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Sample records for bael aegle marmelos

  1. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael) and its phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Rao, Suresh; Venkatesh, Ponemone

    2013-05-01

    Aegle marmelos, commonly known as Bael and belonging to the family Rutaceae is an important medicinal plant in the traditional Indian system of medicine, the Ayurveda. The extract prepared by boiling the bark, leaves or roots in water is useful as laxative, febrifuge, and expectorant. The extract is also useful in ophthalmia, deafness, inflammations, catarrh, diabetes, and asthmatic complaints. The fruits are used in treating diarrhea, dysentery, stomach ache, and cardiac ailments. Scientific studies have validated many of Bael's ethnomedicinal properties and its potential antimicrobial effects, hypoglycemic, astringent, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, demulcent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound-healing, insecticidal, and gastroprotective properties. In addition, studies have also shown that Bael and some of the Bael phytochemicals possess antineoplastic, radioprotective, chemoprotective, and chemopreventive effects, properties efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. For the first time, the current review summarizes the results related to these properties and emphasizes aspects that require further investigation for Bael's safe and effective use in the near future. PMID:23089553

  2. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aegle marmelos (Bael) Fruit Extract and Its Application to Prevent Adhesion of Bacteria: A Strategy to Control Microfouling.

    PubMed

    Nithya Deva Krupa, A; Raghavan, Vimala

    2014-01-01

    Marine biofilms formed due to adhesion of bacteria and other microorganisms on submerged surfaces are generally considered to be a major form of microfouling. Subsequent attachment of larvae of higher organisms like barnacles, mussels, and so forth, on marine biofilms, causes macrofouling. Several approaches have been used to prevent micro- and macrofouling. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to exhibit strong inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is rapidly gaining importance due to its growing success. Hence, the present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using fruit extract of Aegle marmelos and its characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further isolation and identification of marine biofilm forming bacteria were carried out through 16S rDNA analysis. The antimicrofouling effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs was tested against marine biofilm forming bacteria and the results suggested that it could effectively inhibit biofilm formation. This preliminary study has proved that AgNPs may be used as antimicrofouling agent for the prevention of biofouling in the early stages. PMID:25258620

  3. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aegle marmelos (Bael) Fruit Extract and Its Application to Prevent Adhesion of Bacteria: A Strategy to Control Microfouling

    PubMed Central

    Nithya Deva Krupa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Marine biofilms formed due to adhesion of bacteria and other microorganisms on submerged surfaces are generally considered to be a major form of microfouling. Subsequent attachment of larvae of higher organisms like barnacles, mussels, and so forth, on marine biofilms, causes macrofouling. Several approaches have been used to prevent micro- and macrofouling. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to exhibit strong inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is rapidly gaining importance due to its growing success. Hence, the present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using fruit extract of Aegle marmelos and its characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further isolation and identification of marine biofilm forming bacteria were carried out through 16S rDNA analysis. The antimicrofouling effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs was tested against marine biofilm forming bacteria and the results suggested that it could effectively inhibit biofilm formation. This preliminary study has proved that AgNPs may be used as antimicrofouling agent for the prevention of biofouling in the early stages. PMID:25258620

  4. Comparative Effect of Crude and Commercial Enzyme on the Juice Recovery from Bael Fruit (Aegle marmelos Correa) Using Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anurag; Sharma, H. K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Mishra, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of incubation time, incubation temperature, and crude enzyme concentration was observed on the yield, viscosity, and clarity of the juice obtained from bael fruit pulp. The recommended enzymatic treatment conditions from the study were incubation time 475 min, incubation temperature 45°C, and crude enzyme concentration 0.20 mL/25 g bael fruit pulp. The recovery, viscosity, and clarity of the juice under these conditions were 82.9%, 1.41 cps, and 21.32%T, respectively. The variables, clarity, and yield were found as principal components for comparing different samples of the juice treated with enzyme. PMID:26904592

  5. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antimicrobial Activity, and Determination of Bioactive Components from Leaves of Aegle marmelos

    PubMed Central

    Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ‘‘Bael,” has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

  6. Phytochemical evaluation, antimicrobial activity, and determination of bioactive components from leaves of Aegle marmelos.

    PubMed

    Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ''Bael," has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

  7. Beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide, isolated from Aegle marmelos, as the potent anti-inflammatory agents against lymphoma and neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sain, Soumyadeep; Naoghare, Pravin K; Devi, S Saravana; Daiwile, Atul; Krishnamurthi, K; Arrigo, P; Chakrabarti, T

    2014-03-01

    Aegle marmelos (Indian Bael) is a tree which belongs to the family of Rutaceae. It holds a prominent position in both Indian medicine and Indian culture. We have screened various fractions of Aegle marmelos extracts for their anticancer properties using in vitro cell models. Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to analyze the biomolecules present in the Aegle marmelos extract. Jurkat and human neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells were treated with different concentrations of the fractionated Aegle marmelos extracts. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that optimal concentration (50 µg/ml) of beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide fractions of Aegle marmelos extract can induce apoptosis in Jurkat cell line. cDNA expression profiling of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was carried out using real time PCR (RT-PCR). Down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes (bcl-2, mdm2, cox2 and cmyb) and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (bax, bak1, caspase-8, caspase-9 and ATM) in Jurkat and IMR-32 cells treated with the beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide fractions of Aegle marmelos extract revealed the insights of the downstream apoptotic mechanism. Furthermore, in-silico approach was employed to understand the upstream target involved in the induction of apoptosis by the beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide fractions of Aegle marmelos extract. Herein, we report that beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide isolated from Aegle marmelos can act as potent anti-inflammatory agents and modulators of a newly established therapeutic target, 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX). Beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide can induce apoptosis in lymphoma and neuroblastoma cells via modulation of 15-LOX (up-stream target) followed by the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes. PMID:24484210

  8. Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.)-An overview

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shahedur; Parvin, Rashida

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.

  9. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

  10. Simultaneous quantification of furanocoumarins from Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Prashant B; Laddha, Kirti S

    2015-04-01

    Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae) is a prominent species in the Sub-Himalayan region, also found in central and south India, and has been widely used as remedy for diarrhea and dysentery. Unripe fruits show antiviral activity and prove to be a potent hypoglycemic agent. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of major furocoumarin components marmelosin, psoralen and bergapten in the extract from fruit pulp of A. marmelos has been developed. Components were found in the range of 5-6.5, >0.4-0.75 and >0.25 mg/g of dried fruit weight, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantification. Linearity was determined over the range of 5-40 µg/mL (r > 0.965). Intra- and interday precision showed a relative standard deviation of <2.5%. The accuracy of the method was determined by a spike recovery study, and the average recoveries were 99.46, 101.04 and 100.8% for marmelosin, psoralen and bergapten, respectively. The proposed HPLC method was found to be simple, precise and specific and can be used simultaneously for the routine quality control of raw materials of A. marmelos fruit extracts and their products, and also other products containing these markers. PMID:25122833

  11. Inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 by Aegle marmelos and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Manda, Vamshi K; Avula, Bharathi; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2016-02-01

    1. Aegle marmelos (bael) is a popular tree in India and other Southeast Asian countries. The fruit is usually consumed as dried, fresh or juice, and is reported to have a high nutritional value and many perceived health benefits. Despite its edible nature and therapeutic properties, no studies are reported regarding its effects on major drug metabolizing enzymes. 2. This study was aimed to evaluate the inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of A. marmelos fruit and its constituents (three furanocoumarins, namely marmelosin, marmesinin and 8-hydroxypsoralen, and 1 alkaloid, aegeline) towards major Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP3A4, 2D6, 1A2, 2C9 and 2C19) using human liver microsomes and recombinant CYPs. 3. The methanolic extract and marmelosin was found to be competitive and time-dependant inhibitor of CYP3A4. While reversible and non-competitive inhibition was observed for CYP1A2. Time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 was not affected by the addition of reduced glutathione. Marmesinin showed moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 and 1A2, while aegeline was a very weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 and showed no inhibition for CYP1A2 isoform. No significant inhibition of recombinant CYP2D6, 2C9, and 2C19 was seen with the extract or its constituents. 4. This is the first report of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 inhibition by A. marmelos extract and one of its furanocoumarins, marmelosin. Further studies are warranted to determine if acute or prolonged use of bael fruit could affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 or CYP1A2. PMID:26247834

  12. Chemopreventive efficacy of Aegle marmelos on murine transplantable tumors.

    PubMed

    George, Suraj K; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Kumar, Sunil S; Sreelekha, T T; Balaram, Prabha

