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1

Biological activities of crude extracts and chemical constituents of Bael, Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.  

PubMed

Bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.) is an important medicinal plant of India. Leaves, fruits, stem and roots of A. marmelos have been used in ethno medicine to exploit its' medicinal properties including astringent, antidiarrheal antidysenteric, demulcent, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds purified from bael have been proven to be biologically active against several major diseases including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Preclinical studies indicate the therapeutic potential of crude extracts of A. marmelos in the treatment of many microbial diseases, diabetes and gastric ulcer. This review covers the biological activities of some isolated chemical constituents of A. marmelos and preclinical studies on some crude extracts and pure compounds to explore novel bioactive compounds for therapeutic application. PMID:20099458

Maity, Pallab; Hansda, Dhananjay; Bandyopadhyay, Uday; Mishra, Dipak Kumar

2009-11-01

2

Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael) and its phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of cancer.  

PubMed

Aegle marmelos, commonly known as Bael and belonging to the family Rutaceae is an important medicinal plant in the traditional Indian system of medicine, the Ayurveda. The extract prepared by boiling the bark, leaves or roots in water is useful as laxative, febrifuge, and expectorant. The extract is also useful in ophthalmia, deafness, inflammations, catarrh, diabetes, and asthmatic complaints. The fruits are used in treating diarrhea, dysentery, stomach ache, and cardiac ailments. Scientific studies have validated many of Bael's ethnomedicinal properties and its potential antimicrobial effects, hypoglycemic, astringent, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, demulcent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound-healing, insecticidal, and gastroprotective properties. In addition, studies have also shown that Bael and some of the Bael phytochemicals possess antineoplastic, radioprotective, chemoprotective, and chemopreventive effects, properties efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. For the first time, the current review summarizes the results related to these properties and emphasizes aspects that require further investigation for Bael's safe and effective use in the near future. PMID:23089553

Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Rao, Suresh; Venkatesh, Ponemone

2013-05-01

3

Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption using bael leaves (Aegle marmelos).  

PubMed

Biosorption of Pb(II) on bael leaves (Aegle marmelos) was investigated for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using different doses of adsorbent, initial pH, and contact time. The maximum Pb loading capacity of the bael leaves was 104 mg g(-1) at 50 mg L(-1) initial Pb(II) concentration at pH 5.1. SEM and FT-IR studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) occurs inside the wall of the hollow tubes present in the bael leaves and carboxylic acid, thioester and sulphonamide groups are involved in the process. The sorption process was best described by pseudo second order kinetics. Among Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, the latter had a better fit with the experimental data. The activation energy E(a) confirmed that the nature of adsorption was physisorption. Bael leaves can selectively remove Pb(II) in the presence of other metal ions. This was demonstrated by removing Pb from the effluent of exhausted batteries. PMID:19765896

Chakravarty, S; Mohanty, Ashok; Sudha, T Nag; Upadhyay, A K; Konar, J; Sircar, J K; Madhukar, A; Gupta, K K

2010-01-15

4

Radioprotective effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael): a concise review.  

PubMed

The effective use of radiotherapy in cancer cure and palliation is compromised by the side-effects resulting from radiosensitivity of bordering normal tissues, which are invariably exposed to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation during treatment. In this situation, use of radioprotective compounds that can protect normal tissues against radiation injury are of immense use. In addition to protecting normal tissue these compounds will also permit use of higher radiation doses to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, to date, no ideal radioprotectors are available as most synthetic compounds are toxic at their optimal concentrations and have produced little success in clinics. Radiation ill-effects are principally the result of generation of free radicals, and the antioxidant compounds that counter them are supposed to be of immense use in preventing them. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been observed to avert/ameliorate free radical-mediated ailments--an effect that has been documented--and such plants have recently been the focus of attention. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael), commonly known as bael, has been used since antiquity for treating various ailments, some of which are now known to be the result of oxidative stress. In studies spanning nearly a decade, it has been observed that bael prevented radiation-induced ill-effects, and the results of these studies indicate that it has the potential to be an effective, nontoxic radioprotective agent. In this current review, for the first time, an attempt is made to summarize these observations and to discuss the plausible reasons responsible for bael's radioprotective effects. PMID:20932194

Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Bhat, Harshith P; Pereira, Manisha Maria; Mathias, Nishan; Venkatesh, Ponemone

2010-10-01

5

Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using Bael fruit ( Aegle marmelos correa) shell as an adsorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a new activated carbon prepared from non-usable Bael fruit shell (BS) has been used as an efficient low cost adsorbent to remove the Cr(VI) toxic metal from aqueous phase. Batch mode experiments have been performed as a function of initial pH of solution, agitation time, adsorbate concentration and adsorbent dosage. Maximum chromium removal was found at pH

J. Anandkumar; B. Mandal

2009-01-01

6

Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aegle marmelos (Bael) Fruit Extract and Its Application to Prevent Adhesion of Bacteria: A Strategy to Control Microfouling  

PubMed Central

Marine biofilms formed due to adhesion of bacteria and other microorganisms on submerged surfaces are generally considered to be a major form of microfouling. Subsequent attachment of larvae of higher organisms like barnacles, mussels, and so forth, on marine biofilms, causes macrofouling. Several approaches have been used to prevent micro- and macrofouling. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to exhibit strong inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is rapidly gaining importance due to its growing success. Hence, the present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using fruit extract of Aegle marmelos and its characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further isolation and identification of marine biofilm forming bacteria were carried out through 16S rDNA analysis. The antimicrofouling effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs was tested against marine biofilm forming bacteria and the results suggested that it could effectively inhibit biofilm formation. This preliminary study has proved that AgNPs may be used as antimicrofouling agent for the prevention of biofouling in the early stages. PMID:25258620

Nithya Deva Krupa, A.

2014-01-01

7

Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aegle marmelos (Bael) Fruit Extract and Its Application to Prevent Adhesion of Bacteria: A Strategy to Control Microfouling.  

PubMed

Marine biofilms formed due to adhesion of bacteria and other microorganisms on submerged surfaces are generally considered to be a major form of microfouling. Subsequent attachment of larvae of higher organisms like barnacles, mussels, and so forth, on marine biofilms, causes macrofouling. Several approaches have been used to prevent micro- and macrofouling. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to exhibit strong inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is rapidly gaining importance due to its growing success. Hence, the present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using fruit extract of Aegle marmelos and its characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further isolation and identification of marine biofilm forming bacteria were carried out through 16S rDNA analysis. The antimicrofouling effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs was tested against marine biofilm forming bacteria and the results suggested that it could effectively inhibit biofilm formation. This preliminary study has proved that AgNPs may be used as antimicrofouling agent for the prevention of biofouling in the early stages. PMID:25258620

Nithya Deva Krupa, A; Raghavan, Vimala

2014-01-01

8

Phytochemical Evaluation, Antimicrobial Activity, and Determination of Bioactive Components from Leaves of Aegle marmelos  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ‘‘Bael,” has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40?mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous?:?ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10?mg/mL to 40?mg/mL whereas in aqueous?:?ethanol it ranged between 40?mg/mL and 160?mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

2014-01-01

9

Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.)-An overview  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.

Rahman, Shahedur; Parvin, Rashida

2014-01-01

10

Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

2011-01-01

11

Evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aegle marmelos leaves.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aegle marmelos leaves extracts and its phytochemical constituents in vitro and in vivo. The dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol extracts of A. marmelos leaves were studied for their lipolytic effect. Lipolysis was measured by determining the amount of glycerol released at 12 h and 24 h at 50 ?g/ml and 100 ?g/ml concentrations. Phytochemical investigation of the most active DCM extract yielded 14 compounds. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their lipolytic effects at 50 ?M and 100 ?M. The most active compounds, umbelliferone and esculetin were further screened for their antiobesity effects in vivo in the high fat diet (HFD) induced obese rat model. Umbelliferone and esculetin reduced body weight, total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and glucose level in their respective HFD groups. A. marmelos DCM extract and compounds isolated from it have the potential of counteracting the obesity by lipolysis in adipocytes. PMID:23632084

Karmase, Aniket; Birari, Rahul; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

2013-07-15

12

Semisynthetic Studies Identify Mitochondria Poisons from Botanical Dietary Supplements - Geranyloxycoumarins from Aegle marmelos  

PubMed Central

Bioassay-guided isolation and subsequent structure elucidation of a Bael tree Aegle marmelos lipid extract yielded two unstable acylated geranyloxycoumarin mixtures (1–2), six geranyloxycoumarins (3–8), (+)-9?-isovaleroxylariciresinol (9), and dehydromarmeline (10). In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, 1 and 2 potently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 0.18 and 1.10 ?g mL?1, respectively). Insufficient material and chemical instability prevented full delineation of the fatty acyl side chain olefin substitution patterns in 1 and 2. Therefore, five fatty acyl geranyloxycoumarin ester derivatives (11–15) were prepared from marmin (3) and commercial fatty acyl chlorides by semisynthesis. The unsaturated C-6? linoleic acid ester derivative 14 that was structurally most similar to 1 and 2, inhibited HIF-1 activation with comparable potency (IC50 0.92 ?M). The octanoyl (11) and undecanoyl (12) ester derivatives also suppressed HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 3.1 and 0.87 ?M, respectively). Mechanistic studies revealed that these geranyloxycoumarin derivatives disrupt mitochondrial respiration, primarily at complex I. Thus, these compounds may inhibit HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondria-mediated hypoxic signaling. One surprising observation was that, while less potent, the purported cancer chemopreventive agent auraptene (8) was found to act as a mitochondrial poison that disrupts HIF-1 signaling in tumors. PMID:23434131

Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G.

