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Bael fruit (Aeglemarmelos Correa, Rutaceae) is an indigenous fruit of India. It grows throughout the Indian Peninsula as well as in Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand and most of the southeastern Asian countries. It is a very hardy subtropical, deciduous tree that can thrive well in various soil-climatic conditions (from swampy to dry soils) and can tolerate alkaline
Biosorption of Pb(II) on bael leaves (Aeglemarmelos) was investigated for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using different doses of adsorbent, initial pH, and contact time. The maximum Pb loading capacity of the bael leaves was 104mgg?1 at 50mgL?1 initial Pb(II) concentration at pH 5.1. SEM and FT-IR studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) occurs inside the
S. Chakravarty; Ashok Mohanty; T. Nag Sudha; A. K. Upadhyay; J. Konar; J. K. Sircar; A. Madhukar; K. K. Gupta
Aeglemarmelos, a plant indigenous to India has been used by the inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent for over 5000years. The leaves, bark, roots, fruits and seeds are used extensively in the Indian traditional system of medicine the Ayurveda and in various folk medicine to treat myriad ailments. Bael fruits are of dietary use and the fruit pulp is used
Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga; Harshith P. Bhat; Nandhini Joseph; Farhan Fazal
Herbal drugs are traditionally used in various parts of the world to cure different diseases. The Ayurvedic and Siddha medical systems are very famous medical practices in Indian traditional medicines. In the present research studies, Bael leaves ( Aeglemarmelos , family of Rutaceae ) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as herbal drug and
Bael (Aeglemarmelos (L.) Corr.) is an important medicinal plant of India. Leaves, fruits, stem and roots of A. marmelos have been used in ethno medicine to exploit its' medicinal properties including astringent, antidiarrheal antidysenteric, demulcent, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds purified from bael have been proven to be biologically active against several major diseases including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Preclinical studies indicate the therapeutic potential of crude extracts of A. marmelos in the treatment of many microbial diseases, diabetes and gastric ulcer. This review covers the biological activities of some isolated chemical constituents of A. marmelos and preclinical studies on some crude extracts and pure compounds to explore novel bioactive compounds for therapeutic application. PMID:20099458
Foam expansion and foam stability of the bael (Aeglemarmelos L.) fruit pulp foam was studied. Foams were prepared from various pulp concentrations (PC) by adding different concentration\\u000a of glycerol monostearate (GMS) and methyl cellulose (MC) at different whipping time (WT). Response surface methodology was\\u000a used to predict the foam stability and expansion. Thirty experiments were carried out using a
Subrata Kumar Bag; Prem P. Srivastav; Hari N. Mishra
Biosorption of Pb(II) on bael leaves (Aeglemarmelos) was investigated for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using different doses of adsorbent, initial pH, and contact time. The maximum Pb loading capacity of the bael leaves was 104 mg g(-1) at 50 mg L(-1) initial Pb(II) concentration at pH 5.1. SEM and FT-IR studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) occurs inside the wall of the hollow tubes present in the bael leaves and carboxylic acid, thioester and sulphonamide groups are involved in the process. The sorption process was best described by pseudo second order kinetics. Among Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, the latter had a better fit with the experimental data. The activation energy E(a) confirmed that the nature of adsorption was physisorption. Bael leaves can selectively remove Pb(II) in the presence of other metal ions. This was demonstrated by removing Pb from the effluent of exhausted batteries. PMID:19765896
Chakravarty, S; Mohanty, Ashok; Sudha, T Nag; Upadhyay, A K; Konar, J; Sircar, J K; Madhukar, A; Gupta, K K
The effective use of radiotherapy in cancer cure and palliation is compromised by the side-effects resulting from radiosensitivity of bordering normal tissues, which are invariably exposed to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation during treatment. In this situation, use of radioprotective compounds that can protect normal tissues against radiation injury are of immense use. In addition to protecting normal tissue these compounds will also permit use of higher radiation doses to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, to date, no ideal radioprotectors are available as most synthetic compounds are toxic at their optimal concentrations and have produced little success in clinics. Radiation ill-effects are principally the result of generation of free radicals, and the antioxidant compounds that counter them are supposed to be of immense use in preventing them. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been observed to avert/ameliorate free radical-mediated ailments--an effect that has been documented--and such plants have recently been the focus of attention. Aeglemarmelos (L.) Correa (Bael), commonly known as bael, has been used since antiquity for treating various ailments, some of which are now known to be the result of oxidative stress. In studies spanning nearly a decade, it has been observed that bael prevented radiation-induced ill-effects, and the results of these studies indicate that it has the potential to be an effective, nontoxic radioprotective agent. In this current review, for the first time, an attempt is made to summarize these observations and to discuss the plausible reasons responsible for bael's radioprotective effects. PMID:20932194
Rapid clonal micropropagation protocol of Aeglemarmelos (L.) Corr. cv. CISH-B1 was achieved by nodal stem segment of mature bearing tree. Three centimeter long shoots having one\\u000a axillary bud excised from 10–15th nodal region of shoots during September gave quick in vitro bud burst (5.33 days) when cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP, 8.84 ?M + IAA 5.7 ?M.
In this study, a new activated carbon prepared from non-usable Bael fruit shell (BS) has been used as an efficient low cost adsorbent to remove the Cr(VI) toxic metal from aqueous phase. Batch mode experiments have been performed as a function of initial pH of solution, agitation time, adsorbate concentration and adsorbent dosage. Maximum chromium removal was found at pH
In this study, a new activated carbon prepared from non-usable Bael fruit shell (BS) has been used as an efficient low cost adsorbent to remove the Cr(VI) toxic metal from aqueous phase. Batch mode experiments have been performed as a function of initial pH of solution, agitation time, adsorbate concentration and adsorbent dosage. Maximum chromium removal was found at pH 2.0 in an equilibrium time of 240 min by adsorption-coupled reduction. The sorption data fitted satisfactorily with Langmuir as well as Freundlich adsorption model. Evaluation using Langmuir equation gave the monolayer sorption capacity as 17.27 mg/g. Chromium uptake (adsorption-coupled reduction) by Bael fruit shell activated carbon (BSAC) was best described by pseudo-second-order chemisorption model. The progressive changes on surface texture and the confirmation of chromium binding on adsorbent surface at different stages were obtained by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis. Phosphoric acid activation played a significant role to develop the well defined pores on adsorbent surface. The results obtained in this study illustrate that the BSAC is expected to be an effective and economically viable adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous system. PMID:19339109
The antifungal activity of essential oil isolated from the leaves of bael (Aeglemarmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb., Rutaceae) has been evaluated using spore germination assay. The oil exhibited variable efficacy against different fungal isolates and 100% inhibition of spore germination of all the fungi tested was observed at 500 ppm. However, the most resistant fungus, Fusarium udum was inhibited
Bioassay-directed fractionation of the ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark of Aeglemarmelos Correa (Rutaceae) afforded a new compound, named skimmiarepin C, along with skimmiarepin A. The latter is a known compound but isolation from A. marmelos is new. The new compound is a senecioate ester analogue of the latter. Full identification of the new compound was achieved using
J. K. R. Radhika Samarasekera; Bhupinder P. S. Khambay; K. Patrick Hemalal
The plant Aeglemarmelos belongs to the family of Rutaceae. From the leaves of A. marmelos an alkaloidal-amide, Aegeline 2, was isolated and found to have antihyperglycemic activity as evidenced by lowering the blood glucose levels by 12.9% and 16.9% at 5 and 24h, respectively, in sucrose challenged streptozotocin induced diabetic rats (STZ-S) model at the dose of 100mg\\/kg body
T. Narender; S. Shweta; P. Tiwari; K. Papi Reddy; T. Khaliq; P. Prathipati; A. Puri; A. K. Srivastava; R. Chander; S. C. Agarwal; K. Raj
The aim of the current research was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of methanol extract of Aeglemarmelos in an experimental animal model of cellular and humoral immunity. Administration of methanol extract of Aeglemarmelos (500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, p.o.), produced significant increase in adhesion of neutrophils and an increase in phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay. Both doses of Aeglemarmelos prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. Moreover, all treated groups demonstrated significant elevation in circulating antibody titre in the indirect haemagglunation test. From the above results, it can be concluded that methanol extract of Aeglemarmelos possess immunomodulatory potential by stimulating cellular and humoral immune mechanisms. However, low dose of methanol extract of Aeglemarmelos was more effective for augmenting cellular immunity, whereas, high dose was more inclined towards humoral immunity. PMID:22303072
In continuation of evaluating the anti-obesity effect of Aeglemarmelos, we have screened the n-hexane, dichloro methane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the leaves at the concentration of 25, 50, 75 and 100?g/ml for adipogenesis inhibition in the adipocytes. Nile red staining with the help of fluorometry was used as indicator of the antiobesity activity. The most active DCM extract showed the 33.98±3.55% lipid content at 100?g/ml and was selected for the further isolation. 14 compounds were isolated from DCM extract of A. marmelos leaves. The compounds were screened for the adipogenesis inhibition at 50 and 100?M concentrations. Out of the 14 compounds, halfordinol, ethyl ether aegeline and esculetin were showing 10.04±0.52, 16.29±0.85 and 25.09±1.31% lipid content respectively at 100?M. We hereby report the adipogenesis inhibition by A. marmelos as one of the pathway for its antiobesity effect. PMID:23972792
Karmase, Aniket; Jagtap, Sneha; Bhutani, Kamlesh K
Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Bael fruit, obtained from Aeglemarmelos, is a rich source of pectin. Bael fruit pectin (BFP) was extracted from ripe Bael fruits. The process yielded 15% (w/w) pure BFP. The swelling index decreased in the following order: water>pH 7.4>pH 6.8>pH 1.2>HCl (0.1N). Galacturonic acid content of 87.8%, degree of esterification of 47.2%, 17.3% methoxy groups, 0.29% acetyl groups and equivalent weight of 1209.5, indicate it to be a good gelling agent and easily amenable to derivatization. BFP exhibited a significant concentration-dependent prolongation of prothrombin time. The absence of hemagglutinating activity and antinutritional factors coupled with the activity to confer better emulsion capacity, stability and antimicrobial activity gives BFP a clear edge over commercial citrus pectin (CP) for exploitation as an additive in food and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23499073
Jindal, Manish; Kumar, Vineet; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, A K
Antifungal constituents, 2-isopropenyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-cyclopenta[b]anthracene-5,10-dione and (+)-4-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methylbut-3'-enyloxy)-8H-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-h]chromen-8-one in addition to known compounds imperatorin, beta-sitosterol, plumbagin, 1-methyl-2-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyloxy)-anthraquinone, beta-sitosterol glucoside, stigmasterol, vanillin and salicin were isolated during phytochemical investigation on seeds of Aeglemarmelos Correa. PMID:19913858
Five (1-5) and 15 known compounds were isolated from the acetone extract of the green fruits of Aeglemarmelos. The structure of compounds 1-5, marmesiline (1), 6-(4-acetoxy-3-methyl-2-butenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin (2), 6-(2-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-3-butenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin (3), marmelonine (4) and 8-hydroxysmyrindiol (5), were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of selected compounds were also evaluated. PMID:22196941
A protocol for organogenesis from nucellar explants excised from fertilized ovules of immature fruits of Aeglemarmelos Corr. was developed. Adventitious buds were initiated on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing various combinations of 6-benzyladenine (BA), a-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA), 3-indoleacetic acid and gibberellic acid. Medium containing 4.4 µm BA and 2.7 µM NAA produced the maximum number of adventitious buds
Techniques have been developed for the regeneration of Aeglemarmelos from nucellar explants. Slow-growing calli were induced from nucellar explants excised from 90–120 d-old developing fruits. The medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog formulation containing 40 g\\/l sucrose, 400 mg\\/l casein hydrolysate, 5 mg\\/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 1 mg\\/l kinetin. The basal medium with high concentration (1–5 mg\\/l) of N6-benzyladenine
M. Hossain; R. Islam; M. R. Karim; S. M. Rahman; O. I. Joarder
Aeglemarmelos Corr. (Rutaceae) is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycaemic effect of the water extract of the fruits of Aeglemarmelos was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Oral administration of the water extract (125 and 250mgkg?1) twice a day for 4 weeks resulted in significant reductions in blood glucose, plasma
Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : Oxidative stress induced by alloxan has been shown to damage pancreatic ?-cell and produce hyperglycemia in rats. Aeglemarmelos leaf extract is being used in Ayurveda as a medicine for diabetes. The present study examined the action of Aeglemarmelos against experimental diabetes as well as the antioxidant potential of the drug.