    2014-01-01

    Emerging trends for cancer chemotherapy show promising developments with the better understanding of molecules delivering more potent and powerful capabilities. But these are severely limited because of increased side effects and higher probability of tumor recurrence. In this scenario, putative exploration of the indigenous and untapped resources modulating immune system to deliver adequate but potent chemopreventive effects appeals considerable interest. However, these require rigorous scientific validation with regard to potency compared with the existing drugs. Aegle marmelos (Linnaeus) Correa (family Rutaceae), a plant component of polyherbal formulation, Indukantha Ghritha, is known for its widespread medicinal values. But the chemopreventive potential has not been explored in comparison to existing anticancer agents. Our attempt contributes the scientific evidence for beneficial immunoprophylactic and antitumor functions in mice challenged with ascites tumors, Dalton's lymphoma ascites, and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma either alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil. Specifically, the petroleum ether extracts of this plant (AM(PE)) prophylactically activated a cascade of host defense mechanisms by stimulating or restoring total white blood cell count, macrophage phagocytosis, hematopoiesis, lymphocyte proliferation and functions (CD4+ and CD8+) either naturally or under conditions of impaired immunity like in ascites tumor or during standard agent chemotherapy. Overall, AM(PE) also elicited strong antitumor effects by increasing median survival time and life span, while reducing murine ascites tumor volume and viable tumor counts on par with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil especially when administered prophylactically. This study also identified 2 putative components, xanthorrhizol and marmelosin, which could be imparting the immunoprophylactic and antitumor effects in transplantable tumor models. Thus, our attempts provide sufficient proof to warrant further to test this drug in higher animal models or in patients with high risk for tumor recurrence and/or immunocompromised diseases. PMID:23729467

  13. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Jassal, Vidhisha; Kaith, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF) nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 (FeHCF), K2Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 (KCuHCF), K2Ni[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O (KNiHCF), and K2Co[Fe(CN)6] (KCoHCF) have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael) and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG), Eriochrome Black T (EBT), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methylene Blue (MB). Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71%) followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%), KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%). PMID:27034896

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    SciTech Connect

    Jagajjanani Rao, K.; Paria, Santanu

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  15. Umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat. Methods Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I – normal control, II – diabetic control, III – UFG (10 mg/kg), IV – UFG (20 mg/kg), V – UFG (40 mg/kg), VI – Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test. Result Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28 days showed significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in fasting blood glucose level and improve plasma insulin level as compared to the diabetic control group. Also it significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of hexokinase. UFG treatment decreased liver MDA and increased the level of SOD, GPx and CAT. UFG treatment of lipids it’s increased the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, LDL cholesterol and decreased the level of HDL cholesterol. Histologically, inflammatory cell in blood vessels, intercalated disc, fat degeneration and focal necrosis observed in diabetic rat organ but was less obvious in UFG treated groups. The mechanism of action of UFG may be due to the increased level of pancreatic insulin secretion and effect on the antioxidant marker. Conclusion UFG posses an antidiabetic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect on the STZ induced diabetic rat. Hence it could be the better choice to cure the diabetes. PMID:24138888

  16. Safety evaluation of aqueous extracts from Aegle marmelos and Stevia rebaudiana on reproduction of female rats.

    PubMed

    Saenphet, Kanokporn; Aritajat, Salika; Saenphet, Supap; Manosroi, Jeeradej; Manosroi, Aranya

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of a Thai medicinal plant, Aegle marmelos, and a non-caloric sweetener, Stevia rebaudiana, on the reproduction of female rats. Female rats were treated orally with aqueous extract of A. marmelos (6%) and S. rebaudiana at various concentrations (0, 0.2, 1, or 10%) for 60 days (1 ml/day) before mating. The control rats received only distilled water. At the end of the treatment period, treated females were mated with untreated males and the effects on reproduction were examined at day 14 of pregnancy. No notable abnormalities were observed in any of the pregnant rats. The number of corpus lutea, implanted and dead fetuses, as well as the sizes of the fetuses in the treated rats were not significantly different from those of the controls. Based on these results, it may be concluded that aqueous extracts of A. marmelos and S. rebaudiana at the concentrations used in this study do not alter the reproduction of female rats. PMID:17547081

  17. In Vivo Healing Potential of Aegle marmelos in Excision, Incision, and Dead Space Wound Models

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Purohit, V.; Agarwal, M.; Singh, A.; Goel, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The study incorporates the wound healing potential of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract (AME) on excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally once daily for variable days depending on the type of wound ulcer study. AME was studied for its wound breaking strength (incision wound), rate of contraction, period of epithelization and histology of skin (excision model), and granulation tissue free radicals, antioxidants, acute inflammatory marker, and connective tissue markers and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound). Complete wound contraction and epithelization were observed at the 20th day after treatment with AME as compared to the 24th day in control rats. Mean epithelization period and scar area were decreased while wound breaking strength was increased with AME compared with control. Granulation tissue showed increased levels of collagen determinants (33.7 to 64.4%, P < 0.001) and antioxidants (13.0 to 38.8%, P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), whereas markers of oxidative stress (55.0 to 55.6%, P < 0.001) and myeloperoxidase (21.3%, P < 0.001) were decreased in AME treated group. A. marmelos seems to promote wound healing by enhancing connective tissue formation and antioxidants status with decrease in free radicals and myeloperoxidase having tissue damaging effects. PMID:24737990

  18. Gastric Mucosal Protection by Aegle Marmelos Against Gastric Mucosal Damage: Role of Enterochromaffin Cell and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Purnima; Dutta, Shubha R.; Guha, Debjani

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in gastric mucosa inhibits gastric acidity by increasing the gastric mucus secretion. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) ripe fruit pulp (250 mg/kg body weight) on mean ulcer index (MUI), EC cells, 5-HT content, and adherent mucosal thickness of ulcerated gastric tissue in adult albino rats. Material and Methods: Ulceration was induced by using aspirin (500 mg/kg, p.o.), cerebellar nodular lesion and applying cold-restraint stress. Results: In all cases increased MUI in gastric tissue along with decreased EC cell count was observed with concomitant decrease of 5-HT content and adherent mucosal thickness (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with AM for 14 days decreased MUI, increased EC cell count, and 5-HT content as well as adherent mucosal thickness in all ulcerated group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: AM produces gastric mucosal protection mediated by increased EC cell count and 5-HT levels. PMID:25672237

  19. Modulation of doxorubicin-induced genotoxicity by Aegle marmelos in mouse bone marrow: a micronucleus study.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Ponemone; Shantala, Bellary; Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Rao, K Koteshwer; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2007-03-01

    The effect of various concentrations of Aegle marmelos (AME) on the doxorubicin (DOX)-induced genotoxic effects in mice bone marrow was studied. Treatment of mice with different concentrations of DOX resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic (MPCE) as well as normochromatic (MNCE) erythrocytes in mouse bone marrow. The frequencies of MPCE and MNCE increased with scoring time, and the greatest elevation for MPCE was observed at 48 hours post-DOX treatment, whereas a maximum increase in MNCE was observed at 72 hours post-DOX treatment. This increase in MPCE and MNCE was accompanied by a decline in the polychromatic erythrocytes-normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) ratio, which showed a DOX-dose-dependent decline. Treatment of mice with 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 mg/kg body weight of AME, orally once daily for 5 consecutive days before DOX treatment, significantly reduced the frequency of DOX-induced micronuclei accompanied by a significant elevation in the PCE/NCE ratio at all scoring times. The greatest protection against DOX-induced genotoxicity was observed at 350 mg/kg AME. The protection against DOX-induced genotoxicity by AME may be due to inhibition of free radicals and increased antioxidant status. PMID:17351026

  20. Bioprospecting Endophytic Fungi and Their Metabolites from Medicinal Tree Aegle marmelos in Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Soundari, Arockiamjeyasundar Parimala Gnana; Karthiyaini, Damodharan; Preeth, Kathirvel

    2015-01-01

    The increasing emergence of lead drugs for the resistance produced by the pathogenic strains and arrival of new diseases have initiated the need for searching novel metabolites with best anticancer and antimicrobial properties than the existing one. With this view, the investigation was conducted for the isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of potential endophytic fungi of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal tree used for more than three decades, for curing various disorders. A total of 169 endophytic fungal strains obtained from sampling and among those 67 were pigmented strains. Upon antagonistic screening, five endophytic fungal strains exhibited antagonistic potentiality by inhibiting the pathogens. These five potent strains were characterized at molecular level by sequencing the amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 4 regions of rDNA and they were grouped under order Pleosporales, Eurotiales, and Capnodiales. The metabolites from the respective strains were produced in fungal culturing media and extracted using polar solvents. Further, the extracts of five endophytes manifested antimicrobial activity against tested clinical pathogens and Alternaria alternata (FC39BY), Al. citrimacularis (FC8ABr), and Curvularia australiensis (FC2AP) exhibited significant antimicrobial profile against 9 of 12 tested pathogens, showing broad spectrum activity. The antioxidant levels of all the five endophytes revealed the highest activity at least concentrations, and major activity was unveiled by the members of order Pleosporales FC2AP and FC8ABr. This research explains the value of endophytic fungal extracts and its significance of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. PMID:26539047

  1. Biological Activities and Identification of Bioactive Metabolite from Endophytic Aspergillus flavus L7 Isolated from Aegle marmelos.

