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1

Tryptophan biosynthesis in the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

Tryptophan biosynthetic enzyme levels in wild-type Vibrio harveyi and a number of tryptophan auxotrophs of this species were coordinately regulated over a 100-fold range of specific activities. The tryptophan analog indoleacrylic acid evoked substantial derepression of the enzymes in wild-type cells. Even higher enzyme levels were attained in auxotrophs starved for tryptophan, regardless of the location of the block in the pathway. A derepressed mutant selected by resistance to 5-fluorotryptophan was found to have elevated basal levels of trp gene expression; these basal levels were increased only two- to threefold by tryptophan limitation. The taxonomic implications of these and other biochemical results support previous suggestions that the marine luminous bacteria are more closely related to enteric bacteria than to other gram-negative taxa.

Bieger, C D; Crawford, I P

1983-01-01

2

Cross-species induction of luminescence in the quorum-sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

Different species of bacteria were tested for production of extracellular autoinducer-like activities that could stimulate the expression of the luminescence genes in Vibrio harveyi. Several species of bacteria, including the pathogens Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, were found to produce such activities. Possible physiological roles for the two V. harveyi detection-response systems and their joint regulation are discussed.

Bassler, B L; Greenberg, E P; Stevens, A M

1997-01-01

3

Elongation of exogenous fatty acids by the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioluminescent bacteria require myristic acid (C14:0) to produce the myristaldehyde substrate of the light-emitting luciferase reaction. Since both endogenous and exogenous C14:0 can be used for this purpose, the metabolism of exogenous fatty acids by luminescent bacteria has been investigated. Both Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri incorporated label from (1-14C)myristic acid (C14:0) into phospholipid acyl chains as well as into

1989-01-01

4

Elongation of exogenous fatty acids by the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi  

SciTech Connect

Bioluminescent bacteria require myristic acid (C14:0) to produce the myristaldehyde substrate of the light-emitting luciferase reaction. Since both endogenous and exogenous C14:0 can be used for this purpose, the metabolism of exogenous fatty acids by luminescent bacteria has been investigated. Both Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri incorporated label from (1-14C)myristic acid (C14:0) into phospholipid acyl chains as well as into CO2. In contrast, Photobacterium phosphoreum did not exhibit phospholipid acylation or beta-oxidation using exogenous fatty acids. Unlike Escherichia coli, the two Vibrio species can directly elongate fatty acids such as octanoic (C8:0), lauric (C12:0), and myristic acid, as demonstrated by radio-gas liquid chromatography. The induction of bioluminescence in late exponential growth had little effect on the ability of V. harveyi to elongate fatty acids, but it did increase the amount of C14:0 relative to C16:0 labeled from (14C)C8:0. This was not observed in a dark mutant of V. harveyi that is incapable of supplying endogenous C14:0 for luminescence. Cerulenin preferentially decreased the labeling of C16:0 and of unsaturated fatty acids from all 14C-labeled fatty acid precursors as well as from (14C)acetate, suggesting that common mechanisms may be involved in elongation of fatty acids from endogenous and exogenous sources. Fatty acylation of the luminescence-related synthetase and reductase enzymes responsible for aldehyde synthesis exhibited a chain-length preference for C14:0, which also was indicated by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography of the acyl groups attached to these enzymes. The ability of V. harveyi to activate and elongate exogenous fatty acids may be related to an adaptive requirement to metabolize intracellular C14:0 generated by the luciferase reaction during luminescence development.

Byers, D.M.

1989-01-01

5

Elongation of exogenous fatty acids by the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

Bioluminescent bacteria require myristic acid (C14:0) to produce the myristaldehyde substrate of the light-emitting luciferase reaction. Since both endogenous and exogenous C14:0 can be used for this purpose, the metabolism of exogenous fatty acids by luminescent bacteria has been investigated. Both Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri incorporated label from [1-14C]myristic acid (C14:0) into phospholipid acyl chains as well as into CO2. In contrast, Photobacterium phosphoreum did not exhibit phospholipid acylation or beta-oxidation using exogenous fatty acids. Unlike Escherichia coli, the two Vibrio species can directly elongate fatty acids such as octanoic (C8:0), lauric (C12:0), and myristic acid, as demonstrated by radio-gas liquid chromatography. The induction of bioluminescence in late exponential growth had little effect on the ability of V. harveyi to elongate fatty acids, but it did increase the amount of C14:0 relative to C16:0 labeled from [14C]C8:0. This was not observed in a dark mutant of V. harveyi that is incapable of supplying endogenous C14:0 for luminescence. Cerulenin preferentially decreased the labeling of C16:0 and of unsaturated fatty acids from all 14C-labeled fatty acid precursors as well as from [14C]acetate, suggesting that common mechanisms may be involved in elongation of fatty acids from endogenous and exogenous sources. Fatty acylation of the luminescence-related synthetase and reductase enzymes responsible for aldehyde synthesis exhibited a chain-length preference for C14:0, which also was indicated by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography of the acyl groups attached to these enzymes. The ability of V. harveyi to activate and elongate exogenous fatty acids may be related to an adaptive requirement to metabolize intracellular C14:0 generated by the luciferase reaction during luminescence development. Images

Byers, D M

1989-01-01

6

Differential regulation of enzyme activities involved in aldehyde metabolism in the luminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

The effects of catabolite repression and nutrient abundance on the activities of Vibrio harveyi enzymes known to be related to aldehyde metabolism were investigated. The growth of cells in complex medium containing glucose, which decreases in vivo luminescence and luciferase synthesis, also resulted in decreases in the specific activities of V. harveyi aldehyde dehydrogenase and acyl carrier protein acyltransferase as well as in the degree of fatty acylation of three bioluminescence-specific polypeptides (32, 42, and 57 kilodaltons), as monitored by sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This repression was partially alleviated in glucose medium containing cyclic AMP. The acylation of the above-mentioned proteins, in addition to light emission and luciferase and acyltransferase activities, was also repressed when cells were grown in minimal medium, with partial recovery of these functions upon the addition of arginine. In contrast, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was increased in minimal medium. These results suggest that the 42-, 57-, and 32-kilodalton proteins, which are responsible for the supply and reduction of fatty acids to form aldehydes for the luciferase reaction, are regulated in the same way as luciferase under the above-described conditions. However, aldehyde dehydrogenase, whose role in V. harveyi aldehyde metabolism is not yet known, is regulated in a different way with respect to nutrient composition. Images

Byers, D M; Bognar, A; Meighen, E A

1988-01-01

7

Chromosomal replication origin from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi functions in Escherichia coli: oriC consensus sequence.  

PubMed Central

The chromosomal replication origin (oriC) of Vibrio harveyi has been isolated on a plasmid and shown to function as an origin in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of the V. harveyi oriC was determined. From a comparison of this sequence with oriC sequences of five enteric bacteria, we derived a consensus sequence of bacterial origins that function in E. coli. This consensus sequence identifies 122 positions within oriC where nucleotide substitutions can occur without loss of origin function. These positions are clustered rather than scattered. Four interrelated nine-base-pair repeats and eight of the dam methylation G-A-T-C sites are conserved in the consensus sequence. Very few relative insertion-deletion changes occur, and these are localized to one region of oriC. The genes for three polypeptides linked to the V. harveyi oriC were identified by using in vitro protein synthesis directed by deletion derivative plasmid templates. One of these genes, coding for a 58,000 Mr polypeptide and located 3.0 kilobase pairs from the V. harveyi oriC region, is lethal to E. coli when many copies (approximately 40 per cell) are present (high copy lethal or HCL gene). In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis showed that a different gene, the gid gene to the left of oriC, is highly conserved between E. coli and V. harveyi, whereas the coding region to the right of oriC is much less conserved. Images

Zyskind, J W; Cleary, J M; Brusilow, W S; Harding, N E; Smith, D W

1983-01-01

8

Use of the Bioluminescent Bacterium Vibrio harveyi to Detect Biohazardous Chemicals in Soil and Water Extractions with and without Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was undertaken using the bioluminescence-reduction bioassay of Vibrio harveyi to study the toxicity of 31 chemicals in a soil and water extraction that was treated with and without hydrochloric acid. Soil had the chemical added and was washed with 0.2 N HC1 and afterward this acid-treated soil containing the chemical was evaluated. Each chemical was tested independently. Endpoints

K. W. Thomulka; J. H. Lange

1995-01-01

9

Draft Genome Sequence Of The Shrimp Pathogen Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative bacterium found in tropical and temperate marine environments as a free-living organism or in association with aquatic animals. We report the first sequenced genome of a Vibrio harveyi strain, CAIM 1792, the etiologic age...

G. J. Vora I. Espinoza-Valles R. A. Edwards S. Soto-Rodr guez Z. Wang

2012-01-01

10

Vibrio harveyi Associated with Aglaophenia octodonta (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously unknown association between a luminous bacterium, Vibrio harveyi, and a benthic hydrozoan, Aglaophenia octodonta, is described. Aglaophenia hydrocladia showed a clear fluorescence in the folds along the hydrocaulus and at the base of the hydrotheca, suggesting the presence of luminous bacteria. This hypothesis was confirmed by isolation of luminous bacteria from Aglaophenia homogenates. Phenotypic characterization of bacterial isolates

L. Stabili; C. Gravili; S. Piraino; F. Boero; P. Alifano

2006-01-01

11

Quorum sensing regulates type III secretion in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

In a process known as quorum sensing, bacteria communicate with one another by producing, releasing, detecting, and responding to signal molecules called autoinducers. Vibrio harveyi, a marine pathogen, uses two parallel quorum-sensing circuits, each consisting of an autoinducer-sensor pair, to control the expression of genes required for bioluminescence and a number of other target genes. Genetic screens designed to discover autoinducer-regulated targets in V. harveyi have revealed genes encoding components of a putative type III secretion (TTS) system. Using transcriptional reporter fusions and TTS protein localization studies, we show that the TTS system is indeed functional in V. harveyi and that expression of the genes encoding the secretion machinery requires an intact quorum-sensing signal transduction cascade. The newly completed genome of the closely related marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is a human pathogen, shows that it possesses the genes encoding both of the V. harveyi-like quorum-sensing signaling circuits and that it also has a TTS system similar to that of V. harveyi. We show that quorum sensing regulates TTS in V. parahaemolyticus. Previous reports connecting quorum sensing to TTS in enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli show that quorum sensing activates TTS at high cell density. Surprisingly, we find that at high cell density (in the presence of autoinducers), quorum sensing represses TTS in V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:15175293

Henke, Jennifer M; Bassler, Bonnie L

2004-06-01

12

Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing: a coincidence detector for two autoinducers controls gene expression  

PubMed Central

In a process called quorum sensing, bacteria communicate with one another by exchanging chemical signals called autoinducers. In the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, two different auto inducers (AI-1 and AI-2) regulate light emission. Detection of and response to the V.harveyi autoinducers are accomplished through two two-component sensory relay systems: AI-1 is detected by the sensor LuxN and AI-2 by LuxPQ. Here we further define the V.harveyi quorum-sensing regulon by identifying 10 new quorum-sensing-controlled target genes. Our examination of signal processing and integration in the V.harveyi quorum-sensing circuit suggests that AI-1 and AI-2 act synergistically, and that the V.harveyi quorum-sensing circuit may function exclusively as a ‘coincidence detector’ that discriminates between conditions in which both autoinducers are present and all other conditions.

Mok, Kenny C.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2003-01-01

13

Detection of biohazardous materials in water by measuring bioluminescence reduction with the marine organism Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated two bioassay methods, direct and growth, using Vibrio harveyi, a bioluminescent bacterium, to detect biohazardous materials in water. The end point measured for the evaluation of the toxicity of the various substances tested was the median effective concentration for bioluminescence reduction. Thirty?four compounds were tested, including representatives from the following chemical categories: azide, alcohols, antibiotics, antioxidants, detergents,

Kenneth W. Thomulka; David J. McGee; John H. Lange

1993-01-01

14

Molecular identification of Vibrio harveyi-related isolates associated with diseased aquatic organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty strains belonging to Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and the recently described Vibrio rotiferianus, were analysed using phenotypic and genomic techniques with the aim of analysing the usefulness of the different techniques for the identification of V. harveyi-related species. The species V. harveyi and V. campbellii were phenotypically indistinguishable by more than 100 phenotypic features. Thirty-nine experimental strains were phenotypically

Bruno Gomez-Gil; Sonia Soto-Rodriguez; Alejandra Garcia-Gasca; Ana Roque; Ricardo Vazquez-Juarez; Fabiano L. Thompson; Jean Swings

2004-01-01

15

Chitoporin from Vibrio harveyi, a Channel with Exceptional Sugar Specificity  

PubMed Central

Chitoporin (VhChiP) is a sugar-specific channel responsible for the transport of chitooligosaccharides through the outer membrane of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Single channel reconstitution into black lipid membrane allowed single chitosugar binding events in the channel to be resolved. VhChiP has an exceptionally high substrate affinity, with a binding constant of K = 5.0 × 106 m?1 for its best substrate (chitohexaose). The on-rates of chitosugars depend on applied voltages, as well as the side of the sugar addition, clearly indicating the inherent asymmetry of the VhChiP lumen. The binding affinity of VhChiP for chitohexaose is 1–5 orders of magnitude larger than that of other known sugar-specific porins for their preferred substrates. Thus, VhChiP is the most potent sugar-specific channel reported to date, with its high efficiency presumably reflecting the need for the bacterium to take up chitin-containing nutrients promptly under turbulent aquatic conditions to exploit them efficiently as its sole source of energy.

Suginta, Wipa; Chumjan, Watcharin; Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R.; Schulte, Albert; Winterhalter, Mathias

2013-01-01

16

Transcriptional regulation of lux genes transferred into Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

Past work has shown that transformed Escherichia coli is not a suitable vehicle for studying the expression and regulation of the cloned luminescence (lux) genes of Vibrio harveyi. Therefore, we have used a conjugative system to transfer lux genes cloned into E. coli back into V. harveyi, where they can be studied in the parental organism. To do this, lux DNA was inserted into a broad-spectrum vector, pKT230, cloned in E. coli, and then mobilized into V. harveyi by mating aided by the conjugative plasmid pRK2013, also contained in E. coli. Transfer of the wild-type luxD gene into the V. harveyi M17 mutant by this means resulted in complementation of the luxD mutation and full restoration of luminescence in the mutant; expression of transferase activity was induced if DNA upstream of luxC preceded the luxD gene on the plasmid, indicating the presence of a strong inducible promoter. To extend the usefulness of the transfer system, the gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was inserted into the pKT230 vector as a reporter. The promoter upstream of luxC was verified to be cell density regulated and, in addition, glucose repressible. It is suggested that this promoter may be the primary autoregulated promoter of the V. harveyi luminescence system. Strong termination signals on both DNA strands were recognized and are located downstream from luxE at a point complementary to the longest mRNA from the lux operon. Structural lux genes transferred back into V. harveyi under control of the luxC promoter are expressed at very high levels in V. harveyi as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis: the gene transfer system is thus useful for expression of proteins as well as for studying the regulation of lux genes in their native environment. Images FIG. 4 FIG. 6 FIG. 8

Miyamoto, C M; Meighen, E A; Graham, A F

1990-01-01

17

Isolation of Vibrio harveyi bacteriophage with a potential for biocontrol of luminous vibriosis in hatchery environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double stranded DNA bacteriophage of Vibrio harveyi was isolated from shrimp farm water from the west coast of India. The isolated phage belonged to the family Siphoviridae. Its broad lytic activity against V. harveyi isolates both from the west and east coast of India suggested that it had a potential for biocontrol of luminous vibriosis due to V. harveyi

M. G. Vinod; M. M. Shivu; K. R. Umesha; B. C. Rajeeva; G. Krohne; Indrani Karunasagar; Iddya Karunasagar

2006-01-01

18

Quorum Sensing-Disrupting Brominated Furanones Protect the Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana from Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic

Tom Defoirdt; Roselien Crab; Thomas K. Wood; Patrick Sorgeloos; Willy Verstraete; Peter Bossier

2006-01-01

19

Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms. PMID:21479932

Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

2011-07-01

20

Expression of luciferases from Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri in filamentous cyanobacteria.  

PubMed Central

Shuttle vectors that had previously been shown to replicate both in Escherichia coli and in strains of Anabaena spp. were used to transfer the lux genes from Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into Anabaena spp. The level of expression of luciferase in the cyanobacteria (up to 7,000 quanta cell-1 s-1) makes these genes good candidates for use as promoter probes during the differentiation of certain cells in a filament into heterocysts. Images

Schmetterer, G; Wolk, C P; Elhai, J

1986-01-01

21

The luxR gene product of Vibrio harveyi is a transcriptional activator of the lux promoter.  

PubMed Central

Expression of the lux operon from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi is dependent on cell density and requires an unlinked regulatory gene, luxR, and other cofactors for autoregulation. Escherichia coli transformed with the lux operon emits very low levels of light, and this deficiency can be partially alleviated by coexpression of luxR in trans. The V. harveyi lux promoter was analyzed in vivo by primer extension mapping to examine the function of luxR. RNA isolated from E. coli transformed with the Vibrio harveyi lux operon was shown to have a start site at 123 bp upstream of the first ATG codon of luxC. This is in sharp contrast to the start site found for lux RNA isolated from V. harveyi, at 26 bp upstream of the luxC initiation codon. However, when E. coli was cotransformed with both the lux operon and luxR, the start site of the lux mRNA shifted from -123 to -26. Furthermore, expression of the luxR gene caused a 350-fold increase in lux mRNA levels. The results suggest that LuxR of V. harveyi is a transcriptional activator stimulating initiation at the -26 lux promoter. Images

Swartzman, E; Silverman, M; Meighen, E A

1992-01-01

22

Sequencing and preliminary characterization of the Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

The Na(+)-translocating NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) generates an electrochemical Na(+) potential driven by aerobic respiration. Previous studies on the enzyme from Vibrio alginolyticus have shown that the Na(+)-NQR has six subunits, and it is known to contain FAD and an FeS center as redox cofactors. In the current work, the enzyme from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi has been purified and characterized. In addition to FAD, a second flavin, tentatively identified as FMN, was discovered to be covalently attached to the NqrC subunit. The purified V. harveyi Na(+)-NQR was reconstituted into proteoliposomes. The generation of a transmembrane electric potential by the enzyme upon NADH:Q(1) oxidoreduction was strictly dependent on Na(+), resistant to the protonophore CCCP, and sensitive to the sodium ionophore ETH-157, showing that the enzyme operates as a primary electrogenic sodium pump. Interior alkalinization of the inside-out proteoliposomes due to the operation of the Na(+)-NQR was accelerated by CCCP, inhibited by valinomycin, and completely arrested by ETH-157. Hence, the protons required for ubiquinol formation must be taken up from the outside of the liposomes, which corresponds to the bacterial cytoplasm. The Na(+)-NQR operon from this bacterium was sequenced, and the sequence shows strong homology to the previously reported Na(+)-NQR operons from V. alginolyticus and Haemophilus influenzae. Homology studies show that a number of other bacteria, including a number of pathogenic species, also have an Na(+)-NQR operon. PMID:10587447

Zhou, W; Bertsova, Y V; Feng, B; Tsatsos, P; Verkhovskaya, M L; Gennis, R B; Bogachev, A V; Barquera, B

1999-12-01

23

A Nitric Oxide-Responsive Quorum Sensing Circuit in Vibrio harveyi Regulates Flagella Production and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Cell signaling plays an important role in the survival of bacterial colonies. They use small molecules to coordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. This process, known as quorum sensing, helps bacteria regulate diverse functions such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation and virulence. In Vibrio harveyi, a bioluminescent marine bacterium, four parallel quorum-sensing systems have been identified to regulate light production. We have previously reported that nitric oxide (NO), through the H-NOX/HqsK quorum sensing pathway contributes to light production in V. harveyi through the LuxU/LuxO/LuxR quorum sensing pathway. In this study, we show that nitric oxide (NO) also regulates flagellar production and enhances biofilm formation. Our data suggest that V. harveyi is capable of switching between lifestyles to be able to adapt to changes in the environment.

Henares, Bernadette M.; Xu, Yueming; Boon, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

24

Biosynthesis of myristic acid in luminescent bacteria. [Vibrio harveyi  

SciTech Connect

In vivo pulse-label studies have demonstrated that luminescent bacteria can provide myritic acid (14:0) required for the synthesis of the luciferase substrate myristyl aldehyde. Luminescent wild type Vibrio harveyi incubated with (/sup 14/C) acetate in a nutrient-depleted medium accumulated substantial tree (/sup 14/C)fatty acid (up to 20% of the total lipid label). Radio-gas chromatography revealed that > 75% of the labeled fatty acid is 14:0. No free fatty acid was detected in wild type cells labeled prior to the development of bioluminescence in the exponential growth phase, or in a dark mutant of V. harveyi (mutant M17) that requires exogenous 14:0 for light emission. The preferential accumulation of 14:0 was not observed when wild type cells were labeled with (/sup 14/C)acetate in regular growth medium. Moreover, all V. harveyi strains exhibited similar fatty acid mass compositions regardless of the state of bioluminescence. Since earlier work has shown that a luminescence-related acyltransferase (defective in the M17 mutant) can catalyze the deacylation of fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein in vitro, the present results are consistent with a model in which this enzyme diverts 14:0 to the luminescence system during fatty acid biosynthesis. Under normal conditions, the supply of 14:0 by this pathway is tightly regulated such that bioluminescence development does not significantly alter the total fatty acid composition.

Byers, D.M.

1987-05-01

25

The Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing system uses shared regulatory components to discriminate between multiple autoinducers.  

PubMed

The quorum-sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi produces and responds to three autoinducers (AIs), and this sensory information converges to control the expression of bioluminescence, biofilm formation, type III secretion (TTS), and protease production. The AIs are detected by cognate sensor histidine kinases that all relay phosphate to the shared response regulator LuxO. LuxO indirectly represses the master regulator of quorum sensing, LuxR, through the activation of multiple genes encoding small regulatory RNAs (called qrr genes for Quorum Regulatory RNA). Here we use differential fluorescence induction to identify 50 quorum-sensing-controlled promoters. Some promoters only showed significant responses in the simultaneous presence of all three AIs, while others displayed substantial responses to the individual AIs. A differential response to each AI input state was also observed for qrr and luxR expression and LuxR protein production. Individual cell analyses revealed that, in each case, all the bacteria in the population respond in unison to the various AI inputs. We propose that the V. harveyi quorum-sensing transition is not switch-like but rather operates in a graded manner, and that this signaling arrangement, which uses shared regulatory proteins, nonetheless provides V. harveyi a mechanism to respond uniquely to different AI input states. PMID:17015436

Waters, Christopher M; Bassler, Bonnie L

2006-10-01

26

Translocation of Vibrio harveyi N,N'-diacetylchitobiase to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding N,N'-diacetylchitobiase (chitobiase) of the chitinolytic marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi has been isolated. While expression of the chitobiase gene (chb) was inducible by N,N'-diacetylchitobiose in V. harveyi, it was expressed constitutively when cloned in Escherichia coli, suggesting that controlling elements are not closely linked to chb. Chitobiase was found in the membrane fraction of E. coli cells containing plasmids with the cloned V. harveyi chb gene. When membranes of such cells were separated on Osborn gradients, chitobiase activity was found mainly in the outer membrane band. Translocation of the enzyme to the outer membrane was accompanied by cleavage of a signal peptide. A fusion protein, in which 22 amino acids from the amino terminus of prechitobiase were replaced with 21 amino acids from the pUC19 lacZ amino terminus, was not processed, and 99% of the activity was located in the cytoplasmic fraction. A homology to six amino acids surrounding the lipoprotein processing and modification site was found near the amino terminus of prechitobiase. Images

Jannatipour, M; Soto-Gil, R W; Childers, L C; Zyskind, J W

1987-01-01

27

Autoinducers Act as Biological Timers in Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing regulates cell density-dependent phenotypes and involves the synthesis, excretion and detection of so-called autoinducers. Vibrio harveyi strain ATCC BAA-1116 (recently reclassified as Vibrio campbellii), one of the best-characterized model organisms for the study of quorum sensing, produces and responds to three autoinducers. HAI-1, AI-2 and CAI-1 are recognized by different receptors, but all information is channeled into the same signaling cascade, which controls a specific set of genes. Here we examine temporal variations of availability and concentration of the three autoinducers in V. harveyi, and monitor the phenotypes they regulate, from the early exponential to the stationary growth phase in liquid culture. Specifically, the exponential growth phase is characterized by an increase in AI-2 and the induction of bioluminescence, while HAI-1 and CAI-1 are undetectable prior to the late exponential growth phase. CAI-1 activity reaches its maximum upon entry into stationary phase, while molar concentrations of AI-2 and HAI-1 become approximately equal. Similarly, autoinducer-dependent exoproteolytic activity increases at the transition into stationary phase. These findings are reflected in temporal alterations in expression of the luxR gene that encodes the master regulator LuxR, and of four autoinducer-regulated genes during growth. Moreover, in vitro phosphorylation assays reveal a tight correlation between the HAI-1/AI-2 ratio as input and levels of receptor-mediated phosphorylation of LuxU as output. Our study supports a model in which the combinations of autoinducers available, rather than cell density per se, determine the timing of various processes in V. harveyi populations.

Anetzberger, Claudia; Reiger, Matthias; Fekete, Agnes; Schell, Ursula; Stambrau, Nina; Plener, Laure; Kopka, Joachim; Schmitt-Kopplin, Phillippe; Hilbi, Hubert; Jung, Kirsten

2012-01-01

28

Quorum Sensing-Disrupting Brominated Furanones Protect the Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana from Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates†  

PubMed Central

Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests.

Defoirdt, Tom; Crab, Roselien; Wood, Thomas K.; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

2006-01-01

29

Cloning of the Vibrio harveyi luciferase genes: use of a synthetic oligonucleotide probe.  

PubMed Central

A mixed-sequence synthetic oligonucleotide probe was used to isolate a clone containing the gene encoding the alpha subunit of bacterial luciferase from Vibrio harveyi and part of the gene coding for the beta subunit. DNA sequence analysis has allowed us to determine that the genes are closely linked on the bacterial chromosome and transcribed in the same direction. Comparison of the sequences in the regions preceding the two structural genes has revealed considerable homology and has identified sites that may be involved in the expression of the genes. Identification of a clone from a clone bank of total genomic DNA from this organism shows that mixed probes can be successfully used to isolate a gene of interest from any bacterium provided some protein sequence for the gene product is available. Images

Cohn, D H; Ogden, R C; Abelson, J N; Baldwin, T O; Nealson, K H; Simon, M I; Mileham, A J

1983-01-01

30

Mechanisms underlying the additive and redundant Qrr phenotypes in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae regulate their virulence factors according to the local cell-population density in a regulatory system called quorum sensing. Their quorum sensing systems contain a small RNA (sRNA) circuit to regulate expression of a master transcriptional regulator via multiple quorum regulated RNA (Qrr) and a protein chaperon Hfq. Experiments and genetic analysis show that their respective quorum sensing networks are topologically equivalent and have homologous components, yet they respond differently to the same experimental conditions. In particular, V. harveyi Qrr are additive because all of its Qrr are required to maintain wild-type-like repression of its master transcriptional regulator. Conversely, V. cholerae Qrr are redundant because any of its Qrr is sufficient to repress its master transcriptional regulator. Given the striking similarities between their quorum sensing systems, experimentalists have been unable to identify conclusively the mechanisms behind these phenotypic differences. Nevertheless, the current hypothesis in the literature is that dosage compensation is the mechanism underlying redundancy. In this work, we identify the mechanisms underlying Qrr redundancy using a detailed mathematical model of the V. harveyi and V. cholerae sRNA circuits. We show that there are exactly two different cases underlying Qrr redundancy and that dosage compensation is unnecessary and insufficient to explain Qrr redundancy. Although V. harveyi Qrr are additive when the perturbations in Qrr are large, we predict that V. harveyi and V. cholerae Qrr are redundant when the perturbations in Qrr are small. We argue that the additive and redundant Qrr phenotypes can emerge from parametric differences in the sRNA circuit. In particular, we find that the affinity of Qrr and its expression relative to the master transcriptional regulator determine the level of redundancy in V. harveyi and V. cholerae. Furthermore, the additive and redundant Qrr phenotypes reflect differences in the concentration of Hfq-Qrr in V. harveyi and V. cholerae. We use our model to test the dosage compensation hypothesis and show that decreasing the expression of qrr, rather than removing dosage compensation, abolishes Qrr redundancy in V. cholerae. Further experimentation is needed to test our results and both Qrr redundancy hypotheses. PMID:24018202

Hunter, Geoffrey A M; Keener, James P

2014-01-01

31

Association of Vibrio harveyi with mortalities in cultured marine fish in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Vibrio sp. frequently associated with mortalities in cultured silvery black porgy Acanthopagrus cuvieri and brown-spotted grouper Epinephelus tauvina was studied. Silvery black porgy was susceptible to laboratory infection with this isolate only when administered intramuscularly (IM), but the isolate could infect brown-spotted grouper by both IM and intraperitoneal (IP) routes. The isolate was identified as Vibrio harveyi. The 5

M. O. Saeed

1995-01-01

32

Molecular identification of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Vibrio harveyi using PCR and RAPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen environmental samples of Vibrio spp. isolated from healthy and diseased shrimps were tested for pathogenicity to juvenile shrimps. Two isolates, strains Z2 and Z3, were observed to be pathogenic, causing 100% mortality of the target host compared to the control strain Vibrio harveyi ATCC 14126. Environmental and type strains were subjected to molecular characterization by restriction fragment length polymorphism

G. Hernández; J. Olmos

2004-01-01

33

Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Penaeus monodon hemocytes after Vibrio harveyi infection  

PubMed Central

Background Viral and bacterial diseases can cause mass mortalities in commercial shrimp aquaculture. In contrast to studies on the antiviral response, the responses of shrimps to bacterial infections by high throughput techniques have been reported only at the transcriptional level and not at the translational level. In this study, a proteomic analysis of shrimp hemocytes to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to a luminous bacterium Vibrio harveyi was evaluated for its feasibility and is reported for the first time. Results The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) patterns of the hemocyte proteins from the unchallenged and V. harveyi challenged shrimp, Penaeus monodon, at 24 and 48 h post infection were compared. From this, 27 differentially expressed protein spots, and a further 12 weakly to non-differentially regulated control spots, were selected for further analyses by the LC-ESI-MS/MS. The 21 differentially expressed proteins that could be identified by homologous annotation were comprised of proteins that are directly involved in the host defense responses, such as hemocyanin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, heat shock protein 90 and alpha-2-macroglobulin, and those involved in signal transduction, such as the14-3-3 protein epsilon and calmodulin. Western blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of hemocyanin expression upon bacterial infection. The expression of the selected proteins which were the representatives of the down-regulated proteins (the 14-3-3 protein epsilon and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and of the up-regulated proteins (hemocyanin) was further assessed at the transcription level using real-time RT-PCR. Conclusions This work suggests the usefulness of a proteomic approach to the study of shrimp immunity and revealed hemocyte proteins whose expression were up regulated upon V. harveyi infection such as hemocyanin, arginine kinase and down regulated such as alpha-2-macroglobulin, calmodulin and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. The information is useful for understanding the immune system of shrimp against pathogenic bacteria.

2010-01-01

34

Vibrio harveyi Nitroreductase Is Also a Chromate Reductase  

PubMed Central

The chromate reductase purified from Pseudomonas ambigua was found to be homologous with several nitroreductases. Escherichia coli DH5? and Vibrio harveyi KCTC 2720 nitroreductases were chosen for the present study, and their chromate-reducing activities were determined. A fusion between glutathione S-transferase (GST) and E. coli DH5? NfsA (GST-EcNfsA), a fusion between GST and E. coli DH5? NfsB (GST-EcNfsB), and a fusion between GST and V. harveyi KCTC 2720 NfsA (GST-VhNfsA) were prepared for their overproduction and easy purification. GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNFsB, and GST-VhNFsA efficiently reduced nitrofurazone and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as their nitro substrates. The Km values for GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA for chromate reduction were 11.8, 23.5, and 5.4 ?M, respectively. The Vmax values for GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA were 3.8, 3.9, and 10.7 nmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. GST-VhNfsA was the most effective of the three chromate reductases, as determined by each Vmax/Km value. The optimal temperatures of GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA for chromate reduction were 55, 30, and 30°C, respectively. Thus, it is confirmed that nitroreductase can also act as a chromate reductase. Nitroreductases may be used in chromate remediation. GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA have a molecular mass of 50 kDa and exist as a monomer in solution. Thin-layer chromatography showed that GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA contain FMN as a cofactor. GST-VhNfsA reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Cr(III) was much less toxic to E. coli than Cr(VI).

Kwak, Young Hak; Lee, Dong Seok; Kim, Han Bok

2003-01-01

35

Virulence Changes to Harveyi Clade Bacteria Infected with Bacteriophage from Vibrio owensii.  

PubMed

Vibrio owensii is one of the most virulent vibrios known being able to kill crustacean larvae at 10(2) CFU ml(-1). This study describes virulence changes to naïve strains of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio campbellii when infected with the bacteriophage VOB from a closely related species V. owensii 47666-1. The bacteriophage from V. owensii was induced into lytic phase by using mitomycin C at 100 ng ml(-1). One strain of V. harveyi and two strains of V. campbellii from 29 tested containing no prophage were susceptible to lysogenic conversion with VOB. Virulence changes induced in Harveyi clade bacteria included the up-regulation of protein secretion, statistically significant increased haemolysin and chitinase production and increased mortality to nauplii of Penaeus monodon. No change in siderophore production was observed. Bacteriophage VOB is likely to be responsible for some of the virulence factors expressed by V. owensii. As this bacteriophage is able to infect strains of V. harveyi and V. campbellii this phage may contribute to increased virulence of other vibrios in aquaculture and in the natural environment. PMID:24426274

Busico-Salcedo, Nancy; Owens, Leigh

2013-09-01

36

Unexpected photoreactivation of Vibrio harveyi bacteria living in ionization environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria undergoing environmental effects is extremely interesting for structural, mechanistic, and evolutionary implications. Luminescent bacteria that have evolved in a specific ambient have developed particular responses and their behavior can give us new suggestions on the task and production of luciferina proteins. To analyze the UV interaction under controlled laboratory conditions, we used photoluminescent bacterial strains belonging to a new species evolutionarily close to Vibrio harveyi sampled from a coastal cave with a high radon content that generates ionizing radiation. The survival of the bacterial strains was analyzed, in the light and in the dark, following a variety of genotoxic treatments including UV radiation exposure. The strains were irradiated by a germicide lamp. The results demonstrated that most of the strains exhibited a low rate of survival after the UV exposure. After irradiation by visible light following the UV exposure, all strains showed a high capability of photoreactivation when grown. This capability was quite unexpected because these bacteria were sampled from a dark ambient without UV radiation. This leads us to hypothesize that the photoreactivation in these bacteria might have been evolved to repair DNA lesions also induced by different radiation sources other than UV (e.g., x-ray) and that the luminescent bacteria might use their own light emission to carry out the photoreactivation. The high capability of photoreactivation of these bacteria was also justified by the results of deconvolution. The deconvolution was applied to the emission spectra and it was able to show evidence of different light peaks. The presence of the visible peak could control the photolysis enzyme.

Alifano, P.; Nassisi, V.; Siciliano, M. V.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

2011-05-01

37

The Small RNA Chaperone Hfq and Multiple Small RNAs Control Quorum Sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum-sensing bacteria communicate with extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. This process allows community-wide synchronization of gene expression. A screen for additional components of the Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing circuits revealed the protein Hfq. Hfq mediates interactions between small, regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and specific messenger RNA (mRNA) targets. These interactions typically alter the stability of the target transcripts. We

Derrick H. Lenz; Kenny C. Mok; Brendan N. Lilley; Rahul V. Kulkarni; Ned S. Wingreen; Bonnie L. Bassler

2004-01-01

38

Exposure to Static Magnetic Field Stimulates Quorum Sensing Circuit in Luminescent Vibrio Strains of the Harveyi Clade  

PubMed Central

In this study, the evidence of electron-dense magnetic inclusions with polyhedral shape in the cytoplasm of Harveyi clade Vibrio strain PS1, a bioluminescent bacterium living in symbiosis with marine organisms, led us to investigate the behavior of this bacterium under exposure to static magnetic fields ranging between 20 and 2000 Gauss. When compared to sham-exposed, the light emission of magnetic field-exposed bacteria growing on solid medium at 18°C ±0.1°C was increased up to two-fold as a function of dose and growth phase. Stimulation of bioluminescence by magnetic field was more pronounced during the post-exponential growth and stationary phase, and was lost when bacteria were grown in the presence of the iron chelator deferoxamine, which caused disassembly of the magnetic inclusions suggesting their involvement in magnetic response. As in luminescent Vibrio spp. bioluminescence is regulated by quorum sensing, possible effects of magnetic field exposure on quorum sensing were investigated. Measurement of mRNA levels by reverse transcriptase real time-PCR demonstrated that luxR regulatory gene and luxCDABE operon coding for luciferase and fatty acid reductase complex were significantly up-regulated in magnetic field-exposed bacteria. In contrast, genes coding for a type III secretion system, whose expression was negatively affected by LuxR, were down-regulated. Up-regulation of luxR paralleled with down-regulation of small RNAs that mediate destabilization of luxR mRNA in quorum sensing signaling pathways. The results of experiments with the well-studied Vibrio campbellii strain BB120 (originally classified as Vibrio harveyi) and derivative mutants unable to synthesize autoinducers suggest that the effects of magnetic fields on quorum sensing may be mediated by AI-2, the interspecies quorum sensing signal molecule.

Tala, Adelfia; Delle Side, Domenico; Buccolieri, Giovanni; Tredici, Salvatore Maurizio; Velardi, Luciano; Paladini, Fabio; De Stefano, Mario; Nassisi, Vincenzo; Alifano, Pietro

2014-01-01

39

Bacterial Bioluminescence: Isolation and Expression of the Luciferase Genes from Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes for the luciferase enzyme of Vibrio harveyi were isolated in Escherichia coli by a general method in which nonluminous, transposon insertion mutants were used. Conditions necessary for light production in E. coli were examined. Stimulation of transcription of the genes for luciferase (lux A and lux B) was required for efficient synthesis of luciferase. To enhance transcription bacteriophage promoter

Robert Belas; Alan Mileham; Daniel Cohn; Marcia Hilmen; Melvin Simon; Michael Silverman

1982-01-01

40

Identification of upregulated immune-related genes in Vibrio harveyi challenged Penaeus monodon postlarvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subtracted cDNA library was constructed and analyzed to elucidate the response of Penaeus monodon postlarvae challenged with Vibrio harveyi. As many as 960 randomly selected cDNA fragments generated through suppression subtractive hybridization were single pass sequenced. Forty five genes and 20 hypothetical proteins were identified, a few being first reports from shrimps. The most abundant immune relevant genes were

S. Nayak; S. K. Singh; N. Ramaiah; R. A. Sreepada

2010-01-01

41

Genetic Organization of the Vibrio harveyi dnaA Gene Region and Analysis of the Function of the V. harveyi DnaA Protein in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vibrionaceae family is distantly related to Enterobacteriaceae within the group of bacteria possessing the Dam methylase system. We have cloned, sequenced, and analyzed the dnaA gene region of Vibrio harveyi and found that although the organization of the V. harveyi dnaA region differs from that of Escherichia coli, the expression of both genes is autoregulated and ATP-DnaA binds cooperatively

Dvora Berenstein; Kirsten Olesen; Christian Speck; Ole Skovgaard

2002-01-01

42

Metabolic profiling of the tissue-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis towards Vibrio harveyi challenge.  

PubMed

Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a marine aquaculture shellfish distributing widely along the coast in north China. In this work, we studied the differential metabolic responses induced by Vibrio harveyi in digestive gland and gill tissues from M. galloprovincialis using NMR-based metabolomics. The differential metabolic responses in the two tissue types were detected, except the similarly altered taurine and betaine. These metabolic responses suggested that V. harveyi mainly induced osmotic disruption and reduced energy demand via the metabolic pathways of glucose synthesis and ATP/AMP conversion in mussel digestive gland. In mussel gill tissues, V. harveyi basically caused osmotic stress and possible reduced energy demand as shown by the elevated phosphocholine that is involved in one of the metabolic pathways of ATP synthesis from ADP and phosphocholine. The altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (superoxide dismutase with copper and zinc, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme) suggested that V. harveyi induced clear oxidative and immune stresses in both digestive gland and gill tissues. However, the mRNA expression levels of both lysozyme and defensin in digestive gland were more significantly up-regulated than those in gill from V. harveyi-challenged mussel M. galloprovincialis, meaning that the immune organ, digestive gland, was more sensitive than gill. Overall, our results indicated that V. harveyi could induce tissue-specific metabolic responses in mussel M. galloprovincialis. PMID:24911264

Liu, Xiaoli; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wang, Qing; Li, Fei; Wu, Huifeng

2014-08-01

43

Crystal structure of the NADP+-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase from Vibrio harveyi: structural implications for cofactor specificity and affinity.  

PubMed Central

Aldehyde dehydrogenase from the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio harveyi, catalyses the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to acids. The enzyme is unique compared with other forms of aldehyde dehydrogenase in that it exhibits a very high specificity and affinity for the cofactor NADP(+). Structural studies of this enzyme and comparisons with other forms of aldehyde dehydrogenase provide the basis for understanding the molecular features that dictate these unique properties and will enhance our understanding of the mechanism of catalysis for this class of enzyme. The X-ray structure of aldehyde dehydrogenase from V. harveyi has been solved to 2.5-A resolution as a partial complex with the cofactor NADP(+) and to 2. 1-A resolution as a fully bound 'holo' complex. The cofactor preference exhibited by different forms of the enzyme is predominantly determined by the electrostatic environment surrounding the 2'-hydroxy or the 2'-phosphate groups of the adenosine ribose moiety of NAD(+) or NADP(+), respectively. In the NADP(+)-dependent structures the presence of a threonine and a lysine contribute to the cofactor specificity. In the V. harveyi enzyme an arginine residue (Arg-210) contributes to the high cofactor affinity through a pi stacking interaction with the adenine ring system of the cofactor. Further differences between the V. harveyi enzyme and other aldehyde dehydrogenases are seen in the active site, in particular a histidine residue which is structurally conserved with phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. This may suggest an alternative mechanism for activation of the reactive cysteine residue for nucleophilic attack.

Ahvazi, B; Coulombe, R; Delarge, M; Vedadi, M; Zhang, L; Meighen, E; Vrielink, A

2000-01-01

44

Identification of Vibrio harveyi isolated from diseased cultured wedge sole Dicologoglossa cuneata.  

PubMed

We report the first isolation of Vibrio harveyi from wedge sole Dicologoglossa cuneata. The pathogen was recovered from ulcers and internal organs of ailing cultured fish, from 7 different outbreaks between 2004 and 2006. The 15 isolates found were phenotypically characterized using biochemical tests and BIOLOG GN plates, which revealed high phenotypic diversity. Diagnosis was confirmed with PCR using V harveyi specific primers and partial 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequencing. A virulence evaluation of the isolates was also performed using fry and juvenile wedge sole. Significant mortalities were recorded by intraperitoneal injection; however, no mortalities were recorded by bath immersion. PMID:19565698

López, Jose R; de la Roca, Elena; Núñez, Soledad; de la Herran, Roberto; Navas, José I; Manchado, Manuel; Herrera, Marcelino; Toranzo, Alicia E

2009-04-27

45

Nucleotide sequence of the LuxC gene and the upstream DNA from the bioluminescent system of Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene (1431 bp) and the upstream DNA (1049 bp) of the luminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi has been determined. The luxC gene can be translated into a polypeptide of 55 kDa in excellent agreement with the molecular mass of the reductase polypeptide required for synthesis of the aldehyde substrate for the bioluminescent reaction. Analyses of codon usage showed a high frequency (1.9%) of the isoleucine codon, AUA, in the luxC gene compared to that found in Escherichia coli genes (0.2%) and its absence in the luxA, B and D genes. The low G/C content of the luxC gene and upstream DNA (38-39%) compared to that found in the other lux genes of V. harveyi (45%) was primarily due to a stretch of 500 nucleotides with only a 24% G/C content, extending from 200 bp inside lux C to 300 bp upstream. Moreover, an open reading frame did not extend for more than 48 codons between the luxC gene and 600 bp upstream at which point a gene transcribed in the opposite direction started. As the lux system in the luminescent bacterium, V. fischeri, contains a regulatory gene immediately upstream of luxC transcribed in the same direction, these results show that the organization and regulation of the lux genes have diverged in different luminescent bacteria.

Miyamoto, C M; Graham, A F; Meighen, E A

1988-01-01

46

VanT, a Homologue of Vibrio harveyi LuxR, Regulates Serine, Metalloprotease, Pigment, and Biofilm Production in Vibrio anguillarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio anguillarum possesses at least two N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing circuits, one of which is related to the luxMN system of Vibrio harveyi. In this study, we have cloned an additional gene of this circuit, vanT, encoding a V. harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional regulator. A V. anguillarum vanT null mutation resulted in a significant decrease in total protease activity due to

Antony Croxatto; Victoria J. Chalker; Johan Lauritz; Jana Jass; Andrea Hardman; Paul Williams; M. Camara; Debra L. Milton

2002-01-01

47

Interference of Cranberry Constituents in Cell–Cell Signaling System of Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranberry juice has long been recognized in folk medicine as a therapeutic agent, mainly in urinary track infections. It acts\\u000a as an antibiofilm agent against various pathogens. Quorum sensing is process where bacteria communicate with each other via\\u000a signal molecules known as autoinducers. This process is strongly involved in various bacterial pathological and physiological\\u000a pathways. Various strains of Vibrio harveyi

Mark Feldman; Ervin I. Weiss; Itzhak Ofek; Doron Steinberg

2009-01-01

48

Novel ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases from Vibrio harveyi 650: Cloning, expression, enzymatic properties, and subsite identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since chitin is a highly abundant natural biopolymer, many attempts have been made to convert this insoluble polysaccharide into commercially valuable products using chitinases and ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases). We have previously reported the structure and function of chitinase A from Vibrio harveyi 650. This study t reports the identification of two GlcNAcases from the same organism and their detailed functional

Wipa Suginta; Duangkamon Chuenark; Mamiko Mizuhara; Tamo Fukamizo

2010-01-01

49

The nucleotide sequence of Beneckea harveyi 5S rRNA. [bioluminescent marine bacterium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary sequence of the 5S ribosomal RNA isolated from the free-living bioluminescent marine bacterium Beneckea harveyi is reported and discussed in regard to indications of phylogenetic relationships with the bacteria Escherichia coli and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Sequences were determined for oligonucleotide products generated by digestion with ribonuclease T1, pancreatic ribonuclease and ribonuclease T2. The presence of heterogeneity is indicated for two sites. The B. harveyi sequence can be arranged into the same four helix secondary structures as E. coli and other prokaryotic 5S rRNAs. Examination of the 5S-RNS sequences of the three bacteria indicates that B. harveyi and P. phosphoreum are specifically related and share a common ancestor which diverged from an ancestor of E. coli at a somewhat earlier time, consistent with previous studies.

Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.

1981-01-01

50

Cloning and functional studies of a luxO regulator LuxT from Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

LuxO is the central regulator integrating the quorum sensing signals controlling autoinduction of luminescence in Vibrio harveyi. We have previously purified to homogeneity a new lux regulator, LuxT, that binds to the luxO promoter. Based on the sequence of the tryptic peptides of LuxT, degenerate oligonucleotides were designed for PCR of the genomic DNA. A 273 bp PCR DNA fragment containing sequences encoding the tryptic peptides was extended by inverse PCR to obtain the complete gene (luxT) encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which shares homology with the AcrR/TetR family of transcriptional regulators. The recombinant and native LuxT gave the same footprint binding between 117 and 149 bp upstream from the luxO initiation codon. Gene disruption of luxT in V. harveyi increased luxO expression and affected the cell density dependent induction of luminescence showing that LuxT was a repressor of luxO. As LuxT also affected the survival of the V. harveyi cells at high salt concentration and homologous proteins are present in other bacterial species, including the pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, the LuxT regulatory protein appears to be a general rather than a lux-specific regulator. PMID:11121579

Lin, Y H; Miyamoto, C; Meighen, E A

2000-12-01

51

Genetic Organization of the Vibrio harveyi dnaA Gene Region and Analysis of the Function of the V. harveyi DnaA Protein in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

The Vibrionaceae family is distantly related to Enterobacteriaceae within the group of bacteria possessing the Dam methylase system. We have cloned, sequenced, and analyzed the dnaA gene region of Vibrio harveyi and found that although the organization of the V. harveyi dnaA region differs from that of Escherichia coli, the expression of both genes is autoregulated and ATP-DnaA binds cooperatively to ATP-DnaA boxes in the dnaA promoter region. The DnaA proteins of V. harveyi and E. coli are interchangeable and function nearly identically in controlling dnaA transcription and the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication despite the evolutionary distance between these bacteria.

Berenstein, Dvora; Olesen, Kirsten; Speck, Christian; Skovgaard, Ole

2002-01-01

52

Identification of upregulated immune-related genes in Vibrio harveyi challenged Penaeus monodon postlarvae.  

PubMed

A subtracted cDNA library was constructed and analyzed to elucidate the response of Penaeus monodon postlarvae challenged with Vibrio harveyi. As many as 960 randomly selected cDNA fragments generated through suppression subtractive hybridization were single pass sequenced. Forty five genes and 20 hypothetical proteins were identified, a few being first reports from shrimps. The most abundant immune relevant genes were ferritin, hemocyanin, and TCTP (translationally controlled tumor protein) indicating their upregulation as also confirmed through qPCR. Post-infection qPCR analyses confirmed 2.04, 2.09, 3.28, 5.49, 6.47, and 11.63 fold rise respectively in ferritin, penaeidin, MnSOD, lysozyme, TCTP, and hemocyanin genes. These genes may be involved in the regulation of the host defense against V. harveyi. PMID:20580834

Nayak, S; Singh, S K; Ramaiah, N; Sreepada, R A

2010-09-01

53

The anguibactin biosynthesis and transport genes are encoded in the chromosome of Vibrio harveyi: a possible evolutionary origin for the pJM1 plasmid-encoded system of Vibrio anguillarum?  

PubMed Central

Many Vibrio anguillarum serotype O1 strains carry 65-kb pJM1-type plasmids harboring genes involved in siderophore anguibactin biosynthesis and transport. The anguibactin system is an essential factor for V. anguillarum to survive under iron-limiting conditions, and as a consequence, it is a very important virulence factor of this bacterium. Our comparative analysis of genomic data identified a cluster harboring homologs of anguibactin biosynthesis and transport genes in the chromosome of Vibrio harveyi. We have purified the putative anguibactin siderophore and demonstrated that it is indeed anguibactin by mass spectrometry and specific bioassays. Furthermore, we characterized two genes, angR and fatA, in this chromosome cluster that, respectively, participate in anguibactin biosynthesis and transport as determined by mutagenesis analysis. Furthermore, we found that the V. harveyi FatA protein is located in the outer membrane fractions as previously demonstrated in V. anguillarum. Based on our data, we propose that the anguibactin biosynthesis and transport cluster in the V. anguillarum pJM1 plasmid have likely evolved from the chromosome cluster of V. harveyi or vice versa.

