exceptionally high rates of recombination. There was also strong evidence of interspecies horizontal gene transfer and intragenic recombination involving the recA locus in a large proportion of isolates. As the majority of the intragenic recombinational exchanges involving recA occurred among clinical and carrier isolates, it is possible that the human intestinal tract serves as a potential reservoir of donor and recipient strains that is promoting horizontal DNA transfer, driving evolutionary change, and leading to the emergence of new, potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:23377932

  1. Use of gnotobiotic zebrafish to study Vibrio anguillarum pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Oyarbide, Usua; Iturria, Iñaki; Rainieri, Sandra; Pardo, Miguel Angel

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the use of the gnotobiotic zebrafish system to study the effects of bacterial infection, and analyzed expression of genes involved in zebrafish innate immunity. Using a GFP-labeled strain of Vibrio anguillarum, we fluorescently monitored colonization of the zebrafish intestinal tract and used gene expression analysis to compare changes in genes involved in innate immunity between nongnotobiotic and gnotobiotic larvae. The experiments performed with the gnotobiotic zebrafish reveal new insights into V. anguillarum pathogenesis. Specifically, an alteration of the host immune system was detected through the suppression of a number of innate immune genes (NFKB, IL1B, TLR4, MPX, and TRF) during the first 3 h post infection. This immunomodulation can be indicative of a "stealth mechanism" of mucus invasion in which the pathogen found a sheltered niche, a typical trait of intracellular pathogens. PMID:25548877

  2. Global surveillance of antibiotic sensitivity of Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    O'Grady, F.; Lewis, M. J.; Pearson, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    Strains of Vibrio cholerae—1156 from various parts of the world—were examined by standardized antibiotic sensitivity tests in one centre, to determine the global incidence of antibiotic resistance in this organism and to assess the extent to which differences in methods of sensitivity testing might be responsible for discrepancies in the reported incidence of resistant strains. Of the strains examined, 1127 were fully sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, furazolidone, and three different sulphonamides, 27 showed stable and reproducible resistance to one or more of these agents, and 2 proved to contain a minority of cells with unstable, presumably plasmid-borne, resistance to chloram-phenicol. Unstable resistance to antibiotics may be common in V. cholerae but rarely recognized, and may account for some of the discrepancies in the reported incidence of resistant strains. PMID:1088100

  3. Studies on the haemolytic activity of El Tor vibrios*

    PubMed Central

    Feeley, John. C.; Pittman, Margaret

    1963-01-01

    In view of reports of inconsistent results with the haemolytic test for identification of the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae, a study was made of the experimental variables involved in order to achieve more precise standardization of the procedure. It was found that different types of media and different incubation times of a culture in a particular medium exerted a profound influence on the results. The authors describe the materials and conditions for performance of a reliable haemolytic test, and consider that, when properly performed, the haemolytic test should be a valuable epidemiological tool. The persistence of haemolysin in cultures of strains from the El Tor Quarantine Station during incubation is in contrast to its early disappearance in cultures of more recent isolates. Evidence is presented that the haemolytic activity of a strain may become altered during subculture, since rugose variants of recent strains resemble the old El Tor strains in haemolysin persistence. PMID:13944689

  4. Chitin-Induced Carbotype Conversion in Vibrio vulnificus?†

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, Jana; Guo, Yunzhi; Rowe-Magnus, Dean A.

    2011-01-01

    As an etiological agent of bacterial sepsis and wound infections, Vibrio vulnificus is unique among the Vibrionaceae. The most intensely studied of its virulence factors is the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Over 100 CPS types have been identified, yet little is known about the genetic mechanisms that drive such diversity. Chitin, the second-most-abundant polysaccharide in nature, is known to induce competence in Vibrio species. Here, we show that the frequency of chitin-induced transformation in V. vulnificus varies by strain and that (GlcNAc)2 is the shortest chitin-derived polymer capable of inducing competence. Transformation frequencies (TFs) increased 8-fold when mixed-culture biofilms were exposed to a strain-specific lytic phage, suggesting that the lysis of dead cells during lytic infection increased the amount of extracellular DNA within the biofilm that was available for transfer. Furthermore, we show that V. vulnificus can undergo chitin-dependent carbotype conversion following the uptake and recombination of complete cps loci from exogenous genomic DNA (gDNA). The acquisition of a partial locus was also demonstrated when internal regions of homology between the endogenous and exogenous loci existed. This suggested that the same mechanism governing the transfer of complete cps loci also contributed to their evolution by generating novel combinations of CPS biosynthesis genes. Since no evidence that cps loci were preferentially acquired during natural transformation (random transposon-tagged DNA was readily taken up in chitin transformation assays) exists, the phenomenon of chitin-induced transformation likely plays an important but general role in the evolution of this genetically promiscuous genus. PMID:21670169

  5. Chitin-induced carbotype conversion in Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Neiman, Jana; Guo, Yunzhi; Rowe-Magnus, Dean A

    2011-08-01

    As an etiological agent of bacterial sepsis and wound infections, Vibrio vulnificus is unique among the Vibrionaceae. The most intensely studied of its virulence factors is the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Over 100 CPS types have been identified, yet little is known about the genetic mechanisms that drive such diversity. Chitin, the second-most-abundant polysaccharide in nature, is known to induce competence in Vibrio species. Here, we show that the frequency of chitin-induced transformation in V. vulnificus varies by strain and that (GlcNAc)(2) is the shortest chitin-derived polymer capable of inducing competence. Transformation frequencies (TFs) increased 8-fold when mixed-culture biofilms were exposed to a strain-specific lytic phage, suggesting that the lysis of dead cells during lytic infection increased the amount of extracellular DNA within the biofilm that was available for transfer. Furthermore, we show that V. vulnificus can undergo chitin-dependent carbotype conversion following the uptake and recombination of complete cps loci from exogenous genomic DNA (gDNA). The acquisition of a partial locus was also demonstrated when internal regions of homology between the endogenous and exogenous loci existed. This suggested that the same mechanism governing the transfer of complete cps loci also contributed to their evolution by generating novel combinations of CPS biosynthesis genes. Since no evidence that cps loci were preferentially acquired during natural transformation (random transposon-tagged DNA was readily taken up in chitin transformation assays) exists, the phenomenon of chitin-induced transformation likely plays an important but general role in the evolution of this genetically promiscuous genus. PMID:21670169

  6. Molecular cloning, expression and properties of an alpha/beta-Galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase from Vibrio sp. JT-FAJ-16.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2007-09-01

    We cloned, expressed and characterized a novel alpha/beta-galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase from Vibrio sp. bacterium JT-FAJ-16. Using a alpha2,3-sialyltransferase gene from a marine bacterium as a probe, a DNA sequence encoding a 402-amino-acid protein was identified from the JT-FAJ-16 genomic library. The protein showed 27.3-64.7% identity to the bacterial sialyltransferases classified into glycosyltransferase family 80. The protein showed sialyltransferase activity when expressed in Escherichia coli. The N-terminal truncated form of the enzyme was amplified in E. coli and its recovered activity was 215.7 unit/l culture medium. It was purified as a single band on SDS-PAGE through the three chromatographic steps. The specific activity of the purified recombinant enzyme reached 57.5 unit/mg protein. The alpha2,3sialylation was confirmed by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analyses of the reaction products. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 5.5 and at 20 degrees C. Interestingly, the enzyme used both the alpha- and beta-anomers of galactosides as acceptors, suggesting that it can be described as an alpha/beta-galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase. The enzyme had a wide range of acceptor substrate specificities. It transferred N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) to various monosaccharides and various oligosaccharides, and both N-linked and O-linked asialo-glycoprotein. These results suggest that the enzyme can be used as a powerful tool for the study for glycotechnology. PMID:17673486

  7. Association of a d-Alanyl-d-Alanine Carboxypeptidase Gene with the Formation of Aberrantly Shaped Cells during the Induction of Viable but Nonculturable Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wei-cheng; Jane, Wann-Neng

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic Gram-negative bacterium that causes human gastroenteritis. When the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of this bacterium was induced by incubation at 4°C in Morita minimal salt solution containing 0.5% NaCl, the rod-shaped cells became coccoid, and various aberrantly shaped intermediates were formed in the initial stage. This study examined the factors that influence the formation of these aberrantly shaped cells. The proportion of aberrantly shaped cells was not affected in a medium containing d-cycloserine (50 ?g/ml) but was lower in a medium containing cephalosporin C (10 ?g/ml) than in the control medium without antibiotics. The proportion of aberrantly shaped cells was higher in a culture medium that contained 0.5% NaCl than in culture media containing 1.0 or 1.5% NaCl. The expression of 15 of 17 selected genes associated with cell wall synthesis was enhanced, and the expression of VP2468 (dacB), which encodes d-alanyl-d-alanine carboxypeptidase, was enhanced the most. The proportion of aberrantly shaped cells was significantly lower in the dacB mutant strain than in the parent strain, but the proportion was restored in the presence of the complementary dacB gene. This study suggests that disturbance of the dynamics of cell wall synthesis by enhanced expression of the VP2468 gene is associated with the formation of aberrantly shaped cells in the initial stage of induction of VBNC V. parahaemolyticus cells under specific conditions. PMID:24056454

  8. Distinct Roles of the Repeat-Containing Regions and Effector Domains of the Vibrio vulnificus Multifunctional-Autoprocessing Repeats-in-Toxin (MARTX) Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung Sik; Gavin, Hannah E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio vulnificus is a seafood-borne pathogen that destroys the intestinal epithelium, leading to rapid bacterial dissemination and death. The most important virulence factor is the multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin comprised of effector domains in the center region flanked by long repeat-containing regions which are well conserved among MARTX toxins and predicted to translocate effector domains. Here, we examined the role of the repeat-containing regions using a modified V. vulnificus MARTX (MARTXVv) toxin generated by replacing all the internal effector domains with ?-lactamase (Bla). Bla activity was detected in secretions from the bacterium and also in the cytosol of intoxicated epithelial cells. The modified MARTXVv toxin without effector domains retained its necrotic activity but lost its cell-rounding activity. Further, deletion of the carboxyl-terminal repeat-containing region blocked toxin secretion from the bacterium. Deletion of the amino-terminal repeat-containing region had no effect on secretion but completely abolished translocation and necrosis. Neither secretion nor translocation was affected by enzymatically inactivating the cysteine protease domain of the toxin. These data demonstrate that the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal repeat-containing regions of the MARTXVv toxin are necessary and sufficient for the delivery of effector domains and epithelial cell lysis in vitro but that effector domains are required for other cytopathic functions. Furthermore, Ca2+-dependent secretion of the modified MARTXVv toxin suggests that nonclassical RTX-like repeats found in the carboxyl-terminal repeat-containing region are functionally similar to classical RTX repeats found in other RTX proteins. PMID:25827415

  9. Enzymatic, outer membrane proteins and plasmid alterations of starved Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus cells in seawater.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Fethi Ben; Kallel, Héla; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2009-06-01

    The marine bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus were incubated in seawater for 8 months to evaluate their adaptative responses to starvation. The starved cells showed an altered biochemical and enzymatic profiles, respectively, on Api 20E and Api ZYM systems and an evolution to the filterable minicells state capable to pass membrane pore size 0.45 microm. Outer membrane proteins patterns of stressed bacteria were also altered. Indeed, these modifications were manifested by the appearance and/or disappearance of bands as well as in the level of expression of certain proteins. Plasmids profiles analysis showed that V. alginolyticus ATCC 33787 lost three plasmids, whereas other tested strains conserved their initial profiles. PMID:19373459

  10. Hydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Nirakar; Dipasquale, Laura; d’Ippolito, Giuliana; Panico, Antonio; Lens, Piet N. L.; Esposito, Giovanni; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    As the only fuel that is not chemically bound to carbon, hydrogen has gained interest as an energy carrier to face the current environmental issues of greenhouse gas emissions and to substitute the depleting non-renewable reserves. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the number of publications about the bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana that is responsible for production yields of H2 that are among the highest achievements reported in the literature. Here we present an extensive overview of the most recent studies on this hyperthermophilic bacterium together with a critical discussion of the potential of fermentative production by this bacterium. The review article is organized into sections focused on biochemical, microbiological and technical issues, including the effect of substrate, reactor type, gas sparging, temperature, pH, hydraulic retention time and organic loading parameters on rate and yield of gas production. PMID:26053393

  11. A variant of the interleukin-1beta gene in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., is associated with increased resistance against Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, D A; Kabanov, F V; Troepolskaya, O D; Tischenko, M M

    2010-09-01

    Vibriosis caused by the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum leads to serious losses in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Because of its pleiotropic activity in controlling immune and inflammatory responses against various pathogens, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is an attractive candidate for resistance to bacterial vibriosis. Four polymorphisms c.76 + 52C>T, c.76 + 157A>G, c.76 + 215A>and c76 + 310A>G of IL1B were genotyped in progeny of four families of wild sea bass captured in geographically distinct regions of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov and challenged with V. anguillarum. In the transmission disequilibrium test, the TGGG haplotype of IL1B showed significant overtransmission from parents to surviving progeny, thereby suggesting an association with higher resistance to V. anguillarum infection (Odds Ratio 0.38, P < 10(-7)). Using a luciferase reporter assay, we found a 1.4-fold increase in transcription activity of the protective IL1B TGGG variant compared to the susceptible CAAA variant of IL1B. The higher transcriptional activity of IL1B TGGG may arise from the functional effects of c.76 + 157A>G and c.76 + 215A>G polymorphisms disrupting potential binding sites for glucocorticoid receptor and YY1, both are negative transcription regulators. PMID:20690960

  12. Early steps in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)-Vibrio vulnificus interaction in the gills: role of the RtxA13 toxin.

    PubMed

    Callol, Agnès; Pajuelo, David; Ebbesson, Lars; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon; Amaro, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an aquatic gram-negative bacterium that causes a systemic disease in eels called warm-water vibriosis. Natural disease occurs via water born infection; bacteria attach to the gills (the main portal of entry) and spread to the internal organs through the bloodstream, provoking host death by haemorrhagic septicaemia. V. vulnificus produces a toxin called RtxA13 that hypothetically interferes with the eel immune system facilitating bacterial invasion and subsequent death by septic shock. The aim of this work was to study the early steps of warm-water vibriosis by analysing the expression of three marker mRNA transcripts related to pathogen recognition (tlr2 and tlr5) and inflammation (il-8) in the gills of eels infected by immersion with either the pathogen or a mutant deficient in rtxA13. Results indicate a differential response that is linked to the rtx toxin in the expression levels of the three measured mRNA transcripts. The results suggest that eels are able to distinguish innocuous from harmful microorganisms by the local action of their toxins rather than by surface antigens. Finally, the cells that express these transcripts in the gills are migratory cells primarily located in the second lamellae that re-locate during infection suggesting the activation of a specific immune response to pathogen invasion in the gill. PMID:25613341

  13. A dual-color flow cytometry protocol for the simultaneous detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella typhimurium using aptamer conjugated quantum dots as labels.

    PubMed

    Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Yu, Ye; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Xia, Yu; Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Yukun; Wang, Zhouping

    2013-12-01

    A sensitive, specific method for the collection and detection of pathogenic bacteria was demonstrated using quantum dots (QDs) as a fluorescence marker coupled with aptamers as the molecular recognition element by flow cytometry. The aptamer sequences were selected using a bacterium-based SELEX strategy in our laboratory for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella typhimurium that, when applied in this method, allows for the specific recognition of the bacteria from complex mixtures including shrimp samples. Aptamer-modified QDs (QD-apt) were employed to selectively capture and simultaneously detect the target bacteria with high sensitivity using the fluorescence of the labeled QDs. The signal intensity is amplified due to the high photostability of QDs nanoparticles, resulting in improved sensitivity over methods using individual dye-labeled probes. This proposed method is promising for the sensitive detection of other pathogenic bacteria in food stuff if suitable aptamers are chosen. The method may also provide another potential platform for the application of aptamer-conjugated QDs in flow cytometry. PMID:24267076

  14. Vibrio vulnificus VvpE inhibits mucin 2 expression by hypermethylation via lipid raft-mediated ROS signaling in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-J; Jung, Y H; Oh, S Y; Jang, K K; Lee, H S; Choi, S H; Han, H J

    2015-01-01

    Mucin is an important physical barrier against enteric pathogens. VvpE is an elastase encoded by Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus; however, the functional role of VvpE in intestinal mucin (Muc) production is yet to be elucidated. The recombinant protein (r) VvpE significantly reduced the level of Muc2 in human mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells. The repression of Muc2 induced by rVvpE was highly susceptible to the knockdown of intelectin-1b (ITLN) and sequestration of cholesterol by methyl-?-cyclodextrin. We found that rVvpE induces the recruitment of NADPH oxidase 2 and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 into the membrane lipid rafts coupled with ITLN to facilitate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The bacterial signaling of rVvpE through ROS production is uniquely mediated by the phosphorylation of ERK, which was downregulated by the silencing of the PKC?. Moreover, rVvpE induced region-specific methylation in the Muc2 promoter to promote the transcriptional repression of Muc2. In two mouse models of V. vulnificus infection, the mutation of the vvpE gene from V. vulnificus exhibited an increased survival rate and maintained the level of Muc2 expression in intestine. These results demonstrate that VvpE inhibits Muc2 expression by hypermethylation via lipid raft-mediated ROS signaling in the intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:26086960

  15. A Conserved Pattern of Primer-Dependent Transcription Initiation in Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae Revealed by 5? RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Skalenko, Kyle S.; Goldman, Seth R.; Knoblauch, Jared G.; Dove, Simon L.; Nickels, Bryce E.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription initiation that involves the use of a 2- to ~4-nt oligoribonucleotide primer, “primer-dependent initiation,” (PDI) has been shown to be widely prevalent at promoters of genes expressed during the stationary phase of growth in Escherichia coli. However, the extent to which PDI impacts E. coli physiology, and the extent to which PDI occurs in other bacteria is not known. Here we establish a physiological role for PDI in E. coli as a regulatory mechanism that modulates biofilm formation. We further demonstrate using high-throughput sequencing of RNA 5? ends (5? RNA-seq) that PDI occurs in the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. A comparative global analysis of PDI in V. cholerae and E. coli reveals that the pattern of PDI is strikingly similar in the two organisms. In particular, PDI is detected in stationary phase, is not detected in exponential phase, and is preferentially apparent at promoters carrying the sequence T?1A+1 or G?1G+1 (where position +1 corresponds to the position of de novo initiation). Our findings demonstrate a physiological role for PDI and suggest PDI may be widespread among Gammaproteobacteria. We propose that PDI in both E. coli and V. cholerae occurs though a growth phase-dependent process that leads to the preferential generation of the linear dinucleotides 5´-UA-3´ and 5´-GG-3´. PMID:26131907

  16. Vibrio cholerae persisted in microcosm for 700 days inhibits motility but promotes biofilm formation in nutrient-poor lake water microcosms.

    PubMed

    Jubair, Mohammad; Atanasova, Kalina R; Rahman, Mustafizur; Klose, Karl E; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar

    2014-01-01

    Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, ubiquitous in aquatic environments, is responsible for cholera; humans can become infected after consuming food and/or water contaminated with the bacterium. The underlying basis of persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment remains poorly understood despite decades of research. We recently described a "persister" phenotype of V. cholerae that survived in nutrient-poor "filter sterilized" lake water (FSLW) in excess of 700-days. Previous reports suggest that microorganisms can assume a growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype in response to long-term survival during stationary phase of growth. Here we report a V. cholerae GASP phenotype (GASP-700D) that appeared to result from 700 day-old persister cells stored in glycerol broth at -80°C. The GASP-700D, compared to its wild-type N16961, was defective in motility, produced increased biofilm that was independent of vps (p<0.005) and resistant to oxidative stress when grown specifically in FSLW (p<0.005). We propose that V. cholerae GASP-700D represents cell populations that may better fit and adapt to stressful survival conditions while serving as a critical link in the cycle of cholera transmission. PMID:24667909

  17. Chitin disaccharide (GlcNAc)2 induces natural competence in Vibrio cholerae through transcriptional and translational activation of a positive regulatory gene tfoXVC.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shouji; Morita, Masatomo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Watanabe, Haruo

    2010-06-01

    A pathogenic marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae shows natural competence for genetic transformation in the presence of chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). In this study, we extensively analyzed the regulatory mechanisms of tfoX(VC), encoding an activator protein for the chitin-induced competence. Using a chromosomal tfoX(VC)-lacZ reporter system, we showed that a disaccharide of chitin, (GlcNAc)(2), at least was needed to activate both the transcription and translation of tfoX(VC). This activation was moderate at the transcriptional level but was strong at the translational level. We also identified two sequence elements, one for transcription and another for translation. The transcriptional control element (TCE) included a 34-bp potential transcriptional operator overlapped by the tfoX(VC) promoter, while the translational control element (TLE) consisted of a 42-bp sequence located within the 5'-untranslated region. Deletion of either TCE or TLE still resulted in (GlcNAc)(2)-dependent competence for exogenous DNA. However, the deletion in both elements induced competence for transformation at high efficiency regardless of the presence or absence of (GlcNAc)(2). These results suggested the dual activation of tfoX(VC) expression to be essential to induce competence. The highly transformable strain created here should aid the study of natural competence in V. cholerae. PMID:20302923

  18. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of natural plant-derived compounds against Vibrio cholerae of O1 El Tor Inaba serotype.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Ip; Kim, Ji-Ae; Choi, Eun-Jin; Harris, Jason B; Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Son, Seok-Jun; Kim, Younghoon; Shin, Ok Sarah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated antibacterial activities of 20 plant-derived natural compounds against Gram-negative enteric pathogens. We found that both flavonoids and non-flavonoids, including honokiol and magnolol, possess specific antibacterial activities against V. cholerae, but not against other species of Gram-negative bacterium which we tested. Using various antibacterial assays, we determined that there was a dose-dependent bactericidal and biofilm inhibitory activity of honokiol and magnolol against Vibrio cholerae. In addition to antibacterial activities, these molecules also induced an attenuating effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and pro-inflammatory responses generated by macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Additionally, Caenorhabditis elegans lethality assay revealed that honokiol and magnolol have an ability to extend a lifespan of V. cholerae-infected worms, contributing to prolonged survival of worms after lethal infection. Altogether, our data show for the first time that honokiol and magnolol may be considered as attractive protective or preventive food adjuncts for cholera. PMID:25516242