    PubMed

    Patil, M P; Patil, R H; Maheshwari, V L

    2015-07-01

    Aegle marmelos, a well-known Indian plant with medicinal and religious importance, has been extensively used in Indian traditional medicine. The present study aimed to isolate, identify, and evaluate the biological activities of endophytic fungi from A. marmelos. One of the isolates, labeled as L7, was identified as Aspergillus flavus using morphology and ITS gene sequence. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the culture filtrate were found to be 65.77 mg GAE/ml and 158.33 mg quercetin/ml of crude extract, respectively. The extract showed excellent antimicrobial activity against common human bacterial and fungal pathogens. The test extract at 700 µg/ml, which notably reduced the concentration of DPPH-free radical as percent DPPH scavenging activity, was found to be the highest (64.53 %). The extract, at the concentration of 2 mg/ml, produced 70 % inhibition of hemolysis of RBCs compared to 78 % produced by standard drug (Ibuprofen). Chemical profiling of the fermented extract using TLC followed by UV and FTIR revealed the presence of flavonoids. The HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of bioflavonoid rutin in the extract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on production of bioactive flavonoid by endophytic Aspergillus flavus obtained from A. marmelos and its pharmaceutical potential. In conclusion, the endophytic Aspergillus flavus obtained from the A. marmelos could be explored as an economic and potential natural resource with diverse pharmaceutical and biological activities. PMID:25860867

  2. Pharmacognostic standardisation and antiproliferative activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa leaves in various human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, J.; Saxena, A. K.; Suri, Nitasha; Ishar, M. P. S.

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic management of cancer is a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively explored to have integrated approach to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) is known for its hypoglycaemic, radioprotective, antidiarrhoeal and many other pharmacological activities. The present study is designed to carryout pharmacognostic standardisation and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the leaf extracts Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) and the chromatographic fractions of the most active extract. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the shade dried leaves were prepared by soxhelation and antiproliferative activity was assessed using human cancer cell lines of lung (A-549), colon (CoLo-05), ovary (IGR-OV-1), prostrate (PC3), leukaemia (THP-1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer. Bioactivity-derived fractionation was carried out for most active extract by column chromatography. The phytochemical studies indicated alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids in the alcohol, chloroform extracts and tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars in the petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition in colon and breast carcinoma cell lines at a dose of 100 μg/ml. Column chromatography of the ethanol extract yielded five fractions. Out of this, fractions 2, 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition in leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5, 86.2 and >100 μg/ml for fractions 2, 4 and 5, respectively. High-performance thin layer chromatography of the fraction 2 revealed imperatorin as one of the major phytoconstituents. Among the different extracts investigated, ethanol extract exhibited significant antiproliferative activity and its fraction 2 containing furanocoumarin imperatorin showed antiproliferative activity against leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5 μg/ml. PMID:24591736

  3. Pharmacological rational of dry ripe fruit of Aegle marmelos L. as an anti-nociceptive agent in different painful conditions.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atiq-ur; Imran, Hina; Taqvi, Syed Intasar Hussain; Sohail, Tehmina; Yaqeen, Zahra; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat

    2015-03-01

    The aim of study is to investigate central and peripheral analgesic effects of methanolic extract of dry ripe fruit of Aegle marmelos Linn. Corea (Am. Cr) by two methods, tail flick test and acetic acid induced writhing test at 100, 250 and 500mg/kg doses in animal models. Analgesic activity against tail flick test revealed that Am. Cr induced significant increase in latency period in dose dependent manner i.e. 65.38% at 100mg/kg, 395.37% at 250mg/kg (p<0.01) and 459.25% at 500mg/kg (p<0.01) body weight at 1hr after drug delivery while at 2hr effect decreased i.e. 61.53% at 100mg/kg, 161.11% (p<0.01) at 250mg/kg and 165.74% (p<0.01) at 500mg/kg but interestingly again there is an elongation in latency period at 3hr i.e. 106.15% at 100mg/kg dose, 251.85% (p<0.01) at 250mg/kg and 293.51% (p<0.05) at 500mg/kg respectively. The standard drug Diclofenac sodium at the dose of 5mg/kg continuously increased the latency period but less significantly as compared to the test substance i.e. 79.43%, 113.08% and 222.42% (p<0.05) respectively. Acetic acid induced writhing test produced highest significant activity at the dose of 100mg/kg i.e. 89.83% (p<0.01) as compared to Diclofenic sodium (standard drug) at a dose of 5mg/kg body weight i.e 63.63% (p<0.01). It is concluded that dry ripe fruit of A. marmelos possesses significant dual analgesic activities i.e. central and peripheral. PMID:25730807

  4. Interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. with cholinergic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptors: An ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahaseth, Rakesh Kumar; Tiwari, Mukesh; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Mathur, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to study interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) with cholinergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic receptor systems using appropriate rat tissues-ileum, fundus and tracheal chain, respectively. Materials and Methods: Cumulative concentration-response curves (CRC) were constructed at various doses on each tissue for AM and respective standard agonist. The CRC was again plotted in presence and absence of respective standard antagonist to confirm the interaction of receptor system and AM. Results: AM induced concentration-dependent contractions in isolated rat ileum (0.2–6.4 mg/ml) and fundus (0.2–3.2 mg/ml) that were inhibited significantly (P < 0.05) in the presence of atropine (10−7 M) and ketanserin (10−6 M), respectively. The relaxant effect, produced by AM (0.2 mg/ml) on carbachol (10−5 M) precontracted rat tracheal chain, was also inhibited significantly (P < 0.05) by propranolol (1 ng/ml). Conclusion: It may be concluded that AM possesses agonistic activity on cholinergic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptors. PMID:25821322

  5. In-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy of nickel nanoparticles phytofabricated from aqueous leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos Correa.

    PubMed

    Angajala, Gangadhara; Ramya, R; Subashini, R

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there is a tremendous growth in the interdisciplinary world of nanotechnology across the globe and emergence of its potential applications remains as a big revolution to the industry. Fusion of green nanotechnology and medicine represents one of the major breakthroughs of modern science with the aim of developing nanomaterials for diagnosis, treatment, prevention of various diseases and overall improving health for the beneficial of mankind. In the present study phytofabrication of nickel nanoparticles (nickel NPs) was carried out by using indigenous Aegle marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. Nickel NPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TGA studies. Phytosynthesis of nickel NPs was monitored both at room temperature (25°C) and at 60°C for 5h. The green synthesis of triangular shape nickel NPs phytofabricated from A. marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts having face centered cubic structure showing an average particle size of 80-100nm which is in consistent with the particle size calculated by XRD Scherer equation. We further explored and compared nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa with crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa for its in-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy against three blood feeding parasites. The results obtained clearly gives an idea that nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa (NiNPs of AmC) possess an enhanced anti-inflammatory and larvicidal activity when compared to crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa. PMID:24681220

  6. REMOVED: Inhibition of doxorubicin-induced clastogenic effect by Aegle marmelos (L.) correa in cultured V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Ponemone; Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Rao, Koteshwer; Shantala, Bellary; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2006-12-27

    This article has been removed consistent with Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. Please see http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy. The Publisher apologies for any inconvenience this may cause. PMID:17270387

  7. Adsorptive removal of congo red dye from aqueous solution using bael shell carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rais; Kumar, Rajeev

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the potential use of bael shell carbon (BSC) as an adsorbent for the removal of congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The effect of various operational parameters such as contact time, temperature, pH, and dye concentration were studied. The adsorption kinetics was modeled by first-order reversible kinetics, pseudo-first-order kinetics, and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The dye uptake process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic expression at pH 5.7, 7 and 8 whereas the pseudo-first-order kinetic model was fitted well at pH 9. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models were applied to fit adsorption equilibrium data. The best-fitted data was obtained with the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of CR onto BSC was endothermic in nature and favorable with the positive Δ H° value of 13.613 kJ/mol.

  8. Development and application of acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for chemical warfare nerve and sulfur mustard agents.

