In this study, a new activated carbon prepared from non-usable Bael fruit shell (BS) has been used as an efficient low cost adsorbent to remove the Cr(VI) toxic metal from aqueous phase. Batch mode experiments have been performed as a function of initial pH of solution, agitation time, adsorbate concentration and adsorbent dosage. Maximum chromium removal was found at pH
J. Anandkumar; B. Mandal
In continuation of evaluating the anti-obesity effect of Aegle marmelos, we have screened the n-hexane, dichloro methane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the leaves at the concentration of 25, 50, 75 and 100 ?g/ml for adipogenesis inhibition in the adipocytes. Nile red staining with the help of fluorometry was used as indicator of the antiobesity activity. The most active DCM extract showed the 33.98±3.55% lipid content at 100?g/ml and was selected for the further isolation. 14 compounds were isolated from DCM extract of A. marmelos leaves. The compounds were screened for the adipogenesis inhibition at 50 and 100 ?M concentrations. Out of the 14 compounds, halfordinol, ethyl ether aegeline and esculetin were showing 10.04±0.52, 16.29±0.85 and 25.09±1.31% lipid content respectively at 100 ?M. We hereby report the adipogenesis inhibition by A. marmelos as one of the pathway for its antiobesity effect. PMID:23972792
Karmase, Aniket; Jagtap, Sneha; Bhutani, Kamlesh K
The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ''Bael," has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969
Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam
The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ‘‘Bael,” has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40?mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous?:?ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10?mg/mL to 40?mg/mL whereas in aqueous?:?ethanol it ranged between 40?mg/mL and 160?mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity.
Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam
Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.
Rahman, Shahedur; Parvin, Rashida
Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis.
Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S
The study was carried out to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aegle marmelos leaves extracts and its phytochemical constituents in vitro and in vivo. The dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol extracts of A. marmelos leaves were studied for their lipolytic effect. Lipolysis was measured by determining the amount of glycerol released at 12 h and 24 h at 50 ?g/ml and 100 ?g/ml concentrations. Phytochemical investigation of the most active DCM extract yielded 14 compounds. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their lipolytic effects at 50 ?M and 100 ?M. The most active compounds, umbelliferone and esculetin were further screened for their antiobesity effects in vivo in the high fat diet (HFD) induced obese rat model. Umbelliferone and esculetin reduced body weight, total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and glucose level in their respective HFD groups. A. marmelos DCM extract and compounds isolated from it have the potential of counteracting the obesity by lipolysis in adipocytes. PMID:23632084
Karmase, Aniket; Birari, Rahul; Bhutani, Kamlesh K
Bioassay-guided isolation and subsequent structure elucidation of a Bael tree Aegle marmelos lipid extract yielded two unstable acylated geranyloxycoumarin mixtures (1–2), six geranyloxycoumarins (3–8), (+)-9?-isovaleroxylariciresinol (9), and dehydromarmeline (10). In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, 1 and 2 potently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 0.18 and 1.10 ?g mL?1, respectively). Insufficient material and chemical instability prevented full delineation of the fatty acyl side chain olefin substitution patterns in 1 and 2. Therefore, five fatty acyl geranyloxycoumarin ester derivatives (11–15) were prepared from marmin (3) and commercial fatty acyl chlorides by semisynthesis. The unsaturated C-6? linoleic acid ester derivative 14 that was structurally most similar to 1 and 2, inhibited HIF-1 activation with comparable potency (IC50 0.92 ?M). The octanoyl (11) and undecanoyl (12) ester derivatives also suppressed HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 3.1 and 0.87 ?M, respectively). Mechanistic studies revealed that these geranyloxycoumarin derivatives disrupt mitochondrial respiration, primarily at complex I. Thus, these compounds may inhibit HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondria-mediated hypoxic signaling. One surprising observation was that, while less potent, the purported cancer chemopreventive agent auraptene (8) was found to act as a mitochondrial poison that disrupts HIF-1 signaling in tumors.
Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G.
Bioassay-guided isolation and subsequent structure elucidation of a Bael tree Aegle marmelos lipid extract yielded two unstable acylated geranyloxycoumarin mixtures (1-2), six geranyloxycoumarins (3-8), (+)-9'-isovaleroxylariciresinol (9), and dehydromarmeline (10). In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, 1 and 2 potently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 0.18 and 1.10 ?gmL(-1), respectively). Insufficient material and chemical instability prevented full delineation of the fatty acyl side chain olefin substitution patterns in 1 and 2. Therefore, five fatty acyl geranyloxycoumarin ester derivatives (11-15) were prepared from marmin (3) and commercial fatty acyl chlorides by semisynthesis. The unsaturated C-6' linoleic acid ester derivative 14 that was structurally most similar to 1 and 2, inhibited HIF-1 activation with comparable potency (IC50 0.92 ?M). The octanoyl (11) and undecanoyl (12) ester derivatives also suppressed HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 3.1 and 0.87 ?M, respectively). Mechanistic studies revealed that these geranyloxycoumarin derivatives disrupt mitochondrial respiration, primarily at complex I. Thus, these compounds may inhibit HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondria-mediated hypoxic signaling. One surprising observation was that, while less potent, the purported cancer chemopreventive agent auraptene (8) was found to act as a mitochondrial poison that disrupts HIF-1 signaling in tumors. PMID:23434131
Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Jekabsons, Mika B; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G
BACKGROUND: Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. However, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. Hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos for
S Brijesh; Poonam Daswani; Pundarikakshudu Tetali; Noshir Antia; Tannaz Birdi
Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy, living, and symptomless tissues of inner bark, leaf, and roots of Aegle marmelos, a well-known medicinal plant, growing in different parts of India including Varanasi. A total of 79 isolates of endophytic\\u000a fungi were isolated, representing 21 genera, adopting a standard isolation protocol. Members of the deuteromycotina were more\\u000a prevalent than ascomycotina and others.
S. K. Gond; V. C. Verma; A. Kumar; V. Kumar; R. N. Kharwar
Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat. Methods Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I – normal control, II – diabetic control, III – UFG (10 mg/kg), IV – UFG (20 mg/kg), V – UFG (40 mg/kg), VI – Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test. Result Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28 days showed significantly (P?0.001) decreased in fasting blood glucose level and improve plasma insulin level as compared to the diabetic control group. Also it significantly (P?0.001) decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of hexokinase. UFG treatment decreased liver MDA and increased the level of SOD, GPx and CAT. UFG treatment of lipids it’s increased the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, LDL cholesterol and decreased the level of HDL cholesterol. Histologically, inflammatory cell in blood vessels, intercalated disc, fat degeneration and focal necrosis observed in diabetic rat organ but was less obvious in UFG treated groups. The mechanism of action of UFG may be due to the increased level of pancreatic insulin secretion and effect on the antioxidant marker. Conclusion UFG posses an antidiabetic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect on the STZ induced diabetic rat. Hence it could be the better choice to cure the diabetes.
Objective: To study analgesic activity and to evaluate the involvement of opioid and monoamines in the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos. Materials and Methods: Analgesic activity of methanol extract (ME) of A. marmelos alone (75,150 and 300mg/kg orally) and in combination with morphine or venlafaxine (subanalgesic) were studied using tail flick test and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The effect of pre-treatment with opioid antagonist naltrexone 1mg/kg was also studied on antinociception induced due to ME. Result: ME produced a dose-dependent significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick test and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. (P<0.05) Administration of subanalgesic dose of ME with morphine or venlafaxine also resulted in significant (P<0.05) antinociceptive activity in both the pain models. Pre-treatment with naltrexone inhibited analgesic activity induced by ME alone and combination with morphine or venlafaxine. Conclusion: A.marmelos in induced antinociception is mediated through both opioid and monoaminergic pain pathways, suggest its possible use in chronic pain.