Naka, Hiroaki; Actis, Luis A; Crosa, Jorge H

2013-01-01

54

Expression of bioluminescence by Escherichia coli containing recombinant Vibrio harveyi DNA.  

PubMed Central

When isogenic strains of Escherichia coli, RR1 (rec+) and HB101 (recA), were transformed with mapped recombinant plasmids known to contain Vibrio harveyi luciferase genes and large regions of DNA flanking on both sides, a small percentage (0.005%) of the colonies expressed high levels of luminescence (up to 10(12) quanta s-1 ml-1) in the absence of added aldehyde. The altered ability to express light was found to be due to a mutation in the host and not to an alteration in the recombinant DNA. When these bright colonies were cured of plasmid, they could be retransformed with cloned V. harveyi gene fragments in cis and in trans to yield luminescent colonies at 100% frequency. The maximum length of V. harveyi DNA required to produce light-emitting E. coli was shorter (6.3 kilobase pairs) than that required for expression of the V. fischeri system in E. coli. Cell extracts from bright clones contained wild-type levels of activity for the heteropolymeric (alpha beta) luciferase; fatty acid labeling revealed the presence of the three acylated polypeptides of the fatty acid reductase system which is involved in aldehyde biosynthesis for the luminescence reaction. The increased light emission in the mutant bacteria appeared to arise in part from production of higher levels of polycistronic mRNAs coding for luciferase. Images

Miyamoto, C; Byers, D; Graham, A F; Meighen, E A

1987-01-01

55

Single cell analysis of Vibrio harveyi uncovers functional heterogeneity in response to quorum sensing signals  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio harveyi and closely related species are important pathogens in aquaculture. A complex quorum sensing cascade involving three autoinducers controls bioluminescence and several genes encoding virulence factors. Single cell analysis of a V. harveyi population has already indicated intercellular heterogeneity in the production of bioluminescence. This study was undertaken to analyze the expression of various autoinducer-dependent genes in individual cells. Results Here we used reporter strains bearing promoter::gfp fusions to monitor the induction/repression of three autoinducer-regulated genes in wild type conjugates at the single cell level. Two genes involved in pathogenesis - vhp and vscP, which code for an exoprotease and a component of the type III secretion system, respectively, and luxC (the first gene in the lux operon) were chosen for analysis. The lux operon and the exoprotease gene are induced, while vscP is repressed at high cell density. As controls luxS and recA, whose expression is not dependent on autoinducers, were examined. The responses of the promoter::gfp fusions in individual cells from the same culture ranged from no to high induction. Importantly, simultaneous analysis of two autoinducer induced phenotypes, bioluminescence (light detection) and exoproteolytic activity (fluorescence of a promoter::gfp fusion), in single cells provided evidence for functional heterogeneity within a V. harveyi population. Conclusions Autoinducers are not only an indicator for cell density, but play a pivotal role in the coordination of physiological activities within the population.

2012-01-01

56

A bivalent Vibrio harveyi DNA vaccine induces strong protection in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is a severe aquaculture pathogen that can infect a large number of fish species. In previous studies, we have identified two protective immunogens, DegQ and Vhp1, from pathogenic V. harveyi strains. In this study, we examined the potentials of DegQ and Vhp1 as monovalent and bivalent DNA vaccines in a Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) model. For this purpose, the DNA vaccine plasmids pDegQ, pVhp1, and pDV were constructed. pDegQ and pVhp1 express, respectively, degQ and vhp1, while pDV expresses degQ and vhp1 as a bicistronic mRNA transcript (degQ-vhp1). Following vaccination, all vaccine plasmids were detected in muscle, spleen, and kidney at 7 and 14 days post-vaccination. At the same time points and in the same tissues, degQ, vhp1, and degQ-vhp1 mRNA transcripts were detected in, respectively, pDegQ-, pVhp1-, and pDV-vaccinated fish. Production of DegQ and Vhp1 proteins was found in the muscle tissues of pDegQ- and pVhp1-vaccinated fish respectively, while both DegQ and Vhp1 proteins were detected in pDV-vaccinated fish. Compared to control fish, fish vaccinated with pDegQ and pVhp1 exhibited, respectively, 64.1% and 56.5% relative percent survival rates following lethal V. harveyi challenge, while fish vaccinated with pDV exhibited a survival rate that is more than 20% higher than those induced by pDegQ and pVhp1. Furthermore, in addition to V. harveyi, pDV also elicited dramatic cross protection against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Immunological analysis showed that all vaccine plasmids induced the production of specific serum antibodies and the expression of a wide range of immune genes; however, the induction folds effected by pDV were in general higher than those effected by pDegQ and pVhp1. These results indicate that DNA vaccines, such as that represented by pDV, is a good vaccination option to combat V. harveyi-related vibriosis. PMID:21513763

Hu, Yong-hua; Sun, Li

2011-06-10

57

Polycistronic mRNAs code for polypeptides of the Vibrio harveyi luminescence system  

SciTech Connect

DNA coding for the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of Vibrio harveyi luciferase, the luxA and luxB genes, and the adjoining chromosomal regions on both sides of these genes (total of 18 kilobase pairs) was cloned into Escherichia coli. Using labeled DNA coding for the ..cap alpha.. subunit as a hybridization probe, the authors identified a set of polycistronic mRNAs (2.6, 4, 7, and 8 kilobases) by Northern blotting; the most prominent of these was the one 4 kilobases long. This set of mRNAs was induced during the development of bioluminescence in V. harveyi. Furthermore, the same set of mRNAs was synthesized in E. coli by a recombinant plasmid that contained a 12-kilobase pair length of V. harveyi DNA and expressed the genes for the luciferase subunits. A cloned DNA segment corresponding to the major 4-kilobase mRNA coded for the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of luciferase, as well as a 32,000-dalton protein upstream from these genes that could be specifically modified by acyl-coenzyme A and is a component of the bioluminescence system. V. harveyi mRNA that was hybridized to the released from cloned DNA encompassing the luxA and luxB genes was translated in vitro. Luciferase ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits and the 32,000-dalton polypeptide were detected among the products, along with 42,000- and 55,000-dalton polypeptides, which are encoded downstream from the lux genes and are thought to be involved in luminescence.

Miyamoto, C.M.; Graham, A.D.; Boylan, M.; Evans, J.F.; Hasel, K.W.; Meighen, E.A.; Graham, A.F.

1985-03-01

58

Immunoprotective analysis of VhhP2, a Vibrio harveyi vaccine candidate.  

PubMed

VhhP2 is an outer membrane protein identified in a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi strain, T4, isolated from diseased fish. When used as a subunit vaccine, purified recombinant VhhP2 affords high level of protection upon Japanese flounder against V. harveyi challenge. Vaccination with VhhP2 induced the expression of a number of immune-related genes, especially those encoding immunoglobulin M (IgM) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) IIalpha. A VhhP2 surface display system, in the form of the fish commensal strain PF3 harboring the vhhP2-expressing plasmid pJVP, was constructed. PF3/pJVP is able to produce and present recombinant VhhP2 on cell surface. Vaccination of fish with live PF3/pJVP via intraperitoneal injection elicited strong immunoprotection. Vaccination of fish orally with live PF3/pJVP embedded in alginate microspheres also induced effective immunoprotection. In addition, a VhhP2-based surface display system was created, in which VhhP2 serves as a carrier for the surface delivery of a heterologous Edwardsiella tarda immunogen, Et18, that is fused in-frame to VhhP2. DH5alpha/pJVP18, which expresses and surface-displays the VhhP2-Et18 chimera, proved to be an effective vaccine that can protect fish against infections by V. harveyi and E. tarda to the extents comparable to those produced by vaccination with purified recombinant VhhP2 and Et18, respectively. These data suggest that VhhP2 may be applied as a vaccine and a vaccine carrier against infections by V. harveyi and other pathogens such as E. tarda. PMID:19428886

Sun, Kun; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Hou, Jin-Hui; Sun, Li

2009-05-11

59

Polycistronic mRNAs code for polypeptides of the Vibrio harveyi luminescence system.  

PubMed Central

DNA coding for the alpha and beta subunits of Vibrio harveyi luciferase, the luxA and luxB genes, and the adjoining chromosomal regions on both sides of these genes (total of 18 kilobase pairs) was cloned into Escherichia coli. Using labeled DNA coding for the alpha subunit as a hybridization probe, we identified a set of polycistronic mRNAs (2.6, 4, 7, and 8 kilobases) by Northern blotting; the most prominent of these was the one 4 kilobases long. This set of mRNAs was induced during the development of bioluminescence in V. harveyi. Furthermore, the same set of mRNAs was synthesized in E. coli by a recombinant plasmid that contained a 12-kilobase pair length of V. harveyi DNA and expressed the genes for the luciferase subunits. A cloned DNA segment corresponding to the major 4-kilobase mRNA coded for the alpha and beta subunits of luciferase, as well as a 32,000-dalton protein upstream from these genes that could be specifically modified by acyl-coenzyme A and is a component of the bioluminescence system. V. harveyi mRNA that was hybridized to and released from cloned DNA encompassing the luxA and luxB genes was translated in vitro. Luciferase alpha and beta subunits and the 32,000-dalton polypeptide were detected among the products, along with 42,000- and 55,000-dalton polypeptides, which are encoded downstream from the lux genes and are thought to be involved in luminescence. Images

Miyamoto, C M; Graham, A D; Boylan, M; Evans, J F; Hasel, K W; Meighen, E A; Graham, A F

1985-01-01

60

Profiling of a few immune responsive genes expressed in postlarvae of Fenneropenaeus indicus challenged with Vibrio harveyi D3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified 38 genes and eight hypothetical proteins by sequencing of 1200 clones from a Vibrio harveyi challenged Fenneropenaeus indicus subtracted cDNA library. Based on physiological roles and functions these genes were categorized into 10 groups with ?29% of the sequences having no matches in the databases. Immune related transcripts in the library were carboxypeptidase B, ferritin, translationally controlled tumor

S. Nayak; K. M. Ajay; N. Ramaiah; Ram M. Meena; R. A. Sreepada

2011-01-01

61

Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC) in Soil Water Extracts Using Vibrio harveyi BB721 and Its Implication for Microbial Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is commonly used to measure the growth potential of microorganisms in water, but has not yet been investigated for measuring microbial growth potential in soils. In this study, a simple, rapid, and non-growth based assay to determine AOC in soil was developed using a naturally occurring luminous strain Vibrio harveyi BB721 to determine the fraction of

Jincai Ma; A. Mark Ibekwe; Menu Leddy; Ching-Hong Yang; David E. Crowley

2012-01-01

62

Evaluation of RAPD-PCR and protein profile analysis to differentiate Vibrio harveyi strains prevalent along the southwest coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty five isolates of Vibrio harveyi were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis and protein profiling to investigate the genetic variability\\u000a among V. harveyi prevalent along the coast and also assess the discriminating ability of these two molecular methods. A total of 10 RAPD primers\\u000a were assayed for their specificity in detecting V. harveyi, of which only two

Biswajit Maiti; Malathi Shekar; Rekha Khushiramani; Iddya Karunasagar; Indrani Karunasagar

2009-01-01

63

The marine pathogen Vibrio vulnificus encodes a putative homologue of the Vibrio harveyi regulatory gene, luxR: a genetic and phylogenetic comparison.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic pathogen that exhibits numerous virulence factors, including the secretion of a zinc metalloprotease and the production of a capsule. We have cloned and sequenced a gene from V. vulnificus that is a homologue of the positive transcriptional regulator, luxR, of the lux operon in Vibrio harveyi. This gene encodes a putative, single complete open reading frame designated smcR, which shares greater than 75% nucleotide identity with luxR of V. harveyi. The deduced amino acid sequence of the putative SmcR protein is more than 90% identical and 95% similar to that of LuxR of V. harveyi, suggesting that V. vulnificus possesses a member of the family of signal-response genes recently described in Vibrio cholerae and in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Our data also demonstrate that, in addition to V. vulnificus, all six Vibrio spp. tested contained genes that hybridized with the luxR probe. We also present evidence that this regulatory protein was inherited from a common ancestor, and that the gene is ancient and widespread in marine Vibrio spp. PMID:10806366

McDougald, D; Rice, S A; Kjelleberg, S

2000-05-01

64

Antibacterial effect of medium-chain fatty acid: caprylic acid on gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana nauplii against shrimp pathogens Vibrio harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to determine the antibacterial effect of caprylic acid in the culture system of Artemia franciscana nauplii inoculated with shrimp pathogens Vibrio harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. To begin with, the antibacterial effect of different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 mM) of caprylic acid against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus was assessed through bacterial growth study. This

G. Immanuel; M. Sivagnanavelmurugan; A. Palavesam

2011-01-01

65

Interference with the quorum sensing systems in a Vibrio harveyi strain alters the growth rate of gnotobiotically cultured rotifer Brachionus plicatilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To evaluate the effect of Vibrio harveyi strains on the growth rate of the gnotobiotically cultured rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, and to establish whether quorum sensing is involved in the observed phenomena. Methods and Results: Gnotobiotic B. plicatilis sensu strictu, obtained by hatch- ing glutaraldehyde-treated amictic eggs, were used as test organisms. Challenge tests were performed with 11 V. harveyi

N. T. N. Tinh; N. D. Linh; T. K. Wood; K. Dierckens; P. Sorgeloos; P. Bossier

2007-01-01

66

Analysing traces of autoinducer-2 requires standardization of the Vibrio harveyi bioassay.  

PubMed

Autoinducer-2 (furanosyl borate diester) is a biologically active compound whose role as a universal bacterial signalling molecule is currently under intense investigation. Because of its instability and the low concentrations of it found in biological samples, its detection relies at present on a bioassay that measures the difference in the timing of the luminescence of the Vibrio harveyi BB170 sensor strain with and without externally added AI-2. Here we systematically investigated which parameters affected the fold induction values of luminescence obtained in the bioassay and developed a modified protocol. Our experiments showed that growth and luminescence of V. harveyi BB170 are strongly influenced by trace elements. In particular, addition of Fe(3+) within a certain concentration range to the growth medium of the preinoculum culture improved the reproducibility and reduced the variance of the bioassay. In contrast, trace elements and vitamins introduced directly into the bioassay caused inhibitory effects. The initial density and luminescence of the sensor strain are very important and the values required for these parameters were defined. Borate interferes with the detection of AI-2 by giving false positive results. The response of V. harveyi BB170 to chemically synthesized AI-2 in the bioassay is nonlinear except over a very small concentration range; it is maximum over three orders of magnitude and shows inhibition above 35 microM. Based on the modified protocol, we were able to detect AI-2 in the absence of inhibitors with maximum fold induction values for the positive control (chemically synthesized AI-2) of >120 with a standard deviation of approximately 30% in a reliable and reproducible way. PMID:17143597

Vilchez, Ramiro; Lemme, André; Thiel, Verena; Schulz, Stefan; Sztajer, Helena; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

2007-01-01

67

Purification and characterization of fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase from Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

A Vibrio harveyi enzyme which catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of fatty acids to acyl carrier protein (ACP) has been purified 6,000-fold to apparent homogeneity by anion-exchange, gel filtration, and ACP-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Purified acyl-ACP synthetase migrated as a single 62-kDa band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and as an 80-kDa protein by gel filtration under reducing conditions. Activity of the purified enzyme was lost within hours in the absence of glycerol and low concentrations of Triton X-100. Acyl-ACP synthetase exhibited Kms for myristic acid, ACP, and ATP of 7 microM, 18 microM, and 0.3 mM, respectively. The enzyme was specific for adenine-containing nucleotides, and AMP was the product of the reaction. No covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate was observed. Enzyme activity was stimulated up to 50% by iodoacetamide but inhibited > 80% by N-ethylmaleimide: inhibition by the latter was prevented by ATP and ACP but not myristic acid. Dithiothreitol and sulfhydryl-directed reagents also influenced enzyme size, activity, and elution pattern on anion-exchange resins. The function of acyl-ACP synthetase has not been established, but it may be related to the capacity of V. harveyi to elongate exogenous fatty acids by an ACP-dependent mechanism. Images

Fice, D; Shen, Z; Byers, D M

1993-01-01

68

Dynamics and Mechanism of A Quorum Sensing Network Regulated by Small RNAs in Vibrio Harveyi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) has attracted much interests and it is an important process of cell communication. Recently, Bassler et al. studied the phenomena of QS regulated by small RNAs and the experimental data showed that small RNAs played important role in the QS of Vibrio harveyi and it can permit the fine-tuning of gene regulation and maintenance of homeostasis. According to Michaelis—Menten kinetics and mass action law in this paper, we construct a mathematical model to investigate the mechanism induced QS by coexist of small RNA and signal molecular (AI) and show that there are periodic oscillation when the time delay and Hill coefficient exceed a critical value and the periodic oscillation produces the change of concentration and induces QS. These results are fit to the experimental results. In the meanwhile, we also get some theoretical value of Hopf Bifurcation on time deday. In addition, we also find this network is robust against noise.

Shen, Jian-Wei

2011-03-01

69

The soluble acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase of Vibrio harveyi B392 is a member of the medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase family.  

PubMed

The gene encoding the unique soluble acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) of the bioluminescent Vibrio harveyi strain B392 has been isolated by expression cloning in Escherichia coli. This enzyme catalyzes the ATP-dependent acylation of the thiol of acyl carrier protein (ACP) with fatty acids with chain lengths from C4 to C18. The gene (called aasS) encodes a protein of 60 kDa, a hexahistidine-tagged version of which was readily expressed in E. coli and purified in large quantities. Surprisingly, the sequence of the encoded protein was significantly more similar to that of an acyl-CoA synthetase of the distantly related bacterium, Thermus thermophilus, than to that of the membrane-bound acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase of E. coli, an enzyme that catalyzes the same reaction from a more closely related organism. Indeed, the AasS sequence can readily be modeled on the known crystal structures of the T. thermophilus acyl-CoA synthetase with remarkably high levels of conservation of the catalytic site residues. To test the possible role of AasS in the fatty aldehyde-dependent bioluminescence pathway of V. harveyi, the chromosomal aasS gene of the organism was disrupted by insertion of a kanamycin cassette by homologous recombination. The resulting aasS::kan strains retained low levels of acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase consistent with prior indications of a second such activity in this bacterium. The mutant strains grew normally and had normal levels of bioluminescence but were deficient in the incorporation of exogenous octanoic acid into the cellular phospholipids of V. harveyi, particularly at low octanoate concentrations. These data indicate that AasS is responsible for a high-affinity and high-capacity uptake system that efficiently converts exogenous fatty acids into acyl-ACP species competent to enter the fatty acid biosynthetic cycle. PMID:16906759

Jiang, Yanfang; Chan, Chi Ho; Cronan, John E

2006-08-22

70

Proteomic analysis of protein expression in the induction of the viable but Nonculturable State of Vibrio harveyi SF1.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi has been reported to enter into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. One marine V. harveyi strain, SF1 became nonculturable when incubated in seawater microcosm at 4 °C within 60 days. We investigated protein expression in the exponential phase of V. harveyi SF1 and compared it to the VBNC state. Cytosolic proteins were resolved by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using pH 4-7 linear gradients. Among these proteins, sixteen proteins which were strongly downregulated or upregulated in the VBNC cells were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the differentially expressed proteins were mainly focused on stress response proteins and key components of central and intermediary metabolism, like carbohydrate metabolism, transport, and translation. This study provided clues for understanding the mechanism of adaptation to the VBNC state. PMID:23689940

Jia, Juntao; Li, Zhengyi; Cao, Jijuan; Jiang, Yinghui; Liang, Chengzhu; Liu, Mengzhen

2013-10-01

71

Metabolomic analysis revealed the differential responses in two pedigrees of clam Ruditapes philippinarum towards Vibrio harveyi challenge.  

PubMed

Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is an important marine aquaculture shellfish. This species has several pedigrees including White, Zebra, Liangdao Red and Marine Red distributing in the coastal areas in North China. In this work, we studied the metabolic differences induced by Vibrio harveyi in hepatopancreas from White and Zebra clams using NMR-based metabolomics. Metabolic responses (e.g., amino acids, glucose, glycogen, ATP and succinate) and altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (ATP synthase, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme) suggested that V. harveyi induced clear disruption in energy metabolism and immune stresses in both White and Zebra clam hepatopancreas. However, V. harveyi caused obvious osmotic stress in Zebra clam hepatopancreas, which was not observed in V. harveyi-challenged White clams samples. In addition, V. harveyi challenge induced more severe disruption in energy metabolism and immune stress in White clams than in Zebra clams. Overall, our results indicated that the biological differences between different pedigrees of R. philippinarum should be considered in immunity studies. PMID:24161758

Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Qing

2013-12-01

72

Characterization of four lytic transducing bacteriophages of luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolated from shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hatcheries.  

PubMed

Four lytic bacteriophages designated as ?Vh1, ?Vh2, ?Vh3, and ?Vh4 were isolated from commercial shrimp hatcheries, possessing broad spectrum of infectivity against luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolates, considering their potential as biocontrol agent of luminescent bacterial disease in shrimp hatcheries, and were characterized by electron microscopy, genomic analysis, restriction enzyme analysis (REA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Three phages ?Vh1, ?Vh2, and ?Vh4 had an icosahedral head of 60-115 nm size with a long, noncontractile tail of 130-329 × 1-17 nm, belonged to the family Siphoviridae. ?Vh3 had an icosahedral head (72 ± 5 nm) with a short tail (27 × 12 nm) and belonged to Podoviridae. REA with DraI and PFGE of genomic DNA digested with ScaI and XbaI and cluster analysis of their banding patterns indicated that ?Vh3 was distinct from the other three siphophages. PFGE-based genome mean size of the four bacteriophages ?Vh1, ?Vh2, ?Vh3, and ?Vh4 was estimated to be about 85, 58, 64, and 107 kb, respectively. These phages had the property of generalized transduction as demonstrated by transduction with plasmid pHSG 396 with frequencies ranging from 4.1 × 10(-7) to 2 × 10(-9) per plaque-forming unit, suggesting a potential ecological role in gene transfer among aquatic vibrios. PMID:22092866

Thiyagarajan, Sanjeevi; Chrisolite, Bagthasingh; Alavandi, Shankar V; Poornima, Modem; Kalaimani, Natarajan; Santiago, T Chinnappan

2011-12-01

73

Severe Wound Infection with Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and Vibrio harveyi, following a Laceration Injury in Marine Environment: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Marine microorganisms are uncommon etiologies of skin and skin structure infections, that is, wound infections. We report a case of severe wound infection, caused by the marine Photobacterium damselae (Vibrionaceae), in a 64-year-old male patient, returning from Australia. The isolate tested positive for pPHDD1, a plasmid conferring high-level virulence. Furthermore, the wound was coinfected with Vibrio harveyi, a halophile bacterium, which has never been reported from human infections before. Identification was achieved by use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Data retrieval from bibliography was complicated since P. damselae has been renamed often with a number of synonyms present in the literature: Photobacterium damsela, Vibrio damselae, Vibrio damsela, Pasteurella damselae, and Listonella damsela. With all synonyms used as query terms, a literature search provided less than 20 cases published worldwide. A majority of those cases presenting as severe wound infection are even fatal following progression into necrotizing fasciitis. Management with daily wound dressing and antibiotic therapy (ofloxacin empirically, followed by doxycycline after availability of microbiology) led in the reported case to a favorable outcome, which seems to be, however, the exception based on a review of the available literature.

Hundenborn, Jorg; Thurig, Steffi

2013-01-01

74

MetR and CRP bind to the Vibrio harveyi lux promoters and regulate luminescence.  

PubMed

The induction of luminescence in Vibrio harveyi at the later stages of growth is controlled by a quorum-sensing mechanism in addition to nutritional signals. However, the mechanism of transmission of these signals directly to the lux promoters is unknown and only one regulatory protein, LuxR, has been shown to bind directly to lux promoter DNA. In this report, we have cloned and sequenced two genes, crp and metR, coding for the nutritional regulators, CRP (cAMP receptor protein) and MetR (a LysR homologue), involved in catabolite repression and methionine biosynthesis respectively. The metR gene was cloned based on a general strategy to detect lux DNA-binding proteins expressed from a genomic library, whereas the crp gene was cloned based on its complementation of an Escherichia coli crp mutant. Both CRP and MetR were shown to bind to lux promoter DNA, with CRP being dependent on the presence of cAMP. Expression studies indicated that the two regulators had opposite effects on luminescence: CRP was an activator and MetR a repressor. Disruption of crp decreased luminescence by about 1,000-fold showing that CRP is a major activator of luminescence the same as LuxR, whereas disruption of MetR resulted in activation of luminescence over 10-fold, confirming its function as a repressor. Comparison of the levels of the autoinducers involved in quorum sensing excreted by V. harveyi, and the crp and metR mutants, showed that autoinducer production was not significantly different, thus indicating that the nutritional signals do not affect luminescence by changing the levels of the signals required for quorum sensing. Indeed, the large effects of these nutritional sensors show that luminescence is controlled by multiple signals related to the environment and the cell density which must be integrated at the molecular level to control expression at the lux promoters. PMID:12366834

Chatterjee, Jaidip; Miyamoto, Carol M; Zouzoulas, Athina; Lang, B Franz; Skouris, Nicolas; Meighen, Edward A

2002-10-01

75

Characterization of DegQVh, a Serine Protease and a Protective Immunogen from a Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi Strain? †  

PubMed Central

Vibrio harveyi is an important marine pathogen that can infect a number of aquaculture species. V. harveyi degQ (degQVh), the gene encoding a DegQ homologue, was cloned from T4, a pathogenic V. harveyi strain isolated from diseased fish. DegQVh was closely related to the HtrA family members identified in other Vibrio species and could complement the temperature-sensitive phenotype of an Escherichia coli strain defective in degP. Expression of degQVh in T4 was modulated by temperature, possibly through the ?E-like factor. Enzymatic analyses demonstrated that the recombinant DegQVh protein expressed in and purified from E. coli was an active serine protease whose activity required the integrity of the catalytic site and the PDZ domains. The optimal temperature and pH of the recombinant DegQVh protein were 50°C and pH 8.0. A vaccination study indicated that the purified recombinant DegQVh was a protective immunogen that could confer protection upon fish against infection by V. harveyi. In order to improve the efficiency of DegQVh as a vaccine, a genetic construct in the form of the plasmid pAQ1 was built, in which the DNA encoding the processed DegQVh protein was fused with the DNA encoding the secretion region of AgaV, an extracellular ?-agarase. The E. coli strain harboring pAQ1 could express and secrete the chimeric DegQVh protein into the culture supernatant. Vaccination of fish with viable E. coli expressing chimeric degQVh significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced the survival of fish against V. harveyi challenge, which was possibly due to the relatively prolonged exposure of the immune system to the recombinant antigen produced constitutively, albeit at a gradually decreasing level, by the carrier strain.

Zhang, Wei-wei; Sun, Kun; Cheng, Shuang; Sun, Li

2008-01-01

76

Parallel Quorum Sensing Systems Converge to Regulate Virulence in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi possesses two quorum sensing systems (System 1 and System 2) that regulate bioluminescence. Although the Vibrio cholerae genome sequence reveals that a V. harveyi-like System 2 exists, it does not predict the existence of a V. harveyi-like System 1 or any obvious quorum sensing-controlled target genes. In this report we identify and characterize the genes

Melissa B. Miller; Karen Skorupski; Derrick H. Lenz; Ronald K. Taylor; Bonnie L. Bassler

2002-01-01

77

Control of the Type 3 Secretion System in Vibrio harveyi by Quorum Sensing through Repression of ExsA ? ‡  

PubMed Central

The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) genes of Vibrio harveyi are activated at low cell density and repressed at high cell density by quorum sensing (QS). Repression requires LuxR, the master transcriptional regulator of QS-controlled genes. Here, we determine the mechanism underlying the LuxR repression of the T3SS system. Using a fluorescence-based cell sorting approach, we isolated V. harveyi mutants that are unable to express T3SS genes at low cell density and identified two mutations in the V. harveyi exsBA operon. While LuxR directly represses the expression of exsBA, complementation and epistasis analyses reveal that it is the repression of exsA expression, but not exsB expression, that is responsible for the QS-mediated repression of T3SS genes at high cell density. The present work further defines the genes in the V. harveyi QS regulon and elucidates a mechanism demonstrating how multiple regulators can be linked in series to direct the expression of QS target genes specifically at low or high cell density.

Waters, Christopher M.; Wu, Julie T.; Ramsey, Meghan E.; Harris, Rebecca C.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2010-01-01

78

Control of the type 3 secretion system in Vibrio harveyi by quorum sensing through repression of ExsA.  

PubMed

The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) genes of Vibrio harveyi are activated at low cell density and repressed at high cell density by quorum sensing (QS). Repression requires LuxR, the master transcriptional regulator of QS-controlled genes. Here, we determine the mechanism underlying the LuxR repression of the T3SS system. Using a fluorescence-based cell sorting approach, we isolated V. harveyi mutants that are unable to express T3SS genes at low cell density and identified two mutations in the V. harveyi exsBA operon. While LuxR directly represses the expression of exsBA, complementation and epistasis analyses reveal that it is the repression of exsA expression, but not exsB expression, that is responsible for the QS-mediated repression of T3SS genes at high cell density. The present work further defines the genes in the V. harveyi QS regulon and elucidates a mechanism demonstrating how multiple regulators can be linked in series to direct the expression of QS target genes specifically at low or high cell density. PMID:20543047

Waters, Christopher M; Wu, Julie T; Ramsey, Meghan E; Harris, Rebecca C; Bassler, Bonnie L

2010-08-01

79

Biodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene in Escherichia coli is enhanced by expression of a Vibrio harveyi oxidoreductase gene  

SciTech Connect

One possible alternative to current fuel hydrodesulfurization methods is the use of microorganisms to remove sulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization requires much milder processing conditions, gives higher specificity, and does not require molecular hydrogen. In the present work the authors have produced two compatible plasmids: pDSR3, which allows Escherichia coli to convert dibenzothiophene (DBT) to hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), and pDSR2, which produces a Vibrio harveyi flavin oxidoreductase. The authors show that the flavin oxidoreductase enhances the rate of DBT removal when co-expressed in vivo with the desulfurization enzymes. The plasmids pDSR2 and pDSR3 were co-expressed in growing cultures. The expression of oxidoreductase caused an increase in the rate of DBT removal but a decrease in the rate of HBP production. The maximum rate of DBT removal was 8 mg/h {center{underscore}dot} g dry cell weight. Experiments were also conducted using resting cells with the addition of various carbon sources. It was found that the addition of glucose or glycerol to cultures with oxidoreductase expression produced the highest DBT removal rate. The culture with acetate and no oxidoreductase expression had the highest level of HBP production. For all carbon sources, the DBT removal rate was faster and the HBP generation rate slower with the expression of the oxidoreductase. Analysis of desulfurization intermediates indicates that the last enzyme in the pathway may be limiting.

Reichmuth, D.S.; Hittle, J.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Keasling, J.D.

2000-01-05

80

Biosynthesis and stereochemistry of the autoinducer controlling luminescence in Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the pathway for synthesis of the autoinducer, N-(beta-hydroxybutyryl)-homoserine lactone (HBHL), controlling luminescence in Vibrio harveyi can provide important information concerning the relationship between the nutrition and physiology of the bacteria and the phenomenon of light emission. In this study, the D and L isomers of the autoinducer containing the stereoisomers of beta-hydroxybutyric acid were synthesized and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance in the presence of a chiral shift reagent, a europium(III) derivative of Tris[3-(heptafluoropropyl-hydroxymethylene)-(+)-camphorato]. By using a newly isolated autoinducer mutant which responds to low physiological concentrations of the autoinducer, it could be shown that autoinducer activity was associated with D-HBHL and not L-HBHL. Blockage of fatty acid biosynthesis by the addition of fatty acids and/or the antibiotic cerulenin to the cells prevented synthesis of the autoinducer as measured by the loss of autoinducer activity and a decrease in the incorporation of labelled acetate into the partially purified autoinducer. These results indicate that fatty acid biosynthesis is necessary for light emission in luminescent bacteria because it controls formation of the lux autoinducer. Images

Cao, J G; Meighen, E A

1993-01-01

81

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase from Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

Aldehyde dehydrogenase from Vibrio harveyi catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to acids. The enzyme is unique among the family of aldehyde dehydrogenases in that it exhibits much higher specificity for the cofactor NADP+ than for NAD+. The sequence of this form of the enzyme varies significantly from the NAD+ dependent forms, suggesting differences in the three-dimensional structure that may be correlated to cofactor specificity. Crystals of the enzyme have been grown both in the presence and absence of NADP+ using the hanging drop vapor diffusion technique. In order to improve crystal size and quality, iterative seeding techniques were employed. The crystals belong to space group P2(1), with unit cell dimensions a = 79.4 A, b = 131.1 A, c = 92.2 A, and beta = 92.4 degrees. Freezing the crystal to 100 K has enabled a complete set of data to be collected using a rotating anode source (lambda = 1.5418 A). The crystals diffract to a minimum d-spacing of 2.6 A resolution. Based on density calculations, two homodimers of molecular weight 110 kDa are estimated to be present in the asymmetric unit. Self-rotation functions show the presence of 3 noncrystallographic twofold symmetry axes.

Croteau, N.; Vedadi, M.; Delarge, M.; Meighen, E.; Abu-Abed, M.; Howell, P. L.; Vrielink, A.

1996-01-01

82

Evaluation of the vaccine potential of a cytotoxic protease and a protective immunogen from a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi strain.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is an important aquaculture pathogen that can infect a number of fish species and marine invertebrates. A putative protease, Vhp1, was identified from a pathogenic V. harveyi strain isolated from diseased fish as a protein with secretion capacity. Vhp1 is 530 amino acids in length and shares high sequence identities with several extracellular serine proteases of the Vibrio species. In silico analysis identified a protease domain in Vhp1, which is preceded by a subtilisin-N domain and followed by a bacterial pre-peptidase C-terminal domain. Purified recombinant protein corresponding to the protease domain of Vhp1 exhibited apparent proteolytic activity that was relatively heat-stable and reached maximum at pH 8.0 and 50 degrees C. The activity of purified recombinant Vhp1 protease was enhanced by Ca(2+) and inhibited by Mn(2+) and ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid. Cytotoxicity analyses indicated that recombinant Vhp1 protease was toxic to cultured Japanese flounder cells and could cause complete cell lysis. Immunoprotective analysis using Japanese flounder as an animal model showed that purified recombinant Vhp1 in the form of a denatured and proteolytically inactive protein was an effective subunit vaccine. To improve the vaccine potential of Vhp1, an Escherichia coli strain that expresses and secrets a cytotoxically impaired Vhp1 was constructed, which, when used as a live vaccine, afforded a high level of protection upon the vaccinated fish against lethal V. harveyi challenge. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Vhp1 is a cytotoxic protease and an effective vaccine candidate against V. harveyi infection. PMID:19897068

Cheng, Shuang; Zhang, Wei-wei; Zhang, Min; Sun, Li

2010-01-22

83

In vivo and in vitro acylation of polypeptides in Vibrio harveyi: identification of proteins involved in aldehyde production for bioluminescence.  

PubMed Central

Incubation of soluble extracts from Vibrio harveyi with [3H]tetradecanoic acid (+ ATP) resulted in the acylation of several polypeptides, including proteins with molecular masses near 20 kilodaltons (kDa), and at least five polypeptides in the 30- to 60-kDa range. However, in growing cells pulse-labeled in vivo with [3H]tetradecanoic acid, only three of these polypeptides, with apparent molecular masses of 54, 42, and 32 kDa, were specifically labeled. When extracts were acylated with [3H] tetradecanoyl coenzyme A, on the other hand, only the 32-kDa polypeptide was labeled. When luciferase-containing dark mutants of V. harveyi were investigated, acylated 32-kDa polypeptide was not detected in a fatty acid-stimulated mutant, whereas the 42-kDa polypeptide appeared to be lacking in a mutant defective in aldehyde synthesis. Acylation of both of these polypeptides also increased specifically during induction of bioluminescence in V. harveyi. These results suggest that the role of the 32-kDa polypeptide is to supply free fatty acids, whereas the 42-kDa protein may be responsible for activation of fatty acids for their subsequent reduction to form the aldehyde substrates of the bioluminescent reaction. Images

Wall, L A; Byers, D M; Meighen, E A

1984-01-01

84

Synthesis and evaluation of thiazolidinedione and dioxazaborocane analogues as inhibitors of AI-2 quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Two focused libraries based on two types of compounds, that is, thiazolidinediones and dioxazaborocanes were designed. Structural resemblances can be found between thiazolidinediones and well-known furanone type quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors such as N-acylaminofuranones, and/or acyl-homoserine lactone signaling molecules, while dioxazaborocanes structurally resemble previously reported oxazaborolidine derivatives which antagonized autoinducer 2 (AI-2) binding to its receptor. Because of this, we hypothesized that these compounds could affect AI-2 QS in Vibrio harveyi. Although all compounds blocked QS, the thiazolidinediones were the most active AI-2 QS inhibitors, with EC(50) values in the low micromolar range. Their mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of V. harveyi QS mutants and by DNA-binding assays with purified LuxR protein. The active compounds neither affected bioluminescence as such nor the production of AI-2. Instead, our results indicate that the thiazolidinediones blocked AI-2 QS in V. harveyi by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of LuxR. In addition, several dioxazaborocanes were found to block AI-2 QS by targeting LuxPQ. PMID:23286963

Brackman, Gilles; Al Quntar, Abed Al Aziz; Enk, Claes D; Karalic, Izet; Nelis, Hans J; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Srebnik, Morris; Coenye, Tom

2013-02-01

85

Vibrio jasicida sp. nov., a member of the Harveyi clade, isolated from marine animals (packhorse lobster, abalone and Atlantic salmon).  

PubMed

Six isolates of a facultatively anaerobic bacterium were recovered in culture from marine invertebrates and vertebrates, including packhorse lobster (Jasus verreauxi), abalone (Haliotis sp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), between 1994 and 2002. The bacteria were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of more than one polar flagellum, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and able to grow in the presence of 0.5-8.0% NaCl (optimum 3.0-6.0%) and at 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five loci (2443 bp; gyrB, pyrH, ftsZ, mreB and gapA), the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain TCFB 0772(T) were the type strains of Vibrio communis (99.8 and 94.6?% similarity, respectively), Vibrio owensii (99.8 and 94.1%), Vibrio natriegens (99.4 and 88.8%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (99.4 and 90.3%), Vibrio rotiferianus (99.2 and 94.4%), Vibrio alginolyticus (99.1 and 89.3%) and Vibrio campbellii (99.1 and 92.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the six isolates constitute a unique taxon that is distinct from other known species of Vibrio. In addition, this taxon can be readily differentiated phenotypically from other Vibrio species. The six isolates therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Vibrio jasicida sp. nov. is proposed; the novel species is represented by the type strain TCFB 0772(T) (?=?JCM 16453(T) ?=?LMG 25398(T)) (DNA G+C content 45.9 mol%) and reference strains TCFB 1977 (?=?JCM 16454) and TCFB 1000 (?=?JCM 16455). PMID:21984666

Yoshizawa, Susumu; Tsuruya, Yasuhiro; Fukui, Youhei; Sawabe, Tomoo; Yokota, Akira; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Higgins, Melissa; Carson, Jeremy; Thompson, Fabiano L

2012-08-01

86

Profiling of a few immune responsive genes expressed in postlarvae of Fenneropenaeus indicus challenged with Vibrio harveyi D3.  

PubMed

We identified 38 genes and eight hypothetical proteins by sequencing of 1200 clones from a Vibrio harveyi challenged Fenneropenaeus indicus subtracted cDNA library. Based on physiological roles and functions these genes were categorized into 10 groups with ?29% of the sequences having no matches in the databases. Immune related transcripts in the library were carboxypeptidase B, ferritin, translationally controlled tumor proteins (TCTP), hemocyanin, chitinase and serine carboxy peptidase. Remarkably, qPCR results imply 4.15, 3.45 and 1.86-fold rises in expression of ferritin, TCTP and hemocyanin transcripts respectively. Additionally, minor upregulation of other immune relevant genes lectin, penaeidin, crustin, MnSOD was observed in the challenged postlarvae. PMID:21515280

Nayak, S; Ajay, K M; Ramaiah, N; Meena, Ram M; Sreepada, R A

2011-06-01

87

RNAi knock-down of the Litopenaeus vannamei Toll gene ( LvToll) significantly increases mortality and reduces bacterial clearance after challenge with Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we used real-time PCR to simultaneously monitor the responses of 12 key genes of the shrimp innate immune system in Litopenaeus vannamei after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. In the proPO activating system, we found that proPO was up-regulated (3.3× control at 36hpi). The hemolymph clotting genes transglutaminase (TGase) and clotting protein were also up-regulated, as were 5

KC Han-Ching Wang; Chun-Wei Tseng; Han-You Lin; I-Tung Chen; Ya-Hui Chen; Yi-Min Chen; Tzong-Yueh Chen; Huey-Lang Yang

2010-01-01

88

Studies on the immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharide gel extracted from Durio zibethinus in Penaeus monodon shrimp against Vibrio harveyi and WSSV.  

PubMed

Oral administration of polysaccharide gel (PG) in shrimp diets revealed immunostimulating potential and disease resistance in Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp). PG from the fruit-rind of Durio zibethinus has been characterized to be a pectic polysaccharide with immunomodulating and antibacterial activities. PG inhibited growth of the shrimp bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi 1526, by agar diffusion and broth microdilution tests. Clear inhibition zones on agar plates were observed at the lowest PG concentration of 3.1 mg/ml, where minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for PG were 6.3 and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. Each group of juvenile shrimps, initial mean body weight 0.29 +/- 0.04 g, was housed in a closed-recirculating treated water system and was fed with PG-supplemented diets containing 1, 2 and 3% PG or shrimp basal diet in the control group for 8 and 12 weeks. PG-supplemented diets did not contribute to the overall growth of black tiger shrimp. The immune response was evaluated by analysis of prophenoloxidase activity and total hemocyte count in the shrimp fed PG-supplemented diets for 12 weeks. Prophenoloxidase activity in shrimp fed the 1, 2 and 3% PG-supplemented diet and total hemocyte count in shrimp fed the 1 and 2% PG-supplemented diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group. The percent survival was higher in groups fed the 1-3% PG-supplemented diets in challenge tests with either white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or the bacterium V. harveyi 1526 than that of the control group. Relative percent survival (RPS) values in groups fed the 2% PG-supplemented diet showed the highest RPS value for disease resistance of 100% (at Day 6) and 36% (at Day 4) in treated shrimp against viral and bacterial infection, respectively. Mortality of PG-supplemented diets in treated shrimps against WSSV infection was also found to be much lower (P < 0.05) than that of the control group. PMID:20034573

Pholdaeng, Komsil; Pongsamart, Sunanta

2010-04-01

89

Involvement of LuxR, a quorum sensing regulator in Vibrio harveyi, in the promotion of metabolic genes: argA, purM, lysE and rluA.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing, involving signal transduction via the two-component response regulator LuxO to its downstream target LuxR, controls luminescence in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. LuxR is a DNA binding protein that acts as both activator of the lux operon and repressor of its own gene. In order to determine if any other genes are affected by quorum sensing in V. harveyi, an assay for luxR-dependent promotion was devised using a genomic library maintained in a novel luxAB (luciferase) reporter. Screening in Escherichia coli DH-21 (lacI(sq)) entailed the addition of a second plasmid containing luxR under plac control. Four out of 5000 colonies showed luminescence stimulation upon IPTG induction of luxR. The four luxR-dependent promoters were upstream of argA, purM, lysE, and rluA, genes involved in arginine and purine biosyntheses, amino acid efflux, and pseudouridine synthesis, respectively. Based on analysis of luxR-dependent promoters, particularly that of argA, we describe a LuxR binding site, and implicate the coordination of LuxR with ArgR. PMID:16844243

Miyamoto, Carol M; Meighen, Edward A

2006-06-01

90

The lux autoinducer-receptor interaction in Vibrio harveyi: binding parameters and structural requirements for the autoinducer.  

PubMed Central

To assess the binding parameters and the structure-function relationship of the Vibrio harveyi lux autoinducer, N-(D-3-hydroxybutanoyl)homoserine lactone (D-HBHL), to light emission, a series of acylhomoserine lactone analogues were synthesized and their effects on the stimulation of luminescence of an autoinducer-deficient mutant of V. harveyi, D1, examined. Of the analogues with 3-hydroxyacyl chains, only N-(3-hydroxyvaleryl)homoserine lactone (HVHL) could act as an inducer, with about 85% of the potency of D-HBHL in stimulation of luminescence; the apparent Kd of the putative receptor for HVHL was 3.8 microM, close to that for the natural autoinducer (1.4 microM). Analogues with longer 3-hydroxyacyl chains, N-(3-hydroxyhexanoyl)homoserine lactone and N-(3-hydroxyheptanoyl)homoserine lactone, acted as competitive inhibitors of HBHL with apparent KI values of 77 and 53 microM respectively. Replacement of the 3-hydroxybutanoyl moiety with a 3-methylbutanoyl or 3-methoxybutanoyl group created weak competitive inhibitors, N-(isovaleryl)- and N-(3-methoxybutanoyl)- homoserine lactones, with apparent KI values of 150 and 360 microM respectively. Two other analogues, N-(2-hydroxybutanoyl)- and N-(4-hydroxybutanoyl)-homoserine lactone, could neither stimulate nor inhibit luminescence. The approach used in these studies to demonstrate binding of autoinducer analogues at the same site, as well as measurement of the relative dissociation constant, may be of value in analysing analogues activating or inhibiting luminescence and other processes that are under control of acylhomoserine lactone autoregulators.

Cao, J G; Wei, Z Y; Meighen, E A

1995-01-01

91

Interactions of microorganisms isolated from gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup).  

PubMed

Four bacterial isolates from farmed gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, included in a previous study as members of the Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonodaceae and the genus Micrococcus, have been evaluated for their adhesive ability to skin and intestinal mucus of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, and their antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of sole. These isolates showed higher adhesion to sole mucus than the pathogenic strains of V. harveyi assayed. Only two of the isolates showed antagonistic activity to V. harveyi. Interactions of the four isolates with V. harveyi in respect of adhesion to skin and intestinal mucus under exclusion, competition and displacement conditions were studied. Three isolates were able to reduce the attachment to skin and intestinal sole mucus of a pathogenic strain of V. harveyi under displacement and exclusion conditions, but not under competition conditions. The in vivo probiotic potential of isolate Pdp11 was assessed by oral administration followed by challenge with the pathogenic V. harveyi strain Lg14/00. A group of 50 Senegalese sole received a commercial diet supplemented with 10(8) cfu g(-1) of lyophilized Lg14/00 for 15 days. A second group of fish received a non-supplemented commercial diet. After challenge the mortality of the fish receiving the diet supplemented with the potential probiotic isolate was significantly lower than that in the fish receiving the non-supplemented commercial diet. This study has shown that the ability to interfere with attachment of pathogens, as well as the adhesion to host surfaces, are suitable criteria for selection of candidate probiotics for use in the culture of Senegalese sole. PMID:16266326

Chabrillón, M; Rico, R M; Arijo, S; Díaz-Rosales, P; Balebona, M C; Moriñigo, M A

2005-09-01

92

Description of a bacteriocinogenic plasmid in Beneckea harveyi.  

PubMed Central

A total of 795 strains of marine Vibrio species and Beneckea harveyi, a luminescent marine bacterium, were isolated from various sources in the area of Galveston Island, Tex., and screened for the production of bacteriocin-like substances. More than 8% of the Vibrio isolates produced low-molecular-weight (dialyzable) substances, which were lethal to a test strain of V. parahaemolyticus. Approximately 5% of the B. harveyi isolates produced higher-molecular-weight (nondialyzable) substances which were lethal to a test strain of B. harveyi. One of the B. harveyi strains (strain SY) produced a nondialyzable substance which was lethal to two of 39 strains of B. harveyi. The substance showed no activity toward 17 test strains drawn from the Vibrionaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. Strain SY showed no sensitivity to its own lethal agent and was shown by agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy to harbor a single plasmid of 38 x 10(6) daltons. Variants of strain SY lacking the plasmid were produced by growth in the presence of the antibiotic novobiocin. These variants lacked both the ability to produce the lethal substance and the ability to survive in its presence. The lethal agent produced by strain SY is the first bacteriocin reported in marine bacteria. The term "harveyicin" is proposed to name this lethal substance. Images

McCall, J O; Sizemore, R K

1979-01-01

93

A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with "Bacterial White Tail Disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

94

Redox-dependent sodium binding by the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Relaxation characteristics of the 23Na nuclei magnetization were used to determine the sodium-binding properties of the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio harveyi (NQR). The dissociation constant of Na+ for the oxidized enzyme was found to be 24 mM and for the reduced enzyme about 30 microM. Such large (3 orders in magnitude) redox dependence of the NQR affinity to sodium ions shows that the molecular machinery was designed to use the drop in redox energy for creating an electrochemical sodium gradient. Redox titration of NQR monitored by changes in line width of the 23Na NMR signal at 2 mM Na+ showed that the enzyme affinity to sodium ions follows the Nernst law for a one-electron carrier with Em about -300 mV (vs SHE). The data indicate that energy conservation by NQR involves a mechanism modulating ion affinity by the redox state of an enzyme redox cofactor. PMID:17696408

Bogachev, Alexander V; Bertsova, Yulia V; Aitio, Olli; Permi, Perttu; Verkhovsky, Michael I

2007-09-01

95

Isolation of Vibrio harveyi acyl carrier protein and the fabG, acpP, and fabF genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis.  

PubMed Central

We report the isolation of Vibrio harveyi acyl carrier protein (ACP) and cloning of a 3,973-bp region containing the fabG (encoding 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, 25.5 kDa), acpP (encoding ACP, 8.7 kDa), fabF (encoding 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, 43.1 kDa), and pabC (encoding aminodeoxychorismate lyase, 29.9 kDa) genes. Predicted amino acid sequences were, respectively, 78, 86, 76, and 35% identical to those of the corresponding Escherichia coli proteins. Five of the 11 sequence differences between V. harveyi and E. coli ACP were nonconservative amino acid differences concentrated in a loop region between helices I and II.

Shen, Z; Byers, D M

1996-01-01

96

Distribution of the Luminous Bacterium Beneckea harveyi in a Semitropical Estuarine Environment.  