Bioassay-guided isolation and subsequent structure elucidation of a Bael tree Aeglemarmelos lipid extract yielded two unstable acylated geranyloxycoumarin mixtures (1-2), six geranyloxycoumarins (3-8), (+)-9'-isovaleroxylariciresinol (9), and dehydromarmeline (10). In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, 1 and 2 potently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 0.18 and 1.10 ?gmL(-1), respectively). Insufficient material and chemical instability prevented full delineation of the fatty acyl side chain olefin substitution patterns in 1 and 2. Therefore, five fatty acyl geranyloxycoumarin ester derivatives (11-15) were prepared from marmin (3) and commercial fatty acyl chlorides by semisynthesis. The unsaturated C-6' linoleic acid ester derivative 14 that was structurally most similar to 1 and 2, inhibited HIF-1 activation with comparable potency (IC50 0.92 ?M). The octanoyl (11) and undecanoyl (12) ester derivatives also suppressed HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 3.1 and 0.87 ?M, respectively). Mechanistic studies revealed that these geranyloxycoumarin derivatives disrupt mitochondrial respiration, primarily at complex I. Thus, these compounds may inhibit HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondria-mediated hypoxic signaling. One surprising observation was that, while less potent, the purported cancer chemopreventive agent auraptene (8) was found to act as a mitochondrial poison that disrupts HIF-1 signaling in tumors. PMID:23434131
Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Jekabsons, Mika B; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G
Aeglemarmelos Corr. (Rutaceae) is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extract of Aeglemarmelos seeds was administered orally at different doses (100, 250 and 500mg\\/kg) to normal as well as sub (fasting blood glucose (FBG) normal; glucose tolerance abnormal) and mild (FBG 120–250mg\\/dl) diabetic rats. The dose of 250mg\\/kg was found
Dutt, R., Mehrotra, S., Hoque, M., Shanker, U., Singh, G., Agarwal, S.K., Das, G.K. and Singh, S.K 2010. Effect of Murraya koenigii and Aeglemarmelos combination on resumption of fertility in anestrous goats. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 38: 249–252.To examine the effect of combined treatment of Murraya koenigii (Curry leaf plant) and Aeglemarmelos(Bel) on restoration of fertility in 14
Ravi Dutt; S. Mehrotra; M. Hoque; U. Shanker; G. Singh; S. K. Agarwal; G. K. Das; S. K. Singh
The study was carried out to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aeglemarmelos leaves extracts and its phytochemical constituents in vitro and in vivo. The dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol extracts of A. marmelos leaves were studied for their lipolytic effect. Lipolysis was measured by determining the amount of glycerol released at 12 h and 24 h at 50 ?g/ml and 100 ?g/ml concentrations. Phytochemical investigation of the most active DCM extract yielded 14 compounds. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their lipolytic effects at 50 ?M and 100 ?M. The most active compounds, umbelliferone and esculetin were further screened for their antiobesity effects in vivo in the high fat diet (HFD) induced obese rat model. Umbelliferone and esculetin reduced body weight, total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and glucose level in their respective HFD groups. A. marmelos DCM extract and compounds isolated from it have the potential of counteracting the obesity by lipolysis in adipocytes. PMID:23632084
Karmase, Aniket; Birari, Rahul; Bhutani, Kamlesh K
BACKGROUND: Aeglemarmelos (L.) Correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. However, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. Hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos for
S Brijesh; Poonam Daswani; Pundarikakshudu Tetali; Noshir Antia; Tannaz Birdi
This study was designed to elucidate the toxicity of the widely used plant Aeglemarmelos in rats. We have taken total alcoholic, total aqueous, whole aqueous and methanolic extracts isolated from the leaves of A. marmelos and studied their toxic effects. Acute, subacute and LD50 values were determined in experimental rats. The dead animals were obtained from primary screening studies,
A. Veerappan; S. Miyazaki; M. Kadarkaraisamy; D. Ranganathan
Three medicinal plant Aeglemarmelos, Lawsonia inermis, Albizzia libbeck were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether, ethanol, chloroform and aqueous as solvent. Among those extract, the petroleum ether was considered as effective one. The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and the three plants with four extracts were tested against three gram positive bacteria (B. cereus, B. subtilis, S. aureus) and three gram negative bacteria (E. coli, P. vulgaris, and P. aeruginosa) by disc diffusion method. Maximum inhibition (3.8 cm) was recorded in Lawsonia inermis. It also showed inhibitory action against all the six pathogen tested. The zone of inhibition of the extracts was compared with the standard antibiotics Streptomycin and Spectinomycin. The study suggests that the plant is promising the development of phytomedicine for antimicrobial properties. PMID:20162092
In the present study, methanolic extracts of roots of Vitex negundo L. and extracts of leaves of Vitex negundo L., Ricinus communis L. and Aeglemarmelos Corr. were explored for possible antifilarial effect against Brugia malayi microfilariae. It was observed that among the herbal extracts, root extract of Vitex negundo L. and leaves extract of Aeglemarmelos Corr. at 100
K N Sahare; V Anandhraman; V G Meshram; S U Meshram; M V R Reddy; P M Tumane; K Goswami
Myocardial infarction is a major public health concern and the leading cause of death throughout the world. The present study investigates the ability of Aeglemarmelos fruit extract to prevent pathological changes and oxidative stress after isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats. In vitro studies showed that Aeglemarmelos fruit extract possesses antioxidant activity. Administration of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, however, cardiac tissue analyses showed decreased activity of the above enzymes compared to experimental control rats. Further, isoproterenol administration significantly increased plasma and cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lowered the activities of cardiac tissue superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase when compared to control groups. Pretreatment with Aeglemarmelos fruit extract at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for a period of 45 days significantly prevented the observed alterations. Our data suggest that Aeglemarmelos fruit extract exerts its protective effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and elevating antioxidants status in isoproterenol treated rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction model emphasize the beneficial action of Aeglemarmelos fruit extract as a cardioprotective agent.
Myocardial infarction is a major public health concern and the leading cause of death throughout the world. The present study investigates the ability of Aeglemarmelos fruit extract to prevent pathological changes and oxidative stress after isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats. In vitro studies showed that Aeglemarmelos fruit extract possesses antioxidant activity. Administration of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, however, cardiac tissue analyses showed decreased activity of the above enzymes compared to experimental control rats. Further, isoproterenol administration significantly increased plasma and cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lowered the activities of cardiac tissue superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase when compared to control groups. Pretreatment with Aeglemarmelos fruit extract at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for a period of 45 days significantly prevented the observed alterations. Our data suggest that Aeglemarmelos fruit extract exerts its protective effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and elevating antioxidants status in isoproterenol treated rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction model emphasize the beneficial action of Aeglemarmelos fruit extract as a cardioprotective agent. PMID:22573921
High frequency plantlet regeneration was achieved in cotyledonary nodes of Aeglemarmelos. Cotyledonary nodes from 1 mo. old in vitro grown seedlings of A. marmelos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzyl adenine (BA) (0–8.8 ?M), kinetin (KIN) (0–9.4 ?M),\\u000a and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0–1.14 ?M) either alone or in combinations. The highest regenerative response was observed\\u000a on medium containing
Pranati Nayak; P. R. Behera; Thirunavoukkarasu Manikkannan
In existing study, we carried out an efficient record of the comparative antioxidant activity in methanolic extract of the selected parts (leaves, root and stem bark) of Aeglemarmelos. Total content of phenol and flavonoid was quantitatively estimated in different parts of A. marmelos. The total phenolic contents varied from 9.8367±0.0235 to 1.7281±0.049mgg?1. Total flavonoid contents were between 8.248±0.029 and
Nadeem A. Siddique; Mohd Mujeeb; Abul K. Najmi; H. N. Khan; Humaira Farooqi
The effect of various concentrations of Aeglemarmelos (AME) on the doxorubicin (DOX)-induced genotoxic effects in mice bone marrow was studied. Treatment of mice with different concentrations of DOX resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic (MPCE) as well as normochromatic (MNCE) erythrocytes in mouse bone marrow. The frequencies of MPCE and MNCE increased with scoring
A series of phenylethyl cinnamides, which included new compounds named anhydromarmeline (1), aegelinosides A (7) and B (8), were isolated from Aeglemarmelos leaves as ?-glucosidase inhibitors. The structures of new compounds were characterized by spectroscopic data and chemical degradation. Of compounds isolated, anhydroaegeline (2) revealed the most potent inhibitory effect against ?-glucosidase with IC50 value of 35.8?M. The present
The fixed oil from the seeds ofAeglemarmelos Corr. has been investigated in detail. Palmitic and oleic acids have been found to be the major constituents of the oil followed\\u000a by linoleic, linolenic and smaller amounts of Stearic acids.
BackgroundPlants have served as a natural source of antifertility substances. The reactivated interest in the evaluation of some lead plants for fertility prompted us to undertake studies on the antifertility potential of Aeglemarmelos leaves.
The serial extracts of the leaves of Aeglemarmelos Corr. were investigated for anti-inflammatory property. The analgesic and antipyretic properties were also evaluated. The most of the extracts derived from the plant Aeglemarmelos caused a significant inhibition of the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton-pellet granuloma in rats. The extracts also produced marked analgesic activity by reduction the early and
The methanol extract of the root of Aeglemarmelos, a medicinal plant, was frac- tionated into eight fractions using column chromatography. The antidiabetic activity of all the fractions was studied using the glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm in vitro model. Using the bioassay-guided fractionation, two compounds 1 and 2 were isolated by column chromatography and identi- fied as 6-methyl-4-chromanone
Subban Ravi; C. T. Sadashiva; T. Tamizmani; T. Balasubramanian; M. Rupeshkumar; Indira Balachandran
This study reports on an improved protocol for callus induction and subsequent regeneration from nodal segment of wood apple (Aeglemarmelos L.) Creamish friable competent callus was achieved from nodal segments on MS medium augmented with 4.0 mg1 -1 2,4-D within two weeks of inoculation. The callus produced large number of shoots when cultured on MS medium fortified with 2.0
Ranjoy Das; M. Faruk Hasan; Harunar Rashid; Motiur Rahman
The radioprotective effect of a hydroalcoholic extracted material from the fruit of Aeglemarmelos (AME) was studied in mice exposed to different doses of&ggr;radiation. The optimum dose for radioprotection was determined by administering 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg\\/kg body weight of AME intraperitoneally (ip) once daily, consecutively for 5 days before exposure to 10 Gy of&ggr;radiation. A
Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy, living, and symptomless tissues of inner bark, leaf, and roots of Aeglemarmelos, a well-known medicinal plant, growing in different parts of India including Varanasi. A total of 79 isolates of endophytic\\u000a fungi were isolated, representing 21 genera, adopting a standard isolation protocol. Members of the deuteromycotina were more\\u000a prevalent than ascomycotina and others.
S. K. Gond; V. C. Verma; A. Kumar; V. Kumar; R. N. Kharwar
Changes in fatty acid, phospholipid and galactolipid contents during cellular and organ differentiation in Aeglemarmelos have been described. Decrease in phosphatidylinositol content and presence of 3-trans-hexadecenoic acid in phosphatidylglycerol were related to greening and shoot buds differentiation. The galactolipids level, the monogalactosyl diglyceride\\/digalactosyl diglyceride ratio and the linolenic acid level (mainly in monogalactosyl diglyceride) increased with the degree of
Analysis of the leaf oil of Aeglemarmelos (L.) Correa, Rutaceae, by capillary GC and GC\\/MS resulted in the identification of 35 components comprising 99.6% of the total oil. The oil was constituted mainly of monoterpene compounds (93.6%), ?-phellandrene (39–2%), limonene (26.8%),?P-phellandrene (16.2%) and ?-pinene (6.6%) were the major constituents found.