Kothari, Saroj; Kushwah, Anjali; Kothari, Dilip
Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. However, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. Hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos for its antimicrobial activity and effect on various aspects of pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. Methods The decoction was assessed for its antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities. The effect of the decoction on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells were assessed as a measure of its effect on colonization. The effect of the decoction on production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid receptor (GM1) were assessed by GM1-enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay whereas its effect on production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay. Results The decoction showed cidal activity against Giardia and rotavirus whereas viability of none of the six bacterial strains tested was affected. It significantly reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. The extract also affected production of CT and binding of both LT and CT to GM1. However, it had no effect on ST. Conclusion The decoction of the unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos, despite having limited antimicrobial activity, affected the bacterial colonization to gut epithelium and production and action of certain enterotoxins. These observations suggest the varied possible modes of action of A. marmelos in infectious forms of diarrhoea thereby validating its mention in the ancient Indian texts and continued use by local communities for the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases.
The aim of this study is to determine the affinity of six active compounds of Aegle Marmelos Correa, they are (E, R)-Marmin, skimmianine, (S)-aegeline, aurapten, zeorin, and dustanin as antihistamines in histamine H1 receptor in comparison to cetirizin, diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine as ligands comparison. Previously, in the in vitro study marmin obviously antagonized the histamine H1 receptor in a competitive manner. Methods: molecular docking to determine the interaction of ligand binding to its receptor. Lower docking score indicates more stable binding to that protein. Results: Marmin, skimmianine, aegeline, aurapten, zeorin, and dustanin were potential to develop as antihistamine agents, especially as histamine H1 receptor antagonists by interacting with amino acid residues, Asp107, Lys179, Lys191, Asn198, and Trp428 of histamine H1 receptor. Conclusions: Based on molecular docking, Amino acid residues involved in ligand protein interactions were Asp107, Lys179, Lys191, Asn198, and Trp428.
Nugroho, Agung Endro; Agistia, Dany Dwi; Tegar, Maulana; Purnomo, Hari
Cassia auriculata and Aegle marmelos are used extensively in the indigenous system of medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. The current investigation focuses on the serum insulin augmentation, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic property of a combined aqueous extracts of C.auriculata and A.marmelos on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The diabetes induced animals were fed with plant extracts at the increasing dosage of 250mg,
A. Sivaraj; K. Devi; S. palani; P. Vinoth; B. Senthil; E. David
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) leaves as well as its interaction with conventional anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs using elevated plus maze and tail suspension test in mice. Albino mice were treated with AM (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, po), imipramine (20 mg/kg, po), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, po), and combination of sub-effective dose of AM with imipramine or fluoxetine. Effects were observed on (a) time spent on (b) number of entries into (c) number of stretch attend postures (d) number of head dips in arms of elevated plus maze and on duration of immobility in tail suspension test. Effects of pretreatment with prazosin (0.062 mg/kg, po), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, po) and baclofen (10 mg/kg, po) were also studied on AM induced decrease in duration of immobility. Effects of AM (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg po) were observed on locomotor activity using photoactometer. Results showed that AM significantly (P<0.05) and dose dependently increased proportionate time spent on and number of entries into open arms while decreased number of stretch attend postures and head dips in closed arms. Dose dependent and significant (P<0.05) anti-immobility effect was found in mice treated with AM. Combination of AM (75 mg/kg, po) with imipramine (5 mg/ kg, po) or fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, po) also produced significant (P<0.05) anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Antidepressant activity of AM (150 mg/kg, po) was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by prazosin, haloperidol and baclofen. Methanol extract showed insignificant (P>0.05) effect on locomotor activity of mice. It is concluded that AM possess potential anxiolytic and antidepressant activities and it enhances the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of imipramine and fluoxetine. PMID:21675029
Kothari, Saroj; Minda, Manish; Tonpay, S D