  19. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing concern that desiccation and extreme radiation-resistant, non-spore-forming microorganisms associated with spacecraft surfaces can withstand space environmental conditions and subsequent proliferation on another solar body. Such forward contamination would jeopardize future life detection or sample return technologies. The prime focus of NASA s planetary protection efforts is the development of strategies for inactivating resistance-bearing microorganisms. Eradification techniques can be designed to target resistance-conferring microbial populations by first identifying and understanding their physiologic and biochemical capabilities that confers its elevated tolerance (as is being studied in Deinococcus phoenicis, as a result of this description). Furthermore, hospitals, food, and government agencies frequently use biological indicators to ensure the efficacy of a wide range of radiation- based sterilization processes. Due to their resistance to a variety of perturbations, the non-spore forming D. phoenicis may be a more appropriate biological indicator than those currently in use. The high flux of cosmic rays during space travel and onto the unshielded surface of Mars poses a significant hazard to the survival of microbial life. Thus, radiation-resistant microorganisms are of particular concern that can survive extreme radiation, desiccation, and low temperatures experienced during space travel. Spore-forming bacteria, a common inhabitant of spacecraft assembly facilities, are known to tolerate these extreme conditions. Since the Viking era, spores have been utilized to assess the degree and level of microbiological contamination on spacecraft and their associated spacecraft assembly facilities. Members of the non-spore-forming bacterial community such as Deinococcus radiodurans can survive acute exposures to ionizing radiation (5 kGy), ultraviolet light (1 kJ/sq m), and desiccation (years). These resistive phenotypes of Deinococcus enhance the potential for transfer, and subsequent proliferation, on another solar body such as Mars and Europa. These organisms are more likely to escape planetary protection assays, which only take into account presence of spores. Hence, presences of extreme radiation-resistant Deinococcus in the cleanroom facility where spacecraft are assembled pose a serious risk for integrity of life-detection missions. The microorganism described herein was isolated from the surfaces of the cleanroom facility in which the Phoenix Lander was assembled. The isolated bacterial strain was subjected to a comprehensive polyphasic analysis to characterize its taxonomic position. This bacterium exhibits very low 16SrRNA similarity with any other environmental isolate reported to date. Both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate that this isolate belongs to the genus Deinococcus and represents a novel species. The name Deinococcus phoenicis was proposed after the Phoenix spacecraft, which was undergoing assembly, testing, and launch operations in the spacecraft assembly facility at the time of isolation. D. phoenicis cells exhibited higher resistance to ionizing radiation (cobalt-60; 14 kGy) than the cells of the D. radiodurans (5 kGy). Thus, it is in the best interest of NASA to thoroughly characterize this organism, which will further assess in determining the potential for forward contamination. Upon the completion of genetic and physiological characteristics of D. phoenicis, it will be added to a planetary protection database to be able to further model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  20. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing concern that desiccation and extreme radiation-resistant, non-spore-forming microorganisms associated with spacecraft surfaces can withstand space environmental conditions and subsequent proliferation on another solar body. Such forward contamination would jeopardize future life detection or sample return technologies. The prime focus of NASA s planetary protection efforts is the development of strategies for inactivating resistance-bearing micro-organisms. Eradi cation techniques can be designed to target resistance-conferring microbial populations by first identifying and understanding their physiologic and biochemical capabilities that confers its elevated tolerance (as is being studied in Deinococcus phoenicis, as a result of this description). Furthermore, hospitals, food, and government agencies frequently use biological indicators to ensure the efficacy of a wide range of radiation-based sterilization processes. Due to their resistance to a variety of perturbations, the nonspore forming D. phoenicis may be a more appropriate biological indicator than those currently in use. The high flux of cosmic rays during space travel and onto the unshielded surface of Mars poses a significant hazard to the survival of microbial life. Thus, radiation-resistant microorganisms are of particular concern that can survive extreme radiation, desiccation, and low temperatures experienced during space travel. Spore-forming bacteria, a common inhabitant of spacecraft assembly facilities, are known to tolerate these extreme conditions. Since the Viking era, spores have been utilized to assess the degree and level of microbiological contamination on spacecraft and their associated spacecraft assembly facilities. Members of the non-sporeforming bacterial community such as Deinococcus radiodurans can survive acute exposures to ionizing radiation (5 kGy), ultraviolet light (1 kJ/m2), and desiccation (years). These resistive phenotypes of Deinococcus enhance the potential for transfer, and subsequent proliferation, on another solar body such as Mars and Europa. These organisms are more likely to escape planetary protection assays, which only take into account presence of spores. Hence, presences of extreme radiation-resistant Deinococcus in the cleanroom facility where spacecraft are assembled pose a serious risk for integrity of life-detection missions. The microorganism described herein was isolated from the surfaces of the cleanroom facility in which the Phoenix Lander was assembled. The isolated bacterial strain was subjected to a comprehensive polyphasic analysis to characterize its taxonomic position. This bacterium exhibits very low 16SrRNA similarity with any other environmental isolate reported to date. Both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate that this isolate belongs to the genus Deinococcus and represents a novel species. The name Deinococcus phoenicis was proposed after the Phoenix spacecraft, which was undergoing assembly, testing, and launch operations in the spacecraft assembly facility at the time of isolation. D. phoenicis cells exhibited higher resistance to ionizing radiation (cobalt-60; 14 kGy) than the cells of the D. radiodurans (5 kGy). Thus, it is in the best interest of NASA to thoroughly characterize this organism, which will further assess in determining the potential for forward contamination. Upon the completion of genetic and physiological characteristics of D. phoenicis, it will be added to a planetary protection database to be able to further model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Environmental Vibrio cholerae 2012EL-1759 with Similarities to the V. cholerae O1 Classical Biotype.

    PubMed

    Katz, Lee S; Turnsek, Maryann; Kahler, Amy; Hill, Vincent R; Boyd, E Fidelma; Tarr, Cheryl L

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae 2012EL-1759 is an environmental isolate from Haiti that was recovered in 2012 during a cholera outbreak. The genomic backbone is similar to that of the prototypical V. cholerae O1 classical biotype strain O395, and it carries the Vibrio pathogenicity islands (VPI-1 and VPI-2) and a cholera toxin (CTX) prephage. PMID:25013135

  2. An annotated cDNA library of juvenile Euprymna scolopes with and without colonization by the symbiont Vibrio fischeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlene K Chun; Todd E Scheetz; Maria de Fatima Bonaldo; Bartley Brown; Anik Clemens; Wendy J Crookes-Goodson; Keith Crouch; Tad DeMartini; Mari Eyestone; Michael S Goodson; Bernadette Janssens; Jennifer L Kimbell; Tanya A Koropatnick; Tamara Kucaba; Christina Smith; Jennifer J Stewart; Deyan Tong; Joshua V Troll; Sarahrose Webster; Jane Winhall-Rice; Cory Yap; Thomas L Casavant; Margaret J McFall-Ngai; M Bento Soares

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biologists are becoming increasingly aware that the interaction of animals, including humans, with their coevolved bacterial partners is essential for health. This growing awareness has been a driving force for the development of models for the study of beneficial animal-bacterial interactions. In the squid-vibrio model, symbiotic Vibrio fischeri induce dramatic developmental changes in the light organ of host Euprymna

  3. Occurrence of Vibrio and Salmonella species in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Mannas, Hasna; Mimouni, Rachida; Chaouqy, Noureddine; Hamadi, Fatima; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of different Vibrio and Salmonella species in 52 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from four sites along the Atlantic coast between Agadir and Essaouira (Anza, Cap Ghir, Imssouane and Essaouira). The level of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was also determined to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution in the investigated areas. In this study three methods were used : AFNOR NF EN ISO 6579 V08-013 for Salmonella spp., the provisional method routinely used by several laboratories (Institut Pasteur, Paris,…) for Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the seafood, and the most probable number method (MPN) using Norm ISO/TS 16649-3 (2005) for E. coli. The most frequently isolated Vibrios were Vibrio alginolyticus (90.4% of samples), followed by V. cholerae non O1 non O139 (15.4%) and V. parahaemolyticus (7.7%). Salmonella spp. was found in 15% of the samples. The number of E. coli ranged between 0.2/100 g and 1.8 10(3) /100 g of mussel soft tissues. This study indicates the potential sanitary risk associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in cultivated mussels in the two populous regions of southern Morocco, where shellfish production and maritime tourism are important to the local economy. PMID:24936389

  4. Structural characteristics of alkaline phosphatase from the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ishibashi, Matsujiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Matsumoto, Fumiko; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tokunaga, Hiroko [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Blaber, Michael [Florida State University, 1115 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4300 (United States); Tokunaga, Masao [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Kuroki, Ryota, E-mail: kuroki.ryota@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the halophilic characteristics of an alkaline phosphatase derived from the moderate halophile Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP), the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined to 2.1 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structural properties of surface negative charge and core hydrophobicity were shown to be intermediate between those characteristic of halophiles and non-halophiles, and may explain the unique functional adaptation to a wide range of salt concentrations. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the moderate halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters over a wide salt-concentration range (1–4 M NaCl). In order to clarify the structural basis of its halophilic characteristics and its wide-range adaptation to salt concentration, the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.1 Å resolution. The unit cell of HaAP contained one dimer unit corresponding to the biological unit. The monomer structure of HaAP contains a domain comprised of an 11-stranded ?-sheet core with 19 surrounding ?-helices similar to those of APs from other species, and a unique ‘crown’ domain containing an extended ‘arm’ structure that participates in formation of a hydrophobic cluster at the entrance to the substrate-binding site. The HaAP structure also displays a unique distribution of negatively charged residues and hydrophobic residues in comparison to other known AP structures. AP from Vibrio sp. G15-21 (VAP; a slight halophile) has the highest similarity in sequence (70.0% identity) and structure (C{sup ?} r.m.s.d. of 0.82 Å for the monomer) to HaAP. The surface of the HaAP dimer is substantially more acidic than that of the VAP dimer (144 exposed Asp/Glu residues versus 114, respectively), and thus may enable the solubility of HaAP under high-salt conditions. Conversely, the monomer unit of HaAP formed a substantially larger hydrophobic interior comprising 329 C atoms from completely buried residues, whereas that of VAP comprised 264 C atoms, which may maintain the stability of HaAP under low-salt conditions. These characteristics of HaAP may be responsible for its unique functional adaptation permitting activity over a wide range of salt concentrations.

  5. Detection and Localisation of the Abalone Probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and Its Extracellular Protease, VmproA, within the Digestive Tract of the South African Abalone, Haliotis midae

    PubMed Central

    Huddy, Robert J.; Coyne, Vernon E.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone. PMID:24466176

  6. Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic rumen bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome for this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology, cellulosome biology, and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation product...

  7. Inhibition of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens by ruminal fungi

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Inhibition of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens by ruminal fungi KN Joblin, GE Naylor Grasslands Research Centre, AgResearch, Private Bag11008, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Grazing ruminants interactions between the fibrolytic populations. Ruminal fungi are potent degraders of lignocellulosic tissues

  8. Perchlorate reduction by a novel chemolithoautotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Husen Zhang; Mary Ann Bruns; Bruce E. Logan

    2002-01-01

    Summary Water treatment technologies are needed that can remove perchlorate from drinking water without introducing organic chemicals that stimulate bacterial growth in water distribution systems. Hydrogen is an ideal energy source for bacterial degradation of per- chlorate as it leaves no organic residue and is spar- ingly soluble. We describe here the isolation of a perchlorate-respiring, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium ( Dechloromonas

  9. Kinetics of a chlorate-accumulating, perchlorate-reducing bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Dudley; Anna Salamone; Robert Nerenberg

    2008-01-01

    Kinetics parameters for perchlorate and chlorate reduction were determined for Dechlorosoma sp. HCAP-C, also known as Dechlorosoma sp. PCC, a novel perchlorate-reducing bacterium (PCRB) that accumulates significant amounts of chlorate during perchlorate reduction. This is the first report of such behavior, and we hypothesized the perchlorate reduction kinetics would be markedly different from other PCRB. In batch tests with initial

  10. Siderophore production by the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronie J Calugay; Hideaki Miyashita; Yoshiko Okamura; Tadashi Matsunaga

    2003-01-01

    Siderophore production by the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 is elicited by sufficient iron rather than by iron starvation. In order to clarify this unusual pattern, siderophore production was monitored in parallel to iron assimilation using the chrome azurol sulfonate assay and the ferrozine method respectively. Iron concentration lowered approximately five times less than its initial concentration only within 4

  11. An Infective Factor Controlling Sex Compatibility in Bacterium coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. CAVALLI; J. LEDERBERG; ESTHER M. LEDERBERG

    1953-01-01

    SUMMARY: Incompatibility may occur in Bacterium coli strains which were previously considered homothallic. A cross between two incompatible strains is completely sterile. Such strains are termed F - . Strains which are self-compatible are termed F+ and are productive when crossed either with other F+ strains or with F- strains. The F+ state is transmissible by infection due to a

  12. Population Structure of the Fish-Pathogenic Bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Nicolas; Stanislas Mondot; Guillaume Achaz; Catherine Bouchenot; Jean-Francois Bernardet; Eric Duchaud

    2008-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is currently one of the main bacterial pathogens hampering the productivity of salmonid farming worldwide, and its control mainly relies on antibiotic treatments. To better understand the population structure of this bacterium and its mode of evolution, we have examined the nucleotide polymor- phisms at 11 protein-coding loci of the core genome in a set of 50 isolates.

  13. Isolation of a bacterium that reductively dechlorinates tetrachloroethene to ethene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Maymo-Gatell; Yueh-tyng Chien; S. H. Zinder

    1997-01-01

    Tetrachloroethene is a prominent groundwater pollutant that can be reductively dechlorinated by mixed anaerobic microbial populations to the nontoxic product ethene. Strain 195, a coccoid bacterium that dechlorinates tetrachlorethene to ethene, was isolated and characterized. Growth of strain 195 with Hâ and tetrachloroethene as the electron donor and acceptor pair required extracts from mixed microbial cultures. Growth of strain 195

  14. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stevenson, David M [USDA-ARS, Madison WI; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Boyum, Julie [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Mead, David [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Weimer, Paul J [USDA-ARS, Madison WI

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  15. Recycling of bakery wastes using an amylolytic lactic acid bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Oda; Bong-Sun Park; Kook-Hyun Moon; Kenzo Tonomura

    1997-01-01

    Production of lactic acid from discarded bread by using an amylolytic lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus amylovorus, was investigated to recycle bakery wastes. Addition of 2.0% yeast extract in the medium containing 3.58% bread crust caused maximum acid production. The stimulation of lactic acid production by less expensive materials such as corn steep liquor, defatted soybean powder, rice bran and wheat

  16. Protective mechanism of curcumin against Vibrio vulnificus infection.

    PubMed

    Na, Hee Sam; Cha, Mi Hye; Oh, Dool-Ri; Cho, Cheong-Weon; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Kim, Young Ran

    2011-12-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., has many beneficial biological activities. However, there are relatively few reports of the effects of curcumin on pathogen infections. This study examined the effect of curcumin on a Vibrio vulnificus infection. The cytotoxicity of V. vulnificus to HeLa cells was significantly inhibited by curcumin (at 10 or 30 ?M). To further examine the inhibitory mechanism of curcumin against V. vulnificus-mediated cytotoxicity, the level of bacterial growth, bacterial motility, cell adhesion, RTX toxin expression and host cell reactions were evaluated. Curcumin inhibited V. vulnificus growth in HI broth. Curcumin inhibited both bacterial adhesion and RTX toxin binding to the host cells, which can be considered the major protective mechanisms for the decrease in V. vulnificus cytotoxicity. Curcumin also inhibited host cell rounding and actin aggregation, which are the early features of cell death caused by V. vulnificus. In addition, curcumin decreased the V. vulnificus-induced NF-?B translocation in HeLa cells. Finally, curcumin protected mice from V. vulnificus-induced septicemia. In conclusion, curcumin may be an alternative antimicrobial agent against fatal bacterial infections. PMID:22092562

  17. Growth of Vibrio anguillarum in Salmon Intestinal Mucus

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, T.; Otto, K.; Kjelleberg, S.; Nelson, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    The physiological changes of Vibrio anguillarum in response to growth in salmon intestinal mucus were investigated. Growth, survival, and changes in protein expression during growth in media supplemented with mucus were compared to growth and starvation in the identical media without mucus. V. anguillarum exhibited a rapid decline in CFU following growth in mucus as the sole carbon source. No such decline was observed in Luria broth with a 2% NaCl concentration, in glucose-minimal broth (3M), or during starvation in a carbon-, nitrogen-, and phosphorus-free salt solution (NSS). The changes in protein expression during growth in mucus were examined by labeling cells with [(sup35)S]methionine and analyzing the labeled proteins by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Comparison of [(sup35)S]methionine-labeled proteins from mucus-grown cells with 3M-grown cells and NSS-starved cells revealed four de novo mucus-inducible proteins (Mips). These Mips were localized in the membrane fraction of V. anguillarum. Additionally, at least one other membrane protein was found to have increased expression in response to growth in mucus. PMID:16535537

  18. Origin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 pandemic clone.

    PubMed

    Chao, Guoxiang; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Xiaohui; Jiao, Xinan; Huang, Jinlin; Pan, Zhiming; Zhou, Liping; Qian, Xiaoqin

    2011-02-28

    O3:K6 pandemic clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has caused outbreaks in coastal countries since 1996. Mutilocus sequence typing (MLST) is an important tool to trace the source and analysis the evolution of bacteria. Based on MLST, the first pandemic clonal complex (CC) of V. parahaemolyticus has been confirmed. In this study, 57 pandemic strains, 27 pathogenic strains (tdh or trh positive) and 36 nonpathogenic strains isolated from China were analyzed with MLST. Forty-seven unique sequence types, one clonal complex (CC) and one doublet (D) were identified by eBURST and Mega4 analyses. CC corresponded to not only the known O3:K6 pandemic clone (including ST-3, ST-192, ST-227) but nonpathogenic clone (including ST-3, S-T2, ST-196, ST-220, ST-226). ST-3 was the founder of the complex. STs of the isolates were not inevitably associated with the presence or number of the accessory genes or the serotypes of the isolates. The ancestor strain of O3:K6 pandemic clone was originated from an environmental nonpathogenic O3:K6, ST-3 strain. The pandemic O3:K6 clone was developed from this strain in approximately 1996 by laterally transferring large fragments of genes including systematic functional genes and genomic islands. PMID:21316116

  19. Cyclo(valine-valine) inhibits Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Ante, Vanessa M; Bina, X Renee; Zhu, Qin; Liu, Xinyu; Bina, James E

    2014-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae has been shown to produce a cyclic dipeptide, cyclo(phenylalanine-proline) (cFP), that functions to repress virulence factor production. The objective of this study was to determine if heterologous cyclic dipeptides could repress V. cholerae virulence factor production. To that end, three synthetic cyclic dipeptides that differed in their side chains from cFP were assayed for virulence inhibitory activity in V. cholerae. The results revealed that cyclo(valine-valine) (cVV) inhibited virulence factor production by a ToxR-dependent process that resulted in the repression of the virulence regulator aphA. cVV-dependent repression of aphA was found to be independent of known aphA regulatory genes. The results demonstrated that V. cholerae was able to respond to exogenous cyclic dipeptides and implicated the hydrophobic amino acid side chains on both arms of the cyclo dipeptide scaffold as structural requirements for inhibitory activity. The results further suggest that cyclic dipeptides have potential as therapeutics for cholera treatment. PMID:24644247

  20. Cyclo(valine–valine) inhibits Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Vikram, Amit; Ante, Vanessa M.; Bina, X. Renee; Zhu, Qin; Liu, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae has been shown to produce a cyclic dipeptide, cyclo(phenylalanine–proline) (cFP), that functions to repress virulence factor production. The objective of this study was to determine if heterologous cyclic dipeptides could repress V. cholerae virulence factor production. To that end, three synthetic cyclic dipeptides that differed in their side chains from cFP were assayed for virulence inhibitory activity in V. cholerae. The results revealed that cyclo(valine–valine) (cVV) inhibited virulence factor production by a ToxR-dependent process that resulted in the repression of the virulence regulator aphA. cVV-dependent repression of aphA was found to be independent of known aphA regulatory genes. The results demonstrated that V. cholerae was able to respond to exogenous cyclic dipeptides and implicated the hydrophobic amino acid side chains on both arms of the cyclo dipeptide scaffold as structural requirements for inhibitory activity. The results further suggest that cyclic dipeptides have potential as therapeutics for cholera treatment. PMID:24644247

  1. Stepwise changes in viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae cells.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tamaki; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Shinoda, Sumio

    2015-05-01

    Many bacterial species are known to become viable but nonculturable (VBNC) under conditions that are unsuitable for growth. In this study, the requirements for resuscitation of VBNC-state Vibrio cholerae cells were found to change over time. Although VBNC cells could initially be converted to culturable by treatment with catalase or HT-29 cell extract, they subsequently entered a state that was not convertible to culturable by these factors. However, fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of live cells in this state, from which VBNC cells were resuscitated by co-cultivation with HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Ultimately, all cells entered a state from which they could not be resuscitated, even by co-cultivation with HT-29. These characteristic changes in VBNC-state cells were a common feature of strains in both V. cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups. Thus, the VBNC state of V. cholerae is not a single property but continues to change over time. PMID:25664673

  2. Detection, Isolation, and Identification of Vibrio cholerae from the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Huq, Anwar; Haley, Bradd J.; Taviani, Elisa; Chen, Arlene; Hasan, Nur A.; Colwell, Rita R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent molecular advances in microbiology have greatly improved the detection of bacterial pathogens in the environment. Improvement and a downward trend in the cost of molecular detection methods have contributed to increased frequency of detection of pathogenic microorganisms where traditional culture-based detection methods have failed. Culture methods also have been greatly improved and the confluence of the two suites of methods provides a powerful tool for detection, isolation, and characterization of pathogens. While molecular detection provides data on the presence and type of pathogens, culturing methods allow a researcher to preserve the organism of interest for “–omics” studies, such as genomic, metabolomic, secretomic, and transcriptomic analysis, which are rapidly becoming more affordable. This has yielded a clearer understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of microorganisms that cause disease. Specifically, important advances have been made over the past several years on isolation, detection, and identification of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera in humans. In this unit, we present commonly accepted methods for isolation, detection, and characterization of V. cholerae, providing more extensive knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of this organism. This unit has been fully revised and updated from the earlier unit (Huq, Grim et al. 2006) with the latest knowledge and additional information not previously included. We have also taken into account of cost of reagents and equipment that may be prohibitive for many researchers and have, therefore, included protocols for all laboratories, including those with limited resources, likely to be located in regions of cholera endemicity. PMID:22875567

  3. Conditions for nitrification and denitrification by an immobilized heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis OKK17

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayuki Nishio; Taro Yoshikura; Hirotsugu Mishima; Zensuke Inouye; Hisao Itoh

    1998-01-01

    Conditions to improve the efficiency of nitrogen removal were examined with the heterotrophic nitrifying\\/denitrifying bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis OKK17. This bacterium nitrifies ammonium and glutamate mainly to hydroxylamine and to a lesser extent to nitrite and nitrate, but it does not denitrify aerobically. Thus, the bacterium was immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel to provide anaerobic conditions in the gel support.