PubMed

Bioluminescent bacteria were found in the water column, sediment, shrimp, and gastrointestinal tract of marine fishes from the semitropical estuarine environment of the East Lagoon, Galveston Island, Tex. Populations in the water column decreased during cold weather while sedimentary populations persisted. The highest percentages of luminous organisms were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of marine fishes, where they persisted during 5 days of starvation. The presence of chitin temporarily increased intestinal populations. All isolates were Beneckea harveyi, whose natural habitat appears to be the gut of fishes and whose free-living reservoir appears to be marine sediments. PMID:16345465

O'brien, C H; Sizemore, R K

1979-11-01

97

Distribution of the Luminous Bacterium Beneckea harveyi in a Semitropical Estuarine Environment  

PubMed Central

Bioluminescent bacteria were found in the water column, sediment, shrimp, and gastrointestinal tract of marine fishes from the semitropical estuarine environment of the East Lagoon, Galveston Island, Tex. Populations in the water column decreased during cold weather while sedimentary populations persisted. The highest percentages of luminous organisms were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of marine fishes, where they persisted during 5 days of starvation. The presence of chitin temporarily increased intestinal populations. All isolates were Beneckea harveyi, whose natural habitat appears to be the gut of fishes and whose free-living reservoir appears to be marine sediments.

O'Brien, Catherine H.; Sizemore, Ronald K.

1979-01-01

98

Biocontrol of Vibrio harveyi in Shrimp Aquaculture with Host Specific Lytic Bacteriophage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current decline in shrimp farm production has been related to a variety of issues associated with survivability of shrimp grown in the aquaculture setting. The presence of Vibrio pathogens has been identified as a cause of high mortality in the post larval and juvenile shrimp in aquaculture. The use of bacteriophage to control infections has seen increased interest with

Lillian Barber

2012-01-01

99

Inhibition of quorum sensing and biofilm formation in Vibrio harveyi by 4-fluoro-DPD; a novel potent inhibitor of signalling.  

PubMed

(S)-4,5-Dihydroxypentane-2,3-dione [(S)-DPD, (1)] is a precursor for , a quorum sensing signalling molecule for inter- and intra-species bacterial communication. The synthesis of its fluoro-analogue, 4-fluoro-5-hydroxypentane-2,3-dione () is reported. An intermediate in this route also enables a new, shorter synthesis of the native (S)-DPD. 4-Fluoro-DPD (2) completely inhibited bioluminescence and bacterial growth of Vibrio harveyi BB170 strain at 12.5 ?M and 100 ?M, respectively. PMID:24637781

Kadirvel, Manikandan; Fanimarvasti, Fariba; Forbes, Sarah; McBain, Andrew; Gardiner, John M; Brown, Gavin D; Freeman, Sally

2014-05-21

100

RNAi knock-down of the Litopenaeus vannamei Toll gene (LvToll) significantly increases mortality and reduces bacterial clearance after challenge with Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

In this study, we used real-time PCR to simultaneously monitor the responses of 12 key genes of the shrimp innate immune system in Litopenaeus vannamei after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. In the proPO activating system, we found that proPO was up-regulated (3.3x control at 36hpi). The hemolymph clotting genes transglutaminase (TGase) and clotting protein were also up-regulated, as were 5 genes in the antimicrobial peptide system (ALF, Crustin, Lyz, PEN2 and PEN4), with only PEN3 showing no significant changes. In the antioxidant defense system, SOD was slightly elevated while GPx was substantially down-regulated. In the pattern recognition receptor system, at 24hpi, the Toll gene (LvToll) showed the highest relative increase in expression level of all the investigated genes (15x greater than the sterile seawater control). In the second part of this study, when LvToll was knocked down by RNAi silencing, there was no effect on either survival rates or bacterial number in unchallenged shrimp. There was also no difference in mortality rates between control shrimp and LvToll-silenced shrimp when these two groups were challenged with a viral pathogen (white spot syndrome virus; WSSV). However, when LvToll-silenced shrimp were challenged by V. harveyi, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. We note that the increase in bacterial CFU count occurred even though treatment with EGFP dsRNA had the opposite effect of reducing the CFU counts. We conclude that LvToll is an important factor in the shrimp innate immune response to acute V. harveyi infection, but not to WSSV. PMID:19698743

Han-Ching Wang, Kc; Tseng, Chun-Wei; Lin, Han-You; Chen, I-Tung; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chen, Yi-Min; Chen, Tzong-Yueh; Yang, Huey-Lang

2010-01-01

101

Identification of immune-related genes from kidney and spleen of turbot, Psetta maxima (L.), by suppression subtractive hybridization following challenge with Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to investigate the response of turbot, Psetta maxima (L.), to Vibrio harveyi, by using a cDNA library constructed from artificially infected turbot kidney and spleen mRNA. Forty-nine expressed sequence tags were obtained. Several immune system genes were identified, including a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ia gene and a heat shock protein 70 gene. Some signalling molecules were also present in the cDNA libraries, including src-family tyrosine kinase SCK, sgk-1 serine-threonine protein kinase and amyloid precursor-like protein 2. The full length of MHC class Ia cDNA was cloned from turbot cDNA by rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide sequence of turbot MHC class Ia has been submitted to GenBank with accession number EF032639. The turbot MHC class Ia cDNA has an open reading frame encoding 354 amino acids, and the deduced amino acid sequence of turbot MHC class Ia has 68%, 54%, 51%, 52%, 57%, 33%, 29% and 29% identities to those of olive flounder, medaka, rainbow trout, Atlantic cod, tiger puffer, chicken, mouse and human, respectively. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR was performed for the MHC class Ia gene, and it was revealed that the expression level of the MHC class Ia gene in V. harveyi-challenged turbot increased to fourfold that of the controls. PMID:18577100

Wang, C; Zhang, X-H; Jia, A; Chen, J; Austin, B

2008-07-01

102

Quorum sensing regulation of virulence gene expression in Vibrio harveyi in vitro and in vivo during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated quorum sensing regulation of virulence genes in Vibrio harveyi by determining their expression levels, both in vitro and in vivo during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp. The quorum sensing master regulator luxR and the vhp metalloprotease showed around threefold and fivefold higher expression levels in a luxO mutant with maximum quorum sensing activity than in a luxO mutant with minimum quorum sensing activity. There was no difference in expression of the vhh haemolysin gene between the two mutants. There was however more than 2.5-fold lower expression in an AI-2-negative mutant, suggesting that this gene is specifically regulated by AI-2 quorum sensing through a yet unknown signal transduction cascade. The in vivo expression data showed a peak in expression of the quorum sensing master regulator luxR and the vhp metalloprotease after 24?h of incubation in wild-type V. harveyi and the luxO mutant mimicking a maximally activated quorum sensing system, whereas the expression remained low in the luxO mutant mimicking a completely inactivated quorum sensing system. The vhh haemolysin gene showed a peak in expression after 24?h in the wild type and a constantly low expression in an AI-2-negative mutant. PMID:23761340

Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Bhowmick, Patit Paban; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

2011-10-01

103

Evolution of tolerance to PCBs and susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen (Vibrio harveyi) in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from New Bedford (MA, USA) harbor  

PubMed Central

A population of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (Atlantic killifish) resident to New Bedford (NB), Massachusetts, USA, an urban harbor highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), demonstrates recently evolved tolerance to some aspects of PCB toxicity. PCB toxicology, ecological theory, and some precedence supported expectations of increased susceptibility to pathogens in NB killifish. However, laboratory bacterial challenges of the marine pathogen Vibrio harveyi to wild fish throughout the reproductive season and to their mature laboratory-raised progeny demonstrated comparable survival by NB and reference killifish, and improved survival by NB males. These results are inconsistent with hypothesized tradeoffs of adaptation, and suggest that evolved tolerance in NB killifish may include mechanisms that minimize the immunosuppressive effects of PCBs. Compensatory strategies of populations persisting in highly contaminated environments provide a unique perspective for understanding the long-term ecological effects of toxic chemicals.

Nacci, Diane; Huber, Marina; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Cohen, Sarah; Gauger, Eric; Fong, Allison; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta

2009-01-01

104

Evolution of tolerance to PCBs and susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen (Vibrio harveyi) in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from New Bedford (MA, USA) harbor.  

PubMed

A population of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (Atlantic killifish) resident to New Bedford (NB), Massachusetts, USA, an urban harbor highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), demonstrates recently evolved tolerance to some aspects of PCB toxicity. PCB toxicology, ecological theory, and some precedence supported expectations of increased susceptibility to pathogens in NB killifish. However, laboratory bacterial challenges of the marine pathogen Vibrio harveyi to wild fish throughout the reproductive season and to their mature laboratory-raised progeny demonstrated comparable survival by NB and reference killifish, and improved survival by NB males. These results are inconsistent with hypothesized trade-offs of adaptation, and suggest that evolved tolerance in NB killifish may include mechanisms that minimize the immunosuppressive effects of PCBs. Compensatory strategies of populations persisting in highly contaminated environments provide a unique perspective for understanding the long-term ecological effects of toxic chemicals. PMID:19110353

Nacci, Diane; Huber, Marina; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Cohen, Sarah; Gauger, Eric; Fong, Allison; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta

2009-03-01

105

Purification and characterization of agarases from a marine bacterium Vibrio sp . F-6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine bacterium Vibrio sp. F-6, utilizing agarose as a carbon source to produce agarases, was isolated from seawater samples taken from Qingdao,\\u000a China. Two agarases (AG-a and AG-b) were purified to a homogeneity from the cultural supernatant of Vibrio sp. F-6 through ammonium sulfate precipitation, Q-Sepharose FF chromatography, and Sephacryl S-100 gel filtration. Molecular\\u000a weights of agarases were estimated to

Wandong Fu; Baoqin Han; Delin Duan; Wanshun Liu; Changhong Wang

2008-01-01

106

Analysis of Activator and Repressor Functions Reveals the Requirements for Transcriptional Control by LuxR, the Master Regulator of Quorum Sensing in Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT LuxR-type transcription factors are the master regulators of quorum sensing in vibrios. LuxR proteins are unique members of the TetR superfamily of transcription factors because they activate and repress large regulons of genes. Here, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation and nucleotide sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify LuxR binding sites in the Vibrio harveyi genome. Bioinformatics analyses showed that the LuxR consensus binding site at repressed promoters is a symmetric palindrome, whereas at activated promoters it is asymmetric and contains only half of the palindrome. Using a genetic screen, we isolated LuxR mutants that separated activation and repression functions at representative promoters. These LuxR mutants exhibit sequence-specific DNA binding defects that restrict activation or repression activity to subsets of target promoters. Altering the LuxR DNA binding site sequence to one more closely resembling the ideal LuxR consensus motif can restore in vivo function to a LuxR mutant. This study provides a mechanistic understanding of how a single protein can recognize a variety of binding sites to differentially regulate gene expression.

van Kessel, Julia C.; Ulrich, Luke E.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2013-01-01

107

Inhibition of Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence by cerulenin: In vivo evidence for covalent modification of the reductase enzyme involved in aldehyde synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial bioluminescence is very sensitive to cerulenin, a fungal antibiotic which is known to inhibit fatty acid synthesis. When Vibrio harveyi cells pretreated with cerulenin were incubated with ({sup 3}H)myristic acid in vivo, acylation of the 57-kilodalton reductase subunit of the luminescence-specific fatty acid reductase complex was specifically inhibited. Light emission of wild-type V. harveyi was 20-fold less sensitive to cerulenin at low concentrations (10{mu}g/ml) than that of the dark mutant strain M17, which requires exogenous myristic acid for luminescence because of a defective transferase subunit. The sensitivity of myristic acid-stimulated luminescence in the mutant strain M17 exceeded that of phospholipid synthesis from ({sup 14}C)acetate, whereas uptake and incorporation of exogenous ({sup 14}C)myristic acid into phospholipids was increased by cerulenin. The reductase subunit could be labeled by incubating M17 cells with ({sup 3}H)tetrahydrocerulenin; this labeling was prevented by preincubation with either unlabeled cerulenin or myristic acid. Labeling of the reductase subunit with ({sup 3}H)tetrahydrocerulenin was also noted in an aldehyde-stimulated mutant (A16) but not in wild-type cells or in another aldehyde-stimulated mutant (M42) in which ({sup 3}H)myristoyl turnover at the reductase subunit was found to be defective. These results indicate that (i) cerulenin specifically and covalently inhibits the reductase component of aldehyde synthesis, (ii) this enzyme is partially protected from cerulenin inhibition in the wild-type strain in vivo, and (iii) two dark mutants which exhibit similar luminescence phenotypes (mutants A16 and M42) are blocked at different stages of fatty acid reduction.

Byers, D.M. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax (Nova Scotia)); Meighen, E.A. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1989-07-01

108

Inhibition of Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence by cerulenin: in vivo evidence for covalent modification of the reductase enzyme involved in aldehyde synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial bioluminescence is very sensitive to cerulenin, a fungal antibiotic which is known to inhibit fatty acid synthesis. When Vibrio harveyi cells pretreated with cerulenin were incubated with [3H]myristic acid in vivo, acylation of the 57-kilodalton reductase subunit of the luminescence-specific fatty acid reductase complex was specifically inhibited. In contrast, in vitro acylation of both the synthetase and transferase subunits, as well as the activities of luciferase, transferase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase, were not adversely affected by cerulenin. Light emission of wild-type V. harveyi was 20-fold less sensitive to cerulenin at low concentrations (10 micrograms/ml) than that of the dark mutant strain M17, which requires exogenous myristic acid for luminescence because of a defective transferase subunit. The sensitivity of myristic acid-stimulated luminescence in the mutant strain M17 exceeded that of phospholipid synthesis from [14C]acetate, whereas uptake and incorporation of exogenous [14C]myristic acid into phospholipids was increased by cerulenin. The reductase subunit could be labeled by incubating M17 cells with [3H]tetrahydrocerulenin; this labeling was prevented by preincubation with either unlabeled cerulenin or myristic acid. Labeling of the reductase subunit with [3H]tetrahydrocerulenin was also noted in an aldehyde-stimulated mutant (A16) but not in wild-type cells or in another aldehyde-stimulated mutant (M42) in which [3H]myristoyl turnover at the reductase subunit was found to be defective. These results indicate that (i) cerulenin specifically and covalently inhibits the reductase component of aldehyde synthesis, (ii) this enzyme is partially protected from cerulenin inhibition in the wild-type strain in vivo, and (iii) two dark mutants which exhibit similar luminescence phenotypes (mutants A16 and M42) are blocked at different stages of fatty acid reduction. Images

Byers, D M; Meighen, E A

1989-01-01

109

The single substance and mixture toxicity of quinolones to the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quinolones are one of the most important group of synthetic antibiotics used in aquaculture. We studied the single substance and mixture toxicity of ten quinolones using a long term bioluminescence inhibition assay with the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri as the test organism. All tested quinolones are highly toxic to the test organism with EC50 values ranging from 14 ?g\\/l for

T. Backhaus; M. Scholze; L. H. Grimme

2000-01-01

110

Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Bacterium Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 3  

PubMed Central

We report the first genome sequence of the pathogenic Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3. This draft genome sequence of the environmental strain VVyb1(BT3), isolated in Israel, provides a representation of this newly emerged clonal group, which reveals higher similarity to the clinical strains of biotype 1 than to the environmental ones.

Danin-Poleg, Yael; Elgavish, Sharona; Raz, Nili; Efimov, Vera

2013-01-01

111

Expression of Vibrio harveyi Acyl-ACP Synthetase Allows Efficient Entry of Exogenous Fatty Acids into the Escherichia coli Fatty Acid and Lipid A Synthetic Pathways  

PubMed Central

Although the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway is the best studied type II fatty acid synthesis system, a major experimental limitation has been the inability to feed intermediates into the pathway in vivo because exogenously-supplied free fatty acids are not efficiently converted to the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesters required by the pathway. We report that expression of Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS), a soluble cytosolic enzyme that ligates free fatty acids to ACP to form acyl-ACPs, allows exogenous fatty acids to enter the E. coli fatty acid synthesis pathway. The free fatty acids are incorporated intact and can be elongated or directly incorporated into complex lipids by acyltransferases specific for acyl-ACPs. Moreover, expression of AasS strains and supplementation with the appropriate fatty acid restored growth to E. coli mutant strains that lack essential fatty acid synthesis enzymes. Thus, this strategy provides a new tool for circumventing the loss of enzymes essential for FAS function.

Jiang, Yanfang; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M.; Campbell, John W.; Chan, Chi Ho; Cronan, John E.

2010-01-01

112

Structure-function relationship of Vibrio harveyi NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase FRP: essential residues Lys167 and Arg15 for NADPH binding.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase (FRP) catalyzes flavin reduction by NADPH. In comparing amino acid sequence and crystal structure with Escherichia coli NfsA, residues N134, R225, R133, K167, and R15 were targeted for investigation of their possible roles in the binding and utilization of the NADPH substrate. By mutation of each of these five residues to an alanine, steady-state rate analyses showed that the variants K167A and R15A had apparently greatly increased K(m,NADPH) and reduced k(cat)/K(m,NADPH), whereas little or much more modest changes were found for the other variants. The deuterium isotope effects (D)(V/K) for (4R)-[4-(2)H]-NADPH were markedly increased to 6.3 and 7.4 for K167A and R15A, respectively, indicating that the rate constants for NADPH and NADP(+) dissociation were greatly enhanced relative to the hydride transfer steps. Also, anaerobic stopped-flow analyses revealed that the equilibrium dissociation constant for NADPH binding (K(d)) to be 2.5-3.9 and 1.1 mM for K167A and R15A, respectively, much higher than the 0.4 ?M K(d) for the native FRP, whereas the k(cat) of these two variants were similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. Moreover, the K167 to alanine mutation led to even a slight increase in k(cat)/K(m) for NADH. These results, taken together, provide a strong support to the conclusion that K167 and R15 each was critical in the binding of NADPH by FRP. Such a functional role may also exist for other FRP homologous proteins. PMID:22650604

Chung, Hae-Won; Tu, Shiao-Chun

2012-06-19

113

NH4+ transport system of a psychrophilic marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1.  

PubMed

NH4(+) transport system of a psychrophilic marine bacterium Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1 (Vibrio ABE-1) was examined by measuring the uptake of [14C]methylammonium ion (14CH3NH3+) into the intact cells. 14CH3NH3+ uptake was detected in cells grown in medium containing glutamate as the sole nitrogen source, but not in those grown in medium containing NH4Cl instead of glutamate. Vibrio ABE-1 did not utilize CH3NH3+ as a carbon or nitrogen source. NH4Cl and nonradiolabeled CH3NH3+ completely inhibited 14CH3NH3+ uptake. These results indicate that 14CH3NH3+ uptake in this bacterium is mediated via an NH4+ transport system and not by a specific carrier for CH3NH3+. The respiratory substrate succinate was required to drive 14CH3NH3+ uptake and the uptake was completely inhibited by KCN, indicating that the uptake was energy dependent. The electrochemical potentials of H+ and/or Na+ across membranes were suggested to be the driving forces for the transport system because the ionophores carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and monensin strongly inhibited uptake activities at pH 6.5 and 8.5, respectively. Furthermore, KCl activated 14CH3NH3+ uptake. The 14CH3NH3+ uptake activity of Vibrio ABE-1 was markedly high at temperatures between 0 degrees and 15 degrees C, and the apparent Km value for CH3NH3+ of the uptake did not change significantly over the temperature range from 0 degrees to 25 degrees C. Thus, the NH4+ transport system of this bacterium was highly active at low temperatures. PMID:10356994

Chou, M; Matsunaga, T; Takada, Y; Fukunaga, N

1999-05-01

114

Vibrio xiamenensis sp. nov., a cellulase-producing bacterium isolated from mangrove soil.  

PubMed

A taxonomic study was carried out on a cellulase-producing bacterium, strain G21(T), isolated from mangrove soil in Xiamen, Fujian province, China. Cells were Gram-negative, slightly curved rods, motile with a single polar flagellum. The strain grew at 15-40 °C and in 0.5-10% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain G21(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and formed a clade with Vibrio furnissii ATCC 350116(T) (97.4% sequence similarity), V. fluvialis LMG 7894(T) (97.1%) and V. ponticus CECT 5869(T) (96.1%). However, multilocus sequence analysis (using rpoA, recA, mreB, gapA, gyrB and pyrH sequences) and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated that the strain was distinct from the closest related Vibrio species. Additionally, strain G21(T) could be differentiated from them phenotypically by the ability to grow in 10% NaCl but not on TCBS plates, its enzyme activity spectrum, citrate utilization, oxidization of various carbon sources, hydrolysis of several substrates and its cellular fatty acid profile. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 46.0 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(16:0) and C(18:1)?7c. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, with trace amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant quinones were Q-8 and Q-7. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, it is concluded that strain G21(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio xiamenensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G21(T) (?=?DSM 22851(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.10228(T)). PMID:22039001

Gao, Zhao-Ming; Xiao, Jing; Wang, Xing-Na; Ruan, Ling-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

2012-08-01

115

DNA cloning, characterization, and inhibition studies of an ?-carbonic anhydrase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

We have cloned, purified, and characterized an ?-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the human pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, VchCA. The new enzyme has significant catalytic activity, and an inhibition study with sulfonamides and sulfamates led to the detection of a large number of low nanomolar inhibitors, among which are methazolamide, acetazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, benzolamide, and indisulam (KI values in the range 0.69-8.1 nM). As bicarbonate is a virulence factor of this bacterium and since ethoxzolamide was shown to inhibit the in vivo virulence, we propose that VchCA may be a target for antibiotic development, exploiting a mechanism of action rarely considered until now. PMID:23181552

Del Prete, Sonia; Isik, Semra; Vullo, Daniela; De Luca, Viviana; Carginale, Vincenzo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

2012-12-13

116

Toxicity of Diphenylamine and Some of Its Nitrated and Aminated Derivatives to the Luminescent Bacterium Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous samples containing various nitrated and aminated diphenylamine derivatives were subjected to the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri NRRL-B-11177 to determine their ecotoxicological potential. As the most important toxicological parameter, EC50, the concentration needed to reduce bacterial luminescence by 50%, was calculated. All compounds tested must be classified to the category \\

O. Drzyzga; S. Jannsen; K. H. Blotevogel

1995-01-01

117

Characterization of a Facultatively Psychrophilic Bacterium, Vibrio rumoiensis sp. nov., That Exhibits High Catalase Activity  

PubMed Central

A novel facultatively psychrophilic bacterium, strain S-1, which exhibits extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a fish product processing plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching and microbicidal agent. The catalase activity of the isolate was 1 or 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of Corynebacterium glutamicum, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and five other species tested in this study. The strain seemed to possess only one kind of catalase, according to the results of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the cell extract. The optimum temperature for catalase activity was about 30°C, which was about 20°C lower than that for bovine catalase activity. Electron microscopic observation revealed that the surface of the microorganism was covered by blebs. Although the isolate was nonflagellated, its taxonomic position on the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics and analysis of 16S rRNA sequence and DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that strain S-1 is a new species belonging to the genus Vibrio. Accordingly, we propose the name Vibrio rumoiensis. The type strain is S-1 (FERM P-14531).

Yumoto, Isao; Iwata, Hideaki; Sawabe, Tomoo; Ueno, Keisuke; Ichise, Nobutoshi; Matsuyama, Hidetoshi; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Kawasaki, Kosei

1999-01-01

118

Genes encoding two isocitrate dehydrogenase isozymes of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1.  

PubMed Central

The genes coding for two structurally different isocitrate dehydrogenase isozymes (IDH-I and IDH-II) of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1, were cloned and sequenced. Open reading frames of the genes (icdI and icdII) are 1,248 and 2,229 bp in length, respectively. The amino acid sequences predicted from the open reading frames of icdI and icdII corresponded to the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified IDH-I and IDH-II, respectively. No homology was found between the deduced amino acid sequences of the isozymes; however, the IDH-I, a dimeric enzyme, had a high amino acid sequence identity (74.3%) to the Escherichia coli IDH. The deduced amino acid sequence of the IDH-II, a monomeric enzyme, was not related to any known sequence. However, the IDH-II had an amino acid sequence homologous to that of a cyanogen bromide-cleaved peptide containing a putative active-site methionyl residue of the monomeric IDH of Azotobacter vinelandii. The two genes (icdlI and icdII) were found to be tandemly located in the same orientation. Northern (RNA) blot analyses showed that the two genes are transcribed independently. Primer extension experiments located single transcriptional start sites 39 and 96 bp upstream of the start codons of icdI and icdII, respectively. The amount of icdI transcript but not icdII increased when Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1 cells were cultured in acetate minimal medium. Images

Ishii, A; Suzuki, M; Sahara, T; Takada, Y; Sasaki, S; Fukunaga, N

1993-01-01

119

Interactions between the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus and red-tide dinoflagellates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogenic bacterium in marine and estuarine waters. To investigate interactions between V. parahaemolyticus and co-occurring redtide dinoflagellates, we monitored the daily abundance of 5 common red tide dinoflagellates in laboratory culture; Amphidinium carterae, Cochlodinium ploykrikoides, Gymnodinium impudicum, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Additionally, we measured the ingestion rate of each dinoflagellate on V. parahaemolyticus as a function of prey concentration. Each of the dinoflagellates responded differently to the abundance of V. parahaemolyticus. The abundances of A. carterae and P. micans were not lowered by V. parahaemolyticus, whereas that of C. polykrikodes was lowered considerably. The harmful effect depended on bacterial concentration and incubation time. Most C. polykrikoides cells died after 1 hour incubation when the V. parahaemolyticus concentration was 1.4×107 cells ml-1, while cells died within 2 days of incubation when the bacterial concentration was 1.5×106 cells ml-1. With increasing V. parahaemolyticus concentration, ingestion rates of P. micans, P. minimum, and A. carterae on the prey increased, whereas that on C. polykrikoides decreased. The maximum or highest ingestion rates of P. micans, P. minimum, and A. carterae on V. parahaemolyticus were 55, 5, and 2 cells alga-1 h-1, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that V. parahaemolyticus can be both the killer and prey for some red tide dinoflagellates.

Seong, Kyeong Ah; Jeong, Hae Jin

2011-06-01

120

Secondary Metabolites Produced by the Marine Bacterium Halobacillus salinus That Inhibit Quorum Sensing-Controlled Phenotypes in Gram-Negative Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain bacteria use cell-to-cell chemical communication to coordinate community-wide phenotypic expres- sion, including swarming motility, antibiotic biosynthesis, and biofilm production. Here we present a marine gram-positive bacterium that secretes secondary metabolites capable of quenching quorum sensing-controlled behaviors in several gram-negative reporter strains. Isolate C42, a Halobacillus salinus strain obtained from a sea grass sample, inhibits bioluminescence production by Vibrio harveyi

Margaret E. Teasdale; Jiayuan Liu; Joselynn Wallace; Fatemeh Akhlaghi; David C. Rowley

2009-01-01

121

Antibiofilm Activity of an Exopolysaccharide from Marine Bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101  

PubMed Central

Bacterial exopolysaccharides have always been suggested to play crucial roles in the bacterial initial adhesion and the development of complex architecture in the later stages of bacterial biofilm formation. However, Escherichia coli group II capsular polysaccharide was characterized to exert broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition activity. In this study, we firstly reported that a bacterial exopolysaccharide (A101) not only inhibits biofilm formation of many bacteria but also disrupts established biofilm of some strains. A101 with an average molecular weight of up to 546 KDa, was isolated and purified from the culture supernatant of the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101 by ethanol precipitation, iron-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. High performance liquid chromatography traces of the hydrolyzed polysaccharides showed that A101 is primarily consisted of galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and glucosamine. A101 was demonstrated to inhibit biofilm formation by a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria without antibacterial activity. Furthermore, A101 displayed a significant disruption on the established biofilm produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not by Staphylococcus aureus. Importantly, A101 increased the aminoglycosides antibiotics' capability of killing P. aeruginosa biofilm. Cell primary attachment to surfaces and intercellular aggregates assays suggested that A101 inhibited cell aggregates of both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, while the cell-surface interactions inhibition only occurred in S. aureus, and the pre-formed cell aggregates dispersion induced by A101 only occurred in P. aeruginosa. Taken together, these data identify the antibiofilm activity of A101, which may make it potential in the design of new therapeutic strategies for bacterial biofilm-associated infections and limiting biofilm formation on medical indwelling devices. The found of A101 antibiofilm activity may also promote a new recognition about the functions of bacterial exopolysaccharides.

Han, Feng; Duan, Gaofei; Lu, Xinzhi; Gu, Yuchao; Yu, Wengong

2011-01-01

122

Vibrio hemicentroti sp. nov., an alginate lyase-producing bacterium, isolated from the gut microflora of sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus).  

PubMed

An alginate lyase-producing bacterium, designated AlyHP32(T), was isolated from the gut of sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) obtained from the South Sea, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain AlyHP32(T) were Gram-reaction-negative and motile with a single polar flagellum. The strain grew with 1-6?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-4?%) and at 4-30 °C (optimum 15-25 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and five housekeeping genes (atpA, pyrH, recA, rpoA and rpoD) revealed that strain AlyHP32(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and formed a compact clade with the Vibrio splendidus group. However, DNA-DNA hybridization and fingerprints using the repetitive primers BOX and REP indicated that strain AlyHP32(T) was distinct from closely related species of the genus Vibrio. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c and/or C16:1?6c) and C16:0. The DNA G+C content was 44.1 mol%. The predominant quinone was ubiquinone Q-8. Based on genotypic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, strain AlyHP32(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio; the name Vibrio hemicentroti sp. nov. (type strain AlyHP32(T)?=?KCTC 32085(T)?=?DSM 26178(T)) is proposed for this novel taxon. PMID:23625262

Kim, Duwoon; Baik, Keun Sik; Hwang, Ye Seul; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kwon, Joseph; Seong, Chi Nam

2013-10-01

123

Administration of Bacillus subtilis strains in the rearing water enhances the water quality, growth performance, immune response, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi infection in juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

In this study, vegetative cell suspensions of two Bacillus subtilis strains, L10 and G1 in equal proportions, was administered at two different doses 10(5) (BM5) and 10(8) (BM8) CFU ml(-1) in the rearing water of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for eight weeks. Both probiotic groups showed a significant reduction of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate ions under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In comparison to untreated control group, final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR) and digestive enzymatic activity were significantly greater in the BM5 and BM8 groups. Significant differences for survival were recorded in the BM8 group as compared to the control. Eight weeks after the start of experiment, shrimp were challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in shrimp survival between probiotic and control groups. Cumulative mortality of the control group was 80%, whereas cumulative mortality of the shrimp that had been given probiotics was 36.7% with MB8 and 50% with MB5. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (PE), lipopolysaccharide- and ?-1,3-glucan- binding protein (LGBP) and serine protein (SP). The expression of all immune-related genes studied was only significantly up-regulated in the BM5 group compared to the BM8 and control groups. These results suggest that administration of B. subtilis strains in the rearing water confers beneficial effects for shrimp aquaculture, considering water quality, growth performance, digestive enzymatic activity, immune response and disease resistance. PMID:24161773

Zokaeifar, Hadi; Babaei, Nahid; Saad, Che Roos; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Balcazar, Jose Luis

2014-01-01

124

Genome Sequence of the Human-Pathogenetic Bacterium Vibrio vulnificus B2  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus, which can lead to rapidly expanding cellulitis or septicemia, is present in the marine environment. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain B2, which was isolated from a septicemia patient in 2010.

Wang, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Zhan; Zha, Jia

2012-01-01

125

Taxonomic revision of Harveyi clade bacteria (family Vibrionaceae) based on analysis of whole genome sequences.  

PubMed

Use of inadequate methods for classification of bacteria in the so-called Harveyi clade (family Vibrionaceae, Gammaproteobacteria) has led to incorrect assignment of strains and proliferation of synonymous species. In order to resolve taxonomic ambiguities within the Harveyi clade and to test usefulness of whole genome sequence data for classification of Vibrionaceae, draft genome sequences of 12 strains were determined and analysed. The sequencing included type strains of seven species: Vibrio sagamiensis NBRC 104589(T), Vibrio azureus NBRC 104587(T), Vibrio harveyi NBRC 15634(T), Vibrio rotiferianus LMG 21460(T), Vibrio campbellii NBRC 15631(T), Vibrio jasicida LMG 25398(T), and Vibrio owensii LMG 25443(T). Draft genome sequences of strain LMG 25430, previously designated the type strain of [Vibrio communis], and two strains (MWB 21 and 090810c) from the 'beijerinckii' lineage were also determined. Whole genomes of two additional strains (ATCC 25919 and 200612B) that previously could not be assigned to any Harveyi clade species were also sequenced. Analysis of the genome sequence data revealed a clear case of synonymy between V. owensii and [V. communis], confirming an earlier proposal to synonymize both species. Both strains from the 'beijerinckii' lineage were classified as V. jasicida, while the strains ATCC 25919 and 200612B were classified as V. owensii and V. campbellii, respectively. We also found that two strains, AND4 and Ex25, are closely related to Harveyi clade bacteria, but could not be assigned to any species of the family Vibrionaceae. The use of whole genome sequence data for the taxonomic classification of the Harveyi clade bacteria and other members of the family Vibrionaceae is also discussed. PMID:23710045

Urbanczyk, Henryk; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

2013-07-01

126

Involvement of nitric oxide in the in vitro interaction between Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, hemocytes and the bacterium Vibrio tapetis.  

PubMed

The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum can become infected by the bacterium Vibrio tapetis which causing the Brown Ring Disease along North European Atlantic coasts. Variations in clam immune parameters have been reported in clam challenged with V. tapetis but no studies have been done on Nitric Oxide (NO) production. NO is a toxic agent to pathogens produced mostly by immune cells such as hemocytes in invertebrates. In this study, we demonstrated that NO production in hemolymph and extrapallial fluid of clams is dose dependent and increases with incubation time with V. tapetis. Moreover, the augmentation of NO production seems to be directly correlated to cell rounding and to the loss of pseudopods-forming capacity of hemocytes during the infection process. PMID:22019825

Jeffroy, Fanny; Paillard, Christine

2011-12-01

127

The Vibrio campbellii quorum sensing signals have a different impact on virulence of the bacterium towards different crustacean hosts.  

PubMed

Pathogenic bacteria communicate with small signal molecules in a process called quorum sensing, and they often use different signal molecules to regulate virulence gene expression. Vibrio campbellii, one of the major pathogens of aquatic organisms, regulates virulence gene expression by a three channel quorum sensing system. Here we show that although they use a common signal transduction cascade, the signal molecules have a different impact on the virulence of the bacterium towards different hosts, i.e. the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and the commercially important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. These results suggest that the use of multiple types of signal molecules to regulate virulence gene expression is one of the features that allow bacteria to infect different hosts. Our findings emphasize that it is highly important to study the efficacy of quorum sensing inhibitors as novel biocontrol agents under conditions that are as close as possible to the clinical situation. PMID:24055027

Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Natrah, Fatin Mohd Ikhsan; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

2013-12-27

128

Regulation of proteorhodopsin gene expression by nutrient limitation in the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. AND4.  

PubMed

Proteorhodopsin (PR), a ubiquitous membrane photoprotein in marine environments, acts as a light-driven proton pump and can provide energy for bacterial cellular metabolism. However, knowledge of factors that regulate PR gene expression in different bacteria remains strongly limited. Here, experiments with Vibrio sp. AND4 showed that PR phototrophy promoted survival only in cells from stationary phase and not in actively growing cells. PR gene expression was tightly regulated, with very low values in exponential phase, a pronounced peak at the exponential/stationary phase intersection, and a marked decline in stationary phase. Thus, PR gene expression at the entry into stationary phase preceded, and could therefore largely explain, the stationary phase light-induced survival response in AND4. Further experiments revealed nutrient limitation, not light exposure, regulated this differential PR expression. Screening of available marine vibrios showed that the PR gene, and thus the potential for PR phototrophy, is found in at least three different clusters in the genus Vibrio. In an ecological context, our findings suggest that some PR-containing bacteria adapted to the exploitation of nutrient-rich micro-environments rely on a phase of relatively slowly declining resources to mount a cellular response preparing them for adverse conditions dispersed in the water column. PMID:23379752

Akram, Neelam; Palovaara, Joakim; Forsberg, Jeremy; Lindh, Markus V; Milton, Debra L; Luo, Haiwei; González, José M; Pinhassi, Jarone

2013-05-01

129

Genomic and functional analysis of Vibrio phage SIO-2 reveals novel insights into ecology and evolution of marine siphoviruses  

PubMed Central

We report on a genomic and functional analysis of a novel marine siphovirus, the Vibrio phage SIO-2. This phage is lytic for related Vibrio species of great ecological interest including the broadly antagonistic bacterium Vibrio sp. SWAT3 as well as notable members of the Harveyi clade (V. harveyi ATTC BAA-1116 and V. campbellii ATCC 25920). Vibrio phage SIO-2 has a circularly permuted genome of 80,598 bp, which displays unusual features. This genome is larger than that of most known siphoviruses and only 38 of the 116 predicted proteins had homologues in databases. Another divergence is manifest by the origin of core genes, most of which share robust similarities with unrelated viruses and bacteria spanning a wide range of phyla. These core genes are arranged in the same order as in most bacteriophages but they are unusually interspaced at two places with insertions of DNA comprising a high density of uncharacterized genes. The acquisition of these DNA inserts is associated with morphological variation of SIO-2 capsid, which assembles as a large (80 nm) shell with a novel T=12 symmetry. These atypical structural features confer on SIO-2 a remarkable stability to a variety of physical, chemical and environmental factors. Given this high level of functional and genomic novelty, SIO-2 emerges as a model of considerable interest in ecological and evolutionary studies.

Baudoux, A-C.; Hendrix, R.W.; Lander, G.C.; Bailly, X.; Podell, S.; Paillard, C.; Johnson, J.E.; Potter, C.S.; Carragher, B.; Azam, F.

2011-01-01

130

Genomic and functional analysis of Vibrio phage SIO-2 reveals novel insights into ecology and evolution of marine siphoviruses.  

PubMed

We report on a genomic and functional analysis of a novel marine siphovirus, the Vibrio phage SIO-2. This phage is lytic for related Vibrio species of great ecological interest including the broadly antagonistic bacterium Vibrio sp. SWAT3 as well as notable members of the Harveyi clade (V.harveyi ATTC BAA-1116 and V.campbellii ATCC 25920). Vibrio phage SIO-2 has a circularly permuted genome of 80598 bp, which displays unusual features. This genome is larger than that of most known siphoviruses and only 38 of the 116 predicted proteins had homologues in databases. Another divergence is manifest by the origin of core genes, most of which share robust similarities with unrelated viruses and bacteria spanning a wide range of phyla. These core genes are arranged in the same order as in most bacteriophages but they are unusually interspaced at two places with insertions of DNA comprising a high density of uncharacterized genes. The acquisition of these DNA inserts is associated with morphological variation of SIO-2 capsid, which assembles as a large (80 nm) shell with a novel T=12 symmetry. These atypical structural features confer on SIO-2 a remarkable stability to a variety of physical, chemical and environmental factors. Given this high level of functional and genomic novelty, SIO-2 emerges as a model of considerable interest in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:22225728

Baudoux, A-C; Hendrix, R W; Lander, G C; Bailly, X; Podell, S; Paillard, C; Johnson, J E; Potter, C S; Carragher, B; Azam, F

2012-08-01

131

Experimental and predicted acute toxicity of antibacterial compounds and their mixtures using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri.  

PubMed

This article investigates the bioluminescence inhibition effects of the antimicrobials triclocarban, triclosan and its metabolite methyl triclosan, using the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri as the test organism (Microtox©). The concentration response analysis was performed for the three individual substances and for a mixture in which the three compounds were mixed in a ratio of the IC50 of the individual components (equitoxic ratio). Toxicity values (the median inhibitory concentration value, in mgL(-1)) in the decreasing order of sensitivity were triclosan (0.73)>triclocarban (0.91)>methyl-triclosan (1.76). The comparison of the experimental data with those obtained by using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) equations indicated that triclosan and triclocarban act as polar narcotic compounds towards V. fischeri, whereas methyl-triclosan acts as a narcotic (baseline toxicity). The toxicity of the mixture was measured experimentally and predicted by two models (CA: concentration addition; IA: independent action). The results showed that the observed mixture toxicity (IC50=0.23mgL(-1)) had no significant differences from those predicted by both CA and IA models. PMID:24529397

Villa, Sara; Vighi, Marco; Finizio, Antonio

2014-08-01

132

Characterizing the Host and Symbiont Proteomes in the Association between the Bobtail Squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the Bacterium, Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

The beneficial symbiosis between the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, provides a unique opportunity to study host/microbe interactions within a natural microenvironment. Colonization of the squid light organ by V. fischeri begins a lifelong association with a regulated daily rhythm. Each morning the host expels an exudate from the light organ consisting of 95% of the symbiont population in addition to host hemocytes and shed epithelial cells. We analyzed the host and symbiont proteomes of adult squid exudate and surrounding light organ epithelial tissue using 1D- and 2D-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) in an effort to understand the contribution of both partners to the maintenance of this association. These proteomic analyses putatively identified 1581 unique proteins, 870 proteins originating from the symbiont and 711 from the host. Identified host proteins indicate a role of the innate immune system and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating the symbiosis. Symbiont proteins detected enhance our understanding of the role of quorum sensing, two-component signaling, motility, and detoxification of ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) inside the light organ. This study offers the first proteomic analysis of the symbiotic microenvironment of the adult light organ and provides the identification of proteins important to the regulation of this beneficial association.

Schleicher, Tyler R.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

2011-01-01

133

The Vibrio core group induces yellow band disease in Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reef-building corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To determine the relationship between yellow band disease (YBD)- associated pathogenic bacteria found in both Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs, and the virulence of these pathogens. YBD is one of the most significant coral diseases of the tropics. Materials and Results: The consortium of four Vibrio species was isolated from YBD tissue on Indo-Pacific corals: Vibrio rotiferianus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio

J. M. Cervino; F. L. Thompson; B. Gomez-Gil; E. A. Lorence; T. J. Goreau; R. L. Hayes; K. B. Winiarski-Cervino; G. W. Smith; K. Hughen; E. Bartels

2008-01-01

134

Multiple N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone autoinducers of luminescence in the marine symbiotic bacterium Vibrio fischeri.  

PubMed Central

In Vibrio fischeri, the synthesis of N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, the autoinducer for population density-responsive induction of the luminescence operon (the lux operon, luxICDABEG), is dependent on the autoinducer synthase gene luxI. Gene replacement mutants of V. fischeri defective in luxI, which had been expected to produce no autoinducer, nonetheless exhibited lux operon transcriptional activation. Mutants released into the medium a compound that, like N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, activated expression of the lux system in a dose-dependent manner and was both extractable with ethyl acetate and labile to base. The luxI-independent compound, also like N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, was produced by V. fischeri cells in a regulated, population density-responsive manner and required the transcriptional activator LuxR for activity in the lux system. The luxI-independent compound was identified as N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone by coelution with the synthetic compound in reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, by derivatization treatment with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, by mass spectrometry, and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A locus, ain, necessary and sufficient for Escherichia coli to synthesize N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone was cloned from the V. fischeri genome and found to be distinct from luxI by restriction mapping and Southern hybridization. N-Octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and ain constitute a second, novel autoinduction system for population density-responsive signalling and regulation of lux gene expression, and possibly other genes, in V. fischeri. A third V. fischeri autoinducer, N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, dependent on luxI for its synthesis, was also identified. The presence of multiple chemically and genetically distinct but cross-acting autoinduction systems in V. fischeri indicates unexpected complexity for autoinduction as a regulatory mechanism in this bacterium. Images

Kuo, A; Blough, N V; Dunlap, P V

1994-01-01

135

Production and sequence validation of a complete full length ORF collection for the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

Cholera, an infectious disease with global impact, is caused by pathogenic strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. High-throughput functional proteomics technologies now offer the opportunity to investigate all aspects of the proteome, which has led to an increased demand for comprehensive protein expression clone resources. Genome-scale reagents for cholera would encourage comprehensive analyses of immune responses and systems-wide functional studies that could lead to improved vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Here, we report the production of the FLEXGene clone set for V. cholerae O1 biovar eltor str. N16961: a complete-genome collection of ORF clones. This collection includes 3,761 sequence-verified clones from 3,887 targeted ORFs (97%). The ORFs were captured in a recombinational cloning vector to facilitate high-throughput transfer of ORF inserts into suitable expression vectors. To demonstrate its application, ?15% of the collection was transferred into the relevant expression vector and used to produce a protein microarray by transcribing, translating, and capturing the proteins in situ on the array surface with 92% success. In a second application, a method to screen for protein triggers of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) was developed. We tested in vitro-synthesized proteins for their ability to stimulate TLR5 in A549 cells. This approach appropriately identified FlaC, and previously uncharacterized TLR5 agonist activities. These data suggest that the genome-scale, fully sequenced ORF collection reported here will be useful for high-throughput functional proteomic assays, immune response studies, structure biology, and other applications.

Rolfs, Andreas; Montor, Wagner R.; Yoon, Sang Sun; Hu, Yanhui; Bhullar, Bhupinder; Kelley, Fontina; McCarron, Seamus; Jepson, Daniel A.; Shen, Binghua; Taycher, Elena; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Zuo, Dongmei; Williamson, Janice; Mekalanos, John; LaBaer, Joshua

2008-01-01

136

Prevention of quorum-sensing-mediated biofilm development and virulence factors production in Vibrio spp. by curcumin.  

PubMed

The increasing occurrence of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio spp. and the emergence of antibiotic resistance has led to a growing interest in finding alternative strategies to prevent vibriosis. Since the pathogenicity of vibrios is controlled in part by quorum-sensing (QS) system, interfering with this mechanism would prevent the pathogenicity of vibrios without developing resistance. Hence, a non-toxic phytochemical curcumin from Curcuma longa was assessed for its potential in reducing the production of QS-dependent virulence factors in Vibrio spp. The obtained results evidenced 88% reduction in bioluminescence of Vibrio harveyi by curcumin. Further, curcumin exhibited a significant inhibition in alginate, exopolysaccharides, motility, biofilm development and other virulence factors production in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and V. harveyi. In in vivo analysis, curcumin enhanced the survival rate of Artemia nauplii up to 67% against V. harveyi infection by attenuating its QS-mediated virulence. PMID:23354447

Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Sasikumar, Pitchaikani; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Veera Ravi, Arumugam

2013-12-01

137

Functional Characterization of Two Type III Secretion Systems of Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a gram-negative marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of food-borne gastroenteritis. Recent genome sequencing of the clinical V. parahaemolyticus strain RIMD2210633 identified two sets of genes for the type III secretion system (TTSS), TTSS1 and TTSS2. Here, we constructed a series of mutant strains from RIMD2210633 to determine whether the two putative TTSS apparatus are functional. The cytotoxic activity of mutant strains having a deletion in one of the TTSS1 genes was significantly decreased compared with that of the parent and TTSS2-related mutant strains. In an enterotoxicity assay with the rabbit ileal loop test, intestinal fluid accumulation was diminished by deletion of the TTSS2-related genes while TTSS1-related mutants caused a level of fluid accumulation similar to that of the parent. VopD, a protein encoded in the proximity of the TTSS1 region and a homologue of the Yersinia YopD, was secreted in a TTSS1-dependent manner. In contrast, VopP, which is encoded by a pathogenicity island on chromosome 2 and is homologous to the Yersinia YopP, was secreted via the TTSS2 pathway. These results provide evidence that V. parahaemolyticus TTSSs function as secretion systems and may have a role in the pathogenicity of the organism. This is the first report of functional TTSSs in Vibrio species. The presence of TTSS apparatus gene homologues was demonstrated in other vibrios, such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio tubiashii, suggesting that some other vibrios also contain TTSS and that the TTSS has a role in protein secretion in those organisms during interaction with eukaryotic cells.

Park, Kwon-Sam; Ono, Takahiro; Rokuda, Mitsuhiro; Jang, Myoung-Ho; Okada, Kazuhisa; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

2004-01-01

138

Characterisation of a Marine Bacterium Vibrio Brasiliensis T33 Producing N-acyl Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing Molecules.  

PubMed

N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) plays roles as signal molecules in quorum sensing (QS) in most Gram-negative bacteria. QS regulates various physiological activities in relation with population density and concentration of signal molecules. With the aim of isolating marine water-borne bacteria that possess QS properties, we report here the preliminary screening of marine bacteria for AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the AHL biosensor. Strain T33 was isolated based on preliminary AHL screening and further identified by using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as a member of the genus Vibrio closely related to Vibrio brasiliensis. The isolated Vibrio sp. strain T33 was confirmed to produce N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10 HSL) through high resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that this isolate formed biofilms which could be inhibited by catechin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that documents the production of these AHLs by Vibrio brasiliensis strain T33. PMID:25006994

Tan, Wen-Si; Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Pui-Wan; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

139

Identification of multiple sigma54-dependent transcriptional activators in Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

In the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the alternate sigma factor sigma54 is required for expression of multiple sets of genes, including an unidentified gene(s) necessary for enhanced colonization within the host. To identify sigma54-dependent transcriptional activators involved in colonization, PCR was performed with V. cholerae chromosomal DNA and degenerate primers, revealing six novel and distinct coding sequences with homology to sigma54-dependent activators. One sequence had high homology to the luxO gene of V. harveyi, which in that organism is involved in quorum sensing. Phenotypes of V. cholerae strains containing mutations in each of the six putative sigma54-dependent activator genes identified one as a probable ntrC homologue. None of the mutant strains exhibited a defect in the ability to colonize infant mice, suggesting the presence of additional sigma54-dependent activators not identified by this technique. PMID:9748465

Klose, K E; Novik, V; Mekalanos, J J

1998-10-01

140

Enumeration of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the viable but nonculturable state using direct plate counts and recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative, halophilic bacterium indigenous to marine and estuarine environments and it is capable of causing food and water-borne illness in humans. It can also cause disease in marine animals, including cultured species. Currently, culture-based techniques are used for quantification of V. parahaemolyticus in environmental samples; however, these can be misleading as they fail to detect V. parahaemolyticus in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state which leads to an underestimation of the population density. In this study, we used a novel fluorescence visualization technique, called recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization (RING-FISH), which targets chromosomal DNA for enumeration. A polynucleotide probe labeled with Cyanine 3 (Cy3) was created corresponding to the ubiquitous V. parahaemolyticus gene that codes for thermolabile hemolysin (tlh). When coupled with the Kogure method to distinguish viable from dead cells, RING-FISH probes reliably enumerated total, viable V. parahaemolyticus. The probe was tested for sensitivity and specificity against a pure culture of tlh(+), tdh(-), trh(-)V. parahaemolyticus, pure cultures of Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio fischeri, and a mixed environmental sample. This research will provide additional tools for a better understanding of the risk these environmental organisms pose to human health. PMID:21329738

Griffitt, Kimberly J; Noriea, Nicholas F; Johnson, Crystal N; Grimes, D Jay

2011-05-01

141

Susceptibility to antibiotics of Vibrio sp. AO1 growing in pure culture or in association with its hydroid host Aglaophenia octodonta (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is the major causal organism of vibriosis, causing potential devastation to diverse ranges of marine invertebrates over a wide geographical area. These microorganisms, however, are phenotypically diverse, and many of the isolates are also resistant to multiple antibiotics. In a previous study, we described a previously unknown association between Vibrio sp. AO1, a luminous bacterium related to the species V. harveyi, and the benthic hydrozoan Aglaophenia octodonta. In this study, we analyzed the susceptibility to antibiotics (ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, or co-trimoxazole = mix of sulfamethoxazole and trimetoprim) of Vibrio sp. AO1 growing in pure culture or in association with its hydroid host by using microcosm experiments. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) experiments demonstrated that Vibrio sp. AO1 was highly resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin in pure culture. Nevertheless, these antibiotics, when used at sub-MIC values, significantly reduced the hydroid fluorescence. Co-trimoxazole showed the highest inhibitory effect on fluorescence of A. octodonta. However, in all treatments, the fluorescence was reduced after 48 h, but never disappeared completely around the folds along the hydrocaulus and at the base of the hydrothecae of A. octodonta when the antibiotic was used at concentration completely inhibiting growth in vitro. The apparent discrepancy between the MIC data and the fluorescence patterns may be due to either heterogeneity of the bacterial population in terms of antibiotic susceptibility or specific chemical-physical conditions of the hydroid microenvironment that may decrease the antibiotic susceptibility of the whole population. The latter hypothesis is supported by scanning electron microscope evidence for development of bacterial biofilm on the hydroid surface. On the basis of the results obtained, we infer that A. octodonta might behave as a reservoir of antibiotic multiresistant bacteria, increasing the risk of their transfer into aquaculture farms. PMID:19888625

Stabili, Loredana; Gravili, Cinzia; Boero, Ferdinando; Tredici, Salvatore M; Alifano, Pietro

2010-04-01

142

Novel Bacterial Surface Display Systems Based on Outer Membrane Anchoring Elements from the Marine Bacterium Vibrio anguillarum? †  

PubMed Central

Surface display of heterologous peptides and proteins such as receptors, antigens, and enzymes on live bacterial cells is of considerable value for various biotechnological and industrial applications. In this study, a series of novel cell surface display systems were examined by using Vibrio anguillarum outer membrane protein and outer membrane lipoprotein as anchoring motifs. These display systems consist of (i) the signal sequence and first 11 N-terminal amino acids of V. anguillarum outer membrane lipoprotein Wza, or the signal sequence and first 9 N-terminal amino acids of the mature major Escherichia coli lipoprotein Lpp, and (ii) transmembrane domains of V. anguillarum outer membrane proteins Omporf1, OmpU, or Omp26La. In order to assay the translocation efficiency of constructed display systems in bacteria, green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted to the systems and the results of GFP surface localization confirmed that four of the six surface display systems could successfully display GFP on the E. coli surface. For assaying its potential application in live bacteria carrier vaccines, an excellent display system Wza-Omporf1 was fused with the major capsid protein (MCP) of large yellow croaker iridovirus and introduced into attenuated V. anguillarum strain MVAV6203, and subsequent analysis of MCP surface localization proved that the novel display system Wza-Omporf1 could function as a strong tool in V. anguillarum carrier vaccine development.