P. M. Raju; S. S. Agarwal; Mohamed Ali; Arturo Velasco-Negueruela; María José Pérez-Alonso
To study the effects of Aeglemarmelos on the testicular reproductive system, a 50% ethanolic extract of Aeglemarmelos leaves (AMLEt) was fed orally to male albino rats at the dose levels of 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt./day for 60 days. Recovery was assessed for an additional 120 days. Oral administration of AMLEt did not cause body weight loss. The motility and sperm concentration were significantly reduced along with complete inhibition of fertility at a dose of 300 mg/kg. The level of serum testosterone also declined and spermatogenesis was impaired. The number of normal tubules and the height of epithelial cells of the caput and cauda were reduced significantly. The cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells and mature Leydig cells was reduced along with a dose dependent reduction of preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes. Thus the antifertility effects of Aeglemarmelos seemed to be mediated by disturbances in structure and function in testicular somatic cells including Leydig and Sertoli cells resulting in an alteration in physio-morphological events of spermatogenesis. However, complete recovery was observed after a 120 day withdrawal. PMID:19052962
In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of Aeglemarmelos methanolic extract on diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiated and 2-acetyl aminofluorene (2-AAF) promoted liver carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Interestingly, it was found that A. marmelos (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) resulted in a marked reduction of the incidence of liver tumors, which was further confirmed with histopathology. Furthermore to understand the underlying mechanisms of chemoprevention potential of A. marmelos, we evaluated the levels of hepatic antioxidant defence enzymes, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and hepatic DNA synthesis as a marker for tumor promotion since a direct correlation between these marker parameters and carcinogenicity have been well documented. Treatment of male Wistar rats for five consecutive days with 2-AAF induced significant hepatic toxicity, oxidative stress and hyper-proliferation. Pretreatment of A. marmelos extract (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) prevented oxidative stress and toxicity by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes at both the doses. The promotion parameters (ODC activity and DNA synthesis) induced by 2-AAF administration in diet with partial hepatectomy (PH) were also significantly suppressed dose-dependently by A. marmelos. Therefore, we can conclude that ultimately the protection against liver carcinogenesis by A. marmelos methanolic extract might be mediated by multiple actions, which include restoration of cellular antioxidant enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, ODC activity and DNA synthesis. PMID:21417629
This study was designed to elucidate the toxicity of the widely used plant Aeglemarmelos in rats. We have taken total alcoholic, total aqueous, whole aqueous and methanolic extracts isolated from the leaves of A. marmelos and studied their toxic effects. Acute, subacute and LD(50) values were determined in experimental rats. The dead animals were obtained from primary screening studies, LD(50) value determination experiments and acute studies subjected to postmortem studies. The external appearance of the dead animals, the appearance of the viscera, heart, lungs, stomach, intestine, liver, kidney, spleen and brain were carefully noted and any apparent and significant features or differences from the norm were recorded. Following the chronic administration of A. marmelos for 14 days, the vital organs such as heart, liver, kidney, testis, spleen and brain were carefully evaluated by histopathological studies and any apparent and significant changes or differences from the norm were studied. From the acute administration of A. marmelos, the LD(50) values were determined using graphical method. The hearts stopped in systolic stand-still in the acute experiments. There were no remarkable changes noticed in the histopathological studies after 50 mg/kg body wt of the extracts of A. marmelos when administered intraperitoneally for 14 days successively. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. After calculation of LD(50) values using graphical methods, we found a broad therapeutic window and a high therapeutic index value for A. marmelos extracts. Intraperitoneal administration of the extracts of the leaves of A. marmelos at doses of 50, 70, 90 and 100 mg/kg body wt for 14 consecutive days to male and female Wistar rats did not induce any short-term toxicity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the extracts of the leaves of A. marmelos have a high margin of drug safety. PMID:16860551
Veerappan, A; Miyazaki, S; Kadarkaraisamy, M; Ranganathan, D
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of a Thai medicinal plant, Aeglemarmelos, and a non-caloric sweetener, Stevia rebaudiana, on the reproduction of female rats. Female rats were treated orally with aqueous extract of A. marmelos (6%) and S. rebaudiana at various concentrations (0, 0.2, 1, or 10%) for 60 days (1 ml\\/day) before mating. The
Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering activity of topical application of the aqueous extract of Aeglemarmelos fruit in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: New Zealand white rabbits with normal and experimentally elevated IOP using water loading and steroid-induced models were included in this study. The IOP-lowering effect of A. marmelos fruit extract
Renu Agarwal; Suresh Kumar Gupta; Sushma Srivastava; Rohit Saxena; S. S. Agrawal
A new anthraquinone, 1-methyl-2-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyloxy)-anthraquinone (1) has been isolated from seeds of Aeglemarmelos Correa and was characterized on the basis of spectral analysis (UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and mass spectroscopy). The compound exhibited significant antifungal activity against pathogenic strains of Aspergillus species and Candida albicans in disc diffusion assay (MIC value of 6.25 microg/disc), microbroth dilution and percent spore germination inhibition assays (MIC value of 31.25-62.5 microg/ml). PMID:19686813
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aeglemarmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aeglemarmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aeglemarmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aeglemarmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178
This paper describes a simple and efficient procedure based on the green method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles with a relatively narrow distribution in size. Stable silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by using Aeglemarmelos (Vilvam) plant extract as both the reducing and stabilizing agents. The amount of silver nanoparticles synthesized and its qualitative characterization was done by UV-Visible
A rare alkaloid, shahidine (1), having an unstable oxazoline core has been isolated as a major constituent from the fresh leaves of Aeglemarmelos. It is moisture-sensitive, and found to be the parent compound of aegeline and other amides, however, it is stable in dimethyl sulfoxide. Its structure was established by spectroscopic analysis. Biogenetically, oxazolines may be considered as the
Aeglemarmelos is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, cancer chemopreventive properties were evaluated on 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. A single topical application of DMBA, followed 2 weeks later by repeated application of croton oil till the end of the experiment ( i.e. 16 weeks) caused a 100% tumor incidence. In contrast, mice treated with the AME (50 mg/kg b. wt./animal/day) in the peri-initiational phase (i.e. 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application; Group IV) and post-initiational phase (from the day of croton oil treatment till the end of the experiment; Group V), exhibited a significant reduction to 70 and 50% respectively. The cumulative number of papillomas after 16 weeks was 67 in the control group, but 26 and 23 in the animals treated with AME at peri-initiational and post-initiational stages, respectively. The tumor burden and tumor yield were significantly decreased (Group IV-3.7, 2.6; Group V- 4.6, 2.3) as compared to carcinogen treated control group (6.7, 6.7). The present study demonstrates the chemopreventive potential of Aeglemarmelos fruit extract on DMBA induced skin tumorigenesis in mice. PMID:21198283
Chemoprevention is a novel approach to study the anti-initiating and anti-tumor-promoting efficacy of medicinal plants and their active principles. The present study investigated the chemopreventive potential of Aeglemarmelos fruit extract in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin carcinogenesis and its influence on oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system. The oral administration of A marmelos at 100 mg/kg body weight/day during peri-initiational, postinitiational, and peri- & postinitiational phases of papillomagenesis showed significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, tumor burden, and cumulative number of papillomas when compared with carcinogen-treated control. The average latent period significantly increased (7.88 weeks; control group) to 9.45, 11.11, and 11.54 weeks in different A marmelos extract (AME) experimental groups. Enzyme analysis of skin and liver showed a significant elevation in antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and vitamin C in AME-treated groups when compared with the carcinogen-treated control. The elevated level of lipid peroxidation in the positive control was significantly inhibited by AME administration. These results indicate that AME has the potential to reduce chemical-induced skin papillomas by enhancing the antioxidant defense system. PMID:21862519
Objective: To study analgesic activity and to evaluate the involvement of opioid and monoamines in the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of leaves of Aeglemarmelos. Materials and Methods: Analgesic activity of methanol extract (ME) of A. marmelos alone (75,150 and 300mg/kg orally) and in combination with morphine or venlafaxine (subanalgesic) were studied using tail flick test and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The effect of pre-treatment with opioid antagonist naltrexone 1mg/kg was also studied on antinociception induced due to ME. Result: ME produced a dose-dependent significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick test and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. (P<0.05) Administration of subanalgesic dose of ME with morphine or venlafaxine also resulted in significant (P<0.05) antinociceptive activity in both the pain models. Pre-treatment with naltrexone inhibited analgesic activity induced by ME alone and combination with morphine or venlafaxine. Conclusion: A.marmelos in induced antinociception is mediated through both opioid and monoaminergic pain pathways, suggest its possible use in chronic pain.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of methanolic extracts of Aeglesmarmelos and Syzygium cumini on a battery of targets glucose transporter (Glut-4), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPAR?) and phosphatidylinositol 3? kinase (PI3 kinase) involved in glucose transport. A. marmelos and S. cumini are anti-diabetic medicinal plants being used in Indian traditional medicine. Different
R. Anandharajan; S. Jaiganesh; N. P. Shankernarayanan; R. A. Viswakarma; A. Balakrishnan
Background Aeglemarmelos (L.) Correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. However, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. Hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos for its antimicrobial activity and effect on various aspects of pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. Methods The decoction was assessed for its antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities. The effect of the decoction on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells were assessed as a measure of its effect on colonization. The effect of the decoction on production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid receptor (GM1) were assessed by GM1-enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay whereas its effect on production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay. Results The decoction showed cidal activity against Giardia and rotavirus whereas viability of none of the six bacterial strains tested was affected. It significantly reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. The extract also affected production of CT and binding of both LT and CT to GM1. However, it had no effect on ST. Conclusion The decoction of the unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos, despite having limited antimicrobial activity, affected the bacterial colonization to gut epithelium and production and action of certain enterotoxins. These observations suggest the varied possible modes of action of A. marmelos in infectious forms of diarrhoea thereby validating its mention in the ancient Indian texts and continued use by local communities for the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases.
The present investigation was aimed at optimizing the conditions for preparing sulfated derivative of gum obtained from partially ripe fruits of Aeglemarmelos. Elemental analysis, FTIR-ATR and NMR studies confirmed successful sulfation. The ratio of chlorosulfonic acid to pyridine exerted maximum influence on the degree of substitution followed by reaction temperature and reaction time. The sulfated derivative showed higher swelling in both acidic and alkaline pH as compared to unmodified gum. It also possessed higher negative zeta potential, higher viscosity, work of shear, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity as compared to both unmodified gum as well as sodium alginate. Sulfated derivative was superior to unmodified gum and sodium alginate in terms of antimicrobial and anticoagulant activity. The sulfated sample appears to be a potential substitute over the unmodified gum sample and sodium alginate for modulating physicochemical properties of food and drug release dosage forms. PMID:23399204
Jindal, Manish; Rana, Vikas; Kumar, Vineet; Singh, Ram S; Kennedy, John F; Tiwary, Ashok K
The aim of this study is to determine the affinity of six active compounds of AegleMarmelos Correa, they are (E, R)-Marmin, skimmianine, (S)-aegeline, aurapten, zeorin, and dustanin as antihistamines in histamine H1 receptor in comparison to cetirizin, diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine as ligands comparison. Previously, in the in vitro study marmin obviously antagonized the histamine H1 receptor in a competitive manner. Methods: molecular docking to determine the interaction of ligand binding to its receptor. Lower docking score indicates more stable binding to that protein. Results: Marmin, skimmianine, aegeline, aurapten, zeorin, and dustanin were potential to develop as antihistamine agents, especially as histamine H1 receptor antagonists by interacting with amino acid residues, Asp107, Lys179, Lys191, Asn198, and Trp428 of histamine H1 receptor. Conclusions: Based on molecular docking, Amino acid residues involved in ligand protein interactions were Asp107, Lys179, Lys191, Asn198, and Trp428.
Nugroho, Agung Endro; Agistia, Dany Dwi; Tegar, Maulana; Purnomo, Hari
In the present paper we show that extracts from Aeglemarmelos Correa are able to inhibit the in vitro proliferation of human tumor cell lines, including the leukemic K562, T-lymphoid Jurkat, B-lymphoid Raji, erythroleukemic HEL, melanoma Colo38, and breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Molecules present within the studied Aeglemarmelos C. extracts were identified by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry analysis; three derivatives (butyl p-tolyl sulfide, 6-methyl-4-chromanone and butylated hydroxyanisole) were found to exhibit strong activity in inhibiting in vitro cell growth of human K562 cells. The antiproliferative activity of these compounds was found to be comparable to that of known antitumor agents, including cisplatin, chromomycin, cytosine arabinoside and 5-fluorouracil. In addition, the antiproliferative activity of butyl-p-tolyl sulfide, 6-methyl-4-chromanone and 5-methoxypsolaren was associated to activation of the differentiation pattern of K562 cells. PMID:12809360
Lampronti, I; Martello, D; Bianchi, N; Borgatti, M; Lambertini, E; Piva, R; Jabbar, S; Choudhuri, M Shahabuddin Kabir; Khan, M Tareq Hassan; Gambari, R
Graded doses of 50% ethanolic extract of dried fruit pulp of Aeglemarmelos (AME) (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) daily for 14 days in acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in rats showed 200 mg/kg of AME as an optimal effective dose against AA-induced colonic damage score and weight. This dose (200 mg/kg; po) was further studied in AA-induced colitis for its effects on various physical (mucous/blood in stool, food and water intake and body weight changes), histology, antibacterial activity and biochemical parameters like free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and myeloperoxidase (acute-inflammatory marker) activities in rat colonic tissue. AME decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (macroscopic and microscopic), mucous/bloody diarrhea, fecal frequency and increased body weight affected in AA-induced colitis. AME showed significant antibacterial activity and enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities thereby decreasing tissue damage and inflammation and thus, affording ulcer healing. The above effects of A. marmelos authenticated its use in indigenous system of Medicine. PMID:23923609
Gautam, M K; Ghatule, R R; Singh, A; Purohit, V; Gangwar, M; Kumar, Mohan; Goel, R K
Rapid clonal multiplication of Aeglemarmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), a medicinal tree, was achieved by enhanced axillary bud proliferation in young single-node segments\\u000a of a 25-year-old tree cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) nutrient medium. Bud break was dependent on cytokinin supply, but\\u000a the synergistic combination of 2.5 mg l–1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1.0 mg l–1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced
Brassinosteroids are of universal occurrence in plants. They have been reported to affect plant growth and development through\\u000a a spectrum of physiological responses. Recently they are reported to confer resistance in plants against a number of biotic\\u000a and abiotic stresses. In the present study, a brassinosteroid was isolated from Aeglemarmelos Correa. (Rutaceae) which was characterized to be 24-epibrassinolide (EBL)
Analysis of the leaf oil of Aeglemarmelos afforded the identification of eight monoterpene hydrocrabons (71.85%), ten oxygenated monoterpenes (8.54%), four sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (14.02%) and one oxygenated sesquiterpene (0.78%). Of the more than 20 compounds identified, myrcene (54.03%) was found to predominate. Among the compounds identified by spectroscopic and chemical means, p-menth-l-en-3?,5?-diol (1.04%) was characterized as a new constituent.
Cassia auriculata and Aeglemarmelos are used extensively in the indigenous system of medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. The current investigation focuses on the serum insulin augmentation, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic property of a combined aqueous extracts of C.auriculata and A.marmelos on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The diabetes induced animals were fed with plant extracts at the increasing dosage of 250mg,
A. Sivaraj; K. Devi; S. palani; P. Vinoth; B. Senthil; E. David
The present study was performed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Aeglemarmelos leaves (AML) on diabetic rats. Male albino rats were randomly divided into three groups: Group I: Control; Group II: Diabetic rats; and Group III: Diabetic rats administered AML. Glucose, urea and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in plasma, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in erythrocytes were estimated in all the groups at the end of four weeks. There was a decrease in blood glucose at the end of four weeks in group III animals compared with group II, however it did not reach the control levels. There was an increase in erythrocyte GSH and a decrease in MDA in group III as compared to group II. The plasma GST levels were raised in diabetic rats when compared to controls. In the group III animals, there was a decrease in GST as compared to group II. Owing to hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties, AML may be useful in the long-term management of diabetes. PMID:15907058
Aims and objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous root bark extract of Aeglemarmelos (Bilwa) in experimental acute and chronic inflammatory animal models. Materials and Methods: Aqueous extract of root bark of Bilwa was prepared and tested for anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats weighing 150-280 grams. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 each; one group served as control and other two groups received indomethacin and Bilwa orally 1 hour prior to experimentation. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was studied using the acute (Carrageenan induced paw edema) and chronic (Cotton pellet induced granuloma) animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity was expressed as Percent inhibition (PI). Statistical analysis was performed using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The PI with indomethacin and Bilwa in carrageenan induced paw edema were 52.7% and 46% and in cotton pellet induced granuloma were 24.7% and 9.2% respectively. Indomethacin showed highly significant anti-inflammatory activity in both the models. However, Bilwa showed highly significant activity in acute model and but a trend of anti-inflammatory activity in chronic model studied. Conclusions: As Bilwa showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the models studied, it can be a promising anti-inflammatory agent.
Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Aeglemarmelos unripe fruit extract (AMFE) on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Effect of AMFE was studied on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis (1 ml of 4% acetic acid solution, transrectal) and indomethacin-induced enterocolitis (10 mg/kg, single dose, p.o) in Wistar albino rats. The extract was administered orally at different dose of 150, 200 and 250 mg/kg body weight. Disease pathogenesis was assessed by measuring disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic score, microscopic score, mesenteric mast cell protection, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels in the above two models. Results: The results showed a dose dependent decrease in intestinal inflammation following treatment with AMFE. Significant protection in mast cell degranulation was observed in acetic acid and indomethacin-induced IBD models. Treatment with AMFE significantly decreased the MDA levels and increased SOD activity. Conclusion: In our study, AMFE produced anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and mast cell stabilizing effects demonstrating protective effect in inflammatory bowel disease.