  4. Demonstration of invasiveness of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in adult rabbits by immunofluorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, B K; Townsend, S F; Scarpino, P V; Twedt, R M

    1979-01-01

    To determine possible pathogenesis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus-host-organ system interactions, studies of invasiveness were made by a direct fluorescent-antibody method. Broth cultures of live cells isolated from seafish or symptomatic humans were inoculated separately into ligated ileal loops of young New Zealand white rabbits. After suitable incubation, rabbits were sacrificed, and ileal loops and tissue specimens were aseptically removed. Ileal loops were prepared and stained with specific fluorescein-tagged antibody, and organ specimens were cultured for isolation of the inoculated Vibrio strain. All strains tested penetrated into the lamina propria of the ileum and were isolated from the cultured tissue specimens, indicating that the organism is capable of more than a superficial colonization of the gut. The presence of Vibrio in cultured tissue specimens suggests invasion of deeper tissue by either the lymphatic or the circulatory system. Images PMID:378131

  5. The use of a modified Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite) in the treatment of Vibrio vulnificus infection.

    PubMed

    Milner, S M; Heggers, J P

    1999-01-01

    We report the first clinical use of a modified Dakin's solution (0.025% sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl]) to halt the progress of severe cutaneous Vibrio vulnificus infection in a critically ill patient. The regimen used arose from an initial in vitro study designed to examine the sensitivity of Vibrio species to topical antimicrobial agents. Twenty-eight wound isolates were tested against the following eight topical preparations: silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene), nitrofurazone, mupirocin ointment (Bactroban), polymyxin B/bacitracin, mafenide acetate (Sulfamylon), nystatin/Silvadene, nystatin/polymyxin B/bacitracin, and 0.025% NaOCl solution. The results showed that V vulnificus, along with the other 18 Vibrio species tested, was most sensitive to the modified NaOCl solution. PMID:10347673

  6. Cryptic luminescence in the cold-water fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Fidopiastis, P M; Sørum, H; Ruby, E G

    1999-02-01

    The recent discovery that the fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida is closely related to the luminous bacteria Vibrio fischeri and Vibrio logei suggested that V. salmonicida might also be capable of bioluminescence. Interestingly, cells of V. salmonicida were found to produce light in culture, but only when exposed to either an aliphatic aldehyde and/or the major V. fischeri autoinducer N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, a transcriptional activator of the luminescence (lux) genes. An extract of spent medium of V. salmonicida that should contain any V. salmonicida acyl-homoserine lactone autoinducer, when added to V. fischeri cells, led to an induction of their luminescence. These results show that V. salmonicida is a newly recognized luminous bacterial species that apparently both produces an autoinducer activity and responds to exogenous V. fischeri autoinducer. PMID:10201098

  7. Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a new anaerobic, slightly halophilic, thiosulfate-reducing bacterium from corroding offshore oil wells.

    PubMed

    Magot, M; Ravot, G; Campaignolle, X; Ollivier, B; Patel, B K; Fardeau, M L; Thomas, P; Crolet, J L; Garcia, J L

    1997-07-01

    A strictly anaerobic thiosulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated from a corroding offshore oil well in Congo and was designated strain SEBR 4207T. Pure culture of the strain induced a very active pitting corrosion of mild steel, with penetration rates of up to 4 mm per year. This constitutes the first experimental evidence of the involvement of thiosulfate reduction in microbial corrosion of steel. Strain SEBR 4207T cells were vibrios (3 to 5 by 1 microns), stained gram negative, and possessed lateral flagella. Spores were not detected. Optimum growth occurred in the presence of 3% NaCl at pH 7.0 and 42 degrees C. Strain SEBR 4207T utilized peptides and amino acids, but not sugars or fatty acids. It fermented serine, histidine, and Casamino Acids, whereas arginine, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, methionine, and asparagine were only used in the presence of thiosulfate. Peptides were fermented to acetate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, 2-methylbutyrate, H2, and CO2. The addition of either thiosulfate or sulfur but not sulfate increased peptide utilization, growth rate, and biomass; during growth, H2S was produced and a concomitant decrease in H2 was observed. The addition of either thiosulfate or sulfur also reversed H2 inhibition. 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicates that strain SEBR 4207T is distantly related to members of the genus Thermoanaerobacter (83% similarity). Because the phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics cannot be assigned to any described genus, strain SEBR 4207T is designated as a new species of a new genus, Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain SEBR 4207T has been deposited in the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und zellkulturen GmbH (= DSM 11002). PMID:9226912

  8. N2-fixing vibrios isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Guerinot, M L; Patriquin, D G

    1981-03-01

    Facultatively anaerobic bacteria, capable of fixing N2 anaerobically or at low O2 concentrations, were isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of temperate (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and tropical (Tripneustes ventricosus) sea urchins. Morphological and biochemical characteristics, as well as the guanine plus cytosine content of their DNA (45.9 and 48.4 mol%), place these isolates in the genus Vibrio Pacini 1865 in the family Vibrionaceae. Members of this family have not previously been shown to fix N2. These isolates are not identical to any described species in the Vibrio genus and can be distinguished by a combination of biochemical and physiological traits. PMID:6940646

  9. Vibrio mexicanus sp. nov., isolated from a cultured oyster Crassostrea corteziensis.

    PubMed

    González-Castillo, Adrián; Enciso-Ibarrra, Julissa; Bolán-Mejia, M Carmen; Balboa, Sabela; Lasa, Aide; Romalde, Jesús L; Cabanillas-Beltrán, Hector; Gomez-Gil, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    A bacterial strain was taxonomically characterised by means of a genomic approach comprising 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), the DNA G+C content, whole genome analyses (ANI and GGDC) and phenotypic characterisation. The strain CAIM 1540(T) was isolated from a cultured oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in La Cruz, Sinaloa state, México. The isolate was found to be catalase and oxidase positive, cells were observed to be motile, O/129-sensitive and facultatively anaerobic. The almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence placed this strain within the genus Vibrio; the closest related species were found to be Vibrio aestivus, Vibrio marisflavi, Vibrio maritimus and Vibrio variabilis with similarity values of 99.02, 97.05, 96.70, and 96.59 % respectively. MLSA of four housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gapA, recA, and topA) was performed with the closely related species. A draft genome sequence of strain CAIM 1540(T) was obtained. The DNA G+C content of this strain was determined to be 43.7 mol%.The ANI values with V. aestivus were 89.6 % (ANIb), 90.6 % (ANIm) and a GGDC value of 39.5 ± 2.5 % was obtained; with V. marisflavi the genomic similarities were 71.5 % (ANIb), 85.5 % (ANIm) and 20.2 ± 2.3 % (GGDC); with V. maritimus 72.6 % (ANIb), 85.7 % (ANIm) and 22.0 ± 2.0 % (GGDC); and with V. variabilis 72.6 % (ANIb), 85.8 % (ANIm) and 21.6 ± 1.6 % (GGDC). These ANI and GGDC values are below the threshold for the delimitation of prokaryotic species, i.e. 95-96 and 70 %, respectively. Phenotypic characters also showed differences with the closest related species analysed. The results presented here support the description of a novel species, for which the name Vibrio mexicanus sp. nov. is proposed, with strain CAIM 1540(T) (= CECT 8828(T), = DSM 100338(T)) as the type strain. In addition, we found that the recently described species Vibrio thalassae and Vibrio madracius might be a single species because the values of ANIb 95.8 %, ANIm 96.6 % and GGDC 70.2 ± 2.9 % are above the accepted species thresholds. PMID:26021481

  10. Ingestion of bacteria overproducing DnaK attenuates Vibrio infection of Artemia franciscana larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeong Yik Sung; Till Dhaene; Tom Defoirdt; Nico Boon; Thomas H. MacRae; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier

    2009-01-01

    Feeding of bacterially encapsulated heat shock proteins (Hsps) to\\u000a invertebrates is a novel way to limit Vibrio infection. As an example,\\u000a ingestion of Escherichia coli overproducing prokaryotic Hsps\\u000a significantly improves survival of gnotobiotically cultured Artemia\\u000a larvae upon challenge with pathogenic Vibrio campbellii. The\\u000a relationship between Hsp accumulation and enhanced resistance to\\u000a infection may involve DnaK, the prokaryotic equivalent to Hsp70,

  11. Impact of Hurricane Irene on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in surface water, sediment, and cultured oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, MD, USA.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kristi S; Jacobs, John M; Crump, Byron C

    2014-01-01

    To determine if a storm event (i.e., high winds, large volumes of precipitation) could alter concentrations of Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in aquacultured oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and associated surface water and sediment, this study followed a sampling timeline before and after Hurricane Irene impacted the Chesapeake Bay estuary in late August 2011. Aquacultured oysters were sampled from two levels in the water column: surface (0.3 m) and near-bottom (just above the sediment). Concentrations of each Vibrio spp. and associated virulence genes were measured in oysters with a combination of real-time PCR and most probable number (MPN) enrichment methods, and in sediment and surface water with real-time PCR. While concentration shifts of each Vibrio species were apparent post-storm, statistical tests indicated no significant change in concentration for either Vibrio species by location (surface or near bottom oysters) or date sampled (oyster tissue, surface water, and sediment concentrations). V. vulnificus in oyster tissue was correlated with total suspended solids (r = 0.41, P = 0.04), and V. vulnificus in sediment was correlated with secchi depth (r = -0.93, P <0.01), salinity (r = -0.46, P = 0.02), tidal height (r = -0.45, P = 0.03), and surface water V. vulnificus (r = 0.98, P <0.01). V. parahaemolyticus in oyster tissue did not correlate with environmental measurements, but V. parahaemolyticus in sediment and surface water correlated with several measurements including secchi depth [r = -0.48, P = 0.02 (sediment); r = -0.97, P <0.01 (surface water)] and tidal height [r = -0.96, P <0.01 (sediment), r = -0.59, P <0.01 (surface water)]. The concentrations of Vibrio spp. were higher in oysters relative to other studies (average V. vulnificus 4 × 10(5) MPN g(-1), V. parahaemolyticus 1 × 10(5) MPN g(-1)), and virulence-associated genes were detected in most oyster samples. This study provides a first estimate of storm-related Vibrio density changes in oyster tissues, sediment, and surface water at an aquaculture facility in the Chesapeake Bay. PMID:24847319

  12. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF LIGHT ORGANS OF LOLIGINID SQUIDS AND THEIR BACTERIAL SYMBIONTS: A NOVEL MODEL SYSTEM FOR THE STUDY OF MARINE SYMBIOSES

    PubMed Central

    GUERRERO-FERREIRA, R. C.; NISHIGUCHI, M. K.

    2010-01-01

    The class Cephalopoda (Phylum Mollusca), encompassing squids and octopuses, contains multiple species that are characterized by the presence of specialized organs known to emit light. These complex organs have a variety of morphological characteristics ranging from groups of simple, light-producing cells, to highly specialized organs (light organs) with cells surrounded by reflectors, lenses, light guides, color filters, and muscles. Bacteriogenic light organs have been well characterized in sepiolid squids, but a number of species in the family Loliginidae are also known to contain bacteriogenic light organs. Interest in loliginid light organ structure has recently arisen because of their potential as ecological niches for Vibrio harveyi, a pathogenic marine bacterium. This also implies the importance of loliginid light organs as reservoirs for V. harveyi persistence in the ocean. The present study utilized transmission and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the morphology of loliginid light organs and determined the location of bacterial symbiont cells within the tissue. It was determined that the rod-shaped loliginid symbionts lack flagella, as similarly observed in other light organ-associated bacteria. Also, the interaction of individual cells to light organ tissue is not as defined as reported for other squid-Vibrio systems. In addition, SEM observations show the presence of two pores leading to the bacterial chamber. Data presented here offer support for the hypothesis of environmental transfer of bacterial symbionts in loliginid squids. PMID:21152248

  13. Features governing symbiont persistence in the squid-vibrio association.

    PubMed

    Koch, Eric J; Miyashiro, Tim; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; Ruby, Edward G

    2014-03-01

    Experimental studies of the interaction between host and symbiont in a maturing symbiotic organ have presented a challenge for most animal-bacterial associations. Advances in the rearing of the host squid Euprymna scolopes have enabled us to explore the relationship between a defect in symbiont light production and late-stage development (e.g. symbiont persistence and tissue morphogenesis) by experimental colonization with specific strains of the symbiont Vibrio fischeri. During the first 4 weeks postinoculation of juvenile squid, the population of wild-type V. fischeri increased 100-fold; in contrast, a strain defective in light production (?lux) colonized normally the first day, but exhibited an exponential decline to undetectable levels over subsequent weeks. Co-colonization of organs by both strains affected neither the trajectory of colonization by wild type nor the decline of ?lux levels. Uninfected animals retained the ability to be colonized for at least 2 weeks posthatch. However, once colonized by the wild-type strain for 5 days, a subsequent experimentally induced loss of the symbionts could not be followed by a successful recolonization, indicating the host's entry into a refractory state. However, animals colonized by the ?lux before the loss of their symbionts were receptive to recolonization. Analyses of animals colonized with either a wild-type or a ?lux strain revealed slight, if any, differences in the developmental regression of the ciliated light-organ tissues that facilitate the colonization process. Thus, some other feature(s) of the ?lux strain's defect also may be responsible for its inability to persist, and its failure to induce a refractory state in the host. PMID:24118200

  14. Vibriophages Differentially Influence Biofilm Formation by Vibrio anguillarum Strains.

    PubMed

    Tan, Demeng; Dahl, Amalie; Middelboe, Mathias

    2015-07-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in marine aquaculture, responsible for vibriosis. Bacteriophages can potentially be used to control bacterial pathogens; however, successful application of phages requires a detailed understanding of phage-host interactions under both free-living and surface-associated growth conditions. In this study, we explored in vitro phage-host interactions in two different strains of V. anguillarum (BA35 and PF430-3) during growth in microcolonies, biofilms, and free-living cells. Two vibriophages, ?H20 (Siphoviridae) and KVP40 (Myoviridae), had completely different effects on the biofilm development. Addition of phage ?H20 to strain BA35 showed efficient control of biofilm formation and density of free-living cells. The interactions between BA35 and ?H20 were thus characterized by a strong phage control of the phage-sensitive population and subsequent selection for phage-resistant mutants. Addition of phage KVP40 to strain PF430-3 resulted in increased biofilm development, especially during the early stage. Subsequent experiments in liquid cultures showed that addition of phage KVP40 stimulated the aggregation of host cells, which protected the cells against phage infection. By the formation of biofilms, strain PF430-3 created spatial refuges that protected the host from phage infection and allowed coexistence between phage-sensitive cells and lytic phage KVP40. Together, the results demonstrate highly variable phage protection mechanisms in two closely related V. anguillarum strains, thus emphasizing the challenges of using phages to control vibriosis in aquaculture and adding to the complex roles of phages as drivers of prokaryotic diversity and population dynamics. PMID:25911474

  15. Starvation-Survival Processes of a Marine Vibrio

    PubMed Central

    Amy, Penny S.; Pauling, Crellin; Morita, Richard Y.

    1983-01-01

    Levels of DNA, RNA, protein, ATP, glutathione, and radioactivity associated with [35S]methionine-labeled cellular protein were estimated at various times during the starvation-survival process of a marine psychrophilic heterotrophic Vibrio sp., Ant-300. Values for the macromolecules were analyzed in terms of total, viable, and respiring cells. Electron micrographs (thin sections) were made on log-phase and 5.5-week-starved cells. On a per-cell basis, the levels of protein and DNA rapidly decreased until a constant level was attained. A second method in which radioactive sulfur was used for monitoring protein demonstrated that the cellular protein level decreased for approximately 2.5 weeks and then remained constant. An initial decrease in the RNA level with starvation was noted, but with time the RNA (orcinol-positive material) level increased to 2.5 times the minimum level. After 6 weeks of starvation, 45 to 60% of the cells remained capable of respiration, as determined by iodonitrotetrazolium violet-formazan granule production. Potential respiration and endogenous respiration levels fell, with an intervening 1-week peak, until at 2 weeks no endogenous respiration could be measured; respiratory potential remained high. The cell glutathione level fell during starvation, but when the cells were starved in the presence of the appropriate amino acids, glutathione was resynthesized to its original level, beginning after 1 week of starvation. The cells used much of their stored products and became ultramicrocells during the 6-week starvation-survival process. Ant-300 underwent many physiological changes in the first week of starvation that relate to the utilization or production of ATP. After that period, a stable pattern for long-term starvation was demonstrated. Images PMID:16346228

  16. Occurrence of Vibrio vulnificus Biotypes in Danish Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Høi, L.; Larsen, J. L.; Dalsgaard, I.; Dalsgaard, A.

    1998-01-01

    During the unusually warm summer in Denmark in 1994, 11 clinical cases of Vibrio vulnificus infection were reported. These reports initiated an investigation of the occurrence of V. vulnificus biotypes in Danish marine environments. Samples of coastal water, sediment, shellfish, and wild fish were analyzed by preenrichment in alkaline peptone water amended with polymyxin B (2.0 × 104 U/liter) followed by streaking onto modified cellobiose-polymyxin B-colistin agar. V. vulnificus-like colonies were tested with a V. vulnificus-specific DNA probe. Low densities of V. vulnificus were detected in water (0.8 to 19 CFU/liter) from June until mid-September and in sediment (0.04 to >11 CFU/g) from July until mid-November. The presence of V. vulnificus was strongly correlated with water temperature. However, we isolated V. vulnificus from water from a mussel farm at a lower temperature than previously reported (7°C). In 1 of the 13 locations studied, V. vulnificus was found in mussels in 7 of 17 samples analyzed; this is the first report of V. vulnificus in European shellfish. V. vulnificus was also isolated from gills, intestinal contents, and mucus from wild fish. Although biotyping of 706 V. vulnificus strains isolated during our investigations revealed that the majority of the strains (99.6%) belonged to biotype 1, biotype 2 was detected in seawater at a low frequency (0.4%). Our findings provide further evidence that seawater can serve as a reservoir and might facilitate spread of V. vulnificus biotype 2 to eels, with subsequent spread to persons handling eels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that V. vulnificus is ubiquitous in a temperate marine environment and that V. vulnificus biotype 2 is not strictly confined to eels. PMID:9435055

  17. O-antigen and Core Carbohydrate of Vibrio fischeri Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Post, Deborah M. B.; Yu, Liping; Krasity, Benjamin C.; Choudhury, Biswa; Mandel, Mark J.; Brennan, Caitlin A.; Ruby, Edward G.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Apicella, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri exists in a symbiotic relationship with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, where the squid provides a home for the bacteria, and the bacteria in turn provide camouflage that helps protect the squid from night-time predators. Like other Gram-negative organisms, V. fischeri expresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on its cell surface. The structure of the O-antigen and the core components of the LPS and their possible role in colonization of the squid have not previously been determined. In these studies, an O-antigen ligase mutant, waaL, was utilized to determine the structures of these LPS components and their roles in colonization of the squid. WaaL ligates the O-antigen to the core of the LPS; thus, LPS from waaL mutants lacks O-antigen. Our results show that the V. fischeri waaL mutant has a motility defect, is significantly delayed in colonization, and is unable to compete with the wild-type strain in co-colonization assays. Comparative analyses of the LPS from the wild-type and waaL strains showed that the V. fischeri LPS has a single O-antigen repeat composed of yersiniose, 8-epi-legionaminic acid, and N-acetylfucosamine. In addition, the LPS from the waaL strain showed that the core structure consists of l-glycero-d-manno-heptose, d-glycero-d-manno-heptose, glucose, 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine, 8-epi-legionaminic acid, phosphate, and phosphoethanolamine. These studies indicate that the unusual V. fischeri O-antigen sugars play a role in the early phases of bacterial colonization of the squid. PMID:22247546

  18. Features governing symbiont persistence in the squid-vibrio association

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Eric J.; Miyashiro, Tim; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.; Ruby, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies of the interaction between host and symbiont in a maturing symbiotic organ have presented a challenge for most animal-bacterial associations. Advances in the rearing of the host squid Euprymna scolopes have enabled us to explore the relationship between a defect in symbiont light production and late-stage development (e.g., symbiont persistence and tissue morphogenesis) by experimental colonization with specific strains of the symbiont Vibrio fischeri. During the first four weeks post-inoculation of juvenile squid, the population of wild-type V. fischeri increased 100-fold; in contrast, a strain defective in light production (?lux) colonized normally the first day, but exhibited an exponential decline to undetectable levels over subsequent weeks. Co-colonization of organs by both strains affected neither the trajectory of colonization by wild type, nor the decline of ?lux levels. Uninfected animals retained the ability to be colonized for at least two weeks post-hatch. However, once colonized by the wild-type strain for 5 days, a subsequent experimentally induced loss of the symbionts could not be followed by a successful recolonization, indicating the host’s entry into a refractory state. However, animals colonized by the ?lux before the loss of their symbionts were receptive to recolonization. Analyses of animals colonized with either a wild-type or a ?lux strain revealed slight, if any, differences in the developmental regression of the ciliated light-organ tissues that facilitate the colonization process. Thus, some other feature(s) of the ?lux strain’s defect also may be responsible for its inability to persist, and its failure to induce a refractory state in the host. PMID:24118200