Yang, Zhao; Liu, Qin; Wang, Qiyao; Zhang, Yuanxing

2008-01-01

143

Vibrio Fischeri Symbiosis Gene Regulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of this project were to investigate the molecular mechanisms controlling luminescence gene expression of the symbiotic bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri; and to identify and investigate the regulation of other symbiosis functions in this ...

P. V. Dunlap

1989-01-01

144

Polysiphonia harveyi, WNC2005-126  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WNC2005-126, Polysiphonia harveyi J. Bailey, Floating docks at Banks Channel, Wrightville Beach, New Hanover County, NC, 30 Jan 2005, Coll: DW Freshwater & B Stuercke, Det: DW Freshwater & B Stuercke, Poly NC6

Freshwater, Wilson

2008-03-07

145

Quorum-sensing regulators control virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

The production of virulence factors including cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is strongly influenced by environmental conditions. The well-characterized ToxR signal transduction cascade is responsible for sensing and integrating the environmental information and controlling the virulence regulon. We show here that, in addition to the known components of the ToxR signaling circuit, quorum-sensing regulators are involved in regulation of V. cholerae virulence. We focused on the regulators LuxO and HapR because homologues of these two proteins control quorum sensing in the closely related luminous marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Using an infant mouse model, we found that a luxO mutant is severely defective in colonization of the small intestine. Gene arrays were used to profile transcription in the V. cholerae wild type and the luxO mutant. These studies revealed that the ToxR regulon is repressed in the luxO mutant, and that this effect is mediated by another negative regulator, HapR. We show that LuxO represses hapR expression early in log-phase growth, and constitutive expression of hapR blocks ToxR-regulon expression. Additionally, LuxO and HapR regulate a variety of other cellular processes including motility, protease production, and biofilm formation. Together these data suggest a role for quorum sensing in modulating expression of blocks of virulence genes in a reciprocal fashion in vivo.

Zhu, Jun; Miller, Melissa B.; Vance, Russell E.; Dziejman, Michelle; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Mekalanos, John J.

2002-01-01

146

Characterization of a periplasmic 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase gene, cpdP, from the marine symbiotic bacterium Vibrio fischeri.  

PubMed Central

Vibrio fischeri, a marine bacterium that forms a bioluminescent symbiosis with certain fish and squids, exhibits the unusual attribute of growth on 3':5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP), apparently through the activity of a 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (3':5'-CNP) with exceptionally high activity. The V. fischeri 3':5'-CNP is located in the periplasm, a novel cellular location for this enzyme in bacteria. To gain insight into the physiological function of this enzyme, we cloned the gene (designated cpdP) encoding it from V. fischeri MJ-1. This is the first bacterial 3':5'-CNP gene to be cloned. Sequencing and analysis of the 1.26-kb cpdP locus revealed a single open reading frame specifying a protein of 330 amino acid residues, including a 22-amino-acid leader peptide. The putative cpdP promoter contained a reasonable -10 promoter region (TATTAT) but contained no obvious -35 region; instead, a 12-bp inverted repeat (TTAAATATTTAA) occurred just upstream of this location. A possible rho-independent transcriptional terminator with a calculated free energy of -21.2 kcal.mol-1 (ca. -88.7 kJ.mol-1) followed the CpdP protein coding sequence. The predicted subunit molecular weight of 33,636 for the mature CpdP protein (36,087 less 2,451 for the leader peptide) was consistent with the molecular weight of 34,000 estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The deduced amino acid sequence of the CpdP protein exhibited 30.3% identity with that of the low-affinity 3':5'-CNP (PDE1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 33.6% identity with that of the extracellular 3':5'-CNP of Dictyostelium discoideum. The residue identities clustered in two regions, residues 100 to 146 and 238 to 269, which contained 30 of the 33 amino acids conserved in all three proteins, 4 of which were histidines. A gene replacement mutant of V. fischeri MJ-1 containing a 0.45-kb BglII deletion within the cpdP gene lacked periplasmic 3':5'-CNP activity and did not grow on cAMP, confirming for V. fischeri the relationship among cpdP, synthesis of the periplasmic 3':5'-CNP, and growth on cAMP. The mutant exhibited no obvious sensitivity to high extracellular concentrations of cAMP (5 and 10 mM), suggesting that the enzyme does not play a role in defense against extracellular cAMP.

Dunlap, P V; Callahan, S M

1993-01-01

147

21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized...

2009-04-01

148

21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized...

2010-04-01

149

Luciferase-dependent oxygen consumption by bioluminescent vibrios  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen uptake due to luciferase in two luminous Vibrio species was estimated in vivo by utilizing inhibitors having specificities for luciferase (decanol) and cytochromes (cyanide). Cyanide titration of respiration revealed a component of oxygen uptake less sensitive to cyanide which was completely inhibitable by low concentrations of decanol. From this it was estimated that in vivo luciferase is responsible for less than 12% (Vibrio harveyi) or 20% (Vibrio fischeri) of the total respiration. From these data in vivo bioluminescent quantum yields are estimated to be not lower than 1.7 and 2.6%, respectively.

Makemson, J.C.

1986-02-01

150

cis-Acting Elements Responsible for Low-Temperature-Inducible Expression of the Gene Coding for the Thermolabile Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Isozyme of a Psychrophilic Bacterium, Vibrio sp. Strain ABE-1  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional control of the low-temperature-inducible icdII gene, encoding the thermolabile isocitrate dehydrogenase of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1, was found to be mediated in part by a transcriptional silencer locating at nucleotide positions ?560 to ?526 upstream from the transcription start site of icdII. Deletion of the silencer resulted in a 20-fold-increased level of expression of the gene at low temperature (15°C) but not at high temperature (37°C). In addition, a CCAAT sequence located 2 bases upstream of the ?35 region was found to be essential for the low-temperature-inducible expression of the gene. By deletion of this sequence, low-temperature-dependent expression of the gene was completely abolished. The ability of the icdII promoter to control the expression of other genes was confirmed by using a fusion gene containing the icdII promoter region and the promoterless icdI open reading frame, which encodes the non-cold-inducible isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme of Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1. Escherichia coli transformants harboring icdII acquired an ability to grow rapidly at low temperature.

Sahara, Takehiko; Suzuki, Masahiro; Tsuruha, Jun-Ichiro; Takada, Yasuhiro; Fukunaga, Noriyuki

1999-01-01

151

Luminescence control in the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri: an analysis of the dynamics of lux regulation 1 1 Edited by D. E. Draper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model has been developed based on the fundamental properties of the control system formed by the lux genes and their products in Vibrio fischeri. The model clearly demonstrates how the components of this system work together to create two, stable metabolic states corresponding to the expression of the luminescent and non-luminescent phenotypes. It is demonstrated how the cell

Sally James; Patric Nilsson; Geoffrey James; Staffan Kjelleberg; Torbjörn Fagerström

2000-01-01

152

Cloning of a Novel Collagenase Gene from the Gram-Negative Bacterium Grimontia (Vibrio) hollisae 1706B and Its Efficient Expression in Brevibacillus choshinensis ?  

PubMed Central

The collagenase gene was cloned from Grimontia (Vibrio) hollisae 1706B, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. Nucleotide sequencing showed that the open reading frame was 2,301 bp in length and encoded an 84-kDa protein of 767 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence and a zinc metalloprotease consensus sequence, the HEXXH motif. G. hollisae collagenase showed 60 and 59% amino acid sequence identities to Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus collagenase, respectively. In contrast, this enzyme showed <20% sequence identity with Clostridium histolyticum collagenase. When the recombinant mature collagenase, which consisted of 680 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 74 kDa, was produced by the Brevibacillus expression system, a major gelatinolytic protein band of ?60 kDa was determined by zymographic analysis. This result suggested that cloned collagenase might undergo processing after secretion. Moreover, the purified recombinant enzyme was shown to possess a specific activity of 5,314 U/mg, an ?4-fold greater activity than that of C. histolyticum collagenase.

Teramura, Naoko; Tanaka, Keisuke; Iijima, Katsumasa; Hayashida, Osamu; Suzuki, Koki; Hattori, Shunji; Irie, Shinkichi

2011-01-01

153

Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts  

PubMed Central

Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages.

Vandenberghe, Johan; Verdonck, Linda; Robles-Arozarena, Rocio; Rivera, Gabriel; Bolland, Annick; Balladares, Marcos; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Calderon, Jorge; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Swings, Jean

1999-01-01

154

Vibrios associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae, postlarvae, broodstock, and hatchery probionts.  

PubMed

Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages. PMID:10347048

Vandenberghe, J; Verdonck, L; Robles-Arozarena, R; Rivera, G; Bolland, A; Balladares, M; Gomez-Gil, B; Calderon, J; Sorgeloos, P; Swings, J

1999-06-01

155

Improvement of innate immune responses and defense activity in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fab.) by intramuscular administration of the outer membrane protein Vibrio alginolyticus.  

PubMed

The Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) of Vibrio alginolyticus cell wall was administered intramuscularly (IM) to the tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fab.) at 10, 20, 30 ?g/kg bw. After 14 days infection, the tiger shrimps were challenged with 10(7) bacterial density of Vibrio harveyi for 24 hours. The total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC) and amount of total protein plasma (TPP), superoxide dismutase and protease enzyme activity were monitored. The results showed that intramuscular administration of OMP enhanced an immunomodulatory effect and protection against V. harveyi. The beneficial effect of OMP on the tiger shrimp is dose-dependent and OMP-20 ?g/kg bw is an optimal dose after two times of boosters for 14 days against V. harveyi infection. PMID:24058892

Maftuch; Prasetio, E; Sudianto, A; Rozik, M; Nurdiyani, R; Sanusi, E; Nursyam, H; Fariedah, F; Marsoedi; Murachman

2013-01-01

156

Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives reduce virulence in Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the quorum sensing response regulator LuxR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To date, only few compounds targeting the AI-2 based quorum sensing (QS) system are known. In the present study, we screened cinnamaldehyde and substituted cinnamaldehydes for their ability to interfere with AI-2 based QS. The mechanism of QS inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in several Vibrio harveyi mutants. We also studied in vitro the ability

Gilles Brackman; Tom Defoirdt; Carol Miyamoto; Peter Bossier; Serge Van Calenbergh; Hans Nelis; Tom Coenye

2008-01-01

157

Rapid identification and differentiation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Vibrio spp. in seafood samples using developed monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to Vibrio parahaemolyticus were successfully generated. According to the specificity of V. parahaemolyticus, MAbs can be classified into 5 groups. The MAbs VP-2D and VP-11H were specific to the O2 and O4 groups of V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. The MAb VP-11B reacted with 11 out of 30 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus used in this study. The MAb VP-516 bound to 27 out of 30 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus and cross reacted with all 10 isolates of V. alginolyticus. The MAb VP-618 demonstrated positive reactivity to 29 out of 30 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus and demonstrated slight cross reactivity to 3 out of 30 isolates of V. harveyi. The sensitivity of the MAbs ranged from 10(8) to 10(7) c.f.u. ml(-1) for V. parahaemolyticus obtained from pure cultures and depended on the group of MAbs. However, the detection capability could be improved to be equivalent to that of the PCR technique following pre-incubation of the samples in alkaline peptone water (APW). Using these MAbs along with MAbs specific to V. alginolyticus (VA-165), V. cholerae (VC-63), V. harveyi (VH-9B and VH-20C) and Vibrio spp. (VC-201) from previous studies, V. parahaemolyticus could be identified and differentiated from Vibrio spp. in various seafood samples including shrimp, green mussels, blood clams and oysters by a simple dot blot immunoassay without the requirement for bacterial isolation or biochemical characterization. PMID:23233121

Prompamorn, Piyanuch; Longyant, Siwaporn; Pengsuk, Chalinan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

2013-04-01

158

Distribution and ecology of Vibrio vulnificus and other lactose-fermenting marine vibrios in coastal waters of the southeastern United States.  

PubMed Central

Water, sediment, plankton, and animal samples from five coastal sites from North Carolina to Georgia were sampled for their lactose-fermenting vibrio populations. Over 20% of all vibrios tested were sucrose negative and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) positive, suggesting identification as the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. These vibrios were isolated from all sample sites and sources (water, sediment, plankton, and animals). Correlations with several of 19 environmental parameters monitored at each site were found for total vibrios. The presence of ONPG-positive, sucrose-negative vibrios was correlated with hydrocarbon levels in the water and, in the case of plankton samples, with salinity. A total of 279 sucrose-negative, ONPG-positive isolates were subjected to numerical taxonomic analysis, which resulted in three major clusters. Cluster I corresponded to and included 11 reference strains of V. vulnificus. Cluster II contained the largest number (133) of isolates, of which the great majority were bioluminescent. Although having a resemblance to V. harveyi, the isolates were ONPG positive and many were H2S positive. Cluster III consisted of strains similar to the group F vibrios (V. fluvialis). Of all of the isolates, 55% were luminescent, of which over 20% were lethal when injected into mice. Problems involved in detecting lactose fermentation among marine vibrios and the potential pathogenicity of these organisms are discussed.

Oliver, J D; Warner, R A; Cleland, D R

1982-01-01

159

Acanthamoeba castellanii Promotes the Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus?  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen that naturally inhabits both marine and estuarine environments. Free-living protozoa exist in similar aquatic environments and function to control bacterial numbers by grazing on free-living bacteria. Protozoa also play an important role in the survival and spread of some pathogenic species of bacteria. We investigated the interaction between the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii and the bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus. We found that Acanthamoeba castellanii does not prey on Vibrio parahaemolyticus but instead secretes a factor that promotes the survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in coculture. These studies suggest that protozoa may provide a survival advantage to an extracellular pathogen in the environment.

Laskowski-Arce, Michelle A.; Orth, Kim

2008-01-01

160

Isolation of Vibrio alginolyticus from seawater aquaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seawater bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus was detected in 5 of 20 water samples from seawater aquaria (from 3 of 5 units) and also from the surface of diseased stony corals. A total of 45 isolates were differentiated biochemically, of which 13 isolates (29%) proved to be V. alginolyticus. All those strains produced the virulence factors caseinase and lipase, 11 strains

Stefan Hörmansdorfer; Helmut Wentges; Karin Neugebaur-Büchler; Johann Bauer

2000-01-01

161

Sequence determination of rRNA genes of pathogenic Vibrio species and whole-cell identification of Vibrio vulnificus with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.  

PubMed

A comparative analysis of seven new 16S rRNA gene sequences of pathogenic Vibrio species with previously published vibrio sequences confirmed that Vibrio vulnificus represents a group that is not closely related to the core organisms of the genus Vibrio. In addition, we found that V. vulnificus, Listonella (Vibrio) anguillarum and Vibrio diazotrophicus branch off separately from the core group. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of V. vulnificus strains belonging to biotypes 1 and 2 revealed that the sequences of all but four biotype 1 strains were identical to each other but slightly different (17 bases) from the sequences of the rest of the V. vulnificus strains investigated. In addition, the sequences of variable regions of the 23S rRNA genes of Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio furnissii, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio cholerae, and V. vulnificus C7184 and TW1 were determined, aligned, and compared with all available bacterial 23S rRNA sequences in order to search for specific target sites. As a result, four oligonucleotide probes specific for V. vulnificus were synthesized, and the specificities of these probes were evaluated by dot blot hybridization to membrane-bound RNAs from 21 V. vulnificus strains, 13 strains belonging to other Vibrio species, 61 strains belonging to species that are members of the alpha, beta, and gamma subclasses of the Proteobacteria, and 3 eucaryotic microorganisms. Two probes hybridized with all of the V. vulnificus strains tested, and the other two probes distinguished V. vulnificus biotype 1 strains from all other organisms. In situ identification of V. vulnificus by using tetramethylrhodamine- or fluorescein-labelled oligonucleotides is now possible. PMID:8186099

Aznar, R; Ludwig, W; Amann, R I; Schleifer, K H

1994-04-01

162

Phylogenetic analysis of vibrios and related species by means of atpA gene sequences.  

PubMed

We investigated the use of atpA gene sequences as alternative phylogenetic and identification markers for vibrios. A fragment of 1322 bp (corresponding to approximately 88% of the coding region) was analysed in 151 strains of vibrios. The relationships observed were in agreement with the phylogeny inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. For instance, the Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio halioticoli, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio splendidus species groups appeared in the atpA gene phylogenetic analyses, suggesting that these groups may be considered as separate genera within the current Vibrio genus. Overall, atpA gene sequences appeared to be more discriminatory for species differentiation than 16S rRNA gene sequences. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities above 97% corresponded to atpA gene sequences similarities above 80%. The intraspecies variation in the atpA gene sequence was about 99% sequence similarity. The results showed clearly that atpA gene sequences are a suitable alternative for the identification and phylogenetic study of vibrios. PMID:17978204

Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Swings, Jean

2007-11-01

163

Transcriptomic profiling of the oyster pathogen Vibrio splendidus opens a window on the evolutionary dynamics of the small RNA repertoire in the Vibrio genus  

PubMed Central

Work in recent years has led to the recognition of the importance of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) in bacterial regulation networks. New high-throughput sequencing technologies are paving the way to the exploration of an expanding sRNA world in nonmodel bacteria. In the Vibrio genus, compared to the enterobacteriaceae, still a limited number of sRNAs have been characterized, mostly in Vibrio cholerae, where they have been shown to be important for virulence, as well as in Vibrio harveyi. In addition, genome-wide approaches in V. cholerae have led to the discovery of hundreds of potential new sRNAs. Vibrio splendidus is an oyster pathogen that has been recently associated with massive mortality episodes in the French oyster growing industry. Here, we report the first RNA-seq study in a Vibrio outside of the V. cholerae species. We have uncovered hundreds of candidate regulatory RNAs, be it cis-regulatory elements, antisense RNAs, and trans-encoded sRNAs. Conservation studies showed the majority of them to be specific to V. splendidus. However, several novel sRNAs, previously unidentified, are also present in V. cholerae. Finally, we identified 28 trans sRNAs that are conserved in all the Vibrio genus species for which a complete genome sequence is available, possibly forming a Vibrio “sRNA core.”

Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Nguyen, An N.; Kuchly, Claire; Ott, Alban; Gautheret, Daniel; Bouloc, Philippe; Jacq, Annick

2012-01-01

164

Transcriptomic profiling of the oyster pathogen Vibrio splendidus opens a window on the evolutionary dynamics of the small RNA repertoire in the Vibrio genus.  

PubMed

Work in recent years has led to the recognition of the importance of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) in bacterial regulation networks. New high-throughput sequencing technologies are paving the way to the exploration of an expanding sRNA world in nonmodel bacteria. In the Vibrio genus, compared to the enterobacteriaceae, still a limited number of sRNAs have been characterized, mostly in Vibrio cholerae, where they have been shown to be important for virulence, as well as in Vibrio harveyi. In addition, genome-wide approaches in V. cholerae have led to the discovery of hundreds of potential new sRNAs. Vibrio splendidus is an oyster pathogen that has been recently associated with massive mortality episodes in the French oyster growing industry. Here, we report the first RNA-seq study in a Vibrio outside of the V. cholerae species. We have uncovered hundreds of candidate regulatory RNAs, be it cis-regulatory elements, antisense RNAs, and trans-encoded sRNAs. Conservation studies showed the majority of them to be specific to V. splendidus. However, several novel sRNAs, previously unidentified, are also present in V. cholerae. Finally, we identified 28 trans sRNAs that are conserved in all the Vibrio genus species for which a complete genome sequence is available, possibly forming a Vibrio "sRNA core." PMID:23097430

Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Nguyen, An N; Kuchly, Claire; Ott, Alban; Gautheret, Daniel; Bouloc, Philippe; Jacq, Annick

2012-12-01

165

Radiofrequency transmission line for bioluminescent Vibrio sp. irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the study and the analyses of a transmission line for radiofrequency (RF) irradiation of bacteria belonging to Vibrio harveyi-related strain PS1, a bioluminescent bacterium living in symbiosis with many marine organisms. The bioluminescence represents a new biologic indicator which is useful for studying the behaviour of living samples in the presence of RF waves due to the modern communication systems. A suitable transmission line, used as an irradiating cell and tested up to the maximum frequency used by the global system for mobile communications and universal mobile telecommunications system transmissions, was characterized. In this experiment, the RF voltage applied to the transmission line was 1 V. Due to short dimensions of the line and the applied high frequencies, standing waves were produced in addition to progressing waves and the electric field strength varies particularly along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic field map was not strongly linked to the electric one due to the presence of standing waves and of the outgoing irradiation. RF fields were measured by two homemade suitable probes able to diagnostic fields of high frequency. The field measurements were performed without any specimens inside the line. Being our sample made of living matter, the real field was modified and its value was estimated by a simulation code. The bioluminescence experiments were performed only at 900 MHz for two different measured electric fields, 53 and 140 V/m. The light emission was measured right from the beginning and after 7 and 25 h. Under RF irradiation, we found that the bioluminescence activity decreased. Compared with the control sample, the diminution was 6.8% and 44% after 7 and 25 h of irradiation, respectively, both with the low or high field. No changes of the survival factor for all the samples were observed. Besides, to understand the emission processes, we operated the deconvolution of the spectra by two Gaussian curves. The Gaussian peaks were approximately centered at 460 nm and 490 nm. The 490 nm peak was higher than the control one. Under RF, the 490 nm peak decreased compared to the 460 nm one. The decreasing was stronger for the sample in the higher field. The ratio of the emission area of the 490 nm to 460 nm was 5 for the control sample. It decreased up to 1.6 for the samples under RF. The bioluminescence improves the DNA repair by photoreactivation, and there is evidence that photolyase is preferentially activated by blue/violet light. Our finding suggests that RF exposure may stimulate DNA repair by shifting the emission spectra from blue/green (490 nm) to blue/violet (460 nm).

Nassisi, V.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Velardi, L.

2012-07-01

166

AphA and LuxR/HapR reciprocally control quorum sensing in vibrios  

PubMed Central

Bacteria cycle between periods when they perform individual behaviors and periods when they perform group behaviors. These transitions are controlled by a cell–cell communication process called quorum sensing, in which extracellular signal molecules, called autoinducers (AIs), are released, accumulate, and are synchronously detected by a group of bacteria. AI detection results in community-wide changes in gene expression, enabling bacteria to collectively execute behaviors such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation, and virulence factor production. In this study, we show that the transcription factor AphA is a master regulator of quorum sensing that operates at low cell density (LCD) in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae. In contrast, LuxR (V. harveyi)/HapR (V. cholerae) is the master regulator that operates at high cell density (HCD). At LCD, redundant small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) activate production of AphA, and AphA and the sRNAs repress production of LuxR/HapR. Conversely, at HCD, LuxR/HapR represses aphA. This network architecture ensures maximal AphA production at LCD and maximal LuxR/HapR production at HCD. Microarray analyses reveal that 300 genes are regulated by AphA at LCD in V. harveyi, a subset of which is also controlled by LuxR. We propose that reciprocal gradients of AphA and LuxR/HapR establish the quorum-sensing LCD and HCD gene expression patterns, respectively.

Rutherford, Steven T.; van Kessel, Julia C.; Shao, Yi; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2011-01-01

167

A homoserine lactone autoinducer regulates virulence of an insect-pathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophilus (Enterobacteriaceae).  

PubMed Central

N-beta-Hydroxybutanoyl homoserine lactone (HBHL), the autoinducer of the luminescent system of Vibrio harveyi, has been identified as the first small compound to restore virulence to avirulent mutants of Xenorhabdus nematophilus. HBHL stimulated the level of lipase activity excreted by avirulent X. nematophilus and lowered the phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph of insects infected with X. nematophilus, parameters that are both associated with insect pathogenesis. Moreover, mortality of the insects infected with avirulent X. nematophilus was restored upon injection with HBHL. Chloroform extraction of medium conditioned with wild-type but not avirulent X. nematophilus led to the isolation of a compound with the same chromatographic mobility as HBHL as well as the ability to stimulate the luminescence of a dim autoinducer-dependent mutant of V. harveyi. Transfer of the V. harveyi lux operon into avirulent and wild-type X. nematophilus generated dim and bright luminescent strains, respectively, which responded to HBHL and an agonist and antagonist in a manner analogous to their effects on the luminescence of dim autoinducer-deficient and bright wild-type strains of V. harveyi, indicating that similar HBHL-dependent regulatory systems exist in these two bacterial species.

Dunphy, G; Miyamoto, C; Meighen, E

1997-01-01

168

Refined identification of Vibrio bacterial flora from Acanthasther planci based on biochemical profiling and analysis of housekeeping genes.  

PubMed

We used a polyphasic approach for precise identification of bacterial flora (Vibrionaceae) isolated from crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) and Guam (U.S.A., Western Pacific Ocean). Previous 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis was useful to allocate and identify isolates within the Photobacterium, Splendidus and Harveyi clades but failed in the identification of Vibrio harveyi-like isolates. Species of the V harveyi group have almost indistinguishable phenotypes and genotypes, and thus, identification by standard biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis is commonly inaccurate. Biochemical profiling and sequence analysis of additional topA and mreB housekeeping genes were carried out for definitive identification of 19 bacterial isolates recovered from sick and wild COTS. For 8 isolates, biochemical profiles and topA and mreB gene sequence alignments with the closest relatives (GenBank) confirmed previous 16S rRNA-based identification: V. fortis and Photobacterium eurosenbergii species (from wild COTS), and V natriegens (from diseased COTS). Further phylogenetic analysis based on topA and mreB concatenated sequences served to identify the remaining 11 V harveyi-like isolates: V. owensii and V. rotiferianus (from wild COTS), and V. owensii, V. rotiferianus, and V. harveyi (from diseased COTS). This study further confirms the reliability of topA-mreB gene sequence analysis for identification of these close species, and it reveals a wider distribution range of the potentially pathogenic V. harveyi group. PMID:22013751

Rivera-Posada, J A; Pratchett, M; Cano-Gomez, A; Arango-Gomez, J D; Owens, L

2011-09-01

169

Growth, luminescence, respiration, and the ATP pool during autoinduction in Beneckea harveyi.  

PubMed Central

The bacterial bioluminescence system is unusual because it is self-induced. In the late logarithmic phase of growth, upon the accumulation of an autoinducer, the synthesis of the components of the system is initiated. We were interested in determining what effect this burst of synthesis and activity has on cellular energy metabolism. The ATP pool of the luminous bacterium Beneckea harveyi was found to dip 10- to 20-fold during the luminescence period, while the respiration per unit cell mass (optical density) increased but by much less. The dip in the ATP pool did not occur in four different types of dark mutants, including one that was temperature conditional and another that was conditional upon added cyclic AMP for luminescence. However, it is neither the synthesis nor the activity of luciferase that is responsible for the ATP dip; the dip does not occur in certain dark "aldehyde" mutants which nevertheless synthesize normal levels of luciferase, whereas it does occur at 36 degrees C in a temperature-sensitive luciferase mutant which forms normal levels of inactive luciferase. Results with other aldehyde mutants implicate the pathway involved in the synthesis of the aldehyde factor with the ATP dip.

Ulitzur, S; Hastings, J W

1978-01-01

170

Mechanisms of iron regulation of luminescence in Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of luciferase is repressed by iron in the symbiotic bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Possible mechanisms of iron regulation of luciferase synthesis were tested with V. fischeri and with Escherichia coli clones containing plasmids carrying V. fischeri luminescence genes. Experiments were conducted in complete medium with and without the synthetic iron chelator ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid). Comparison of the effect of

M. G. Haygood; K. H. Nealson

1985-01-01

171

Visick Lab: Home of the Vibrio-Euprymna Symbiosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features general information about the lab of Karen Visick, which studies the genes needed to establish an interaction between the small Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminescent symbiont, the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It features links to more information about current research in the Visick lab, lab members and events, and the summer research program and microbiology department at Loyola University.

Visick, Karen; University, Loyola

172

EFFECTS OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL FACTORS AND BACTERIAL COLONY MORPHOTYPE ON ASSOCIATION OF VIBRIO VULNIFICUS WITH HEMOCYTES OF CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA  

EPA Science Inventory

Vibrio vulnificus is a naturally occurring marine bacterium which causes invasive disease of immunocompromised humans following consumption of raw oysters. t is natural flora of Gulf Coast estuaries and has been found to inhabit tissues of oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, ...

173

Low incidence of Vibrio vulnificus among Vibrio isolates from sea water and shellfish of the western Mediterranean coast.  

PubMed

A specific search for Vibrio vulnificus in natural marine samples from the Spanish Mediterranean Sea was carried out by nested PCR and cultural approaches using thiosulphate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS) and cellobiose-polymixin B-colistin agar (CPC), incubated at 40 degrees C, as selective media. Presumptive colonies were identified by PCR using specific primers against 23S rRNA sequences. This species was isolated from sea water and edible bivalves, mainly after preenrichment in alkaline peptone water (APW) at 40 degrees C followed by CPC agar. None of the V. vulnificus isolates identified corresponded to serovar E. Dominant Vibrio species on directly inoculated TCBS plates incubated at 25 degrees C were V. splendidus below 20 degrees C and V. harveyi and V. mediterranei above that temperature. Low percentages of several pathogenic vibrios were recorded but V. vulnificus was never recovered at this incubation temperature. The incidence of this species in the samples studied was lower than that described for other geographical areas, probably due to the high salinity values of the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:10030016

Arias, C R; Macián, M C; Aznar, R; Garay, E; Pujalte, M J

1999-01-01

174

Multiplex PCR assay for identification of three major pathogenic Vibrio spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

A multiplex PCR assay was developed based on atpA-sequence diversification for molecular identification of 3 major pathogenic Vibrio species: Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. It specifically identified them from among 133 strains of various Vibrio species and other genera, and was applicable for testing seawater, suggesting its usefulness. PMID:21530641

Izumiya, Hidemasa; Matsumoto, Kazutoshi; Yahiro, Shunsuke; Lee, Jiyoung; Morita, Masatomo; Yamamoto, Shouji; Arakawa, Eiji; Ohnishi, Makoto

2011-08-01

175

Multiplex PCR assay for identification of three major pathogenic Vibrio spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex PCR assay was developed based on atpA-sequence diversification for molecular identification of 3 major pathogenic Vibrio species: Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. It specifically identified them from among 133 strains of various Vibrio species and other genera, and was applicable for testing seawater, suggesting its usefulness.

Hidemasa Izumiya; Kazutoshi Matsumoto; Shunsuke Yahiro; Jiyoung Lee; Masatomo Morita; Shouji Yamamoto; Eiji Arakawa; Makoto Ohnishi

2011-01-01

176

Vibrio infections triggering mass mortality events in a warming Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

Mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates in the temperate north-western (NW) Mediterranean Sea have been observed in recent seasons. A 16 month in situ study in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea) demonstrated that the occurrence of Paramuricea clavata mortality episodes were concomitant to a condition of prolonged high sea surface temperatures, low chlorophyll concentrations and the presence of culturable Vibrio spp. in seawater. The occurrence of Vibrio spp. at the seasonal scale was correlated with temperature; with few vibrios retrieved on specific media when the temperature dropped below 18 degrees C and a sharp increase of vibrios abundance (up to 3.4 x 10(4) MPN l(-1)) when the temperature was greater than or equal to 22 degrees C. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis of Vibrio isolates associated with healthy and diseased P. clavata colonies collected during a mortality episode showed that these bacteria were significantly more abundant in diseased than in healthy corals and were related to the V. harveyi, V. splendidus and V. coralliilyticus groups, the latter only identified in diseased organisms. Inoculation of bacterial isolates from these groups onto healthy P. clavata in aquaria caused disease signs and death in a range of Vibrio concentrations, temperature values and trophic conditions consistent with those recorded in the field. It is concluded that Vibrio infections may act as an additional triggering mechanism of mass mortality events in the coastal Mediterranean Sea and that their occurrence is climate-linked. Predicted global warming leading to long-lasting hot summer periods together with stratification resulting in energetic constraints represent a major threat to the survival of benthic invertebrates in the temperate NW Mediterranean Sea due to potential disease outbreak associated with Vibrio pathogens. PMID:20370818

Vezzulli, Luigi; Previati, Monica; Pruzzo, Carla; Marchese, Anna; Bourne, David G; Cerrano, Carlo

2010-07-01

177

Three New Regulators of Swarming in Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

Movement on surfaces, or swarming motility, is effectively mediated by the lateral flagellar (laf) system in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Expression of laf is induced by conditions inhibiting rotation of the polar flagellum, which is used for swimming in liquid. However, not all V. parahaemolyticus isolates swarm proficiently. The organism undergoes phase variation between opaque (OP) and translucent (TR) cell types. The OP cell produces copious capsular polysaccharide and swarms poorly, whereas the TR type produces minimal capsule and swarms readily. OP?TR switching is often the result of genetic alterations in the opaR locus. Previously, OpaR, a Vibrio harveyi LuxR homolog, was shown to activate expression of the cpsA locus, encoding capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic genes. Here, we show that OpaR also regulates swarming by repressing laf gene expression. However, in the absence of OpaR, the swarming phenotype remains tightly surface regulated. To further investigate the genetic controls governing swarming, transposon mutagenesis of a TR (?opaR1) strain was performed, and SwrT, a TetR-type regulator, was identified. Loss of swrT, a homolog of V. harveyi luxT, created a profound defect in swarming. This defect could be rescued upon isolation of suppressor mutations that restored swarming. One class of suppressors mapped in swrZ, encoding a GntR-type transcriptional regulator. Overexpression of swrZ repressed laf expression. Using reporter fusions and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, SwrT was demonstrated to repress swrZ transcription. Thus, we have identified the regulatory link that inhibits swarming of OP strains and have begun to elucidate a regulatory circuit that modulates swarming in TR strains.

Jaques, Sandford; McCarter, Linda L.

2006-01-01

178

Lessons from cholera & Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

Cholera is an acute form of diarrhoeal disease that plagued human civilization over the centuries. The sudden and explosive onset of the disease in the form of an outbreak or epidemic, coupled with high mortality and morbidity rates, had a tragic impact on the personal as well as social life of people living in the affected areas. The enormity of human sufferings led clinicians and scientists to carry out extensive research on cholera and Vibrio cholerae (the causative bacterium of the disease) leading to major discoveries that opened up novel areas of research or new disciplines in biomedical sciences. An attempt is made here to summarize some of these breakthroughs and outline their significance in broader perspectives. Finally, the possible impact of the global socio-political scenario on the spread of cholera epidemics (pandemicity of cholera) is briefly discussed.

Ghose, Asoke C.

2011-01-01

179

Detection of V. harveyi in shrimp postlarvae and hatchery tank water by the Most Probable Number technique with PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

V. harveyi is the cause of serious disease in the shrimp industry in Thailand during cultivation. In this study, the gyrB gene of V. harveyi NICA, isolated from shrimp in Thailand, was sequenced. A pair of specific primers (A2B3) was designed that allowed amplification of a 363 bp gene fragment of V. harveyi. No cross reaction was detected in 17 other

Sawitree Thaithongnum; Pimonsri Ratanama; Karnchana Weeradechapol; Ampaitip Sukhoom; Varaporn Vuddhakul

2006-01-01

180

Magnesium Promotes Flagellation of Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Vibrio fischeri requires bacterial motility to initiate colonization of the Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes. Once colonized, however, the bacterial population becomes largely unflagellated. To understand environmental influences on V. fischeri motility, we investigated migration of this organism in tryptone-based soft agar media supplemented with different salts. We found that optimal migration required divalent cations and, in particular, Mg2+. At concentrations naturally present in seawater, Mg2+ improved migration without altering the growth rate of the cells. Transmission electron microscopy and Western blot experiments suggested that Mg2+ addition enhanced flagellation, at least in part through an effect on the steady-state levels of flagellin protein.

O'Shea, Therese M.; DeLoney-Marino, Cindy R.; Shibata, Satoshi; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Wolfe, Alan J.; Visick, Karen L.

2005-01-01

181

Epibiotic Vibrio luminous bacteria isolated from some hydrozoa and bryozoa species.  

PubMed

Luminous bacteria are isolated from both Hydrozoa and Bryozoa with chitinous structures on their surfaces. All the specimens of the examined hydroid species (Aglaophenia kirchenpaueri, Aglaophenia octodonta, Aglaophenia tubiformis, Halopteris diaphana, Plumularia setacea, Ventromma halecioides), observed under blue light excitation, showed a clear fluorescence on the external side of the perisarc (chitinous exoskeleton) around hydrocladia. In the bryozoan Myriapora truncata, luminous bacteria are present on the chitinous opercula. All the isolated luminous bacteria were identified on the basis of both phenotypic and genotypic analysis. The isolates from A. tubiformis and H. diaphana were unambiguously assigned to the species Vibrio fischeri. In contrast, the isolates from the other hydroids, phenotypically assigned to the species Vibrio harveyi, were then split into two distinct species by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and results of culture-based and culture-independent approaches enabled us to establish that luminous vibrios represent major constituents of the bacterial community inhabiting the A. octodonta surface suggesting that the interactions between luminous bacteria and the examined hydrozoan and bryozoan species are highly specific. These interactions might have epidemiological as well as ecological implications because of the opportunistic pathogenicity of luminous Vibrio species for marine organisms and the wide-distribution of the hydrozoan and bryozoan functioning as carriers. PMID:18437448

Stabili, L; Gravili, C; Tredici, S M; Piraino, S; Talà, A; Boero, F; Alifano, P

2008-11-01

182

Quorum Sensing Regulatory Cascades Control Vibrio fluvialis Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process by which individual bacteria are able to communicate with one another, thereby enabling the population as a whole to coordinate gene regulation and subsequent phenotypic outcomes. Communication is accomplished through production and detection of small molecules in the extracellular milieu. In many bacteria, particularly Vibrio species, multiple QS systems result in multiple signals, as well as cross talk between systems. In this study, we identify two QS systems in the halophilic enteric pathogen Vibrio fluvialis: one acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) based and one CAI-1/AI-2 based. We show that a LuxI homolog, VfqI, primarily produces 3-oxo-C10-HSL, which is sensed by a LuxR homolog, VfqR. VfqR-AHL is required to activate vfqI expression and autorepress vfqR expression. In addition, we have shown that similar to that in V. cholerae and V. harveyi, V. fluvialis produces CAI-1 and AI-2 signal molecules to activate the expression of a V. cholerae HapR homolog through LuxO. Although VfqR-AHL does not regulate hapR expression, HapR can repress vfqR transcription. Furthermore, we found that QS in V. fluvialis positively regulates production of two potential virulence factors, an extracellular protease and hemolysin. QS also affects cytotoxic activity against epithelial tissue cultures. These data suggest that V. fluvialis integrates QS regulatory pathways to play important physiological roles in pathogenesis.

Wang, Yunduan; Wang, Hui; Liang, Weili; Hay, Amanda J.; Zhong, Zengtao

2013-01-01

183

Development of monoclonal antibodies that identify Vibrio species commonly isolated from infections of humans, fish, and shellfish.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Vibrio species that infect humans, fish, and shellfish were developed for application in rapid identifications. The pathogens included Vibrio alginolyticus, V. anguillarum, V. carchariae, V. cholerae, V. damsela, V. furnissii, V. harveyi, V. ordalii, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus. Three types of MAbs were selected. The first important group included MAbs that reacted with only a single species. A second group comprised a number of MAbs that reacted with two, taxonomically closely related Vibrio species. For example, of 22 MAbs raised against V. alginolyticus, 6 recognized a 52-kDa flagellar H antigen common to both V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus; V. anguillarum and V. ordalii also shared antigens. A third group included three genus-specific MAbs that reacted with almost all Vibrio species but did not react with other members of the family Vibrionaceae (e.g., members of the Aeromonas, Photobacterium, and Plesiomonas genera) or a wide range of gram-negative bacteria representing many genera. This last group indicated the possible existence of an antigenic determinant common to Vibrio species. Two of these three genus-specific MAbs reacted with heat-stable antigenic determinants of Vibrio species as well as lipopolysaccharide extracted from Vibrio species. The use of the MAbs in blind tests and diagnosis of clinical isolates indicated that three different types of bacteria, viz., live, formalin-fixed, and sodium azide-killed bacteria, were detected consistently. Overall, it was found that the genus-specific MAbs were very useful for rapidly identifying vibrios in the screening of acute infections, while the species-specific MAbs and others were useful for completing the diagnosis. Images

Chen, D; Hanna, P J; Altmann, K; Smith, A; Moon, P; Hammond, L S

1992-01-01

184

Genes Similar to the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Virulence-Related Genes tdh, tlh, and vscC2 Occur in Other Vibrionaceae Species Isolated from a Pristine Estuary  

PubMed Central

Detection of the human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus often relies on molecular biological analysis of species-specific virulence factor genes. These genes have been employed in determinations of V. parahaemolyticus population numbers and the prevalence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains. Strains of the Vibrionaceae species Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio diabolicus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio natriegens, as well as strains similar to Vibrio tubiashii, were isolated from a pristine salt marsh estuary. These strains were examined for the V. parahaemolyticus hemolysin genes tdh, trh, and tlh and for the V. parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2? gene vscC2 using established PCR primers and protocols. Virulence-related genes occurred at high frequencies in non-V. parahaemolyticus Vibrionaceae species. V. diabolicus was of particular interest, as several strains were recovered, and the large majority (>83%) contained virulence-related genes. It is clear that detection of these genes does not ensure correct identification of virulent V. parahaemolyticus. Further, the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus-like virulence factors in other vibrios potentially complicates tracking of outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus infections.

Klein, Savannah L.; Gutierrez West, Casandra K.; Mejia, Diana M.

2014-01-01

185

Identification of Vibrio splendidus as a Member of the Planktonic Luminous Bacteria from the Persian Gulf and Kuwait Region with luxA Probes  

PubMed Central

Hybridization probes specific for the luxA genes of four groups of luminous bacteria were used to screen luminous isolates obtained from the Persian Gulf, near Al Khiran, Kuwait Nine of these isolates were identified as Vibrio harveyi, a commonly encountered planktonic isolate, while three others showed no hybridization to any of the four probes (V. harveyi, Vibrio fischeri, Photobacterium phosphoreum, or Photobacterium leiognathi) under high-stringency conditions. Polymerase chain reaction amplification was used to prepare a luxA probe against one of these isolates, K-1, and this probe was screened under high-stringency conditions against a collection of DNAs from luminous bacteria; it was found to hybridize specifically to the DNA of the species Vibrio splendidus. A probe prepared against the type strain of V. splendidus (ATCC 33369) was tested against the collection of luminous bacterial DNA preparations and against the Kuwait isolates and was found to hybridize only against the type strain and the three unidentified Kuwait isolates. Extensive taxonomic analysis by standard methods confirmed the identification of the 13 isolates. Images

Nealson, K. H.; Wimpee, B.; Wimpee, C.

1993-01-01

186

NspS, a Predicted Polyamine Sensor, Mediates Activation of Vibrio cholerae Biofilm Formation by Norspermidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae is both an environmental bacterium and a human intestinal pathogen. The attachment of bacteria to surfaces in biofilms is thought to be an important feature of the survival of this bacterium both in the environment and within the human host. Biofilm formation occurs when cell-surface and cell-cell contacts are formed to make a three-dimensional structure characterized by pillars

Ece Karatan; Tammi R. Duncan; Paula I. Watnick

2005-01-01

187

Survival of Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio salmonicida at different salinities.  

PubMed Central

The fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio anguillarum and V. salmonicida showed the capacity to survive for more than 50 and 14 months, respectively, in seawater microcosms. A salinity of 5% proved lethal to V. anguillarum harvested in the late-exponential growth phase, whereas a salinity of 9% was lethal to the bacterium after it had been starved at a salinity of 30% for 67 days. The lethal salinity for V. salmonicida harvested in the late-exponential growth phase was probably in the vicinity of 10%. V. anguillarum and V. salmonicida were very sensitive to nalidixic acid. Direct determination of viable cells after incubation with nalidixic acid was not possible, since the cells did not elongate. Samples of V. salmonicida were double stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibodies and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. After 3 or 4 days of starvation, there was a discrepancy between the total numbers of cells as determined by immunofluorescence versus by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The immunofluorescence counts remained high, which indicated the presence of intact cell envelopes but leakage of DNA and other cytoplasm components. After 2 weeks of starvation, for some of the cells, the region stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (i.e., DNA) was markedly smaller than the cell envelope. I attributed this to a shrinkage of the cytoplasm or a confined nucleoid or both. V. anguillarum lost its exoproteolytic activity before 11 days of starvation.

Hoff, K A

1989-01-01

188

Molecular Characterization of Direct Target Genes and cis-Acting Consensus Recognized by Quorum-Sensing Regulator AphA in Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

Background AphA is the master quorum-sensing (QS) regulator operating at low cell density in vibrios. Molecular regulation of target genes by AphA has been characterized in Vibrio harveyi and V. cholerae, but it is still poorly understood in V. parahaemolyticus. Methodology/Principal Findings The AphA proteins are extremely conserved in V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio sp. Ex25, Vibrio sp. EJY3, V. harveyi, V. vulnificus, V. splendidus, V. anguillarum, V. cholerae, and V. furnissii. The above nine AphA orthologs appear to recognize conserved cis-acting DNA signals which can be represented by two consensus constructs, a 20 bp box sequence and a position frequency matrix. V. parahaemolyticus AphA represses the transcription of ahpA, qrr4, and opaR through direct AphA-target promoter DNA association, while it inhibits the qrr2-3 transcription in an indirect manner. Translation and transcription starts, core promoter elements for sigma factor recognition, Shine-Dalgarno sequences for ribosome recognition, and AphA-binding sites (containing corresponding AphA box-like sequences) were determined for the three direct AphA targets ahpA, qrr4, and opaR in V. parahaemolyticus. Conclusions/Significance AphA-mediated repression of ahpA, qrr2-4, and opaR was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus by using multiple biochemical and molecular experiments. The computational promoter analysis indicated the conserved mechanism of transcriptional regulation of QS regulator-encoding genes ahpA, qrr4, and opaR in vibrios.

Sun, Fengjun; Zhang, Yiquan; Wang, Li; Yan, Xiaojuan; Tan, Yafang; Guo, Zhaobiao; Qiu, Jingfu; Yang, Ruifu; Xia, Peiyuan; Zhou, Dongsheng

2012-01-01

189

Assessing chemical toxicity with the bioluminescent photobacterium ( vibrio fischeri): a comparison of three commercial systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition of light emitted by the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, is the basis for several toxicity bioassays. The inhibitory effects of 81 chemicals, after 5min contact time, were studied at eight concentrations using reagents from three commercial assay systems (ToxAlert 10®, Microtox® and LUMIStox®). Solubility in water was the limiting factor in determining the selection of chemicals for study.

Victor L. K. Jennings; Michael H. Rayner-Brandes; David J. Bird

2001-01-01

190

Enterotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Thermostable Direct Hemolysin in In Vitro Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium known to be a common cause of seafood gastroenteritis worldwide. The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) has been proposed to be a major virulence factor of V. parahaemolyticus. TDH causes intestinal fluid secretion as well as cytotoxicity in a variety of cell types. In this study, we investigated the interplay between the hemolysin's enterotoxic and

FRANCESCO RAIMONDI; JOSEPH P. Y. KAO; CARLA FIORENTINI; ALESSIA FABBRI; GIANFRANCO DONELLI; NICOLETTA GASPARINI; ARMIDO RUBINO; ALESSIO FASANO

2000-01-01

191

rbcL sequences reveal multiple cryptic introductions of the Japanese red alga Polysiphonia harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, the last 20 years have seen a spectacular increase in accidental introductions of marine species, but it has recently been suggested that both the actual number of invaders and their impacts have been seriously underestimated because of the prevalence of sibling species in marine habitats. The red alga Polysiphonia harveyi is regarded as an alien in the British

Lynne McIvor; Christine A. Maggs; Jim Provan; Michael J. Stanhope

2001-01-01

192

Enzymatic characterization of Vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from bivalves harvested at Venice Lagoon (Italy) and Guanabara Bay (Brazil).  