    PubMed

    Watson, Annetta; Opresko, Dennis; Young, Robert; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios. PMID:16621779

  9. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Opresko, Dennis M; Young, Robert A; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  10. Characterization of a human glycoprotein with a potential role in sperm-egg fusion: cDNA cloning, immunohistochemical localization, and chromosomal assignment of the gene (AEGL1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masaru; Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Takano, Hiroko

    1996-03-05

    Acidic epididymal glycoprotein (AEG), thus far identified only in rodents, is one of the sperm surface proteins involved in the fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human glycoprotein related to AEG. Although this protein, designated ARP (AEG-related protein), is not the ortholog of rodent AEG, it resembles AEG in that it is an epididymal secretory glycoprotein that binds to the postacrosomal region of the sperm head. The fact that no AEG mRNA can be detected in the human epididymis suggests that ARP might be the functional counterpart of rodent AEG. The gene encoding ARP (AEGL1) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to 6p21.1-p21.2. This result indicates that AEGL1 and the mouse gene for AEG are located in the chromosomal segments with conserved syntenies. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Ali, M. E.; Mian, I. H.; Akanda, A. M.; Abd Hamid, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

  12. Muscodor kashayum sp. nov. – a new volatile anti-microbial producing endophytic fungus

    PubMed Central

    Meshram, Vineet; Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

    2014-01-01

    Muscodor kashayum (MycoBank no.: MB 803800; GenBank no.: KC481680) is a newly described endophytic fungus of a medicinal plant Aegle marmelos (Bael tree), growing in the tropical conserved rainforest in the Western Ghats of India. Muscodor kashayum possesses distinct morphological, molecular and physiological features from the earlier reported Muscodor species. The fungus forms characteristic rings of the ropy mycelium on potato dextrose agar medium. This sterile fungus is characterised by the presence of a pungent smell which is attributable to a blend of more than 23 volatile organic constituents, predominantly 3-cyclohexen-1-ol,1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl; 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1-oxopropyl) phenol; 2,4-di-tert-butylthiophenol and 4-octadecylmorpholine. In the in vitro anti-microbial assay using M. kashayum, growth of 75% of test fungi/yeasts and 72% of the test bacteria were completely inhibited. Therefore, M. Kashayum holds potential for future application to be used as a myco-fumigation agent. PMID:24587960

  13. Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

  14. Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Dhandapani, R.; Sabna, B.

    2008-01-01

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

  15. Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dhandapani, R; Sabna, B

    2008-04-01

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

  16. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Rani, Phulan; Khullar, Neeraj

    2004-08-01

    Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum, Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and Butea monosperma. PMID:15476301

  17. Incidence of mycoflora and mycotoxins in some edible fruits and seeds of forest origin.

    PubMed

    Singh, P K; Khan, S; Harsh, N; Pandey, R

    2001-06-01

    Twelve fungi namelyAlternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A niger, A ochraceus, Actinomucor repens, Capnodoium spp., Curvularia lunata, Fusarium pallidoroseum, F solani, F verticillioides, Penicillium citrinum and Rhizopus stolonifer were recorded from samples ofAegle marmelos, Aesculus indica, Buchanania lanzan andPinus gerardiana. In case ofPrunus amygdalus only Rstolonifer was recorded. A significant variation in pattern of mycoflora incidence was observed in terms of source and season. Fungal infestation in most of the substrates was found to be highest during monsoon. Aflatoxins were the most common mycotoxins elaborated by different isolates ofA flavus obtained fromA marmelos, B lanzan andP gerardiana. The amount of aflatoxins produced by the toxigenic isolates ofA flavus was in the range of traces to 0.9-26.0 μg/ml inA marmelos, 0.8-17.5 μg/ml inP gerardiana and 0.65-13.2 μg/ml inB lanzan. The percentage toxigenicity was comparatively lower in the isolates of other mycotoxigenic fungi. Aflatoxins were detected almost in all the samples analyzed for mycotoxin contamination. However, traces of zearalenone were detected inA marmelos. The concentration of aflatoxin B1 was in the range of 0.13-0.75 μg/g inA marmelos, 0.09-0.60 μg/g inP gerardiana and 0.01-0.20 ug/g inB lanzan. Mycotoxins were not detected inAesculus indica andPrunus amygdalus. PMID:23605675

  18. Formulation development and in vitro antioxidant studies of Churnas containing natural sweetener and nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B

    2009-04-01

    Gymnema sylvestre, Curcuma longa, Azadiracta indica, Aegle marmelos, Salacia chinensis, Emblica officinalis were used as active components and Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceuticalfor development of Churnas. The free radical scavengingpotential of Churnas was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The hydroalcoholic extract of sweet and bitter Churnas at 500?g/ ml showed maximum scavenging of the riboflavin NET system, DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of nitric oxide radicals and iron chelation. This could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. Sweetness potency of Churna was found to be appropriate sweet, acceptable and palatable. These observations can be useful for the justifications of various ingredients and therapeutic applications of the Churnas. PMID:22557329

  19. Mass attenuation coefficients of X-rays in different medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Morabad, R B; Kerur, B R

    2010-02-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of specific parts of several plants, (fruits, leaves, stem and seeds) often used as medicines in the Indian herbal system, have been measured employing NaI (TI)) detector. The electronic setup used is a NaI (TI) detector, which is coupled to MCA for analysis of the spectrum. A source of (241)Am is used to get X-rays in the energy range 8-32keV from Cu, Rb, Mo, Ag and Ba targets. In the present study, the measured mass attenuation coefficient of Ocimum sanctum, Catharanthus roseus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, Anacardium occidentale, Momordica charantia and Syzygium cumini show a linear relation with the energy. PMID:19910203

  20. Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Birdi, Tannaz J; Brijesh, S; Daswani, Poonam G

    2014-05-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [(3)H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

  1. Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    C. Jagetia, Ganesh

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

  2. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-03-01

    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (P<0.05). Gallic acid had statistically significantly increased (P<0.05) in almost all the samples by day 7. The Oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay indicated 5 of the Kombucha beverages to have statistically significant increases (P<0.05) by day 7. The α-amylase inhibitory activities ranged from 52.5 to 67.2μg/mL in terms of IC50 values following fermentation, while the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities ranged from 95.2 to 196.1μg/mL. In conclusion, an enhancement of the antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus. PMID:26471559

  3. Lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high fat and fructose diet induced obese C57/BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Munisankar; Pandikumar, Perumal; Saravanan, Subramaniam; Toppo, Erenius; Pazhanivel, Natesan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-10-01

    Aegle marmelos Correa., (Rutaceae) is a medium sized tree distributed in South East Asia and used traditionally for the management of obestiy and diabetes. In this study the lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol (Hfn) isolated from leaves of A. marmelos have been investigated. Intracellular lipid accumulation was measured by oil red O staining and glycerol secretion. The expression of genes related to adipocyte differentiation was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hfn decreased intracellular triglyceride accumulation and increased glycerol release in a dose dependent manner (5-20 μg/ml) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In high fat diet fed C57/BL 6J mice, treatment with Hfn for four weeks reduced plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels and showed a significant reduction in total adipose tissue mass by 37.85% and visceral adipose tissue mass by 62.99% at 50mg/kg b.w. concentration. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Hfn decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (CEBPα) and increased the expression of sterol regulatory enzyme binding protein (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), Adiponectin and Glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) compared to the high fat diet group. These results suggested that Hfn decreased adipocyte differentiation and stimulated lipolysis of adipocytes. This study justifies the folklore medicinal uses and claims about the therapeutic values of this plant for the management of insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:24952133

  4. Screening of selected medicinal plants for in vitro antidermatophytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kalaivanan, C; Chandrasekaran, M; Venkatesalu, V

    2013-12-01

    Different solvent extracts of leaves of Achyranthes aspera, Aegle marmelos, Cleistanthus collinus, Curcuma aromatica and Strychnos nux-vomica were screened against dermatophytes viz., Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, M. canis and Epidermophyton floccossum var. nigricans. The mean zones of inhibition were between 7.1 and 26.5mm. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were from 7.81 to 500 and from 15.62 to 1000μg/mL respectively. The highest mean zone of inhibition (26.5mm), the lowest MIC value (7.81μg/ml) and the lowest MFC (15.62μg/ml) were observed in ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera against T. rubrum. The standard antifungal drug ketoconazole (10μg/disc) was used as the positive control and mean zones of inhibition were from 23 to 29mm. Further separation of active principle from ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera is under progress. PMID:24135649

  5. Mixed Phytochemicals Mediated Synthesis of Multifunctional Ag-Au-Pd Nanoparticles for Glucose Oxidation and Antimicrobial Applications.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Jagajjanani; Paria, Santanu

    2015-07-01

    The growing awareness toward the environment is increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles by green route syntheses. In this study, alloy-like Ag-Au-Pd trimetallic nanoparticles have been prepared by two plants extracts Aegle marmelos leaf (LE) and Syzygium aromaticum bud extracts (CE). Compositionally different Ag-Au-Pd nanoparticles with an atomic ratio of 5.26:2.16:1.0 (by LE) and 11.36:13.14:1.0 (by LE + CE) of Ag:Au:Pd were easily synthesized within 10 min at ambient conditions by changing the composition of phytochemicals. The average diameters of the nanoparticles by LE and LE + CE are ∼8 and ∼11 nm. The catalytic activity of the trimetallic nanoparticles was studied, and they were found to be efficient catalysts for the glucose oxidation process. The prepared nanoparticles also exhibited efficient antibacterial activity against a model Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. The catalytic and antimicrobial properties of these readymade trimetallic nanoparticles have high possibility to be utilized in diverse fields of applications such as health care to environmental. PMID:26043395