  19. Vibrio cholerae classical biotype strains reveal distinct signatures in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, M Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. Antibiograms revealed the majority of the Bangladeshi strains to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, furazolidone, ampicillin, and gentamicin, while the Mexican strains were sensitive to all of these drugs, as well as to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed characteristic banding patterns for all of the CL biotype strains although the Mexican strains differed from the Bangladeshi strains in 1 to 2 DNA bands. The difference was subtle but consistent, as confirmed by the subclustering patterns in the PFGE-based dendrogram, and can serve as a regional signature, suggesting the pre-1991 existence and evolution of the CL biotype strains in the Americas, independent from Asia. PMID:22518867

  20. Inhibition of virulence potential of Vibrio cholerae by natural compounds

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Shinji; Asakura, Masahiro; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji

    2011-01-01

    The rise in multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae strains is a big problem in treatment of patients suffering from severe cholera. Only a few studies have evaluated the potential of natural compounds against V. cholerae. Extracts from plants like ‘neem’, ‘guazuma’, ‘daio’, apple, hop, green tea and elephant garlic have been shown to inhibit bacterial growth or the secreted cholera toxin (CT). However, inhibiting bacterial growth like common antimicrobial agents may also impose selective pressure facilitating development of resistant strains. A natural compound that can inhibit virulence in V. cholerae is an alternative choice for remedy. Recently, some common spices were examined to check their inhibitory capacity against virulence expression of V. cholerae. Among them methanol extracts of red chili, sweet fennel and white pepper could substantially inhibit CT production. Fractionation of red chili methanol extracts indicated a hydrophobic nature of the inhibitory compound(s), and the n-hexane and 90 per cent methanol fractions could inhibit >90 per cent of CT production. Purification and further fractionation revealed that capsaicin is one of the major components among these red chili fractions. Indeed, capsaicin inhibited the production of CT in various V. cholerae strains regardless of serogroups and biotypes. The quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR assay revealed that capsaicin dramatically reduced the expression of major virulence-related genes such as ctxA, tcpA and toxT but enhanced the expression of hns gene that transcribes a global prokaryotic gene regulator (H-NS). This indicates that the repression of CT production by capsaicin or red chili might be due to the repression of virulence genes transcription by H-NS. Regular intake of spices like red chili might be a good approach to fight against devastating cholera. PMID:21415500

  1. Infaunal Burrows Are Enrichment Zones for Vibrio parahaemolyticus?†

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Megan D.; Lovell, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a species that includes strains known to be pathogenic in humans, and other Vibrionaceae are common, naturally occurring bacteria in coastal environments. Understanding the ecology and transport of these organisms within estuarine systems is fundamental to predicting outbreaks of pathogenic strains. Infaunal burrows serve as conduits for increased transport of tidal waters and V. parahaemolyticus cells by providing large open channels from the sediment to salt marsh tidal creeks. An extensive seasonal study was conducted at the North Inlet Estuary in Georgetown, SC, to quantify Vibrionaceae and specifically V. parahaemolyticus bacteria in tidal water, fiddler crab (Uca pugilator, Uca pugnax) burrow water, and interstitial pore water. Numbers of V. parahaemolyticus bacteria were significantly higher within burrow waters (4,875 CFU ml?1) than in creek water (193 CFU ml?1) and interstitial pore water (128 CFU ml?1), demonstrating that infaunal burrows are sites of V. parahaemolyticus enrichment. A strong seasonal trend of increased abundances of Vibrionaceae and V. parahaemolyticus organisms during the warmer months of May through September was observed. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of isolates presumed to be V. parahaemolyticus from creek water, pore water, and burrow water identified substantial strain-level genetic variability among V. parahaemolyticus bacteria. Analysis of carbon substrate utilization capabilities of organisms presumed to be V. parahaemolyticus also indicated physiological diversity within this clade, which helps to explain the broad distribution of these strains within the estuary. These burrows are “hot spots” of Vibrionaceae and V. parahaemolyticus cell numbers and strain diversity and represent an important microhabitat. PMID:21478307

  2. Vibrio cholerae and Aeromonas: do they share a mutual host?

    PubMed

    Senderovich, Yigal; Gershtein, Yana; Halewa, Etti; Halpern, Malka

    2008-03-01

    Species of the genus Aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered as an emergent human pathogen. It is estimated that aeromonads cause up to 13% of reported gastroenteritis cases in the United States. Although the autochthonous existence of Aeromonas in the aquatic environment has been established, its natural reservoir is as yet unknown. Chironomids are closely related to mosquitoes except they do not bite and they are the most widely distributed insects in freshwater. They infest drinking water systems in Israel and all over the world. Vibrio cholerae inhabit chironomids and are able to degrade their egg masses. The degradation of the egg masses is followed by failure of the eggs to hatch. In the current study, egg masses from a waste stabilization pond and a river in northern Israel were collected and cultured during a five-month period. Bacterial colonies were randomly chosen and checked for their egg mass degradation abilities. In addition to V. cholerae, most of the other isolates that had the ability to degrade the egg masses were identified as Aeromonas species, thus, demonstrating that Aeromonas species are natural inhabitants of chironomid egg masses. The following virulence-associated genes were detected in Aeromonas species that were isolated from chironomid egg masses: alt (78%); ahpB (76%); act/aerA/hlyA (65%); fla (59%); pla/lipH3/apl-1/lip (43%); and ast (2%). These findings indicate that the Aeromonas species inhabiting chironomid egg masses pose a potential health risk. Understanding the natural reservoir of Aeromonas will help to develop methods to monitor and control the bacteria in fresh and drinking water reservoirs and to better understand the relationships between chironomids, V. cholerae and Aeromonas populations. PMID:18317460

  3. Genotypic diversity, antimicrobial resistance and screening of Vibrio cholerae molecular virulence markers in Vibrio alginolyticus strains recovered from a Tunisian Ruditapes decussatus hatchery.

    PubMed

    Mechri, Badreddine; Medhioub, Amel; Medhioub, Mohamed Nejib; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a total of 54 Vibrio alginolyticus strains were analyzed. The isolates were recovered from different compartments of the Ruditapes decussatus hatchery in the National Institute of Marine Sciences and Technologies, Monastir, Tunisia. All isolates were biochemically identified (API 20E and API ZYM strips), characterized by amplification of the Hsp-40 gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analyzed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-based genotyping to evaluate genetic relationship between the isolated strains. We also looked for the presence of ten V cholera virulence genes (toxRS, toxR, toxT toxS, tcpP, tcpA, ace, vpi, zot and ctxA) in the genomes of Vibrio isolates. The antibiotics susceptibility, exoenzymes production and in vitro cytotoxic activitiy against HeLa cell line were also carried out for all tested bacteria. Most of V alginolyticus isolates showed significant antimicrobial resistance rates to at least ten antibacterial agents. For most isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data showed that tetracydclin and streptomycin were the most effective antibiotics. Construction of the phylogenetic dendogram showed that studied isolates were in general genetically heterogeneous; however some Vibrio strains were present in different structures of the R. decussatus hatchery. The V cholerae virulence genes investigation showed a wild distribution of toxS (49/54), toxaR (45/54) and toxT (22/54) genes among V alginolyticus strains isolated from the R. decussatus rearing system. Cytotoxic effects of several Vibrio extracellular products (28154) were also observed on HeLa cells. PMID:24459831

  4. Citrus Bioactive Compounds: Isolation, Characterization and Modulation of Bacterial Intercellular Communication and Pathogenicity

    E-print Network

    Vikram, Amit

    2012-07-16

    in Vibrio harveyi, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium LT2. The first experiment was focused on purification of limonoids from grapefruit and sour orange seeds. The limonoids were extracted using organic solvents and purified...

  5. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with an Alkaliphilic Bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Wall, Judy D. [University of Missouri; Mormile, Dr. Melanie R. [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Begemann, Matthew B [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, biohydrogen production remains inefficient and heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobium strain sapolanicus, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. sapolanicus ferments a variety of 5- and 6- carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen and acetate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources.

  6. Molecular pathogenesis of the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    van Schaik, Erin J.; Chen, Chen; Mertens, Katja; Weber, Mary M.; Samuel, James E.

    2014-01-01

    The agent of Q fever, Coxiella burnetii, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes acute and chronic infections. The study of C. burnetii pathogenesis has benefited from two recent fundamental advances: improved genetic tools and the ability to grow the bacterium in extracellular media. In this Review, we describe how these recent advances have improved our understanding of C. burnetii invasion and host cell modulation, including the formation of replication-permissive Coxiella-containing vacuoles. Furthermore, we describe the Dot/Icm (defect in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication) system, which is used by C. burnetii to secrete a range of effector proteins into the host cell, and we discuss the role of these effectors in remodelling the host cell. PMID:23797173

  7. Trichloroethylene Biodegradation by a Methane-Oxidizing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Little, C. Deane; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Herbes, Stephen E.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Tyndall, Richard L.; Gilmer, Penny J.

    1988-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, is a suspected carcinogen that is highly resistant to aerobic biodegradation. An aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacterium was isolated that degrades TCE in pure culture at concentrations commonly observed in contaminated groundwater. Strain 46-1, a type I methanotrophic bacterium, degraded TCE if grown on methane or methanol, producing CO2 and water-soluble products. Gas chromatography and 14C radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rate, methane dependence, and mechanism of TCE biodegradation. TCE biodegradation by strain 46-1 appears to be a cometabolic process that occurs when the organism is actively metabolizing a suitable growth substrate such as methane or methanol. It is proposed that TCE biodegradation by methanotrophs occurs by formation of TCE epoxide, which breaks down spontaneously in water to form dichloroacetic and glyoxylic acids and one-carbon products. Images PMID:16347616

  8. Mapping of a gene that regulates hemolysin production in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    von Mechow, S; Vaidya, A B; Bramucci, M G

    1985-01-01

    A gene that regulates the hemolysin structural gene (hly) was found to be tightly linked to the tox-1000 locus of Vibrio cholerae RJ1 and separated from hly by a large section of the V. cholerae genetic map. This hemolysin regulatory gene was designated hlyR. Images PMID:2991206

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VH3, Isolated from an Aquaculture Environment in Greece.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; Jun, Jin Woo; D'Alvise, Paul; Middelboe, Mathias; Gram, Lone; Liu, Siyang; Katharios, Pantelis

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks globally. It has also been identified as an important pathogen in aquatic organisms. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus, strain VH3, isolated from farmed juvenile greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili, in Greece. PMID:26139725

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Vibrio anguillarum Phage CHOED Successfully Used for Phage Therapy in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Higuera, Gastón; Gajardo, Felipe; Castillo, Daniel; Middleboe, Mathias; García, Katherine; Ramírez, Carolina; Espejo, Romilio T.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum phage CHOED was isolated from Chilean mussels. It is a virulent phage showing effective inhibition of V. anguillarum. CHOED has potential in phage therapy, because it can protect fish from vibriosis in fish farms. Here, we announce the completely sequenced genome of V. anguillarum phage CHOED. PMID:25013148

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Vibrio anguillarum Phage CHOED Successfully Used for Phage Therapy in Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Romero, Jaime; Higuera, Gastón; Gajardo, Felipe; Castillo, Daniel; Middleboe, Mathias; García, Katherine; Ramírez, Carolina; Espejo, Romilio T

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum phage CHOED was isolated from Chilean mussels. It is a virulent phage showing effective inhibition of V. anguillarum. CHOED has potential in phage therapy, because it can protect fish from vibriosis in fish farms. Here, we announce the completely sequenced genome of V. anguillarum phage CHOED. PMID:25013148

  12. Characterization of VPI Pathogenicity Island and CTX  Prophage in Environmental Strains of Vibrio cholerae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ASISH K. MUKHOPADHYAY; SOUMEN CHAKRABORTY; YOSHIFUMI TAKEDA; G. BALAKRISH NAIR; DOUGLAS E. BERG

    2001-01-01

    Environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae of eight randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprint types from Calcutta, India, that were unusual in containing toxin-coregulated pilus or cholera toxin genes but not O1 or O139 antigens of epidemic strains were studied by PCR and sequencing to gain insights into V. cholerae evolution. We found that each isolate contained a variant form of

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Closely Linked Vibrio vulnificus Isolates from the Biotype 1 Environmental Genotype.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kelsey E; Schipma, Matthew J; Satchell, Karla J F

    2015-01-01

    Biotype 1 of Vibrio vulnificus, which causes severe invasive intestinal and wound infections, is split into two genotypes with all previously sequenced clinical isolates from the C genotypes. We report here the whole-genome sequencing of two clinical isolates and two closely linked oyster isolates from the E genotype for comparative studies. PMID:25593245

  14. Complete Genome Sequences of a Clinical Isolate and an Environmental Isolate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Lüdeke, Catharina H. M.; Kong, Nguyet; Weimer, Bart C.; Fischer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne infections in the United States. We report complete genome sequences for two V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated in 2007, CDC_K4557 and FDA_R31 of clinical and oyster origin, respectively. These two sequences might assist in the investigation of differential virulence of this organism. PMID:25814612

  15. RESPONSES OF OYSTERS AND THEIR HEMOCYTES TO CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with oysters and oyster hemocytes were studied using three environmental isolates (1094, 1163 and ATCC 17802) and three clinical isolates (2030, 2062, 2107). Clinical isolates were from patients who became ill during the June 1998 food pois...

  16. A Bistable Switch and Anatomical Site Control Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression in the Intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex T. Nielsen; Nadia A. Dolganov; Thomas Rasmussen; Glen Otto; Michael C. Miller; Stephen A. Felt; Stéphanie Torreilles; Gary K. Schoolnik

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental, but unanswered question in host-pathogen interactions is the timing, localization and population distribution of virulence gene expression during infection. Here, microarray and in situ single cell expression methods were used to study Vibrio cholerae growth and virulence gene expression during infection of the rabbit ligated ileal loop model of cholera. Genes encoding the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera

  17. Integration Host Factor Positively Regulates Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Stonehouse; Gabriela Kovacikova; Ronald K. Taylor; Karen Skorupski

    2008-01-01

    Virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae is dependent upon a complex transcriptional cascade that is influenced by both specific and global regulators in response to environmental stimuli. Here, we report that the global regulator integration host factor (IHF) positively affects virulence gene expression in V. cholerae. Inactivation of ihfA and ihfB, the genes encoding the IHF subunits, decreased the expression

  18. UPTAKE, PERSISTENCE, AND LOCALIZATION OF VIRULENT AND AVIRULENT VIBRIO VULNIFICUS IN THE EASTERN OYSTER, CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio vulnificus is a human pathogen commonly found in estuarine environments. Foodborne illness is associated with the consumption of raw oysters and can produce gastroenteritis and life-threatening septicemia. Depuration is one of the common methods to purge microbial contaminants from oysters....

  19. Vibrio vulnificusBiotype 2, Pathogenic for Eels, Is Also an Opportunistic Pathogen for Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARMEN AMARO; ANDELENA G. BIOSCA

    We report that the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is also an opportunistic pathogen for humans. Results from a detailed comparative study using reference strains of both biotypes revealed that the clinical strain ATCC 33817, originally isolated from a human leg wound and classified as V. vulnificus (no reference on its biotype is noted), belongs to biotype 2 of

  20. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed Central

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E

    1981-01-01

    Two strains of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 Inaba were isolated from eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, collected from estuarine waters in Florida during April 1980. The oyster meats and waters from which the oysters were collected had low fecal coliform counts, and the area had no prior evidence of sewage contamination. PMID:7235700

  1. Characterization of Vibrio fluvialis-Like Strains Implicated in Limp Lobster Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Tall; S. Fall; M. R. Pereira; M. Ramos-Valle; S. K. Curtis; M. H. Kothary; D. M. T. Chu; S. R. Monday; L. Kornegay; T. Donkar; D. Prince; R. L. Thunberg; K. A. Shangraw; D. E. Hanes; F. M. Khambaty; K. A. Lampel; J. W. Bier; R. C. Bayer

    2003-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to characterize and determine the pathogenic mechanisms involved in a newly described systemic disease in Homarus americanus (American lobster) caused by a Vibrio fluvialis-like micro- organism. Nineteen isolates were obtained from eight of nine lobsters sampled. Biochemically, the isolates resembled V. fluvialis, and the isolates grew optimally at 20°C; none could grow at temperatures above 23°C. The

  2. Seasonal distribution of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Chesapeake Bay oysters and waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salina Parveen; Kumidini A. Hettiarachchi; John C. Bowers; Jessica L. Jones; Mark L. Tamplin; Rusty McKay; William Beatty; Kathy Brohawn; Ligia V. DaSilva; Angelo DePaola

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal distribution of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Chesapeake Bay oysters and waters, and to determine the degree of association between V. parahaemolyticus densities and selected environmental parameters. Oyster and water samples were collected monthly from three sites in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland from November 2004 through October 2005. During

  3. Comparing the efficiency of chitosan with chlorine for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chaiyakosa; W. Charernjiratragul; K. Umsakul; V. Vuddhakul

    2007-01-01

    Thailand is one of the leading exporters of frozen shrimp to many countries. Chlorine is the decontaminating agent most frequently used in the frozen shrimp industries to kill potential pathogens. However, long time contact to chlorine causes severe respiratory tract damage. In this study, chitosan was compared to chlorine for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In vitro investigation, chitosan could reduce more

  4. Molecular analysis of rugosity in a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor phase variant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fitnat H. Yildiz; Xiaole S. Liu; Arne Heydorn; Gary K. Schoolnik

    Summary Reversible phase variation between the rugose and smooth colony variants is predicted to be important for the survival of Vibrio cholerae in natural aquatic habitats. Microarray expression profiling studies of the rugose and smooth variants of the same strain led to the identification of 124 differentially regulated genes. Further expression profiling experiments showed how these genes are regulated by

  5. Salinity and Temperature Effects on Physiological Responses of Vibrio fischeri from Diverse Ecological Niches

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Salinity and Temperature Effects on Physiological Responses of Vibrio fischeri from Diverse isolates possessed the least variation in growth throughout the entire salinity gradient, whereas isolates. fischeri strains were also measured under a range of salinity and temperature combinations. Symbiotic V

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VH3, Isolated from an Aquaculture Environment in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Daniel; Jun, Jin Woo; D’Alvise, Paul; Middelboe, Mathias; Gram, Lone; Liu, Siyang

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks globally. It has also been identified as an important pathogen in aquatic organisms. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus, strain VH3, isolated from farmed juvenile greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili, in Greece. PMID:26139725

  7. Genome Sequences of Clinical Vibrio cholerae Isolates from an Oyster-Borne Cholera Outbreak in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Bradd J.; Choi, Seon Young; Hasan, Nur A.; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur H.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Huq, Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Between November 2010 and April 2011, 11 cases of cholera were identified and associated with the consumption of raw oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The etiological agent was the ctxAB-positive Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75. The genome sequences of the isolates provide useful information and are deposited in the public genome databases. PMID:24265497

  8. Vibrio furnissii: an Unusual Cause of Bacteremia and Skin Lesions after Ingestion of Seafood?†

    PubMed Central

    Derber, Catherine; Coudron, Philip; Tarr, Cheryl; Gladney, Lori; Turnsek, Maryann; Shankaran, Shivanjali; Wong, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio furnissii in the blood is rarely reported, which may explain why clinical features of bloodstream infections with this organism have not been described. We describe a patient who developed skin lesions and V. furnissii bacteremia and was successfully treated with fluoroquinolones. V. furnissii may be a serious pathogen in patients with underlying comorbidities who are exposed to seafood. PMID:21450956

  9. Evaluation of Genotypic and Phenotypic Methods To Distinguish Clinical from Environmental Vibrio vulnificus Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Sanjuan; Belen Fouz; James D. Oliver; Carmen Amaro

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a heterogeneous bacterial species that comprises virulent and avirulent strains from environmental and clinical sources that have been grouped into three biotypes. To validate the typing methods proposed to distinguish clinical from environmental isolates, we performed phenotypic (API 20E, API 20NE, and BIOLOG tests) and genetic (ribotyping and DNA polymorphism at several loci) studies with a large

  10. Vibrio fischeri Outer Membrane Protein OmpU Plays a Role in Normal Symbiotic Colonization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Aeckersberg; C. Lupp; B. Feliciano; E. G. Ruby

    2001-01-01

    The nascent light-emitting organ of newly hatched juveniles of the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes is specifically colonized by cells of Vibrio fischeri that are obtained from the ambient seawater. The mechanisms that promote this specific, cooperative colonization are likely to require a number of bacterial and host-derived factors and activities, only some of which have been described to date.