PubMed

The aquatic ecosystem is the natural habitat of microorganisms including Vibrio and Aeromonas genus which are pathogenic to human and animals. In the present investigation the frequency of these bacteria and the enzymatic characteristics of 34 Vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from bivalves harvested in Venice Lagoon (Italy) and Guanabara Bay (Brazil) were carried out from November 2003 to February 2004. The mussels' samples were submitted to enrichment in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW) added with 1% of sodium chloride (NaCl) and APW plus 3% NaCl incubated at 37 degrees C for 18-24 h. Following the samples were streaked onto TCBS Agar (Thiossulfate Citrate Bile Sucrose Agar) and the suspected colonies were submitted to biochemical characterization. Also, the Vibrio alginolyticus strains were evaluated to collagenase, elastase and chondroitinase production. The results showed the isolation of 127 microorganisms distributed as follows: 105 Vibrio strains such as V. alginolyticus (32.4%), V. harveyi (19%) and V. parahaemolyticus (7.6%), 20 Aeromonas strains and two Plesiomonas shigelloides were the main pathogens isolated. We observed the production of the three enzymes from V. alginolyticus strains considered as the main virulence factors of the bacteria, especially in cases of human dermatological infection. PMID:18813756

Lafisca, Andrea; Pereira, Christiane Soares; Giaccone, Valério; Rodrigues, Dalia dos Prazeres

2008-01-01

193

Environmental reservoirs and mechanisms of persistence of Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

It is now well accepted that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the water-borne disease cholera, is acquired from environmental sources where it persists between outbreaks of the disease. Recent advances in molecular technology have demonstrated that this bacterium can be detected in areas where it has not previously been isolated, indicating a much broader, global distribution of this bacterium outside of endemic regions. The environmental persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment can be attributed to multiple intra- and interspecific strategies such as responsive gene regulation and biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces, as well as interactions with a multitude of other organisms. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms that enable the persistence of this bacterium in the environment. In particular, we will discuss how V. cholerae can survive stressors such as starvation, temperature, and salinity fluctuations as well as how the organism persists under constant predation by heterotrophic protists.

Lutz, Carla; Erken, Martina; Noorian, Parisa; Sun, Shuyang; McDougald, Diane

2013-01-01

194

Substrate Specificity and Function of the Pheromone Receptor AinR in Vibrio fischeri ES114  

PubMed Central

Two distinct but interrelated pheromone-signaling systems, LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR, positively control bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri. Although each system generates an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal, the protein sequences of LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR are unrelated. AinS and LuxI generate the pheromones N-octanoyl-AHL (C8-AHL) and N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-AHL (3OC6-AHL), respectively. LuxR is a transcriptional activator that responds to 3OC6-AHL, and to a lesser extent to C8-AHL. AinR is hypothesized to respond to C8-AHL and, based on homology to Vibrio harveyi LuxN, to mediate the repression of a Qrr regulatory RNA. However, a ?ainR mutation decreased luminescence, which was not predicted based on V. harveyi LuxN, raising the possibility of a distinct regulatory mechanism for AinR. Here we show that ainR can complement a luxN mutant, suggesting functional similarity. Moreover, in V. fischeri, we observed ainR-dependent repression of a Pqrr-lacZ transcriptional reporter in the presence of C8-AHL, consistent with its hypothesized regulatory role. The system appears quite sensitive, with a half-maximal effect on a Pqrr reporter at 140 pM C8-AHL. Several other AHLs with substituted and unsubstituted acyl chains between 6 and 10 carbons also displayed an AinR-dependent effect on Pqrr-lacZ; however, AHLs with acyl chains of four carbons or 12 or more carbons lacked activity. Interestingly, 3OC6-AHL also affected expression from the qrr promoter, but this effect was largely luxR dependent, indicating a previously unknown connection between these systems. Finally, we propose a preliminary explanation for the unexpected luminescence phenotype of the ?ainR mutant.

Kimbrough, John H.

2013-01-01

195

Substrate specificity and function of the pheromone receptor AinR in Vibrio fischeri ES114.  

PubMed

Two distinct but interrelated pheromone-signaling systems, LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR, positively control bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri. Although each system generates an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal, the protein sequences of LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR are unrelated. AinS and LuxI generate the pheromones N-octanoyl-AHL (C8-AHL) and N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-AHL (3OC6-AHL), respectively. LuxR is a transcriptional activator that responds to 3OC6-AHL, and to a lesser extent to C8-AHL. AinR is hypothesized to respond to C8-AHL and, based on homology to Vibrio harveyi LuxN, to mediate the repression of a Qrr regulatory RNA. However, a ?ainR mutation decreased luminescence, which was not predicted based on V. harveyi LuxN, raising the possibility of a distinct regulatory mechanism for AinR. Here we show that ainR can complement a luxN mutant, suggesting functional similarity. Moreover, in V. fischeri, we observed ainR-dependent repression of a Pqrr-lacZ transcriptional reporter in the presence of C8-AHL, consistent with its hypothesized regulatory role. The system appears quite sensitive, with a half-maximal effect on a Pqrr reporter at 140 pM C8-AHL. Several other AHLs with substituted and unsubstituted acyl chains between 6 and 10 carbons also displayed an AinR-dependent effect on Pqrr-lacZ; however, AHLs with acyl chains of four carbons or 12 or more carbons lacked activity. Interestingly, 3OC6-AHL also affected expression from the qrr promoter, but this effect was largely luxR dependent, indicating a previously unknown connection between these systems. Finally, we propose a preliminary explanation for the unexpected luminescence phenotype of the ?ainR mutant. PMID:24056099

Kimbrough, John H; Stabb, Eric V

2013-11-01

196

Transcriptional Regulation of opaR, qrr2–4 and aphA by the Master Quorum-Sensing Regulator OpaR in Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of infectious diarrhea and enterogastritis via the fecal-oral route. V. harveyi is a pathogen of fishes and invertebrates, and has been used as a model for quorum sensing (QS) studies. LuxR is the master QS regulator (MQSR) of V. harveyi, and LuxR-dependent expression of its own gene, qrr2–4 and aphA have been established in V. harveyi. Molecular regulation of target genes by the V. parahaemolyticus MQSR OpaR is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The bioinformatics analysis indicated that V. parahaemolyticus OpaR, V. harveyi LuxR, V. vulnificu SmcR, and V. alginolyticus ValR were extremely conserved, and that these four MQSRs appeared to recognize the same conserved cis-acting signals, which was represented by the consensus constructs manifesting as a position frequency matrix and as a 20 bp box, within their target promoters. The MQSR box-like sequences were found within the upstream DNA regions of opaR, qrr2–4 and aphA in V. parahaemolyticus, and the direct transcriptional regulation of these target genes by OpaR were further confirmed by multiple biochemical experiments including primer extension assay, gel mobility shift assay, and DNase I footprinting analysis. Translation and transcription starts, core promoter elements for sigma factor recognition, Shine-Dalgarno sequences for ribosome recognition, and OpaR-binding sites were determined for the five target genes of OpaR, which gave a structural map of the OpaR-dependent promoters. Further computational promoter analysis indicated the above regulatory circuits were shared by several other closely related Vibrios but with slight exceptions. Conclusions/Significance This study gave a comprehensive computational and characterization of the direct transcriptional regulation of five target genes, opaR, qrr2–4 and ahpA, by OpaR in V. parahaemolyticus. These characterized regulatory circuits were conserved in V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus.

Tan, Yafang; Guo, Zhaobiao; Yang, Ruifu; Zhou, Dongsheng

2012-01-01

197

Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio spp., Listonella spp., and Clostridium botulinum in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan.  

PubMed Central

The distribution of Vibrio species in samples of surface water, bottom water (water 2 m above the sediment), and sediment from the Seto Inland Sea was studied. A simple technique using a membrane filter and short preenrichment in alkaline peptone water was developed to resuscitate the injured cells, followed by plating them onto TCBS agar. In addition, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Clostridium botulinum in sediment samples. Large populations of heterotrophs were found in surface water, whereas large numbers of total vibrios were found in bottom water. In samples from various water sampling regions, high counts of all bacterial populations were found in the inner regions having little exchange of seawater when compared with those of the open region of the inland sea. In the identification of 463 isolates, 23 Vibrio spp. and 2 Listonella spp. were observed. V. harveyi was prevalent among the members of the Vibrio genus. Vibrio species were categorized into six groups; an estimated 20% of these species were in the so-called "pathogenic to humans" group. In addition, a significant proportion of this group was hemolytic and found in the Bisan Seto region. V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis, and V. cholerae non-O1 predominated in the constricted area of the inland sea, which is eutrophic as a result of riverine influence. It was concluded that salinity indirectly governs the distribution of total vibrios and analysis of variance revealed that all bacterial populations were distributed homogeneously and the variance values were found to be significant in some water sampling regions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Venkateswaran, K; Nakano, H; Okabe, T; Takayama, K; Matsuda, O; Hashimoto, H

1989-01-01

198

Detection of toxins produced by vibrio fluvialis.  

PubMed Central

The results of studies with cell-free extracts and culture supernatant fluids of Vibrio fluvialis (a recently recognized, potential enteric pathogen for humans) grown in the absence and presence of lincomycin indicated that the bacterium could produce (i) a factor which causes CHO cell elongation (CEF) similar to that elicited by V. cholerae enterotoxin and by the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, (ii) cytolysin(s) active against erythrocytes, (iii) nonhemolytic, CHO cell-killing factor(s), and (iv) protease(s) active against azocasein. The CEF was heat labile and ammonium sulfate precipitable, and it had an isoelectric point (estimated by sucrose density gradient electrofocusing) and molecular weight (estimated by gel filtration) of about 5.1 and 135,000, respectively. Images

Lockwood, D E; Kreger, A S; Richardson, S H

1982-01-01

199

Biodiversity of Vibrios  

PubMed Central

Vibrios are ubiquitous and abundant in the aquatic environment. A high abundance of vibrios is also detected in tissues and/or organs of various marine algae and animals, e.g., abalones, bivalves, corals, fish, shrimp, sponges, squid, and zooplankton. Vibrios harbour a wealth of diverse genomes as revealed by different genomic techniques including amplified fragment length polymorphism, multilocus sequence typing, repetetive extragenic palindrome PCR, ribotyping, and whole-genome sequencing. The 74 species of this group are distributed among four different families, i.e., Enterovibrionaceae, Photobacteriaceae, Salinivibrionaceae, and Vibrionaceae. Two new genera, i.e., Enterovibrio norvegicus and Grimontia hollisae, and 20 novel species, i.e., Enterovibrio coralii, Photobacterium eurosenbergii, V. brasiliensis, V. chagasii, V. coralliillyticus, V. crassostreae, V. fortis, V. gallicus, V. hepatarius, V. hispanicus, V. kanaloaei, V. neonatus, V. neptunius, V. pomeroyi, V. pacinii, V. rotiferianus, V. superstes, V. tasmaniensis, V. ezurae, and V. xuii, have been described in the last few years. Comparative genome analyses have already revealed a variety of genomic events, including mutations, chromosomal rearrangements, loss of genes by decay or deletion, and gene acquisitions through duplication or horizontal transfer (e.g., in the acquisition of bacteriophages, pathogenicity islands, and super-integrons), that are probably important driving forces in the evolution and speciation of vibrios. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics through the application of, e.g., microarrays will facilitate the investigation of the gene repertoire at the species level. Based on such new genomic information, the taxonomy and the species concept for vibrios will be reviewed in the next years.

Thompson, Fabiano L.; Iida, Tetsuya; Swings, Jean

2004-01-01

200

Characterization of htrB and msbB Mutants of the Light Organ Symbiont Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial lipid A is an important mediator of bacterium-host interactions, and secondary acylations added by HtrB and MsbB can be critical for colonization and virulence in pathogenic infections. In contrast, Vibrio fischeri lipid A stimulates normal developmental processes in this bacterium's mutualistic host, Euprymna scolopes, although the importance of lipid A structure in this symbiosis is unknown. To further examine

Dawn M. Adin; Nancy J. Phillips; Bradford W. Gibson; Michael A. Apicella; Edward G. Ruby; Margaret J. McFall-Ngai; Daniel B. Hall; Eric V. Stabb

2008-01-01

201

Identification of Vibrio harveyi Isolated from Diseased Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer by Use of 16S Ribosomal DNA Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grow out of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer in marine net-cages is a popular aquaculture activity in Malaysia. Production of this species is greatly affected by the occurrence of vibriosis, which causes heavy mortality. Generally, young fish are more susceptible; they exhibit anorexia and skin darkening, followed by heavy mortality. The acutely affected older fish may also exhibit bloody lesions

Julian Ransangan; Saleem Mustafa

2009-01-01

202

Research Note A Collagenase-Targeted Multiplex PCR Assay for Identification of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex PCR assay using three collagenase-targeted primer pairs for the species-specific detection of Vibrio algino- lyticus, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahaemolyticuswas developed. The results highlight the species specificity of the three primer sets designed. Because of the increasing importance of Vibrio spp. in human foodborne diseases, molecular approaches for routine microbial screening and monitoring of clinical, environmental, and food

ANGELA DI PINTO; GIUSEPPINA CICCARESE; GIUSEPPINA TANTILLO; DOMENICO CATALANO; VITO TONY FORTE

203

A novel salt-tolerant endo-?-1,4-glucanase Cel5A in Vibrio sp. G21 isolated from mangrove soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although cellulases have been isolated from various microorganisms, no functional cellulase gene has been reported in the\\u000a Vibrio genus until now. In this report, a novel endo-?-1,4-glucanase gene, cel5A, 1,362 bp in length, was cloned from a newly isolated bacterium, Vibrio sp. G21. The deduced protein of cel5A contains a catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5), followed by a

Zhaoming Gao; Lingwei Ruan; Xiulan Chen; Yuzhong Zhang; Xun Xu

2010-01-01

204

A Vibrio cholerae protease needed for killing of Caenorhabditis elegans has a role in protection from natural predator grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae is the causal bacterium of the diarrheal disease cholera, and its growth and survival are thought to be curtailed by bacteriovorous predators, e.g., ciliates and flagellates. We explored Caenorhabditis elegans as a test organism after finding that V. cholerae can cause lethal infection of this nematode. By reverse genetics we identified an extracellular protease, the previously uncharacterized PrtV

Karolis Vaitkevicius; Barbro Lindmark; Gangwei Ou; Tianyan Song; Claudia Toma; Masaaki Iwanaga; Jun Zhu; Agneta Andersson; Marie-Louise Hammarström; Simon Tuck; Sun Nyunt Wai

2006-01-01

205

Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio coralliilyticus Strain OCN008, Isolated from Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i.  

PubMed

Vibrio coralliilyticus is a Gram-negative bacterium found in seawater and is associated with diseased marine organisms. Strains of V. coralliilyticus have been shown to infect coral from multiple genera. We report the draft genome sequence of V. coralliilyticus strain OCN008, the third V. coralliilyticus genome to be sequenced. PMID:24092784

Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M

2013-01-01

206

Identification and Characterization of a Vibrio cholerae Gene, mbaA, Involved in Maintenance of Biofilm Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of biofilms is thought to play a key role in the environmental survival of the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Although the factors involved in V. cholerae attachment to abiotic surfaces have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in the subsequent maturation of the biofilms. Here we report the identification of a novel gene,

Natalia Bomchil; Paula Watnick; Roberto Kolter

2003-01-01

207

Alterations in Hemolymph and Extrapallial Fluid Parameters in the Manila Clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, Challenged with the Pathogen Vibrio tapetis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent study, we demonstrated the presence of defense factors, competent hemocytes and high enzymatic activities (peptidases, hydrolases, lytic, etc.), in the extrapallial fluid, located between the mantle and the shell, of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. In Europe, this species is affected by brown ring disease, an epizootic disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio tapetis. The present work

Bassem Allam; Christine Paillard; Michel Auffret

2000-01-01

208

Interactions Between pH, Potassium, Calcium, Bromide, and Phenol and Their Effects on the Bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little attention has been paid to how the light produced by the bacterium Vibrio fischeri in the Microtox assay is dependent on the concentration of essential ions such as sodium and potassium, and whether the concentrations of these ions affect the sensitivity of the test system to toxic chemicals. Five selected factors, pH, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), bromide (Br), and

Rune Berglind; Per Leffler; Michael Sjöström

2010-01-01

209

Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Vibrio vulnificus Strains Isolated from Taiwan and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a marine bacterium that causes human wound infections and septicemia with a high mortality rate. V. vulnificus strains from different clinical and environmental sources or geographic regions have been successfully characterized by ribotyping and several other methods. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a highly discriminative method, but previous studies suggested that it was not suitable for examining

Hin-chung Wong; Shau-Yan Chen; Meng-Yi Chen; James D. Oliver; Lien-I Hor; Wen-Cherng Tsai

2004-01-01

210

RAPID TETRAZOLIUM DYE REDUCTION ASSAY TO ASSESS THE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) HEMOCYTES AGAINST VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS  

EPA Science Inventory

An assay was developed to assess the ability of oyster, Crassostrea virginica, hemocytes to kill the human pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 17802). Bacterial killing was estimated colorimetrically by the enzymatic reduction of a tetrazolium dye, 3-(4,5-dimethyl...

211

Roles of the Regulatory Proteins FlhF and FlhG in the Vibrio cholerae Flagellar Transcription Hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the human diarrheal disease cholera, is a motile bacterium with a single polar flagellum, and motility has been inferred to be an important aspect of virulence. The V. cholerae flagellar hierarchy is organized into four classes of genes. The expression of each class of genes within a flagellar hierarchy is generally tightly regulated in

Nidia E. Correa; Fen Peng; Karl E. Klose

2005-01-01

212

Bile acids stimulate biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes the acute diarrhoeal disease cholera. After the bacterium is ingested, it passes through the digestive tract, encountering various environmental stresses including the acidic milieu of the stomach and the toxic effects of bile in the duodenum. While these stresses serve as part of a host defence system, V. cholerae has evolved resistance mechanisms that allow it to evade these defences and establish infection. We examined the expression profiles of V. cholerae in response to bile or bile acids and found an induction of biofilm genes. We found that V. cholerae shows significantly enhanced biofilm formation in response to bile acids, and that bacteria within the biofilm are more resistant to the toxicity of bile acids compared with planktonic cells. Bile acid induction of biofilms was found to be dependent on the vps genes (Vibrio polysaccharide synthesis) and their transcriptional activator VpsR, but VpsT is not required. These results contribute to the developing picture of a complex relationship between V. cholerae and its environment within the host during infection. PMID:16359328

Hung, Deborah T; Zhu, Jun; Sturtevant, Derek; Mekalanos, John J

2006-01-01

213

Culturable and VBNC Vibrio cholerae : Interactions with Chironomid Egg Masses and Their Bacterial Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments. Recently, it was found that chironomid\\u000a (nonbiting midges) egg masses serve as a reservoir for the cholera bacterium and that flying chironomid adults are possible\\u000a windborne carriers of V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139. Chironomids are the most widely distributed insect in freshwater. Females deposit egg masses at the

Malka Halpern; Ori Landsberg; Dina Raats; Eugene Rosenberg

2007-01-01

214

The Trend of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections in Southern Thailand from 2006 to 2010  

PubMed Central

The bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from 776 patients at Hat Yai Hospital in Southern Thailand from 2006 to 2010. 51.3–73.6% of the isolates were tdh+ trh? and Group-specific PCR positive pandemic strains. A comparison of the number of V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study and that from the same hospital in 2000–2005 indicates that this region of Thailandis endemic for V. parahaemolyticus.

Thongjun, Junthip; Mittraparp-arthorn, Pimonsri; Yingkajorn, Mingkwan; Kongreung, Jetnapang; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

2013-01-01

215

Isolation and characterization of Vibrio vulnificus inhabiting the marine environment of the southwestern area of Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus, a marine bacterium, is of concern in Taiwan because it causes wound infections and sepsis with a high mortality rate every year. To examine forV. vulnificus, 13 samples of seawater or oysters were collected from nine sites in Yunlin, Chiayi, and Tainan. Seventy-seven strains ofV. vulnificus were isolated from 11 samples. Among these environmental isolates, 72 (91%) were

Lien-I Hor; Chi-Tai Goo; Lei Wan

1995-01-01

216

AinS Quorum Sensing Regulates the Vibrio fischeri Acetate Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri uses two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum-sensing systems. The earlier signal, octanoyl-HSL, produced by AinS, is required for normal colonization of the squid Euprymna scolopes and, in culture, is necessary for a normal growth yield. In examining the latter requirement, we found that during growth in a glycerol\\/tryptone-based medium, wild-type V. fischeri cells initially excrete acetate

Sarah V. Studer; Mark J. Mandel; Edward G. Ruby

2008-01-01

217

Vibrio fischeri Genes hvnA and hvnB Encode Secreted NAD1-Glycohydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

HvnA and HvnB are proteins secreted by Vibrio fischeri ES114, an extracellular light organ symbiont of the squid Euprymna scolopes, that catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD1 to polyarginine. Based on this activity, HvnA and HvnB were presumptively designated mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTases), and it was hypothesized that they mediate bacterium-host signaling. We have cloned hvnA and hvnB from strain ES114.

ERIC V. STABB; KARL A. REICH; EDWARD G. RUBY

218

Autecology of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tropical waters  

SciTech Connect

Water and shellfish samples collected from estuaries, mangroves, and beaches along the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. An array of water quality parameters were also measured simultaneous with bacteria sampling. Both species of vibrio were associated with estuary and mangrove locations, and neither was isolated from sandy beaches. Densities of V. vulnificus were negatively correlated with salinity, 10--15 ppt being optimal. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from sites with salinities between 20 and 35 ppt, the highest densities occurring at 20 ppt. Densities of Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus for a tropical estuary surpassed those reported for temperate estuaries by several orders of magnitude. Both densities of total Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus in the water were directly related to densities of fecal coliforms, unlike V. vulnificus. The incidence of ONPG(+) strains among sucrose({minus}) Vibrio spp. served as an indicator of the frequency of V. vulnificus in this group. More than 63% of the V. vulnificus isolated were pathogenic. V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus occupy clearly separate niches within the tropical estuarine-marine ecosystem.

Rivera, S.; Lugo, T.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

1988-12-31

219

The GacA global regulator of Vibrio fischeri is required for normal host tissue responses that limit subsequent bacterial colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Harmful and beneficial bacterium-host interactions induce similar host-tissue changes that lead to con- trasting outcomes of association. A life-long associa- tion between Vibrio fischeri and the light organ of its host Euprymna scolopes begins when the squid col- lects bacteria from the surrounding seawater using mucus secreted from ciliated epithelial appendages. Following colonization, the bacterium causes changes in host

Cheryl A. Whistler; Tanya A. Koropatnick; Amber Pollack; Margaret J. McFall-Ngai; Edward G. Ruby

2007-01-01

220

Polyphasic Taxonomy of the Genus Vibrio: Numerical Taxonomy of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Related Vibrio Species  

PubMed Central

A set of 86 bacterial cultures, including 30 strains of Vibrio cholerae, 35 strains of V. parahaemolyticus, and 21 representative strains of Pseudomonas, Spirillum, Achromobacter, Arthrobacter, and marine Vibrio species were tested for a total of 200 characteristics. Morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics were included in the analysis. Overall deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base compositions and ultrastructure, under the electron microscope, were also examined. The taxonomic data were analyzed by computer by using numerical taxonomy programs designed to sort and cluster strains related phenetically. The V. cholerae strains formed an homogeneous cluster, sharing overall S values of ?75%. Two strains, V. cholerae NCTC 30 and NCTC 8042, did not fall into the V. cholerae species group when tested by the hypothetical median organism calculation. No separation of “classic” V. cholerae, El Tor vibrios, and nonagglutinable vibrios was observed. These all fell into a single, relatively homogeneous, V. cholerae species cluster. V. parahaemolyticus strains, excepting 5144, 5146, and 5162, designated members of the species V. alginolyticus, clustered at S ?80%. Characteristics uniformly present in all the Vibrio species examined are given, as are also characteristics and frequency of occurrence for V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus. The clusters formed in the numerical taxonomy analyses revealed similar overall DNA base compositions, with the range for the Vibrio species of 40 to 48% guanine plus cytosine. Generic level of relationship of V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus is considered dubious. Intra- and intergroup relationships obtained from the numerical taxonomy studies showed highly significant correlation with DNA/DNA reassociation data. Images

Colwell, R. R.

1970-01-01

221

Nutritive Medium for the Differentiation of Vibrio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A medium, prepared and tested in lab practice, can be used to determine the capacity of pure vibrio cultures to form hydrogen sulfide, which is of great importance on differentiating pathogenic from nonpathogenic vibrio cultures. The medium consists of th...

P. A. Voloskov Z. S. Konnova M. S. Luchko

1969-01-01

222

Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work,footnotetextLauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006). we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions.

Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

2013-03-01

223

Characterization of Undermethylated Sites in Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

The activities of DNA methyltransferases are important for a variety of cellular functions in bacteria. In this study, we developed a modified high-throughput technique called methyl homopolymer tail mediated sequencing (methyl HTM-seq) to identify the undermethylated sites in the Vibrio cholerae genome for the two DNA methyltransferases, Dam, an adenine methyltransferase, and VchM, a cytosine methyltransferase, during growth in rich medium in vitro. Many of the undermethylated sites occurred in intergenic regions, and for most of these sites, we identified the transcription factors responsible for undermethylation. This confirmed the presence of previously hypothesized DNA-protein interactions for these transcription factors and provided insight into the biological state of these cells during growth in vitro. DNA adenine methylation has previously been shown to mediate heritable epigenetic switches in gene regulation. However, none of the undermethylated Dam sites tested showed evidence of regulation by this mechanism. This study is the first to identify undermethylated adenines and cytosines genomewide in a bacterium using second-generation sequencing technology.

Dalia, Ankur B.; Lazinski, David W.

2013-01-01

224

Characterization of undermethylated sites in Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

The activities of DNA methyltransferases are important for a variety of cellular functions in bacteria. In this study, we developed a modified high-throughput technique called methyl homopolymer tail mediated sequencing (methyl HTM-seq) to identify the undermethylated sites in the Vibrio cholerae genome for the two DNA methyltransferases, Dam, an adenine methyltransferase, and VchM, a cytosine methyltransferase, during growth in rich medium in vitro. Many of the undermethylated sites occurred in intergenic regions, and for most of these sites, we identified the transcription factors responsible for undermethylation. This confirmed the presence of previously hypothesized DNA-protein interactions for these transcription factors and provided insight into the biological state of these cells during growth in vitro. DNA adenine methylation has previously been shown to mediate heritable epigenetic switches in gene regulation. However, none of the undermethylated Dam sites tested showed evidence of regulation by this mechanism. This study is the first to identify undermethylated adenines and cytosines genomewide in a bacterium using second-generation sequencing technology. PMID:23504020

Dalia, Ankur B; Lazinski, David W; Camilli, Andrew

2013-05-01

225

A collagenase-targeted multiplex PCR assay for identification of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

A multiplex PCR assay using three collagenase-targeted primer pairs for the species-specific detection of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus was developed. The results highlight the species specificity of the three primer sets designed. Because of the increasing importance of Vibrio spp. in human foodborne diseases, molecular approaches for routine microbial screening and monitoring of clinical, environmental, and food samples also have become more important. The results of this study indicate that the gene coding for collagenase should be used as an alternative molecular target to discriminate among the three Vibrio species. PMID:15690817

Di Pinto, Angela; Ciccarese, Giuseppina; Tantillo, Giuseppina; Catalano, Domenico; Forte, Vito Tony

2005-01-01

226

Evidence for the Role of Horizontal Transfer in Generating pVT1, a Large Mosaic Conjugative Plasmid from the Clam Pathogen, Vibrio tapetis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine bacterium Vibrio tapetis is the causative agent of the brown ring disease, which affects the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and causes heavy economic losses in North of Europe and in Eastern Asia. Further characterization of V. tapetis isolates showed that all the investigated strains harbored at least one large plasmid. We determined the sequence of the 82,266 bp plasmid

Gaël Erauso; Fatma Lakhal; Adeline Bidault-Toffin; Patrick Le Chevalier; Philippe Bouloc; Christine Paillard; Annick Jacq; Michael Hensel

2011-01-01

227

Determination of Clonality and Relatedness of Vibrio cholerae Isolates by Genomic Fingerprinting, Using Long-Range Repetitive Element Sequence-Based PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-throughput method which is applicable for rapid screening, identification, and delineation of isolates of Vibrio cholerae, sensitive to genome variation, and capable of providing phylogenetic inferences enhances environ- mental monitoring of this bacterium. We have developed and optimized a method for genomic fingerprinting of V. cholerae based on long-range PCR. The method uses a primer set directed to enterobacterial

Nipa Chokesajjawatee; Young-Gun Zo; Rita R. Colwell

2008-01-01

228

Microbial alteration of stable nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the interaction between microbes and organic matter can help elucidate the diagenesis of organic materials in sediments. Vibrio harveyi, a marine, aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, was cultured on individual compounds each containing carbon and nitrogen, i.e. amino acids or amino sugars. When grown on different substrates, the bacteria fractionated the isotopes uniquely. These fractionations were related to the

STEPHEN A. MACKO; MARILYN L. F. ESTEP

1984-01-01

229

Ethanolamine utilization in Vibrio alginolyticus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ethanolamine is used as an energy source by phylogenetically diverse bacteria including pathogens, by the concerted action of proteins from the eut-operon. Previous studies have revealed the presence of eutBC genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. However, ethanolamine utilization has not been reported for any member of the Vibrio genus. Our comparative genomics study reveals the presence of genes that are involved in ethanolamine utilization in several Vibrio species. Using Vibrio alginolyticus as a model system we demonstrate that ethanolamine is better utilized as a nitrogen source than as a carbon source. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Lakshminarayan Iyer and Dr. Vivek Anantharaman (nominated by Dr. L Aravind).

2012-01-01

230

Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae are human pathogens. Little is known about these Vibrio spp. in the coastal lagoons of France. The purpose of this study was to investigate their incidence in water, shellfish and sediment of three French Mediterranean coastal lagoons using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). In summer, the total number of V. parahaemolyticus in water, sediment, mussels and clams collected from the three lagoons varied from 1 to >1.1 × 103 MPN/l, 0.09 to 1.1 × 103 MPN/ml, 9 to 210 MPN/g and 1.5 to 2.1 MPN/g, respectively. In winter, all samples except mussels contained V. parahaemolyticus, but at very low concentrations. Pathogenic (tdh- or trh2-positive) V. parahaemolyticus were present in water, sediment and shellfish samples collected from these lagoons. The number of V. vulnificus in water, sediment and shellfish samples ranged from 1 to 1.1 × 103 MPN/l, 0.07 to 110 MPN/ml and 0.04 to 15 MPN/g, respectively, during summer. V. vulnificus was not detected during winter. V. cholerae was rarely detected in water and sediment during summer. In summary, results of this study highlight the finding that the three human pathogenic Vibrio spp. are present in the lagoons and constitute a potential public health hazard.

Cantet, Franck; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Caro, Audrey; Le Mennec, Cecile; Monteil, Caroline; Quemere, Catherine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Colwell, Rita R.; Monfort, Patrick

2014-01-01

231

Intracellular survival of Vibrio anguillarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular survival of a Vibrio anguillarum strain, ingested by head kidney phagocytes and peripheral leukocytes of grouper, Epinephelus awoara, was assessed in vitro by comparing with that of V. parahaemolyticus and Staphylococcus albus. There was an increase in numbers of V. alginolyticus in macrophages from head kidney and peripheral leukocytes during the first 30min after infection, followed by a

Wenbo Chen; Yingxue Qin; Qingpi Yan

2010-01-01

232

VIBRIO VULNIFICUS EDUCATION WORKSHOPS / MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will promote Vibrio vulnificus education on-line continuing medical education units to health care professionals that counsel and care for at-risk individuals. The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services will purchase advertisement and promotion in me...

233

In situ measured elimination of Vibrio cholerae from brackish water.  

PubMed

In situ elimination of fluorescently labelled Vibrio cholerae (FLB) was measured in two saline water bodies in Mexico: in a brackish water lagoon, Mecoacán (Gulf of Mexico; State of Tabasco) and an athalassohaline lake, Alchichica (State of Puebla). Disappearance rates of fluorescently labelled V. cholera O1 showed that they were eliminated from the environment at an average rate of 32% and 63%/day, respectively (based on the bacterial standing stocks). The indirect immunofluorescence method confirmed the presence of V. cholerae O1 in the lagoon. However, the elimination of FLB was not directly related either to the presence or absence of the bacterium in the water body or to the phytoplankton concentration. PMID:14728617

Pérez, María Elena Martínez; Macek, Miroslav; Galván, María Teresa Castro

2004-01-01

234

Vibrio cholerae as a predator: lessons from evolutionary principles  

PubMed Central

Diarrheal diseases are the second-most common cause of death among children under the age of five worldwide. Cholera alone, caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae, is responsible for several million cases and over 120,000 deaths annually. When contaminated water is ingested, V. cholerae passes through the gastric acid barrier, penetrates the mucin layer of the small intestine, and adheres to the underlying epithelial lining. V. cholerae multiplies rapidly, secretes cholera toxin, and exits the human host in vast numbers during diarrheal purges. How V. cholerae rapidly reaches such high numbers during each purge is not clearly understood. We propose that V. cholerae employs its bactericidal type VI secretion system to engage in intraspecies and intraguild predation for nutrient acquisition to support rapid growth and multiplication.

Pukatzki, Stefan; Provenzano, Daniele

2013-01-01

235

Effects of temperature and salinity on Vibrio cholerae growth.  

PubMed Central

Laboratory microecosystems (microcosms) prepared with a chemically defined sea salt solution were used to study effects of selected environmental parameters on growth and activity of Vibrio cholerae. Growth responses under simulated estuarine conditions of 10 strains of V. cholerae, including clinical and environmental isolates as well as serovars O1 and non-O1, were compared, and all strains yielded populations of approximately the same final size. Effects of salinity and temperature on extended survival of V. cholerae demonstrated that, at an estuarine salinity (25%) and a temperature of 10 degrees C, V. cholerae survived (i.e., was culturable) for less than 4 days. Salinity was also found to influence activity, as measured by uptake of 14C-amino acids. Studies on the effect of selected ions on growth and activity of V. cholerae demonstrated that Na+ was required for growth. The results of this study further support the status of V. cholerae as an estuarine bacterium.

Singleton, F L; Attwell, R; Jangi, S; Colwell, R R

1982-01-01

236

The mechanoelectrical response of the cytoplasmic membrane of Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

Persistence of Vibrio cholerae in waters of fluctuating salinity relies on the capacity of this facultative enteric pathogen to adapt to varying osmotic conditions. In an event of osmotic downshift, osmolytes accumulated inside the bacterium can be quickly released through tension-activated channels. With the newly established procedure of giant spheroplast preparation from V. cholerae, we performed the first patch-clamp characterization of its cytoplasmic membrane and compared tension-activated currents with those in Esherichia coli. Saturating pressure ramps revealed two waves of activation belonging to the ?1-nS mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS)-like channels and ?3-nS mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL)-like channels, with a pressure midpoint ratio p0.5MscS/p0.5MscL of 0.48. We found that MscL-like channels in V. cholerae present at a density three times higher than in E. coli, and yet, these vibrios were less tolerant to large osmotic downshocks. The Vibrio MscS-like channels exhibit characteristic inward rectification and subconductive states at depolarizing voltages; they also adapt and inactivate at subsaturating tensions and recover within 2 s upon tension release, just like E. coli MscS. Trehalose, a compatible internal osmolyte accumulated under hypertonic conditions, significantly shifts activation curves of both MscL- and MscS-like channels toward higher tensions, yet does not freely partition into the channel pore. Direct electrophysiology of V. cholerae offers new avenues for the in situ analysis of membrane components critical for osmotic survival and electrogenic transport in this pathogen.

Rowe, Ian; Elahi, Merina; Huq, Anwar

2013-01-01

237

Detection of quorum-sensing-related molecules in Vibrio scophthalmi  

PubMed Central

Background Cell-to-cell communication (also referred to as quorum sensing) based on N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) is a widespread response to environmental change in Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs seem to be highly variable, both in terms of the acyl chain length and in the chemical structure of the radicals. Another quorum sensing pathway, the autoinducer-2-based system, is present both in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study the presence of signal molecules belonging to both quorum sensing signalling pathways was analysed in the marine symbiotic species Vibrio scophthalmi. Results Three AHL-like signal molecules were detected in V. scophthalmi supernatants with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens sensor assay. This observation was further supported by the decrease in the presence of these signal molecules after cloning and expression of lactonase AiiA from Bacillus cereus in the V. scophthalmi strains. One of the signal molecules was identified as N-(3-hydroxy dodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. V. scophthalmi was also shown to carry a functional LuxS synthase. The coding sequence for a luxS-like gene was obtained showing a maximum similarity of 78% with Vibrio vulnificus. Analysis of the translated sequence revealed that the sequenced luxS gene carried the conserved domain, which is common to luxS sequences found in other species, and which is essential for LuxS enzymatic activity. Conclusion The data are consistent with the presence of quorum-sensing signal molecules from both AHL- and autoinducer 2-based quorum sensing systems in V. scophthalmi, which are homologous to others previously described in various Vibrio species. How this bacterium interacts with other bacteria and eukaryotic cells to compete ecologically with other intestinal bacteria present in the fish Scophthalmus maximus warrants further investigation.

Garcia-Aljaro, Cristina; Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Kathrin; Blanch, Anicet R

2008-01-01

238

Collaboration of FlhF and FlhG to regulate polar-flagella number and localization in Vibrio alginolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise regulation of the number and placement of flagella is critical for the mono-polar-flagellated bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus to swim efficiently. We have shown previously that the number of polar flagella is positively regulated by FlhF and negatively regulated by FlhG. We now show that DflhF cells are non-flagellated as are most DflhFG cells; however, some of the DflhFG cells have

Akiko Kusumoto; Akari Shinohara; Hiroyuki Terashima; Seiji Kojima; Toshiharu Yakushi; Michio Homma

2008-01-01

239

Complete Sequence of Virulence Plasmid pJM1 from the Marine Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum Strain 775  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virulence plasmid pJM1 enables the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, a gram-negative polarly flagel- lated comma-shaped rod bacterium, to cause a highly fatal hemorrhagic septicemic disease in salmonids and other fishes, leading to epizootics throughout the world. The pJM1 plasmid 65,009-nucleotide sequence, with an overall GC content of 42.6%, revealed genes and open reading frames (ORFs) encoding iron transporters, nonribosomal

Manuela Di Lorenzo; Michiel Stork; Marcelo E. Tolmasky; Luis A. Actis; David Farrell; Timothy J. Welch; Lidia M. Crosa; Anne M. Wertheimer; Qian Chen; Patricia Salinas; Lillian Waldbeser; Jorge H. Crosa

2003-01-01

240

Predicting the Distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Chesapeake Bay: A Vibrio cholerae Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a naturally occurring inhabitant of the Chesapeake Bay and serves as a predictor for\\u000a other clinically important vibrios, including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. A system was constructed to predict the likelihood of the presence of V. cholerae in surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay, with the goal to provide forecasts of the

Guillaume Constantin de Magny; Wen Long; Christopher W. Brown; Raleigh R. Hood; Anwar Huq; Raghu Murtugudde; Rita R. Colwell

2009-01-01

241

Arp2/3-independent assembly of actin by Vibrio type III effector VopL  

PubMed Central

Microbial pathogens use a variety of mechanisms to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton during infection. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. para) is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, and new pandemic strains are emerging throughout the world. Analysis of the V. para genome revealed a type III secretion system effector, VopL, encoding three Wiskott–Aldrich homology 2 domains that are interspersed with three proline-rich motifs. Infection of HeLa cells with V. para induces the formation of long actin fibers in a VopL-dependent manner. Transfection of VopL promotes the assembly of actin stress fibers. In vitro, recombinant VopL potently induces assembly of actin filaments that grow at their barbed ends, independent of eukaryotic factors. Vibrio VopL is predicted to be a bacterial virulence factor that disrupts actin homeostasis during an enteric infection of the host.

Liverman, Amy D. B.; Cheng, Hui-Chun; Trosky, Jennifer E.; Leung, Daisy W.; Yarbrough, Melanie L.; Burdette, Dara L.; Rosen, Michael K.; Orth, Kim

2007-01-01

242

Lateral Flagellar Gene System of Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus possesses dual flagellar systems adapted for movement under different circumstances. A single polar flagellum propels the bacterium in liquid (i.e., swimming) with a motor that is powered by the sodium motive force. Multiple proton-driven lateral flagella enable translocation over surfaces (i.e., swarming). The polar flagellum is produced continuously, while production of lateral flagella is induced when the organism is grown on surfaces. This work describes the isolation of mutants with insertions in the structural and regulatory laf genes. A Tn5-based lux transcriptional reporter transposon was constructed and used for mutagenesis and subsequent transcriptional analysis of the laf regulon. Twenty-nine independent insertions were distributed within 16 laf genes. DNA sequence analysis identified 38 laf genes in two loci. Among the mutants isolated, 11 contained surface-induced lux fusions. A hierarchy of laf gene expression was established following characterization of the laf::lux transcriptional fusion strains and by mutational and primer extension analyses of the laf regulon. The laf system is like many enteric systems in that it is a proton-driven, peritrichous flagellar system; however, laf regulation was different from the Salmonella-Escherichia coli paradigm. There is no apparent flhDC counterpart that encodes master regulators known to control flagellar biosynthesis and swarming in many enteric bacteria. A potential ?54-dependent regulator, LafK, was demonstrated to control expression of early genes, and a lateral-specific ?28 factor controls late flagellar gene expression. Another notable feature was the discovery of a gene encoding a MotY-like product, which previously had been associated only with the architecture of sodium-type polar flagellar motors.

Stewart, Bonnie J.; McCarter, Linda L.

2003-01-01

243

Arabinose Induces Pellicle Formation by Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are multicellular communities of bacteria attached to a surface and embedded in a protective matrix. In many cases, the signals that induce biofilm formation are unknown. Here, we report that biofilm formation by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri can be induced by the addition of arabinose to LBS (Luria-Bertani-salt), a tryptone-based medium. Growth of cells in the presence of 0.2% arabinose, but not other sugars, induced the production of a pellicle at the air/liquid interfaces of static cultures. V. fischeri failed to grow on arabinose as the sole carbon source, suggesting that pellicle production did not occur as a result of increased growth, but experiments using the acid/base indicator phenol red suggested that V. fischeri may partially metabolize arabinose. Pellicle production was independent of the syp polysaccharide locus but was altered upon disruption of the bcs cellulose locus. Through a screen for mutants defective for pellicle production, we found that loss of motility disrupted the formation of the arabinose-induced pellicle. Among the ?20 mutants that retained motility were strains with insertions in a putative msh pilus locus and a strain with a defect in yidK, which is involved in galactose catabolism. Mutants with the msh gene disrupted grew poorly in the presence of arabinose, while the yidK mutant appeared to be “blind” to the presence of arabinose. Finally, arabinose impaired symbiotic colonization by V. fischeri. This work thus identifies a novel signal and new pathways involved in control of biofilm formation by V. fischeri.

Quirke, Kevin P.; McEwen, Sheila M.

2013-01-01

244

Multiple Bacteriosis, with Special Reference to Spoilage Bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens, in Cage-Cultured Barramundi Perch in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An incidence of multiple bacteriosis that caused heavy mortality in cage-cultured barramundi perch Lates calcarifer during May-July 1991 in the Pulau Ketam estuary in west coast of Malaysia was investigated. All fish showing hemorrhagic dermatitis were infected with Pseudomonas anguilliseptica and Vibrio alginolyticus, and the spoilage bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens was consistently isolated from all sampled fish. High-density culture under suboptimal

R. P. Subasinghe; M. Shariff

1992-01-01

245

[Vibrio infections from food and sea water. Introducing the "VibrioNet"].  

PubMed

Vibrio is a genus of bacteria present in surface and coastal waters as well as in marine organisms worldwide. In many countries, pathogenic Vibrio species are a main cause of bacterial diarrhea, which may result from comsumption of contaminated seafood and fish products or from drinking contaminated water. Vibrio infections may also gain in importance in our regions due to global warming and the increase in the world trade of seafood. The research network "VibrioNet" studies pathogenic Vibrios in the marine environment and in seafood consumed by humans as a potential, new emerging zoonotic agent. An assessment of the risk arising from pathogenic non-cholera-vibrios in central Europe is the target of a multidisciplinary research effort. The research network will be strengthened by cooperations with international partners from countries in which Vibrio infections play a major role (Bangladesh, Chile, India, Thailand, and Vietnam). PMID:22015796

Alter, T; Appel, B; Bartelt, E; Dieckmann, R; Eichhorn, C; Erler, R; Frank, C; Gerdts, G; Gunzer, F; Hühn, S; Neifer, J; Oberheitmann, B; Strauch, E

2011-11-01

246

Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus  

PubMed Central

Vibrio coralliilyticus is an important coral pathogen demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of applying bacteriophage therapy to treat the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus. A specific bacteriophage for V. coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696), referred to here as bacteriophage YC, was isolated from the seawater above corals at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the same location where the bacterium was first isolated. Bacteriophage YC was shown to be a lytic phage belonging to the Myoviridae family, with a rapid replication rate, high burst size, and high affinity to its host. By infecting its host bacterium, bacteriophage YC was able to prevent bacterial-induced photosystem inhibition in pure cultures of Symbiodinium, the photosymbiont partner of coral and a target for virulence factors produced by the bacterial pathogen. Phage therapy experiments using coral juveniles in microtiter plates as a model system revealed that bacteriophage YC was able to prevent V. coralliilyticus-induced photoinactivation and tissue lysis. These results demonstrate that bacteriophage YC has the potential to treat coral disease outbreaks caused by the bacterial pathogen V. coralliilyticus, making it a good candidate for phage therapy treatment of coral disease.

Cohen, Yossi; Joseph Pollock, F; Rosenberg, Eugene; Bourne, David G

2013-01-01

247

Systematic Analysis of the Lysine Acetylome in Vibrio parahemolyticus.  

PubMed

Lysine acetylation of proteins is a major post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspect of cells, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Vibrio parahemolyticus, a model marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of bacterial seafood-borne illness. Here, we conducted the first lysine acetylome in this bacterium through a combination of highly sensitive immune-affinity purification and high-resolution LC-MS/MS. Overall, we identified 1413 lysine acetylation sites in 656 proteins, which account for 13.6% of the total proteins in the cells; this is the highest ratio of acetyl proteins that has so far been identified in bacteria. The bioinformatics analysis of the acetylome showed that the acetylated proteins are involved in a wide range of cellular functions and exhibit diverse subcellular localizations. More specifically, proteins related to protein biosynthesis and carbon metabolism are the preferential targets of lysine acetylation. Moreover, two types of acetylation motifs, a lysine or arginine at the +4/+5 positions and a tyrosine, histidine, or phenylalanine at the +1/+2 positions, were revealed from the analysis of the acetylome. Additionally, protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a wide range of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. This study provides a significant beginning for the in-depth exploration of the physiological role of lysine acetylation in V. parahemolyticus. PMID:24874924

Pan, Jianyi; Ye, Zhicang; Cheng, Zhongyi; Peng, Xiaojun; Wen, Liangyou; Zhao, Fukun

2014-07-01

248

Properties of proteolytic toxin of Vibrio anguilolarum from diseased flounder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extracellular products (ECP) produced by Vibrio anguillarum strain M3 originally isolated from diseased flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) were prepared. ECP of M3 showed gelatinase, casinase, amylase and haemolytic activity on agarose plates. High protease activity against azocasin was detected. Bacterium M2 showed highest growth and protease activity at 25°C. The protease present in ECP showed maximal activity at pH 8 and 55°C; was completely inactivated by application of 80°C heat for 30 min; was completely inhibited by EDTA and HgCl2, and was partially inhibited by PMSF, SDS, MnCl2 and iodoacetic acid; but not inhibited by CaCl2 and MgCl2. The ECP was toxic to flounder fish at LD50 values of 3.1 ?g protein/g body weight. The addition of HgCl2 and application of heat at 50°C decreased the lethal toxicity of ECP. When heated at 100°C, ECP lethality to flounder was completely inhibited. After intramuscular injection of ECP into flounder, it showed evident histopathological changes including necrosis of muscle, extensive deposition of haemosiderin in the spleen, dilated blood vessels congested with numerious lymphocytes in the liver. These results showed that ECP protease was a lethal factor produced by the bacterium V. anguillarum M3.

Mo, Zhao-Lan; Chen, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Pei-Jun

2002-12-01

249

Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106).  

SciTech Connect

Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.

Temperton, B.; Thomas, S.; Tait, K.; Parry, H.; Emery, M.; Allen, M.; Quinn, J.; McGrath, J.; Gilbert, J. (CLS-GSB); (Plymouth Marine Lab.); (Queen's Univ.); (Univ. of Plymouth); (Univ. of Chicago)

2011-01-01

250

Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106)  

PubMed Central

Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.

Temperton, Ben; Thomas, Simon; Tait, Karen; Parry, Helen; Emery, Matt; Allen, Mike; Quinn, John; MacGrath, John; Gilbert, Jack

2011-01-01

251

Characterization of two host-speci¢c genes, mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (mshA) and uridyl phosphate dehydrogenase (UDPDH) that are involved in the Vibrio ¢scheri^Euprymna tasmanica mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much has been known about the mutualistic associations between the sepiolid squid Euprymna tasmanica and the luminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, less is known about the connectivity between the microscopic and molecular basis of initial attachment and persistence in the light organ. Here, we examine the possible effects of two symbiotic genes on specificity and biofilm formation of V. fischeri

Don Sanjiv Ariyakumar; Michele K. Nishiguchi

252

Multiplex PCR assays for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae with an internal amplification control.  

PubMed

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that can simultaneously detect 4 major Vibrio spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae, in the presence of an internal amplification control (IAC) was developed. Species-specific PCR primers were designed based on the gyrB gene for V. alginolyticus, the collagenase gene for V. parahaemolyticus, the vvhA gene for V. vulnificus, and the ompW gene for V. cholerae. Additionally, an IAC primer pair was designed in conserved regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene that is used to indicate false-negative results. A multiplex PCR method was developed after optimization of the reaction conditions. The specificity of the PCR was validated by using 83 Vibrio strains and 10 other non-Vibrio bacterial species. The detection limit of the PCR was 10 CFU per tube for V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and 10(5) CFU per tube for V. cholerae in mixed conditions. This method was used to identify 69 suspicious Vibrio isolates, and the results were consistent with physiological and biochemical tests. This multiplex PCR method proved to be rapid, sensitive, and specific. The existence of IAC could successfully eliminate false-negative results for the detection of V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae. PMID:24731836

Wei, Shuang; Zhao, Hui; Xian, Yuyin; Hussain, Malik A; Wu, Xiyang

2014-06-01

253

Shewanella woodyi sp. nov., an exclusively respiratory luminous bacterium isolated from the Alboran Sea.  