2013-01-01

13

Aegle marmelos fruit extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

Myocardial infarction is a major public health concern and the leading cause of death throughout the world. The present study investigates the ability of Aegle marmelos fruit extract to prevent pathological changes and oxidative stress after isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats. In vitro studies showed that Aegle marmelos fruit extract possesses antioxidant activity. Administration of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, however, cardiac tissue analyses showed decreased activity of the above enzymes compared to experimental control rats. Further, isoproterenol administration significantly increased plasma and cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lowered the activities of cardiac tissue superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase when compared to control groups. Pretreatment with Aegle marmelos fruit extract at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for a period of 45 days significantly prevented the observed alterations. Our data suggest that Aegle marmelos fruit extract exerts its protective effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and elevating antioxidants status in isoproterenol treated rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction model emphasize the beneficial action of Aegle marmelos fruit extract as a cardioprotective agent. PMID:22573921

Krushna, Gadham Setty Saayi; Kareem, Mohammed Abdul; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Hussain, Shaik Althaf; Devi Kodidhela, Lakshmi

2012-05-01

14

Aegle marmelos fruit extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in rats  

PubMed Central

Myocardial infarction is a major public health concern and the leading cause of death throughout the world. The present study investigates the ability of Aegle marmelos fruit extract to prevent pathological changes and oxidative stress after isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats. In vitro studies showed that Aegle marmelos fruit extract possesses antioxidant activity. Administration of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, however, cardiac tissue analyses showed decreased activity of the above enzymes compared to experimental control rats. Further, isoproterenol administration significantly increased plasma and cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lowered the activities of cardiac tissue superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase when compared to control groups. Pretreatment with Aegle marmelos fruit extract at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for a period of 45 days significantly prevented the observed alterations. Our data suggest that Aegle marmelos fruit extract exerts its protective effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and elevating antioxidants status in isoproterenol treated rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction model emphasize the beneficial action of Aegle marmelos fruit extract as a cardioprotective agent. PMID:22573921

Krushna, Gadham Setty Saayi; Kareem, Mohammed Abdul; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Hussain, Shaik Althaf; Devi Kodidhela, Lakshmi

2012-01-01

15

Identification and Characterization of a Type III Polyketide Synthase Involved in Quinolone Alkaloid Biosynthesis from Aegle marmelos Correa*  

PubMed Central

Quinolone alkaloids, found abundantly in the roots of bael (Aegle marmelos), possess various biological activities and have recently gained attention as potential lead molecules for novel drug designing. Here, we report the characterization of a novel Type III polyketide synthase, quinolone synthase (QNS), from A. marmelos that is involved in the biosynthesis of quinolone alkaloid. Using homology-based structural modeling, we identify two crucial amino acid residues (Ser-132 and Ala-133) at the putative QNS active site. Substitution of Ser-132 to Thr and Ala-133 to Ser apparently constricted the active site cavity resulting in production of naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Measurement of steady-state kinetic parameters demonstrates that the catalytic efficiency of QNS was severalfold higher for larger acyl-coenzymeA substrates as compared with smaller precursors. Our mutagenic studies suggest that this protein might have evolved from an evolutionarily related member of chalcone synthase superfamily by mere substitution of two active site residues. The identification and characterization of QNS offers a promising target for gene manipulation studies toward the production of novel alkaloid scaffolds. PMID:23329842

Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Verma, Priyanka; Gokhale, Rajesh S.; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

2013-01-01

16

Chemopreventive efficacy of Aegle marmelos on murine transplantable tumors.  

PubMed

Emerging trends for cancer chemotherapy show promising developments with the better understanding of molecules delivering more potent and powerful capabilities. But these are severely limited because of increased side effects and higher probability of tumor recurrence. In this scenario, putative exploration of the indigenous and untapped resources modulating immune system to deliver adequate but potent chemopreventive effects appeals considerable interest. However, these require rigorous scientific validation with regard to potency compared with the existing drugs. Aegle marmelos (Linnaeus) Correa (family Rutaceae), a plant component of polyherbal formulation, Indukantha Ghritha, is known for its widespread medicinal values. But the chemopreventive potential has not been explored in comparison to existing anticancer agents. Our attempt contributes the scientific evidence for beneficial immunoprophylactic and antitumor functions in mice challenged with ascites tumors, Dalton's lymphoma ascites, and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma either alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil. Specifically, the petroleum ether extracts of this plant (AM(PE)) prophylactically activated a cascade of host defense mechanisms by stimulating or restoring total white blood cell count, macrophage phagocytosis, hematopoiesis, lymphocyte proliferation and functions (CD4+ and CD8+) either naturally or under conditions of impaired immunity like in ascites tumor or during standard agent chemotherapy. Overall, AM(PE) also elicited strong antitumor effects by increasing median survival time and life span, while reducing murine ascites tumor volume and viable tumor counts on par with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil especially when administered prophylactically. This study also identified 2 putative components, xanthorrhizol and marmelosin, which could be imparting the immunoprophylactic and antitumor effects in transplantable tumor models. Thus, our attempts provide sufficient proof to warrant further to test this drug in higher animal models or in patients with high risk for tumor recurrence and/or immunocompromised diseases. PMID:23729467

George, Suraj K; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Kumar, Sunil S; Sreelekha, T T; Balaram, Prabha

2014-01-01

17

Umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity  

PubMed Central

Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat. Methods Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I – normal control, II – diabetic control, III – UFG (10 mg/kg), IV – UFG (20 mg/kg), V – UFG (40 mg/kg), VI – Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test. Result Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28 days showed significantly (P?

2013-01-01

18

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ? Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ? The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (?60 nm) were synthesized within ?25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

Jagajjanani Rao, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India); Paria, Santanu, E-mail: santanuparia@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

2013-02-15

19

Microwave assisted synthesis and optimization of Aegle marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide): release kinetics studies.  

PubMed

Microwave assisted grafting of poly(acrylamide) on to Aegle marmelos gum was carried out employing 3-factor 3-level full factorial design. Microwave power, microwave exposure time and concentration of gum were selected as independent variable and grafting efficiency was taken as dependent variable. A. marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide) was characterized by FTIR, DSC, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Microwave power, microwave exposure time had synergistic effect on grafting efficiency where as concentration of the gum did not contributed much to grafting efficiency. Batch having microwave power - 80%, microwave exposure time -120 s and concentration of A. marmelos gum - 2% was selected as the optimized formulation. Comparative release behaviour of diclofenac sodium from the matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum and A. marmelos-g-polyacrylamide was evaluated. The results of kinetic studies revealed that the graft copolymer matrix, marketed tablets and polymer matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum released the drug by zero order kinetics and with n value greater than 1, indicating that the mechanism for release as super case II transport i.e. dominated by the erosion and swelling of the polymer. PMID:24530335

Setia, A; Kumar, R

2014-04-01

20

Quantification and comparison of extraction methods for alkaloids in Aegle marmelos leaves by HPLC.  

PubMed

The leaves of Aegle marmelos are reported to contain multi-bioactive classes of compounds including coumarins, furanocoumarins and alkaloids. HPLC analysis of the crude extract was challenging due to low concentrations of the compounds in the leaves. Five compounds visible in the HPLC chromatogram were separated and identified by HPLC and further elaborated for quantification as marker compounds of A. marmelos leaves using a C18 column with detection at 275 nm. A gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water was used. The developed HPLC method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.994), high precision (RSD<5%), and good recovery (99.27-99.98%) of the compounds. The lowest detection limit was 5 ng and the method was found to be robust. All the validation parameters were within the permissible limits. Therefore, the developed method is accurate and reliable for the quality control of A. marmelos. This is the first report of extensive quantitative HPLC analysis of marker compounds in A. marmelos leaves and method validation. PMID:25230509

Karmase, Aniket; Prasanna, K; Rasabattula, Sruti; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

2014-07-01

21

Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

2010-01-01

22

In Vivo Healing Potential of Aegle marmelos in Excision, Incision, and Dead Space Wound Models  

PubMed Central

The study incorporates the wound healing potential of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract (AME) on excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. AME (200?mg/kg) was administered orally once daily for variable days depending on the type of wound ulcer study. AME was studied for its wound breaking strength (incision wound), rate of contraction, period of epithelization and histology of skin (excision model), and granulation tissue free radicals, antioxidants, acute inflammatory marker, and connective tissue markers and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound). Complete wound contraction and epithelization were observed at the 20th day after treatment with AME as compared to the 24th day in control rats. Mean epithelization period and scar area were decreased while wound breaking strength was increased with AME compared with control. Granulation tissue showed increased levels of collagen determinants (33.7 to 64.4%, P < 0.001) and antioxidants (13.0 to 38.8%, P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), whereas markers of oxidative stress (55.0 to 55.6%, P < 0.001) and myeloperoxidase (21.3%, P < 0.001) were decreased in AME treated group. A. marmelos seems to promote wound healing by enhancing connective tissue formation and antioxidants status with decrease in free radicals and myeloperoxidase having tissue damaging effects. PMID:24737990

Gautam, M. K.; Purohit, V.; Agarwal, M.; Singh, A.; Goel, R. K.