  11. Determination of Molecular Phylogenetics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona; Jaime Martinez-Urtaza; Jaime Romero; Romilio T. Espejo; Lee-Ann Jaykus; Angelo DePaola

    2008-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important human pathogen whose transmission is associated with the con- sumption of contaminated seafood. There is a growing public health concern due to the emergence of a pandemic strain causing severe outbreaks worldwide. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the evolution and population structure of V. parahaemolyticus. In this work, we describe a multilocus sequence typing (MLST)

  12. Identification of potential type III secretion proteins via heterologous expression of Vibrio parahaemolyticus DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaohui; Nydam, Seth D; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Konkel, Michael E; Orfe, Lisa; Friel, Patrick; Call, Douglas R

    2012-05-01

    We employed a heterologous secretion assay to identify proteins potentially secreted by type III secretion systems (T3SSs) in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. N-terminal sequences from 32 proteins within T3SS genomic islands and seven proteins from elsewhere in the chromosome included proteins that were recognized for export by the Yersinia enterocolitica flagellar T3SS. PMID:22389365

  13. Multiplex electrochemical genosensor for identifying toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139.

    PubMed

    Yu, Choo Yee; Ang, Geik Yong; Yean, Chan Yean

    2013-03-11

    We developed a multiplex enzyme-based electrochemical genosensor for sequence-specific detection of multiplex linear-after-the-exponential-PCR amplicons that targeted toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 using novel screen-printed gold electrode bisensors. PMID:23370051

  14. Evidence that Mortality from Vibrio vulnificus Infection Results from Single Strains among Heterogeneous Populations in Shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. KEITH JACKSON; RENDI L. MURPHREE; MARK L. TAMPLIN

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is the leading cause of food-related mortality reported in the state of Florida. It is normal microflora in marine environments, where seawater and molluscan shellfish are the primary vectors of V. vulnificus disease. Risk correlates with seasonally high numbers of V. vulnificus bacteria during the summer months. Currently, the infectious dose for humans, as well as whether the

  15. Vibrio cholerae Produces a Second Enterotoxin, which Affects Intestinal Tight Junctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessio Fasano; Bernadette Baudry; David W. Pumplin; Steven S. Wasserman; Ben D. Tall; Julian M. Ketley

    1991-01-01

    Attenuated Vibrio cholerae vaccine strains specifically mutated in genes encoding cholera toxin (CT) are still capable of causing mild to moderate diarrhea. Culture supernatants of V. cholerae strains, both CT-positive and CT-negative, were examined in Ussing chambers, and a toxin was found that increases the permeability of the small intestinal mucosa by affecting the structure of the intercellular tight junction,

  16. TcpP Protein is a Positive Regulator of Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia C. Hase; John J. Mekalanos

    1998-01-01

    The production of several virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae O1, including cholera toxin and the pilus colonization factor TCP (toxin-coregulated pilus), is strongly influenced by environmental conditions. To specifically identify membrane proteins involved in these signal transduction events, we examined a transposon library of V. cholerae generated by Tnbla mutagenesis for cells that produce TCP when grown under various nonpermissive

  17. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A Rare Cause of Chronic Diarrhea in a Heart Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dickstein, Aaron; Lee, Hannah M.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus usually causes a self-limiting acute diarrheal illness, and is rarely tested for in cases of chronic diarrhea. We present a rare case of chronic diarrhea caused by V. parahaemolyticus in a heart transplant patient requiring antibiotic treatment.

  18. Vibrio cholerae O1 from superficial water of the Tucunduba Stream, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Sá, L L C; Vale, E R V; Garza, D R; Vicente, A C P

    2012-04-01

    Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. This strain lacks two major virulence factors - CTX and TCP - but carries other genes related to virulence. Genetic similarity with epidemic strains is evaluated and the importance of V. cholerae surveillance in the Amazon is emphasized. PMID:24031874

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Israeli Outbreak-Associated Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 3 Clinical Isolate BAA87.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kelsey E; Schipma, Matthew J; Satchell, Karla J F

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a seafood-associated pathogen that causes severe wound and intestinal infections. Biotype 3 of V. vulnificus emerged in 1996 as the cause of an Israeli outbreak associated with the handling of infected tilapia. Here, we describe the whole-genome sequence of the ATCC biotype 3 clinical isolate BAA87 (CDC9530-96). PMID:24652973

  20. A model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine Anna Maria Spagnuolo a

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Denise

    A model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine Anna Maria Spagnuolo a , Victor Di that has re-emerged as a new threat since the early 1990s. V. cholerae colonizes the upper, small intestine). The dynamics of colonization by the bacteria of the intestines are largely unknown. Although a large initial

  1. A model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine Anna Maria Spagnuolo a,n

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Denise

    A model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine Anna Maria Spagnuolo a,n , Victor intestine where it produces a toxin that leads to watery diarrhea, characterizing the disease (Kahn et al., 1988). The dynamics of colonization by the bacteria of the intestines are largely unknown. Although

  2. Insights into Vibrio cholerae Intestinal Colonization from Monitoring Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria

    E-print Network

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    Insights into Vibrio cholerae Intestinal Colonization from Monitoring Fluorescently Labeled-invasive pathogen that colonizes the small intestine (SI). Most of our knowledge of the processes required for V. cholerae intestinal colonization is derived from enumeration of wt and mutant V. cholerae recovered from

  3. Outbreak-associated Vibrio cholerae Genotypes with Identical Pulsotypes, Malaysia, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Suhaili, Zarizal; Lim, King Ting; Khamaruddin, Muhamad Afif; Yahya, Fariha; Sajili, Mohd Hailmi; Yeo, Chew Chieng

    2012-01-01

    A cholera outbreak in Terengganu, Malaysia, in November 2009 was caused by 2 El Tor Vibrio cholerae variants resistant to typical antimicrobial drugs. Evidence of replacement of treatable V. cholerae infection in the region with antimicrobial-resistant strains calls for increased surveillance and prevention measures. PMID:22709679

  4. Two Vibrio splendidus related strains collaborate to kill Crassostrea gigas: taxonomy and host alterations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mélanie Gay; Tristan Renault; Anne-Marie Pons; Frédérique Le Roux

    2004-01-01

    For several years, strains phenotypically related to Vibrio splendidus have been associ- ated with mortality outbreaks of molluscs. A former study on Crassostrea gigas demonstrated the genetic diversity of V. splendidus strains associated with diseased animals. Another study suggested that different strains may act in an additive\\/synergistic way leading to higher C. gigas mortality rates. Here, a strain pair (31+

  5. Integrative genome-scale metabolic analysis of Vibrio vulnificus for drug targeting and discovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Uk Kim; Soo Young Kim; Haeyoung Jeong; Tae Yong Kim; Jae Jong Kim; Hyon E Choy; Kyu Yang Yi; Joon Haeng Rhee; Sang Yup Lee

    2011-01-01

    Although the genomes of many microbial pathogens have been studied to help identify effective drug targets and novel drugs, such efforts have not yet reached full fruition. In this study, we report a systems biological approach that efficiently utilizes genomic information for drug targeting and discovery, and apply this approach to the opportunistic pathogen Vibrio vulnificus CMCP6. First, we partially

  6. Roles of Bacterial Regulators in the Symbiosis between Vibrio fischeri and Euprymna scolopes

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Roles of Bacterial Regulators in the Symbiosis between Vibrio fischeri and Euprymna scolopes 1 Introduction In a symbiosis, two or more evolutionarily distinct organisms communicate with one another in order to co-exist and co-adapt in their shared environment. The mutualistic symbiosis between

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Closely Linked Vibrio vulnificus Isolates from the Biotype 1 Environmental Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kelsey E.; Schipma, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Biotype 1 of Vibrio vulnificus, which causes severe invasive intestinal and wound infections, is split into two genotypes with all previously sequenced clinical isolates from the C genotypes. We report here the whole-genome sequencing of two clinical isolates and two closely linked oyster isolates from the E genotype for comparative studies. PMID:25593245

  8. gbpA as a Novel qPCR Target for the Species-Specific Detection of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, Non-O1/Non-O139 in Environmental, Stool, and Historical Continuous Plankton Recorder Samples.

    PubMed

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Stauder, Monica; Grande, Chiara; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Verheye, Hans M; Owens, Nicholas J P; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The Vibrio cholerae N-acetyl glucosamine-binding protein A (GbpA) is a chitin-binding protein involved in V. cholerae attachment to environmental chitin surfaces and human intestinal cells. We previously investigated the distribution and genetic variations of gbpA in a large collection of V. cholerae strains and found that the gene is consistently present and highly conserved in this species. Primers and probe were designed from the gbpA sequence of V. cholerae and a new Taq-based qPCR protocol was developed for diagnostic detection and quantification of the bacterium in environmental and stool samples. In addition, the positions of primers targeting the gbpA gene region were selected to obtain a short amplified fragment of 206 bp and the protocol was optimized for the analysis of formalin-fixed samples, such as historical Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) samples. Overall, the method is sensitive (50 gene copies), highly specific for V. cholerae and failed to amplify strains of the closely-related species Vibrio mimicus. The sensitivity of the assay applied to environmental and stool samples spiked with V. cholerae ATCC 39315 was comparable to that of pure cultures and was of 102 genomic units/l for drinking and seawater samples, 101 genomic units/g for sediment and 102 genomic units/g for bivalve and stool samples. The method also performs well when tested on artificially formalin-fixed and degraded genomic samples and was able to amplify V. cholerae DNA in historical CPR samples, the earliest of which date back to August 1966. The detection of V. cholerae in CPR samples collected in cholera endemic areas such as the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) is of particular significance and represents a proof of concept for the possible use of the CPR technology and the developed qPCR assay in cholera studies. PMID:25915771

  9. Fermentative degradation of triethanolamine by a homoacetogenic bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Frings; Christine Wondrak; Bernhard Schink

    1994-01-01

    With triethanolamine as sole source of energy and organic carbon, a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain LuTria 3, was isolated from sewage sludge and was assigned to the genus Acetobacterium on the basis of morphological and physiological properties. The G+C content of the DNA was 34.9±1.0 mol %. The new isolate fermented triethanolamine to acetate and ammonia. In cell-free

  10. Hydrogenomics of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werken van de H. J. G; Marcel R. A. Verhaart; Amy L. VanFossen; Karin Willquist; Derrick L. Lewis; Jason D. Nichols; Heleen P. Goorissen; Emmanuel F. Mongodin; Karen E. Nelson; Niel van E. W. J; Alfons J. M. Stams; Donald E. Ward; Vos de W. M; John van der Oost; Robert M. Kelly; S. W. M. Kengen

    2008-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is an extremely thermophilic, gram-positive anaerobe which ferments cellulose-, hemicellulose- and pectin-containing biomass to acetate, CO(2), and hydrogen. Its broad substrate range, high hydrogen-producing capacity, and ability to coutilize glucose and xylose make this bacterium an attractive candidate for microbial bioenergy production. Here, the complete genome sequence of C. saccharolyticus, consisting of a 2,970,275-bp circular chromosome encoding 2,679

  11. Metabolic design in amino acid producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Sahm; Lothar Eggeling; Bernd Eikmanns; Reinhard Krämer

    1995-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the industrial production of amino acids, e.g. of l-glutamate and l-lysine. In the last 10 years, genetic engineering and amplification of relevant structural genes have become fascinating methods for the construction of strains with desired genotypes. By cloning and expressing the various genes of the l-lysine pathway in C. glutamicum we could

  12. Effect of bacterium-herbicide combinations on tropical soda apple

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D Roberts; R. R Urs; H. I Wiersma; J. J Mullahey

    2002-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, a plant pathogenic bacterium, was combined with a one-quarter rate of two herbicides, triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxy acetic acid and dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid), to control tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum). E. c. subsp. carotovora inoculated at the growing point of TSA plants was consistently recovered from the stem and roots from 5 to 35 days after inoculation

  13. Application of Chitosan Microparticles for Reduction of Vibrio Species in Seawater and Live Oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lei; Wolmarans, Bernhard; Kang, Minyoung; Jeong, Kwang C.

    2014-01-01

    Human Vibrio infections associated with consumption of raw shellfish greatly impact the seafood industry. Vibrio cholerae-related disease is occasionally attributed to seafood, but V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are the primary targets of postharvest processing (PHP) efforts in the United States, as they pose the greatest threat to the industry. Most successful PHP treatments for Vibrio reduction also kill the molluscs and are not suitable for the lucrative half-shell market, while nonlethal practices are generally less effective. Therefore, novel intervention strategies for Vibrio reduction are needed for live oyster products. Chitosan is a bioactive derivative of chitin that is generally recognized as safe as a food additive by the FDA, and chitosan microparticles (CMs) were investigated in the present study as a potential PHP treatment for live oyster applications. Treatment of broth cultures with 0.5% (wt/vol) CMs resulted in growth cessation of V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus, reducing culturable levels to nondetectable amounts after 3 h in three independent experiments. Furthermore, a similar treatment in artificial seawater at 4, 25, and 37°C reduced V. vulnificus levels by ca. 7 log CFU/ml after 24 h of exposure, but 48 h of exposure and elevated temperature were required to achieve similar results for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae. Live oysters that either were artificially inoculated or contained natural populations of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus showed significant and consistent reductions following CM treatment (5%) compared to the amounts in the untreated controls. Thus, the results strongly support the promising potential for the application of CMs as a PHP treatment to reduce Vibrio spp. in intact live oysters. PMID:25381244

  14. The effect of storage time on Vibrio spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in an Isco autosampler.

    PubMed

    Ghazaleh, Maite N; Froelich, Brett A; Noble, Rachel T

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring concentrations of bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination in coastal and estuarine ecosystems is critical to reduce adverse effects to public health. During storm events, particularly hurricanes, floods, Nor'easters, and tropical cyclones, sampling of coastal and estuarine waters is not generally possible due to safety concerns. It is particularly important to monitor waters during these periods as it is at precisely these times that pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio spp. and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations fluctuate, potentially posing significant risks to public health. Automated samplers, such as the Isco sampler, are commonly used to conduct remote sample collection. Remote sampling is employed during severe storm periods, thereby reducing risk to researchers. Water samples are then stored until conditions are safe enough to retrieve them, typically in less than 21h, to collect the samples. Concerns exist regarding potential "bottle effects", whereby containment of sample might result in altered results. While these effects are well documented in samples being held for 24h or more, there is little data on bottle effects occurring during the first 24h of containment, and less still on the specific effects related to this type of sampling regime. Estuarine water samples were collected in the fall of 2013, placed into an Isco autosampler and subsampled over time to determine the effects of storage within this type of autosampling device. Vibrio spp. and fecal indicator bacteria were quantified using replicated culture-based methods, including Enterolert™ and membrane filtration. The experiments demonstrated no significant impact of storage time when comparing concentrations of total Vibrio spp., Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, or Enterococcus spp. after storage compared to original concentrations. However, the findings also suggested that increased variability and growth can occur during the middle of the day. Therefore, if at all possible, analysis schedules should be modified to account for this variability, e.g. collection of samples after overnight storage should occur as early in the morning as practicable. PMID:25008356

  15. Genetic mapping of Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin structural genes.

    PubMed Central

    Sporecke, I; Castro, D; Mekalanos, J J

    1984-01-01

    The structural genes which constitute the cholera toxin operon, ctxAB, were genetically mapped in the Vibrio cholerae El Tor strain RV79. This strain of V. cholerae contains two copies of the ctx operon located on a 7-kilobase-pair tandemly duplicated region. We began by isolating a vibriophage VcA1 insertion mutation in one of the two ctxA genes located in this region. The mutant carrying this ctxA::VcA1 insertion, DC24, was converted to a VcA1-facilitated donor by introduction of the conjugal plasmid pSJ15, which carries an inserted copy of a defective VcA1-like prophage. The donor characteristics of DC24(pSJ15) indicated that the ctxA::VcA1 insertion mutation was near the trp region of the V. cholerae chromosome. Subsequent RV79 three-factor crosses were performed between VcA1-facilitated donors and recipient strains carrying one of two structural gene mutations in ctx, either delta ctxA23P Kmr or delta ctx-7922. The former was constructed by an in vivo marker exchange procedure and could be scored either by its kanamycin resistance phenotype or by its lack of DNA sequences homologous to the ctxA region. The delta ctx-7922 mutation is a total deletion of both ctx copies of strain RV79. The three-factor cross data strongly suggest that the two ctx loci of RV79 map between the nal and his genes of V. cholerae in the trp nal his linkage group. Physical analysis and heterologous crosses between an RV79 El Tor donor and a 569B classical recipient indicates that one of the two 569B ctx operon copies maps in the same region as the RV79 ctx loci (i.e., linked to nal). Together with previously published observations, these data show that the ctx structural genes are not closely linked to other genes known to affect toxin production in V. cholerae. Images PMID:6690422

  16. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy in Aquaculture: Photoinactivation Studies of Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Eliana; Faustino, Maria A. F.; Tomé, João P. C.; Neves, Maria G. P. M. S.; Tomé, Augusto C.; Cavaleiro, José A. S.; Cunha, Ângela; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-01-01

    Background Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) combines light, a light-absorbing molecule that initiates a photochemical or photophysical reaction, and oxygen. The combined action of these three components originates reactive oxygen species that lead to microorganisms' destruction. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of PACT on Vibrio fischeri: 1) with buffer solution, varying temperature, pH, salinity and oxygen concentration values; 2) with aquaculture water, to reproduce photoinactivation (PI) conditions in situ. Methodology/Principal Findings To monitor the PI kinetics, the bioluminescence of V. fischeri was measured during the experiments. A tricationic meso-substituted porphyrin (Tri-Py+-Me-PF) was used as photosensitizer (5 µM in the studies with buffer solution and 10–50 µM in the studies with aquaculture water); artificial white light (4 mW cm?2) and solar irradiation (40 mW cm?2) were used as light sources; and the bacterial concentration used for all experiments was ?107 CFU mL?1 (corresponding to a bioluminescence level of 105 relative light units - RLU). The variations in pH (6.5–8.5), temperature (10–25°C), salinity (20–40 g L?1) and oxygen concentration did not significantly affect the PI of V. fischeri, once in all tested conditions the bioluminescent signal decreased to the detection limit of the method (?7 log reduction). The assays using aquaculture water showed that the efficiency of the process is affected by the suspended matter. Total PI of V. fischeri in aquaculture water was achieved under solar light in the presence of 20 µM of Tri-Py+-Me-PF. Conclusions/Significance If PACT is to be used in environmental applications, the matrix containing target microbial communities should be previously characterized in order to establish an efficient protocol having into account the photosensitizer concentration, the light source and the total light dose delivered. The possibility of using solar light in PACT to treat aquaculture water makes this technology cost-effective and attractive. PMID:21698119

  17. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of pVv01, a P1-Like Plasmid Prophage of Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Hammerl, Jens A; Klevanskaa, Karina; Strauch, Eckhard; Hertwig, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We report here the 79,263-bp plasmid pVv01 isolated from Vibrio vulnificus. pVv01 is closely related to the Vibrio plasmid p0908 and shows some similarities to phage P1. Unlike p0908, pVv01 represents an intact prophage inducible by mitomycin C. PVv01 phage particles revealed a myoviridal morphology and lytic activity. PMID:25125637

  18. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of pVv01, a P1-Like Plasmid Prophage of Vibrio vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Klevanskaa, Karina; Strauch, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    We report here the 79,263-bp plasmid pVv01 isolated from Vibrio vulnificus. pVv01 is closely related to the Vibrio plasmid p0908 and shows some similarities to phage P1. Unlike p0908, pVv01 represents an intact prophage inducible by mitomycin C. PVv01 phage particles revealed a myoviridal morphology and lytic activity. PMID:25125637

  19. Influence of plaque-forming bacterium, Rhodobacteraceae sp. on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangran; Zhang, Jingyan; Lei, Xueqian; Zhang, Bangzhou; Cai, Guanjing; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to find out the molecular features, infection process of a special alga plaque-forming microorganism and its potential influence on the biomass of Chlorella vulgaris during the infection process. Direct contact between the algal cell and the bacterium may be the primary steps needed for the bacterium to lyse the alga. Addition of C. vulgaris cells into f/2 medium allowed us obtain the object bacterium. The 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons results showed that the plaque-forming bacterium kept the closest relationship with Labrenzia aggregata IAM 12614(T) at 98.90%. The existence of the bacterium could influence both the dry weight and lipid content of C. vulgaris. This study demonstrated that direct cell wall disruption of C. vulgaris by the bacterium would be a potentially effective method to utilize the biomass of microalgae. PMID:25086475

  20. Increased seawater temperature increases the abundance and alters the structure of natural Vibrio populations associated with the coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    PubMed

    Tout, Jessica; Siboni, Nachshon; Messer, Lauren F; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman; Webster, Nicole S; Ralph, Peter J; Seymour, Justin R

    2015-01-01

    Rising seawater temperature associated with global climate change is a significant threat to coral health and is linked to increasing coral disease and pathogen-related bleaching events. We performed heat stress experiments with the coral Pocillopora damicornis, where temperature was increased to 31°C, consistent with the 2-3°C predicted increase in summer sea surface maxima. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed a large shift in the composition of the bacterial community at 31°C, with a notable increase in Vibrio, including known coral pathogens. To investigate the dynamics of the naturally occurring Vibrio community, we performed quantitative PCR targeting (i) the whole Vibrio community and (ii) the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. At 31°C, Vibrio abundance increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude and V. coralliilyticus abundance increased by four orders of magnitude. Using a Vibrio-specific amplicon sequencing assay, we further demonstrated that the community composition shifted dramatically as a consequence of heat stress, with significant increases in the relative abundance of known coral pathogens. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that the abundance of potential coral pathogens increases within natural communities of coral-associated microbes as a consequence of rising seawater temperature and highlight the potential negative impacts of anthropogenic climate change on coral reef ecosystems. PMID:26042096

  1. Increased seawater temperature increases the abundance and alters the structure of natural Vibrio populations associated with the coral Pocillopora damicornis

    PubMed Central

    Tout, Jessica; Siboni, Nachshon; Messer, Lauren F.; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman; Webster, Nicole S.; Ralph, Peter J.; Seymour, Justin R.