PubMed

Thirty-four strains of nonfermentative, respiratory, luminous bacteria were isolated from samples of squid ink and seawater from depths of 200 to 300 m in the Alboran Sea. Although these strains had a few properties similar to properties of Shewanella (Alteromonas) hanedai, they did not cluster phenotypically with any previously described bacterium. The nucleotide sequence of a 740-bp segment of luxA was not homologous with other known luxA sequences but clustered with the luxA sequences of Shewanella hanedai, Vibrio logei, Vibrio fischeri, and Photobacterium species. The 16S RNA gene from two strains was sequenced and was found to be most closely related to the S. hanedai 16S RNA gene. Based on the differences observed, we describe the new isolates as members of new species, Shewanella woodyi sp. nov. Strain ATCC 51908 (= MS32) is the type strain of this new species. PMID:9336902

Makemson, J C; Fulayfil, N R; Landry, W; Van Ert, L M; Wimpee, C F; Widder, E A; Case, J F

1997-10-01

254

Enhancement of UV Light Sensitivity of a Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 Pandemic Strain Due to Natural Lysogenization by a Telomeric Phage?  

PubMed Central

The Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 pandemic clonal strain was first observed in southern Chile in 2004 and has since caused approximately 8,000 seafood-related diarrhea cases in this region. The massive proliferation of the original clonal population offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a bacterial pathogen in its natural environment by detection and characterization of emerging bacterial variants. Here, we describe a group of pandemic variants characterized by the presence of a 42-kb extrachromosomal DNA that can be recovered by alkaline extraction. Upon treatment with mitomycin C, these variants lyse with production of a myovirus containing DNA of equal size to the plasmid but which cannot be recovered by alkaline extraction. Plasmid and phage DNAs show similar restriction patterns corresponding to enzyme sites in a circular permutation. Sequenced regions showed 81 to 99% nucleotide similarity to bacteriophage VHML of Vibrio harveyi. Altogether these observations indicate that the 42-kb plasmid corresponds to a prophage, consisting of a linear DNA with terminal hairpins of a telomeric temperate phage with a linear genome. Bacteria containing the prophage were 7 to 15 times more sensitive to UV radiation, likely due to phage induction by UV irradiation as plasmid curing restored the original sensitivity. The enhanced UV sensitivity could have a significant role in reducing the survival and propagation capability of the V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strain in the ocean.

Zabala, Beatriz; Garcia, Katherine; Espejo, Romilio T.

2009-01-01

255

Crystal Structure of SmcR, a Quorum-sensing Master Regulator of Vibrio vulnificus, Provides Insight into Its Regulation of Transcription*  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing has been implicated as an important global regulatory system controlling the expression of numerous virulence factors in bacterial pathogens. SmcR, a homologue of Vibrio harveyi LuxR, has been proposed as a quorum-sensing master regulator of Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic human pathogen. Previous studies demonstrated that SmcR is essential for the survival and pathogenesis of V. vulnificus, indicating that inhibiting SmcR is an attractive approach to combat infections by the bacteria. Here, we determined the crystal structure of SmcR at 2.1 Å resolution. The protein structure reveals a typical TetR superfamily fold consisting of an N-terminal DNA binding domain and a C-terminal dimerization domain. In vivo and in vitro functional analysis of the dimerization domain suggested that dimerization of SmcR is vital for its biological regulatory function. The N-terminal DNA recognition and binding residues were assigned based on the protein structure and the results of in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis experiments. Furthermore, protein-DNA interaction experiments suggested that SmcR may have a sophisticated mechanism that enables the protein to recognize each of its many target operators with different affinities.

Kim, Yoonjeong; Kim, Byoung Sik; Park, Yu Jin; Choi, Won-Chan; Hwang, Jungwon; Kang, Beom Sik; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Myung Hee

2010-01-01

256

A Vibrio anguillarum strain associated with skin ulcer on cultured flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizootic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. (intramuscular injection), bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues. The LD50 dose was 5.144×103 CFU/ per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of antimicrobial agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

Mo, Zhao-Lan; Tan, Xun-Gang; Xu, Yong-Li; Zhang, Pei-Jun

2001-12-01

257

The Vibrio cholerae Genome Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute For Genomic Research (TIGR) has placed online the latest versions of the DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. The TIGR site offers data access via a hypertext Gene Identification Table, DNA Molecule Information, Gene Name Search, Locus Search, RNA Gene Table, Paralogous Gene Families, a Sequence Search, or by download (FTP). Originally published by Heidelberg et al. in the journal Nature [106:477-483, 2000], further information is available to users via links at the TIGR site.

258

Isolation of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio splendidus from captive-bred seahorses with disease symptoms.  

PubMed

Vibrio species isolated from diseased seahorses were characterized by PCR amplification of repetitive bacterial DNA elements (rep-PCR) and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. The results demonstrated that Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio splendidus were predominant in the lesions of these seahorses. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these bacterial species have been associated with disease symptoms in captive-bred seahorses. PMID:19921544

Balcázar, José L; Gallo-Bueno, Alfonso; Planas, Miquel; Pintado, José

2010-02-01

259

Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus Isolates from Louisiana Gulf and Retail Raw Oysters?  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 168 Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 151 Vibrio vulnificus isolates recovered from 82 Louisiana Gulf and retail oysters in 2005 and 2006 were determined. Overall, the two vibrios remained susceptible to the majority of antimicrobials tested; reduced susceptibility was detected only in V. parahaemolyticus for ampicillin (81%; MIC ? 16 ?g/ml). Additionally, V. parahaemolyticus displayed significantly higher MICs for cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline than V. vulnificus.

Han, Feifei; Walker, Robert D.; Janes, Marlene E.; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Ge, Beilei

2007-01-01

260

Molecular cloning of a C-type lectin with two CRD domains from the banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis: Early gene up-regulation after Vibrio harveyi infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diverse class of pattern-recognition proteins called lectins play important roles in shrimp innate immunity. A novel C-type lectin gene (FmLC) was cloned from the hepatopancreas of banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis by means of PCR and 5? and 3? rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA consists of 1118bp with one 1002bp open reading frame, encoding 333 amino

Onnicha Rattanaporn; Prapaporn Utarabhand

2011-01-01

261

Isolation and Characterization of Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi ( V. carchariae ) From the Farmed Marine Cobia Fish Rachycentron canadum L. with Gastroenteritis Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of serious mortality among the cultivated juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum L. (weighing 8–10 g) characterized by a swollen intestine containing transparent yellow fluid (ascites and gastroenteritis) occurred in August 2001 in Taiwan. Ten motile bacterial strains, C3d1–C3d10, were isolated from head kidney (an organ located near the head of the fish) and\\/or the intestinal yellow fluid on tryptic

Ping-Chung Liu; Ji-Yang Lin; Wen-Hsiao Chuang; Kuo-Kau Lee

2004-01-01

262

Purification and Characterization of Enterotoxigenic El Tor-Like Hemolysin Produced by Vibrio fluvialis  

PubMed Central

The halophilic bacterium Vibrio fluvialis is an enteric pathogen that produces an extracellular hemolysin. This hemolysin was purified to homogeneity by using sequential hydrophobic-interaction chromatography with phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and gel filtration with Sephacryl S-200. It has a molecular weight of 63,000 and an isoelectric point of 4.6, and its hemolytic activity is sensitive to heat, proteases, and preincubation with zinc ions. The hemolysin lyses erythrocytes of the eight different animal species that we tested, is cytotoxic against Chinese hamster ovary cells in tissue culture, and elicits fluid accumulation in suckling mice. Lysis of erythrocytes occurs by a temperature-dependent binding step followed by a temperature- and pH-dependent lytic step. Fourteen of the first 20 N-terminal amino acid residues (Val-Ser-Gly-Gly-Glu-Ala-Asn-Thr-Leu-Pro-His-Val-Ala-Phe-Tyr-Ile-Asn-Val-Asn-Arg) are identical to those of the El Tor hemolysin of Vibrio cholerae and the heat-labile hemolysin of Vibrio mimicus. This homology was further confirmed by PCR analysis using a 5? primer derived from the amino-terminal sequence of the hemolysin and a 3? primer derived from the El Tor hemolysin structural gene. The hemolysin also reacts with antibodies to the El Tor-like hemolysin of non-O1 V. cholerae.

Kothary, Mahendra H.; Lowman, Heather; McCardell, Barbara A.; Tall, Ben D.

2003-01-01

263

Gimme shelter: how Vibrio fischeri successfully navigates an animal's multiple environments  

PubMed Central

Bacteria successfully colonize distinct niches because they can sense and appropriately respond to a variety of environmental signals. Of particular interest is how a bacterium negotiates the multiple, complex environments posed during successful infection of an animal host. One tractable model system to study how a bacterium manages a host’s multiple environments is the symbiotic relationship between the marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, and its squid host, Euprymna scolopes. V. fischeri encounters many different host surroundings ranging from initial contact with the squid to ultimate colonization of a specialized organ known as the light organ. For example, upon recognition of the squid, V. fischeri forms a biofilm aggregate outside the light organ that is required for efficient colonization. The bacteria then disperse from this biofilm to enter the organ, where they are exposed to nitric oxide, a molecule that can act as both a signal and an antimicrobial. After successfully managing this potentially hostile environment, V. fischeri cells finally establish their niche in the deep crypts of the light organ where the bacteria bioluminesce in a pheromone-dependent fashion, a phenotype that E. scolopes utilizes for anti-predation purposes. The mechanism by which V. fischeri manages these environments to outcompete all other bacterial species for colonization of E. scolopes is an important and intriguing question that will permit valuable insights into how a bacterium successfully associates with a host. This review focuses on specific molecular pathways that allow V. fischeri to establish this exquisite bacteria–host interaction.

Norsworthy, Allison N.; Visick, Karen L.

2013-01-01

264

Structure of TcpG, the DsbA protein folding catalyst from Vibrio cholerae 1 1 Edited by I. A. Wilson  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient and correct folding of bacterial disulfide bonded proteins in vivo is dependent upon a class of periplasmic oxidoreductase proteins called DsbA, after the Escherichia coli enzyme. In the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the DsbA homolog (TcpG) is responsible for the folding, maturation and secretion of virulence factors. Mutants in which the tcpg gene has been inactivated are avirulent;

Shu-Hong Hu; Joel A Peek; Eileen Rattigan; Ronald K Taylor; Jennifer L Martin

1997-01-01

265

pIIICTX, a Predicted CTX  Minor Coat Protein, Can Expand the Host Range of Coliphage fd To Include Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

CTX is a filamentous bacteriophage that encodes cholera toxin. CTX infection of its host bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, requires the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and the products of the V. cholerae tolQRA genes. Here, we have explored the role of OrfU, a predicted CTX minor coat protein, in CTX infection. Prior to the discovery that it was part of a prophage, orfU

Andrew J. Heilpern; Matthew K. Waldor

2003-01-01

266

Vibrio kanaloae sp. nov., Vibrio pomeroyi sp. nov. and Vibrio chagasii sp. nov., from sea water and marine animals.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting groups A46 (five isolates), A51 (six isolates), A52 (five isolates) and A53 (seven isolates) obtained in a previous study were further analysed through a polyphasic approach. The 23 isolates were phylogenetically related to Vibrio splendidus, but DNA-DNA hybridization experiments proved that they belong to three novel species. Chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses further disclosed several features that differentiate between the 23 isolates and known Vibrio species. The names Vibrio kanaloae sp. nov. (type strain LMG 20539(T) = CAIM 485(T); EMBL accession no. AJ316193; G + C content 44.7 mol%), Vibrio pomeroyi sp. nov. (type strain LMG 20537(T) = CAIM 578(T); EMBL accession no. AJ491290; G +C content 44.1 mol%) and Vibrio chagasii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 21353(T) = CAIM 431(T); EMBL accession no. AJ316199; G + C content 44.6 mol%) are respectively proposed to encompass the five isolates of A46, the six isolates of A51 and the 12 isolates of A52/A53. The three novel species can be distinguished from known Vibrio species by several phenotypic features, including utilization and fermentation of various carbon sources, beta-galactosidase activity and fatty acid content (particularly of 12 : 0, 14: 0, 14 : 0 iso and 16 : 0 iso). PMID:12807197

Thompson, F L; Thompson, C C; Li, Y; Gomez-Gil, B; Vandenberghe, J; Hoste, B; Swings, J

2003-05-01

267

Predatory bacteria as natural modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seawater and oysters.  

PubMed

This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. The pathogens examined were V. vulnificus strain VV1003, V. parahaemolyticus O1:KUT (KUT stands for K untypeable), and V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and corresponding O3:K6 mutants deficient in the toxRS virulence regulatory gene or the rpoS alternative stress response sigma factor gene. Vibrios were selected for streptomycin resistance, which facilitated their enumeration. In natural seawater, oysters bioconcentrated each Vibrio strain for 24 h at 22°C; however, counts rapidly declined to near negligible levels by 72 h. In natural seawater with or without oysters, vibrios decreased more than 3 log units to near negligible levels within 72 h. Neither toxRS nor rpoS had a significant effect on Vibrio levels. In autoclaved seawater, V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 counts increased 1,000-fold over 72 h. Failure of the vibrios to persist in natural seawater and oysters led to screening of the water samples for VPB on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 host cells. Many VPB, including Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs; Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Bacteriovorax stolpii) and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus-like predators, were detected by plaque assay and electron microscopic analysis of plaque-purified isolates from Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Hawaiian seawater. When V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 was added to natural seawater containing trace amounts of VPB, Vibrio counts diminished 3 log units to nondetectable levels, while VPB increased 3 log units within 48 h. We propose a new paradigm that VPB are important modulators of pathogenic vibrios in seawater and oysters. PMID:22904049

Richards, Gary P; Fay, Johnna P; Dickens, Keyana A; Parent, Michelle A; Soroka, Douglas S; Boyd, E Fidelma

2012-10-01

268

Induction of Fimbriated Vibrio cholerae O139  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several fimbriated phases of Vibrio cholerae O139 strains were selectively induced and compared immuno- logically and biochemically with those of V. cholerae O1. Fimbrial antigens were detected on the surfaces of vibrio cells colonizing the epithelial cells of a rabbit small intestine. Convalescent-phase sera from six individuals infected with V. cholerae O139 revealed the development of antibody against the fimbrillin.

MASAHIKO EHARA; MAMORU IWAMI; YOSHIO ICHINOSE; TOSHIYA HIRAYAMA; M. JOHN ALBERT; R. BRADLEY SACK; SHOICHI SHIMODORI

1998-01-01

269

Differentiation of Environmental and Clinical Isolates of Vibrio mimicus from Vibrio cholerae by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we demonstrated that analyzed strains of Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio cholerae could be separated in two groups by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) data from 14 loci. We also showed that the combination of four enzymatic loci enables us to differentiate these two species. Our results showed that the ribosomal intergenic spacer regions PCR-mediated identification system failed,

VERONICA V. VIEIRA; LUIZ FERNANDO M. TEIXEIRA; ANA CAROLINA P. VICENTE; HOOMAN MOMEN; C. A. Salles

2001-01-01

270

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

PubMed Central

Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

2010-01-01

271

Control of luminous Vibrio species in penaeid aquaculture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crisis has arisen in the prawn industry in many regions with the onset of disease, with Vibrio spp. being important major causal factors. The value of adding selected strains of Bacillus as probiotic bacteria to control the Vibrio is shown by comparing farms in Indonesia using the same water sources, which contained luminous Vibrio strains. The farms that did

D. J. W Moriarty

1998-01-01

272

The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system displays antimicrobial properties  

PubMed Central

The acute diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae. A type VI secretion system (T6SS), which is structurally similar to the bacteriophage cell-puncturing device, has been recently identified in V. cholerae and is used by this organism to confer virulence toward phagocytic eukaryotes, such as J774 murine macrophages and Dictyostelium discoideum. We tested the interbacterial virulence of V. cholerae strain V52, an O37 serogroup with a constitutively active T6SS. V52 was found to be highly virulent toward multiple Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium, and caused up to a 100,000-fold reduction in E. coli survival. Because the T6SS-deficient mutants V52?vasK and V52?vasH showed toxicity defects that could be complemented, virulence displayed by V. cholerae depends on a functional T6SS. V. cholerae V52 and strains of the O1 serogroup were resistant to V52, suggesting that V. cholerae has acquired immunity independently of its serogroup. We hypothesize that the T6SS, in addition to targeting eukaryotic host cells, confers toxicity toward other bacteria, providing a means of interspecies competition to enhance environmental survival. Thus, the V. cholerae T6SS may enhance the survival of V. cholerae in its aquatic ecosystem during the transmission of cholera and between epidemics.

MacIntyre, Dana L.; Miyata, Sarah T.; Kitaoka, Maya; Pukatzki, Stefan

2010-01-01

273

Catalases Promote Resistance of Oxidative Stress in Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is a major challenge faced by bacteria. Many bacteria control oxidative stress resistance pathways through the transcriptional regulator OxyR. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of cholera. V. cholerae lives in both aquatic environments and human small intestines, two environments in which it encounters reactive oxygen species (ROS). To study how V. cholerae responds to oxidative stress, we constructed an in-frame oxyR deletion mutant. We found that this mutant was not only sensitive to H2O2, but also displayed a growth defect when diluted in rich medium. Further study showed that two catalases, KatG and KatB, either when expressed in living cells, present in culture supernatants, or added as purified recombinant proteins, could rescue the oxyR growth defect. Furthermore, although it could colonize infant mouse intestines similar to that of wildtype, the oxyR mutant was defective in zebrafish intestinal colonization. Alternatively, co-infection with wildtype, but not katG-katB deletion mutants, greatly enhanced oxyR mutant colonization. Our study suggests that OxyR in V. cholerae is critical for antioxidant defense and that the organism is capable of scavenging environmental ROS to facilitate population growth.

Rothenbacher, Francesca P.; Jiang, Tiantian; Kan, Biao; Zhong, Zengtao; Zhu, Jun

2012-01-01

274

Mechanisms of iron regulation of luminescence in Vibrio fischeri  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of luciferase is repressed by iron in the symbiotic bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Possible mechanisms of iron regulation of luciferase synthesis were tested with V. fischeri and with Escherichia coli clones containing plasmids carrying V. fischeri luminescence genes. Experiments were conducted in complete medium with and without the synthetic iron chelator ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid). Comparison of the effect of ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid) and another growth inhibitor, (2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide), showed that iron repression is not due to inhibition of growth. A quantitative bioassay for autoinducer was developed with E. coli HB101 containing pJE411, a plasmid carrying V. fischeri luminescence genes with a transcriptional fusion between luxI and E. coli lacZ. Bioassay experiments showed no effect of iron on either autoinducer activity or production (before induction) or transcription of the lux operon. Ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid) did not affect luciferase induction in E. coli strains with wild-type iron assimilation or impaired iron assimilation bearing pJE202 (a plasmid with functional V. fischeri lux genes), suggesting that the genes responsible for the iron effect are missing or substituted in these clones. Two models are consistent with the data: (i) iron represses autoinducer transport, and (ii) iron acts through an autoinduction-independent regulatory system (e.g., an iron repressor).

Haygood, M.G.; Nealson, K.H.

1985-04-01

275

Resuscitation of Vibrio vulnificus from the Viable but Nonculturable State  

PubMed Central

Like many other gram-negative bacteria, the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus is induced into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state by incubation at low temperatures. The ability of any bacterium to resuscitate from this dormant state would appear to be essential if the VBNC state is truly a survival strategy. The question as to whether the culturable cells which appear following removal of the inducing stress are a result of true resuscitation or of regrowth of a few residual culturable cells has long been debated. V. vulnificus was examined for its ability to resuscitate from this state following a temperature upshift. Several lines of investigation, including dilution studies, determination of the time necessary for appearance of a culturable population, and the effects of nutrient on recovery, all indicated that, at least for V. vulnificus, true resuscitation does occur. Our studies further suggest that nutrient is in some way inhibitory to the resuscitation of cells in the VBNC state and that studies which add nutrient in an attempt to detect resuscitation are able to detect only residual culturable cells which might be present and which were not inhibited by the added nutrient.

Whitesides, M. D.; Oliver, J. D.

1997-01-01

276

Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs from 18 plant species were examined on a foodborne pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, with the use of combinations of temperatures and nutrient levels. Basil, clove, garlic, horseradish, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, and thyme exhibited antibacterial activities at incubation of 30 degrees C, while with the exception of horseradish, the same spices and additional 7 species exhibited the activities at 5 degrees C. The lowest MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) was 0.125% observed in clove and marjoram at 30 degrees C in a nutrient rich medium. Lowering of incubation temperature produced little effect on the MICs except for turmeric. The decreasing of the MIC in turmeric appeared to be basically attributed to the sensitivity of the bacterium to coldness. In nutrient poor medium, the lowest was 0.001 and 0.00025% in marjoram at 30 degrees C and at 5 degrees C, respectively. The sensitivity to several spices and herbs was similar among different clinical serotypes including the emerging strain O3:K6. These results suggest that the spices and herbs can be practical for protecting seafood from the risk of contamination by V. parahaemolyticus and used in hurdle technology with low temperature. PMID:16797760

Yano, Yutaka; Satomi, Masataka; Oikawa, Hiroshi

2006-08-15

277

Identification of vibrio cholerae and vibrio mimicus by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA).  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus have similar phenotypes and genomes making rapid differentiation of these two species difficult. The first standard multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme for the identification of these species is described. A collection of 45 representative isolates from different geographical regions and hosts was examined using segments of the housekeeping genes pyrH, recA and rpoA. Overall, the closest phylogenetic neighbours of these species were Vibrio furnissii and Vibrio fluvialis. V. cholerae and V. mimicus formed separate species clusters on the basis of each gene, suggesting that these genes are useful as identification markers. These species clusters arose by the accumulation of point mutations. The pyrH gene showed the highest resolution for differentiating V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The maximum interspecies pyrH gene sequence similarity was 91 %. Clearly, V. mimicus strains were more heterogeneous than V. cholerae strains at the three loci. It is suggested that vibrio species may be defined on the basis of MLSA data. A vibrio species was defined as a group of strains forming a monophyletic group on the basis of these loci and with an intraspecific sequence similarity of at least 95 %. V. cholerae and V. mimicus isolates can be readily identified through the open database resource 'The Taxonomy of Vibrios' (http://www.taxvibrio.lncc.br/). PMID:18319466

Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L; Vicente, Ana Carolina P

2008-03-01

278

Antibacterial activity of citrus fruit juices against Vibrio species.  

PubMed

Lemon, lime and sudachi juices were tested for antibacterial activity against seven strains of Vibrio species. All juices were effective in inhibiting the growth of the Vibrio strains. Citric acid, the major organic acid in these juices, was found to be responsible for inhibiting the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Sauce prepared from sudachi juice showed a strong bactericidal activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, whereas the sauce adjusted to higher pH values had no bacterial activity. Diluted sudachi juice or citric acid solution also had antibacterial activity independently. These results suggest that citrus fruit juices are effective in preventing infection with Vibrio species. PMID:16802698

Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Koga, Tetsuro; Yamato, Masayuki; Kassu, Afework; Ota, Fusao

2006-04-01

279

Cholera and other vibrio-associated diarrhoeas*  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there have been major advances in knowledge of Vibrio species and related organisms that are responsible for diarrhoeal diseases, particularly V. cholerae O-Group 1 (epidemic strains), atypical V. cholerae O-Group 1, non-O-Group 1 V. cholerae (non-epidemic strains), V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and ”Group F vibrios”. This article reviews the important new information, and identifies gaps in our knowledge, on aspects such as the epidemiology and bacteriology of vibrios, environmental surveillance for V. cholerae O-Group 1, phage and vibriocin typing of V. cholerae, and cholera enterotoxin, and its relevance to pathogenesis, immunity, and vaccine development. In each of these areas priorities for further research are recommended.

1980-01-01

280

Identification of Vibrio cholerae by enzyme electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Zymovar analysis of 260 strains of Vibrio cholerae plus 3 reference strains of V. mimicus, using 13 structural loci, led to the grouping of strains in 73 zymovars (strain or group of strains sharing the same alleles). Effective separation of strains, distinction of V. cholerae strains from closely related V. mimicus and the detection of 2 vibrio strains, including one with two O1 serovars, in supposedly pure collection cultures, illustrate the potential of zymovar analysis in the identification of V. cholerae isolates. Two El Tor strains from USA, one CT+ and the other CT-, shared the same zymovar 71, while 127 typical El Tor strains belonged to zymovar 14. PMID:1755069

Salles, C A; Momen, H

1991-01-01

281

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

This review highlighted the following: (i) pathogenic mechanism of the thermostable direct hemolysin produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, especially on its cardiotoxicity, (ii) heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, especially structure–activity relationship of heat-stable enterotoxin, (iii) RNA N-glycosidase activity of Vero toxins (VT1 and VT2) produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, (iv) discovery of Vibrio cholerae O139, (v) isolation of new variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor that carries classical ctxB, and production of high concentration of cholera toxin by these strains, and (vi) conversion of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae to culturable state by co-culture with eukaryotic cells.

TAKEDA, Yoshifumi

2011-01-01

282

Antibiofilm Activity of an Exopolysaccharide from Marine Bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial exopolysaccharides have always been suggested to play crucial roles in the bacterial initial adhesion and the development of complex architecture in the later stages of bacterial biofilm formation. However, Escherichia coli group II capsular polysaccharide was characterized to exert broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition activity. In this study, we firstly reported that a bacterial exopolysaccharide (A101) not only inhibits biofilm formation

Peng Jiang; Jingbao Li; Feng Han; Gaofei Duan; Xinzhi Lu; Yuchao Gu; Wengong Yu; Michael Hensel

2011-01-01

283

Stability and reachability analysis of a hybrid model of luminescence in the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the mathematical modeling and analysis of the quorum sensing system found in unicellular bacteria that exhibit bioluminescence. The luminescence is governed by the expression of genes in the cell, which in turn is controlled by the density of cells in a population. The paper illustrates the application of standard tools in control theory and some tools in hybrid systems

Calin Belta; Jonathan Schug; Thao Dang; Vijay Kumar; George J. Pappas; Harvey Rubin; Paul Dunlap

2001-01-01

284

Antibacterial activity of the lipopetides produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens M1 against multidrug-resistant Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased marine animals.  

PubMed

In this work, the antibacterial activity of the lipopeptides produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens M1 was examined against multidrug-resistant Vibrio spp. and Shewanella aquimarina isolated from diseased marine animals. A new and cheap medium which contained 1.0 % soybean powder, 1.5 % wheat flour, pH 7.0 was developed. A crude surfactant concentration of 0.28 mg/ml was obtained after 18 h of 10-l fermentation and diameter of the clear zone on the plate seeded with Vibrio anguillarum was 34 mm. A preliminary characterization suggested that the lipopeptide N3 produced by B. amyloliquefaciens M1 was the main product and contained the surfactin isoforms with amino acids (GLLVDLL) and hydroxy fatty acids (of 12-15 carbons in length). The evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the lipopeptide N3 was carried out against S. aquimarina and nine species of Vibrio spp.. It was found that all the Vibrio spp. and S. aquimarina showed resistance to several different antibiotics, suggesting that they were the multidrug resistance. It was also indicated that all the Vibrio spp. strains and S. aquimarina were sensitive to the surfactin N3, in particular V. anguillarum. The results demonstrated that the lipopeptides produced by B. amyloliquefaciens M1 had a broad spectrum of action, including antibacterial activity against the pathogenic Vibrio spp. with multidrug-resistant profiles. After the treatment with the lipopeptide N3, the cell membrane of V. anguillarum was damaged, and the whole cells of the bacterium were disrupted. PMID:24132666

Xu, Hong-Mei; Rong, Yan-Jun; Zhao, Ming-Xin; Song, Bo; Chi, Zhen-Ming

2014-01-01

285

Vibrio mimicus diarrhea following ingestion of raw turtle eggs.  

PubMed

Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of diarrhea associated with Vibrio mimicus were identified in 33 hospitalized patients referred to the Costa Rican National Diagnostic Laboratory Network between 1991 and 1994. The relevant symptoms presented by patients included abundant watery diarrhea, vomiting, and severe dehydration that required intravenous Dhaka solution in 83% of patients but not fever. Seroconversion against V. mimicus was demonstrated in four patients, from whom acute- and convalescent-phase sera were obtained. Those sera did not show cross-reaction when tested against Vibrio cholerae O1 strain VC-12. All the V. mimicus isolates from these cases produced cholera toxin (CT) and were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics. Attempts to isolate this bacterium from stool samples of 127 healthy persons were not successful. Consumption of raw turtle eggs was recalled by 11 of the 19 (58%) individuals interviewed. All but two V. mimicus diarrheal cases were sporadic. These two had a history of a common source of turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) eggs for consumption, and V. mimicus was isolated from eggs from the same source (a local market). Among the strains, variations in the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were observed. None of the strains recovered from market turtle eggs nor the four isolates from river water showed CT production. Further efforts to demonstrate the presence of CT-producing V. mimicus strains in turtle eggs were made. Successful results were obtained when nest eggs were tested. In this case, it was possible to isolate CT- and non-CT-producing strains, even from the same egg. For CT detection we used PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Y-1 cell assay, obtaining a 100% correlation between ELISA and PCR results. Primers Col-1 and Col-2, originally described as specific for the V. cholerae O1 ctxA gene, also amplified a 302-bp segment with an identical restriction map from V. mimicus. These results have important implications for epidemiological surveillance in tropical countries where turtle eggs are used for human consumption, serving as potential sources of cholera-like diarrhea. PMID:8919774

Campos, E; Bolaños, H; Acuña, M T; Díaz, G; Matamoros, M C; Raventós, H; Sánchez, L M; Sánchez, O; Barquero, C

1996-04-01

286

Predicting the Distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Chesapeake Bay: A Vibrio cholerae Case Study  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a naturally occurring inhabitant of the Chesapeake Bay and serves as a predictor for other clinically important vibrios, including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. A system was constructed to predict the likelihood of the presence of V. cholerae in surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay, with the goal to provide forecasts of the occurrence of this and related pathogenic Vibrio spp. Prediction was achieved by driving an available multivariate empirical habitat model estimating the probability of V. cholerae within a range of temperatures and salinities in the Bay, with hydrodynamically generated predictions of ambient temperature and salinity. The experimental predictions provided both an improved understanding of the in situ variability of V. cholerae, including identification of potential hotspots of occurrence, and usefulness as an early warning system. With further development of the system, prediction of the probability of the occurrence of related pathogenic vibrios in the Chesapeake Bay, notably V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, will be possible, as well as its transport to any geographical location where sufficient relevant data are available.

Magny, Guillaume Constantin de; Long, Wen; Brown, Christopher W.; Hood, Raleigh R.; Huq, Anwar; Murtugudde, Raghu; Colwell, Rita R.

2010-01-01

287

Benthic ecology of Vibrio spp. and pathogenic Vibrio species in a coastal Mediterranean environment (La Spezia Gulf, Italy).  

PubMed

We carried out a 16-month in situ study to investigate the ecology of Vibrio spp. and pathogenic Vibrio species in coastal sediments of the Mediterranean Sea, employing multiple-regression analysis to reveal the major environmental factors controlling their occurrence in the benthic environment. In addition, association between vibrios and sediment-inhabiting meiofauna, which is a major component of benthic ecosystems, was investigated. Culturable and total Vibrio spp. estimates by most-probable-number technique coupled with standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods, respectively, were at least one order of magnitude higher in sediment than in seawater. In addition, potential human pathogenic species Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in the sediment with V. parahaemolyticus being the most frequently found. In the pelagic environment, 60% of total variance in culturable Vibrio data was explained by sea surface temperature (40%), salinity (13%) and organic matter concentration (7%). In the benthic environment, sea surface temperature was the only factor that significantly affected culturable Vibrio occurrence although it explained only 25% of total variance, suggesting that additional unexplored factors may play a role as well. No correlation was found between culturable Vibrio spp. concentrations and the abundance of harpacticoid copepods in the sediment whilst a negative correlation was found between Vibrio spp. and nematode abundance which accounted for almost 90% of the total meiofaunal density. Taxonomic analysis revealed that selective bacterial feeders accounted for nearly 50% of the total nematode community and included genera such as Terschellingia, Molgolaimus and Halalaimus, suggesting that top-down control by nematode grazing may be an important factor affecting Vibrio occurrence in these sediments. It is concluded that the benthic marine environment may function as a reservoir of Vibrio spp. and potential pathogenic vibrios whose ecological features appeared substantially different from the ones recognised in the pelagic environment. PMID:19543938

Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Moreno, Mariapaola; Fabiano, Mauro; Pane, Luigi; Pruzzo, Carla

2009-11-01

288

A chitin-binding domain in a marine bacterial chitinase and other microbial chitinases: implications for the ecology and evolution of 1,4- -glycanases  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the ecology and evolution of microbial chitinases, especially the chitin-binding domain, one of the chitinase genes (&A) from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi was analysed. The deduced amino acid sequence of ChiA is not very similar overall to other proteins, except for two regions, the putative catalytic and chitin-binding domains. Among all bacterial chitinases sequenced to date, there

A. L. Svitil; David L. Kirchman

1998-01-01

289

A novel dnaJ family gene, sflA, encodes an inhibitor of flagellation in marine Vibrio species.  

PubMed

The marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus has a single polar flagellum. Formation of that flagellum is regulated positively and negatively by FlhF and by FlhG, respectively. The ?flhF mutant makes no flagellum, whereas the ?flhFG double-deletion mutant usually lacks a flagellum. However, the ?flhFG mutant occasionally reverts to become motile by forming peritrichous flagella. We have isolated a suppressor pseudorevertant from the ?flhFG strain (?flhFG-sup). The suppressor strain forms peritrichous flagella in the majority of cells. We identified candidate suppressor mutations by comparing the genome sequence of the parental strain, VIO5, with the genome sequences of the suppressor strains. Two mutations were mapped to a gene, named sflA (suppressor of ?flhFG), at the VEA003730 locus of the Vibrio sp. strain EX25 genome. This gene is specific for Vibrio species and is predicted to encode a transmembrane protein with a DnaJ domain. When the wild-type gene was introduced into the suppressor strain, motility was impaired. Introducing a mutant version of the sflA gene into the ?flhFG strain conferred the suppressor phenotype. Thus, we conclude that loss of the sflA gene is responsible for the suppressor phenotype and that the wild-type SflA protein plays a role in preventing polar-type flagella from forming on the lateral cell wall. PMID:23222726

Kitaoka, Maya; Nishigaki, Takehiko; Ihara, Kunio; Nishioka, Noriko; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio

2013-02-01

290

EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERAE INACTIVATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association, or modification of antecedent growth conditions. During the course of investigating a major water-borne Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA inv...

291

Vibrio parahaemolyticus Diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004  

PubMed Central

Analysis of clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from outbreaks in Chile in the cities of Puerto Montt in 2004 and in Antofagasta in 1998 indicated that 23 of 24 isolates from Puerto Montt and 19 of 20 from Antofagasta belonged to the pandemic clonal complex that emerged in Southeast Asia in 1996.

Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Cachicas, Viviana; Acevedo, Claudia; Rioseco, Maria L.; Vergara, Juan A.; Cabello, Felipe; Romero, Jaime

2005-01-01

292

Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In

Nikolai P. Konnov; Vil B. Baibyrin; Svetlana P. Zadnova; Uryi P. Volkov

1999-01-01

293

Effect of Korean Seasonings on Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Korean peoples have a custom of eating raw fish, and food poisoning due to Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a common enteropathogenic contaminant of sea fish, is frequently encountered in warm seasons among peoples eating raw fish. Raw sea fish and shell fish are...

B. Kim D. Chun J. K. Chung

1973-01-01

294

Evidence that water transmits Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 infections to eels.  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is classically considered an obligate eel pathogen. However, it has recently been associated with one human septicemic case. In this paper, the opportunistic behavior of this pathogen is discussed. The bacterium can survive alone in brackish water or attached to eel surfaces for at least 14 days. It is able to spread through water and infect healthy eels by using skin as a portal of entry. These results suggest that water and infected eels may act as reservoirs of infection. A capsule seems to be essential for waterborne infectivity, which would explain why cells recovered from naturally diseased eels give rise to pure cultures of opaque colonies. The spread of the disease is dependent on temperature and water salinity, thus suggesting a method to reduce the risk of epizootics and that of infection for humans.

Amaro, C; Biosca, E G; Fouz, B; Alcaide, E; Esteve, C

1995-01-01

295

Attachment of Vibrio alginolyticus to glass surfaces is dependent on swimming speed.  

PubMed

The attachment of Vibrio alginolyticus to glass surfaces was investigated with special reference to the swimming speed due to the polar flagellum. This bacterium has two types of flagella, i.e., one polar flagellum and numerous lateral flagella. The mutant YM4, which possesses only the polar flagellum, showed much faster attachment than the mutant YM18, which does not possess flagella, indicating that the polar flagellum plays an important role. The attachment of YM4 was dependent on Na+ concentration and was specifically inhibited by amiloride, an inhibitor of polar flagellum rotation. These results are quite similar to those for swimming speed obtained under the same conditions. Observations with other mutants showed that chemotaxis is not critical and that the flagellum does not act as an appendage for attachment. From these results, it is concluded that the attachment of V. alginolyticus to glass surfaces is dependent on swimming speed. PMID:9473049

Kogure, K; Ikemoto, E; Morisaki, H

1998-02-01

296

Attachment of Vibrio alginolyticus to Glass Surfaces Is Dependent on Swimming Speed  

PubMed Central

The attachment of Vibrio alginolyticus to glass surfaces was investigated with special reference to the swimming speed due to the polar flagellum. This bacterium has two types of flagella, i.e., one polar flagellum and numerous lateral flagella. The mutant YM4, which possesses only the polar flagellum, showed much faster attachment than the mutant YM18, which does not possess flagella, indicating that the polar flagellum plays an important role. The attachment of YM4 was dependent on Na+ concentration and was specifically inhibited by amiloride, an inhibitor of polar flagellum rotation. These results are quite similar to those for swimming speed obtained under the same conditions. Observations with other mutants showed that chemotaxis is not critical and that the flagellum does not act as an appendage for attachment. From these results, it is concluded that the attachment of V. alginolyticus to glass surfaces is dependent on swimming speed.

Kogure, Kazuhiro; Ikemoto, Eiko; Morisaki, Hisao

1998-01-01

297

Characterization of Vibrio tapetis strains isolated from diseased cultured Wedge sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata Moreau).  

PubMed

The first isolation of Vibrio tapetis from Wedge sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata) is reported. The bacterium was recovered from ulcers of ailing cultured fish, from two different outbreaks occurred in spring 2005. The four isolates found (a200, a201, a204 and a255) were biochemically, genetically and serologically characterized and diagnosis was confirmed by PCR V. tapetis specific primers and multilocus sequencing analysis (MLSA). The isolates constituted a homogeneous phenotypic and genotypic group, being distinct to the already serological and genetic groups defined within the species. A virulence evaluation of the isolate a255 was also carried out; however this strain was unable to induce disease in fry and juvenile Wedge sole. PMID:20557916

López, J R; Balboa, S; Núñez, S; de la Roca, E; de la Herran, R; Navas, J I; Toranzo, A E; Romalde, J L

2011-04-01

298

Evidence for the role of horizontal transfer in generating pVT1, a large mosaic conjugative plasmid from the clam pathogen, Vibrio tapetis.  

PubMed

The marine bacterium Vibrio tapetis is the causative agent of the brown ring disease, which affects the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and causes heavy economic losses in North of Europe and in Eastern Asia. Further characterization of V. tapetis isolates showed that all the investigated strains harbored at least one large plasmid. We determined the sequence of the 82,266 bp plasmid pVT1 from the CECT4600(T) reference strain and analyzed its genetic content. pVT1 is a mosaic plasmid closely related to several conjugative plasmids isolated from Vibrio vulnificus strains and was shown to be itself conjugative in Vibrios. In addition, it contains DNA regions that have similarity with several other plasmids from marine bacteria (Vibrio sp., Shewanella sp., Listonella anguillarum and Photobacterium profundum). pVT1 contains a number of mobile elements, including twelve Insertion Sequences or inactivated IS genes and an RS1 phage element related to the CTXphi phage of V. cholerae. The genetic organization of pVT1 underscores an important role of horizontal gene transfer through conjugative plasmid shuffling and transposition events in the acquisition of new genetic resources and in generating the pVT1 modular organization. In addition, pVT1 presents a copy number of 9, relatively high for a conjugative plasmid, and appears to belong to a new type of replicon, which may be specific to Vibrionaceae and Shewanelleacae. PMID:21326607

Erauso, Gaël; Lakhal, Fatma; Bidault-Toffin, Adeline; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Bouloc, Philippe; Paillard, Christine; Jacq, Annick

2011-01-01

299

The evaluation of four recent culture-based methods for the isolation and enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus bacteria from oyster meat.  

PubMed

The most common cause of seafood-borne death in the United States is the bacterium Vibrio vulnificus which can be concentrated into high numbers in the tissues of oysters or other shellfish. The ability to quickly, accurately, and inexpensively isolate living strains of this organism from oyster tissues is crucial for effective research on this pathogen. In this report, we evaluate four methods for isolating and quantifying V. vulnificus from oyster tissues, the solid media CPC+ (a refined version of cellobiose-polymyxin B-colistin medium), CHROMagar Vibrio, VVX (Vibrio vulnificus X-gal), and a method termed "Triple plating". Up to 1225 presumptive isolates were detected by each method, and 335 were subjected to molecular typing. The selectivity and sensitivity of each method was examined and VVX was found to be the most accurate method, with each of the other methods being recommended for task-specific uses. CHROMagar Vibrio is recommended for ease of use and relative accuracy, CPC+ is best used to differentiate between clinically associated and environmental strains. PMID:24355773

Froelich, Brett A; Weiss, Mary Jo; Noble, Rachel T

2014-02-01

300

Evidence for the Role of Horizontal Transfer in Generating pVT1, a Large Mosaic Conjugative Plasmid from the Clam Pathogen, Vibrio tapetis  

PubMed Central

The marine bacterium Vibrio tapetis is the causative agent of the brown ring disease, which affects the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and causes heavy economic losses in North of Europe and in Eastern Asia. Further characterization of V. tapetis isolates showed that all the investigated strains harbored at least one large plasmid. We determined the sequence of the 82,266 bp plasmid pVT1 from the CECT4600T reference strain and analyzed its genetic content. pVT1 is a mosaic plasmid closely related to several conjugative plasmids isolated from Vibrio vulnificus strains and was shown to be itself conjugative in Vibrios. In addition, it contains DNA regions that have similarity with several other plasmids from marine bacteria (Vibrio sp., Shewanella sp., Listonella anguillarum and Photobacterium profundum). pVT1 contains a number of mobile elements, including twelve Insertion Sequences or inactivated IS genes and an RS1 phage element related to the CTXphi phage of V. cholerae. The genetic organization of pVT1 underscores an important role of horizontal gene transfer through conjugative plasmid shuffling and transposition events in the acquisition of new genetic resources and in generating the pVT1 modular organization. In addition, pVT1 presents a copy number of 9, relatively high for a conjugative plasmid, and appears to belong to a new type of replicon, which may be specific to Vibrionaceae and Shewanelleacae.

Bidault-Toffin, Adeline; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Bouloc, Philippe; Paillard, Christine; Jacq, Annick

2011-01-01

301

Broad Spectrum Pro-Quorum-Sensing Molecules as Inhibitors of Virulence in Vibrios  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-cell communication process that relies on the production and detection of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. QS allows bacteria to perform collective activities. Vibrio cholerae, a pathogen that causes an acute disease, uses QS to repress virulence factor production and biofilm formation. Thus, molecules that activate QS in V. cholerae have the potential to control pathogenicity in this globally important bacterium. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen, we identified eleven molecules that activate V. cholerae QS: eight molecules are receptor agonists and three molecules are antagonists of LuxO, the central NtrC-type response regulator that controls the global V. cholerae QS cascade. The LuxO inhibitors act by an uncompetitive mechanism by binding to the pre-formed LuxO-ATP complex to inhibit ATP hydrolysis. Genetic analyses suggest that the inhibitors bind in close proximity to the Walker B motif. The inhibitors display broad-spectrum capability in activation of QS in Vibrio species that employ LuxO. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first molecules identified that inhibit the ATPase activity of a NtrC-type response regulator. Our discovery supports the idea that exploiting pro-QS molecules is a promising strategy for the development of novel anti-infectives.

Ng, Wai-Leung; Perez, Lark; Cong, Jianping; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2012-01-01

302

Computational study of the Na+/H + antiporter from Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

Sodium proton antiporters are ubiquitous membrane proteins that catalyze the exchange of Na(+) for protons throughout the biological world. The Escherichia coli NhaA is the archetypal Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and is absolutely essential for survival in high salt concentrations under alkaline conditions. Its crystal structure, accompanied by extensive molecular dynamics simulations, have provided an atomically detailed model of its mechanism. In this study, we utilized a combination of computational methodologies in order to construct a structural model for the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter from the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus. We explored its overall architecture by computational means and validated its stability and robustness. This protein belongs to a novel group of NhaA proteins that transports not only Na(+) and Li(+) as substrate ions, but K(+) as well, and was also found to miss a ?-hairpin segment prevalent in other homologs of the Bacteria domain. We propose, for the first time, a structure of a prototype model of a ?-hairpin-less NhaA that is selective to K(+). Better understanding of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus NhaA structure-function may assist in studies on ion transport, pH regulation and designing selective blockers. PMID:21107625

Ganoth, Assaf; Alhadeff, Raphael; Arkin, Isaiah T

2011-08-01

303

Genomic and proteomic analyses of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus reveal a diverse virulence repertoire  

PubMed Central

Vibrio coralliilyticus has been implicated as an important pathogen of coral species worldwide. In this study, the nearly complete genome of Vibrio coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696) was sequenced and proteases implicated in virulence of the strain were specifically investigated. The genome sequence of P1 (5?513?256?bp in size) consisted of 5222 coding sequences and 58 RNA genes (53 tRNAs and at least 5 rRNAs). Seventeen metalloprotease and effector (vgrG, hlyA and hcp) genes were identified in the genome and expressed proteases were also detected in the secretome of P1. As the VcpA zinc-metalloprotease has been considered an important virulence factor of V. coralliilyticus, a vcpA deletion mutant was constructed to evaluate the effect of this gene in animal pathogenesis. Both wild-type and mutant (?vcpA) strains exhibited similar virulence characteristics that resulted in high mortality in Artemia and Drosophila pathogenicity bioassays and strong photosystem II inactivation of the coral dinoflagellate endosymbiont (Symbiodinium). In contrast, the ?vcpA mutant demonstrated higher hemolytic activity and secreted 18 proteins not secreted by the wild type. These proteins included four types of metalloproteases, a chitinase, a hemolysin-related protein RbmC, the Hcp protein and 12 hypothetical proteins. Overall, the results of this study indicate that V. coralliilyticus strain P1 has a diverse virulence repertoire that possibly enables this bacterium to be an efficient animal pathogen.

de O Santos, Eidy; Alves, Nelson; Dias, Graciela M; Mazotto, Ana Maria; Vermelho, Alane; Vora, Gary J; Wilson, Bryan; Beltran, Victor H; Bourne, David G; Le Roux, Frederique; Thompson, Fabiano L

2011-01-01

304

Polar targeting of Shigella virulence factor IcsA in Enterobacteriacae and Vibrio.  

PubMed

Asymmetric localization is key to the proper function of certain prokaryotic proteins important to virulence, chemotaxis, cell division, development, motility, and adhesion. Shigella IcsA is localized to the old pole of the bacterium, where it mediates assembly of an actin tail inside infected mammalian cells. IcsA (VirG) is essential to Shigella intracellular motility and virulence. We used translational fusions between portions of IcsA and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to determine the regions of IcsA that are necessary and sufficient for its targeting to the bacterial old pole. An IcsA-GFP fusion that lacks a signal peptide localized to the old pole, indicating that signal peptide-mediated secretion is not required for polar localization. Two regions within IcsA were required for localization of an IcsA-GFP fusion to the old pole. Further characterization of these regions indicated that amino acids 1-104 and 507-620 were each independently sufficient for polar localization. Finally, when expressed in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Vibrio cholerae, each of the two targeting regions localized to the pole, indicating that the mechanism of polar targeting used by IcsA is present generally among Enterobacteriacae and Vibrio. PMID:11481451

Charles, M; Pérez, M; Kobil, J H; Goldberg, M B

2001-08-14

305

Response of Vibrio parahaemolyticus 03:K6 to a hot water/cold shock pasteurization process.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are natural inhabitants of estuarine environments world wide. Pathogenic strains of these bacteria are often transmitted to humans through consumption of raw oysters, which flourish in the same estuaries. Previous studies reported the effective use of hot water pasteurization followed by cold shock to eliminate from raw oysters naturally and artificially incurred environmental strains of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus common to the Gulf of Mexico. The present study focused on the use of the same pasteurization method to reduce a highly process resistant Vibrio strain, V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 to non-detectable levels. Oysters were artificially contaminated with 10(4) and 10(6) V. parahaemolyticus 03:K6 cfu g(-1) oyster meat. Contaminated oysters were pasteurized between 50 and 52 degrees C for up to 22 min. Samples of processed oysters were enumerated for V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 at 2-min intervals beginning after the 'come-up time' to achieve an oyster internal temperature of at least 50 degrees C. The D value (D(52)deg C) was 1.3-1.6 min. V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 proved more process resistant than non-pathogenic environmental strains found in Gulf of Mexico waters. A total processing time of at least 22 min at 52 degrees C was recommended to reduce this bacterium to non-detectable levels (< 3 g(-1) oyster meat). PMID:12775474

Andrews, L S; DeBlanc, S; Veal, C D; Park, D L

2003-04-01

306

The dual nature of haemocyanin in the establishment and persistence of the squid-vibrio symbiosis.  