  6. Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2011-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles. PMID:21365365

  7. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100 μg of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  8. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per million (ppm), 125 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm—were prepared using acetone and tested for ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the treatments and means were separated by Tukey's test of comparison. Results Among the different extracts of the five plants screened, the hexane extract of L. acidissima recorded the highest ovicidal activity of 79.2% and 60% at 500 ppm concentration against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Similarly, the same hexane extract of L. acidissima showed 100% oviposition deterrent activity at all the tested concentrations against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti adult females. Conclusion It is concluded that the hexane extract of L. acidissima could be used in an integrated mosquito management program. PMID:25737834

  9. Fetal Hemoglobin Inducers from the Natural World: A Novel Approach for Identification of Drugs for the Treatment of β-Thalassemia and Sickle-Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Nicoletta; Zuccato, Cristina; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this review is to present examples of lead compounds identified from biological material (fungi, plant extracts and agro-industry material) and of possible interest in the field of a pharmacological approach to the therapy of β-thalassemia using molecules able to stimulate production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Concerning the employment of HbF inducers as potential drugs for pharmacological treatment of β-thalassemia, the following conclusions can be reached: (i) this therapeutic approach is reasonable, on the basis of the clinical parameters exhibited by hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin patients, (ii) clinical trials (even if still limited) employing HbF inducers were effective in ameliorating the symptoms of β-thalassemia patients, (iii) good correlation of in vivo and in vitro results of HbF synthesis and γ-globin mRNA accumulation indicates that in vitro testing might be predictive of in vivo responses and (iv) combined use of different inducers might be useful to maximize HbF, both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we present three examples of HbF inducers from the natural world: (i) angelicin and linear psoralens, contained in plant extracts from Angelica arcangelica and Aegle marmelos, (ii) resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and several plant extracts and (iii) rapamycin, isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. PMID:18955291

  10. Green leafy porridges: how good are they in controlling glycaemic response?

    PubMed

    Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera, Senadheera Pathirannehelage; Ekanayake, Sagarika

    2013-03-01

    Green leafy porridges made with leaf water extracts, rice and coconut milk are common Sri Lankan dietary remedies for diabetes. Though water and ethanolic extracts of most leaves elicit hypoglycaemic effects, data are not available on the efficacy when leaf extracts are incorporated into porridges. Thus, an effort was made to evaluate the proximate compositions and glycaemic index (GI) of some commonly consumed green leafy porridges. The GI of rice porridge and coconut milk porridge were measured to evaluate the effect of other ingredients other than the leaf extracts. Rice was the main contributor to carbohydrate (56-68% on dry weight) and water was the main component in porridges (89-93%). Fat and total dietary fibre contents ranged between 2.5-27% and 5-10%, respectively. The GI of all porridges was low (GI ≤ 55), except Cassia auriculata which had a high GI of 77 ± 12. The GIs of coconut milk, Aerva lanata, Hemidesmus indicus, Scoparia dulcis, Asparagus racemosus, Cephalandra indica, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Murraya koenigii and Aegle marmelos were 31 ± 5, 32 ± 5, 40 ± 8, 39 ± 8, 37 ± 4, 49 ± 8, 46 ± 8, 44 ± 8 and 50 ± 8, respectively. All porridges had a low or medium glycaemic loads ( ≤ 19). However, peak blood glucose reductions of ≥ 25% were observed in all leafy and coconut milk porridges, except in C. auriculata and Atlantia zeylanica, when compared with the glucose control. Therefore, green leafy porridges, except Cassia, can be recommended as breakfast meals for diabetics due to their low GI, peak blood glucose reduction and presence of other nutrients in green leaves. PMID:22849311

  11. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from these medicinal plants for diabetes. PMID:25176368

  12. Evaluation of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) for antihypertensive activity in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghelani, Hardik S.; Patel, Bipin M.; Gokani, Rina H.; Rachchh, Manish A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is an incurable pathological condition and lifelong therapy is required. Long term use of conventional synthetic anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with a spectrum of toxic effects. However, therapeutic interventions using herbal drugs for hypertension have gained considerable attention worldwide. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hypertensive activity of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03). Materials and Methods: The polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) comprises of leaves of Aegle marmelos L., fruits of Benincasa hispida Thunb., Garcinia indica Thouars, and flowers of Musa paradiasica L., Rosa indica L., Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. Selected plants as mentioned above were collected, dried and extracted with different solvents. Formulation SJT-HT-03 (250 mg/kg, p.o.), was evaluated using two kidney one clip (2K1C) model and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension model using the enalapril (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and hydrochlorothiazide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as a reference standard drug in respective models. Results: SJT-HT-03 significantly reduced (P < 0.001, one-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey's multiple comparison tests) systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure (BP) in 2K1C and DOCA-salt model. Further, SJT-HT-03 has shown a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum, clipped kidney as well as in lungs in 2K1C model, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum Na+ and increase in serum K+ level in DOCA model. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 possess significant anti-hypertensive activity by producing direct depressant effect on heart, inhibition of ACE, aldosterone antagonistic as well as diuretic effect and thereby act on multiple targets to achieve optimal effect. PMID:26195912

  13. In vitro α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial properties of ethyl acetate extract of Aegle tamilnadensis Abdul Kader (Rutaceae) leaf.

    PubMed

    R, Pratap Chandran; S, Nishanth Kumar; S, Manju; S, Abdul Kader; B S, Dileep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis leaves. The extract recorded strong α-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 100 μg/ml. The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated by nitric oxide radical inhibition, lipid peroxidation inhibition, ferric thiocyanate, and ABTS radical scavenging assay, and the extract recorded significant antioxidant activity. The ferric thiocyanate activity of extract was superior to butylated hydroxyl anisol (BHA), the standard antioxidant agent. The anticancer activity of the extract was evaluated against (1) breast cancer cell lines (MDAM B-231), (2) cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa), and (3) lung cancer cell line (A 549) using MTT assay, and significant activity was recorded against A 549 with an IC50 value of 64 μg/ml. Further studies on the morphology, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry confirm the extract-induced apoptosis in A 549. This extract also recorded significant anti-tuberculosis activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The current study suggests that the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis is a potential source of natural α-glucosidase inhibitor and antioxidant for protection as well as prevention of life-threatening diseases like cancer. PMID:25380641

  14. Holocene vegetation and climatic variations in Central India: A study based on multiproxy evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam; Phartiyal, Binita; Kumar, Kamlesh

    2013-11-01

    Palynology, texture, mineralogy, geochemistry, and magnetic susceptibility analysis of a 2 m deep sediment core from Padauna Swamp, southeastern Madhya Pradesh infers that between 8600 and 7500 cal yr BP a warm and relatively less-humid climate prevailed with open tree-savannahs dominated by grasses followed by sedges, Artemisia and members of Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae with scanty trees viz., Schrebera, Aegle marmelos and Sterculia urens. This is well supported by lower organic to carbonate carbon ratio, coarser texture having relatively low CIA and magnetic susceptibility values and presence of some primary minerals. Between 7500 and 6250 cal yr BP the tree-savannahs were succeeded by open mixed deciduous forests with the invasion of a few more trees viz., Madhuca indica, Holoptelea, Emblica officinalis, Mitragyna parvifolia and members of Anacardiaceae in response to onset of a warm and humid climate. A considerable rise in organic carbon generated from the degradation of plentiful biomass along with increase in clay content with signs of kaolinite and increase in immobile over mobile elements with slightly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values also suggest climatic amelioration. The presence of ruderal plants such as Artemisia, Cannabis sativa and Cheno/Am further infers initiation of human activities in the region. Between 6250 and 2800 cal yr BP, the mixed deciduous forests became more diverse and dense, subduing grasses and other herbaceous elements. Sporadic incursion of Shorea robusta (Sal) in forest floristic was recorded around 5000 cal yr BP. The overall change in the vegetation mosaic reflects that a warm and more-humid climate prevailed in the region, probably on account of invigoration of southwest monsoon. This observation is further corroborated by other proxy data showing a spurt in organic/inorganic carbon ratio, increase in clay content with matured mineralogy, significantly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values. Since 2800 cal yr BP onwards, the modern Sal dominated deciduous forests were established indicating continuation of warm and more-humid climate including timely arrival of SW monsoon coinciding with the shedding of Sal seeds as they are viable for a very short period.

  15. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  16. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 μg/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fenton’s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 μg/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 μg/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 μg/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 μg/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 μg/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 μg/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 μg/g. PMID:22754941

  17. Evaluation of risk assessment guideline levels for the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H.; Environmental Assessment

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min/m3). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild effects, serious adverse effects, and lethality. They are expressed as air concentrations (in units of mg/m3) and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The report discusses strengths and deficiencies in the levels, important parameters (i.e., exposure time, breathing rate) that need to be explicitly addressed in deriving the guideline levels, and possible impacts that could result from using AEGLs instead of guideline dosages in future assessments.