2014-01-01

23

Isolation and Partial Characterisation of a Novel Lectin from Aegle marmelos Fruit and Its Effect on Adherence and Invasion of Shigellae to HT29 Cells  

PubMed Central

Lectins are a class of ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins that are abundantly found in nature. Lectins have unique carbohydrate binding property and hence have been exploited as drugs against various infectious diseases. We have isolated one such novel lectin from the fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos. The isolated lectin was partially characterised and its effect against Shigella dysenteriae infection was evaluated. The isolated lectin was found to be a dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, mannose and sialic acid binding specificity. The effect of Aegle marmelos fruit lectin on the adherence of Shigella dysenteriae to human colonic epithelial cells (HT29 cells) was evaluated by Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay and invasion was analysed. The protective nature of the Aegle marmelos fruit lectin was assessed by analyzing apoptosis through dual staining method. Aegle marmelos fruit lectin significantly inhibited hemagglutination activity of Shigella and its minimum inhibitory concentration is 0.625 µg/well. Further, at this concentration lectin inhibited Shigella dysenteriae adherence and invasion of HT29 cells and protects the HT29 cells from Shigella dysenteriae induced apoptosis. To conclude, isolated lectin dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, Mannose and sialic acid binding specificity and inhibits adherence and invasion of Shigellae to HT29 cells thus, protects the host. PMID:21283697

Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kumar, Nirmal Kasinathan; Devaraj, Sivasitambaram Niranjali

2011-01-01

24

Pharmacognostic standardisation and antiproliferative activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa leaves in various human cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Therapeutic management of cancer is a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively explored to have integrated approach to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) is known for its hypoglycaemic, radioprotective, antidiarrhoeal and many other pharmacological activities. The present study is designed to carryout pharmacognostic standardisation and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the leaf extracts Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) and the chromatographic fractions of the most active extract. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the shade dried leaves were prepared by soxhelation and antiproliferative activity was assessed using human cancer cell lines of lung (A-549), colon (CoLo-05), ovary (IGR-OV-1), prostrate (PC3), leukaemia (THP-1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer. Bioactivity-derived fractionation was carried out for most active extract by column chromatography. The phytochemical studies indicated alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids in the alcohol, chloroform extracts and tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars in the petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition in colon and breast carcinoma cell lines at a dose of 100 ?g/ml. Column chromatography of the ethanol extract yielded five fractions. Out of this, fractions 2, 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition in leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5, 86.2 and >100 ?g/ml for fractions 2, 4 and 5, respectively. High-performance thin layer chromatography of the fraction 2 revealed imperatorin as one of the major phytoconstituents. Among the different extracts investigated, ethanol extract exhibited significant antiproliferative activity and its fraction 2 containing furanocoumarin imperatorin showed antiproliferative activity against leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5 ?g/ml. PMID:24591736

Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, J; Saxena, A K; Suri, Nitasha; Ishar, M P S

2013-11-01

25

Pharmacognostic standardisation and antiproliferative activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa leaves in various human cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic management of cancer is a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively explored to have integrated approach to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) is known for its hypoglycaemic, radioprotective, antidiarrhoeal and many other pharmacological activities. The present study is designed to carryout pharmacognostic standardisation and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the leaf extracts Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) and the chromatographic fractions of the most active extract. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the shade dried leaves were prepared by soxhelation and antiproliferative activity was assessed using human cancer cell lines of lung (A-549), colon (CoLo-05), ovary (IGR-OV-1), prostrate (PC3), leukaemia (THP-1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer. Bioactivity-derived fractionation was carried out for most active extract by column chromatography. The phytochemical studies indicated alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids in the alcohol, chloroform extracts and tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars in the petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition in colon and breast carcinoma cell lines at a dose of 100 ?g/ml. Column chromatography of the ethanol extract yielded five fractions. Out of this, fractions 2, 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition in leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5, 86.2 and >100 ?g/ml for fractions 2, 4 and 5, respectively. High-performance thin layer chromatography of the fraction 2 revealed imperatorin as one of the major phytoconstituents. Among the different extracts investigated, ethanol extract exhibited significant antiproliferative activity and its fraction 2 containing furanocoumarin imperatorin showed antiproliferative activity against leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5 ?g/ml. PMID:24591736

Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, J.; Saxena, A. K.; Suri, Nitasha; Ishar, M. P. S.

2013-01-01

26

In-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy of nickel nanoparticles phytofabricated from aqueous leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos Correa.  

PubMed

In recent years there is a tremendous growth in the interdisciplinary world of nanotechnology across the globe and emergence of its potential applications remains as a big revolution to the industry. Fusion of green nanotechnology and medicine represents one of the major breakthroughs of modern science with the aim of developing nanomaterials for diagnosis, treatment, prevention of various diseases and overall improving health for the beneficial of mankind. In the present study phytofabrication of nickel nanoparticles (nickel NPs) was carried out by using indigenous Aegle marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. Nickel NPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TGA studies. Phytosynthesis of nickel NPs was monitored both at room temperature (25°C) and at 60°C for 5h. The green synthesis of triangular shape nickel NPs phytofabricated from A. marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts having face centered cubic structure showing an average particle size of 80-100nm which is in consistent with the particle size calculated by XRD Scherer equation. We further explored and compared nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa with crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa for its in-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy against three blood feeding parasites. The results obtained clearly gives an idea that nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa (NiNPs of AmC) possess an enhanced anti-inflammatory and larvicidal activity when compared to crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa. PMID:24681220

Angajala, Gangadhara; Ramya, R; Subashini, R

2014-07-01

27

Effect of Aegle marmelos on biotransformation enzyme systems and protection against free-radical-mediated damage in mice.  

PubMed

The effect of hydroalcoholic (80% ethanol, 20% water) extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos was examined on carcinogen-metabolizing phase-I and phase-II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation, using two doses of dried extract (50 and 100 mg kg(-1) daily for 14 days), in the liver of mice. The modulatory effect of the extract was also examined on extrahepatic organs (lung, kidney and fore-stomach) for effects on the activity of glutathione S-transferase, DT-diaphorase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Extract treatment significantly increased the basal levels of acid-soluble sulphydryl (-SH) content, cytochrome P450, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome b5, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, glutathione S-transferase, DT-diaphorase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the liver. Aegle acted as a bifunctional inducer since it induced both phase-I and phase-II enzyme systems. Both doses significantly decreased the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and formation of malondialdehyde in liver, suggesting a role in cytoprotection as well as protection against pro-oxidant-induced membrane damage. Butylated hydroxyanisole (positive control) induced almost all the antioxidative parameters measured in this study. The extract was effective in inducing glutathione S-transferase, DT-diaphorase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in lung, glutathione S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and superoxide dismutase in fore-stomach, and DT-diaphorase and superoxide dismutase in lung. These significant changes in the levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and antioxidative profiles are strongly indicative of the chemopreventive potential of this plant, especially against chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:11007071

Singh, R P; Banerjee, S; Rao, A R

2000-08-01

28

Effects of marmin, a compound isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa, on contraction of the guinea pig-isolated trachea.  