PubMed

We identified and sequenced from the squid Euprymna scolopes two isoforms of haemocyanin that share the common structural/physiological characteristics of haemocyanin from a closely related cephalopod, Sepia officinalis, including a pronounced Bohr effect. We examined the potential roles for haemocyanin in the animal's symbiosis with the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Our data demonstrate that, as in other cephalopods, the haemocyanin is primarily synthesized in the gills. It transits through the general circulation into other tissues and is exported into crypt spaces that support the bacterial partner, which requires oxygen for its bioluminescence. We showed that the gradient of pH between the circulating haemolymph and the matrix of the crypt spaces in adult squid favours offloading of oxygen from the haemocyanin to the symbionts. Haemocyanin is also localized to the apical surfaces and associated mucus of a juvenile-specific epithelium on which the symbionts gather, and where their specificity is determined during the recruitment into the association. The haemocyanin has an antimicrobial activity, which may be involved in this enrichment of V. fischeri during symbiont initiation. Taken together, these data provide evidence that the haemocyanin plays a role in shaping two stages of the squid-vibrio partnership. PMID:24807261

Kremer, Natacha; Schwartzman, Julia; Augustin, René; Zhou, Lawrence; Ruby, Edward G; Hourdez, Stéphane; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

2014-06-22

307

Toxicity of individual naphthenic acids to Vibrio fischeri.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have suggested that the toxicity of organic compounds containing at least one carboxylic acid group and broadly classified as "naphthenic acids", is of environmental concern. For example, the acute toxicity of the more than 1 billion m(3) of oil sands process-affected water and the hormonal activity of some offshore produced waters has been attributed to the acids. However, experimental evidence for the toxicity of the individual acids causing these effects has not been very forthcoming. Instead, most data have been gathered from assays of incompletely characterized extracts of the water, which may contain other toxic constituents. An alternative approach is to assay the individual identified toxicants. Since numerous petroleum-derived naphthenic acids and some in oil sands process water, have recently been identified, we were able to measure the toxicity of some individual acids to the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri. Thirty-five pure individual acids were either synthesized or purchased for this purpose. We also used the US EPA ECOSAR computer model to predict the toxicity of each acid to the water flea, Daphnia magna. Both are well-accepted toxicological screening end points. The results show how toxic some of the naphthenic acids really are (e.g., V. fischeri Effective Concentrations for 50% response (EC(50)) 0.004 to 0.7 mM) and reveal the influence of hydrophobicity and aqueous solubility on the toxicities. Comparison with measured toxicities of other known, but more minor, constituents of oil sands process water, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylphenols, helps place these toxicities into a wider context. Given the reported toxicological effects of naphthenic acids to other organisms (e.g., fish, plants), the toxicities of the acids to further end points should now be determined. PMID:21942822

Jones, David; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Rowland, Steven J

2011-11-15

308

DNA-uptake machinery of naturally competent Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

Natural competence for transformation is a mode of horizontal gene transfer that is commonly used by bacteria to take up DNA from their environment. As part of this developmental program, so-called competence genes, which encode the components of a DNA-uptake machinery, are expressed. Several models have been proposed for the DNA-uptake complexes of competent bacteria, and most include a type IV (pseudo)pilus as a core component. However, cell-biology–based approaches to visualizing competence proteins have so far been restricted to Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we report the visualization of a competence-induced pilus in the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We show that piliated cells mostly contain a single pilus that is not biased toward a polar localization and that this pilus colocalizes with the outer membrane secretin PilQ. PilQ, on the other hand, forms several foci around the cell and occasionally colocalizes with the dynamic cytoplasmic-traffic ATPase PilB, which is required for pilus extension. We also determined the minimum competence regulon of V. cholerae, which includes at least 19 genes. Bacteria with mutations in those genes were characterized with respect to the presence of surface-exposed pili, DNA uptake, and natural transformability. Based on these phenotypes, we propose that DNA uptake in naturally competent V. cholerae cells occurs in at least two steps: a pilus-dependent translocation of the incoming DNA across the outer membrane and a pilus-independent shuttling of the DNA through the periplasm and into the cytoplasm.

Seitz, Patrick; Blokesch, Melanie

2013-01-01

309

Transformation Experiment Using Bioluminescence Genes of "Vibrio fischeri."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bioluminescence transformation experiments show students the excitement and power of recombinant DNA technology. This laboratory experiment utilizes two plasmids of "Vibrio fischeri" in a transformation experiment. (LZ)

Slock, James

1995-01-01

310

Vibrio fluvialis: an emerging human pathogen  

PubMed Central

Vibrio fluvialis is a pathogen commonly found in coastal environs. Considering recent increase in numbers of diarrheal outbreaks and sporadic extraintestinal cases, V. fluvialis has been considered as an emerging pathogen. Though this pathogen can be easily isolated by existing culture methods, its identification is still a challenging problem due to close phenotypic resemblance either with Vibrio cholerae or Aeromonas spp. However, using molecular tools, it is easy to identify V. fluvialis from clinical and different environmental samples. Many putative virulence factors have been reported, but its mechanisms of pathogenesis and survival fitness in the environment are yet to be explored. This chapter covers some of the major discoveries that have been made to understand the importance of V. fluvialis.

Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Shinoda, Sumio

2014-01-01

311

Extended serotyping scheme for Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-seven new O serogroups have been added to the existing serotyping scheme ofVibrio cholerae to extend the scheme from O84 to O140. Prominent new additions were serogroups O139 and O140. The reference strain of O139 was isolated from a patient from an epidemic of cholera-like diarrhea in Madras, Southern India. Serogroup O140 was assigned to a group ofV. cholerae strains

Toshio Shimada; Eiji Arakawa; Kenichiro Itoh; Tadayuki Okitsu; Akiyoshi Matsushima; Yoshio Asai; Shiro Yamai; Tamotsu Nakazato; G. Balakrish Nair; M. John Albert; Yoshifumi Takeda

1994-01-01

312

Molecular Epidemiology of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae of the O1 or O139 serogroups, the causative agents of cholera, undergo frequent genetic changes leading to the origination of diverse clones, which can\\u000a be differentiated using defined genetic markers. Developments in DNA analysis techniques have introduced several new typing\\u000a methods that have enabled to study the epidemiology of V. cholerae on a larger global perspective. Molecular

Shah M. Faruque; G. Balakrish Nair; Yoshifumi Takeda

313

Small Molecule Signaling Systems in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of Asiatic cholera, still remains a major public health problem in most of the developing countries.\\u000a Despite tremendous effort given in developing immunotherapeutics, availability of the whole genome sequence, and transcriptional\\u000a profiling data, still a safe, effective, and long-lasting cholera vaccine is not available. One probable reason could be that\\u000a our knowledge about stress adaptive

Rupak K. Bhadra; Sangita Shah; Bhabatosh Das

314

Quorum Regulation of Luminescence in Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luminescence in Vibrio fischeri is controlled by a population density-responsive regulatory mechanism called quorum sensing. Elements of the mechanism include: LuxI, an acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) synthase that directs synthesis of the diffusible signal molecule, 3-oxo-hexanoyl-HSL (V. fischeri auto- inducer-1, VAI-1); LuxR, a transcriptional activator protein necessary for response to VAI-1; GroEL, which is necessary for production of active LuxR; and

Paul V. Dunlap

2000-01-01

315

Nontoxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Causing Acute Gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

We investigated the virulence properties of four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains causing acute gastroenteritis following consumption of indigenous mussels in Italy. The isolated strains were cytotoxic and adhesive but, surprisingly, lacked tdh, trh, and type three secretion system 2 (T3SS2) genes. We emphasize that nontoxigenic V. parahaemolyticus can induce acute gastroenteritis, highlighting the need for more investigation of the pathogenicity of this microorganism.

Leoni, Francesca; Serra, Roberto; Serracca, Laura; Decastelli, Lucia; Rocchegiani, Elena; Masini, Laura; Canonico, Cristina; Talevi, Giulia; Carraturo, Antonio

2012-01-01

316

Heterogeneous Response to a Quorum-Sensing Signal in the Luminescence of Individual Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri regulates its bioluminescence through a quorum sensing mechanism: the bacterium releases diffusible small molecules (autoinducers) that accumulate in the environment as the population density increases. This accumulation of autoinducer (AI) eventually activates transcriptional regulators for bioluminescence as well as host colonization behaviors. Although V.fischeri quorum sensing has been extensively characterized in bulk populations, far less is known about how it performs at the level of the individual cell, where biochemical noise is likely to limit the precision of luminescence regulation. We have measured the time-dependence and AI-dependence of light production by individual V.fischeri cells that are immobilized in a perfusion chamber and supplied with a defined concentration of exogenous AI. We use low-light level microscopy to record and quantify the photon emission from the cells over periods of several hours as they respond to the introduction of AI. We observe an extremely heterogeneous response to the AI signal. Individual cells differ widely in the onset time for their luminescence and in their resulting brightness, even in the presence of high AI concentrations that saturate the light output from a bulk population. The observed heterogeneity shows that although a given concentration of quorum signal may determine the average light output from a population of cells, it provides far weaker control over the luminescence output of each individual cell.

Perez, Pablo Delfino; Hagen, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

317

Differentiation of environmental and clinical isolates of Vibrio mimicus from Vibrio cholerae by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrated that analyzed strains of Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio cholerae could be separated in two groups by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) data from 14 loci. We also showed that the combination of four enzymatic loci enables us to differentiate these two species. Our results showed that the ribosomal intergenic spacer regions PCR-mediated identification system failed, in some cases, to differentiate between V. mimicus and V. cholerae. On the other hand, MEE proved to be a powerful molecular tool for the discrimination of these two species even when atypical strains were analyzed. PMID:11319123

Vieira, V V; Teixeira, L F; Vicente, A C; Momen, H; Salles, C A

2001-05-01

318

Differentiation of Environmental and Clinical Isolates of Vibrio mimicus from Vibrio cholerae by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

In this study, we demonstrated that analyzed strains of Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio cholerae could be separated in two groups by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) data from 14 loci. We also showed that the combination of four enzymatic loci enables us to differentiate these two species. Our results showed that the ribosomal intergenic spacer regions PCR-mediated identification system failed, in some cases, to differentiate between V. mimicus and V. cholerae. On the other hand, MEE proved to be a powerful molecular tool for the discrimination of these two species even when atypical strains were analyzed.

Vieira, Veronica V.; Teixeira, Luiz Fernando M.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Momen, Hooman; Salles, Carlos Andre

2001-01-01

319

LuxR- and Acyl-Homoserine-Lactone-Controlled Non-lux Genes Define a Quorum-Sensing Regulon in Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The luminescence (lux) operon (luxICDABEG) of the symbiotic bacterium Vibrio fischeri is regulated by the transcriptional activator LuxR and two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) autoinducers (the luxI-dependent 3-oxo-hexanoyl-HSL (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and the ainS-dependent octanoyl-HSL (C8-HSL)) in a population den- sity-responsive manner called quorum sensing. To identify quorum-sensing-regulated (QSR) proteins different from those encoded by lux genes, we examined the protein patterns of

SEAN M. CALLAHAN; PAUL V. DUNLAP

2000-01-01

320

Vibrio fluvialis in Patients with Diarrhea, Kolkata, India  

PubMed Central

We identified 131 strains of Vibrio fluvialis among 400 nonagglutinating Vibrio spp. isolated from patients with diarrhea in Kolkata, India. For 43 patients, V. fluvialis was the sole pathogen identified. Most strains harbored genes encoding hemolysin and metalloprotease; this finding may contribute to understanding of the pathogenicity of V. fluvialis.

Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Dutta, Devarati; Guin, Sucharita; Dutta, Sanjucta; Ghosh, Santanu; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Asakura, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Shinji; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Arakawa, Eiji; Watanabe, Haruo; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Bhattacharya, Mihir K.; Rajendran, K.; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish

2012-01-01

321

Cultivation of Vibrio Abortus Agent on Endo Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Endo medium with added 10% inactivated serum or defibrinated blood of large cattle or sheep is suitable for cultivation and isolation of pure cultures of the causitive agent of vibrio abortive. Strains of vibrio fetus, isolated from large cattle and sheep...

T. A. Mamedov

1969-01-01

322

Mar Piccolo of Taranto: Vibrio biodiversity in ecotoxicology approach.  

PubMed

Microorganisms play an indispensable role in the ecological functioning of marine environment. Some species are sensitive while others are insensitive for a specific pollutant. The aim of this work is a preliminary study of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of cultivable vibrios in sediments and water samples characterized by different toxicity levels. For 1 year, in three suitably selected sampling stations of Mar Piccolo in Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy), we have evaluated the toxicity level by Microtox® system, vibrios, total, and fecal coliform densities. The results of the Microtox® tests showed sediments characterized by an elevated level of toxicity, while the interstitial water of the same sites always showed biostimulatory phenomenon. The quantitative results show that vibrios and coliforms are more abundant in water than in sediment samples. The most often isolated strains were: Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio mediterranei, Vibrio metschinkovii, and Vibrio splendidus II. This work is the first example of study on the distribution of Vibrio species related to toxicity evaluation conducted by the Microtox® bioassay. The results show the different distribution of Vibrionaceae in two environmental matrices analyzed and characterized by different levels of toxicity. PMID:24072640

Narracci, M; Acquaviva, M I; Cavallo, R A

2014-02-01

323

Climate and infectious disease: Use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement  

PubMed Central

It has long been known that cholera outbreaks can be initiated when Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is present in drinking water in sufficient numbers to constitute an infective dose, if ingested by humans. Outbreaks associated with drinking or bathing in unpurified river or brackish water may directly or indirectly depend on such conditions as water temperature, nutrient concentration, and plankton production that may be favorable for growth and reproduction of the bacterium. Although these environmental parameters have routinely been measured by using water samples collected aboard research ships, the available data sets are sparse and infrequent. Furthermore, shipboard data acquisition is both expensive and time-consuming. Interpolation to regional scales can also be problematic. Although the bacterium, V. cholerae, cannot be sensed directly, remotely sensed data can be used to infer its presence. In the study reported here, satellite data were used to monitor the timing and spread of cholera. Public domain remote sensing data for the Bay of Bengal were compared directly with cholera case data collected in Bangladesh from 1992–1995. The remote sensing data included sea surface temperature and sea surface height. It was discovered that sea surface temperature shows an annual cycle similar to the cholera case data. Sea surface height may be an indicator of incursion of plankton-laden water inland, e.g., tidal rivers, because it was also found to be correlated with cholera outbreaks. The extensive studies accomplished during the past 25 years, confirming the hypothesis that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment and is a commensal of zooplankton, i.e., copepods, when combined with the findings of the satellite data analyses, provide strong evidence that cholera epidemics are climate-linked.

Lobitz, Brad; Beck, Louisa; Huq, Anwar; Wood, Byron; Fuchs, George; Faruque, A. S. G.; Colwell, Rita

2000-01-01

324

Vibrio diversity and dynamics in the Monterey Bay upwelling region.  

PubMed

The Vibrionaceae (Vibrio) are a ubiquitous group of metabolically flexible marine bacteria that play important roles in biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Despite this versatility, little is known about Vibrio diversity and abundances in upwelling regions. The seasonal dynamics of Vibrio populations was examined by analysis of 16S rRNA genes in Monterey Bay (MB), California from April 2006-April 2008 at two long term monitoring stations, C1 and M2. Vibrio phylotypes within MB were diverse, with subpopulations clustering with several different cultured representatives including Allivibrio spp., Vibrio penaecida, and Vibrio splendidus as well as with many unidentified marine environmental bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Total Vibrio population abundances, as well as abundances of a Vibrio sp. subpopulation (MBAY Vib7) and an Allivibrio sp. subpopulation (MBAY Vib4) were examined in the context of environmental parameters from mooring station and CTD cast data. Total Vibrio populations showed some seasonal variability but greater variability was observed within the two subpopulations. MBAY Vib4 was negatively associated with MB upwelling indices and positively correlated with oceanic season conditions, when upwelling winds relax and warmer surface waters are present in MB. MBAY Vib7 was also negatively associated with upwelling indices and represented a deeper Vibrio sp. population. Correlation patterns suggest that larger oceanographic conditions affect the dynamics of the populations in MB, rather than specific environmental factors. This study is the first to target and describe the diversity and dynamics of these natural populations in MB and demonstrates that these populations shift seasonally within the region. PMID:24575086

Mansergh, Sarah; Zehr, Jonathan P

2014-01-01

325

Evaluation of bactericidal activity of weakly acidic electrolyzed water (WAEW) against Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibriovulnificus cause severe foodborne illness in humans; thus, to reduce outbreaks of disease, it is clearly important to reduce food contamination by these pathogens. Although electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water has been reported to exhibit strong bactericidal activities against many pathogens, it has never been tested against V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus. The purpose of this study was

Yaru Quan; Kyoo-Duck Choi; Donghwa Chung; Il-Shik Shin

2010-01-01

326

Rapid detection of Vibrio species using liquid microsphere arrays and real-time PCR targeting the ftsZ locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of rapid and sensitive molecular techniques for the detection of Vibrio species would be useful for the surveillance of sporadic infections and management of major outbreaks. Comparative sequence analysis of the ftsZ gene in the predominant Vibrio species that cause human disease revealed distinct alleles for each examined species, including Vibrio cholerae,Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. Light Upon

Dobryan M. Tracz; Paul G. Backhouse; Adam B. Olson; Joanne K. McCrea; Julie A. Walsh; Lai-King Ng; Matthew W. Gilmour

2007-01-01

327

Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate  

PubMed Central

Summary The three most common pathogenic species of Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, are of major concerns due to increased incidence of water? and seafood?related outbreaks and illness worldwide. Current methods are lengthy and require biochemical and molecular confirmation. A novel label?free forward light?scattering sensor was developed to detect and identify colonies of these three pathogens in real time in the presence of other vibrios in food or water samples. Vibrio colonies grown on agar plates were illuminated by a 635?nm laser beam and scatter?image signatures were acquired using a CCD (charge?coupled device) camera in an automated BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical light?scattering Technology) system. Although a limited number of Vibrio species was tested, each produced a unique light?scattering signature that is consistent from colony to colony. Subsequently a pattern recognition system analysing the collected light?scatter information provided classification in 1?2?min with an accuracy of 99%. The light?scattering signatures were unaffected by subjecting the bacteria to physiological stressors: osmotic imbalance, acid, heat and recovery from a viable but non?culturable state. Furthermore, employing a standard sample enrichment in alkaline peptone water for 6?h followed by plating on selective thiosulphate citrate bile salts sucrose agar at 30°C for ??12?h, the light?scattering sensor successfully detected V.?cholerae, V.?parahaemolyticus and V.?vulnificus present in oyster or water samples in 18?h even in the presence of other vibrios or other bacteria, indicating the suitability of the sensor as a powerful screening tool for pathogens on agar plates.

Huff, Karleigh; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Littlejohn, Amy E. Fleishman; Rajwa, Bartek; Bae, Euiwon; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Patsekin, Valery; Hirleman, E. Daniel; Robinson, J. Paul; Richards, Gary P.; Bhunia, Arun K.

2012-01-01

328

Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate.  

PubMed

The three most common pathogenic species of Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, are of major concerns due to increased incidence of water- and seafood-related outbreaks and illness worldwide. Current methods are lengthy and require biochemical and molecular confirmation. A novel label-free forward light-scattering sensor was developed to detect and identify colonies of these three pathogens in real time in the presence of other vibrios in food or water samples. Vibrio colonies grown on agar plates were illuminated by a 635?nm laser beam and scatter-image signatures were acquired using a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera in an automated BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical light-scattering Technology) system. Although a limited number of Vibrio species was tested, each produced a unique light-scattering signature that is consistent from colony to colony. Subsequently a pattern recognition system analysing the collected light-scatter information provided classification in 1-2?min with an accuracy of 99%. The light-scattering signatures were unaffected by subjecting the bacteria to physiological stressors: osmotic imbalance, acid, heat and recovery from a viable but non-culturable state. Furthermore, employing a standard sample enrichment in alkaline peptone water for 6?h followed by plating on selective thiosulphate citrate bile salts sucrose agar at 30°C for ??12?h, the light-scattering sensor successfully detected V.?cholerae, V.?parahaemolyticus and V.?vulnificus present in oyster or water samples in 18?h even in the presence of other vibrios or other bacteria, indicating the suitability of the sensor as a powerful screening tool for pathogens on agar plates. PMID:22613192

Huff, Karleigh; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Littlejohn, Amy E Fleishman; Rajwa, Bartek; Bae, Euiwon; Banada, Padmapriya P; Patsekin, Valery; Hirleman, E Daniel; Robinson, J Paul; Richards, Gary P; Bhunia, Arun K

2012-09-01

329

The Vibrio cholerae O1 chromosomal integron.  

PubMed

Until the discovery of the Vibrio cholerae repeat (VCR), the gene capture and expression systems termed integrons had been typically associated with antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes with usually less than five genes in an array. A method is described for the cloning of the ends of large cassette arrays. Conserved restriction sites within VCRs facilitated the mapping by Southern hybridization and cloning of the 5' end of the VCR array, and using appropriate fragments it was possible to develop a physical map of the region of the V. cholerae chromosome. Sequence determination of the predicted beginning of this region revealed intI4, a member of the integron family of integrases. Comparison of these sequences from El Tor, Classical and serotype O134 V. cholerae strains identified the 3' end of the attI site, thereby defining the class 4 integron in one of the V. cholerae chromosomes, and providing the first evidence for integron-like site-specific recombination within V. cholerae. Conduction assays demonstrated IntI1-mediated recombination between VCRs. Restriction mapping places the sequences of intI4 and 26 VCR gene cassettes in arrays within a 120 kb region of the V. cholerae O1 strain 569B genome. This region contains an estimated 150 VCR gene cassettes, dwarfing previously described arrays. Southern analysis of genomic DNA from strains of Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio mimicus and a number of V. cholerae serotypes revealed fragments that hybridized with VCR-specific probes but showed a high degree of restriction fragment length polymorphism. These data facilitate the identification of part of a new class 5 integron from V. mimicus. PMID:11021935

Clark, C A; Purins, L; Kaewrakon, P; Focareta, T; Manning, P A

2000-10-01

330

Biofilm Formation by a Metabolically Versatile Bacterium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a photosynthetic bacterium that has good potential as a biocatalyst for the production of hydrogen gas, a biofuel. With this award we conducted basic studies to facilitate the development of a process where R. palustris cells...

C. S. Harwood

2009-01-01

331

Distribution of Vibrio vulnificus and Other Lactose-Fermenting Vibrios in the Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

During the summer of 1981, 3,887 sucrose-negative vibrios were isolated from seawater, sediment, plankton, and animal samples taken from 80 sites from Miami, Fla., to Portland, Maine. Of these, 4.2% were able to ferment lactose. The lactose-positive strains isolated from the various samples correlated positively with pH and turbidity of the water, vibrios in the sediment and oysters, and total bacterial counts in oysters. Negative correlations were obtained for water salinity. Numerical taxonomy was performed on 95 of the lactose-fermenting environmental isolates and 23 reference strains. Five clusters resulted, with the major cluster containing 33 of the environmental isolates and all of the Vibrio vulnificus reference strains. The 33 isolates, which produced an acid reaction in lactose broth within hours of initial inoculation, represented 20% of all lactose-fermenting vibrios studied. These isolates were nearly identical phenotypically to clinical strains of V. vulnificus studied by the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga., and by our laboratory, and their identification was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies. V. vulnificus was isolated from all sample types and from Miami to Cape Cod, Mass., and comparison of the environmental parameters of the eight subsites yielding this species with those of all 80 subsites revealed no significant differences. The majority of the isolates were obtained from animals, with clams providing most (84%) of these. On injection into mice, 82% of the V. vulnificus isolates resulted in death. Members of the remaining four clusters contained strains which differed from V. vulnificus in such phenotypic traits as luminescence and in urease or H2S production. None of the other reference cultures, including nine other Vibrio species, were contained in the remaining clusters, and these isolates could not be identified. Most of these were also lethal for mice. Phenotypic differences, potential pathogenicity, and geographic distribution of the five clusters were examined. It is concluded that V. vulnificus is a ubiquitous organism, both geographically and in a variety of environmental sources, although it occurs in relatively low numbers. The public health significance of this organism and of the other unidentified lactose-fermenting Vibrio species is discussed.

Oliver, James D.; Warner, Robert A.; Cleland, David R.

1983-01-01

332

Proteases production by two Vibrio species on residuals marine media.  

PubMed

A comparative study was carried out on the growth and production of alkaline proteases by two Vibrio species using different marine peptones from fish viscera residues. The bacteria tested, Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus, are producers of high levels of proteolytic enzymes which act as factors of virulence in fish cultures, causing high mortality rates. The kinetic assays and subsequent comparison with the parameters obtained from the adjustment to various mathematical models, highlighted the potential interest of the media formulated, for their possible production on an industrial scale, particularly the production of proteases by V. anguillarum growing in rainbow trout and squid peptones. PMID:16501931

Vázquez, J A; Docasal, S F; Mirón, J; González, M P; Murado, M A

2006-08-01

333

Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of the gyrB Gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Its Application in Detection of This Pathogen in Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Because biochemical testing and 16S rRNA sequence analysis have proven inadequate for the differentiation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from closely related species, we employed the gyrase B gene (gyrB) as a molecular diagnostic probe. The gyrB genes of V. parahaemolyticus and closely related Vibrio alginolyticus were cloned and sequenced. Oligonucleotide PCR primers were designed for the amplification of a 285-bp fragment from within gyrB specific for V. parahaemolyticus. These primers recognized 117 of 117 reference and wild-type V. parahaemolyticus strains, whereas amplification did not occur when 90 strains of 37 other Vibrio species or 60 strains representing 34 different nonvibrio species were tested. In 100-?l PCR mixtures, the lower detection limits were 5 CFU for live cells and 4 pg for purified DNA. The possible application of gyrB primers for the routine identification of V. parahaemolyticus in food was examined. We developed and tested a procedure for the specific detection of the target organism in shrimp consisting of an 18-h preenrichment followed by PCR amplification of the 285-bp V. parahaemolyticus-specific fragment. This method enabled us to detect an initial inoculum of 1.5 CFU of V. parahaemolyticus cells per g of shrimp homogenate. By this approach, we were able to detect V. parahaemolyticus in all of 27 shrimp samples artificially inoculated with this bacterium. We present here a rapid, reliable, and sensitive protocol for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Dohmoto, Nobuhiko; Harayama, Shigeaki

1998-01-01

334

Genome anatomy of the gastrointestinal pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus of crustacean origin  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an important human pathogen, is associated with gastroenteritis and transmitted through partially cooked seafood. It has become a major concern in the production and trade of marine food products. The prevalence of potentially virulent and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in raw seafood is of public health significance. Here we describe the genome sequence of a V. parahaemolyticus isolate of crustacean origin which was cultured from prawns in 2008 in Selangor, Malaysia (isolate PCV08-7). The next generation sequencing and analysis revealed that the genome of isolate PCV08-7 has closest similarity to that of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633. However, there are certain unique features of the PCV08-7 genome such as the absence of TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), and the presence of HU-alpha insertion. The genome of isolate PCV08-7 encodes a thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), an important virulence factor that classifies PCV08-7 isolate to be a serovariant of O3:K6 strain. Apart from these, we observed that there is certain pattern of genetic rearrangements that makes V. parahaemolyticus PCV08-7 a non-pandemic clone. We present detailed genome statistics and important genetic features of this bacterium and discuss how its survival, adaptation and virulence in marine and terrestrial hosts can be understood through the genomic blueprint and that the availability of genome sequence entailing this important Malaysian isolate would likely enhance our understanding of the epidemiology, evolution and transmission of foodborne Vibrios in Malaysia and elsewhere.

2013-01-01

335

Function and Regulation of Vibrio campbellii Proteorhodopsin: Acquired Phototrophy in a Classical Organoheterotroph  

PubMed Central

Proteorhodopsins (PRs) are retinal-binding photoproteins that mediate light-driven proton translocation across prokaryotic cell membranes. Despite their abundance, wide distribution and contribution to the bioenergy budget of the marine photic zone, an understanding of PR function and physiological significance in situ has been hampered as the vast majority of PRs studied to date are from unculturable bacteria or culturable species that lack the tools for genetic manipulation. In this study, we describe the presence and function of a horizontally acquired PR and retinal biosynthesis gene cluster in the culturable and genetically tractable bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio campbellii. Pigmentation analysis, absorption spectroscopy and photoinduction assays using a heterologous over-expression system established the V. campbellii PR as a functional green light absorbing proton pump. In situ analyses comparing PR expression and function in wild type (WT) V. campbellii with an isogenic ?pR deletion mutant revealed a marked absence of PR membrane localization, pigmentation and light-induced proton pumping in the ?pR mutant. Comparative photoinduction assays demonstrated the distinct upregulation of pR expression in the presence of light and PR-mediated photophosphorylation in WT cells that resulted in the enhancement of cellular survival during respiratory stress. In addition, we demonstrate that the master regulator of adaptive stress response and stationary phase, RpoS1, positively regulates pR expression and PR holoprotein pigmentation. Taken together, the results demonstrate facultative phototrophy in a classical marine organoheterotrophic Vibrio species and provide a salient example of how this organism has exploited lateral gene transfer to further its adaptation to the photic zone.

Wang, Zheng; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J.; Soto, Carissa M.; Rahbar, Amir M.; Robertson, Kelly L.; Lebedev, Nikolai; Vora, Gary J.

2012-01-01

336

Pyrosequencing-Based Comparative Genome Analysis of Vibrio vulnificus Environmental Isolates  

PubMed Central

Between 1996 and 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control reported that the only category of food-borne infections increasing in frequency were those caused by members of the genus Vibrio. The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus is a ubiquitous inhabitant of estuarine waters, and is the number one cause of seafood-related deaths in the US. Many V. vulnificus isolates have been studied, and it has been shown that two genetically distinct subtypes, distinguished by 16S rDNA and other gene polymorphisms, are associated predominantly with either environmental or clinical isolation. While local genetic differences between the subtypes have been probed, only the genomes of clinical isolates have so far been completely sequenced. In order to better understand V. vulnificus as an agent of disease and to identify the molecular components of its virulence mechanisms, we have completed whole genome shotgun sequencing of three diverse environmental genotypes using a pyrosequencing approach. V. vulnificus strain JY1305 was sequenced to a depth of 33×, and strains E64MW and JY1701 were sequenced to lesser depth, covering approximately 99.9% of each genome. We have performed a comparative analysis of these sequences against the previously published sequences of three V. vulnificus clinical isolates. We find that the genome of V. vulnificus is dynamic, with 1.27% of genes in the C-genotype genomes not found in the E- genotype genomes. We identified key genes that differentiate between the genomes of the clinical and environmental genotypes. 167 genes were found to be specifically associated with environmental genotypes and 278 genes with clinical genotypes. Genes specific to the clinical strains include components of sialic acid catabolism, mannitol fermentation, and a component of a Type IV secretory pathway VirB4, as well as several other genes with potential significance for human virulence. Genes specific to environmental strains included several that may have implications for the balance between self-preservation under stress and nutritional competence.

Morrison, Shatavia S.; Williams, Tiffany; Cain, Aurora; Froelich, Brett; Taylor, Casey; Baker-Austin, Craig; Verner-Jeffreys, David; Hartnell, Rachel; Oliver, James D.; Gibas, Cynthia J.

2012-01-01

337

[Mexican phenotype and genotype Vibrio cholerae 01].  

PubMed

This paper presents the phenotypical and genotypical characterization of 26922 Vibrio cholerae 01 strains isolated in Mexico from 1991 to 1993. All strains isolated were El Tor biovar. Strains were sensitive to antibiotics excluding furazolidone, streptomycin and sulfisoxasole to which we found resistance in 97% and we are using this characteristic as epidemiological markers. We detected a marked change in frequency of Inaba serotype from 1991, when it was dominant, with 99.5%, until 1992 when Ogawa serotype turned to be dominant with 95% of isolates. All Vibrio cholerae 01 strains, except one Ogawa strain, were to igenic, and V. choleraeno 01 were not toxigenic by ELISA, PCR and cell culture tests. Dominant ribotype was 5, but we found some strains with 6a pattern and two with ribotype 12. We are searching for ribotype 2 among hemolytic strains in order to learn if there is any relation to Gulf Coast strains prevalent in the USA, but until now we have not found any V. cholerae ribotype 2 in our isolates. Even if rapid tests are recommended for immediate diagnosis of cholera, it is necessary to continue bacterial isolation in order to have strains for phenotyping and genotyping studies that may support epidemiological analysis. PMID:7493738

Giono, S; Gutiérrez Cogno, L; Rodríguez Angeles, G; del Rio Zolezzi, A; Valdespino González, J L; Sepúlveda Amor, J

1995-01-01

338

Structure of Vibrio cholerae ToxT reveals a mechanism for fatty acid regulation of virulence genes  

SciTech Connect

Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. In order for V. cholerae to cause disease, it must produce two virulence factors, the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT), whose expression is controlled by a transcriptional cascade culminating with the expression of the AraC-family regulator, ToxT. We have solved the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of ToxT, which reveals folds in the N- and C-terminal domains that share a number of features in common with AraC, MarA, and Rob as well as the unexpected presence of a buried 16-carbon fatty acid, cis-palmitoleate. The finding that cis-palmitoleic acid reduces TCP and CT expression in V. cholerae and prevents ToxT from binding to DNA in vitro provides a direct link between the host environment of V. cholerae and regulation of virulence gene expression.

Lowden, Michael J.; Skorupski, Karen; Pellegrini, Maria; Chiorazzo, Michael G.; Taylor, Ronald K.; Kull, F. Jon (Dartmouth)

2010-03-04

339

Isolation of the pathogen Vibrio tapetis and defense parameters in brown ring diseased Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum cultivated in England.  

PubMed

The Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum was introduced for aquacultural purposes to Europe in the 1970s. In 1987, brown ring disease (BRD), caused by Vibrio tapetis, appeared in clams cultivated in Brouënou (Finistère, France) and later became increasingly widespread and was reported in cultivated and wild clams existing on the Atlantic coasts of France and Spain. The present study reports, for the first time, the presence of BRD in clams cultivated in England. The etiologic bacterium was isolated and identified using bacteriological and serological techniques. The defence response of affected clams was also studied and significant changes in the hematological and biochemical characteristics of hemolymph and extrapallial fluids were demonstrated. Significant mobilization of hemocytes toward the extrapallial fluids, in contact with the main site of infection (mantle-periostracal lamina area), was observed, suggesting a role for these pseudo-internal compartments in the preservation of clam health. PMID:10918978

Allam, B; Paillard, C; Howard, A; Le Pennec, M

2000-06-19

340

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in the American lobster Homarus americanus: molecular characterization and transcriptional response to Vibrio fluvialis challenge.  

PubMed

Two partial mRNA sequences predicted to encode anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) were identified among expressed sequence tags generated from the American lobster Homarus americanus and complete cDNA sequences were obtained from library clones. Comparison of the translated amino acid sequences to those publicly available confirmed similarity to arthropod anti-lipopolysaccharide factors. Both protein sequences, designated ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2, contained an N-terminal signal peptide and two half-cysteines participating in a disulfide bridge, features conserved in other ALFs. Predicted secondary structures were similar to that described for the ALF from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. As part of an exploratory study of immunity in H. americanus, lobsters were injected with the bacterium Vibrio fluvialis and gill, hematopoietic, and hepatopancreas tissues were sampled for analysis of gene expression of ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2 by quantitative PCR. The relative abundance of ALFHa-2 mRNA was not significantly affected by Vibrio injection in any of the three tissues tested. In contrast, ALFHa-1 mRNA levels in gills were increased by the treatment some 17-fold. Our results support a molecularly specific regulation of antimicrobial proteins in response to bacterial infection in H. americanus. PMID:19956341

Beale, K M; Towle, D W; Jayasundara, N; Smith, C M; Shields, J D; Small, H J; Greenwood, S J

2008-12-01

341

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in the American lobster Homarus americanus: Molecular characterization and transcriptional response to Vibrio fluvialis challenge  

PubMed Central

Two partial mRNA sequences predicted to encode anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) were identified among expressed sequence tags generated from the American lobster Homarus americanus and complete cDNA sequences were obtained from library clones. Comparison of the translated amino acid sequences to those publicly available confirmed similarity to arthropod anti-lipopolysaccharide factors. Both protein sequences, designated ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2, contained an N-terminal signal peptide and two half-cysteines participating in a disulfide bridge, features conserved in other ALFs. Predicted secondary structures were similar to that described for the ALF from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. As part of an exploratory study of immunity in H. americanus, lobsters were injected with the bacterium Vibrio fluvialis and gill, hematopoietic, and hepatopancreas tissues were sampled for analysis of gene expression of ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2 by quantitative PCR. The relative abundance of ALFHa-2 mRNA was not significantly affected by Vibrio injection in any of the three tissues tested. In contrast, ALFHa-1 mRNA levels in gills were increased by the treatment some 17-fold. Our results support a molecularly specific regulation of antimicrobial proteins in response to bacterial infection in H. americanus.

Beale, K.M.; Towle, D.W.; Jayasundara, N.; Smith, C.M.; Shields, J.D.; Small, H.J.; Greenwood, S.J.

2008-01-01

342

Evaluation of monoclonal antibody based immunochromatographic strip test for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 contamination in seafood samples.  

PubMed

A strip test for the detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 was developed using two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), VC-223 and VC-1226, specific to the lipopolysaccharides of Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba and Ogawa serovars. The sensitivity of the test was 5 × 10(5)cfu/mL which was similar to that of dot blot test. The detection limit could be improved to 1cfu/mL of the original bacterial content after pre-incubation of the bacterium in alkaline peptone water (APW) for 12h. Detection of V. cholerae O1 in various fresh seafood samples such as shrimp, blood clam, mussel and oyster could be performed directly with sensitivities ranged from 5 × 10(5) to 10(6)cfu/mL. After pre-enrichment of the shrimp sample in APW, the detection sensitivities increased to 10(2) to 10CFU/mL of the original bacterial content after incubation for 12 and 24h. However, the detection sensitivities were also depending on the content of the other bacteria that might inhibit the growth of V. cholerae during pre-enrichment step. The V. cholerae O1 strip test has advantages in speed, and simplicity in not requiring sophisticated equipment or specialized skills and the sample could be directly examined without requirement for sample processing. PMID:24060694

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Pengsuk, Chalinan; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2013-11-01

343

Purification and characterization of a hemolysin produced by Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor: another toxic substance produced by cholera vibrios.  

PubMed Central

A thermolabile direct hemolysin from an El Tor cholera vibrio strain has been isolated and partially characterized as a simple protein of ca. 20,000 molecular weight. In addition to its hemolytic activity, the hemolysin is cytotoxic, cardiotoxic, and rapidly lethal. In these respects it resembles the thermostable direct hemolysin/cytotoxin/cardiotoxin/lethal toxin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and certain other bacterial hemolysins, although there are other significant differences. Because identical diseases are produced by both hemolytic and nonhemolytic cholera vibrios, the El Tor hemolysin may be presumed to be pathogenetically irrelevant. These observations raise the question of "When is a toxic substance also a toxin?" Images

Honda, T; Finkelstein, R A

1979-01-01

344

Expression of Vibrio salmonicida virulence genes and immune response parameters in experimentally challenged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)  

PubMed Central

The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio salmonicida is the causative agent of cold-water vibriosis (CV), a hemorrhagic septicemia that primarily affects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The mechanisms of disease development, host specificity and adaptation, as well as the immunogenic properties of V. salmonicida are largely unknown. Therefore, to gain more knowledge on the pathogenesis of CV, 90 Atlantic salmon parr were injected intraperitoneally with 6 × 106 CFU of V. salmonicida LFI1238. Samples from blood and spleen tissue were taken at different time points throughout the challenge for gene expression analysis by two-step reverse transcription (RT) quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Out of a panel of six housekeeping genes, accD, gapA, and 16S rDNA were found to be the most suitable references for expression analysis in Vibrio salmonicida. The bacterial proliferation during challenge was monitored based on the expression of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. Before day 4, the concentrations of V. salmonicida in blood and spleen tissue demonstrated a lag phase. From day 4, the bacterial proliferation was exponential. The expression profiles of eight genes encoding potential virulence factors of V. salmonicida were studied. Surprisingly, all tested virulence genes were generally highest expressed in broth cultures compared to the in vivo samples. We hypothesize that this general muting of gene expression in vivo may be a strategy for V. salmonicida to hide from the host immune system. To further investigate this hypothesis, the expression profiles of eight genes encoding innate immune factors were analyzed. The results demonstrated a strong and rapid, but short-lasting innate immune response against V. salmonicida. These results suggest that the bacterium possesses mechanisms that inhibit and/or resist the salmon innate immune system until the host becomes exhausted of fighting the on-going and eventually overwhelming infection.

Bjelland, Ane M.; Fauske, Aud K.; Nguyen, Anh; Orlien, Ingvild E.; ?stgaard, Ingrid M.; S?rum, Henning

2013-01-01

345

Differential metabolic responses of clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus challenges.  

PubMed

Clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the important marine aquaculture species in North China. However, pathogens can often cause diseases and lead to massive mortalities and economic losses of clam. In this work, we compared the metabolic responses induced by Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus challenges towards hepatopancreas of clam using NMR-based metabolomics. Metabolic responses suggested that both V. anguillarum and V. splendidus induced disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation, oxidative and immune stresses with different mechanisms, as indicated by correspondingly differential metabolic biomarkers (e.g., amino acids, ATP, glucose, glycogen, taurine, betaine, choline and hypotaurine) and altered mRNA expression levels of related genes including ATP synthase, ATPase, glutathione peroxidase, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme. However, V. anguillarum caused more severe oxidative and immune stresses in clam hepatopancreas than V. splendidus. Our results indicated that metabolomics could be used to elucidate the biological effects of pathogens to the marine clam R. philippinarum. PMID:24056279

Liu, Xiaoli; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

2013-12-01

346

Oleic Acid Produced by a Marine Vibrio spp. Acts as an Anti-Vibrio parahaemolyticus Agent  

PubMed Central

It is known that some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are responsible for gastroenteric diseases caused by the ingestion of marine organisms contaminated with these bacterial strains. Organic products that show inhibitory activity on the growth of the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were extracted from a Vibrio native in the north of Chile. The inhibitory organic products were isolated by reverse phase chromatography and permeation by Sephadex LH20, and were characterized by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The results showed that the prevailing active product is oleic acid, which was compared with standards by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These active products might be useful for controlling the proliferation of pathogenic clones of V. parahaemolyticus.

Leyton, Yanett; Borquez, Jorge; Darias, Jose; Cueto, Mercedes; Diaz-Marrero, Ana R.; Riquelme, Carlos

2011-01-01

347

A survey of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in New Zealand for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

A microbiological survey was conducted to determine the levels of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected from commercial growing areas in the North Island, New Zealand. The survey was intended to be geographically representative of commercial growing areas of Pacific oysters in New Zealand, while selecting the time frame most likely to coincide with the increased abundance of pathogenic vibrio species. Vp was detected in 94.8% of oyster samples examined (n=58) with a geometric mean concentration of 99.3 MPN/g, while Vv was detected in 17.2% of oyster samples examined with a geometric mean concentration of 7.4 MPN/g. The frequency of Vp positive samples was 1.7 fold greater than reported in a study conducted three decades ago in New Zealand. Potentially virulent (tdh positive) Vp was detected in two samples (3.4%, n=58) while no trh (another virulence marker) positive samples were detected. 16S rRNA genotype could be assigned only to 58.8% of Vv isolates (8:1:1 A:B:AB ratio, n=10). There was a good agreement [98.2% of Vp (n=280) and 94.4% of Vv (n=18) isolates] between molecular tests and cultivation based techniques used to identify Vibrio isolates and there was a significant (R(2)=0.95, P<0.001, n=18) linear relationship between the MPN estimates by real-time PCR and cultivation. There was no significant correlation between any of the environmental parameters tested and Vp or Vv concentrations. PMID:21501884

Kirs, M; Depaola, A; Fyfe, R; Jones, J L; Krantz, J; Van Laanen, A; Cotton, D; Castle, M

2011-05-27

348

Wings of the common house fly (Musca domestica L.): importance in mechanical transmission of Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

The importance of house fly (Musca domestica L) wings in mechanical transmission of bacteria was studied. A droplet of phosphate-buffered saline containing Vibrio cholerae was rolled along one wing of each house fly. None adhered to the wings but small proportions of the bacterium were isolated from about half the wings. Vibrio cholerae was spread onto the ventral wing surfaces of each unconscious house fly which then was placed inside a bottle. When it regained consciousness, the types of activity it performed over five minutes were noted before the house fly was killed and the bacteria on its wings numerated. Control were house flies killed before inoculation. The proportion of house flies with bacteria on their wings and the mean number of bacteria remaining were significantly less on live house flies than killed controls. Among the live house flies, bacteria were detected on fewer house flies which flew (25%) than those which did not fly (81%). In addition, the mean number of bacteria on the former was significantly less than the latter (5 against 780 colonies). However, both these parameters were not significantly different between the group which performed and the group which did not perform wing grooming; takeoff and alighting over short distances, and somersaulting. Wings of unconscious house flies tethered by their thoraxes were inoculated with V. cholerae. After regaining consciousness, the house flies were allowed to move their wings in flight motions for up to 30 seconds. Small proportions of bacteria remained on all the house flies. House flies were placed in a chamber containing a liquid bait spiked with V. cholerae. After two hours, 10 were removed sequentially and cultured for V. cholerae. The bacterium was isolated from four house flies: two from the legs, and two others from their bodies minus legs and wings. In conclusion, house fly wings do not play an important role in mechanical transmission of bacteria suspended in a non-adhering liquid medium because of the low transfer rate of the bacteria to the wings and poor retention of bacteria on the wings during normal house fly activities. PMID:18600198

Yap, K L; Kalpana, M; Lee, H L

2008-04-01

349

Characterization of a Flagellar Sheath Protein of 'Vibrio cholerae'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flagellar sheath protein of Vibrio cholerae CA401 (inaba) was characterized. Purity of the preparation was indicated by a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels and on Ouchterlony plates prepared with antibody against crude sheath materi...

K. W. Hranitsky A. Mulholland A. D. Larson E. R. Eubanks L. T. Hart

1980-01-01

350

Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Cooked Seafood at Refrigeration Temperatures  

PubMed Central

The growth and survival of two strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated during food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Japan and surface inoculated on cooked shrimp, shrimp with sauce, or cooked crab were tested at various refrigeration temperatures during a 48-h holding period. On cooked shrimp and crab, the vibrios grew well at 18.3 C, but their numbers declined gradually at 10 C and below. At 12.8 C, vibrios remained static for the most part. Thus, it appeared that 12.8 C was the borderline temperature for growth of the organism on cooked seafood. When cocktail sauce was added to surface-inoculated shrimp at a ratio of 2:1, the vibrio die-off rate was accelerated. In the shrimp and sauce few cells remained after 48 h, but in the sauce alone die-off was complete at 6 h.

Bradshaw, Joe G.; Francis, David W.; Twedt, Robert M.

1974-01-01

351

21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. (a)...

2013-04-01

352

Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 'Vaccination'  

PubMed Central

It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens.

Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.

2011-01-01

353

Diversity and Genetic Basis of Polysaccharide Biosynthesis in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Vibrio cholerae elaborates three types of polysaccharide structures: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of which is the O-polysaccharide\\u000a or O-antigen, capsular polysaccharide (CPS) or K-antigen, and “rugose” polysaccharide also known as exopolysaccharide (EPS)\\u000a or Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS). The major protective antigen for V. cholerae is the O-antigen. A strain typing scheme based on the somatic O-antigen has been in use for

Shanmuga Sozhamannan; Fitnat H. Yildiz

354

Interactions between Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes and the bivalve pathogens Vibrio aestuarianus 01/032 and Vibrio splendidus LGP32.  

PubMed

Marine bivalves can accumulate large numbers of bacteria, in particular Vibrio species, whose persistence in bivalve tissues largely depends on their sensitivity to the bactericidal activity of circulating hemocytes and hemolymph soluble factors. The interactions between vibrios and hemolymph have been investigated, in particular in bivalve species susceptible to infection by certain Vibrio spp. and strains. In this work, the effects of two bivalve pathogens, Vibrio splendidus LGP32 (V.s.) and Vibrio aestuarianus 01/032 (V.a.), isolated from oyster mortality outbreaks, on the hemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis were investigated. In vitro, V.s., but not V.a., induced a dramatic decrease in lysosomal membrane stability-LMS in the hemocytes; both vibrios induced a moderate lysozyme release, with V.s. > V.a.. The V.s.-induced decrease in LMS was mediated by activation of PI-3Kinase, as shown by use of different kinase inhibitors. TEM analysis showed rapid internalization of both vibrios; however, V.s. lead to cellular and lysosomal damage and was able to survive within the hemocytes, whereas significant killing of V.a. was observed. In vivo, in mussels challenged with either vibrio and sampled at 6, 24 and 96 h post-injection, transient decreases in hemocyte LMS and progressive increases in serum lysozyme activity were observed, with V.s. > V.a.. Moreover, whereas V.a. was efficiently cleared from hemolymph, V.s. showed significant growth, that was maximal at 24 h p.i. when lowest LMS values were recorded in the hemocytes. Both vibrios also induced significant decreases in LMS in the digestive gland, again with V.s. > V.a.. The results indicate distinct interactions between mussel hemocytes and the two vibrio strains tested. The effects of V.s. may be due to the capacity of this strain to interfere with the signaling pathways involved in hemocyte function, thus escaping the bactericidal activity of the host cell, as observed for certain mammalian pathogens. Although V.s. is considered not pathogenic to Mytilus, this vibrio strain can affect the lysosomal function at the cellular and tissue level, thus leading to stressful conditions. PMID:24080469

Balbi, T; Fabbri, R; Cortese, K; Smerilli, A; Ciacci, C; Grande, C; Vezzulli, L; Pruzzo, C; Canesi, L

2013-12-01

355

Analysis of 16S-23S rRNA Intergenic Spacer Regions of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae identification based on molecular sequence data has been hampered by a lack of sequence variation from the closely related Vibrio mimicus. The two species share many genes coding for proteins, such as ctxAB, and show almost identical 16S DNA coding for rRNA (rDNA) sequences. Primers targeting conserved sequences flanking the 3* end of the 16S and the 5*

JONGSIK CHUN; ANWARUL HUQ; RITA R. COLWELL

1999-01-01

356

Viscosity dictates metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber.  

PubMed

Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment. PMID:22826705

Bori?, Maja; Danev?i?, Tjaša; Stopar, David

2012-01-01

357

Vibrio cholerae: lessons for mucosal vaccine design  

PubMed Central

The ability of Vibrio cholerae to persist in bodies of water will continue to confound our ability to eradicate cholera through improvements to infrastructure, and thus cholera vaccines are needed. We aim for an inexpensive vaccine that can provide long-lasting protection from all epidemic cholera infections, currently caused by O1 or O139 serogroups. Recent insights into correlates of protection, epidemiology and pathogenesis may help us design improved vaccines. This notwithstanding, we have come to appreciate that even marginally protective vaccines, such as oral whole-cell killed vaccines, if widely distributed, can provide significant protection, owing to herd immunity. Further efforts are still required to provide more effective protection of young children.

Bishop, Anne L; Camilli, Andrew

2011-01-01

358

A chimeric siderophore halts swarming Vibrio.  

PubMed

Some bacteria swarm under some circumstances; they move rapidly and collectively over a surface. In an effort to understand the molecular signals controlling swarming, we isolated two bacterial strains from the same red seaweed, Vibrio alginolyticus B522, a vigorous swarmer, and Shewanella algae B516, which inhibits V.?alginolyticus swarming in its vicinity. Plate assays combined with NMR, MS, and X-ray diffraction analyses identified a small molecule, which was named avaroferrin, as a potent swarming inhibitor. Avaroferrin, a previously unreported cyclic dihydroxamate siderophore, is a chimera of two well-known siderophores: putrebactin and bisucaberin. The sequenced genome of S.?algae revealed avaroferrin's biosynthetic gene cluster to be a mashup of putrebactin and bisucaberin biosynthetic genes. Avaroferrin blocks swarming through its ability to bind iron in a form that cannot be pirated by V.?alginolyticus, thereby securing this essential resource for its producer. PMID:24615751

Böttcher, Thomas; Clardy, Jon

2014-03-24

359

Cadaverine protects Vibrio vulnificus from superoxide stress.  