Pectin of Aeglemarmelos (AP) ripe fruits processed in equal proportion with chitosan (CH) formed films that exhibited minimum swelling index and volume index on exposure to buffers of acidic and alkaline pH. Highest contact angle and spreading coefficient coupled with lowest work of adhesion in all buffers for this film suggested availability of limited number of functional groups for interaction with water molecules due to optimum cross-linking between -NH(3)(+) groups of CH and -COO(-) groups of AP. This contention was substantiated by the presence of almost negligible charge on this film. The endothermic transition ?H characteristic of -NH(3)(+)-COO(-) cross-linking between groups in this film was observed to decrease by only 1% after its sequential exposure to pH 1.2 (3 h) and pH 7.4 (6 h). Furthermore, the absence of pores or erosion in the scanning electron photomicrograph suggested the versatility of this film due to its resistance to acidic and alkaline pH. PMID:23107804
Jindal, Manish; Kumar, Vineet; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, A K
In an effort to test the hypoglycemic activity of Aeglemarmelos and Hibiscus rosa sinensis in glucose induced hyperglycemic rats, their alcoholic leaf extracts were studied. Both the groups of animals receiving either. A. marmelos or H. rosa sinensis leaf extract for seven consecutive days, at an oral dose equivalent to 250 mg kg-1 showed significant improvements in their ability to utilize the external glucose load. Average blood glucose lowering caused by A. marmelos and H. rosa sinensis was 67% and 39% respectively, which shows that former significantly (p < 0.001) improves the glucose tolerance curve. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with both the plants. Efficacy of A. marmelos and H. rosa sinensis was 71% and 41% of glybenclamide, respectively. These data throw some light on the possible mechanism of hypoglycemic activity of both the plants. The mechanism of action could be speculated partly to increased utilization of glucose, either by direct stimulation of glucose uptake or via the mediation of enhanced insulin secretion. PMID:11480352
Sachdewa, A; Raina, D; Srivastava, A K; Khemani, L D
Lectins are a class of ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins that are abundantly found in nature. Lectins have unique carbohydrate binding property and hence have been exploited as drugs against various infectious diseases. We have isolated one such novel lectin from the fruit pulp of Aeglemarmelos. The isolated lectin was partially characterised and its effect against Shigella dysenteriae infection was evaluated. The isolated lectin was found to be a dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, mannose and sialic acid binding specificity. The effect of Aeglemarmelos fruit lectin on the adherence of Shigella dysenteriae to human colonic epithelial cells (HT29 cells) was evaluated by Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay and invasion was analysed. The protective nature of the Aeglemarmelos fruit lectin was assessed by analyzing apoptosis through dual staining method. Aeglemarmelos fruit lectin significantly inhibited hemagglutination activity of Shigella and its minimum inhibitory concentration is 0.625 µg/well. Further, at this concentration lectin inhibited Shigella dysenteriae adherence and invasion of HT29 cells and protects the HT29 cells from Shigella dysenteriae induced apoptosis. To conclude, isolated lectin dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, Mannose and sialic acid binding specificity and inhibits adherence and invasion of Shigellae to HT29 cells thus, protects the host. PMID:21283697
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of methanol extract of Aeglemarmelos (AM) leaves as well as its interaction with conventional anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs using elevated plus maze and tail suspension test in mice. Albino mice were treated with AM (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, po), imipramine (20 mg/kg, po), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, po), and combination of sub-effective dose of AM with imipramine or fluoxetine. Effects were observed on (a) time spent on (b) number of entries into (c) number of stretch attend postures (d) number of head dips in arms of elevated plus maze and on duration of immobility in tail suspension test. Effects of pretreatment with prazosin (0.062 mg/kg, po), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, po) and baclofen (10 mg/kg, po) were also studied on AM induced decrease in duration of immobility. Effects of AM (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg po) were observed on locomotor activity using photoactometer. Results showed that AM significantly (P<0.05) and dose dependently increased proportionate time spent on and number of entries into open arms while decreased number of stretch attend postures and head dips in closed arms. Dose dependent and significant (P<0.05) anti-immobility effect was found in mice treated with AM. Combination of AM (75 mg/kg, po) with imipramine (5 mg/ kg, po) or fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, po) also produced significant (P<0.05) anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Antidepressant activity of AM (150 mg/kg, po) was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by prazosin, haloperidol and baclofen. Methanol extract showed insignificant (P>0.05) effect on locomotor activity of mice. It is concluded that AM possess potential anxiolytic and antidepressant activities and it enhances the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of imipramine and fluoxetine. PMID:21675029
This study assessed the chemopreventive potential of the Aeglemarmelos plant on mouse skin tumorigenesis initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by croton oil. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor multiplicity, and the cumulative number of papillomas, along with a significant increase in the average latent period, was recorded in mice treated orally with A. marmelos extract (AME) at peri - and post-initiation phases (i.e., 7 days before DMBA application and continued until the end of the experiment) of papillomagenesis as compared with the carcinogen-treated controls. Furthermore, a significant increase in catalase activity, reduced glutathione and total proteins, and a depleted level of lipid peroxidation were observed in liver and skin of AME-treated animals as compared with the carcinogen-treated controls. Thus, the oral administration of AME, at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt per day per animal, was found to be significantly effective in reducing skin tumors against chemical carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:22126618
In the present work, the effect of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Aeglemarmelos Corr. on guinea pig isolated ileum and tracheal chain was investigated, as this plant is used traditionally to treat asthma and related afflictions. These effects were investigated using the isolated organ bath method. 1mg\\/ml and 2mg\\/ml doses of the alcoholic extract of this plant
Taxol is an important anticancer drug widely used in the clinic. An endophytic fungus Bartalinia robillardoides (strain AMB-9) was isolated from Aeglemarmelos, a medicinal plant and screened for taxol production. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of the fungal culture\\u000a and the characteristics of the spores. This fungus was grown in MID liquid medium and analyzed chromatographically
Introduction: We demonstrate the effect of Aeglemarmelos leaf extract (AMLEt) and alpha- tocopherol on plasma lipids, lipid peroxides and marker enzymes in rats with isoproterenol (ISO)- induced myocardial infarction. Methods: Rats were pre-treated orally for 35 days with different doses of an aqueous AMLEt (50 mg\\/ kg, 100 mg\\/kg and 200 mg\\/kg) prior to ISO-induced myocardial infarction. The effects
The essential oil of Aeglemarmelos L. Correa (Rutaceae) showed strong fungitoxicity against some storage fungi-causing contamination of foodstuffs. The oil also showed efficacy as aflatoxin suppressor at 500 microL/L as it completely arrested the aflatoxin B(1) production by the toxigenic strains (Navjot 4NSt and Saktiman 3NSt) of Aspergillus flavus Link. Keeping in view the side effects of synthetic fungicides, A. marmelos oil may be recommended as an antimicrobial of plant origin to enhance the shelf life of stored food commodities by controlling the fungal growth as well as aflatoxin secretion. This is the 1st report on aflatoxin B(1) inhibitory nature of this oil. A. marmelos oil may be recommended as a novel plant-based antimicrobial in food protection over synthetic preservatives, most of which are reported to incite environmental problems because of their nonbiodegradable nature and side effects on mammals. The LD(50) of Aegle oil was found to be 23659.93 mg/kg body weight in mice (Mus musculus L.) when administered for acute oral toxicity showing nonmammalian toxicity of the oil. GC-MS analysis of the oil found DL-Limonene to be major component. PMID:19723215
The present study was conducted to evaluate the contraceptive effect of an aqueous extract from the leaves of Aeglemarmelos (AMLAq) on the reproductive organs of male rats with an emphasis on reversibility. Adult male rats were treated daily with different doses of AMLAq, i.e., 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg bw/day for 60 days. The data presented in this study demonstrate that the weight of the reproductive organs was reduced significantly in all the treatment groups. AMLAq induced a significant decrease in the sperm motility and sperm density of the Cauda epididymis and testes. The reduction in fertility was 50%, 85% and 100%, respectively, in the treatment groups. The testosterone level also significantly declined. Biochemical analysis of the reproductive tissues for sialic acid, protein, glycogen, fructose, ascorbic acid, acid and alkaline phosphatase indicated a significant decrease whereas testicular cholesterol level significantly increased indicating alterations in the biochemical milieu of the genital organs. Fertility and other effects gradually returned to control levels 120 days after cessation of treatment. No clinical signs of side effects on general metabolism were detected throughout the treatment, and after withdrawal, body weight gain was similar in all groups together with no alterations in the weight of vital organs', hematological and serological parameters. PMID:19802961
Marmin or 7-(6',7'-dihydroxygeranyl-oxy)coumarin is a compound isolated from Aeglemarmelos Correa. In the study, we examined the effects of marmin on the contraction of guinea pig-isolated trachea stimulated by several inducers, namely histamine, metacholine, compound 48/80. We also evaluated its action against contraction induced by extracellular or intracellular calcium ion. The possibility of marmin to potentiate the relaxation effect of isoprenaline was also studied. Marmin added in the organ bath at 10 min prior to the agonist inhibited the contraction elicited by histamine and metacholine in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, marmin antagonized the histamine-induced contraction in competitive manner. Marmin mildly potentiated the relaxation effect of isoprenaline. In the study, marmin abrogated the contraction of tracheal smooth muscle induced by compound 48/80, an inducer of histamine release. Besides, marmin successfully inhibited CaCl(2)-induced contraction in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Marmin also inhibited two phases of contraction which were consecutively induced by metacholine and CaCl(2) in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Based on the results we concluded that marmin could inhibit contraction of the guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle, especially by interfering histamine receptor, inhibiting the histamine release from mast, inhibiting intracellular Ca(2+) release from the intracellular store and the Ca(2+) influx through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. PMID:21959801
Nugroho, Agung Endro; Anas, Yance; Arsito, Puguh Novi; Wibowo, Joko Tri; Riyanto, Sugeng; Sukari, Mohamad Aspollah
Aegeline or N-[2-hydroxy-2(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-3-phenyl-2-propenamide is a main alkaloid isolated from Aeglemarmelos Correa collected in Yogyakarta Indonesia. In our study, we investigated the effects of aegeline on the histamine release from mast cell. The study was performed by using (1) rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, and (2) rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). DNP(24)-BSA, thapsigargin, ionomycin, compound 48/80 and PMA were used as inducers for histamine release from mast cell. In our study, aegeline inhibited the histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells induced by DNP(24)-BSA. Indeed, aegeline showed strong inhibition when RBL-2H3 cells induced by Ca(2+) stimulants such as thapsigargin and ionomycin. Aegeline is suggested to influence the intracellular Ca(2+) pool only since could not inhibit the (45)Ca(2+) influx into RBL-2H3 cells. Aegeline showed weak inhibitory effects on the histamine release from RPMCs, even though still succeed to inhibit when the histamine release induced by thapsigargin. These findings indicate that aegeline altered the signaling pathway related to the intracellular Ca(2+) pool in which thapsigargin acts. Based on the results, the inhibitory effects of aegeline on the histamine release from mast cells depended on the type of mast cell and also involved some mechanisms related to intracellular Ca(2+) signaling events via the same target of the action of thapsigargin or downstream process of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in mast cells. PMID:21715270
Nugroho, Agung Endro; Riyanto, Sugeng; Sukari, Mohamad Aspollah; Maeyama, Kazutaka
A new 7-geranyloxycoumarin [7-(2,6-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-7-methyl-3-octaenyloxy) coumarin] named marmenol (1) has been isolated from the leaves of methanolic extract ofAegle marmelosbelonging to the family Rutaceae. In addition to marmenol, several known compounds have also been obtained for the first time from the same source. They include: praealtin D, trans-cinnamic acid, valencic acid, 4-methoxy benzoic acid, betulinic acid, N-p-cis- and trans-coumaroyltyramine, montanine, and
Steadily increasing resistance among Shigella to ?-lactams, aminoglycosides, and tetracycline has compromised the utility of these commonly used antimicrobial agents. Also, undesirable side effects of certain antibiotics have triggered immense interest in search of alternative therapies using medicinal plants. One such medicinal plant used since ancient times to cure diarrhea is Aeglemarmelos. The present study exemplifies the susceptibility of
The in vitro antimicrobial activity of serial petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts from leaves of Aegle mawmelos were investigated against bacterial and fungal species. All the extracts exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 10 to 22 mm against bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aenrginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, fungi: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Aspergillusflavus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentrations (MMC) of the extracts ranged from 1.25 to 10 mg/mL and 2.5 to 20 mg/mL respectively. Assessment of antibacterial efficacy of different extract revealed that Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli showed high susceptibility to petroleum ether extract. Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed high susceptibility to chloroform extract and Salmonella typhi showed high susceptibility to methanol extract. Petroleum ether extract exhibited the highest antifungal efficacy against all tested fungal species. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, sterols in petroleum ether and chloroform extracts, whereas tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and triterpenoids in methanol extract. The ability of the leaf extracts of Aegle manmelos to inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity which could be a potential source for development of novel bioactive antimicrobial agents. PMID:21928713
Kothari, Saroj; Mishra, Vaibhav; Bharat, Savita; Tonpay, Shrinivas D
We have identified a natural compound that activates apoptosis of epithelial cancer cells through activation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), TNF receptor (TNFR)-associated death domain (TRADD), and caspases. The molecule 1-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde (HDNC, marmelin) was isolated and characterized from ethyl acetate fraction of extracts of Aeglemarmelos. HDNC treatment inhibited the growth of HCT-116 colon cancer tumor xenografts in vivo. Immunostaining for CD31 showed that there was a significant reduction in microvessels in the HDNC-treated animals, coupled with decreased cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA. Using hexoseaminidase assay, we determined that HDNC inhibits proliferation of HCT-116 colon and HEp-2 alveolar epithelial carcinoma cells. Furthermore, the cancer cells showed increased levels of activated caspase-3 and induced G(1) cell cycle arrest, which was suppressed by caspase-3 inhibitors. HDNC induced TNF-alpha, TNFR1, and TRADD mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, caspase-8 and Bid activation, and cytochrome c release, were observed, suggesting the existence of a cross-talk between death receptor and the mitochondrial pathways. HDNC inhibited AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation both in cells in culture and in tumor xenografts. In addition, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assays showed that HDNC significantly suppressed TNF-alpha-mediated activation and translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). This was further confirmed by Western blot analysis of nuclear extracts wherein levels of RelA, the p65 component of NF-kappaB, were significantly less in cells treated with HDNC. Together, the data suggest that the novel compound HDNC (marmelin) is a potent anticancer agent that induces apoptosis during G(1) phase of the cell cycle and could be a potential chemotherapeutic candidate. PMID:18922933
We have identified a natural compound that activates apoptosis of epithelial cancer cells through activation of TNF-?, TRADD and caspases. The molecule, 1-hydroxy-5, 7-dimethoxy-2-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde (HDNC, marmelin) was isolated and characterized from ethyl acetate fraction of extracts of Aeglemarmelos. HDNC treatment inhibited the growth of HCT-116 colon cancer tumor xenografts in vivo. Immunostaining for CD31 showed that there was a significant reduction in microvessels in the HDNC-treated animals, coupled with decreased cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA. Using hexoseaminidase assay, we determined that HDNC inhibits proliferation of HCT-116 colon and HEp-2 alveolar epithelial carcinoma cells. Furthermore, the cancer cells showed increased levels of activated caspase-3 and induced G1 cell cycle arrest, which was suppressed by caspase-3 inhibitors. HDNC induced TNF-?, TNFR1, and TRADD mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, caspase-8 and Bid activation, and cytochrome C release was observed suggesting the existence of a crosstalk between death receptor and the mitochondrial pathways. HDNC inhibited AKT and ERK phosphorylation, both in cells in culture and in tumor xenografts. In addition, EMSA and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that HDNC significantly suppressed TNF-?-mediated activation and translocation of NF-?B. This was further confirmed by western blot analysis of nuclear extracts wherein levels of RelA, the p65 component of NF-?B was significantly less in cells treated with HDNC. Together, the data suggest that the novel compound HDNC (marmelin) is a potent anti-cancer agent that induces apoptosis during G1 phase of cell cycle and could be a potential chemotherapeutic candidate.
The antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect on early tumor promoter markers of A. marmelos (25 and 50 mg/Kg b. wt. orally) have been evaluated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated for seven consecutive days with A. marmelos prior to CCl4 (1 mL Kg(- 1) body weight p. o., in corn oil [1:1 v/v]) treatment. Pre-treatment with A. marmelos suppressed lipid peroxidation (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and release of serum toxicity marker enzymes viz, SGOT, LDH, SGPT dose-dependently and significantly (p < 0.001). Hepatic antioxidant status viz, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), quinone reductase (QR), catalase (CAT) were concomitantly restored in A. marmelos-treated groups (p < 0.001). In addition, A. marmelos pretreatment also prevented the CCl4-enhanced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and hepatic DNA synthesis significantly (p < 0.001). In conclusion, carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity was strikingly attenuated by A. marmelos treatment and the study gives some insight into the mechanisms involved in diminution of free radical generating toxicants and enhancement of the antioxidant armory, hence preventing further tissue damage, injury and hyperproliferation. Thus, these findings indicate that A. marmelos attenuates CCl4-mediated hepatic oxidative stress, toxicity, tumor promotion and subsequent cell proliferation response in Wistar rats. PMID:18830880
Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and is likely involved in the progression of pancreatic damage found in diabetes. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of Aeglemarmelos leaf extract, a medicinal plant, on the tissue antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Ethanol extract of A. marmelos was administered orally for 30 days (150 mg/kg body weight/day) to diabetic rats. Activity of the three primary scavenger enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), levels of glutathione, and lipid peroxidation were estimated in plasma and pancreas of diabetic rats and compared to the reference drug, glibenclamide (600 microg/kg body weight/day). A significant increase in the levels of plasma glucose, vitamin E, ceruloplasmin, lipid peroxides, and a concomitant decrease in the levels of vitamin C and reduced glutathione were observed in diabetic rats. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were altered in diabetic rats. These alterations were reverted back to near normal levels after treatment with A. marmelos and glibenclamide. Histopathological studies also revealed the protective effect of A. marmelos on pancreatic beta-cells. The present study indicates that extract of A. marmelos modulates the activity of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants and enhances the defense against reactive oxygen species-generated damage in diabetic rats. PMID:20307140
Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg\\/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly
The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes demands the rapid evaluation of new and accessible interventions. This study investigated whether Aeglemarmelos fruit aqueous extract (AMF; 250, 500 and 1000?mg/kg) improves insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and ?-cell dysfunction in high fat diet fed-streptozotocin (HFD-STZ)-induced diabetic rats by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) expression. The serum levels of glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function (HOMA-B), lipid profile, TNF-? and IL-6 were evaluated. Further, the TBARS level and SOD activity in pancreatic tissue and PPAR? protein expression in liver were assessed. In addition, histopathological and ultrastructural studies were performed to validate the effect of AMF on ?-cells. The HFD-STZ treated rats showed a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, TNF-?, IL-6, dyslipidemia with a concomitant decrease in HOMA-B and PPAR? expression. Treatment with AMF for 21?days in diabetic rats positively modulated the altered parameters in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AMF prevented inflammatory changes and ?-cell damage along with a reduction in mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling. These findings suggest that the protective effect of AMF in type 2 diabetic rats is due to the preservation of ?-cell function and insulin-sensitivity through increased PPAR? expression. PMID:21351301
Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly attenuated the elevated serum total cholesterol and triglycerides with an increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-fat diet- induced hyperlipidaemic rats. The standard drugs atorvastatin in the former and gemfibrozil in the latter studies showed slightly better effects. PMID:19405383
Doxorubicin is a common chemotherapeutic anticancer drug. Its use is associated with adverse effects including cardiotoxicity. Several therapeutics interventions have been attempted to reduce the toxicity and to improve the efficacy of the drug. However, on phytochemicals very few investigations have been made. In the present study we have evaluated the potential of a cardenolide, periplogenin, isolated from the leaves of Aeglemarmelos in protecting the doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in rats. Doxorubicin induced cardiac and hepatotoxicity were characterized by marked biochemical changes including an increase in serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and tissue LPO, with a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). It also increased the levels of different serum lipids, but decreased the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Cotherapy of the test cardenolide and doxorubicin for 4 weeks reversed all these adverse effects. However, out of three different concentrations (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg p.o.) of the test periplogenin, 25 mg/kg appeared to be most effective. When its efficacy was compared with that of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) the isolated compound exhibited a better therapeutic potential. The isolated periplogenin from the leaves of A. marmelos could potentially inhibit doxorubicin-induced cardiovascular problems in rats. However, its moderate dose was found to be most effective. PMID:19426248
Diabetes mellitus is a heterogenous metabolic disease characterized by altered carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. So many traditional herbs are being used by diabetic patients to control the disease. But very few studies are performed to investigate the efficacy of these herbs clinically. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate clinically the antidiabetic activity of Fenugreek
Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs.
Annetta Paule Watson; Dennis M Opresko; Robert A Young; Veronique Hauschild
The primary aim of the Acute Exposure Guideline Level (AEGL) program is to develop scientifically credible limits for once-in-a-lifetime or rare acute inhalation exposures to high-priority, hazardous chemicals. The program was developed because of the need of communities for information on hazardous chemicals to assist in emergency planning, notification, and response, as well as the training of emergency response personnel. AEGLs are applicable to the general population, including children, the elderly, and other potentially susceptible subpopulations. AEGLs are the airborne concentrations of chemicals above which a person could experience notable discomfort or irritation (AEGL-1); serious, long-lasting health effects (AEGL-2); and life-threatening effects or death (AEGL-3). AEGLs are determined for five exposure periods (10 and 30 min and 1, 4, and 8 h). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can be very useful in the interspecies and time scaling often required here. PBPK models are used for the current article to predict AEGLs for trichlorethylene (TCE), based on the time course of TCE in the blood and/or brain of rats and humans. These AEGLs are compared to values obtained by standard time-scaling methods. Comprehensive toxicity assessment documents for each chemical under consideration are prepared by the National Advisory Committee for AEGLs, a panel comprised of representatives of federal, state, and local governmental agencies, as well as industry and private-sector organizations. The documents are developed according to National Research Council (NRC) guidelines and must be reviewed by the NRC Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels before becoming final. AEGLs for 18 chemicals have been published, and it is anticipated that 40 to 50 chemicals will be evaluated annually. PMID:15192858
Bruckner, James V; Keys, Deborah A; Fisher, Jeffrey W
Problem statement: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli (EPEC ) continue to be a major health problem, leading to death due to diarrhea, p redominantly in children below the age of five. Due to evolution of multi drug resistance in EPEC and side effects caused to host by antibiotics necessitated a search for alternative medicines fro m medicinal plants. One such medicinal plant
Subramaniya Bharathi Raja; Raman Murali; G. K. Malathi; K. Anbarasu; S. Niranjali Devaraj
The primary aim of the Acute Exposure Guideline Level (AEGL) program is to develop scientifically credible limits for once-in-a-lifetime or rare acute inhalation exposures to high-priority, hazardous chemicals. The program was developed because of the need of communities for information on hazardous chemicals to assist in emergency planning, notification, and response, as well as the training of emergency response personnel.
James V. Bruckner; Deborah A. Keys; Jeffrey W. Fisher
Acidic epididymal glycoprotein (AEG), thus far identified only in rodents, is one of the sperm surface proteins involved in the fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human glycoprotein related to AEG. Although this protein, designated ARP (AEG-related protein), is not the ortholog of rodent AEG, it resembles AEG in that it is an epididymal secretory glycoprotein that binds to the postacrosomal region of the sperm head. The fact that no AEG mRNA can be detected in the human epididymis suggests that ARP might be the functional counterpart of rodent AEG. The gene encoding ARP (AEGL1) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to 6p21.1-p21.2. This result indicates that AEGL1 and the mouse gene for AEG are located in the chromosomal segments with conserved syntenies. 43 refs., 6 figs.
Hayashi, Masaru; Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Takano, Hiroko [Hokkaido Univ. School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [and others
Over 20,000 lipid extracts of plants and marine organisms were evaluated in a human breast tumor T47D cell-based reporter assay for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitory activity. Bioassay-guided isolation and dereplication-based structure elucidation of an active extract from the Bael tree (Aeglemarmelos) afforded two protolimonoids, skimmiarepin A (1) and skimmiarepin C (2). In T47D cells, 1 and 2 inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 0.063 and 0.068 ?M, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also suppressed hypoxic induction of the HIF-1 target genes GLUT-1 and VEGF. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 and 2 inhibited HIF-1 activation by blocking the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1? protein. At the range of concentrations that inhibited HIF-1 activation, 1 and 2 suppressed cellular respiration by selectively inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I (NADH dehydrogenase). Further investigation indicated that mitochondrial respiration inhibitors such as 1 and rotenone induced the rapid hyperphosphorylation and inhibition of translation initiation factor eIF2? and elongation factor eEF2. The inhibition of protein translation may account for the short-term exposure effects exerted by mitochondrial inhibitors on cellular signaling, while the suppression of cellular ATP production may contribute to the inhibitory effects following extended treatment periods. PMID:21875114
Light and electron microscopic examination of tissues of rats rendered diabetic with a smaller dose of 45 mg/kg of body weight of streptozotocin were carried out in the present study. The dose of the drug given altered the function of pancreatic beta-cells and the acinar cells. The changes in the acinar cells were coarsening of endoplasmic reticulation (ER) and alterations in their secretory function. The changes in the liver were (1) dialation of veins, (2) loss of usual concentric arrangement of hepatocytes, (3) liver fibrosis and (4) decrease in glycogen content. The kidney tubules were thickened and the glomerulus was expanded. The leaf extract of Aegle marmelose reversed the altered parameters to near normal. The treatment of leaf extract on diabetic pancreas showed improved functional state of pancreatic beta-cells. The results indicate the potential hypoglycemic nature of the leaf extract, helping in regeneration of damaged pancreas. PMID:8698423
Notch and Wnt/?-catenin signals play essential roles in intestinal development and homeostasis. Citrobacter rodentium induces transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) and various degrees of inflammation, depending upon the genetic background. We aimed at delineating the role of the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the regulation of colonic crypt hyperplasia and/or colitis following C. rodentium infection. During TMCH, relative levels of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) increased significantly, along with increases in Jagged-1 and Hes-1 coinciding with the progression and regression phases of hyperplasia. Blocking of Notch signaling with dibenzazepine (DBZ) for 5 days before the onset of hyperplasia also blocked Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Targeting the Notch pathway for 5 days after the onset of hyperplasia failed to inhibit Wnt/?-catenin-regulated crypt hyperplasia. Chronic DBZ administration for 10 days blocked both Notch and Wnt signaling, disrupted the intestinal barrier, and induced colitis. Core-3?/? mice, which are defective in mucin secretion and are susceptible to experimental triggers of colitis, also exhibited significant colitis in response to C. rodentium plus DBZ. Chronic DBZ administration in these mice did not result in depletion of the putative stem cell marker doublecortin-like kinase-1 (DCLK1) in the crypts. Dietary bael (Aeglemarmelos) extract (4%) and curcumin (4%) restored signaling via the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways, thereby promoting crypt regeneration, and also replenished the mucus layer, leading to amelioration of C. rodentium- and DBZ-induced colitis in NIH:Swiss mice. Thus, the balancing act between cell proliferation and mucus production to restore barrier integrity seems to depend upon the interplay between the Wnt/?-catenin and Notch pathways in the TMCH model.