PubMed

Marmin or 7-(6',7'-dihydroxygeranyl-oxy)coumarin is a compound isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa. In the study, we examined the effects of marmin on the contraction of guinea pig-isolated trachea stimulated by several inducers, namely histamine, metacholine, compound 48/80. We also evaluated its action against contraction induced by extracellular or intracellular calcium ion. The possibility of marmin to potentiate the relaxation effect of isoprenaline was also studied. Marmin added in the organ bath at 10 min prior to the agonist inhibited the contraction elicited by histamine and metacholine in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, marmin antagonized the histamine-induced contraction in competitive manner. Marmin mildly potentiated the relaxation effect of isoprenaline. In the study, marmin abrogated the contraction of tracheal smooth muscle induced by compound 48/80, an inducer of histamine release. Besides, marmin successfully inhibited CaCl(2)-induced contraction in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Marmin also inhibited two phases of contraction which were consecutively induced by metacholine and CaCl(2) in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Based on the results we concluded that marmin could inhibit contraction of the guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle, especially by interfering histamine receptor, inhibiting the histamine release from mast, inhibiting intracellular Ca(2+) release from the intracellular store and the Ca(2+) influx through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. PMID:21959801

Nugroho, Agung Endro; Anas, Yance; Arsito, Puguh Novi; Wibowo, Joko Tri; Riyanto, Sugeng; Sukari, Mohamad Aspollah

2011-10-01

29

Protective effects of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Aegle marmelos (AM) fruit has been advocated in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, fever, asthma, inflammations, febrile delirium, acute bronchitis, snakebite, epilepsy, leprosy, myalgia, smallpox, leucoderma, mental illnesses, sores, swelling, thirst, thyroid disorders, tumours and upper respiratory tract infections. Objective: The objective of this study was to study the curative effect of 50% ethanol extract of dried fruit pulp of AM (AME) against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Materials and Methods: AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days after TNBS-induced colitis. Rats were given intracolonic normal saline or TNBS alone or TNBS plus oral AME. AME was studied for its in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative intestinal bacteria and on TNBS-induced changes in colonic damage, weight and adhesions (macroscopic and microscopic), diarrhea, body weight and colonic levels of free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and pro-inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) in rats. Results: AME showed antibacterial activity against intestinal pathogens and decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, colonic free radicals and MPO and enhanced body weight and colonic antioxidants level affected by TNBS. The effects of AME on the above parameters were comparable with sulfasalazine, a known colitis protective drug (100 mg/kg, oral). Conclusion: AME shows curative effects against TNBS-induced colitis by its antibacterial activity and promoting colonic antioxidants and reducing free radicals and MPO-induced colonic damage. PMID:24914296

Ghatule, Rohit R.; Gautam, Manish K.; Goel, Shalini; Singh, Amit; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.

2014-01-01

30

Upregulation of PPAR? by Aegle marmelos ameliorates insulin resistance and ?-cell dysfunction in high fat diet fed-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes demands the rapid evaluation of new and accessible interventions. This study investigated whether Aegle marmelos fruit aqueous extract (AMF; 250, 500 and 1000?mg/kg) improves insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and ?-cell dysfunction in high fat diet fed-streptozotocin (HFD-STZ)-induced diabetic rats by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) expression. The serum levels of glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function (HOMA-B), lipid profile, TNF-? and IL-6 were evaluated. Further, the TBARS level and SOD activity in pancreatic tissue and PPAR? protein expression in liver were assessed. In addition, histopathological and ultrastructural studies were performed to validate the effect of AMF on ?-cells. The HFD-STZ treated rats showed a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, TNF-?, IL-6, dyslipidemia with a concomitant decrease in HOMA-B and PPAR? expression. Treatment with AMF for 21?days in diabetic rats positively modulated the altered parameters in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AMF prevented inflammatory changes and ?-cell damage along with a reduction in mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling. These findings suggest that the protective effect of AMF in type 2 diabetic rats is due to the preservation of ?-cell function and insulin-sensitivity through increased PPAR? expression. PMID:21351301

Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Bharti, Saurabh; Goyal, Sameer; Arora, Sachin; Nepal, Saroj; Kishore, Kamal; Joshi, Sujata; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2011-10-01

31

Periplogenin-3-O- -D-glucopyranosyl -(1-->6)- -D-glucopyaranosyl- -(1-->4) -D-cymaropyranoside, isolated from Aegle marmelos protects doxorubicin induced cardiovascular problems and hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin is a common chemotherapeutic anticancer drug. Its use is associated with adverse effects including cardiotoxicity. Several therapeutics interventions have been attempted to reduce the toxicity and to improve the efficacy of the drug. However, on phytochemicals very few investigations have been made. In the present study we have evaluated the potential of a cardenolide, periplogenin, isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos in protecting the doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in rats. Doxorubicin induced cardiac and hepatotoxicity were characterized by marked biochemical changes including an increase in serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and tissue LPO, with a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). It also increased the levels of different serum lipids, but decreased the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Cotherapy of the test cardenolide and doxorubicin for 4 weeks reversed all these adverse effects. However, out of three different concentrations (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg p.o.) of the test periplogenin, 25 mg/kg appeared to be most effective. When its efficacy was compared with that of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) the isolated compound exhibited a better therapeutic potential. The isolated periplogenin from the leaves of A. marmelos could potentially inhibit doxorubicin-induced cardiovascular problems in rats. However, its moderate dose was found to be most effective. PMID:19426248

Panda, Sunanda; Kar, Anand

2009-01-01

32

Antigonadal effect induced by hydro-methanolic extract of leaf of Aegle mermelos in male rat: Effect of hCG co- administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigonadal activity of hydro-methanolic (40:60) extract of leaf of Aegle marmelos was noted here by using male albino rat as model animal. This evaluation was performed by sperm count, sperm viability, sperm motility, plasma testosterone level; androgenic key enzyme activities in testis which were decreased significantly after the leaf extract treatment in respect to control. The levels of thiobarbituric acid

D. De; K. Chatterjee; C. Mallick; T. K. Bera; D. Ghosh

2009-01-01

33

Nanoengineered Magnetic-Field-Induced Superconductivity Martin Lange,* Margriet J. Van Bael, Yvan Bruynseraede, and Victor V. Moshchalkov  

E-print Network

Nanoengineered Magnetic-Field-Induced Superconductivity Martin Lange,* Margriet J. Van Bael, Yvan a nanoengineered lattice of magnetic dots (dipoles) on top of the film. Magnetic-field-induced super- conductivity between the dots by the stray field of the dipole array. By switching between different magnetic states

Moshchalkov, Victor V.

34

Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs.

Annetta Paule Watson; Dennis M Opresko; Robert A Young; Veronique Hauschild

2006-01-01

35

Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.  

PubMed

Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

2012-01-01

36

Muscodor kashayum sp. nov. - a new volatile anti-microbial producing endophytic fungus  

PubMed Central

Muscodor kashayum (MycoBank no.: MB 803800; GenBank no.: KC481680) is a newly described endophytic fungus of a medicinal plant Aegle marmelos (Bael tree), growing in the tropical conserved rainforest in the Western Ghats of India. Muscodor kashayum possesses distinct morphological, molecular and physiological features from the earlier reported Muscodor species. The fungus forms characteristic rings of the ropy mycelium on potato dextrose agar medium. This sterile fungus is characterised by the presence of a pungent smell which is attributable to a blend of more than 23 volatile organic constituents, predominantly 3-cyclohexen-1-ol,1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl; 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1-oxopropyl) phenol; 2,4-di-tert-butylthiophenol and 4-octadecylmorpholine. In the in vitro anti-microbial assay using M. kashayum, growth of 75% of test fungi/yeasts and 72% of the test bacteria were completely inhibited. Therefore, M. Kashayum holds potential for future application to be used as a myco-fumigation agent. PMID:24587960

Meshram, Vineet; Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

2014-01-01

37

Critical Roles of Notch and Wnt/?-Catenin Pathways in the Regulation of Hyperplasia and/or Colitis in Response to Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

Notch and Wnt/?-catenin signals play essential roles in intestinal development and homeostasis. Citrobacter rodentium induces transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) and various degrees of inflammation, depending upon the genetic background. We aimed at delineating the role of the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the regulation of colonic crypt hyperplasia and/or colitis following C. rodentium infection. During TMCH, relative levels of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) increased significantly, along with increases in Jagged-1 and Hes-1 coinciding with the progression and regression phases of hyperplasia. Blocking of Notch signaling with dibenzazepine (DBZ) for 5 days before the onset of hyperplasia also blocked Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Targeting the Notch pathway for 5 days after the onset of hyperplasia failed to inhibit Wnt/?-catenin-regulated crypt hyperplasia. Chronic DBZ administration for 10 days blocked both Notch and Wnt signaling, disrupted the intestinal barrier, and induced colitis. Core-3?/? mice, which are defective in mucin secretion and are susceptible to experimental triggers of colitis, also exhibited significant colitis in response to C. rodentium plus DBZ. Chronic DBZ administration in these mice did not result in depletion of the putative stem cell marker doublecortin-like kinase-1 (DCLK1) in the crypts. Dietary bael (Aegle marmelos) extract (4%) and curcumin (4%) restored signaling via the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways, thereby promoting crypt regeneration, and also replenished the mucus layer, leading to amelioration of C. rodentium- and DBZ-induced colitis in NIH:Swiss mice. Thus, the balancing act between cell proliferation and mucus production to restore barrier integrity seems to depend upon the interplay between the Wnt/?-catenin and Notch pathways in the TMCH model. PMID:22710872

Ahmed, Ishfaq; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Tawfik, Ossama; Xia, Lijun; Anant, Shrikant