  18. Thanaka: traditional Burmese sun protection.

    PubMed

    Goldsberry, Anne; Dinner, Alan; Hanke, C William

    2014-03-01

    Limonia acidissima or Hesperethusa crenulata is a common tree in Southeast Asia. It is indigenous to the Republic of Myanmar (formerly Burma) as well as India, Sri Lanka, Java, and Pakistan. In English, the common names for Limonia acidissima are sandalwood, wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit tree. The plant has a number of different names in different languages including bal or bael in Assamese, bael in Bengali, kaitha in Hindi, belingai in Malaysia, and thanaka in Burmese. Unique to the Burmese people, thanaka has been used as a cosmetic product for over 2000 years. Mention of thanaka has been traced back to ancient Burmese lyrics, and relics of equipment used by ancient royalty to grind thanaka can be found in museums. PMID:24595576

  19. 75 FR 44249 - Proposed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... October 31, 1995 (60 FR 55376) (FRL-4987-3) of the establishment of the NAC/AEGL Committee with the stated... Potassium cyanide 151-50-8 Sodium cyanide 143-33-9 Tellurium hexafluoride 7783-80-4 Trimethylphosphite...

  20. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  1. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria. PMID:25157808

  2. Impact of spatiotemporal fluctuations in airborne chemical concentration on toxic hazard assessment.

    PubMed

    Bogen, K T; Gouveia, F J

    2008-03-21

    Models widely used to assess atmospheric chemical-dispersion hazards for emergency response rely on acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) or similar concentration guidelines to map geographic areas potentially affected by corresponding levels of toxic severity. By ignoring substantial, random variability in concentration over time and space, such standard methods routinely underestimate the size of potentially affected areas. Underestimation due to temporal fluctuation - applicable to chemicals like hydrogen cyanide (HCN) for which peak concentrations best predict acute toxicity - becomes magnified by spatial fluctuation, defined as heterogeneity in average concentration at each location relative to standard-method predictions. The combined impact of spatiotemporal fluctuation on size of assessed threat areas was studied using a statistical-simulation assessment method calibrated to Joint Urban 2003 Oklahoma City field-tracer data. For a hypothetical 60-min urban release scenario involving HCN gas, the stochastic method predicted that lethal/severe effects could occur in an area 18 or 25 times larger than was predicted by standard methods targeted to a 60-min AEGL, assuming wind speeds > or =2.0 or < or =1.5m/s, respectively. The underestimation doubled when the standard method was targeted to a 10-min AEGL. Further research and field data are needed for improved stochastic methods to assess spatiotemporal fluctuation effects. PMID:17706864

  3. Discrepancy among acute guideline levels for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Mattias; Palmen, Nicole; Johanson, Gunnar

    2010-12-15

    Acute guidance values are tools for public health risk assessment and management during planning, preparedness and response related to sudden airborne release of hazardous chemicals. The two most frequently used values, i.e. Acute Exposure Guidance Levels (AEGL) and Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG), were compared in qualitative and quantitative terms. There was no significant difference between the general level of AEGL and ERPG values, suggesting the two systems are equally precautious. However, the guidance values diverged by a factor of 3 or more for almost 40% of the substances, including many of high production volume. These deviations could be explained by differences in selection of critical effect or critical study and in a few cases differences in interpretation of the same critical study. Diverging guidance values may hamper proper risk communication and risk management. Key factors for broad international acceptance of harmonized values include transparency of the decision process, agreement on definition of toxicological tiers, and a target population including sensitive groups of the general population. In addition, development of purely health based values is encouraged. Risk management issues, such as land use and emergency response planning should be treated separately, as these rely on national legislation and considerations. PMID:20851517

  4. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content. PMID:26688969

  5. Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

    1997-08-01

    One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

  6. Single-shot readout of spin qubits in Si/SiGe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Christie

    2012-02-01

    Si/SiGe quantum dots are an attractive option for spin qubit development, because of the long coherence times for electron spins in silicon, arising from weak hyperfine interaction and low spin orbit coupling. I will present measurements of gate-defined single and double quantum dots formed in Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostuctures. Control of the gate voltages on these dots enables tuning of the tunnel coupling to the leads and to other dots. Careful tuning of these tunnel rates, in combination with fast, pulsed-gate manipulation and spin-to-charge conversion, allow spin state measurement using an integrated quantum point contact as a local charge detector. Single spin qubit readout relies on the Zeeman energy splitting from an external magnetic field for spin-to-charge conversion. Two-electron singlet-triplet qubits, on the other hand, can be measured by using Pauli spin blockade of tunneling between the dots to readout the qubit even at zero magnetic field. I will present real-time, single-shot readout measurements of both individual spin [1] and singlet-triplet qubits [2] in gated Si/SiGe quantum dots. Work performed in collaboration with J. R. Prance, Zhan Shi, B. J. Van Bael, Teck Seng Koh, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, R. Joynt, L. R. Schreiber, L. M. K. Vandersypen, M. Friesen, S. N. Coppersmith, and M. A. Eriksson. [4pt] [1] C. B. Simmons et al. Physical Review Letters 106, 156804 (2011). [0pt] [2] J. R. Prance, et al., e-print: http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/1110.6431

  7. Several Well-observed Asteroidal Occultations in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timerson, Brad; Durech, J.; Abramson, H.; Brooks, J.; Caton, D.; Clark, D.; Conard, S.; Cooke, B.; Dunham, D. W.; Dunham, J.; Edberg, S.; Ellington, C.; Faircloth, J.; Herchak, S.; Iverson, E.; Jones, R.; Lucas, G.; Lyzenga, G.; Maley, P.; Martinez, L.; Menke, J.; Mroz, G.; Nolan, P.; Peterson, R.; Preston, S.; Rattley, G.; Ray, J.; Scheck, A.; Stamm, J.; Stanton, R.; Suggs, R.; Tatum, R.; Thomas, W.

    2011-10-01

    During 2010 IOTA observers in North America reported about 190 positive observations for 106 asteroid occultation events. For several asteroids, this included observations with multiple chords. For two events, an inversion model was available. An occultation by 16 Psyche on 2010 August 21 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 235.4 x 230.4 km. On 2010 December 24, an occultation by 93 Minerva produced a best-fit ellipse of 179.4 x 133.4 km. An occultation by 96 Aegle on 2010 October 29 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 124.9 x 88.0 km. An occultation by 105 Artemis on 2010 June 24 showed a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 x 92.0 km. An occultation by 375 Ursula on 2010 December 4 produced a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 km x 135.0 km. Of note are two events not summarized in this article. On 2010 August 31, an occultation by 695 Bella yielded a new double star. That event will be summarized in the JDSO. Finally, on 2010 April 6, an occultation of zeta Ophiuchi by 824 Anastasia was observed by 65 observers at 69 locations. Unfortunately a large shift in the path yielded only 4 chords. Results of that event, and all the events mentioned here, can be found on the North American Asteroidal Occultation Results web page.

  8. Incorporation of acute dynamic ventilation changes into a standardized physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Ng, Laurel J; Stuhmiller, Louise M; Stuhmiller, James H

    2007-03-01

    A seven-compartment physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating a dynamic ventilation response has been developed to predict normalized internal dose from inhalation exposure to a large range of volatile gases. The model uses a common set of physiologic parameters, including standardized ventilation rates and cardiac outputs for rat and human. This standardized model is validated against experimentally measured blood and tissue concentrations for 21 gases. For each of these gases, body-mass-normalized critical internal dose (blood concentration) is established, as calculated using exposure concentration and time duration specified by the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) or the acute exposure guideline level (AEGL). The dynamic ventilation changes are obtained by combining the standardized PBPK model with the Toxic Gas Assessment Software 2.0 (TGAS-2), a validated acute ventilation response model. The combined TGAS-2P model provides a coupled, transient ventilation and pharmacokinetic response that predicts body mass normalized internal dose that is correlated with deleterious outcomes. The importance of ventilation in pharmacokinetics is illustrated in a simulation of the introduction of Halon 1301 into an environment of fire gases. PMID:17365028