Notch and Wnt/?-catenin signals play essential roles in intestinal development and homeostasis. Citrobacter rodentium induces transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) and various degrees of inflammation, depending upon the genetic background. We aimed at delineating the role of the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the regulation of colonic crypt hyperplasia and/or colitis following C. rodentium infection. During TMCH, relative levels of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) increased significantly, along with increases in Jagged-1 and Hes-1 coinciding with the progression and regression phases of hyperplasia. Blocking of Notch signaling with dibenzazepine (DBZ) for 5 days before the onset of hyperplasia also blocked Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Targeting the Notch pathway for 5 days after the onset of hyperplasia failed to inhibit Wnt/?-catenin-regulated crypt hyperplasia. Chronic DBZ administration for 10 days blocked both Notch and Wnt signaling, disrupted the intestinal barrier, and induced colitis. Core-3(-/-) mice, which are defective in mucin secretion and are susceptible to experimental triggers of colitis, also exhibited significant colitis in response to C. rodentium plus DBZ. Chronic DBZ administration in these mice did not result in depletion of the putative stem cell marker doublecortin-like kinase-1 (DCLK1) in the crypts. Dietary bael (Aeglemarmelos) extract (4%) and curcumin (4%) restored signaling via the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways, thereby promoting crypt regeneration, and also replenished the mucus layer, leading to amelioration of C. rodentium- and DBZ-induced colitis in NIH:Swiss mice. Thus, the balancing act between cell proliferation and mucus production to restore barrier integrity seems to depend upon the interplay between the Wnt/?-catenin and Notch pathways in the TMCH model. PMID:22710872
Relative importance of Bacopa monnieri (200 mg\\/kg), Aeglemarmelos (1.00 g\\/kg) and Aloe vera (125 mg\\/kg) leaf extracts in the regulation of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice was investigated. While serum levels of both T3 and T4 were inhibited by A. vera, A. marmelos extract could decrease only T3 concentration. On the other hand, T4 concentration was increased by
Diabetes and stress stimulate hippocampal 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and release. The present study was carried out to find the effects of insulin, Aegle marmelose alone and in combination with pyridoxine on the hippocampal 5-HT, 5-HT2A receptor subtype, gene expression studies on 5-HT2A, 5-HTT, INSR, immunohistochemical studies and elevated plus maze in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. 5-HT content showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) and a significant increase (p < 0.001) in 5-HIAA in hippocampus of diabetic rats compared to control. 5-HT receptor binding parameters Bmax and Kd showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) whereas 5-HT2A receptor binding parameters Bmax showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Kd in hippocampus of diabetic rats compared to control. Gene expression studies of 5-HT2A, 5-HTT and INSR in hippocampus showed a significant down regulation (p < 0.001) in diabetic rats compared to control. Pyridoxine treated in combination with insulin and A. marmelose to diabetic rats reversed the 5-HT content, Bmax , Kd of 5-HT, 5-HT2A and gene expression of 5-HT2A, 5-HTT and INSR in hippocampus to near control. The gene expression of 5-HT2A and 5-HTT were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Behavioural studies using elevated plus maze showed that serotonin through its transporter significantly increased (p < 0.001) anxiety-related traits in diabetic rats which were corrected by combination therapy. Our results suggest that pyridoxine treated in combination with insulin and A. marmelose has a role in the regulation of insulin synthesis and release, normalising diabetic related stress and anxiety through hippocampal serotonergic function. This has clinical significance in the management of diabetes.
Immunostimulants are the substances, which enhance the non-specific defence mechanism and provide resistance against the invading pathogenic micro-organism. In order to increase the immunity of shrimps against the WSSV, the methanolic extracts of five different herbal medicinal plants like Cyanodon dactylon, Aeglemarmelos, Tinospora cordifolia, Picrorhiza kurooa and Eclipta alba were selected and mixed thoroughly in equal proportion. The mixed
Mosquitoes have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adult emergence inhibition (EI) and adulticidal activity of the leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aeglemarmelos (Linn.) Correa ex
G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Bagavan; A. Abduz Zahir
Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aeglemarmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aeglemarmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aeglemarmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aeglemarmelos, methanol extracts Aeglemarmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aeglemarmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aeglemarmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Anopheles subpictus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the oviposition, ovicidal, and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:19707789
Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A
We studied the feeding, growth and reproductive behaviour of Papilio polytes (common mormon butterfly) on five different host plants, Murraya koenigii, Toddalia asiatica, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Aeglemarmelos and Citrus medica. The growth rate of P. polytes was fastest on M. koenigii followed by T. asiatica, C. medica, G. pentaphylla and A. marmelos. We related this to the nutrient contexts of the five plants. The plants T. asiatica and C. medica had higher water contents, which influenced the growth rate of the insect. M. koenigii was found to contain rich quantities of carbohydrate. M. koenigii, T. asiatica and C. medica were also rich in protein when compared to A. marmelos and G. pentaphylla. Total amino acid levels were comparatively higher in M. koenigii, T. asiatica, C. medica rather than A. marmelos and G. pentaphylla. PMID:20223241
The Notch and NF-?B signaling pathways regulate stem cell function and inflammation in the gut, respectively. We investigate whether a functional cross talk exists between the two pathways during transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) caused by Citrobacter rodentium (CR). During TMCH, NF-?B activity and subunit phosphorylation in colonic crypts of NIH Swiss mice at days 6 and 12 were associated with increases in downstream target CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)-1/keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) expression. Blocking Notch signaling acutely for 5 days with the Notch blocker dibenzazepine (DBZ) failed to inhibit crypt NF-?B activity or CXCL-1/KC expression. Chronic DBZ administration for 10 days, however, blocked Notch and NF-?B signaling in the crypts and abrogated hyperplasia. Intriguingly, chronic Notch inhibition was associated with significant increases in IL-1?, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, and KC in the crypt-denuded lamina propria or whole distal colon, with concomitant increases in myeloperoxidase activity. In core-3(-/-) mice, which are defective in intestinal mucin, DBZ administration replicated the results of NIH Swiss mice; in Apc(Min/+) mice, which are associated with CR-induced elevation of NF-?B-p65(276) expression, DBZ reversed the increase in NF-?B-p65(276), which may have blocked rapid proliferation of the mutated crypts. DBZ further blocked reporter activities involving the NF-?B-luciferase reporter plasmid or the Toll-like receptor 4/NF-?B/SEAPorter HEK-293 reporter cell line, while ectopic expression of Notch-N(ICD) reversed the inhibitory effect. Dietary bael (Aeglemarmelos) extract (4%) and curcumin (4%) restored Notch and NF-?B cross talk in NIH Swiss mice, inhibited CR/DBZ-induced apoptosis in the crypts, and promoted crypt regeneration. Thus functional cross talk between the Notch and NF-?B pathways during TMCH regulates hyperplasia and/or inflammation in response to CR infection. PMID:23203159
The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aeglemarmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis
Somatic embryos were induced from immature seeds of eight Citrus relatives including Aeglemarmelos, Atalantia ceylanica,\\u000a Citropsis gabunensis, Clausena excavata, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Microcitrus australasica, Murraya paniculata and Severinia\\u000a buxifolia on MT medium supplemented with 0.05 mg l?1 2,4-D, 0.05 mg l?1 BA and 400 mg l?1 malt extract. Approximately 20% of somatic embryos from six of the genera underwent callogenesis
Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aeglemarmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex
G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; A. Bagavan
Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate,\\u000a hexane, and methanol extracts of Aeglemarmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus
G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; C. Venkatesan
Shigella dysenteriae continues to be a major health problem, which leads to death, due to diarrhoea and dysentery, predominantly in children below the age of 5. Bacterial invasion of the colonic epithelium leads to severe inflammation together with bacterial dissemination generates abscesses and ulcerations. Periplasmic copper, zinc super oxide dismutase of Shigella protects it from exogenous superoxide produced by host, during its invasion. Hence, in present study an attempt was made to study the effect of aqueous extract of Aeglemarmelos on host and pathogen defence. Histology analysis of rat ileal loop showed the loss of virulence in aqueous extract of A. marmelos pre-treated Shigella and their intracellular survival was also decreased, where active component present in aqueous extract of A. marmelos was identified as imperatorin confirmed by UV absorption spectrum and HPLC. Increase in peripheral blood mononuclear cell viability and decreased in intracellular bacterial count along with transmission electron microscope analysis of imperatorin treated S. dysenteriae succumb to host oxidative stress. Loss of virulence is associated with attenuation of copper, zinc super oxide dismutase activity in Shigella, which was confirmed by using activity staining of bacterial cell lysate. Further, by performing docking analysis it has been proved that imperatorin present in aqueous extract of A. marmelos inhibited copper, zinc super oxide dismutase. From the above study, we concluded that Shigella succumb to oxidative stress (host defence) due to inhibition of copper, zinc super oxide dismutase (pathogen's defence) by imperatorin, an active compound aqueous extract of A. marmelos. PMID:21194882
In present study, the effect of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aeglemarmelos and Eugenia jambolana was studied on serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and on serum urea, total protein and albumin concentrations of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes in rats was induced by single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg i. p.). On confirming the diabetes after 48 h of injection, alcoholic extracts of three plants were administered orally in doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg/d for 30 d. Glibenclamide (300 mug/kg/d) was used as a reference drug for comparison. Streptozotocin diabetic rats showed a significant increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and serum urea concentration but a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin concentrations and albumin/globulin ratio. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aeglemarmelos and Eugenia jambolana in daily doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg for a period of 1 mo produced dose- and duration-dependent decrease in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities as well as decrease in serum urea concentration and restored the serum total protein and albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio to a great extent in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of these plants in 500 mg/kg dose in streptozotocin diabetic rats were comparable to that of glibenclamide (300 mug/kg), a standard oral hypoglycaemic drug used in clinical practice. PMID:20502588
The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aeglemarmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) and sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasitic activity was found in leaf ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extract of A. marmelos, A. paniculata, and C. hirsutus against H. bispinosa (LC(50)?= 395.27, 358.45, 327.21 and 420.50 ppm); ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, methanol extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and E. prostrata against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?= 207.70, 258.61, 134.09, 206.00, and 274.33 ppm); hexane extract of A. lineata, ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, E. prostrata, acetone extracts of T. erecta, methanol extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus against P. cervi (LC(50)?= 254.23, 451.17, 425.73, 253.60, 542.71, and 360.17 ppm), respectively. The present study is the first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20922419
Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aeglemarmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities.
The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bacteria tested and the MIC was recorded in range of 9.375-37.5 microg/ml and 75.0-300.0 microg/ml against the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The other extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria, Thevetia nerifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia Saraca asoca, Tamarindus indica, Aeglemarmelos, Acacia nilotica, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Mangifera indica, Woodfordia fruticosa and Phyllanthus emblica showed antimicrobial activity in a range of 75-1200 microg/ml. PMID:20161895
Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T K; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A M; Lavekar, G S
Larvicidal activity of crude chloroform, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the leaves and roots of six Indian plants, Aeglemarmelos L., Balanites aegyptica L., Calotropis gigantica L., Murraya koenigii L., Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. and Plumbago zeylanica L., were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects. However, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extracts of P. zeylanica roots and B. aegyptica roots against Ae.aegypti (LC50 169.61 mg/lit, 289.59 mg/lit) and An.stephensi (LC50 222.34 mg/lit, 102.29 mg/lit), respectively. The methanol extracts of plants were more effective than the other extracts. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach aid for the control of mosquito species, Ae. aegypti, and An.stephensi. PMID:21399575
Patil, S V; Patil, C D; Salunkhe, R B; Salunke, B K
The triterpenoid, lupeol (1) has been isolated from the leaves extract of Aeglemarmelos. Few novel derivatives (2-13) were synthesized from the naturally occurring lupeol (1) and screened for their antihyperglycemic activity (2-11) and antidyslipidemic activity (2-4 and 12-13). The derivative 4 lowered the blood glucose levels by 18.2% and 25.0% at 5h and 24h, respectively, in sucrose challenged streptozotocin induced diabetic rats (STZ-S) model at the dose of 100mg/kg body weight. The compound 4 also significantly lowered 40% (P <0.001) in triglycerides, 30% (P <0.05) in glycerol, 24% (P <0.05) in cholesterol quantity and also improved the HDL-cholesterol by 5% in dyslipidemic hamster model at the dose of 50mg/kg b.wt. PMID:19515563
Papi Reddy, K; Singh, A B; Puri, A; Srivastava, A K; Narender, T
In continuation of our drug discovery program on metabolic diseases, we identified an alkaloidal amide, that is, Aegeline (V) from the plant Aeglemarmelos leaves as a dual acting agent (antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic). We therefore synthesized a series of alkaloidal amides [N-(2-hydroxy-2-p-tolylethyl)-amides and N-(2-oxo-2-p-tolylethyl)-amide derivatives] related to Aegeline and screened for their in vivo antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton induced hyperlipidemia model. The synthetic compounds 4, 17 and 20 showed equipotent activity to the natural product, that is, Aegeline (V). These compounds also showed strong antioxidant activity, which support their antihyperlipidemic activity. Compound 12 showed better antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant profile than the natural product V. PMID:21930379
Narender, T; Rajendar, K; Sarkar, S; Singh, V K; Chaturvedi, Upma; Khanna, A K; Bhatia, G
To unravel the possible mechanism of glucose lowering activity, effects of ten different plant extracts in the regulation of serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were evaluated in male mice. While the extracts of Inula racemosa, Boerhaavia diffusa and Ocimum sanctum decreased the serum concentration of both cortisol and glucose, Aeglemarmelos, Azadirachta indica and Gymnema sylvestre extracts could exhibit hypoglycaemic activity without altering the serum cortisol concentration. It appears that the hypoglycaemic effects of former three plant extracts are mediated through their cortisol inhibiting potency, whereas the mechanism for other plant extracts could be different. Lipid-peroxidation was not enhanced by any of the plant extracts (some were in fact, antiperoxidative in nature). As I. racemosa, B. diffusa and O. sanctum exhibited antiperoxidative, hypoglycaemic and cortisol lowering activities, it is suggested that these three plant extracts may potentially regulate corticosteroid induced diabetes mellitus. PMID:15587591
Persistent recruitment of neutrophils in the bronchi of cystic fibrosis patients contributes to airway tissue damage, suggesting the importance of intervening on the expression of the neutrophil chemokine IL-8. Extracts from plants have been investigated to select components able to reduce IL-8 expression in bronchial epithelial cells challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts and purified components have been added to cells 24 h before pro-inflammatory challenge with P. aeruginosa and IL-8 transcription was quantified in the IB3-1 CF cells in vitro. P. aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 mRNA induction was increased by Argemone mexicana and Vernonia anthelmintica whereas no significant modification of transcription was observed with Aphanamixis polystachya, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Hemidesmus indicus. Finally, inhibition of IL-8 was observed with Polyalthia longifolia (IC50=200 microg/ml) and Aeglemarmelos (IC50=20 microg/ml). Compounds from A. marmelos were isolated and identified by GC-MS. No significant effect was observed with butyl-p-tolyl sulphate, whereas the inhibition obtained with 6-methyl-4-chromanone concentration was accompanied by an anti-proliferative effect. On the contrary, 5-methoxypsoralen resulted in IL-8 inhibition at 10 microM concentration, without effects on cell proliferation. In synthesis, 5-methoxypsoralen can be taken into consideration to investigate mechanisms of neutrophil chemotactic signalling and for its potential application in modulating the excessive CF lung inflammation. PMID:19720161