Abstract Context: Aegle marmelos L. Corr (Rutaceae) is an important Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments. However, little information is available on the anti-fatigue properties of its fruit. Objective: Evaluation of the physical endurance and exercise-induced oxidative stress modulating properties of A. marmelos fruit in mice. Material and methods: Radical scavenging activity of the fruit hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated using in vitro systems. The extract was further evaluated for its endurance-enhancing properties at three oral doses (100, 200 and 400?mg/kg?b.wt) in BALB/c mice for 21?d using a swimming test. Results and discussion: The extract exhibited significant scavenging activity against DPPH (IC50, 351?±?37?µg/ml) and ABTS radicals (IC50, 228?±?25?µg/ml), respectively, with the polyphenol content of 95?µg/mg extract. It also inhibited AAPH radical-induced oxidation of biomolecules such as BSA protein (63%), plasmid DNA (81%) and lipids (80.5%). Administration of extract resulted in an increase in the duration of swimming time to exhaustion by 23.4 and 47.5% for medium and higher doses, respectively. The extract significantly normalized the fatigue-related biochemical parameters and also down-regulated the swim stress-induced over-expression of heat shock protein-70 and up-regulated the skeletal muscle metabolic regulators (GLUT-4 and AMPK1-?) by 2- and 3-fold, respectively, at the higher dose in muscle tissues. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the anti-fatigue properties of A. marmelos fruit, most probably manifested by delaying the accumulation of serum lactic acid, increasing the fat utilization and up-regulating the skeletal muscle metabolic regulators. PMID:24707972
Nallamuthu, Ilaiyaraja; Tamatam, Anand; Khanum, Farhath
The antibacterial activity of the methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts from the leaves, bark and fruit of A. marmelos was studied using disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram Positive), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B (Gram Negative). Results suggest that the methanolic extract has significant antibacterial activity against tested bacteria. The present study justifies the claimed uses of A. marmelos in the traditional system of medicine to treat various infectious diseases. PMID:22557272
Poonkothai, M; Saravanan, M
In recent years there is a tremendous growth in the interdisciplinary world of nanotechnology across the globe and emergence of its potential applications remains as a big revolution to the industry. Fusion of green nanotechnology and medicine represents one of the major breakthroughs of modern science with the aim of developing nanomaterials for diagnosis, treatment, prevention of various diseases and overall improving health for the beneficial of mankind. In the present study phytofabrication of nickel nanoparticles (nickel NPs) was carried out by using indigenous Aegle marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. Nickel NPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TGA studies. Phytosynthesis of nickel NPs was monitored both at room temperature (25°C) and at 60°C for 5h. The green synthesis of triangular shape nickel NPs phytofabricated from A. marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts having face centered cubic structure showing an average particle size of 80-100nm which is in consistent with the particle size calculated by XRD Scherer equation. We further explored and compared nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa with crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa for its in-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy against three blood feeding parasites. The results obtained clearly gives an idea that nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa (NiNPs of AmC) possess an enhanced anti-inflammatory and larvicidal activity when compared to crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa. PMID:24681220
Angajala, Gangadhara; Ramya, R; Subashini, R
Background: Aegle marmelos (AM) fruit has been advocated in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, fever, asthma, inflammations, febrile delirium, acute bronchitis, snakebite, epilepsy, leprosy, myalgia, smallpox, leucoderma, mental illnesses, sores, swelling, thirst, thyroid disorders, tumours and upper respiratory tract infections. Objective: The objective of this study was to study the curative effect of 50% ethanol extract of dried fruit pulp of AM (AME) against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Materials and Methods: AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days after TNBS-induced colitis. Rats were given intracolonic normal saline or TNBS alone or TNBS plus oral AME. AME was studied for its in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative intestinal bacteria and on TNBS-induced changes in colonic damage, weight and adhesions (macroscopic and microscopic), diarrhea, body weight and colonic levels of free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and pro-inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) in rats. Results: AME showed antibacterial activity against intestinal pathogens and decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, colonic free radicals and MPO and enhanced body weight and colonic antioxidants level affected by TNBS. The effects of AME on the above parameters were comparable with sulfasalazine, a known colitis protective drug (100 mg/kg, oral). Conclusion: AME shows curative effects against TNBS-induced colitis by its antibacterial activity and promoting colonic antioxidants and reducing free radicals and MPO-induced colonic damage.