  9. Contribution of terrigenous rocks of South Belgian coal deposits in geological storage of CO2 : the sandstones case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, N.; Baele, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in unmined coal seams is one of the different options for storing CO2 in geological reservoirs. In favorable situations, it could be coupled with the retrieving of adsorbed methane from coal (ECBM), which can make this solution economically more attractive. However, in the case of South Belgian coal measures, both weak permeability of the coal and frequent faulting/folding of the seams are likely to decrease the efficiency of this technique. Westphalian A and B sediments from South Belgium are containing only about 2.5% vol. of coal; the other rocks consisting of shales/siltstones (~80%) and sandstones (~20%). For all these lithologies, the main processes of CO2 sequestration are 1) adsorption in coal and clay minerals that are partly forming shales, and within rock porosity in the case of sandstones and, to a lesser extent, in the shales/siltstone porosity. In a previous assessment of the sequestration potential in Westphalian coal measures of South Belgium, Baele et al. (2007) showed that coal and shales each account for 25% of the total sequestration potential, and the rest, i.e. 50%, is related to sandstones on a basis of 2% porosity. Beside their significant additional storage capacity, sandstones have also a better permeability than the other finer-grained and organic lithologies. Additionally, sandstones are known to occasionally cut the coal seams (wash-out), thus providing insights in increasing accessibility of injected CO2 into the coal. On the other hand, some sandstone banks are fossil braided rivers that induced peripheral fractures by differential compaction during burial diagenesis (Van Tongeren et al., 2000). These fractures are thus likely to have increased accessibility from high-injectivity sandstones to surrounding lithologies that could significantly contribute to storage capacity. The aim of this study is to refine the contribution of the westphalian South Belgium sandstones to the geological storage of CO2. Measurements were performed on forty rock samples in order to determine their mineral compositions and petrophysical properties. Mineral compositions were determined by light and cathodoluminescence petrography (CL), XRD, SEM, EDS and TOC. Effective porosity and permeability were measured by lab tests on cylindrical core samples. Effective porosities measured in sandstones is ranging between 1.5% and 6% with an average of 3.5%, which is nearly twice the value taken in the previous capacity evaluation. The neutron porosity log of the Saint-Ghislain borehole yields porosity values ranging between 5 and 20% of limestone-equivalent porosity; these values suggest higher in-situ porosity, likely due to fractures in the coal measures. Permeability was estimated from lab permeameter tests to a few milli-darcies. Nevertheless this value, which is fairly low for a conventional reservoir, is higher than that of other Westphalian lithologies. Like porosity, in-situ permeability is expected to be higher. Westphalian sandstones mineral compositions shows mainly quartz, feldspars, clay minerals, coal grains that are cemented by either quartz overgrowth or a matrix consisting of fine detrital (mainly clays) and alteration minerals (authigenic carbonates, pyrite, and clays). These results are comparable to investigations of Westphalian C and D sandstones of North Belgium (Bertier et al., 2006). In the case of Westphalian sandstones, it was observed that the effective porosity is essentially located within this fine-grained matrix, explaining their weak permeability. Results from this study show other promising insights for the sequestration of CO2 within Westphalian sandstones of South Belgium. Carbonate minerals, which occur with 2% vol. in average, could significantly increase the porosity and especially the permeability, due to their dissolution by water acidification caused by CO2 injection. Adsorption onto coal fragments and clay minerals in the sandstones has an estimated sequestration potential similar to that of storage in rock porosity. Finally, for reservoir safety purpose, a preliminary assessment of the mineral trapping potential shows that the whole sequestrated CO2 (within the porosity and by adsorption) could react with CO2-sensitive minerals such as chlorites and feldspars in the long term. References : Baele J.M., Raucq V. , De Weireld G., Legrain H., Billemont P., Tshibangu K. & Dupuis C. (2007) - Geological Storage of CO2 : New Concepts from Storage Capacity Evaluation in Belgian Westphalian Rocks - EGU Meeting, Vienna 2007. Bertier P., Swennen R., Laenen B., Lagrou D. & Dreesen R (2006) - Experimental identification of CO2-water-rock interactions caused by sequestration of CO2 in Westphalian and Buntsandstein sandstones of the Campine Basin (NE-Belgium) - Journal of Geochemical Exploration 89 (2006) : 10-14. Van Tongeren P., Laenen B. & Dreesen R. (2000) - Het koolbedmethaanpotentieel in Vlaanderen en de mogelijkheden tot geologische opslag van CO2 in relatie tot de winning van deze gasreserves: een pré-haalbaarheidsstudie t.b.v. de Administratie Natuurlijke Rijkdommen en Energie. VITO report 2000/ETE/R/028, 100 pp.

  10. HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library ( http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser ( http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high energy physics is divided into several stages. Various programs exist for these stages. In this article we are interested in interfacing different Monte Carlo event generators via data files, in particular, Matrix Element (ME) generators and Showering and Hadronization (SH) generators. There is a widely accepted format for data files for such interfaces - Les Houches Event Format (LHEF). Although information kept in an LHEF file is enough for proper working of SH generators, it is insufficient for understanding how events in the LHEF file have been prepared and which physical model has been applied. In this paper we propose an extension of the format for keeping additional information available in generators. We propose to add a new information block, marked up with XML tags, to the LHEF file. This block describes events in the file in more detail. In particular, it stores information about a physical model, kinematical cuts, generator, etc. This helps to make LHEF files self-documented. Certainly, HepML can be applied in more general context, not in LHEF files only. Solution method: In order to overcome drawbacks of the original LHEF accord we propose to add a new information block of HepML tags. HepML is an XML-based markup language. We designed several XML Schemas for all tags in the language. Any HepML document should follow rules of the Schemas. The language is equipped with a library for operation with HepML tags and documents. This C++ library, called libhepml, consists of classes for HepML objects, which represent a HepML document in computer memory, parsing classes, serializating classes, and some auxiliary classes. Restrictions: The software is adapted for solving problems, described in the article. There are no additional restrictions. Running time: Tests have been done on a computer with Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Solo, 1.4 GHz. Parsing of a HepML file: 6 ms (size of the HepML files is 12.5 Kb) Writing of a HepML block to file: 14 ms (file size 12.5 Kb) Merging of two HepML blocks and writing to file: 18 ms (file size - 25.0 Kb).

  11. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

  12. The AETL methodology as a potential solution to current challenges associated with the development and use of acute exposure levels in Seveso II applications.

    PubMed

    Wood, Maureen; Pichard, Annick; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; de Rooij, Christianus; Tissot, Sylvie M

    2006-05-20

    This paper analyses current trends in the development and use of acute exposure levels in Europe for the implementation of the Seveso II Directive [Council Directive 96/82/EC of December 9, 1996 on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances. Official Journal of the European Communities, vol. L 10, January 14, 1997, Luxembourg, pp. 13-33]. It also describes a new initiative to develop a European methodology for deriving acute exposure threshold levels that responds to emerging needs in this area. The need for acute exposure values to predict human health effects of potential accidents on exposed populations has burgeoned in recent years. As the driving legislation for managing industrial hazards in Europe, the Seveso II Directive has particularly influenced this trend. Yet at this time it is questionable whether the availability and range of acute exposure values for toxic substances has kept apace with the growing need. Results of a survey of Seveso II competent authorities in the EU-15 revealed that a variety of different types of acute exposure values (AEGLs, EPRGs, etc.) are used for Seveso II applications. Moreover, a comparison of these values indicates gaps in coverage of substances as well as inconsistencies in terms of how health effects and exposure periods are defined for each type. These findings highlight an opportunity for greater collaboration on scientific inputs to application of the Directive in Europe. The ACUTEX project is an EU-funded research project aimed at furthering scientific exchange and collaboration in support of the development of acute exposure levels for toxic substances in Europe. Its goal is to develop a European methodology for deriving acute exposure threshold levels (AETLs). In particular, it provides the possibility for a common European platform for developing additional acute exposure values to meet emerging needs and cover more chemical substances. To maximise success, the work plan is designed to meet two very important challenges, the need to complement and add value to the existing array of acute exposure methodologies and the necessity of meeting requirements of a diverse range of European stakeholders. As such the project will draw on collaboration among European scientists and process of deliberation among stakeholders to deliver the following key results: (1) to facilitate wide acceptance of the methodology in Europe by both the scientific community and communities of different end-users; (2) to provide greater equivalence and transparency in implementation of the Seveso II Directive across the Member States, specifically through the development of common scientific bases for assessing risks and making risk management decisions related to toxic releases; (3) to produce a methodology that remains open to future collaboration on derivation of acute exposure levels on a European and a global basis. PMID:16343752