Two novel type III polyketide synthases, quinolone synthase (QNS) and acridone synthase (ACS), were cloned from Citrus microcarpa (Rutaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. microcarpa QNS is unique, and it shared only 56-60% identities with C. microcarpa ACS, Medicago sativa chalcone synthase (CHS), and the previously reported Aeglemarmelos QNS. In contrast to the quinolone- and acridone-producing A. marmelos QNS, C. microcarpa QNS produces 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolone as the "single product" by the one-step condensation of N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. However, C. microcarpa ACS shows broad substrate specificities and produces not only acridone and quinolone but also chalcone, benzophenone, and phloroglucinol from 4-coumaroyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, respectively. Furthermore, the x-ray crystal structures of C. microcarpa QNS and ACS, solved at 2.47- and 2.35-? resolutions, respectively, revealed wide active site entrances in both enzymes. The wide active site entrances thus provide sufficient space to facilitate the binding of the bulky N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA within the catalytic centers. However, the active site cavity volume of C. microcarpa ACS (760 ?(3)) is almost as large as that of M. sativa CHS (750 ?(3)), and ACS produces acridone by employing an active site cavity and catalytic machinery similar to those of CHS. In contrast, the cavity of C. microcarpa QNS (290 ?(3)) is significantly smaller, which makes this enzyme produce the diketide quinolone. These results as well as mutagenesis analyses provided the first structural bases for the anthranilate-derived production of the quinolone and acridone alkaloid by type III polyketide synthases. PMID:23963450
Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol extracts of Aeglemarmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. were tested against fourth-instar larvae of malaria vector, A. subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, C. tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate of A. marmelos, E. prostrata, hexane, methanol of A. paniculata and C. hirsutus against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 167.00, 78.28, 67.24, 142.83 ppm; LC(90) = 588.31, 360.75, 371.91, and 830.01 ppm) and against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50) = 99.03, 119.89, 88.50, 105.19 ppm; LC(90) = 479.23, 564.85, 416.39, and 507.86 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the leaf hexane extract of A. paniculata and ethyl acetate extract of E. prostrata have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. tritaeniorhynchus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of plant extracts against vectors from Southern India. PMID:19165502
Elango, G; Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Zahir, A Abduz; Venkatesan, C
The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of leaf hexane and chloroform extracts of Aeglemarmelos, Andrographis lineata, Andrographis paniculata, Cocculus hirsutus, Eclipta prostrata, and Tagetes erecta on repellent, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The repellent action of the plant extracts tested varied depending on the plant species, part, solvent used in extraction, and the extract dose. The hexane extract of A. paniculata was more effective in exhibiting the repellent action against the mosquito as compared with A. lineata extract. Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane extract of A. paniculata at 500 ppm against mosquito bites. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. No hatchability was observed with hexane, and chloroform extracts of A. lineata, A. paniculata, and hexane extract of T. erecta were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The percentage of effective oviposition repellency were 95.90, 94.75, 95.04, 90.58, 87.93, 87.14, 94.82, 95.71, 92.26, 90.58, 83.35, and 78.16 at 500 ppm, and the lowest repellency was 69.93, 53.06, 64.81, 70.06, 51.82, 54.54, 48.31, 66.71, 68.82, 61.85, 34.84, and 39.53 at 31.25 ppm in hexane and chloroform extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, E. prostrata, and T. erecta, respectively. The oviposition activity index values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. These results clearly reveal that the hexane extracts of A. marmelos and A. paniculata served as a potential repellent, ovicidal, and oviposition deterrent against Japanese encephalitis vector, C. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:19953270
Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu
Immunostimulants are the substances, which enhance the non-specific defence mechanism and provide resistance against the invading pathogenic micro-organism. In order to increase the immunity of shrimps against the WSSV, the methanolic extracts of five different herbal medicinal plants like Cyanodon dactylon, Aeglemarmelos, Tinospora cordifolia, Picrorhiza kurooa and Eclipta alba were selected and mixed thoroughly in equal proportion. The mixed extract was supplemented with various concentrations viz. 100 (A), 200 (B), 400 (C), and 800 (D) mgkg(-1) through artificial diets individually. The prepared diets (A-D) were fed individually to WSSV free healthy shrimp Penaeus monodon with an average weight of 8.0+/-0.5g for 25 days. Control diet (E), devoid of herbal extract was also fed to shrimps simultaneously. After 25 days of feeding experiment, the shrimps were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected crustaceans. The shrimps succumbed to death within 7 days when fed on no herbal immunostimulant diet (E). Among the different concentrations of herbal immunostimulant supplemented diets, the shrimps fed on diet D (800mgkg(-1)) significantly (P<0.0001) had more survival (74%) and reduction in the viral load. Also the better performance of haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters was found in the immunostimulant incorporated diets fed shrimps. The present work revealed that the application of herbal immunostimulants will be effective against shrimp viral pathogenesis and they can be recommended for shrimp culture. PMID:16698283
In this study, seven exotic/indigenous medicinal plants of Mauritius, namely Coix lacryma-jobi (Poaceae), Aeglemarmelos (Rutaceae), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Moraceae), Vangueria madagascariensis (Rubiaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae) and Syzigium cumini (Myrtaceae) were studied for possible effects on starch breakdown by alpha-amylase in vitro. The results showed that only Artocarpus heterophyllus significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited alpha-amylase activity in vitro. To confirm the observed effects, a further biochemical assay was undertaken to investigate the effects of Artocarpus heterophyllus on alpha-amylase activity using rat plasma in vitro. It was found that the aqueous leaf extract significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited alpha-amylase activity in rat plasma. The highest inhibitory activity (27.20 +/- 5.00%) was observed at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. However, in both cases dose dependency was not observed. Enzyme kinetic studies using the Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations were performed to establish the type of inhibition involved. In the presence of the plant extract the maximal velocity (Vmax) remained constant (1/150 g / L/s) whereas the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) increased by 5.79 g / L, indicating that the aqueous leaf extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus behaved as a competitive inhibitor. Results from the present study tend to indicate that Artocarpus heterophyllus could act as a 'starch blocker' thereby reducing post-prandial glucose peaks. PMID:16521114
Kotowaroo, M I; Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H
The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aeglemarmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812
The objective of this review is to present examples of lead compounds identified from biological material (fungi, plant extracts and agro-industry material) and of possible interest in the field of a pharmacological approach to the therapy of beta-thalassemia using molecules able to stimulate production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Concerning the employment of HbF inducers as potential drugs for pharmacological treatment of beta-thalassemia, the following conclusions can be reached: (i) this therapeutic approach is reasonable, on the basis of the clinical parameters exhibited by hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin patients, (ii) clinical trials (even if still limited) employing HbF inducers were effective in ameliorating the symptoms of beta-thalassemia patients, (iii) good correlation of in vivo and in vitro results of HbF synthesis and gamma-globin mRNA accumulation indicates that in vitro testing might be predictive of in vivo responses and (iv) combined use of different inducers might be useful to maximize HbF, both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we present three examples of HbF inducers from the natural world: (i) angelicin and linear psoralens, contained in plant extracts from Angelica arcangelica and Aeglemarmelos, (ii) resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and several plant extracts and (iii) rapamycin, isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. PMID:18955291
The effects of supplementing diets with acetone extract (1% w/w) from four medicinal plants (Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon, H(1), beal Aeglemarmelos, H(2), winter cherry Withania somnifera, H(3) and ginger Zingiber officinale, H(4)) on growth, the non-specific immune response and ability to resist pathogen infection in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were assessed. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the extract were assessed against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrioparahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio campbelli, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae. Oreochromis mossambicus were fed 5% of their body mass per day for 45 days, and those fed the experimental diets showed a greater increase in mass (111-139%) over the 45 days compared to those that received the control diet (98%). The specific growth rate of O. mossambicus fed the four diets was also significantly greater (1.66-1.93%) than control (1.52%) diet-fed fish. The blood plasma chemistry analysis revealed that protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels of experimental fish were significantly higher than that of control fish. Packed cell volume of the blood samples of experimental diet-fed fish was also significantly higher (34.16-37.95%) than control fish (33.0%). Leucocrit value, phagocytic index and lysozyme activity were enhanced in fish fed the plant extract-supplemented diets. The acetone extract of the plants inhibited growth of Vibrio spp. and P. damselae with extracts from W. somnifera showing maximum growth inhibition. A challenge test with V. vulnificus showed 100% mortality in O. mossambicus fed the control diet by day 15, whereas the fish fed the experimental diets registered only 63-80% mortality at the end of challenge experiment (30 days). The cumulative mortality index for the control group was 12,000, which was equated to 1.0% mortality, and accordingly, the lowest mortality of 0.35% was registered in H(4)-diet-fed group. PMID:20735646
Immanuel, G; Uma, R P; Iyapparaj, P; Citarasu, T; Peter, S M Punitha; Babu, M Michael; Palavesam, A
Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants, Abutilon indicum, Aeglemarmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of A. indicum. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. indicum led to the separation and identification of a beta-sitosterol as a potential new mosquito larvicidal compound with LC50 value of 11.49, 3.58 and 26.67 ppm against Aedes aegypti L, Anopheles stephensi Liston and C. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. beta-sitosterol has been recognized as the active ingredient of many medicinal plant extracts. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated toxicity against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. This article reports the isolation and identification of the beta-sitosterol as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. There are no reports of beta-sitosterol in the genus A. indicum, and their larvicidal activities are being evaluated for the first time. Results of this study show that the petroleum ether extract of A. indicum may be considered as a potent source and beta-sitosterol as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent. PMID:18176816
Abdul Rahuman, A; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan
Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) are derived to protect the human population from adverse health effects in case of single exposure due to an accidental release of chemicals into the atmosphere. AEGLs are set at three different levels of increasing toxicity for exposure durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h. In the AEGL setting for methylene chloride, specific additional
P. M. J. Bos; Jozef Bos; Marco Jacob Zeilmaker; Jan Cornelis; Henri van Eijkeren
Palynology, texture, mineralogy, geochemistry, and magnetic susceptibility analysis of a 2 m deep sediment core from Padauna Swamp, southeastern Madhya Pradesh infers that between 8600 and 7500 cal yr BP a warm and relatively less-humid climate prevailed with open tree-savannahs dominated by grasses followed by sedges, Artemisia and members of Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae with scanty trees viz., Schrebera, Aeglemarmelos and Sterculia urens. This is well supported by lower organic to carbonate carbon ratio, coarser texture having relatively low CIA and magnetic susceptibility values and presence of some primary minerals. Between 7500 and 6250 cal yr BP the tree-savannahs were succeeded by open mixed deciduous forests with the invasion of a few more trees viz., Madhuca indica, Holoptelea, Emblica officinalis, Mitragyna parvifolia and members of Anacardiaceae in response to onset of a warm and humid climate. A considerable rise in organic carbon generated from the degradation of plentiful biomass along with increase in clay content with signs of kaolinite and increase in immobile over mobile elements with slightly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values also suggest climatic amelioration. The presence of ruderal plants such as Artemisia, Cannabis sativa and Cheno/Am further infers initiation of human activities in the region. Between 6250 and 2800 cal yr BP, the mixed deciduous forests became more diverse and dense, subduing grasses and other herbaceous elements. Sporadic incursion of Shorea robusta (Sal) in forest floristic was recorded around 5000 cal yr BP. The overall change in the vegetation mosaic reflects that a warm and more-humid climate prevailed in the region, probably on account of invigoration of southwest monsoon. This observation is further corroborated by other proxy data showing a spurt in organic/inorganic carbon ratio, increase in clay content with matured mineralogy, significantly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values. Since 2800 cal yr BP onwards, the modern Sal dominated deciduous forests were established indicating continuation of warm and more-humid climate including timely arrival of SW monsoon coinciding with the shedding of Sal seeds as they are viable for a very short period.
Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam; Phartiyal, Binita; Kumar, Kamlesh
Short-term chemical concentration limits are used in a variety of applications, including emergency planning and response, hazard assessment and safety analysis. Development of emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs) and acute exposure guidance levels (AEGLs) are predicated on this need. Unfortunately, the development of peer-reviewed community exposure limits for emergency planning cannot be done rapidly (relatively few ERPGs or AEGLs are
Douglas K. Craig; Janet S. Davis; Doan J. Hansen; Achille J. Petrocchi; T. Jordan Powell; Thomas E. Tuccinardi
...as defined by Federal regulation. The form may be viewed and downloaded from the following URL address: http://www.epo.gov/oppt/aeg1/pubs/ethics.htm. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Hazardous substances, NAC/AEGL...
Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aeglemarmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 ?g/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fenton’s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 ?g/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 ?g/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 ?g/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 ?g/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 ?g/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 ?g/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 ?g/g. PMID:22754941
The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min\\/m3). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild
The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min/m3). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild effects, serious adverse effects, and lethality. They are expressed as air concentrations (in units of mg/m3) and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The report discusses strengths and deficiencies in the levels, important parameters (i.e., exposure time, breathing rate) that need to be explicitly addressed in deriving the guideline levels, and possible impacts that could result from using AEGLs instead of guideline dosages in future assessments.
Isomer-resolved multiphoton dissociations (PDs) with 4.66-eV laser photons were applied to carbon and silicon cluster cations, Cn+ (n = 32, 34, 36, and 38) and Sim+ (m = 24-27), in order to investigate correlations between the isomer structures and dissociation reactions. Cyclic and fullerene structures of Cn+ and prolate and spherical isomers of Sim+, which are the coexisting isomers in these size ranges, were separated by ion mobility spectrometry, followed by photolysis using a tandem reflectron mass spectrometer. Photofragment ion distributions were revealed to depend on the parent isomer structures. Dissociation mechanisms were discussed from the fragment ion distributions. ISSPIC 16 - 16th International Symposium on Small Particles and Inorganic Clusters, edited by Kristiaan Temst, Margriet J. Van Bael, Ewald Janssens, H.-G. Boyen and Françoise Remacle.