    2015-01-01

    Rising seawater temperature associated with global climate change is a significant threat to coral health and is linked to increasing coral disease and pathogen-related bleaching events. We performed heat stress experiments with the coral Pocillopora damicornis, where temperature was increased to 31°C, consistent with the 2–3°C predicted increase in summer sea surface maxima. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed a large shift in the composition of the bacterial community at 31°C, with a notable increase in Vibrio, including known coral pathogens. To investigate the dynamics of the naturally occurring Vibrio community, we performed quantitative PCR targeting (i) the whole Vibrio community and (ii) the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. At 31°C, Vibrio abundance increased by 2–3 orders of magnitude and V. coralliilyticus abundance increased by four orders of magnitude. Using a Vibrio-specific amplicon sequencing assay, we further demonstrated that the community composition shifted dramatically as a consequence of heat stress, with significant increases in the relative abundance of known coral pathogens. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that the abundance of potential coral pathogens increases within natural communities of coral-associated microbes as a consequence of rising seawater temperature and highlight the potential negative impacts of anthropogenic climate change on coral reef ecosystems. PMID:26042096

  2. Diversity and dynamics of the Vibrio community in well water used for drinking in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Machado, A; Bordalo, A A

    2014-09-01

    Bacteria of the genus Vibrio are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and can be found either in culturable or in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. The genus comprises many pathogenic species accountable for water and food-borne diseases that prove to be fatal, especially in developing countries, as in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa), where cholera is endemic. In order to ascertain the abundance and structure of Vibrio spp. community in well waters that serve as the sole source of water for the population, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), PCR-denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and cloning approaches were used. Results suggest that Vibrio spp. were present throughout the year in acidic, freshwater wells with a seasonal community composition shift. Vibrio spp. abundance was in accordance with the abundance found in coastal environments. Sequences closely related to pathogenic Vibrio species were retrieved from well water revealing exposure of the population to such pathogens. pH, ammonium, and turbidity, regulated by the rain pattern, seem to be the variables that contributed mostly to the shaping and selection of the Vibrio spp. community. These results reinforce the evidence for water monitoring with culture-independent methods and the clear need to create/recover water infrastructures and a proper water resources management in West African countries with similar environmental conditions. PMID:24859857

  3. Specificity of anti- Vibrio immune response through p38 MAPK and PKC activation in the hemocytes of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caterina Ciacci; Michele Betti; Barbara Canonico; Barbara Citterio; Philippe Roch; Laura Canesi

    2010-01-01

    In mussel (Mytilus sp.) hemocytes, differential functional responses to injection with different types of live and heat-killed Vibrio species have been recently demonstrated.In this work, responses of Mytilus hemocytes to heat-killed Vibrio splendidus LGP32 and the mechanisms involved were investigated in vitro and the results were compared with those obtained with Vibrio anguillarum (ATCC 19264). Adhesion of hemocytes after incubation

  4. Dietary supplementation of Pediococcus pentosaceus enhances innate immunity, physiological health and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2014-08-01

    Groupers (Epinephelus spp.) are economically important fish species in Southeast Asian aquaculture. Vibriosis caused by Vibro spp. is one of the severe bacterial diseases that devastate the grouper aquaculture industry. Probiotics have been reported to show the potential to enhance fish immunity and to antagonize pathogens. In our previous study, a lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus pentosaceus strain 4012 (LAB4012), isolated from cobia intestine, protects cobia from photobacteriosis after a 2-week feeding. In this study, we examined the potential of LAB4012 to be a probiotic for the orange-spotted grouper through feeding, thus to guard against vibriosis. In vitro, LAB4012 culture supernatant with low pH suppressed the growth of Vibrio anguillarum, and lactic acid in the metabolite of LAB4012 appeared to be the major factor to the growth inhibition of V. anguillarum. In vivo, the challenge test showed that the cumulative mortality of the LAB4012-fed groupers was significantly lower than that of the control fish after V. anguillarum infection. Supplementation of LAB4012 in commercial diet not only enhanced the growth rate and erythrocyte numbers of the groupers, but also regulated the gene expression of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines. One day post-infection of V. anguillarum, the leukocyte numbers in the peripheral blood and the phagocytic activity of the head-kidney phagocytes in the LAB4012-fed groupers were found significantly increased, when compared with those without LAB4012-feeding. These results suggested that LAB4012 can be a dietary probiotic for groupers in modulating the immunity and protecting the groupers from V. anguillarum infection. PMID:24845519

  5. Incidence of Vibrio cholerae from estuaries of the United States West Coast.

    PubMed Central

    Kaysner, C A; Abeyta, C; Wekell, M M; DePaola, A; Stott, R F; Leitch, J M

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of Vibrio cholerae in shellfish, sediment, and waters of California, Oregon, and Washington was determined during the summer of 1984. Samples from 24 distinct estuaries were analyzed qualitatively. V. cholerae non-O1 was found in 23 estuaries and in 44.6% of the 529 samples examined. V. cholerae O1 Inaba was isolated from water samples in Morro Bay, Calif. Vibrio mimicus was found in 2.3% of the samples. Cholera enterotoxin was not found in cell-free filtrates of the 100 isolates tested in the Y-1 mouse adrenal cell assay, but heat-labile cytotoxic activity was observed with 3% of the isolates. PMID:3606111

  6. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis to Differentiate Strains of Vibrio Vulnificus Isolated from Cockles and Shrimps.

    PubMed Central

    Ahbrizal, Tg.; Radu, Son; Latif, Abdul Reezal Abdul; Mutalib, Abdul Rahim; Rusul, Gulam; Elhadi, Nasreldin; Yuherman

    2000-01-01

    A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting method has been developed to differentiate Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated. Twenty-nine strains isolated from cockles and twenty-one strains isolated from shrimps were analyzed. A total of 10 primers were screened with Vibrio vulnificus strains to identify those capable of generating DNA polymorphisms and two primers were selected. Primer GEN 1-50-01 and GEN 1-50-08 produced polymorphisms in most strains tested, with the band sizes ranging from 10.0 to 0.25 kb pair. Dendrogram analysis showed that primer GEN 1-50-01 produced 10 clusters and 24 single strains at a 40% similarity, whereas primer GEN 1-50-08 produced 11 clusters and 20 single strains at a 40% similarity. This study revealed the potential use of PCR fingerprinting in epidemiological studies. PMID:22844214

  7. Gene cloning and prokaryotic expression of recombinant flagellin A from Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye; Wang, Xiuli; Guo, Sheping; Liu, Yang; Ge, Hui; Qiu, Xuemei

    2010-11-01

    The Gram-negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogen in humans and marine animals. Bacteria flagellins play an important role during infection and induction of the host immune response. Thus, flagellin proteins are an ideal target for vaccines. We amplified the complete flagellin subunit gene ( flaA) from V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802. We then cloned and expressed the gene into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The gene coded for a protein that was 62.78 kDa. We purified and characterized the protein using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and Anti-His antibody Western blotting, respectively. Our results provide a basis for further studies into the utility of the FlaA protein as a vaccine candidate against infection by Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In addition, the purified FlaA protein can be used for further functional and structural studies.

  8. Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from biofouling on commercial vessels and harbor structures.

    PubMed

    Revilla-Castellanos, Valeria J; Guerrero, Abraham; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Navarro-Barrón, Erick; Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial L

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water is a significant vector of microbial dissemination; however, biofouling on commercial vessel hulls has been poorly studied with regard to pathogenic bacteria transport. Biofouling on three commercial vessels and seven port structures in Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, was examined by qPCR to identify and quantify Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a worldwide recognized food-borne human pathogen. Pathogenic variants (trh+, tdh+) of V. parahaemolyticus were detected in biofouling homogenates samples from several docks in Ensenada and on the hulls of ships with Japanese and South Korean homeports, but not in reference sampling stations. A total of 26 tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus colonies and 1 ORF8+/O3:K6 strain were also isolated from enriched biofouling homogenate samples confirming the qPCR analysis. Our results suggest that biofouling is an important reservoir of pathogenic vibrios. Thus, ship biofouling might be an overlooked vector with regard to the dissemination of pathogens, primarily pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:25921866

  9. Effects of Changes in Membrane Sodium Flux on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia C. Hase; John J. Mekalanos

    1999-01-01

    The expression of several virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae is coordinately regulated by the ToxT molecule and the membrane proteins TcpP\\/H and ToxR\\/S, which are required for toxT transcription. To identify proteins that negatively affect toxT transcription, we screened transposon mutants of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomally integrated toxT::lacZ reporter construct for darker blue colonies on media containing 5-bromo-4-chlor-3-indolyl beta

  10. Effect of water temperature on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to Vibrio alginolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winton Cheng; Long-Uong Wang; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2005-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei held in 25‰ seawater at 27 °C or 28 °C were injected with TSB-grown Vibrio alginolyticus at 1×104 colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp?1 or 1×105 cfu shrimp?1, and then cultivated onward at water temperatures varying from 20 to 34 °C. Over 24–144 h, mortality of V. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held at 34 °C or 32 °C was significantly

  11. Role of Vibrio cholerae O139 Surface Polysaccharides in Intestinal Colonization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jutta Nesper; Stefan Schild; Crystal M. Lauriano; Anita Kraiss; Karl E. Klose; Joachim Reidl

    2002-01-01

    Received 8 May 2002\\/Returned for modification 8 July 2002\\/Accepted 5 August 2002 Since the first occurrence of O139 Vibrio cholerae as a cause of cholera epidemics, this serogroup has been investigated intensively, and it has been found that its pathogenicity is comparable to that of O1 El Tor strains. O139 isolates express a thin capsule, composed of a polymer of

  12. Toxicity of the extracellular products of Vibrio damsela isolated from diseased fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belén Fouz; Juan L. Barja; Carmen Amaro; Carmen Rivas; Alicia E. Toranzo

    1993-01-01

    In this work we analyzed the pathogenic in vivo and in vitro activities for both fish and mammals of extracellular products (ECP) of several isolates ofVibrio damsela implicated in disease problems in marine culture. The ECP from all the strains were strongly lethal for fish (LD50 ranging from 0.06 to 3.7 µg protein\\/g fish) and mice (LD50 ranging from 0.02

  13. Microbial immunostimulants reduce mortality in whiteleg shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with Vibrio sinaloensis strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ma. del Carmen Flores-Miranda; Antonio Luna-González; Héctor A. González-Ocampo; Jesús A. Fierro-Coronado; Blanca O. Partida-Arangure

    2011-01-01

    The effect of microbial immunostimulants on the survival and immune response of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with Vibrio sinaloensis strains was evaluated. Dead microorganisms were added to feed with the attractant Dry Oil® and consisted of four lactic acid bacteria (Lta2, Lta6, Lta8, and Lta10) and one yeast (Lt6). V. sinaloensis strains or saline solution were inoculated to shrimp by

  14. Immune and physiological responses in Pacific white shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) to Vibrio alginolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Ling Hsieh; Yuan-Hwa Ruan; Yi-Chen Li; Pei-Shan Hsieh; Chin-Hwa Hu; Ching-Ming Kuo

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility, physiological and immune responses of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei, under challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus were investigated for a 72-h period. The survival of shrimp challenged with V. alginolyticus was 86.7, 75.6, 57.8, 54.4, 48.9 and 44.4% after 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h, respectively. No significant differences in immune parameters were observed among the control

  15. The Global Regulator ArcA Modulates Expression of Virulence Factors in Vibrio cholerae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilanjan Sengupta; Kalidas Paul; Rukhsana Chowdhury

    2003-01-01

    A Vibrio cholerae arcA mutant was constructed and used to examine the role of the global anaerobiosis response regulator ArcA in the expression of virulence factors in this important human pathogen. In V. cholerae, expression of the major virulence factors cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) is regulated by the transcriptional activator ToxT. toxT expression, in turn, is controlled

  16. Incidence of urea-hydrolyzing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Willapa Bay, Washington.

    PubMed Central

    Kaysner, C A; Abeyta, C; Stott, R F; Lilja, J L; Wekell, M M

    1990-01-01

    A high incidence (71.5%) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was found in samples of water, oysters, and sediment from a Washington State estuary which produces a significant amount of commercial product. Strains of V. parahaemolyticus capable of hydrolyzing urea comprised 58.4% of all V. parahaemolyticus isolates tested. Values for fecal coliforms were within certification criteria for commercial harvest and were not correlated with levels of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:2339878

  17. Incidence of urea-hydrolyzing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Willapa Bay, Washington.

    PubMed

    Kaysner, C A; Abeyta, C; Stott, R F; Lilja, J L; Wekell, M M

    1990-04-01

    A high incidence (71.5%) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was found in samples of water, oysters, and sediment from a Washington State estuary which produces a significant amount of commercial product. Strains of V. parahaemolyticus capable of hydrolyzing urea comprised 58.4% of all V. parahaemolyticus isolates tested. Values for fecal coliforms were within certification criteria for commercial harvest and were not correlated with levels of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:2339878

  18. Molecular cloning of the recA analog from the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum 775

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, J.T. (Univ. of Maine, Orono (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The recA analog from Vibrio anguillarum 775 was isolated by complementation of recA mutations in Escherichia coli, and its protein product was identified. The recA analog promoted recombination between two partially deleted lactose operons, stimulated both spontaneous and mitomycin C-induced phage production in RecA- lambda lysogens, and restored near wild-type levels of resistance to UV radiation and methyl methanesulfonate.

  19. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 14 Vibrio parahaemolyticus Clinical Isolates with an Ambiguous K Serogroup.

    PubMed

    Ronholm, J; Petronella, N; Kenwell, R; Banerjee, S

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a bacterial pathogen responsible for mild to severe gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia resulting from the ingestion or handling of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood. Here, we report the draft whole-genome sequences and annotations of 14 Canadian V. parahaemolyticus clinical isolates that were serologically identified as K group II using polyvalent antisera but were not specifically K serogrouped using monovalent antisera. PMID:25838480

  20. A Role for the Mannose-Sensitive Hemagglutinin in Biofilm Formation by Vibrio cholerae El Tor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAULA I. WATNICK; KARLA JEAN FULLNER; ROBERTO KOLTER

    1999-01-01

    While much has been learned regarding the genetic basis of host-pathogen interactions, less is known about the molecular basis of a pathogen's survival in the environment. Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces represents a survival strategy utilized by many microbes. Here it is shown that Vibrio cholerae El Tor does not use the virulence-associated toxin-coregulated pilus to form biofilms on borosilicate

  1. The effect of shock pressures on the inactivation of a marine Vibrio sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abe; H. Mimura; H. Ishida; K. Yoshida

    2007-01-01

    The effect of shock pressures on the inactivation of a marine Vibrio sp. was studied experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, an aluminum impactor plate accelerated by a gas gun was\\u000a used to induce shock waves in a sealed aluminum container with cell suspension liquid inside. The shock pressures in the container\\u000a were measured by a piezofilm gauge. Several 10–100 MPa

  2. Development of a sensitive and specific biosensor assay to detect Vibrio vulnificus in estuarine waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Biosensor development has the potential to meet the need for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of pathogenic bacteria from natural sources. An antibody-based fiber-optic biosensor assay to detect low levels of Vibrio vulnificus in estuarine waters following an enrichment step was developed. The principle of the sensor is based on an immuno-sandwich assay where an anti-V. vulnificus polyclonal capture antibody

  3. Immunosensor for the detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 using surface plasmon resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jy-Young Jyoung; SaHyun Hong; Woochang Lee; Jeong-Woo Choi

    2006-01-01

    An immunosensor for the detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 was developed on the basis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). A protein G layer was fabricated by means of the chemical coupling between the free amine (-NH2) groups of protein G and the activated carboxyl groups present on a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of a mixture of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and

  4. Survival and viability of nonculturable Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae in the estuarine and marine environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huai-Shu Xu; N. Roberts; F. L. Singleton; R. W. Attwell; D. J. Grimes; R. R. Colwell

    1982-01-01

    Plating methods for estimating survival of indicator organisms, such asEscherichia coli, and water-borne pathogens includingVibrio cholerae, have severe limitations when used to estimate viable populations of these organisms in the aquatic environment. By combining the methods of immunofluorescent microscopy, acridine orange direct counting, and direct viable counting, with culture methods such as indirect enumeration by most probable number (MPN) estimation

  5. Regulation and Temporal Expression Patterns of Vibrio cholerae Virulence Genes during Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Ho Lee; David L Hava; Matthew K Waldor; Andrew Camilli

    1999-01-01

    The temporal expression patterns of the critical Vibrio cholerae virulence genes, tcpA and ctxA, were determined during infection using a recombinase reporter. TcpA was induced biphasically in two temporally and spatially separable events in the small intestine, whereas ctxA was induced monophasically only after, and remarkably, dependent upon, tcpA expression; however, this dependence was not observed during in vitro growth.

  6. Quorum-sensing regulators control virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhu; Melissa B. Miller; Russell E. Vance; Michelle Dziejman; John J. Mekalanos

    2002-01-01

    The production of virulence factors including cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is strongly influenced by environmental conditions. The well-characterized ToxR signal transduction cascade is responsible for sensing and integrating the environmental information and controlling the virulence regulon. We show here that, in addition to the known components of the ToxR signaling circuit, quorum-sensing

  7. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Disruption of Epithelial Cell Tight Junctions Occurs Independently of Toxin Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarah Lynch; Scott Livingstone; Enrico Buenaventura; Erika Lutter; Jason Fedwick; Andre G. Buret; David Graham; Rebekah DeVinney

    2005-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Virulence is commonly associated with the production of two toxins, thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemo- lysin (TRH). Although the majority of clinical isolates produce TDH and\\/or TRH, clinical samples lacking toxin genes have been identified. In the present study, we investigated the effects of V. parahaemolyticus on transepithelial

  8. Ferrophilic Characteristics of Vibrio vulnificus and Potential Usefulness of Iron Chelation Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    We determined the ferrophilic characteristics of Vibrio vulnificus to evaluate the potential usefulness of iron chelation therapy for the prevention of V. vulnificus infection. Readily available non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) is required for the initiation of V. vulnificus growth under in vitro iron-limited conditions and human ex vivo conditions. NTBI aided efficient transferrin-bound iron (TBI) use by V. vulnificus, and the

  9. Siderophore-Mediated Iron Acquisition Mechanisms in Vibrio vulnificusBiotype 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELENA G. BIOSCA; BELEN FOUZ; ELENA ALCAIDE; ANDCARMEN AMARO

    1996-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is a primary pathogen for eels and, as has recently been suggested, an opportu- nisticpathogenforhumans.InthisstudywehaveinvestigatedtheabilityofV.vulnificusbiotype2toobtainiron by siderophore-mediated mechanisms and evaluated the importance of free iron in vibriosis. The virulence degree for eels was dependent on iron availability from hostfluids, as was revealed by a reduction in the 50% lethal dose for iron-overloaded eels. This biotype produced

  10. Isolation and characterization of actinomycetes antagonistic to pathogenic Vibrio spp. from nearshore marine sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. You; L. X. Cao; G. F. Liu; S. N. Zhou; H. M. Tan; Y. C. Lin

    2005-01-01

    Summary A total of 94 actinomycete strains were isolated from the marine sediments of a shrimp farm, 87.2% belonged to the genus Streptomyces, others were Micromonospora spp. Fifty-one percent of the actinomycete strains showed activity against the pathogenic Vibrio spp. strains. Thirty-eight percent of marine Streptomyces strains produced siderophores on chrome azurol S (CAS) agar plates. Seven strains of Streptomyces

  11. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Increasing Shelf Life of Oyster Meats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunyu Xi; Chengchu Liu; Yi-Cheng Su

    This study investigated effects of tea extract on growth of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and potential utilization in post-harvest treatment to extend shelf life of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Longjing Tea, which exhibited strong bactericidal activity against V. parahaemolyticus, was selected to use in this study. Tea extract containing equal or higher than 4.6 g\\/l total phenolic contents (TPC) as gallic

  12. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and non-O139

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ashok Kumar; Jamila Patterson; P. Karpagam

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY: In this study, the patterns of resistance to 10 antibiotics by 730 Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and non- O139 species isolated from both environmental and seafood samples were investigated. Susceptibility to different antimicrobial agents was assessed by the disc diffusion technique. The frequencies of resistance to 10 antimicrobial agents--ampicillin, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, erythromycin, gentamycin, streptomycin, oxytetracycline, vancomycin, penicillin, and neomycin--were 88,

  13. Production of microbial cellulose by a bacterium isolated from fruit.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Firdaus; Kumar, Vinod; Rawat, Garima; Saxena, R K

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by a bacterium isolated from a rotten fruit and its process optimization. Here, isolation and screening of potent cellulose producers were carried out from different natural sources, viz., soil, rotten fruits, and vegetables and vinegar. A total of 200 bacterial isolates were obtained, which were screened for cellulose production using Hestrin-Schramm medium. A novel and potent cellulose-producing bacterium was newly isolated from a rotten fruit and identified as Gluconacetobacter sp. F6 through 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and morphological, cultural, and biochemical characteristics. After optimization of culture conditions, including pH, temperature, agitation, carbon/nitrogen sources, and inducers, the BC production was greatly increased from 0.52 to 4.5 g/l (8.65-fold increase). The optimal culture medium contained 1% (w/v) glucose, 1.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.27% (w/v) disodium hydrogen phosphate, 0.115% (w/v) citric acid, and 0.4% (w/v) ethanol. BC produced was analyzed for the presence of cellulose fibrils by epiflourescent microscopy using Calcofluor white stain and scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by NMR. There are very scanty reports about the optimization of BC production by bacteria isolated from rotten fruits. PMID:22391690

  14. Multiheme cytochromes from the sulfur-reducing bacterium Desulfuromonas acetoxidans.

    PubMed

    Pereira, I A; Pacheco, I; Liu, M Y; Legall, J; Xavier, A V; Teixeira, M

    1997-09-01

    Two new multiheme cytochromes were isolated from the anaerobic sulfur reducing bacterium Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. They have monomeric molecular masses of 50 and 65 kDa and contain six and eight hemes, respectively. Visible and EPR spectroscopies, in the as-isolated (oxidised) cytochromes, show the presence of only low-spin hemes in the 50-kDa cytochrome, and of high-spin and low-spin hemes in the 65-kDa cytochrome. The EPR spectra of the native 65-kDa cytochrome indicate multiple heme-heme interactions, including integer-spin systems as judged by parallel-mode EPR. The 50-kDa cytochrome has a complex redox pattern, as shown by EPR redox titrations, and contains one heme with unusual characteristics. Both cytochromes cover an extremely wide range of reduction potentials, which go from +100 mV to -375 mV for the 50-kDa cytochrome, and +185 mV to -235 mV for the 65-kDa cytochrome. The two cytochromes were tested for hydroxylamine oxidoreductase activity and polysulfide reductase activity, but neither displayed any activity. In contrast, it was found for the first time that the previously characterised cytochrome c551.5, from the same bacterium is very active in the reduction of polysulfide, which suggests that it acts as a terminal reductase in D. acetoxidans. PMID:9346284

  15. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyeong; Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-09-01

    We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla. PMID:25289015

  16. Isolation and Characterization of a Mo6+ -Reducing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Baharuddin; Takai, Masataka; Hisham, N. Zul; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Ismail, A. K. Mohamed; Tano, Tatsuo; Sugio, Tsuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    A Mo6+ -reducing bacterium (strain 48), which grew on medium supplemented with 200 mM Mo6+, was isolated from stream water obtained from Chengkau, Malaysia. The chemical properties of strain 48 conform to the characteristics of Enterobacter cloacae. Under anaerobic conditions in the glucose-yeast extract medium containing phosphate ion (2.9 mM) and Mo6+ (10 mM), the bacterium reduced Mo6+ to form molybdenum blue. Approximately 27% of Mo6+ added to the medium was reduced after 28 h of cultivation. The reduction of Mo6+ with glucose as an electron donor was strongly inhibited by iodoacetic acid, sodium fluoride, and sodium cyanide, suggesting an involvement of the glycolytic pathway and electron transport in Mo6+ reduction. NADH and N,N,N?,N? -tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine served as electron donors for Mo6+ reduction. When NADH was used as an electron donor, at first cytochrome b in the cell extract was reduced, and then molybdenum blue was formed. Sodium cyanide strongly inhibited Mo6+ reduction by NADH (5 mM) but not the reduction of cytochrome b in the cell extract, suggesting that the reduced component of the electron transport system after cytochrome b serves as an electron donor for Mo6+ reduction. Both ferric and stannous ions strongly enhanced the activity of Mo6+ reduction by NADH. PMID:16348915