Ghatule, Rohit R.; Gautam, Manish K.; Goel, Shalini; Singh, Amit; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.
Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg\\/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly
C Vijaya; M Ramanathan; B Suresh
The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic (MPCE), normochromatic erythrocytes (MNCE), and polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCE/NCE), was studied in the bone marrow of mice orally administered with 0, 200, 225, 250, 275 and 300 mg/kg body weight of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (AME). Treatment of mice with AME, once daily for 5 consecutive days, before exposure to 2 Gy resulted in a significant decline in the frequency of MPCE when compared to the non-drug-treated irradiated control. The greatest reduction in MPCE was observed for 250 mg/kg body weight AME, accompanied by the highest polychromatic erythrocyte to normochromatic erythrocyte ratio, in comparison with the non-drug-treated irradiated control. Therefore, further studies were carried out using this dose of AME, where the animals were administered with 250 mg/kg body weight of AME before exposure to 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy of gamma-radiation and evaluated at 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours post-irradiation. Whole body irradiation of mice to different doses of gamma-radiation resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of MPCE at all post-irradiation times. Treatment of 250 mg/kg AME orally (p.o.) before irradiation significantly reduced the frequency of MPCE at all post-treatment times. The frequency of MPCE increased with time, reached a peak level at 24 hours, and declined thereafter. The occurrence of MNCE has also shown a pattern similar to MPCE, except that the MNCE frequency reached a peak level by 48 hours. The AME significantly reduced the frequency of MNCE at all post-irradiation times, when compared to the non-drug-treated irradiated group. Treatment of mice with AME before exposure to different doses of gamma-radiation resulted in the inhibition of a radiation-induced decline in the PCE/NCE ratio, when compared with the concurrent irradiated controls. To gain insight into the mechanism of action, AME was tested for its antioxidant effects in cell-free chemical systems using H2O2/FeSO4 to generate hydroxyl (*OH) radicals, which were measured by a fluorescent probe, 2V, 7V-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH/DA). Xanthine/xanthine oxidase was used to generate superoxide (O2*-) anion radical, which was measured by a fluorescent probe dihydroethidium (DHE). AME significantly reduced fluorescence in a concentration dependent manner, indicating its efficacy to scavenge free radicals. Our results demonstrate that one of the mechanism of reduction in the radiation-induced DNA damage in mice bone marrow by AME may be due to scavenging of free radicals and elevation in the antioxidant status, as previously reported. PMID:17370869
Jagetia, G C; Venkatesh, P
Antigonadal activity of hydro-methanolic (40:60) extract of leaf of Aegle marmelos was noted here by using male albino rat as model animal. This evaluation was performed by sperm count, sperm viability, sperm motility, plasma testosterone level; androgenic key enzyme activities in testis which were decreased significantly after the leaf extract treatment in respect to control. The levels of thiobarbituric acid
D. De; K. Chatterjee; C. Mallick; T. K. Bera; D. Ghosh
Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.
Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Young, Robert A [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Toluene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a pungent floral or aromatic odor. . . . .The AEGL-1 was based on the preponderance of data from clinical and occupational exposures and from metabolism studies with human subjects that indicated an 8-hour exposure to 200 ppm was with...