Calculation of the behaviour of photoelectron angular anisotropy in valence ionization of initially neutral NaX (X = 34-58) clusters is provided. The calculations are carried out for 1p, 1d and 1g jellium orbitals as a function of photon energy. The adapted theoretical framework is spherical jellium model using Woods-Saxon potential, which is modified to account for the long-range Coulomb tail in the final state. We discuss on the observed dramatic variations of the angular anisotropy parameter ? as a function incident photon energy. It is shown that the behaviour is connected to the oscillation of the valence photoionization cross sections, that is a specific interference property of such metallic clusters whose valence structure can be described using the jellium model. ISSPIC 16 - 16th International Symposium on Small Particles and Inorganic Clusters, edited by Kristiaan Temst, Margriet J. Van Bael, Ewald Janssens, H.-G. Boyen and Françoise Remacle.
The reactivity of free binary gold-palladium clusters (AuPd2+, Au2Pd+, Au2Pd2+, and Au2Pd3+) toward molecular oxygen was investigated in an ion trap experiment under multi-collision conditions and compared to the reactivities of bare Aun+ and Pdm+ (n, m = 2 - 5) clusters. Reaction kinetics measurements revealed that the reaction rate is mainly determined by the number of palladium atoms in the clusters and only weakly influenced by additional gold atoms. The same holds true for the observed reaction product distributions. Most interestingly, the most reactive cluster ions Pd3+, Au2Pd3+, and Pd5+ exhibit a strong preference to form tetroxide products, AunPdmO4+. In addition, employing temperature dependent mass spectrometry, a second adsorption species consisting of several weakly bound oxygen molecules was identified for all investigated palladium containing clusters which is, however, only formed at cryogenic temperatures. All these observations suggest that the gold atoms largely act upon a spectator role in the reaction of the binary clusters. Nevertheless, a rough estimation of the relative O2 binding energies via statistical rate theory indicates that the addition of gold to the Pdn+ clusters decreases the O2-cluster interaction strength, although the reaction rate stays constant. This effect in the binary clusters may be of importance to a potential activation and dissociation of the adsorbed O2 molecules. ISSPIC 16 - 16th International Symposium on Small Particles and Inorganic Clusters, edited by Kristiaan Temst, Margriet J. Van Bael, Ewald Janssens, H.-G. Boyen and Françoise Remacle.
Lang, Sandra M.; Frank, Anja; Fleischer, Irene; Bernhardt, Thorsten M.
During 2010 IOTA observers in North America reported about 190 positive observations for 106 asteroid occultation events. For several asteroids, this included observations with multiple chords. For two events, an inversion model was available. An occultation by 16 Psyche on 2010 August 21 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 235.4 x 230.4 km. On 2010 December 24, an occultation by 93 Minerva produced a best-fit ellipse of 179.4 x 133.4 km. An occultation by 96 Aegle on 2010 October 29 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 124.9 x 88.0 km. An occultation by 105 Artemis on 2010 June 24 showed a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 x 92.0 km. An occultation by 375 Ursula on 2010 December 4 produced a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 km x 135.0 km. Of note are two events not summarized in this article. On 2010 August 31, an occultation by 695 Bella yielded a new double star. That event will be summarized in the JDSO. Finally, on 2010 April 6, an occultation of zeta Ophiuchi by 824 Anastasia was observed by 65 observers at 69 locations. Unfortunately a large shift in the path yielded only 4 chords. Results of that event, and all the events mentioned here, can be found on the North American Asteroidal Occultation Results web page.
Sequestration of CO2 in unmined coal seams is one of the different options for storing CO2 in geological reservoirs. In favorable situations, it could be coupled with the retrieving of adsorbed methane from coal (ECBM), which can make this solution economically more attractive. However, in the case of South Belgian coal measures, both weak permeability of the coal and frequent faulting/folding of the seams are likely to decrease the efficiency of this technique. Westphalian A and B sediments from South Belgium are containing only about 2.5% vol. of coal; the other rocks consisting of shales/siltstones (~80%) and sandstones (~20%). For all these lithologies, the main processes of CO2 sequestration are 1) adsorption in coal and clay minerals that are partly forming shales, and within rock porosity in the case of sandstones and, to a lesser extent, in the shales/siltstone porosity. In a previous assessment of the sequestration potential in Westphalian coal measures of South Belgium, Baele et al. (2007) showed that coal and shales each account for 25% of the total sequestration potential, and the rest, i.e. 50%, is related to sandstones on a basis of 2% porosity. Beside their significant additional storage capacity, sandstones have also a better permeability than the other finer-grained and organic lithologies. Additionally, sandstones are known to occasionally cut the coal seams (wash-out), thus providing insights in increasing accessibility of injected CO2 into the coal. On the other hand, some sandstone banks are fossil braided rivers that induced peripheral fractures by differential compaction during burial diagenesis (Van Tongeren et al., 2000). These fractures are thus likely to have increased accessibility from high-injectivity sandstones to surrounding lithologies that could significantly contribute to storage capacity. The aim of this study is to refine the contribution of the westphalian South Belgium sandstones to the geological storage of CO2. Measurements were performed on forty rock samples in order to determine their mineral compositions and petrophysical properties. Mineral compositions were determined by light and cathodoluminescence petrography (CL), XRD, SEM, EDS and TOC. Effective porosity and permeability were measured by lab tests on cylindrical core samples. Effective porosities measured in sandstones is ranging between 1.5% and 6% with an average of 3.5%, which is nearly twice the value taken in the previous capacity evaluation. The neutron porosity log of the Saint-Ghislain borehole yields porosity values ranging between 5 and 20% of limestone-equivalent porosity; these values suggest higher in-situ porosity, likely due to fractures in the coal measures. Permeability was estimated from lab permeameter tests to a few milli-darcies. Nevertheless this value, which is fairly low for a conventional reservoir, is higher than that of other Westphalian lithologies. Like porosity, in-situ permeability is expected to be higher. Westphalian sandstones mineral compositions shows mainly quartz, feldspars, clay minerals, coal grains that are cemented by either quartz overgrowth or a matrix consisting of fine detrital (mainly clays) and alteration minerals (authigenic carbonates, pyrite, and clays). These results are comparable to investigations of Westphalian C and D sandstones of North Belgium (Bertier et al., 2006). In the case of Westphalian sandstones, it was observed that the effective porosity is essentially located within this fine-grained matrix, explaining their weak permeability. Results from this study show other promising insights for the sequestration of CO2 within Westphalian sandstones of South Belgium. Carbonate minerals, which occur with 2% vol. in average, could significantly increase the porosity and especially the permeability, due to their dissolution by water acidification caused by CO2 injection. Adsorption onto coal fragments and clay minerals in the sandstones has an estimated sequestration potential similar to that of storage in rock porosity. Finally, for reservoir safety purpose, a prel
Dianex, a polyherbal formulation consisting of the aqueous extracts of Gymnema sylvestre, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Azadirachta indica, Cassia auriculata, Aegle marmelose, Withania somnifera and Curcuma longa was screened for hypoglycemic activity in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Dianex was administered in different doses of 100-500 mg/kg/day orally in acute (6 h) and long-term (6 weeks) studies. Blood glucose levels were checked 2-6 h after treatment in acute studies and every 2 weeks in long-term studies. Body weight was recorded on the first and final day of the treatment in the long-term studies with diabetic mice. After 6 weeks, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspertate transaminase (AST), urea and creatinine were estimated in serum of the diabetic mice. Glycogen and total protein levels were estimated in the liver. Also, the liver and pancreas was subjected to histological examination. Oral glucose tolerance and in vitro free radical scavenging activity was also studied. Dianex produced significant (p<0.05) hypoglycemic activity at 250-500 mg/kg doses in both normal and diabetic mice in acute and long-term studies. The body weight of diabetic mice significantly (p<0.05) increased with all tested doses of Dianex. The elevated triglycerides, cholesterol, ALT, AST, urea and creatinine levels in diabetic mice were significantly (p<0.05) reduced at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The liver glycogen and protein levels were both significantly (p<0.05) increased in diabetic mice at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. Dianex increased the glucose tolerance significantly (p<0.05) in both normal and diabetic mice at all the doses tested. Histopathological examination showed that the formulation decreased streptozotocin induced injury to the tissues at all the doses tested. It produced significant (p<0.05) free radical scavenging activity against ABTS+, DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals at the concentrations ranging between 10-1000 microg/ml.Thus, in the present study, Dianex produced significant hypoglycemic activity in both normal and diabetic animals. It also reversed other diabetic complications in diabetic mice at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. In our earlier study, Dianex was well tolerated in laboratory animals at higher doses (upto 10 g/kg in mice, acute toxicity; up to 2.5 g/kg in rats, subacute toxicity studies for 30 days) without exhibiting any toxic manifestation. Hence, Dianex may be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:16106394
Mutalik, S; Chetana, M; Sulochana, B; Devi, P Uma; Udupa, N
In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138?866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613?122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1?073?741?824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library (http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser (http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high energy physics is divided into several stages. Various programs exist for these stages. In this article we are interested in interfacing different Monte Carlo event generators via data files, in particular, Matrix Element (ME) generators and Showering and Hadronization (SH) generators. There is a widely accepted format for data files for such interfaces - Les Houches Event Format (LHEF). Although information kept in an LHEF file is enough for proper working of SH generators, it is insufficient for understanding how events in the LHEF file have been prepared and which physical model has been applied. In this paper we propose an extension of the format for keeping additional information available in generators. We propose to add a new information block, marked up with XML tags, to the LHEF file. This block describes events in the file in more detail. In particular, it stores information about a physical model, kinematical cuts, generator, etc. This helps to make LHEF files self-documented. Certainly, HepML can be applied in more general context, not in LHEF files only. Solution method: In order to overcome drawbacks of the original LHEF accord we propose to add a new information block of HepML tags. HepML is an XML-based markup language. We designed several XML Schemas for all tags in the language. Any HepML document should follow rules of the Schemas. The language is equipped with a library for operation with HepML tags and documents. This C++ library, called libhepml, consists of classes for HepML objects, which represent a HepML document in computer memory, parsing classes, serializating classes, and some auxiliary classes. Restrictions: The software is adapted for solving problems, described in the article. There are no additional restrictions. Running time: Tests have been done on a computer with Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Solo, 1.4 GHz. Parsing of a HepML file: 6 ms (size of the HepML files is 12.5 Kb) Writing of a HepML block to file: 14 ms (file size 12.5 Kb) Merging of two HepML blocks and writing to file: 18 ms (file size - 25.0 Kb).
Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.
Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.
Troilite (stoichiometric FeS) is a common mineral in most meteorites, but meteorite spectroscopists have neglected to measure its spectral properties and consider its possible role in interpretation of asteroid spectra. Ordinary chondrites are typically 5-6 wt% troilite and this mineral is present in almost all iron meteorites in amounts up to 60%. Troilite's occurrence in meteorites is typically as 0.1-1.0 mm-sized blebs in stony meteorites and cm-sized nodules in iron and stony-iron meteorites . Meteoritical and theoretical evidence strongly suggests that there should be troilite-rich zones in the interiors of differentiated asteroids. The cores of differentiated asteroids probably contained a few wt% S which was largely concentrated in the final 5-10 vol% of eutectic liquid. This liquid crystallized as troilite (90 vol%) and metal. An asteroid derived from a metal core would probably display sections of crystallized eutectic liquid  provided that the asteroid is not covered with regolith. The distribution of troilite on the surface of metallic asteroids may therefore provide information about the crystallization history of the core. A fraction of the S may, however, become trapped in the dendrites during crystallization . This would account for the abundance of troilite nodules in iron meteorites. The troilite distribution in the core may also affect the way the core breaks up during impacts. Fractures will preferentially propagate through the much more friable troilite and large core fragments may therefore have dendritic shapes. Regolith present on metal cores may also be enriched in the more friable troilite. Material of the expected eutectic composition would be very fragile, and collisional and/or atmospheric disruption may account for its absence among meteorites. Measurements: The bidirectional reflectance spectrum of troilite was measured from a sample of the Mundrabilla iron meteorite held in the collection of the University of Hawaii. This meteorite has an unusually high sulfur content (8 wt%) and total troilite content is estimated at 25-35 vol%. Average troilite composition in weight % is as follows: 63% Fe, 0.5% Cr, 0.3% Zn, and 36.2% S . The sample was crushed in a clean ceramic mortar and pestle to a bulk powder and dry sieved to a particle size of <250 micrometers. Six additional particle size separates were dry sieved from this bulk sample. Shown in Figure 1 are the spectra of the bulk sample and the particle size separates of Mundrabilla troilite. The spectrum of the bulk material is dark, always less than 10% reflective, and strongly red sloped. The rapid increase in reflectance at the green and red wavelengths (0.4-0.5 microns) is probably responsible for the overall bronze color of hand sample troilite. Since Mundrabilla is a find, the depth of the UV-visible absorption may have been increased by small amounts of Fe3+ from terrestrial rust. Additional samples of troilite from fresh fall need to be measured to confirm this result. The bulk sample has a reflectance between the smallest and largest particle size separates suggesting that its reflectance is dominated by small particles coating larger grains. Previous work with spectral mixture modelling shows that small particle size troilite and metal can dominate the spectra of ordinary chondrite meteorites, producing a dark, subdued and reddened spectrum similar to some dark asteroids . Implications for Asteroids: The strong red slopes and low reflectances of the troilite spectra are similar to the spectral characteristics of the T and possibly some M-class asteroids. Shown in Figure 2 are the spectra of bulk troilite (solid lines) and four T-class asteroids (boxes and error bars). The IR spectra of 96 Aegle, 114 Kassandra, and 233 Asterope are strongly similar to the spectrum of bulk troilite. The deeper W absorption in troilite may be due to terrestrial rust. The spectrum of 308 Polyxo is substantially different, but Polyxo is also the only T-class asteroid that has been shown to have strong water of hydration features at 3.0 m
Britt, D. T.; Bell, J. F.; Haack, H.; Scott, E. R. D.