  17. Isolation and characterization of a mo -reducing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ghani, B; Takai, M; Hisham, N Z; Kishimoto, N; Ismail, A K; Tano, T; Sugio, T

    1993-04-01

    A Mo -reducing bacterium (strain 48), which grew on medium supplemented with 200 mM Mo, was isolated from stream water obtained from Chengkau, Malaysia. The chemical properties of strain 48 conform to the characteristics of Enterobacter cloacae. Under anaerobic conditions in the glucose-yeast extract medium containing phosphate ion (2.9 mM) and Mo (10 mM), the bacterium reduced Mo to form molybdenum blue. Approximately 27% of Mo added to the medium was reduced after 28 h of cultivation. The reduction of Mo with glucose as an electron donor was strongly inhibited by iodoacetic acid, sodium fluoride, and sodium cyanide, suggesting an involvement of the glycolytic pathway and electron transport in Mo reduction. NADH and N,N,N',N' -tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine served as electron donors for Mo reduction. When NADH was used as an electron donor, at first cytochrome b in the cell extract was reduced, and then molybdenum blue was formed. Sodium cyanide strongly inhibited Mo reduction by NADH (5 mM) but not the reduction of cytochrome b in the cell extract, suggesting that the reduced component of the electron transport system after cytochrome b serves as an electron donor for Mo reduction. Both ferric and stannous ions strongly enhanced the activity of Mo reduction by NADH. PMID:16348915

  18. Morphological changes in an acidophilic bacterium induced by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rajdeep; Banerjee, Pataki C

    2008-03-01

    The Acidiphilium strains inhabit acidic mine regions where they are subjected to occasional environmental stresses such as high and low temperatures, exposure to various heavy metals, etc. Change in morphology is one of the strategies that bacteria adopt to cope with environmental stresses; however, no study on this aspect has been reported in the case of Acidiphilium sp. This work is an attempt using the acidophilic heterotrophic bacterium Acidiphilium symbioticum H8. It was observed that the maximum alterations in size occurred when the bacterium was exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of Cu and Cd. Loosely packed coccobacillus-type normal cells formed characteristic chains of coccoidal lenticular shape with constrictions at the junctions between them in the presence of Cd; Cu induced transformation of cells to become round shaped; Ni caused the cells to aggregate, but Zn showed no effect. Respective metal depositions on the cell surface were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Cell bound Ca2+ ions were replaced by these metal ions and measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry from the culture filtrate. Cell shape changed only after the addition of sub-inhibitory concentrations of the metals, but in growth inhibitory concentrations it was similar to the normal cells. PMID:18193380

  19. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyeong; Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla. PMID:25289015

  20. Hydrogenomics of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus.

    PubMed

    van de Werken, Harmen J G; Verhaart, Marcel R A; VanFossen, Amy L; Willquist, Karin; Lewis, Derrick L; Nichols, Jason D; Goorissen, Heleen P; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Nelson, Karen E; van Niel, Ed W J; Stams, Alfons J M; Ward, Donald E; de Vos, Willem M; van der Oost, John; Kelly, Robert M; Kengen, Servé W M

    2008-11-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is an extremely thermophilic, gram-positive anaerobe which ferments cellulose-, hemicellulose- and pectin-containing biomass to acetate, CO(2), and hydrogen. Its broad substrate range, high hydrogen-producing capacity, and ability to coutilize glucose and xylose make this bacterium an attractive candidate for microbial bioenergy production. Here, the complete genome sequence of C. saccharolyticus, consisting of a 2,970,275-bp circular chromosome encoding 2,679 predicted proteins, is described. Analysis of the genome revealed that C. saccharolyticus has an extensive polysaccharide-hydrolyzing capacity for cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and starch, coupled to a large number of ABC transporters for monomeric and oligomeric sugar uptake. The components of the Embden-Meyerhof and nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathways are all present; however, there is no evidence that an Entner-Doudoroff pathway is present. Catabolic pathways for a range of sugars, including rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, glucuronate, fructose, and galactose, were identified. These pathways lead to the production of NADH and reduced ferredoxin. NADH and reduced ferredoxin are subsequently used by two distinct hydrogenases to generate hydrogen. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis revealed that there is significant upregulation of the glycolytic pathway and an ABC-type sugar transporter during growth on glucose and xylose, indicating that C. saccharolyticus coferments these sugars unimpeded by glucose-based catabolite repression. The capacity to simultaneously process and utilize a range of carbohydrates associated with biomass feedstocks is a highly desirable feature of this lignocellulose-utilizing, biofuel-producing bacterium. PMID:18776029

  1. Pseudomonas sp. Strain 273, an Aerobic ?,?-DichloroalkaneDegrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Wischnak, Catrin; Löffler, Frank E.; Li, Jieran; Urbance, John W.; Müller, Rudolf

    1998-01-01

    A gram-negative, aerobic bacterium was isolated from soil; this bacterium grew in 50% (vol/vol) suspensions of 1,10-dichlorodecane (1,10-DCD) as the sole source of carbon and energy. Phenotypic and small-subunit ribosomal RNA characterizations identified the organism, designated strain 273, as a member of the genus Pseudomonas. After induction with 1,10-DCD, Pseudomonas sp. strain 273 released stoichiometric amounts of chloride from C5 to C12 ?,?-dichloroalkanes in the presence of oxygen. No dehalogenation occurred under anaerobic conditions. The best substrates for dehalogenation and growth were C9 to C12 chloroalkanes. The isolate also grew with nonhalogenated aliphatic compounds, and decane-grown cells dechlorinated 1,10-DCD without a lag phase. In addition, cells grown on decane dechlorinated 1,10-DCD in the presence of chloramphenicol, indicating that the 1,10-DCD-dechlorinating enzyme system was also induced by decane. Other known alkane-degrading Pseudomonas species did not grow with 1,10-DCD as a carbon source. Dechlorination of 1,10-DCD was demonstrated in cell extracts of Pseudomonas sp. strain 273. Cell-free activity was strictly oxygen dependent, and NADH stimulated dechlorination, whereas EDTA had an inhibitory effect. PMID:9726906

  2. Mutations in the lux operon of natural dark mutants in the genus Vibrio.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Elizabeth A; Wimpee, Charles F

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial bioluminescence can display a wide range of intensities among strains, from very bright to undetectable, and it has been shown previously that there are nonluminous vibrios that possess lux genes. In this paper, we report the isolation and characterization of completely dark natural mutants in the genus Vibrio. Screening of over 600 Vibrio isolates with a luxA gene probe revealed that approximately 5% carried the luxA gene. Bioluminescence assays of the luxA-positive isolates, followed by repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting, showed three unique genotypes that are completely dark. The dark mutants show a variety of lesions, including an insertion sequence, point mutations, and deletions. Strain BCB451 has an IS10 insertion sequence in luxA, a mutated luxE stop codon, and a truncated luxH. Strain BCB494 has a 396-bp deletion in luxC, and strain BCB440 has a frameshift in luxC. This paper represents the first molecular characterization of natural dark mutants and the first demonstration of incomplete lux operons in natural isolates. PMID:17981944

  3. New selective plating medium for isolation of Vibrio vulnificus biogroup 1.

    PubMed Central

    Brayton, P R; West, P A; Russek, E; Colwell, R R

    1983-01-01

    A new plating medium (VV agar) has been developed as an alternative to thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar for the isolation of Vibrio vulnificus. Salicin (2% wt/vol) is employed as the source of carbohydrate, with potassium tellurite (0.0005% wt/vol), crystal violet (0.00015% wt/vol), oxgall (0.8% wt/vol), and a pH of 8.6 to inhibit growth of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms other than V. vulnificus. Because strains of V. vulnificus do not strongly ferment salicin in VV agar, a pH indicator has not been included in the medium. Growth of V. vulnificus appears on VV agar as large grey colonies with black centers. Other non-Vibrio strains which grow on the medium produce smaller colonies and fail to take up tellurite. VV agar has proved to be more effective than TCBS agar in inhibiting members of the Enterobacteriaceae as well as gram-positive cocci. Only Vibrio strains capable of utilizing salicin grow well on VV agar. Recovery and growth of V. vulnificus are superior on VV agar, compared with TCBS agar. Images PMID:6874897

  4. Adaptation to enemy shifts: rapid resistance evolution to local Vibrio spp. in invasive Pacific oysters.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Carolin C; Wegner, K Mathias

    2015-04-01

    One hypothesis for the success of invasive species is reduced pathogen burden, resulting from a release from infections or high immunological fitness of invaders. Despite strong selection exerted on the host, the evolutionary response of invaders to newly acquired pathogens has rarely been considered. The two independent and genetically distinct invasions of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas into the North Sea represent an ideal model system to study fast evolutionary responses of invasive populations. By exposing both invasion sources to ubiquitous and phylogenetically diverse pathogens (Vibrio spp.), we demonstrate that within a few generations hosts adapted to newly encountered pathogen communities. However, local adaptation only became apparent in selective environments, i.e. at elevated temperatures reflecting patterns of disease outbreaks in natural populations. Resistance against sympatric and allopatric Vibrio spp. strains was dominantly inherited in crosses between both invasion sources, resulting in an overall higher resistance of admixed individuals than pure lines. Therefore, we suggest that a simple genetic resistance mechanism of the host is matched to a common virulence mechanism shared by local Vibrio strains. This combination might have facilitated a fast evolutionary response that can explain another dimension of why invasive species can be so successful in newly invaded ranges. PMID:25716784

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Antarctic Psychrophilic Bacterium Pseudomonas syringae Strain Lz4W

    PubMed Central

    Pandiyan, Apuratha

    2013-01-01

    The psychrophilic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae strain Lz4W was isolated from soil samples from Antarctica to decipher the mechanisms of low-temperature adaptation. We report here the 4.982-Mb draft genome sequence of P. syringae Lz4W. This sequence will provide insights into the genomic basis of the psychrophilicity of this bacterium. PMID:23788547

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Nonlabens ulvanivorans, an Ulvan-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Kopel, Moran; Helbert, William; Henrissat, Bernard; Doniger, Tirza

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of the bacterium Nonlabens ulvanivorans, which was recently isolated. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of a characterized ulvan-degrading bacterium. Revealing the ulvan utilization pathways may provide access to a vast marine biomass source that has yet to be exploited. PMID:25125644

  7. Genome sequence of the Antarctic psychrophile bacterium Planococcus antarcticus DSM 14505.

    PubMed

    Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel; Sánchez, Borja

    2012-08-01

    Planococcus antarcticus DSM 14505 is a psychrophile bacterium that was isolated from cyanobacterial mat samples, originally collected from ponds in McMurdo, Antarctica. This orange-pigmented bacterium grows at 4°C and may possess interesting enzymatic activities at low temperatures. Here we report the first genomic sequence of P. antarcticus DSM 14505. PMID:22843594

  8. Genome Sequence of the Mycorrhizal Helper Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6R8

    PubMed Central

    Gross, H.; Morin, E.; Karpinets, T.; Utturkar, S.; Mehnaz, S.; Martin, F.; Frey-Klett, P.; Labbé, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of the mycorrhizal helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain BBc6R8. This is the first genome of a mycorrhizal helper bacterium. The draft genome contains 6,952,353 bp and is predicted to encode 6,317 open reading frames. Comparative genomic analyses will help to identify helper traits. PMID:24407649

  9. A Pseudomonas viridiflava-Related Bacterium Causes a Dark-Reddish Spot Disease in Glycine max

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Ana M.; San José, Mateo; González-Varela, Germán; Rodicio, M. Rosario

    2012-01-01

    A virulent Pseudomonas viridiflava-related bacterium has been identified as a new pathogen of soybean, one of the most important crops worldwide. The bacterium was recovered from forage soybean leaves with dark-reddish spots, and damage on petioles and pods was also observed. In contrast, common bean was not affected. PMID:22407694

  10. Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus erythropolis Strain CCM2595, a Phenol Derivative-Degrading Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Strnad, Hynek; Patek, Miroslav; Fousek, Jan; Szokol, Juraj; Ulbrich, Pavel; Nesvera, Jan; Paces, Vaclav; Vlcek, Cestmir

    2014-01-01

    We announce the completion of the genome sequence of a phenol derivative-degrading bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis strain CCM2595. This bacterium is interesting in the context of bioremediation for its capability to degrade phenol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroxybenzoate, hydroquinone, p-chlorophenol, p-nitrophenol, pyrimidines, and sterols. PMID:24652983

  11. Comment on "A Bacterium That Can Grow by Using Arsenic Instead

    E-print Network

    Redfield, Rosemary J. "Rosie"

    Comment on "A Bacterium That Can Grow by Using Arsenic Instead of Phosphorus" Rosemary J. Redfield that bacterium GFAJ-1 can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus. However, the presence of contaminating on the authors' conclusion that arsenic can substitute for phosphorus in the nucleic acids of this organism. W

  12. Structure and morphology of magnetite anaerobically-produced by a marine magnetotactic bacterium and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparks, N.H.C.; Mann, S.; Bazylinski, D.A.; Lovley, D.R.; Jannasch, H.W.; Frankel, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Intracellular crystals of magnetite synthesized by cells of the magnetotactic vibroid organism, MV-1, and extracellular crystals of magnetite produced by the non-magnetotactic dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium strain GS-15, were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and 57Fe Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. The magnetotactic bacterium contained a single chain of approximately 10 crystals aligned along the long axis of the cell. The crystals were essentially pure stoichiometric magnetite. When viewed along the crystal long axis the particles had a hexagonal cross-section whereas side-on they appeared as rectangules or truncated rectangles of average dimension, 53 ?? 35 nm. These findings are explained in terms of a three-dimensional morphology comprising a hexagonal prism of {110} faces which are capped and truncated by {111} end faces. Electron diffraction and lattice imaging studies indicated that the particles were structurally well-defined single crystals. In contrast, magnetite particles produced by the strain, GS-15 were irregular in shape and had smaller mean dimensions (14 nm). Single crystals were imaged but these were not of high structural perfection. These results highlight the influence of intracellular control on the crystallochemical specificity of bacterial magnetites. The characterization of these crystals is important in aiding the identification of biogenic magnetic materials in paleomagnetism and in studies of sediment magnetization. ?? 1990.

  13. Genome Sequence of Vibrio VPAP30, Isolated from an Episode of Massive Mortality of Reared Larvae of the Scallop Argopecten purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rodrigo; Miranda, Claudio D; Romero, Jaime; Asenjo, Freddy; Valderrama, Katherinne; Segovia, Cristopher; Ugalde, Juan A; Santander, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 5.167-Mbp draft genome sequence of Vibrio VPAP30, isolated from an Argopecten purpuratus larval culture. Vibrio VPAP30 is the etiological agent of a vibriosis outbreak causing a complete collapse of a larval culture of the scallop A. purpuratus, which occurred in a commercial hatchery in Chile. PMID:26159530

  14. R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Multiple Vibrio fischeri genes are involved in biofilm formation

    E-print Network

    Nishiguchi, Michele

    R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Multiple Vibrio fischeri genes are involved in biofilm formation. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2012.01386.x Editor: Julian Marchesi Keywords biofilm; mutualism; Vibrio fischeri; sepiolid squid; beneficial. Abstract Biofilms are increasingly recognized as being

  15. Genome Sequence of Vibrio VPAP30, Isolated from an Episode of Massive Mortality of Reared Larvae of the Scallop Argopecten purpuratus

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Rodrigo; Miranda, Claudio D.; Romero, Jaime; Asenjo, Freddy; Valderrama, Katherinne; Segovia, Cristopher

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 5.167-Mbp draft genome sequence of Vibrio VPAP30, isolated from an Argopecten purpuratus larval culture. Vibrio VPAP30 is the etiological agent of a vibriosis outbreak causing a complete collapse of a larval culture of the scallop A. purpuratus, which occurred in a commercial hatchery in Chile. PMID:26159530

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio fischeri SR5, a Strain Isolated from the Light Organ of the Mediterranean Squid Sepiola robusta

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    of the Mediterranean Squid Sepiola robusta Mattias C. Gyllborg,a Jason W. Sahl,b David C. Cronin III,a David A. Rasko genome sequence of Vibrio fischeri SR5, a squid symbiotic isolate from Sepiola robusta in the Medi symbiont and the first from outside the Pacific Ocean. Vibrio-squid mutualisms represent valuable models

  17. Characterization of the quinones in purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuuka; Kawakami, Tomoaki; Yu, Long-Jiang; Yoshimura, Miku; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu

    2015-07-01

    Quinone distributions in the thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum have been investigated at different levels of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here we show that, on average, the intracytoplasmic membrane contains 18 ubiquinones (UQ) and 4 menaquinones (MQ) per reaction center (RC). About one-third of the quinones are retained in the light-harvesting-reaction center core complex (LH1-RC) with a similar ratio of UQ to MQ. The numbers of quinones essentially remains unchanged during crystallization of the LH1-RC. There are 1-2 UQ and 1 MQ associated with the RC-only complex in the purified solution sample. Our results suggest that a large proportion of the quinones are confined to the core complex and at least five UQs remain invisible in the current LH1-RC crystal structure. PMID:26048701

  18. Genome of the Bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain R6

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, JoAnn; Alborn, William E.; Arnold, Jeffrey; Blaszczak, Larry C.; Burgett, Stanley; DeHoff, Bradley S.; Estrem, Shawn T.; Fritz, Lori; Fu, Dong-Jing; Fuller, Wendy; Geringer, Chad; Gilmour, Raymond; Glass, Jennifer S.; Khoja, Hamid; Kraft, Angelika R.; Lagace, Robert E.; LeBlanc, Donald J.; Lee, Linda N.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Lu, Jin; Matsushima, Patti; McAhren, Scott M.; McHenney, Margaret; McLeaster, Kevin; Mundy, Christopher W.; Nicas, Thalia I.; Norris, Franklin H.; O'Gara, MaryJeanne; Peery, Robert B.; Robertson, Gregory T.; Rockey, Pamela; Sun, Pei-Ming; Winkler, Malcolm E.; Yang, Yong; Young-Bellido, Michelle; Zhao, Genshi; Zook, Christopher A.; Baltz, Richard H.; Jaskunas, S. Richard; Rosteck, Paul R.; Skatrud, Paul L.; Glass, John I.

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most significant causes of bacterial disease in humans. Here we report the 2,038,615-bp genomic sequence of the gram-positive bacterium S. pneumoniae R6. Because the R6 strain is avirulent and, more importantly, because it is readily transformed with DNA from homologous species and many heterologous species, it is the principal platform for investigation of the biology of this important pathogen. It is also used as a primary vehicle for genomics-based development of antibiotics for gram-positive bacteria. In our analysis of the genome, we identified a large number of new uncharacterized genes predicted to encode proteins that either reside on the surface of the cell or are secreted. Among those proteins there may be new targets for vaccine and antibiotic development. PMID:11544234

  19. Algicidal lactones from the marine Roseobacter clade bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi

    PubMed Central

    Riclea, Ramona; Gleitzmann, Julia; Bruns, Hilke; Junker, Corina; Schulz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Summary Volatiles released by the marine Roseobacter clade bacterium Rugeria pomeroyi were collected by use of a closed-loop stripping headspace apparatus (CLSA) and analysed by GC–MS. Several lactones were found for which structural proposals were derived from their mass spectra and unambiguously verified by the synthesis of reference compounds. An enantioselective synthesis of two exemplary lactones was performed to establish the enantiomeric compositions of the natural products by enantioselective GC–MS analyses. The lactones were subjected to biotests to investigate their activity against several bacteria, fungi, and algae. A specific algicidal activity was observed that may be important in the interaction between the bacteria and their algal hosts in fading algal blooms. PMID:23015844

  20. Endocytosis-like protein uptake in the bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus

    PubMed Central

    Lonhienne, Thierry G. A.; Sagulenko, Evgeny; Webb, Richard I.; Lee, Kuo-Chang; Franke, Josef; Devos, Damien P.; Nouwens, Amanda; Carroll, Bernard J.; Fuerst, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Endocytosis is a process by which extracellular material such as macromolecules can be incorporated into cells via a membrane-trafficking system. Although universal among eukaryotes, endocytosis has not been identified in Bacteria or Archaea. However, intracellular membranes are known to compartmentalize cells of bacteria in the phylum Planctomycetes, suggesting the potential for endocytosis and membrane trafficking in members of this phylum. Here we show that cells of the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus have the ability to uptake proteins present in the external milieu in an energy-dependent process analogous to eukaryotic endocytosis, and that internalized proteins are associated with vesicle membranes. Occurrence of such ability in a bacterium is consistent with autogenous evolution of endocytosis and the endomembrane system in an ancestral noneukaryote cell. PMID:20566852

  1. Linear and cyclic peptides from the entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophilus.

    PubMed

    Lang, Gerhard; Kalvelage, Tim; Peters, Arne; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2008-06-01

    Three new peptides, xenortides A and B and xenematide, were isolated from a culture of the nematode-associated entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophilus. Their structures were elucidated using NMR, MS, and chemical derivatization methods. Xenortides A and B are the N-phenethylamide and tryptamide derivatives, respectively, of the dipeptide (NMe-L-Leu-NMe-L-Phe). The cyclodepsipeptide xenematide has the sequence (Thr-Trp-Trp-Gly), with a 2-phenylacetamide substituent at the threonine residue and one d-tryptophan. The new peptides and the two known compounds xenocoumacin II and nematophin were tested for antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, and anti-Artemia salina activities. Xenematide and xenocoumacin II showed moderate antibacterial activities. Xenocoumacin II, nematophin, and the two xenortides were active in the Artemia salina assay, and xenematide acted weakly insecticidal. PMID:18491867