2012-01-01

38

Screening the antiviral activity of Indian medicinal plants against white spot syndrome virus in shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty species of Indian traditional medicinal plants were selected for this study. They were Aegle marmelos, Allium sativum, Aristolochia indica, Azadirachta indica, Cassia fistula, Catharanthus roseus, Curcuma longa, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Mimosa pudica, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Ocimum americanum, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus emblica, Psidium guajava, Solanum nigrum, Tridax procumban and Tylophora indica. These plants were used to

G. Balasubramanian; M. Sarathi; S. Rajesh Kumar; A. S. Sahul Hameed

2007-01-01

39

Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aegle marmelos, methanol extracts Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Anopheles subpictus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the oviposition, ovicidal, and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:19707789

Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

2009-11-01

40

In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase  

PubMed Central

Background Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Methods The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle), Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum), Morus alba (mulberry), Aegle marmelos (bael), and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal ?-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase) inhibition and pancreatic ?-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 230.3-460.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.24±0.12 mg/ml, 0.59±0.06 mg/ml, and 3.15±0.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.85±0.41 mg/ml, 0.94±0.11 mg/ml, and 4.41±0.15 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values of roselle and butterfly pea extracts against pancreatic ?-amylase occurred at concentration of 3.52±0.15 mg/ml and 4.05±0.32 mg/ml, respectively. Combining roselle, chrysanthemum, and butterfly pea extracts with mulberry extract showed additive interaction on intestinal maltase inhibition. The results also demonstrated that the combination of chrysanthemum, mulberry, or bael extracts together with roselle extract produced synergistic inhibition, whereas roselle extract showed additive inhibition when combined with butterfly pea extract against pancreatic ?-amylase. Conclusions The present study presents data from five plant-based foods evaluating the intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitory activities and their additive and synergistic interactions. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22849553

2012-01-01

41

Entomophilous pollen incidence with reference to atmospheric dispersal in eastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents atmospheric pollen concentrations of fifteen entomophilous trees of Eastern India. The period of anthesis and anther dehiscence varied from morning to evening. Insects and other flower visitors were found to accelerate the mechanism of pollen dispersal. The highest pollen concentration was for 267\\/m3 in Aegle marmelos followed in decreasing order by Eucalyptus globosus (207\\/m3), Cassia siamea (186\\/m3),

Ashoke Bhattacharya; Subrata Mondal; Sudhendu Mandal

1999-01-01

42

Evaluation of repellent properties of botanical extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times, there were considerable efforts made to promote the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural\\u000a insecticides and repellents, particularly from botanical sources. The present study explored the effects of crude leaf ethyl\\u000a acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus

Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Asokan Bagavan; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Chidambaram Jayaseelan; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Sampath Marimuthu

2010-01-01

43

Study of antidiarrhoeal activity of four medicinal plants in castor-oil induced diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous and methanolic plant extracts of Acorus calamus rhizome, Pongamia glabra leaves, Aegle marmelos unripe fruit and Strychnos nux-vomica root bark for their antidiarrhoeal potential against castor-oil induced diarrhoea in mice. The methanolic plant extracts were more effective than aqueous plant extracts against castor-oil induced diarrhoea. The methanolic plant extracts significantly

F. Gricilda Shoba; Molly Thomas

2001-01-01

44

Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate,\\u000a hexane, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus

G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; C. Venkatesan

2009-01-01

45

Imperatorin a furocoumarin inhibits periplasmic Cu-Zn SOD of Shigella dysenteriae their by modulates its resistance towards phagocytosis during host pathogen interaction.  

PubMed

Shigella dysenteriae continues to be a major health problem, which leads to death, due to diarrhoea and dysentery, predominantly in children below the age of 5. Bacterial invasion of the colonic epithelium leads to severe inflammation together with bacterial dissemination generates abscesses and ulcerations. Periplasmic copper, zinc super oxide dismutase of Shigella protects it from exogenous superoxide produced by host, during its invasion. Hence, in present study an attempt was made to study the effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos on host and pathogen defence. Histology analysis of rat ileal loop showed the loss of virulence in aqueous extract of A. marmelos pre-treated Shigella and their intracellular survival was also decreased, where active component present in aqueous extract of A. marmelos was identified as imperatorin confirmed by UV absorption spectrum and HPLC. Increase in peripheral blood mononuclear cell viability and decreased in intracellular bacterial count along with transmission electron microscope analysis of imperatorin treated S. dysenteriae succumb to host oxidative stress. Loss of virulence is associated with attenuation of copper, zinc super oxide dismutase activity in Shigella, which was confirmed by using activity staining of bacterial cell lysate. Further, by performing docking analysis it has been proved that imperatorin present in aqueous extract of A. marmelos inhibited copper, zinc super oxide dismutase. From the above study, we concluded that Shigella succumb to oxidative stress (host defence) due to inhibition of copper, zinc super oxide dismutase (pathogen's defence) by imperatorin, an active compound aqueous extract of A. marmelos. PMID:21194882

Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Roopa, Kothapalli; Devaraj, Sivasitambaram Niranjali

2011-12-01

46

Evaluation of repellent properties of botanical extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

In recent times, there were considerable efforts made to promote the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides and repellents, particularly from botanical sources. The present study explored the effects of crude leaf ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. on repellent activity against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of A. marmelos, ethyl acetate extracts of A. lineata, C. hirsutus, and E. prostrata and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with the different extracts tested. The ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata showed 100% repellency in 120 min; acetone extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus and methanol extract of T. erecta showed complete protection in 90 min at 250 ppm, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and C. hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the C. tritaeniorhynchus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the repellent activity against Japanese encephalitis, C. tritaeniorhynchus of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20480375

Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

2010-08-01

47

Studies of medicinal plants of Sri Lanka. Part 14: Toxicity of some traditional medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

Seventy five medicinal plants of the traditional Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of Sri Lanka have been screened chemically for alkaloids and pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Of these, Crotolaria juncea L. was found to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids with biological effects consistent with pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity. Feeding trials in rats with three plants lacking pyrrolizidine alkaloids, namely Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) Ait. F. and Terminalia chebula Retz. produced hepatic lesions which included central vein abnormalities while Terminalia chebula and Withania somnifera (L.) dunal produced marked renal lesions. PMID:4058035

Arseculeratne, S N; Gunatilaka, A A; Panabokke, R G

1985-07-01

48

Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum, Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and Butea monosperma. PMID:15476301

Rani, Phulan; Khullar, Neeraj

2004-08-01

49

Mineral content of some medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

It is known that certain inorganic trace elements such as vanadium, zinc, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, sodium, and nickel play an important role in the maintenance of normoglycemia by activating the beta-cells of the pancreas. In the present study, the elemental composition in the leaves of four traditional medicinal plants (Murraya koenigii, Mentha piperitae, Ocimum sanctum, and Aegle marmelos) widely used in the treatment of diabetes-related metabolic disorders has been studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The levels of Cu, Ni, Zn, K, and Na were found to be in trace amounts, whereas Fe, Cr, and V levels were found in marginal levels. The importance of these elements in disorders related to diabetes is also briefly discussed. PMID:15772435

Narendhirakannan, R T; Subramanian, S; Kandaswamy, M

2005-02-01

50

Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [3H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

Birdi, Tannaz J.; Brijesh, S.; Daswani, Poonam G.

2014-01-01

51

Dominant lethal test in rats treated with some plant extracts.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the toxic effect of aqueous extracts of Aegle marmelos (AM), Stevia rebaudiana (SR), Pouteria cambodiana (PC) and Clausena excavata (CE) on rats by dominant lethal test. The data of 8-week treatment suggested that none of the extracts adversely affected male body and testicular weights as well as cauda epididymal sperm counts. No notable changes in sperm morphology and motility were observed. On the other hand, sperm count in the CE group was significantly higher as compared to both control and other treatment groups. There were no abnormal changes in the number of implantation sites, number of viable fetuses and number of dead fetuses in females mated with plant extract-treated males relative to controls. Based on these results, it could be concluded that all the investigated plant extracts have no toxic effect on male rat reproduction and progeny outcome. PMID:11414451

Aritajat, S; Kaweewat, K; Manosroi, J; Manosroi, A

2000-01-01

52

Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

C Jagetia, Ganesh

2007-03-01

53

Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts. PMID:12063567

Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto

2002-07-01

54

Effects of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants on in vitro proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines and expression of estrogen receptor alpha gene.  

PubMed

In this study we determined the activity of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Aegle marmelos, Vernonia anthelmintica, Oroxylum indicum, Argemone mexicana) on human breast tumor cell lines. Extracts from E. officinalis and O. indicum displayed anti-proliferative activity on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, while extracts from A. mexicana were active on MCF7 cells, exhibiting on the contrary low antiproliferative effects on MDA-MB-231 cells. Extracts from A. marmelos and V. anthelmintica were antiproliferative on both cell lines, but at higher concentrations. The accumulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA, a marker of neoplastic status, was analysed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data obtained demonstrated that only extracts from E. officinalis induce an increase of ERalpha mRNA in MCF7 cells. When MDA-MB-231 cell line was employed, extracts from E. officinalis, V. anthelmintica and A. mexicana were found to be inducers of the increase of ERalpha mRNA accumulation. Since activation of ERalpha gene expression could have clinical impact, our results suggest a possible use of extracts from medicinal plants to identify compounds of possible interest in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:14719119

Lambertini, Elisabetta; Piva, Roberta; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

2004-02-01

55

The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite. PMID:15383230

Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2004-01-01

56

Modulation of expression of IL-8 gene in bronchial epithelial cells by 5-methoxypsoralen.  