PubMed

An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal characteristic of the 5,5'-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO)-OH spin adduct, which is formed from the reaction of DMPO with superoxide radicals generated by xanthine oxidase-mediated reaction, was significantly reduced by the cadaverine or Escherichia coli Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Likewise, cytochrome c reduction by superoxide was inhibited by cadaverine, and the inhibition level increased in proportion to the level of cadaverine. The cadA mutant of Vibrio vulnificus, which does not produce cadaverine because of the lack of lysine decarboxylase, exhibits less tolerance to superoxide stress in comparison with wild type. The results indicate that cadaverine scavenges superoxide radicals, and protects cells from oxidative stress. PMID:18051370

Kang, In-Hye; Kim, Ju-Sim; Kim, Eui-Jin; Lee, Jeong K

2007-01-01

360

Viscosity dictates metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber  

PubMed Central

Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.

Boric, Maja; Danevcic, Tjasa; Stopar, David

2012-01-01

361

Quorum Sensing and Silencing in Vibrio parahaemolyticus?†  

PubMed Central

The quorum regulatory cascade is poorly characterized in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, in part because swarming and virulence factors—the hallmarks of the organism—are repressed by this scheme of gene control, and quorum sensing seems to be silenced in many isolates. In these studies, we examine a swarming-proficient, virulent strain and identify an altered-function allele of the quorum regulator luxO that is demonstrated to produce a constitutively active mimic of LuxO?P. We find that LuxO* affects the expression of three small regulatory RNAs (Qrrs) and the activity of a translational fusion in opaR, the output regulator. Tests for epistasis showed that luxO* is dominant over luxO and that opaR is dominant over luxO. Thus, information flow through the central elements of the V. parahaemolyticus quorum pathway is proven for the first time. Quorum-sensing output was explored using microarray profiling: the OpaR regulon encompasses ?5.2% of the genome. OpaR represses the surface-sensing and type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) regulons. One novel discovery is that OpaR strongly and oppositely regulates two type VI secretion systems (T6SS). New functional consequences of OpaR control were demonstrated: OpaR increases the cellular cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) level, positively controls chitin-induced DNA competency, and profoundly blocks cytotoxicity toward host cells. In expanding the previously known quorum effects beyond the induction of the capsule and the repression of swarming to elucidate the global scope of genes in the OpaR regulon, this study yields many clues to distinguishing traits of this Vibrio species; it underscores the profoundly divergent survival strategies of the quorum On/Off phase variants.

Gode-Potratz, Cindy J.; McCarter, Linda L.

2011-01-01

362

The Study of Action of Vibrio Cholera Filtrate Fraction on the Rabbit and Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The modified method for the preparation of the active toxic factor from Vibrio cholera are described. Protein from a strain of Vibrio cholera were fractionated with Sephadex G-200 and continuous electrophoresis. It has been proved that the active componen...

E. S. Kim J. W. Fresh

1968-01-01

363

Identification of a Bacterium That Specifically Catalyzes the Reductive Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls with Doubly Flanked Chlorines  

PubMed Central

A microorganism whose growth is linked to the dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with doubly flanked chlorines was identified. Identification was made by reductive analysis of community 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences from a culture enriched in the presence of 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5-CB), which was dechlorinated at the para position. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of total 16S rDNA extracted from the culture led to identification of three operational taxonomic units (OTUs 1, 2, and 3). OTU 1 was always detected when 2,3,4,5-CB or other congeners with doubly flanked chlorines were present and dechlorinated. Only OTUs 2 and 3 were detected in the absence of PCBs and when other PCBs (i.e., PCBs lacking doubly flanked chlorines) were not dechlorinated. Partial sequences of OTUs 2 and 3 exhibited 98.2% similarity to the sequence of “Desulfovibrio caledoniensis” (accession no. DCU53465). A sulfate-reducing vibrio isolated from the culture generated OTUs 2 and 3. This organism could not dechlorinate 2,3,4,5-CB. From these results we concluded that OTU 1 represents the dechlorinating bacterium growing in a coculture with a Desulfovibrio sp. The 16S rDNA sequence of OTU 1 is most similar to the 16S rDNA sequence of bacterium o-17 (89% similarity), an ortho-PCB-dechlorinating bacterium. The PCB dechlorinator, designated bacterium DF-1, reductively dechlorinates congeners with doubly flanked chlorines when it is supplied with formate or H2-CO2 (80:20).

Wu, Qingzhong; Watts, Joy E. M.; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

2002-01-01

364

Characterization of vibrios diversity in the mucus of the polychaete Myxicola infundibulum (Annellida, Polichaeta).  

PubMed

Vibrios are among the most abundant culturable microbes in aquatic environments. They can be either free-living in the water column or associated with several marine organisms as mutualists, saprophytes, or parasites. In the present study we analysed vibrios abundance and diversity in the mucus of the polychaete Myxicola infundibulum, complementing culture-based with molecular methods. Vibrios reached 4.6?×?10(3) CFU mL(-1) thus representing a conspicuous component of the heterotrophic culturable bacteria. In addition, luminous vibrios accounted for about 60% of the total culturable vibrios in the mucus. The isolates were assigned to: Vibrio gigantis, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio jasicida, Vibrio crassostreae, Vibrio kanaloae, and Vibrio xuii. Two Vibrio isolates (MI-13 and MI-15) may belong to a new species. We also tested the ability of the Vibrio isolates to grow on M. infundibulum mucus as the sole carbon source. All strains showed appreciable growth in the presence of mucus, leading us to conclude that this matrix, which is abundant and covers the animal entirely, may represent a microcosm and a food source for some bacteria, playing a crucial role in the structuring of a mucus-associated beneficial microbial community. Moreover, the trophic relationship between vibrios and M. infundibulum mucus could be enhanced by the protection that mucus offers to vibrios. The results of this study represent a contribution to the growing evidence for complex and dynamic invertebrate-microbe associations present in nature and highlight the importance of exploring relationships that Vibrio species establish with marine invertebrates. PMID:24194098

Stabili, Loredana; Giangrande, Adriana; Pizzolante, Graziano; Caruso, Giorgia; Alifano, Pietro

2014-01-01

365

Vibrio cholerae Exploits Sub-Lethal Concentrations of a Competitor-Produced Antibiotic to Avoid Toxic Interactions.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogenic marine bacterium inhabiting coastal regions and is vectored into human food and water supplies via attachment to particles including detritus, phytoplankton, and zooplankton. Particle colonization by the pathogen is inhibited by an antagonistic interaction with the particle-associated Vibrionales bacterium SWAT3, a producer of the antibiotic andrimid. By analyzing the individual movement behaviors of V. cholerae exposed to a gradient of andrimid in a microfluidics device, we show that the pathogen has a concentration dependent avoidance response to sub-lethal concentrations of the pure antibiotic and to the metabolites produced by a growing colony of SWAT3-wild-type. This avoidance behavior includes a 25% increase in swimming speeds, 30% increase in run lengths, and a shift in the direction of the bacteria away from the andrimid source. Consequently, these behavioral shifts at low concentrations of andrimid would lead to higher diffusivity and result in the dispersion of bacteria away from the competitor and source of the antibiotic. Such alterations in motility were not elicited in response to a non-andrimid-producing SWAT3 mutant, suggesting andrimid may be a negative effector of chemotaxis for V. cholerae. The behavioral response of colonizing bacteria to sub-inhibitory concentrations of competitor-produced antibiotics is one mechanism that can influence microbial diversity and interspecific competition on particles, potentially affecting human health in coastal communities and element cycling in the ocean. PMID:23386845

Graff, Jason R; Forschner-Dancause, Stephanie R; Menden-Deuer, Susanne; Long, Richard A; Rowley, David C

2013-01-01

366

Autophagy is induced by the type III secretion system of Vibrio alginolyticus in several mammalian cell lines.  

PubMed

Vibrio alginolyticus is a gram-negative bacterium and has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in marine animals as well as humans. Here, we further characterized a cell death mechanism caused by this bacterium in several mammalian cell lines. The T3SS of V. alginolyticus killed HeLa cells by a very similar cell cytolysis mechanism in fish cells, as evidenced by cell rounding and LDH release; however, DNA fragmentation was not observed. Further studies showed that caspase-1 and caspase-3 were not activated during the T3SS-mediated cell death, indicating that the death mechanism is completely independent of pyroptosis and apoptosis in HeLa cells. Conversely, autophagy was detected during the T3SS-mediated cell death by the appearance of MDC-labeled punctate fluorescence and accumulation of autophagic vesicles. Moreover, western blot analysis revealed increase in conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II in infected mammalian cell lines, confirming that autophagy occurs during the process. Together, these data demonstrate that the death process used by V. alginolyticus in mammalian cells is different from that in fish cells, including induction of autophagy, cell rounding and osmotic lysis. This study provides some evidences hinting that differences in death mechanism in responses to V. alginolyticus infection may be attributed to the species of infected cells from which it was derived. PMID:21046072

Zhao, Zhe; Zhang, Lvping; Ren, Chunhua; Zhao, Jingjing; Chen, Chang; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chao-Qun

2011-01-01

367

Vibrio cholerae Exploits Sub-Lethal Concentrations of a Competitor-Produced Antibiotic to Avoid Toxic Interactions  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogenic marine bacterium inhabiting coastal regions and is vectored into human food and water supplies via attachment to particles including detritus, phytoplankton, and zooplankton. Particle colonization by the pathogen is inhibited by an antagonistic interaction with the particle-associated Vibrionales bacterium SWAT3, a producer of the antibiotic andrimid. By analyzing the individual movement behaviors of V. cholerae exposed to a gradient of andrimid in a microfluidics device, we show that the pathogen has a concentration dependent avoidance response to sub-lethal concentrations of the pure antibiotic and to the metabolites produced by a growing colony of SWAT3-wild-type. This avoidance behavior includes a 25% increase in swimming speeds, 30% increase in run lengths, and a shift in the direction of the bacteria away from the andrimid source. Consequently, these behavioral shifts at low concentrations of andrimid would lead to higher diffusivity and result in the dispersion of bacteria away from the competitor and source of the antibiotic. Such alterations in motility were not elicited in response to a non-andrimid-producing SWAT3 mutant, suggesting andrimid may be a negative effector of chemotaxis for V. cholerae. The behavioral response of colonizing bacteria to sub-inhibitory concentrations of competitor-produced antibiotics is one mechanism that can influence microbial diversity and interspecific competition on particles, potentially affecting human health in coastal communities and element cycling in the ocean.

Graff, Jason R.; Forschner-Dancause, Stephanie R.; Menden-Deuer, Susanne; Long, Richard A.; Rowley, David C.

2012-01-01

368

Draft Genome Sequences of Vibrio sp. Strains Isolated from Tetrodotoxin-Bearing Scavenging Gastropod  

PubMed Central

Vibrio sp. strains JCM 18905 and JCM 19053 were isolated from a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-bearing scavenging gastropod, and Vibrio sp. strain JCM 18904 was isolated from a sea cucumber. All these are closely related to Vibrio alginolyticus. Their comparative genome information is useful for studies of TTX production in bacteria.

Kawauchi, Ayumi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Zhang, Xiaochi; Taniyama, Shigeto; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Iino, Takao; Inoue, Tetsushi; Hongoh, Yuichi; Hattori, Masahira

2014-01-01

369

Low Dose Gamma Irradiation to Reduce Pathogenic Vibrios in Live Oysters (Crassostrea virginica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic strains of Vibrio (Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus), natural inhabitants of estuarine and ocean environments, can cause serious illness and death in susceptible persons from consumption of raw half-shell oysters. Objectives of this study were (1) to establish the irradiation dose needed to reduce pathogenic vibrios to nondetectable levels and (2) to determine consumer's ability to differentiate between irradiated

Linda Andrews; Michael Jahncke; Kumar Mallikarjunan

2003-01-01

370

Draft Genome Sequences of Vibrio sp. Strains Isolated from Tetrodotoxin-Bearing Scavenging Gastropod.  

PubMed

Vibrio sp. strains JCM 18905 and JCM 19053 were isolated from a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-bearing scavenging gastropod, and Vibrio sp. strain JCM 18904 was isolated from a sea cucumber. All these are closely related to Vibrio alginolyticus. Their comparative genome information is useful for studies of TTX production in bacteria. PMID:24948773

Kudo, Toshiaki; Kawauchi, Ayumi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Zhang, Xiaochi; Taniyama, Shigeto; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Iino, Takao; Inoue, Tetsushi; Hongoh, Yuichi; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

2014-01-01

371

Effects of antimetabolites on the adhesion of an estuarine Vibrio sp. to polystyrene.  

PubMed Central

The effect of various metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics on the adhesion of an estuarine bacterium, Vibrio proteolytica, to polystyrene was investigated. Cells were either exposed to the substratum and the antimetabolite simultaneously or grown in the presence of a 25% MIC and presented the substratum in the absence of the antimetabolite. Based on the response elicited, these inhibitors could be divided into three classes: (i) those that had little or no effect on adhesion (fluorodeoxyuridine and nalidixic acid); (ii) those that only inhibited adhesion after growth at the 25% MIC (ampicillin, oxacillin, and streptomycin); and (iii) those that inhibited attachment when administered simultaneously with the substratum (azide, dinitrophenol, chloramphenicol, puromycin, azauridine, rifampin, p-chloromercuribenzoate, and cephalothin). Cells killed by heating, Formalin, or mercuric chloride treatment were also less adhesive than viable cells. Collectively, these results indicate that (i) physiologically active cells are more adhesive than dead or physiologically impaired cells, (ii) impairment of cell wall synthesis by beta-lactam antibiotics renders cells less adhesive, and (iii) energy production and protein synthesis (including transcription) are both involved in some aspect of the adhesion process, whereas DNA synthesis is not.

Paul, J H

1984-01-01

372

MARTX of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is a virulence and survival factor.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is a polyphyletic group whose virulence for fish relies on a plasmid. This plasmid contains an rtxA gene duplicated in the small chromosome that encodes a MARTX (Multifunctional, Autoprocessing Repeats-in-Toxin) unique within the species in domain structure (MARTX type III). To discover the role of this toxin in the fitness of this biotype in the fish-farming environment, single- and double-knockout mutants were isolated from a zoonotic strain and analysed in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments with eel, fish cell lines and amoebae isolated from gills. Mice, murine and human cell lines were also assayed for comparative purposes. The results suggest that MARTX type III is involved in the lysis of a wide range of eukaryotic cells, including the amoebae, erythrocytes, epithelial cells and phagocytes after bacterium-cell contact. In fish, MARTX type III may act as a toxin involved in the onset of septic shock, while in mice it may promote bacterial colonization by preventing phagocytosis of bacterial cells. Moreover, this toxin could protect bacteria from predation by amoebae, which would increase bacterial survival outside the host and would explain the fitness of this biotype in the fish-farming environment. PMID:22943291

Lee, Chung-Te; Pajuelo, David; Llorens, Amparo; Chen, Yi-Hsuan; Leiro, José M; Padrós, Francesc; Hor, Lien-I; Amaro, Carmen

2013-02-01

373

Fluid accumulation in infant mice caused by Vibrio hollisae and its extracellular enterotoxin.  

PubMed Central

Vibrio hollisae, a halophilic bacterium isolated from patients with diarrhea, was examined for virulence factor production. Intragastric administration of 2 X 10(7) CFU per mouse elicited fluid accumulation which peaked at ca. 6 h postchallenge in infant mice. An enterotoxin which elongated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was detected in extracts of infected-mouse intestines and in culture fluids from various growth media. The yield of the enterotoxin was maximal beginning at the onset of the stationary phase of growth in heart infusion broth supplemented with 0.5% NaCl. A concentrated preparation obtained by ammonium sulfate precipitation of culture supernatant fluids induced intestinal fluid accumulation which peaked at 2 h postchallenge in infant mice. The abilities of the enterotoxin preparation to elongate CHO cells and to elicit fluid accumulation in infant mice were inseparable by gel filtration, isoelectric focusing, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The enterotoxin has a molecular weight of ca. 33,000 by gel filtration and an isoelectric point of ca. 4 and is sensitive to heat.

Kothary, M H; Richardson, S H

1987-01-01

374

Transcriptomic analysis of Ruditapes philippinarum hemocytes reveals cytoskeleton disruption after in vitro Vibrio tapetis challenge.  

PubMed

The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is an economically-important, commercial shellfish; harvests are diminished in some European waters by a pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio tapetis, that causes Brown Ring disease. To identify molecular characteristics associated with susceptibility or resistance to Brown Ring disease, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) analyzes were performed to construct cDNA libraries enriched in up- or down-regulated transcripts from clam immune cells, hemocytes, after a 3-h in vitro challenge with cultured V. tapetis. Nine hundred and ninety eight sequences from the two libraries were sequenced, and an in silico analysis identified 235 unique genes. BLAST and "Gene ontology" classification analyzes revealed that 60.4% of the Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) have high similarities with genes involved in various physiological functions, such as immunity, apoptosis and cytoskeleton organization; whereas, 39.6% remain unidentified. From the 235 unique genes, we selected 22 candidates based upon physiological function and redundancy in the libraries. Then, Real-Time PCR analysis identified 3 genes related to cytoskeleton organization showing significant variation in expression attributable to V. tapetis exposure. Disruption in regulation of these genes is consistent with the etiologic agent of Brown Ring disease in Manila clams. PMID:22450167

Brulle, Franck; Jeffroy, Fanny; Madec, Stéphanie; Nicolas, Jean-Louis; Paillard, Christine

2012-10-01

375

Non-coding sRNAs regulate virulence in the bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is the waterborne bacterium responsible for worldwide outbreaks of the acute, potentially fatal cholera diarrhea. The primary factors this human pathogen uses to cause the disease are controlled by a complex regulatory program linking extracellular signaling inputs to changes in expression of several critical virulence genes. Recently it has been uncovered that many non-coding regulatory sRNAs are important components of the V. cholerae virulence regulon. Most of these sRNAs appear to require the RNA-binding protein, Hfq, to interact with and alter the expression of target genes, while a few sRNAs appear to function by an Hfq-independent mechanism. Direct base-pairing between the sRNAs and putative target mRNAs has been shown in a few cases but the extent of each sRNAs regulon is not fully known. Genetic and biochemical methods, coupled with computational and genomics approaches, are being used to validate known sRNAs and also to identify many additional putative sRNAs that may play a role in the pathogenic lifestyle of V. cholerae.

Bardill, J. Patrick; Hammer, Brian

2012-01-01

376

A transcriptional regulator linking quorum sensing and chitin induction to render Vibrio cholerae naturally transformable  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic bacterium associated with zooplankton and their chitinous exoskeletons. On chitinous surfaces, V. cholerae initiates a developmental programme, known as natural competence, to mediate transformation, which is a mode of horizontal gene transfer. Competence facilitates the uptake of free DNA and recombination into the bacterial genome. Recent studies have indicated that chitin surfaces are required, but not sufficient to induce competence. Two additional regulatory pathways, i.e. catabolite repression and quorum sensing (QS), are components of the regulatory network that controls natural competence in V. cholerae. In this study, we investigated the link between chitin induction and QS. We show that the major regulators of these two pathways, TfoX and HapR, are both involved in the activation of a gene encoding a transcriptional regulator of the LuxR-type family, which we named QS and TfoX-dependent regulator (QstR). We demonstrate that HapR binds the promoter of qstR in a site-specific manner, indicating a role for HapR as an activator of qstR. In addition, epistasis experiments indicate that QstR compensates for the absence of HapR. We also provide evidence that QstR is required for the proper expression of a small but essential subset of competence genes and propose a new regulatory model in which QstR links chitin-induced TfoX activity with QS.

Lo Scrudato, Mirella; Blokesch, Melanie

2013-01-01

377

Protective role of autophagy against Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, a pore-forming toxin from V. cholerae  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is the unique, regulated mechanism for the degradation of organelles. This intracellular process acts as a prosurvival pathway during cell starvation or stress and is also involved in cellular response against specific bacterial infections. Vibrio cholerae is a noninvasive intestinal pathogen that has been studied extensively as the causative agent of the human disease cholera. V. cholerae illness is produced primarily through the expression of a potent toxin (cholera toxin) within the human intestine. Besides cholera toxin, this bacterium secretes a hemolytic exotoxin termed V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC) that causes extensive vacuolation in epithelial cells. In this work, we explored the relationship between the vacuolation caused by VCC and the autophagic pathway. Treatment of cells with VCC increased the punctate distribution of LC3, a feature indicative of autophagosome formation. Moreover, VCC-induced vacuoles colocalized with LC3 in several cell lines, including human intestinal Caco-2 cells, indicating the interaction of the large vacuoles with autophagic vesicles. Electron microscopy analysis confirmed that the vacuoles caused by VCC presented hallmarks of autophagosomes. Additionally, biochemical evidence demonstrated the degradative nature of the VCC-generated vacuoles. Interestingly, autophagy inhibition resulted in decreased survival of Caco-2 cells upon VCC intoxication. Also, VCC failed to induce vacuolization in Atg5?/? cells, and the survival response of these cells against the toxin was dramatically impaired. These results demonstrate that autophagy acts as a cellular defense pathway against secreted bacterial toxins.

Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel; Saka, Hector Alex; Chinen, Isabel; Zoppino, Felipe C. M.; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Bocco, Jose Luis; Colombo, Maria Isabel

2007-01-01

378

Cyclic AMP-receptor protein activates aerobactin receptor IutA expression in Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

The ferrophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can utilize the siderophore aerobactin of Escherichia coli for iron acquisition via its specific receptor IutA. This siderophore piracy by V. vulnificus may contribute to its survival and proliferation, especially in mixed bacterial environments. In this study, we examined the effects of glucose, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) on iutA expression in V. vulnificus. Glucose dose-dependently repressed iutA expression. A mutation in cya encoding adenylate cyclase required for cAMP synthesis severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by in trans complementing cya or the addition of exogenous cAMP. Furthermore, a mutation in crp encoding Crp severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by complementing crp. Accordingly, glucose deprivation under iron-limited conditions is an environmental signal for iutA expression, and Crp functions as an activator that regulates iutA expression in response to glucose availability. PMID:22538662

Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Seong-Jung; Shin, Sung-Heui

2012-04-01

379

Comparative toxic effects of formulated simazine on Vibrio fischeri and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) larvae.  

PubMed

The use of Early Life Stage (ELS) tests is a useful tool in risk assessment. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of the seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae with the extensively used Microtox test on a commercial formulation containing simazine, an s-triazine herbicide. To this end, survival, growth and histopathological changes displayed by seabream yolk sac larvae exposed during 72 h post-hatching to nominal concentrations of the commercial preparation up to its saturating concentration in water, and bioluminescence of the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Microtox) were studied. Survival of larvae after three days of exposure was significantly reduced in the highest (4.5 mg/l) concentration, but no effects on growth were found in any of the simazine treatments. The 72 h LC50 value for yolk sac larvae was estimated as 4.19 mg/l. Commercial grade simazine did not exert any significant toxicity to the marine bacterium V. fischeri at the concentrations tested. PMID:15519419

Arufe, M I; Arellano, J; Moreno, M J; Sarasquete, C

2004-12-01

380

Pathoadaptive Conditional Regulation of the Type VI Secretion System in Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains  

PubMed Central

The most recently discovered secretion pathway in Gram-negative bacteria, the type VI secretion system (T6SS), is present in many species and is considered important for the survival of non-O1 non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in aquatic environments. Until now, it was not known whether there is a functionally active T6SS in wild-type V. cholerae O1 strains, the cause of cholera disease in humans. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a functionally active T6SS in wild-type V. cholerae O1 strains, as evidenced by the secretion of the T6SS substrate Hcp, which required several gene products encoded within the putative vas gene cluster. Our analyses showed that the T6SS of wild-type V. cholerae O1 strain A1552 was functionally activated when the bacteria were grown under high-osmolarity conditions. The T6SS was also active when the bacteria were grown under low temperature (23°C), suggesting that the system may be important for the survival of the bacterium in the environment. A test of the interbacterial virulence of V. cholerae strain A1552 against an Escherichia coli K-12 strain showed that it was strongly enhanced under high osmolarity and that it depended on the hcp genes. Interestingly, we found that the newly recognized osmoregulatory protein OscR plays a role in the regulation of T6SS gene expression and secretion of Hcp from V. cholerae O1 strains.

Ishikawa, Takahiko; Sabharwal, Dharmesh; Broms, Jeanette; Milton, Debra L.; Sjostedt, Anders; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

2012-01-01

381

Vibrio parahaemolyticus Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Modulates Cytoskeletal Organization and Calcium Homeostasis in Intestinal Cultured Cells  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium known to be the leading cause of seafood gastroenteritis worldwide. A 46-kDa homodimer protein secreted by this microorganism, the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), is considered a major virulence factor involved in bacterial pathogenesis since a high percentage of strains of clinical origin are positive for TDH production. TDH is a pore-forming toxin, and its most extensively studied effect is the ability to cause hemolysis of erythrocytes from different mammalian species. Moreover, TDH induces in a variety of cells cytotoxic effects consisting mainly of cell degeneration which often leads to loss of viability. In this work, we examined the cellular changes induced by TDH in monolayers of IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt small intestine), which represent a useful cell model for studying toxins from enteric bacteria. In experimental conditions allowing cell survival, TDH induces a rapid transient increase in intracellular calcium as well as a significant though reversible decreased rate of progression through the cell cycle. The morphological changes seem to be dependent on the organization of the microtubular network, which appears to be the preferential cytoskeletal element involved in the cellular response to the toxin.

Fabbri, Alessia; Falzano, Loredana; Frank, Claudio; Donelli, Gianfranco; Matarrese, Paola; Raimondi, Francesco; Fasano, Alessio; Fiorentini, Carla

1999-01-01

382

Evidence for Two Different Regulatory Mechanisms Linking Replication and Segregation of Vibrio cholerae Chromosome II  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms that coordinate replication initiation with subsequent segregation of chromosomes is an important biological problem. Here we report two replication-control mechanisms mediated by a chromosome segregation protein, ParB2, encoded by chromosome II of the model multichromosome bacterium, Vibrio cholerae. We find by the ChIP-chip assay that ParB2, a centromere binding protein, spreads beyond the centromere and covers a replication inhibitory site (a 39-mer). Unexpectedly, without nucleation at the centromere, ParB2 could also bind directly to a related 39-mer. The 39-mers are the strongest inhibitors of chromosome II replication and they mediate inhibition by binding the replication initiator protein. ParB2 thus appears to promote replication by out-competing initiator binding to the 39-mers using two mechanisms: spreading into one and direct binding to the other. We suggest that both these are novel mechanisms to coordinate replication initiation with segregation of chromosomes.

FitzGerald, Peter C.; Blokesch, Melanie; Chattoraj, Dhruba K.

2013-01-01

383

Effect of the Squid Host on the Abundance and Distribution of Symbiotic Vibrio fischeri in Nature †  

PubMed Central

Euprymna scolopes, a Hawaiian species of bioluminescent squid, harbors Vibrio fischeri as its specific light organ symbiont. The population of symbionts grew inside the adult light organ with an average doubling time of about 5 h, which produced an excess of cells that were expelled into the surrounding seawater on a diurnal basis at the beginning of each period of daylight. These symbionts, when expelled into the ambient seawater, maintain or slightly increase their numbers for at least 24 h. Hence, locations inhabited by their hosts periodically receive a daily input of symbiotic V. fischeri cells and, as a result, become significantly enriched with these bacteria. As estimated by hybridization with a species-specific luxA gene probe, the typical number of V. fischeri CFU, both in the water column and in the sediments of E. scolopes habitats, was as much as 24 to 30 times that in similar locations where squids were not observed. In addition, the number of symbiotic V. fischeri CFU in seawater samples that were collected along a transect through Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, decreased as a function of the distance from a location inhabited by E. scolopes. These findings constitute evidence for the first recognized instance of the abundance and distribution of a marine bacterium being driven primarily by its symbiotic association with an animal host.

Lee, Kyu-Ho; Ruby, Edward G.

1994-01-01

384

Small-Molecule Inhibitors of toxT Expression in Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative bacterium, infects humans and causes cholera, a severe disease characterized by vomiting and diarrhea. These symptoms are primarily caused by cholera toxin (CT), whose production by V. cholerae is tightly regulated by the virulence cascade. In this study, we designed and carried out a high-throughput chemical genetic screen to identify inhibitors of the virulence cascade. We identified three compounds, which we named toxtazin A and toxtazin B and B?, representing two novel classes of toxT transcription inhibitors. All three compounds reduce production of both CT and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), an important colonization factor. We present evidence that toxtazin A works at the level of the toxT promoter and that toxtazins B and B? work at the level of the tcpP promoter. Treatment with toxtazin B results in a 100-fold reduction in colonization in an infant mouse model of infection, though toxtazin A did not reduce colonization at the concentrations tested. These results add to the growing body of literature indicating that small-molecule inhibitors of virulence genes could be developed to treat infections, as alternatives to antibiotics become increasingly needed.

Anthouard, Rebecca; DiRita, Victor J.

2013-01-01

385

Effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water treatment on reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in raw oysters.  

PubMed

Contamination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters is a food safety concern. This study investigated effects of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water treatment on reducing V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in laboratory-contaminated oysters. EO water exhibited strong antibacterial activity against V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in pure cultures. Populations of V. parahaemolyticus (8.74 x 10(7) CFU/ml) and V. vulnificus (8.69 x 10(7) CFU/ml) decreased quickly in EO water containing 0.5% NaCl to nondetectable levels (> 6.6 log reductions) within 15 s. Freshly harvested Pacific oysters were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus at levels of 10(4) and 10(6) most probable number (MPN)/g and treated with EO water (chlorine, 30 ppm; pH 2.82; oxidation-reduction potential, 1131 mV) containing 1% NaCl at room temperature. Reductions of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oysters were determined at 0 (before treatment), 2, 4, 6, and 8 h of treatment. Holding oysters inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus in the EO water containing 1% NaCl for 4 to 6 h resulted in significant (P < 0.05) reductions of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus by 1.13 and 1.05 log MPN/g, respectively. Extended exposure (> 12 h) of oysters in EO water containing high levels of chlorine (> 30 ppm) was found to be detrimental to oysters. EO water could be used as a postharvest treatment to reduce Vibrio contamination in oysters. However, treatment should be limited to 4 to 6 h to avoid death of oysters. Further studies are needed to determine effects of EO water treatment on sensory characteristics of oysters. PMID:16924906

Ren, Tingting; Su, Yi-Cheng

2006-08-01

386

New spiral bacterium in gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new spiral bacterium, distinct from Campylobacter pylori, was found in the gastric mucosa of six patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. All patients had chronic active type B gastritis and four had oesophagitis. Culture and microscopy for C pylori infection was negative. These unculturable spiral organisms were probably an incidental finding in patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, but it is

C A McNulty; J C Dent; A Curry; J S Uff; G A Ford; M W Gear; S P Wilkinson

1989-01-01

387

Bacterium Can Alter Evolution Of Another Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Daily University Science News article reviews scientific evidence that the parasitic bacterium Wolbachia can accelerate the natural evolution of wasps by altering the sperm of its male host, thus making them incompatible with non-infected females. The article discusses this evidence as well as introduces a current debate about Wolbachia's role in host speciation.

Sherwood, Jonathan; Unisci

388

Isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from Seawater and Emerging Vibrio vulnificus Septicemia on Jeju Island  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen, transmitted from seawater, raw oyster, and shellfish and responsible for severe septicemia. We studied V. vulnificus from surface seawater around Jeju Island between 2010 and 2011. In 2010, V. vulnificus was isolated and V. vulnificus septicemia was reported. Surface seawater temperature is an important factor for growth of V. vulnificus, and here we showed that high surface seawater temperature may influence growth of V. vulnificus and occurrence of emerging V. vulnificus septicemia on Jeju Island. This is the first report of isolation of V. vulnificus and emerging V. vulnificus septicemia on Jeju Island.

Lee, Keun Hwa; Kim, Young Ree; Pang, Ig-Chan

2014-01-01

389

Vibriophages and Their Interactions with the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.  

PubMed

Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in aquaculture, responsible for the disease vibriosis in many fish and invertebrate species. Disease control by antibiotics is a concern due to potential development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The use of bacteriophages to control the pathogen may offer a non-antibiotic-based approach to reduce vibriosis. A detailed understanding of the phage-host interaction is needed to evaluate the potential of phages to control the pathogen. In this study, we examined the diversity and interactions of 11 vibriophages, 24 V. anguillarum strains, and 13 Vibrio species strains. Together, the host ranges of the 11 phages covered all of the tested 37 Vibrio sp. host strains, which represented considerable temporal (20 years) and geographical (9 countries) differences in their origins of isolation. Thus, despite the occurrence of unique susceptibility patterns of the individual host isolates, key phenotypic properties related to phage susceptibility are distributed worldwide and maintained in the global Vibrio community for decades. The phage susceptibility pattern of the isolates did not show any relation to the physiological relationships obtained from Biolog GN2 profiles, demonstrating that similar phage susceptibility patterns occur across broad phylogenetic and physiological differences in Vibrio strains. Subsequent culture experiments with two phages and two V. anguillarum hosts demonstrated an initial strong lytic potential of the phages. However, rapid regrowth of both phage-resistant and phage-sensitive cells following the initial lysis suggested that several mechanisms of protection against phage infection had developed in the host populations. PMID:24610858

Tan, Demeng; Gram, Lone; Middelboe, Mathias

2014-05-01

390

Case report of an unclassified microaerophilic bacterium associated with gastroenteritis.  

PubMed Central

An unusual microaerophilic gram-negative bacterium was isolated from the stools of two individuals presenting with chronic diarrhea. This bacterium resembled Campylobacter species by colonial morphology and biochemical reactions. However, microscopic examination revealed a fusiform rod with a corrugated surface, rather than a spiral rod. This is the first reported isolation of this bacterium from humans.

Romero, S; Archer, J R; Hamacher, M E; Bologna, S M; Schell, R F

1988-01-01

391

Reaction mechanism of chitobiose phosphorylase from Vibrio proteolyticus: identification of family 36 glycosyltransferase in Vibrio.  

PubMed Central

A family 36 glycosyltransferase gene was cloned from Vibrio proteolyticus. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high degree of identity with ChBP (chitobiose phosphorylase) from another species, Vibrio furnissii. The recombinant enzyme catalysed the reversible phosphorolysis of (GlcNAc)2 (chitobiose) to form 2-acetamide-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate [GlcNAc-1-P] and GlcNAc, but showed no activity on cellobiose, indicating that the enzyme was ChBP, not cellobiose phosphorylase. In the synthetic reaction, the ChBP was active with alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate as the donor substrate as well as GlcNAc-1-P to produce beta-D-glucosyl-(1-->4)-2-acetamide-2-deoxy-D-glucose with GlcNAc as the acceptor substrate. The enzyme allowed aryl-beta-glycosides of GlcNAc as the acceptor substrate with 10-20% activities of GlcNAc. Kinetic parameters of (GlcNAc)2 in the phosphorolysis and GlcNAc-1-P in the synthetic reaction were determined as follows: phosphorolysis, k(0)=5.5 s(-1), K(m)=2.0 mM; synthetic reaction, k(0)=10 s(-1), K(m)=14 mM, respectively. The mechanism of the phosphorolytic reaction followed a sequential Bi Bi mechanism, as frequently observed with cellobiose phosphorylases. Substrate inhibition by GlcNAc was observed in the synthetic reaction. The enzyme was considered a unique biocatalyst for glycosidation.

Honda, Yuji; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Hayashi, Kiyoshi

2004-01-01

392

Multilocus sequence analysis of putative Vibrio mediterranei strains and description of Vibrio thalassae sp. nov.  

PubMed

A multilocus sequence analysis based on partial gyrB, mreB, rpoD and pyrH genes was undertaken with 61 putative Vibrio mediterranei/V. shilonii strains from different hosts (mussels, oysters, clams, coral, fish and plankton) or habitat (seawater and sediment) and geographical origins (Mediterranean, Atlantic and Pacific). A consistent grouping was obtained with individual and concatenated gene sequences, and the clade, comprising 54 strains, was split into three subclades by all methods: subclade A (40 strains, including AK1, the former type strain of Vibrio shilonii), subclade B (8 strains) corresponding to the species V. mediterranei, and subclade C (six strains) representing a new species, V. thalassae sp. nov., with strain MD16(T) (=CECT 8203(T)=KCTC 32373(T)) as the proposed type strain. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) values, determined as a measure of genomic similarity, confirmed these assignments, and supported that strains in subclade C were a different species from V. mediterranei, with ANIb and ANIm figures lower than 90.0%. The synonymy of V. shilonii and V. mediterranei was also stressed by both MLSA and ANI determinations (97.0% between both type strains). No connection was found between geographic origin or sample type and MLSA grouping. PMID:24935234

Tarazona, Eva; Lucena, Teresa; Arahal, David R; Macián, M Carmen; Ruvira, María A; Pujalte, María J

2014-07-01

393

A Vibrio harveyi insertional mutant in the cgtA (obg, yhbZ) gene, whose homologues are present in diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to humans and are essential genes in many bacterial species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cgtA gene product is a member of the subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins that have been identified in diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. In bacteria that sporulate or display another special developmental programme, this gene (referred to as cgtA, obg or yhbZ) appears to be involved in the regulation of these processes. However, this gene has also

Agata Czyz; Ryszard Zielke

394

Transferable Quinolone Resistance in Vibrio cholerae?  

PubMed Central

Ciprofloxacin was introduced for treatment of patients with cholera in Bangladesh because of resistance to other agents, but its utility has been compromised by the decreasing ciprofloxacin susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae over time. We correlated levels of susceptibility and temporal patterns with the occurrence of mutation in gyrA, which encodes a subunit of DNA gyrase, followed by mutation in parC, which encodes a subunit of DNA topoisomerase IV. We found that ciprofloxacin activity was more recently further compromised in strains containing qnrVC3, which encodes a pentapeptide repeat protein of the Qnr subfamily, members of which protect topoisomerases from quinolone action. We show that qnrVC3 confers transferable low-level quinolone resistance and is present within a member of the SXT integrating conjugative element family found commonly on the chromosomes of multidrug-resistant strains of V. cholerae and on the chromosomes of Escherichia coli transconjugants constructed in the laboratory. Thus, progressive increases in quinolone resistance in V. cholerae are linked to cumulative mutations in quinolone targets and most recently to a qnr gene on a mobile multidrug resistance element, resulting in further challenges for the antimicrobial therapy of cholera.

Kim, Hong Bin; Wang, Minghua; Ahmed, Sabeena; Park, Chi Hye; LaRocque, Regina C.; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Salam, Mohammed A.; Khan, Wasif A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Jacoby, George A.; Hooper, David C.

2010-01-01

395

Dynamics in genome evolution of Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of the acute secretary diarrheal disease cholera, is still a major public health concern in developing countries. In former centuries cholera was a permanent threat even to the highly developed populations of Europe, North America, and the northern part of Asia. Extensive studies on the cholera bug over more than a century have made significant advances in our understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients. V. cholerae has more than 200 serogroups, but only few serogroups have caused disease on a worldwide scale. Until the present, the evolutionary relationship of these pandemic causing serogroups was not clear. In the last decades, we have witnessed a shift involving genetically and phenotypically varied pandemic clones of V. cholerae in Asia and Africa. The exponential knowledge on the genome of several representatives V. cholerae strains has been used to identify and analyze the key determinants for rapid evolution of cholera pathogen. Recent comparative genomic studies have identified the presence of various integrative mobile genetic elements (IMGEs) in V. cholerae genome, which can be used as a marker of differentiation of all seventh pandemic clones with very similar core genome. This review attempts to bring together some of the important researches in recent times that have contributed towards understanding the genetics, epidemiology and evolution of toxigenic V. cholerae strains. PMID:24462909

Banerjee, Rachana; Das, Bhabatosh; Balakrish Nair, G; Basak, Surajit

2014-04-01

396

The Vibrio cholerae chitin utilization program  

PubMed Central

Chitin, an insoluble polymer of GlcNAc, is an abundant source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy for marine microorganisms. Microarray expression profiling and mutational studies of Vibrio cholerae growing on a natural chitin surface, or with the soluble chitin oligosaccharides (GlcNAc)2–6, GlcNAc, or the glucosamine dimer (GlcN)2 identified three sets of differentially regulated genes. We show that (i) ChiS, a sensor histidine kinase, regulates expression of the (GlcNAc)2–6 gene set, including a (GlcNAc)2 catabolic operon, two extracellular chitinases, a chitoporin, and a PilA-containing type IV pilus, designated ChiRP (chitin-regulated pilus) that confers a significant growth advantage to V. cholerae on a chitin surface; (ii) GlcNAc causes the coordinate expression of genes involved with chitin chemotaxis and adherence and with the transport and assimilation of GlcNAc; (iii) (GlcN)2 induces genes required for the transport and catabolism of nonacetylated chitin residues; and (iv) the constitutively expressed MSHA pilus facilitates adhesion to the chitin surface independent of surface chemistry. Collectively, these results provide a global portrait of a complex, multistage V. cholerae program for the efficient utilization of chitin.

Meibom, Karin L.; Li, Xibing B.; Nielsen, Alex T.; Wu, Cheng-Yen; Roseman, Saul; Schoolnik, Gary K.

2004-01-01

397

Identification of non-coding RNAs in environmental vibrios.  

PubMed

The discovery of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has been mainly limited to laboratory model systems and human pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we begin to explore the ncRNA diversity in four recently sequenced environmental Vibrio species (Vibrio alginolyticus 40B, Vibrio communis 1DA3, Vibrio mimicus VM573 and Vibrio campbellii BAA-1116) by performing in silico searches using Infernal and Rfam for the identification of putative ncRNA-encoding genes. This search method resulted in the identification of 31-38 putative ncRNA genes per species and the total ncRNA catalogue spanned an assortment of regulatory mechanisms (riboswitches, cis-encoded ncRNAs, trans-encoded ncRNAs, modulators of protein activity, ribonucleoproteins, transcription termination ncRNAs and unknown). We chose to experimentally validate the identifications for V. campbellii BAA-1116 using a microarray-based expression profiling strategy. Transcript hybridization to tiled probes targeting annotated V. campbellii BAA-1116 intergenic regions revealed that 21 of the 38 predicted ncRNA genes were expressed in mid-exponential-phase cultures grown in nutrient-rich medium. The microarray findings were confirmed by testing a subset of three highly expressed (6S, tmRNA and TPP-2) and three moderately expressed (CsrB, GcvB and purine) ncRNAs via reverse transcription PCR. Our findings provide new information on the diversity of ncRNA in environmental vibrios while simultaneously promoting a more accurate annotation of genomic intergenic regions. PMID:20447992

Silveira, Ana Cristina G; Robertson, Kelly L; Lin, Baochuan; Wang, Zheng; Vora, Gary J; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Thompson, Fabiano L

2010-08-01

398

Current perspectives on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of clinically significant Vibrio spp.  

PubMed Central

Recent taxonomic advances have now implicated several different Vibrio species as human pathogens. While the most common clinical presentation of Vibrio infection continues to be gastroenteritis, an increasing number of extraintestinal infections are being reported, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Detection of Vibrio infections requires a good clinical history and the use of appropriate isolation and identification procedures by the laboratory to confirm illnesses attributed to Vibrio species. Except for Vibrio cholerae O1 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, there is little direct evidence linking the production of a myriad of cell-associated or extracellular factors produced by each species with human disease and pathogenesis. Many questions regarding pathogenic Vibrio species remain unanswered, including their frequency and distribution in environmental specimens (water, shellfish), infective doses, virulence potential of individual isolates, and markers associated with such strains. Images

Janda, J M; Powers, C; Bryant, R G; Abbott, S L

1988-01-01

399

Long-term effects of ocean warming on vibrios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global warming may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover environmental DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with warming sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased in occurrence over the last half century in the southern North Sea, but also prevailed within the particle associated bacterial community of coastal marine waters. These findings provide support for the view that global warming may have a strong impact on the composition of marine bacterial communities with important implications for human and animal health into the future.

Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.

2012-12-01

400

Characterization of a novel extremely alkalophilic bacterium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new alkalophilic bacterium, isolated from a natural spring of high pH is characterized. It is a Gram-positive, non-sporulating, motile rod requiring aerobic and alkaline conditions for growth. The characteristics of this organism resemble those of the coryneform group of bacteria; however, there are no accepted genera within this group with which this organism can be closely matched. Therefore, a new genus may be warranted.

Souza, K. A.; Deal, P. H.

1977-01-01

401

Differential Expression of Vibrio vulnificus Capsular Polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus is a human pathogen whose virulence has been associated with the expression of capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Multiple CPS types have been described; however, virulence does not appear to correlate with a particular CPS composition. Reversible-phase variation for opaque and translucent colony morphologies is characterized by changes in CPS expression, as suggested by electron microscopy of cells stained nonspecifically with ruthenium red. Isolates with opaque colony morphologies are virulent and appear to be more thickly encapsulated than naturally occurring translucent-phase variants, which have reduced, patchy, or absent CPS. Previously, we have shown that the virulence of translucent-phase variants was intermediate between opaque-phase variants and acapsular transposon mutants, suggesting a correlation between virulence and the amount of CPS expressed. In the present study, CPS expression of phase variants and genetically defined mutants of V. vulnificus M06-24/O was examined by using a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Semiquantitative analyses of CPS expression correlated well among these assays, confirming that the translucent-phase variant was intermediate in CPS expression and retained type I CPS-specific epitopes. Cell surface expression of CPS varied with the growth phase, increasing during logarithmic growth and declining in stationary culture. Significantly greater CPS expression (P = 0.026) was observed for cells grown at 30°C than for those at 37°C. These studies confirm that phase variation and virulence in V. vulnificus correlate with the amount of CPS expressed and demonstrate the fluidity of bacterial polysaccharide expression in response to environmental conditions.

Wright, Anita C.; Powell, Jan L.; Tanner, Mike K.; Ensor, Lynne A.; Karpas, Arthur B.; Morris, J. Glenn; Sztein, Marcelo B.

1999-01-01

402

Predictability of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to natural waters and can pose a health risk when it is consumed via untreated water or contaminated shellfish. The correlation between the occurrence of V. cholerae in Chesapeake Bay and environmental factors was investigated over a 3-year period. Water and plankton samples were collected monthly from five shore sampling sites in northern Chesapeake Bay (January 1998 to February 2000) and from research cruise stations on a north-south transect (summers of 1999 and 2000). Enrichment was used to detect culturable V. cholerae, and 21.1% (n = 427) of the samples were positive. As determined by serology tests, the isolates, did not belong to serogroup O1 or O139 associated with cholera epidemics. A direct fluorescent-antibody assay was used to detect V. cholerae O1, and 23.8% (n = 412) of the samples were positive. V. cholerae was more frequently detected during the warmer months and in northern Chesapeake Bay, where the salinity is lower. Statistical models successfully predicted the presence of V. cholerae as a function of water temperature and salinity. Temperatures above 19°C and salinities between 2 and 14 ppt yielded at least a fourfold increase in the number of detectable V. cholerae. The results suggest that salinity variation in Chesapeake Bay or other parameters associated with Susquehanna River inflow contribute to the variability in the occurrence of V. cholerae and that salinity is a useful indicator. Under scenarios of global climate change, increased climate variability, accompanied by higher stream flow rates and warmer temperatures, could favor conditions that increase the occurrence of V. cholerae in Chesapeake Bay.

Louis, Valerie R.; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Choopun, Nipa; Rivera, Irma N. G.; Gangle, Brian; Jiang, Sunny C.; Rubin, Andrea; Patz, Jonathan A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

2003-01-01

403

Analogs of the autoinducer of bioluminescence in Vibrio fischer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymes for luminescence inVibrio fischeri are induced only when a sufficient concentration of a metabolic product (autoinducer) specifically produced by this species accumulates. It has previously been shown that the autoinducer is 3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and that it enters the cells by simple diffusion. To further study the mechanism of induction, we have synthesized several analogs of the autoinducer.

Anatol Eberhard; Cindra A. Widrig; Paula McBath; Jeffrey B. Schineller

1986-01-01

404

Power plays: iron transport and energy transduction in pathogenic vibrios  

PubMed Central

The Vibrios are a unique group of bacteria inhabiting a vast array of aquatic environments. Many Vibrio species are capable of infecting a wide assortment of hosts. Some of these species include V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. anguillarum, and V. cholerae. The ability of these organisms to utilize iron is essential in establishing both an infection in their hosts as well as surviving in the environment. Bacteria are able to sequester iron through the secretion of low molecular weight iron chelators termed siderophores. The iron-siderophore complexes are bound by specific outer membrane receptors and are brought through both the outer and inner membranes of the cell. The energy needed to drive this active transport is achieved through the TonB energy transduction system. When first elucidated in E. coli, the TonB system was shown to be a three protein complex consisting of TonB, ExbB and ExbD. Most Vibrio species carry two TonB systems. The second TonB system includes a fourth protein; TtpC, which is essential for TonB2 mediated iron transport. Some Vibrio species have been shown to carry a third TonB system that also includes a TtpC protein.

Kustusch, Ryan J.; Kuehl, Carole J.; Crosa, Jorge H.

2011-01-01

405

Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 on plastic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival of environmental and clinical strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 was studied on glass and on two varieties of plastic materials. V. cholerae survived at least 2 days on glass, but was not recovered from polystyrene spoons after 15–20 min. Escherichia coli survived for at least 2 days on both glass slides and plastic spoons. Extracts, 10 and 50% (wv)

Eduardo Fernández-Escartín

1996-01-01

406

Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal: odyssey of a fortuitous variant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae O139, the new serogroup associated with epidemic cholera, came into being in the second half of the year 1992 in an explosive fashion and was responsible for several outbreaks in India and other neighbouring countries. This was an unprecedented event in the history of cholera and the genesis of the O139 serogroup was, at that time, thought to

Thandavarayan Ramamurthy; Shinji Yamasaki; Yoshifumi Takeda; Gopinath Balakrish Nair

2003-01-01

407

Role of Surface Proteins in Vibrio cholerae Attachment to Chitin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of surface proteins in Vibrio cholerae attachment to chitin particles in vitro was studied. Treatment of V. cholerae O1 ATCC 14034 and ATCC 14035 with pronase E reduced the attachment of bacteria to chitin particles by 57 to 77%. A statistically significant reduction was also observed when the attachment to chitin was evaluated in the presence of homologous

RENATO TARSI; CARLA PRUZZO

1999-01-01

408

Bioassays with Vibrio fischeri for the assessment of delayed toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standardized bioluminescence assay with Vibrio fischeri underestimates the aquatic toxicity of chemicals which interfere with metabolic pathways supporting long term processes like growth and reproduction due to its short incubation time (30 min). Therefore this short term assay was compared with two alternative bioassays with prolonged incubation times using the same test organism: the growth inhibition assay (7 h)

K. Froehner; T. Backhaus; L. H. Grimme

2000-01-01

409

Clinical Characteristics and Molecular Subtyping of Vibrio vulnificus Illnesses, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1996-1997, a new Vibrio vulnifi cus biotype 3, which caused severe soft tissue infection after fi shbone injury, emerged in Israel. We conducted a follow-up study from 1998 through 2005 to assess changing trends, out- comes, and molecular relatedness of the implicated strains. A total of 132 cases (71% confi rmed and 29% suspected) of V. vulnifi cus biotype

Ronit Zaidenstein; Chantal Sadik; Larisa Lerner; Lea Valinsky; Jun