  2. Siderophore production by the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1.

    PubMed

    Calugay, Ronie J; Miyashita, Hideaki; Okamura, Yoshiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2003-01-28

    Siderophore production by the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 is elicited by sufficient iron rather than by iron starvation. In order to clarify this unusual pattern, siderophore production was monitored in parallel to iron assimilation using the chrome azurol sulfonate assay and the ferrozine method respectively. Iron concentration lowered approximately five times less than its initial concentration only within 4 h post-inoculation, rendering the medium iron deficient. A concentration of at least 6 microM Fe(3+) is required to initiate siderophore production. The propensity of M. magneticum AMB-1 for the assimilation of large amounts of iron accounts for the rapid depletion of iron in the medium, thereby triggering siderophore excretion. M. magneticum AMB-1 produces both hydroxamate and catechol siderophores. PMID:12586419

  3. Genome Analysis of the Anaerobic Thermohalophilic Bacterium Halothermothrix orenii

    PubMed Central

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Lykidis, Athanasios; Hooper, Sean D.; Sun, Hui; Kunin, Victor; Lapidus, Alla; Hugenholtz, Philip; Patel, Bharat; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-01-01

    Halothermothirx orenii is a strictly anaerobic thermohalophilic bacterium isolated from sediment of a Tunisian salt lake. It belongs to the order Halanaerobiales in the phylum Firmicutes. The complete sequence revealed that the genome consists of one circular chromosome of 2578146 bps encoding 2451 predicted genes. This is the first genome sequence of an organism belonging to the Haloanaerobiales. Features of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were identified with the presence of both a sporulating mechanism typical of Firmicutes and a characteristic Gram negative lipopolysaccharide being the most prominent. Protein sequence analyses and metabolic reconstruction reveal a unique combination of strategies for thermophilic and halophilic adaptation. H. orenii can serve as a model organism for the study of the evolution of the Gram negative phenotype as well as the adaptation under thermohalophilic conditions and the development of biotechnological applications under conditions that require high temperatures and high salt concentrations. PMID:19145256

  4. Isolation and characterization of Desulfocurvus thunnarius sp. nov., a sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treating cooking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Olfa; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Postec, Anne; Bartoli, Manon; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib; Fauque, Guy; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-11-01

    A novel anaerobic, chemo-organotrophic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain Olac 40(T), was isolated from a Tunisian wastewater digestor. Cells were curved, motile rods or vibrios (5.0-7.0×0.5 µm). Strain Olac 40(T) grew at temperatures between 15 and 50 °C (optimum 40 °C), and between pH 5.0 and 9.0 (optimum pH 7.1). It did not require NaCl for growth but tolerated it up to 50 g l(-1) (optimum 2 g l(-1)). In the presence of sulfate or thiosulfate, strain Olac 40(T) used lactate, pyruvate and formate as energy sources. Growth was observed on H2 only in the presence of acetate as carbon source. In the presence of sulfate or thiosulfate, the end products of lactate oxidation were acetate, sulfide and CO2. Sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite were used as terminal electron acceptors, but not elemental sulfur, nitrate or nitrite. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Olac 40(T) was 70 mol%. The profile of polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, aminophospholipid and four phospholipids. The main fatty acids were C16?:?0, anteiso-C15?:?0 and iso-C15?:?0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain Olac 40(T) was affiliated with the family Desulfovibrionaceae within the class Deltaproteobacteria. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and physiological characteristics, strain Olac 40(T) is proposed to be assigned to a novel species of the genus Desulfocurvus, for which the name Desulfocurvus thunnarius is proposed. The type strain is Olac 40(T) (?=?DSM 26129(T)?=?JCM 18546(T)). PMID:23811135

  5. Diversity and ecological structure of vibrios in benthic and pelagic habitats along a latitudinal gradient in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A; Silva, Bruno Sergio de O; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Valle, Cecilia; Alves, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Giselle; Garcia, Gizele; Lopes, Rubens M; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the diversity and population structure of the 775 Vibrio isolates from different locations of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO), including St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA), Abrolhos Bank (AB) and the St. Sebastian region (SS), between 2005 and 2010. In this study, 195 novel isolates, obtained from seawater and major benthic organisms (rhodoliths and corals), were compared with a collection of 580 isolates previously characterized (available at www.taxvibrio.lncc.br). The isolates were distributed in 8 major habitat spectra according to AdaptML analysis on the basis of pyrH phylogenetic reconstruction and ecological information, such as isolation source (i.e., corals: Madracis decactis, Mussismilia braziliensis, M. hispida, Phyllogorgia dilatata, Scolymia wellsi; zoanthids: Palythoa caribaeorum, P. variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi; fireworm: Hermodice carunculata; rhodolith; water and sediment) and sampling site regions (SPSPA, AB and SS). Ecologically distinct groups were discerned through AdaptML, which finds phylogenetic groups that are significantly different in their spectra of habitat preferences. Some habitat spectra suggested ecological specialization, with habitat spectra 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to specialization on SPSPA, AB, and SS, respectively. This match between habitat and location may reflect a minor exchange of Vibrio populations between geographically isolated benthic systems. Moreover, we found several widespread Vibrio species predominantly from water column, and different populations of a single Vibrio species from H. carunculata in ecologically distinct groups (H-1 and H-8 respectively). On the other hand, AdaptML detected phylogenetic groups that are found in both the benthos and in open water. The ecological grouping observed suggests dispersal and connectivity between the benthic and pelagic systems in AB. This study is a first attempt to characterize the biogeographic distribution of vibrios in both seawater and several benthic hosts in the SAO. The benthopelagic coupling observed here stands out the importance of vibrios in the global ocean health. PMID:25699199

  6. Whole Transcriptome Profiling of Successful Immune Response to Vibrio Infections in the Oyster Crassostrea gigas by Digital Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Lorgeril, Julien; Zenagui, Reda; Rosa, Rafael D.; Piquemal, David; Bachère, Evelyne

    2011-01-01

    The cultivated Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas has suffered for decades large scale summer mortality phenomenon resulting from the interaction between the environment parameters, the oyster physiological and/or genetic status and the presence of pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio species. To obtain a general picture of the molecular mechanisms implicated in C. gigas immune responsiveness to circumvent Vibrio infections, we have developed the first deep sequencing study of the transcriptome of hemocytes, the immunocompetent cells. Using Digital Gene Expression (DGE), we generated a transcript catalog of up-regulated genes from oysters surviving infection with virulent Vibrio strains (Vibrio splendidus LGP32 and V. aestuarianus LPi 02/41) compared to an avirulent one, V. tasmaniensis LMG 20012T. For that an original experimental infection protocol was developed in which only animals that were able to survive infections were considered for the DGE approach. We report the identification of cellular and immune functions that characterize the oyster capability to survive pathogenic Vibrio infections. Functional annotations highlight genes related to signal transduction of immune response, cell adhesion and communication as well as cellular processes and defence mechanisms of phagocytosis, actin cytosqueleton reorganization, cell trafficking and autophagy, but also antioxidant and anti-apoptotic reactions. In addition, quantitative PCR analysis reveals the first identification of pathogen-specific signatures in oyster gene regulation, which opens the way for in depth molecular studies of oyster-pathogen interaction and pathogenesis. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling oyster capacity to survive a Vibrio infection and, subsequently, for a better understanding of the phenomenon of summer mortality. PMID:21829707

  7. [Clinico-epidemiological characteristics of diseases caused by halophilic vibrios along the coast of the Sea of Azov].

    PubMed

    Shikulov, V A; Libinzon, A E; Mitsevich, G F; Koval'chuk, I A

    1987-07-01

    The epidemiological and clinical features of alimentary toxinfections caused by halophilic vibrios on the Crimean coast of the Sea of Azov at the period of 1976-1984 were studied. Toxinfections were linked mainly with the use of sea-food subjected to different kinds of culinary treatment and took the course of gastroenteritis. To prevent toxinfections caused by halophilic vibrios, the technology, as well as sanitary and hygienic norms, should be strictly observed in the production of sea-food; besides, special methods of bacteriological diagnosis should be introduced into practice at laboratories of medical institutions and fish-processing plants. PMID:2960107

  8. A novel agar formulation for isolation and direct enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from oyster tissue.

    PubMed

    Griffitt, Kimberly J; Grimes, D Jay

    2013-08-01

    A new selective and differential medium, Vibrio vulnificus X-Gal (VVX), was developed for direct enumeration of V. vulnificus (Vv) from oyster samples. This agar utilizes cellobiose and lactose as carbon sources, and the antibiotics colistin and polymyxin B as selective agents. Hydrolysis of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl- beta-d-galactopyranoside (x-gal), used in the agar as a lactose analog, produces an insoluble blue dye that makes lactose positive colonies easily distinguishable from any non-lactose fermenting bacteria. Various bacterial species were spot plated onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS), and CHROMagar Vibrio, two vibrio-specific selective agars, non-selective agar, and VVX to compare selectivity of VVX to other widely used media. A V. vulnificus pure culture was serially diluted on VVX and non-selective agar to determine the VVX percent recovery. Water and oyster samples were spread plated on VVX agar and allowed to incubate for 16-18 h at 33 °C. Blue and white colonies from VVX agar were picked and screened by end point PCR for the Vv hemolysin vvhA. VVX agar showed a significant improvement over TCBS and CHROMagar at preventing non-target growth. There was an 87.5% recovery compared to non-selective plating and a 98% positivity rate of blue colonies picked from oyster tissue plating. The findings suggest that this new agar is a fast, distinctive, and accurate method for enumeration of V. vulnificus from the environment. PMID:23660708

  9. High-salt preadaptation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus enhances survival in response to lethal environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Kalburge, Sai Siddarth; Whitaker, W Brian; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2014-02-01

    Adaptation to changing environmental conditions is an important strategy for survival of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative seafoodborne enteric pathogen found in the marine environment both free living and associated with oysters. This pathogen is a moderate halophile, with optimal growth at 3% NaCl. Among the several stresses imposed upon enteric bacteria, acid stress is perhaps one of the most important. V. parahaemolyticus has a lysine decarboxylase system responsible for decarboxylation of lysine to the basic product cadaverine, an important acid stress response system in bacteria. Preadaptation to mild acid conditions, i.e., the acid tolerance response, enhances survival under lethal acid conditions. Because of the variety of conditions encountered by V. parahaemolyticus in the marine environment and in oyster postharvest facilities, we examined the nature of the V. parahaemolyticus acid tolerance response under high-salinity conditions. Short preadaptation to a 6% salt concentration increased survival of the wild-type strain but not that of a cadA mutant under lethal acid conditions. However, prolonged exposure to high salinity (16 h) increased survival of both the wild-type and the cadA mutant strains. This phenotype was not dependent on the stress response sigma factor RpoS. Although this preadaptation response is much more pronounced in V. parahaemolyticus, this characteristic is not limited to this species. Both Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus also survive better under lethal acid stress conditions when preadapted to high-salinity conditions. High salt both protected the organism against acid stress and increased survival under -20°C cold stress conditions. High-salt adaptation of V. parahaemolyticus strains significantly increases survival under environmental stresses that would otherwise be lethal to these bacteria. PMID:24490918

  10. Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster and clam culturing environments in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Ting; Jong, Koa-Jen; Lin, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Shing-en; Tey, Yao Hsien; Wong, Hin-chung

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most prevalent gastroenteritis pathogen in Taiwan and some other Asian countries, and it frequently occurs in oysters and other seafood. This study monitors changes in the density of V. parahaemolyticus and environmental parameters in oyster and hard clam aquacultural environments in Taiwan. Water, sediment and shellfish samples were collected from five sampling sites in 2008-2010, and analyzed for environmental physiochemical parameters, numbers of indicator bacteria (total aerobic counts, total coliforms and fecal coliforms), Vibrio and V. parahaemolyticus present. The results for open oyster farms and hard clam ponds did not differ significantly. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 77.5, 77.5, 70.8 and 68.8% of the water, sediment, oyster and clam samples, respectively. The densities of V. parahaemolyticus were significantly higher in shellfish than in sediment or water samples, with mean values of 1.33, 1.04 and -0.02 Log CFU/g, respectively. Among these five sampling sites, Shengang and Fangyuan yielded significantly different data from those obtained at the other three sites. As determined by linear multiple regression, V. parahaemolyticus density in water samples depended significantly on the precipitation and Vibrio count, while the V. parahaemolyticus density in the sediment or shellfish samples depended significantly on the salinity of the seawater. Among 1076 isolates examined, a total of three putative pathogenic isolates were identified from 2.5% of the examined samples, and these isolates exhibited hemolytic or urease activities and the presence of gene markers for tdh, trh, type III secretion system (T3SS) 1 (vcrD1) or T3SS2? (vcrD2). The results herein may facilitate the assessment of risk associated with this pathogen in Taiwan and other geographically similar regions. PMID:23290223

  11. Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sandra; Miwanda, Berthe; Sadji, Adodo Yao; Thefenne, Hélène; Jeddi, Fakhri; Rebaudet, Stanislas; de Boeck, Hilde; Bidjada, Bawimodom; Depina, Jean-Jacques; Bompangue, Didier; Abedi, Aaron Aruna; Koivogui, Lamine; Keita, Sakoba; Garnotel, Eric; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Ruimy, Raymond; Thomson, Nicholas; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Background Since cholera appeared in Africa during the 1970s, cases have been reported on the continent every year. In Sub-Saharan Africa, cholera outbreaks primarily cluster at certain hotspots including the African Great Lakes Region and West Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we applied MLVA (Multi-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis) typing of 337 Vibrio cholerae isolates from recent cholera epidemics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Zambia, Guinea and Togo. We aimed to assess the relationship between outbreaks. Applying this method, we identified 89 unique MLVA haplotypes across our isolate collection. MLVA typing revealed the short-term divergence and microevolution of these Vibrio cholerae populations to provide insight into the dynamics of cholera outbreaks in each country. Our analyses also revealed strong geographical clustering. Isolates from the African Great Lakes Region (DRC and Zambia) formed a closely related group, while West African isolates (Togo and Guinea) constituted a separate cluster. At a country-level scale our analyses revealed several distinct MLVA groups, most notably DRC 2011/2012, DRC 2009, Zambia 2012 and Guinea 2012. We also found that certain MLVA types collected in the DRC persisted in the country for several years, occasionally giving rise to expansive epidemics. Finally, we found that the six environmental isolates in our panel were unrelated to the epidemic isolates. Conclusions/Significance To effectively combat the disease, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of cholera emergence and diffusion in a region-specific manner. Overall, these findings demonstrate the relationship between distinct epidemics in West Africa and the African Great Lakes Region. This study also highlights the importance of monitoring and analyzing Vibrio cholerae isolates. PMID:26110870

  12. The Effects of Storage Temperature on the Growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Organoleptic Properties in Oysters

    PubMed Central

    Mudoh, Meshack Fon; Parveen, Salina; Schwarz, Jurgen; Rippen, Tom; Chaudhuri, Anish

    2014-01-01

    During harvesting and storage, microbial pathogens and natural spoilage flora may grow, negatively affecting the composition and texture of oysters and posing a potential health threat to susceptible consumers. A solution to these problems would mitigate associated damaging effects on the seafood industry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of storage temperature on growth of vibrios as well as other microbial, sensory, and textural characteristics of post-harvest shellstock Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Oysters harvested from the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, during summer months (June, July, and August, 2010) were subjected to three storage temperatures (5, 10, and 20°C) over a 10-day period. At selected time intervals (0, 1, 3, 7, and 10?days), two separate samples of six oysters each were homogenated and analyzed for pH, halophilic plate counts (HPC), total vibrios, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp). Oyster meats shucked after storage were also organoleptically evaluated (acceptability, appearance, and odor). Texture analysis was performed using a texture analyzer on meats shucked from oysters held under the same conditions. The pH of the oyster homogenates showed no consistent pattern with storage time and temperature. The HPC (4.5–9.4?log?CFU/g) were highest on day 7 at 20°C while olfactory acceptance reduced with time and increasing storage temperatures. The Vp counts increased over time from 3.5 to 7.5?log MPN/g by day 10. Loss of freshness as judged by appearance and odor was significant over time (p?

  13. The Effects of Storage Temperature on the Growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Organoleptic Properties in Oysters.

    PubMed

    Mudoh, Meshack Fon; Parveen, Salina; Schwarz, Jurgen; Rippen, Tom; Chaudhuri, Anish

    2014-01-01

    During harvesting and storage, microbial pathogens and natural spoilage flora may grow, negatively affecting the composition and texture of oysters and posing a potential health threat to susceptible consumers. A solution to these problems would mitigate associated damaging effects on the seafood industry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of storage temperature on growth of vibrios as well as other microbial, sensory, and textural characteristics of post-harvest shellstock Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Oysters harvested from the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, during summer months (June, July, and August, 2010) were subjected to three storage temperatures (5, 10, and 20°C) over a 10-day period. At selected time intervals (0, 1, 3, 7, and 10?days), two separate samples of six oysters each were homogenated and analyzed for pH, halophilic plate counts (HPC), total vibrios, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp). Oyster meats shucked after storage were also organoleptically evaluated (acceptability, appearance, and odor). Texture analysis was performed using a texture analyzer on meats shucked from oysters held under the same conditions. The pH of the oyster homogenates showed no consistent pattern with storage time and temperature. The HPC (4.5-9.4?log?CFU/g) were highest on day 7 at 20°C while olfactory acceptance reduced with time and increasing storage temperatures. The Vp counts increased over time from 3.5 to 7.5?log MPN/g by day 10. Loss of freshness as judged by appearance and odor was significant over time (p?

  14. Environmental Signals Controlling Production of Hemagglutinin/Protease in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Benitez, Jorge A.; Silva, Anisia J.; Finkelstein, Richard A.

    2001-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin/protease (Hap) was induced upon nutrient limitation and strongly repressed by glucose. Hap was not produced in a mutant defective in the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein, suggesting that intracellular cAMP levels mediate Hap expression. No difference was found in Hap production between an rpoS deletion mutant and its isogenic wild-type precursor, indicating that the alternate ?s factor is not essential for Hap expression. Based on these and previous results, we discuss the role of Hap in the pathogenesis of cholera. PMID:11553605

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Vibrio alginolyticus Strains V1 and V2, Opportunistic Marine Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; D'Alvise, Paul; Kalatzis, Panos G; Kokkari, Constantina; Middelboe, Mathias; Gram, Lone; Liu, Siyang; Katharios, Pantelis

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequences of Vibrio alginolyticus strains V1 and V2, isolated from juvenile Sparus aurata and Dentex dentex, respectively, during outbreaks of vibriosis. The genome sequences are 5,257,950 bp with a G+C content of 44.5% for V. alginolyticus V1 and 5,068,299 bp with a G+C content of 44.8% for strain V2. These genomes provide further insights into the putative virulence factors, prophage carriage, and evolution of this opportunistic marine pathogen. PMID:26139724

  16. Primary structure and properties of the Na+/glucose symporter (Sg1S) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, R I; Ogawa, W; Shimamoto, T; Shimamoto, T; Tsuchiya, T

    1997-01-01

    Previously, we cloned and sequenced a DNA fragment from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and found four open reading frames (ORFs). Here, we clearly demonstrate that one of the ORFs, ORF1, is the gene (sglS) encoding a Na+/glucose symporter (SglS). We characterize the Na+/glucose symporter produced in Escherichia coli mutant (JM1100) cells which lack original glucose transport activity and galactose transport activity. We also show that phlorizin, a potent inhibitor of the SGLT1 Na+/glucose symporter of animal cells, inhibited glucose transport, but not galactose transport, via the SglS system. PMID:9045844

  17. Aqabamycins A–G: novel nitro maleimides from a marine Vibrio species: II. Structure elucidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarisse Blandine Fotso Fondja Yao; Wael Al Zereini; Serge Fotso; Heidrun Anke; Hartmut Laatsch

    2010-01-01

    The structures of secondary metabolites with antibacterial and cytotoxic activities produced by a marine Vibrio strain from the Red Sea were elucidated. Aqabamycin A (1a) and seven further nitro-substituted maleimide derivates named aqabamycins B–G (1b–f and 2) were obtained together with 12 known metabolites, 3-nitro-1H-indazole (3), indazole-3-carbaldehyde (4), 3-nitro-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, phenyl-2-bis-indolylmethane (5a), turbomycin B (5b), vibrindole A

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated in Maryland (2010–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Haendiges, Julie; Timme, Ruth; Allard, Marc; Myers, Robert A.; Payne, Justin; Brown, Eric W.; Evans, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of food-borne illnesses associated with the consumption of raw shellfish worldwide. Here, we report 45 draft genomes of V. parahaemolyticus. Thirty-five of them are strains that were isolated from clinical cases in the state of Maryland from 2010 to 2013. The remaining 10 strains were historical isolates, isolated mostly from the West Coast of the United States during the period of 1988 to 2004. The availability of these genomes will allow for future phylogenetic analyses with other V. parahaemolyticus strains. PMID:25103764

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Vibrio alginolyticus Strains V1 and V2, Opportunistic Marine Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Daniel; D’Alvise, Paul; Kalatzis, Panos G.; Kokkari, Constantina; Middelboe, Mathias; Gram, Lone; Liu, Siyang

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequences of Vibrio alginolyticus strains V1 and V2, isolated from juvenile Sparus aurata and Dentex dentex, respectively, during outbreaks of vibriosis. The genome sequences are 5,257,950 bp with a G+C content of 44.5% for V. alginolyticus V1 and 5,068,299 bp with a G+C content of 44.8% for strain V2. These genomes provide further insights into the putative virulence factors, prophage carriage, and evolution of this opportunistic marine pathogen. PMID:26139724

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of the Vibrio fischeri LuxR-LuxI Regulon?

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Luis Caetano M.; Schaefer, Amy L.; Ferreira, Rosana B. R.; Qin, Nan; Stevens, Ann M.; Ruby, Edward G.; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Vibrio fischeri quorum-sensing signal N-3-oxohexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL) activates expression of the seven-gene luminescence operon. We used microarrays to unveil 18 additional 3OC6-HSL-controlled genes, 3 of which had been identified by other means previously. We show most of these genes are regulated by the 3OC6-HSL-responsive transcriptional regulator LuxR directly. This demonstrates that V. fischeri quorum sensing regulates a substantial number of genes other than those involved in light production. PMID:17827287