PubMed

Persistent recruitment of neutrophils in the bronchi of cystic fibrosis patients contributes to airway tissue damage, suggesting the importance of intervening on the expression of the neutrophil chemokine IL-8. Extracts from plants have been investigated to select components able to reduce IL-8 expression in bronchial epithelial cells challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts and purified components have been added to cells 24 h before pro-inflammatory challenge with P. aeruginosa and IL-8 transcription was quantified in the IB3-1 CF cells in vitro. P. aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 mRNA induction was increased by Argemone mexicana and Vernonia anthelmintica whereas no significant modification of transcription was observed with Aphanamixis polystachya, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Hemidesmus indicus. Finally, inhibition of IL-8 was observed with Polyalthia longifolia (IC50=200 microg/ml) and Aegle marmelos (IC50=20 microg/ml). Compounds from A. marmelos were isolated and identified by GC-MS. No significant effect was observed with butyl-p-tolyl sulphate, whereas the inhibition obtained with 6-methyl-4-chromanone concentration was accompanied by an anti-proliferative effect. On the contrary, 5-methoxypsoralen resulted in IL-8 inhibition at 10 microM concentration, without effects on cell proliferation. In synthesis, 5-methoxypsoralen can be taken into consideration to investigate mechanisms of neutrophil chemotactic signalling and for its potential application in modulating the excessive CF lung inflammation. PMID:19720161

Nicolis, Elena; Lampronti, Ilaria; Dechecchi, Maria Cristina; Borgatti, Monica; Tamanini, Anna; Bezzerri, Valentino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Mazzon, Martina; Mancini, Irene; Giri, Maria Grazia; Rizzotti, Paolo; Gambari, Roberto; Cabrini, Giulio

2009-11-01

57

65 FR 39264 - National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Hazardous Substances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...affirm the extreme toxicity of nickel carbonyl, and human exposures...malformations, fetotoxicity, and neonate lethality) and the exposures...had been exposed to 8.4 ppm nickel carbonyl for 15 mins. per...variability in the toxic responses to nickel carbonyl. The...

2000-06-23

58

Cloning and Structure-Function Analyses of Quinolone- and Acridone-producing Novel Type III Polyketide Synthases from Citrus microcarpa*  

PubMed Central

Two novel type III polyketide synthases, quinolone synthase (QNS) and acridone synthase (ACS), were cloned from Citrus microcarpa (Rutaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. microcarpa QNS is unique, and it shared only 56–60% identities with C. microcarpa ACS, Medicago sativa chalcone synthase (CHS), and the previously reported Aegle marmelos QNS. In contrast to the quinolone- and acridone-producing A. marmelos QNS, C. microcarpa QNS produces 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolone as the “single product” by the one-step condensation of N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. However, C. microcarpa ACS shows broad substrate specificities and produces not only acridone and quinolone but also chalcone, benzophenone, and phloroglucinol from 4-coumaroyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, respectively. Furthermore, the x-ray crystal structures of C. microcarpa QNS and ACS, solved at 2.47- and 2.35-? resolutions, respectively, revealed wide active site entrances in both enzymes. The wide active site entrances thus provide sufficient space to facilitate the binding of the bulky N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA within the catalytic centers. However, the active site cavity volume of C. microcarpa ACS (760 ?3) is almost as large as that of M. sativa CHS (750 ?3), and ACS produces acridone by employing an active site cavity and catalytic machinery similar to those of CHS. In contrast, the cavity of C. microcarpa QNS (290 ?3) is significantly smaller, which makes this enzyme produce the diketide quinolone. These results as well as mutagenesis analyses provided the first structural bases for the anthranilate-derived production of the quinolone and acridone alkaloid by type III polyketide synthases. PMID:23963450

Mori, Takahiro; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Takashi; Kinjo, Keishi; Kato, Ryohei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

2013-01-01

59

Lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high fat and fructose diet induced obese C57/BL6J mice.  

PubMed

Aegle marmelos Correa., (Rutaceae) is a medium sized tree distributed in South East Asia and used traditionally for the management of obestiy and diabetes. In this study the lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol (Hfn) isolated from leaves of A. marmelos have been investigated. Intracellular lipid accumulation was measured by oil red O staining and glycerol secretion. The expression of genes related to adipocyte differentiation was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hfn decreased intracellular triglyceride accumulation and increased glycerol release in a dose dependent manner (5-20 ?g/ml) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In high fat diet fed C57/BL 6J mice, treatment with Hfn for four weeks reduced plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels and showed a significant reduction in total adipose tissue mass by 37.85% and visceral adipose tissue mass by 62.99% at 50mg/kg b.w. concentration. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Hfn decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein ? (CEBP?) and increased the expression of sterol regulatory enzyme binding protein (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), Adiponectin and Glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) compared to the high fat diet group. These results suggested that Hfn decreased adipocyte differentiation and stimulated lipolysis of adipocytes. This study justifies the folklore medicinal uses and claims about the therapeutic values of this plant for the management of insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:24952133

Saravanan, Munisankar; Pandikumar, Perumal; Saravanan, Subramaniam; Toppo, Erenius; Pazhanivel, Natesan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2014-10-01

60

Efficacy of botanical extracts against Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of leaf hexane and chloroform extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, Andrographis paniculata, Cocculus hirsutus, Eclipta prostrata, and Tagetes erecta on repellent, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The repellent action of the plant extracts tested varied depending on the plant species, part, solvent used in extraction, and the extract dose. The hexane extract of A. paniculata was more effective in exhibiting the repellent action against the mosquito as compared with A. lineata extract. Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane extract of A. paniculata at 500 ppm against mosquito bites. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. No hatchability was observed with hexane, and chloroform extracts of A. lineata, A. paniculata, and hexane extract of T. erecta were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The percentage of effective oviposition repellency were 95.90, 94.75, 95.04, 90.58, 87.93, 87.14, 94.82, 95.71, 92.26, 90.58, 83.35, and 78.16 at 500 ppm, and the lowest repellency was 69.93, 53.06, 64.81, 70.06, 51.82, 54.54, 48.31, 66.71, 68.82, 61.85, 34.84, and 39.53 at 31.25 ppm in hexane and chloroform extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, E. prostrata, and T. erecta, respectively. The oviposition activity index values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. These results clearly reveal that the hexane extracts of A. marmelos and A. paniculata served as a potential repellent, ovicidal, and oviposition deterrent against Japanese encephalitis vector, C. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:19953270

Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu

2010-01-01

61

Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera:Culicidae).  

PubMed

Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present investigations were made to evaluate the repellent, ovicidal and oviposition-deterrent potential of leaf hexane and chloroform extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, Andrographis paniculata, Cocculus hirsutus, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera:Culicidae). The hexane extract of A. lineata was more effective in exhibiting the repellent action against the mosquito as compared with A. marmelos extract. Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane extract of A. lineata at 500 ppm against An. subpictus bites. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. No hatchability was observed with hexane and chloroform extracts of A. lineata, A. paniculata and hexane extract of T. erecta were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 93.07, 93.95, 98.03, 90.43, 92.63, 81.53, 94.81, 97.50, 97.26, 92.22, 82.85 and 72.77 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 62.03, 53.64, 73.47, 59.05, 57.95, 48.17, 62.22, 72.99, 75.48, 67.77, 40.57 and 52.11 at 31.25 ppm in hexane and chloroform extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, E. prostrata and T. erecta, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. These results clearly reveal that the hexane extract of A. lineata, served as a potential repellent, ovicidal and oviposition- deterrent against An. subpictus. PMID:20962710

Elango, G; Abdul Rahuman, A; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T

2010-08-01

62

Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles. PMID:21365365

Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

2011-07-01

63

Biological Sciences AN ENCAPSULATIVE ANALYSIS ON PREPARATION AND CHARACTERZATION OF FEMALE INFERTILE SYRUP USING HERBALS ON Cyprinus carpio (KOI CARP)  

E-print Network

Several potential approaches for infertility have been investigated over a long period, including chemical, hormonal and immunological approaches. Infertility is the diminished ability or the inability to conceive and have offspring. It can also be defined as the failure to conceive after a year of regular intercourse without contraception. Numerous plants synthesize substances that are useful in the maintenance of health in humans and animals. Medicinal plants products have a long history of indigenous use in India as well as other countries. Phytotherapy has a very long tradition, although proper scientific explanation is relatively new. The medicinal plants contain several phytochemicals such as Vitamins (A, C, E, and K), Carotenoids, Terpenoids, Flavonoids, Polyphenols, Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Enzymes, and Minerals etc. Herbal therapies have been used since ancient times to treat infertility. Fertility Herbal Combinations for Women, such as Fertilaid for Women, work by the mixture of many potent important fertility herbs. In this present study the fresh leaves, roots and flowers were collected and separated out from the Withania somnifera, Couroupita guianensis, Ficus religiosa, Aegle marmelos, Tinospora cordifolia and Lonidium suffruticosum. The collected samples were extracted using Aqueous which is used to prepare the Anti-infertility syrup for women’s by standard method. The syrup was named as Betalupe and

M. Tamilselvi; A. R. Mahesh Kumar; G. Shakila; C. Devich

64

Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100??g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

2013-01-01

65

Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.  