  13. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the north sea: matching CO_2 demand and supply given uncertain market conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, Tine; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Huisman, Kuno; Piessens, Kris; Kort, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Introduction CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) entails the injection of CO2 in mature oil fields in order to mobilize the oil. In particular, the injected CO2 reduces the oil's viscosity and acts as a propellant, resulting in an increased oil extraction rate (Leach et al., 2011). Given uncertainty in both oil price and CO2 price under the EU ETS system, aim of this study is to analyze under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange can be established between a CO2 supplier (an electricity producer for whom CO2 is a by-product) and a CO2 user (an offshore oil company that exploits oil fields in the North Sea and needs CO2 for enhanced oil recovery). Methodology A techno-economic simulation tool, PSS IV, was developed to provide investment decision support on integrated CO2-EOR projects (Welkenhuysen et al., 2014). Until now, a fixed onshore supply of CO2 was presumed. An economic optimization model is now developed for both the CO2 producer and the CO2 user. Because net present value and discounted cash flow methods are inadequate to deal with issues like uncertainty and the irreversibility of an investment decision, the real options theory is applied (Dixit and Pindyck, 1994). The way in which cooperation between the companies can take place, will be studied using game theoretical concepts (Lukas and Welling, 2014). Economic and technical data on CO2 capture are available from the PSS database (Piessens et al., 2012). Data on EOR performance, CO2 requirements and various costs are taken from literature (BERR, 2007; Klokk et al., 2010; Pershad et al., 2012). Results/Findings It will be shown what the impact of price uncertainty is on the investment decision of the electricity producer to capture and sell CO2, and on the decision of the oil producer to make the necessary investments to inject CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. Based on these results, it will be determined under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange and transport can take place. Furthermore, also the role of the ETS system will be discussed. In an initial stage, only the CO2-price and oil price market uncertainties are considered. In a further stage, uncertainties from the supply side (technology) and EOR (geological) will be added. References BERR. 2007. Development of a CO2 transport and storage network in the North Sea: report to the North Sea Basin Task Force. Dixit A, Pindyck R (1994). Investment under Uncertainty. In, Princeton University Press. Klokk Ø, Schreiner PF, Pagès-Bernaus A, Tomasgard A (2010). Optimizing a CO2 value chain for the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Energy Policy 38(11): 6604-6614 Leach A, Mason CF, Veld Kvt (2011). Co-optimization of enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration. Resource Energy Econ 33(4): 893-912 Lukas E, Welling A (2014). Timing and eco(nomic) efficiency of climate-friendly investments in supply chains. Eur J Oper Res 233(2): 448-457 Pershad, H., Durusut, E., Crerar, A., Black, D., Mackay, E. & Oldern, P., 2012. Economic Impacts of CO2-enhanced oil recovery for Scotland, Final report for Scottish Enterprise. Element energy, London. Piessens, K., Welkenhuysen K., Laenen, B., Ferket, H., Nijs, W., Duerinck, J., Cochez, E., Mathieu, Ph., Valentiny, D., Baele, J.-M., Dupont, N. & Hendriks, Ch., 2012. Policy Support System for Carbon Capture and Storage and Collaboration between Belgium-the Netherlands "PSS-CCS", Final report. Belgian Science Policy Office, Research Programme Science for a Sustainable Development contracts SD/CP/04a,b & SD/CP/803, 335p. Welkenhuysen, K., Compernolle, T., Piessens, K., Ramírez, A., Rupert, J. & Swennen, R., 2014. Geological uncertainty and investment risk in CO2-enhanced oil recovery. 12th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-12), Austin, Texas, 05-09/10/2014.

  14. Significance of the giant Lower Cretaceous paleoweathering event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, Médard; Ricordel-Prognon, Caroline; Schmitt, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    Weathering profiles typically develop at the interface with the atmosphere, and thus, record the fluctuations in the paleoatmosphere's chemistry and climatic conditions. Consequently they are one of the main archives to upgrade our understanding on paleoclimate and the Earth's environmental history. In this presentation, we will focus on the linking between paleoatmosphere compositions, weathering rates, and their impact on the subsequent sedimentary records. Distribution of the Lower Cretaceous lateritic weathering facies. During the Early Cretaceous, sea level drops and wide exondations lead to development of deep "lateritic" weathering profiles. Thick kaolinitic weathering profiles occured on the Hercynian basements and diverse kaolinitic and ferruginous weathering products covered the Jurassic limestone platforms. This major lateritic event is not restricted to Europe but also well know in North-America (up to Canada), South-America (down to Argentina), and in Australia. Moreover, recent paleomagnetic and radiometric datations revealed that numerous kaolinitic and ferruginous formations, which classically were ascribed to Tertiary ages, date back to the Lower Cretaceous period (Thiry et al., 2006). Additionally, the Bonherz iron ore deposits in the paleokarsts of the Jurassic limestone plateform of the Paris Basin also have to be reconsidered as of Cretaceous age, probably as well as the Tertiary age of the Swiss and Bavarian Jura Bonherz. Paleoclimatic interpretation. During a long time, the interpretation of these paleoweathering features has been a major palaeoclimatic argument. The spreading out of deep kaolinitic weathering profiles (from the Scandinavian and Canadian shields to southern Argentina and Australia, which was still situated close to Antarctica at that time) has lead to considerations, that during this period a warm and wet climate prevailed globally, with very little latitudinal differentiation. These paleoclimatic interpretations stand in contradiction to the paleobotanical data and the interpretation of the glacial origin of some sedimentary figures, such as dropstones. Additionally, some isotopic data are contradictory to the hypothesis of a warm climate around the whole world; in fact the data indicate cold water masses or even glaciation at high latitudes (Bornemann, 2008). On the other hand, numerous paleontological as well as some isotopic data support the theory of a greenhouse Earth during Cretaceous times (Sellwood & Valdes, 2006. Cretaceous paleoatmosphere. Taking in account the composition of the paleoatmosphere during the Cretaceous has considerably enriched the paleoclimatic debate. It is know that the CO2 concentrations of the Cretaceous atmosphere may have been 5 to 10 times higher than present day values (Berner & Kothavala, 2001). These high CO2 concentrations have often been used to explain higher rates of silicate mineral alteration. Nevertheless, although it is well understood that the CO2 content of the atmosphere controls the climate and therefore weathering, the specific mechanisms that intervene have rarely been studied. Here we will examine some aspects of the influence of CO2 upon weathering in order to reconsider the nature and the distribution of the Lower Cretaceous paleoweathering features. Simulation of granite weathering in high CO2 atmosphere. Two models, one of rainwater in equilibrium with the present day atmosphere and another with a CO2 atmospheric level 10 times higher than present day values (similar to the Lower Cretaceous atmosphere) have been developed and applied to a granite weathering simulation (Schmitt, 1999). The modelling shows that the successive minerals are the same for both simulations. But, under high atmospheric CO2 content, kaolinite appears with three times less rainwater flushed through the profile. This means that under similar rainfall and temperature conditions profiles would deepen three times faster than under present atmospheric conditions. Increased pCO2 has no direct effect on the appearance of gibbsite and hence on bauxite formation. Simulation of granite weathering at higher temperature (35 instead of 25°C) shows that gibbsite appears earlier, with about 20% less rainwater flushed through the profile, as a result of the increase in silica solubility between 25 and 35°C. The modelling also shows that elevated atmospheric CO2 values strongly accelerate the formation of deep kaolinitic profiles. This explains why deep kaolinized profiles, and kaolinite deposits have been widespread during the Cretaceous, even at extratropical latitudes, and under cool, moderately humide climate conditions. There is no direct effect of the simulated increased CO2 atmosphere on the rapidity of bauxitisation, but we know that the induced greenhouse effect and the particular Cretaceous paleogeography have both resulted in an increase in rainfall and in an important warming at intermediate latitudes. The simulation shows that the conjunction of these two factors is likely responsible for the expansion of the bauxites during the Cretaceous. Imprint in the sedimentary record The massive kaolinite formation during the Lower Cretaceous had a major impact on the clay mineral series of the sedimentary basins. The Upper Cretaceous sea level rise lead to the reworking of the kaolinitic weathering cover. Nevertheless the kaolinitic weathering paleoprofiles remained in place on wide continental areas until the Tertiary. A major reworking of these paleoprofiles occurred in Europe during the early Tertiary, when the climate became seasonally drier and vegetation cover more sparse, combined with the first Alpine tectonic movements. The kaolinite deposits of the Lower Eocene are mostly inherited from the Lower Cretaceous giant paleoweathering event. Berner R.A., Kothavala Z., 2001, GEOCARB III: a revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science, 3001, p. 182-204. Bornemann, R.D. Norris, O. Friedrich, B. Beckmann, S. Schouten, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, J. Vogel, P. Hofmann, T. Wagner. (2008). Isotopic evidence for glaciation during the cretaceous supergreenhouse. Science. 319 : 189-192. Schmitt J-M., 1999, Weathering, rainwater and atmosphere chemistry: example and modelling of granite weathering in present conditions, in a CO2-rich, and in an anoxic palaeoatmosphere. In : Palaeoweathering, palaeosurfaces and related continental deposits (eds. Thiry M. & Simon-Coinçon R.), Spec. Publ. Intern. Ass. Sediment., 27, p. 21 41. Thiry M., Quesnel F., Yans J., Wyns R., Vergari A., Théveniaut H., Simon-Coinçon R., Ricordel C., Moreau M.-G., Giot D., Dupuis C., Bruxelles L., Barbarand J., Baele J.-M, 2006, Continental France and Belgium during the Early Cretaceous : paleoweatherings and paleolandforms. Bull. Soc. géol Fr., 177/3 , p. 155 175. Sellwood B.W., Valdes P.J., 2006, Mesozoic climates: general circulation models and the rock record. Sedimentary Geology, 100, p. 269-287.