PubMed

The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

2013-01-01

66

Isolation and Biological Evaluation of Novel Tetracosahexaene Hexamethyl, an Acyclic Triterpenoids Derivatives and Antioxidant from Justicia adhatoda.  

PubMed

Forty five extracts fraction of nine selected Indian medicinal plants, based on their use in traditional systems of medicine were analyzed for their antioxidant potential. All the extracts were investigated for phenol content value calculated in Gallic acid equivalents (% of GAE) and antioxidant potential. Moreover, total phenolic content (% dw equivalents to gallic acid) of all plant extracts were found in the range of 3.04 to 24.03, which correlated with antioxidant activity. The findings indicated a promising antioxidant activity of crude extracts fractions of three plants (Justicia adhatoda, Capparis aphylla and Aegle marmelos) and required the further exploration for their effective utilization. Results indicated that petroleum ether fraction of J. adhatoda out of three plants also possesses the admirable antioxidant abilities with high total phenolic content. Following, in vitro antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, twelve fractions of petroleum ether extract of J. adhatoda were isolated by silica gel column chromatography. One fraction (Rf value: 0.725) showed the noticeable antioxidant activity with ascorbic acid standard in hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The molecular structures elucidations of purified antioxidant compound were carried out using spectroscopic studies ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS). This compound was reported from this species for the first time. The results imply that the J. adhatoda might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 2,6,10,14,18,22-Tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl is an antioxidant ingredient in J. adhatoda. PMID:25001112

Dhankhar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema; Ruhil, Sonam; Balhara, Meenakshi; Malik, Vinay; Chhillar, Anil K

2014-01-01

67

Fetal Hemoglobin Inducers from the Natural World: A Novel Approach for Identification of Drugs for the Treatment of ?-Thalassemia and Sickle-Cell Anemia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this review is to present examples of lead compounds identified from biological material (fungi, plant extracts and agro-industry material) and of possible interest in the field of a pharmacological approach to the therapy of ?-thalassemia using molecules able to stimulate production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Concerning the employment of HbF inducers as potential drugs for pharmacological treatment of ?-thalassemia, the following conclusions can be reached: (i) this therapeutic approach is reasonable, on the basis of the clinical parameters exhibited by hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin patients, (ii) clinical trials (even if still limited) employing HbF inducers were effective in ameliorating the symptoms of ?-thalassemia patients, (iii) good correlation of in vivo and in vitro results of HbF synthesis and ?-globin mRNA accumulation indicates that in vitro testing might be predictive of in vivo responses and (iv) combined use of different inducers might be useful to maximize HbF, both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we present three examples of HbF inducers from the natural world: (i) angelicin and linear psoralens, contained in plant extracts from Angelica arcangelica and Aegle marmelos, (ii) resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and several plant extracts and (iii) rapamycin, isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. PMID:18955291

Bianchi, Nicoletta; Zuccato, Cristina; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

2009-01-01

68

Dietary medicinal plant extracts improve growth, immune activity and survival of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.  

PubMed

The effects of supplementing diets with acetone extract (1% w/w) from four medicinal plants (Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon, H(1), beal Aegle marmelos, H(2), winter cherry Withania somnifera, H(3) and ginger Zingiber officinale, H(4)) on growth, the non-specific immune response and ability to resist pathogen infection in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were assessed. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the extract were assessed against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrioparahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio campbelli, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae. Oreochromis mossambicus were fed 5% of their body mass per day for 45 days, and those fed the experimental diets showed a greater increase in mass (111-139%) over the 45 days compared to those that received the control diet (98%). The specific growth rate of O. mossambicus fed the four diets was also significantly greater (1.66-1.93%) than control (1.52%) diet-fed fish. The blood plasma chemistry analysis revealed that protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels of experimental fish were significantly higher than that of control fish. Packed cell volume of the blood samples of experimental diet-fed fish was also significantly higher (34.16-37.95%) than control fish (33.0%). Leucocrit value, phagocytic index and lysozyme activity were enhanced in fish fed the plant extract-supplemented diets. The acetone extract of the plants inhibited growth of Vibrio spp. and P. damselae with extracts from W. somnifera showing maximum growth inhibition. A challenge test with V. vulnificus showed 100% mortality in O. mossambicus fed the control diet by day 15, whereas the fish fed the experimental diets registered only 63-80% mortality at the end of challenge experiment (30 days). The cumulative mortality index for the control group was 12,000, which was equated to 1.0% mortality, and accordingly, the lowest mortality of 0.35% was registered in H(4)-diet-fed group. PMID:20735646

Immanuel, G; Uma, R P; Iyapparaj, P; Citarasu, T; Peter, S M Punitha; Babu, M Michael; Palavesam, A

2009-05-01

69

THE EFFECT OF UNCERTAINTY FACTOR PLACEMENT IN A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) FOR ACUTE EXPOSURE GUIDELINE LEVELS (AEGL).  

EPA Science Inventory

PBPK models may be used in risk assessment to reduce uncertainties associated with dosimetry; however, other considerations may still lead to incorporation of uncertainty factors (UF). We investigated the consequences of incorporating UFs at three different steps in the modeling...

70

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.  

PubMed

Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 ?g/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fenton’s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 ?g/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 ?g/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 ?g/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 ?g/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 ?g/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 ?g/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 ?g/g. PMID:22754941

Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

2011-01-01

71

75 FR 62534 - Request for Nominations to the National Advisory Committee for the Development of Acute Exposure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Committee for the Development of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous...Advisory Committee for the Development of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for...development of human health standards for acute exposure; a demonstrated ability to...

2010-10-12

72

Thanaka: traditional Burmese sun protection.  

PubMed

Limonia acidissima or Hesperethusa crenulata is a common tree in Southeast Asia. It is indigenous to the Republic of Myanmar (formerly Burma) as well as India, Sri Lanka, Java, and Pakistan. In English, the common names for Limonia acidissima are sandalwood, wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit tree. The plant has a number of different names in different languages including bal or bael in Assamese, bael in Bengali, kaitha in Hindi, belingai in Malaysia, and thanaka in Burmese. Unique to the Burmese people, thanaka has been used as a cosmetic product for over 2000 years. Mention of thanaka has been traced back to ancient Burmese lyrics, and relics of equipment used by ancient royalty to grind thanaka can be found in museums. PMID:24595576

Goldsberry, Anne; Dinner, Alan; Hanke, C William

2014-03-01

73

DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED ECONOMICS 231 Ruttan Hall, 1994 Buford Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108-6040  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED ECONOMICS 231 Ruttan Hall, 1994 Buford Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108-9783 Anda Leon, Maria Daniela (M) n/a n/a Anderson, Luba (C) 231d 625-7273 Andrade, Robert (P) 248j 625-1783 Apland, Jeffrey (F) 332c 625-1353 Bael, David (P) 337g 625-9715 Bak, Nahyeon (P) 125e 625-9783 Batbold

Levinson, David M.

74

Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage  

SciTech Connect

The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

Bogen, K T

2005-11-18

75

A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa.  

PubMed

Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Gal?/?1-6Gal?1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Gal?1-6Gal?1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria. PMID:25157808

Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

2014-10-01

76

Several Well-observed Asteroidal Occultations in 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2010 IOTA observers in North America reported about 190 positive observations for 106 asteroid occultation events. For several asteroids, this included observations with multiple chords. For two events, an inversion model was available. An occultation by 16 Psyche on 2010 August 21 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 235.4 x 230.4 km. On 2010 December 24, an occultation by 93 Minerva produced a best-fit ellipse of 179.4 x 133.4 km. An occultation by 96 Aegle on 2010 October 29 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 124.9 x 88.0 km. An occultation by 105 Artemis on 2010 June 24 showed a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 x 92.0 km. An occultation by 375 Ursula on 2010 December 4 produced a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 km x 135.0 km. Of note are two events not summarized in this article. On 2010 August 31, an occultation by 695 Bella yielded a new double star. That event will be summarized in the JDSO. Finally, on 2010 April 6, an occultation of zeta Ophiuchi by 824 Anastasia was observed by 65 observers at 69 locations. Unfortunately a large shift in the path yielded only 4 chords. Results of that event, and all the events mentioned here, can be found on the North American Asteroidal Occultation Results web page.

Timerson, Brad; Durech, J.; Abramson, H.; Brooks, J.; Caton, D.; Clark, D.; Conard, S.; Cooke, B.; Dunham, D. W.; Dunham, J.; Edberg, S.; Ellington, C.; Faircloth, J.; Herchak, S.; Iverson, E.; Jones, R.; Lucas, G.; Lyzenga, G.; Maley, P.; Martinez, L.; Menke, J.; Mroz, G.; Nolan, P.; Peterson, R.; Preston, S.; Rattley, G.; Ray, J.; Scheck, A.; Stamm, J.; Stanton, R.; Suggs, R.; Tatum, R.; Thomas, W.

2011-10-01

77

HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library ( http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser ( http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high energy physics is divided into several stages. Various programs exist for these stages. In this article we are interested in interfacing different Monte Carlo event generators via data files, in particular, Matrix Element (ME) generators and Showering and Hadronization (SH) generators. There is a widely accepted format for data files for such interfaces - Les Houches Event Format (LHEF). Although information kept in an LHEF file is enough for proper working of SH generators, it is insufficient for understanding how events in the LHEF file have been prepared and which physical model has been applied. In this paper we propose an extension of the format for keeping additional information available in generators. We propose to add a new information block, marked up with XML tags, to the LHEF file. This block describes events in the file in more detail. In particular, it stores information about a physical model, kinematical cuts, generator, etc. This helps to make LHEF files self-documented. Certainly, HepML can be applied in more general context, not in LHEF files only. Solution method: In order to overcome drawbacks of the original LHEF accord we propose to add a new information block of HepML tags. HepML is an XML-based markup language. We designed several XML Schemas for all tags in the language. Any HepML document should follow rules of the Schemas. The language is equipped with a library for operation with HepML tags and documents. This C++ library, called libhepml, consists of classes for HepML objects, which represent a HepML document in computer memory, parsing classes, serializating classes, and some auxiliary classes. Restrictions: The software is adapted for solving problems, described in the article. There are no additional restrictions. Running time: Tests have been done on a computer with Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Solo, 1.4 GHz. Parsing of a HepML file: 6 ms (size of the HepML files is 12.5 Kb) Writing of a HepML block to file: 14 ms (file size 12.5 Kb) Merging of two HepML blocks and writing to file: 18 ms (file size - 25.0 Kb).

Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.

2010-10-01

78

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-04-01

79

Marker based standardization of polyherbal formulation (SJT-DI-02) by high performance thin layer chromatography method  

PubMed Central

Background: Preparation of highly standardized herbal products with respect to chemical composition and biological activity is considered to be a valuable approach in this field. SJT-DI-02 polyherbal formulation was successfully developed at our institute and filed for patent at Mumbai patent office. Objective: The present work was marker based standardization of patented, novel and efficacious polyherbal formulation namely SJT-DI-02 for the treatment of diabetes. The SJT-DI-02 was comprised of dried extracts of rhizomes of Acorus calamus, leaves of Aegle marmelose, fruits of Benincasa hispida, roots of Chlorophytum arendinaceum, seeds of Eugenia jambolana, leaves of Ocimum sanctum, pericarp of Punica granatum, seeds of Tamarindus indica. Selected plants were collected, dried and extracted with suitable solvents. The formulation was prepared by mixing different fractions of extracts. Materials and Methods: For successful and best standardization, first of all selection and procurement was carried out. Selection is done on the basis of therapeutic efficacy and amount of the marker present in the particular plant part. At the time of procurement side by side phytochemical screening and estimation of phytoconstituents was carried out. After completion of preliminary screening using characterized markers, we tried to develop best TLC systems using selected solvent composition. Finally well-developed TLC systems were applied in HPTLC. In the present study polyherbal formulation was standardized by using different four markers. TLC Densitometric methods were developed using HPTLC for the quantification of these marker compounds. Solvent systems were optimized to achieve best resolution of the marker compounds from other components of the sample extract. The identity of the bands in the sample extracts were confirmed by comparing the Rf and the absorption spectra by overlaying their UV absorption spectra with those of their respective standards. The purity of the bands due to marker compounds in the sample extracts were confirmed by overlaying the absorption spectra recorded at start, middle and end position of the band in the sample tracks. After conforming all these things fingerprints were developed for all three formulations which will be act as authentification and quality control tool. Results: % w/w of asarones is 3.61, % w/w of marmelosin is 4.60, % w/w of gallic acid is 10.80 and % w/w of lupeol is 4.13. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability, limit of detection, limit of quantification and accuracy. In well-developed mobile phase system linearity was found to be in the range of 0.983-0.995, % recovery was found to be in the range of 97.48-99.63, % RSD for intraday and interday was found to be 0.13- 0.70 and 0.32 -1.41 and LOD and LOQ was found to be in the range of 0.15- 0.61 and 0.45 -1.83 microgram per ml. Conclusion: Thus High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods were developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability, limit of detection, limit of quantification and accuracy. The methods were rapid, sensitive, reproducible and economical. It does not suffer any positive or negative interference due to common other component present in the formulation and would also serve as a tool for authentication of herbal products containing marmelosin, gallic acid, lupeol and asarones. Thus this work provides standardized and therapeutically active polyherbal formulations for the different ailments. PMID:25035642

Ladva, Bhakti J.; Mahida, Vijay M.; Kantaria, Urmi D.; Gokani, Rina H.

2014-01-01

80

The Reflectance Spectrum of Troilite and the T-Type Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Troilite (stoichiometric FeS) is a common mineral in most meteorites, but meteorite spectroscopists have neglected to measure its spectral properties and consider its possible role in interpretation of asteroid spectra. Ordinary chondrites are typically 5-6 wt% troilite and this mineral is present in almost all iron meteorites in amounts up to 60%. Troilite's occurrence in meteorites is typically as 0.1-1.0 mm-sized blebs in stony meteorites and cm-sized nodules in iron and stony-iron meteorites [1]. Meteoritical and theoretical evidence strongly suggests that there should be troilite-rich zones in the interiors of differentiated asteroids. The cores of differentiated asteroids probably contained a few wt% S which was largely concentrated in the final 5-10 vol% of eutectic liquid. This liquid crystallized as troilite (90 vol%) and metal. An asteroid derived from a metal core would probably display sections of crystallized eutectic liquid [2] provided that the asteroid is not covered with regolith. The distribution of troilite on the surface of metallic asteroids may therefore provide information about the crystallization history of the core. A fraction of the S may, however, become trapped in the dendrites during crystallization [3]. This would account for the abundance of troilite nodules in iron meteorites. The troilite distribution in the core may also affect the way the core breaks up during impacts. Fractures will preferentially propagate through the much more friable troilite and large core fragments may therefore have dendritic shapes. Regolith present on metal cores may also be enriched in the more friable troilite. Material of the expected eutectic composition would be very fragile, and collisional and/or atmospheric disruption may account for its absence among meteorites. Measurements: The bidirectional reflectance spectrum of troilite was measured from a sample of the Mundrabilla iron meteorite held in the collection of the University of Hawaii. This meteorite has an unusually high sulfur content (8 wt%) and total troilite content is estimated at 25-35 vol%. Average troilite composition in weight % is as follows: 63% Fe, 0.5% Cr, 0.3% Zn, and 36.2% S [4]. The sample was crushed in a clean ceramic mortar and pestle to a bulk powder and dry sieved to a particle size of <250 micrometers. Six additional particle size separates were dry sieved from this bulk sample. Shown in Figure 1 are the spectra of the bulk sample and the particle size separates of Mundrabilla troilite. The spectrum of the bulk material is dark, always less than 10% reflective, and strongly red sloped. The rapid increase in reflectance at the green and red wavelengths (0.4-0.5 microns) is probably responsible for the overall bronze color of hand sample troilite. Since Mundrabilla is a find, the depth of the UV-visible absorption may have been increased by small amounts of Fe3+ from terrestrial rust. Additional samples of troilite from fresh fall need to be measured to confirm this result. The bulk sample has a reflectance between the smallest and largest particle size separates suggesting that its reflectance is dominated by small particles coating larger grains. Previous work with spectral mixture modelling shows that small particle size troilite and metal can dominate the spectra of ordinary chondrite meteorites, producing a dark, subdued and reddened spectrum similar to some dark asteroids [5]. Implications for Asteroids: The strong red slopes and low reflectances of the troilite spectra are similar to the spectral characteristics of the T and possibly some M-class asteroids. Shown in Figure 2 are the spectra of bulk troilite (solid lines) and four T-class asteroids (boxes and error bars). The IR spectra of 96 Aegle, 114 Kassandra, and 233 Asterope are strongly similar to the spectrum of bulk troilite. The deeper W absorption in troilite may be due to terrestrial rust. The spectrum of 308 Polyxo is substantially different, but Polyxo is also the only T-class asteroid that has been shown to have strong water of hydration features at 3.0 m

Britt, D. T.; Bell, J. F.; Haack, H.; Scott, E. R. D.

1992-07-01