The glucosidic precursor of marmelo lactones was synthesized by employing a common intermediate which had been used for the synthesis of the glucosidic precursor of marmelo oxides. The synthesis was performed by modifying the former procedure. Monochloroacetyl was adopted to protect both the glucose and aglycon hydroxyl groups for selective transesterification in the presence of the glycosyl ester. Glycosylation of the aglycon carboxyl group with 1-alpha-bromopermonochloroacetylglucose and final selective alcoholysis yielded the target glucoside. PMID:12036045
Shimizu, Hiroki; Kitahara, Takeshi
Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096
Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B
Over 20000 lipid extracts of plants and marine organisms were evaluated in a human breast tumor T47D cell-based reporter assay for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitory activity. Bioassay-guided isolation and dereplication-based structure elucidation of an active extract from the Bael tree (Aegle marmelos) afforded two protolimonoids, skimmiarepin A (1) and skimmiarepin C (2). In T47D cells, 1 and 2 inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 0.063 µM and 0.068 µM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also suppressed hypoxic induction of the HIF-1 target genes GLUT-1 and VEGF. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 and 2 inhibited HIF-1 activation by blocking the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1? protein. At the range of concentrations that inhibited HIF-1 activation, 1 and 2 suppressed cellular respiration by selectively inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I (NADH dehydrogenase). Further investigation indicated that mitochondrial respiration inhibitors such as 1 and rotenone induced the rapid hyperphosphorylation and inhibition of translation initiation factor eIF2? and elongation factor eEF2. The inhibition of protein translation may account for the short-term exposure effects exerted by mitochondrial inhibitors on cellular signaling, while the suppression of cellular ATP production may contribute to the inhibitory effects following extended treatment periods.
Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Datta, Sandipan; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong
Diabetes and stress stimulate hippocampal 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and release. The present study was carried out to find the effects of insulin, Aegle marmelose alone and in combination with pyridoxine on the hippocampal 5-HT, 5-HT2A receptor subtype, gene expression studies on 5-HT2A, 5-HTT, INSR, immunohistochemical studies and elevated plus maze in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. 5-HT content showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) and a significant increase (p < 0.001) in 5-HIAA in hippocampus of diabetic rats compared to control. 5-HT receptor binding parameters Bmax and Kd showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) whereas 5-HT2A receptor binding parameters Bmax showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Kd in hippocampus of diabetic rats compared to control. Gene expression studies of 5-HT2A, 5-HTT and INSR in hippocampus showed a significant down regulation (p < 0.001) in diabetic rats compared to control. Pyridoxine treated in combination with insulin and A. marmelose to diabetic rats reversed the 5-HT content, Bmax , Kd of 5-HT, 5-HT2A and gene expression of 5-HT2A, 5-HTT and INSR in hippocampus to near control. The gene expression of 5-HT2A and 5-HTT were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Behavioural studies using elevated plus maze showed that serotonin through its transporter significantly increased (p < 0.001) anxiety-related traits in diabetic rats which were corrected by combination therapy. Our results suggest that pyridoxine treated in combination with insulin and A. marmelose has a role in the regulation of insulin synthesis and release, normalising diabetic related stress and anxiety through hippocampal serotonergic function. This has clinical significance in the management of diabetes.
Mosquitoes have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adult emergence inhibition (EI) and adulticidal activity of the leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex
G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Bagavan; A. Abduz Zahir
We studied the feeding, growth and reproductive behaviour of Papilio polytes (common mormon butterfly) on five different host plants, Murraya koenigii, Toddalia asiatica, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Aegle marmelos and Citrus medica. The growth rate of P. polytes was fastest on M. koenigii followed by T. asiatica, C. medica, G. pentaphylla and A. marmelos. We related this to the nutrient contexts of the five plants. The plants T. asiatica and C. medica had higher water contents, which influenced the growth rate of the insect. M. koenigii was found to contain rich quantities of carbohydrate. M. koenigii, T. asiatica and C. medica were also rich in protein when compared to A. marmelos and G. pentaphylla. Total amino acid levels were comparatively higher in M. koenigii, T. asiatica, C. medica rather than A. marmelos and G. pentaphylla. PMID:20223241
Shobana, K; Murugan, K; Naresh Kumar, A
Background Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Methods The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle), Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum), Morus alba (mulberry), Aegle marmelos (bael), and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal ?-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase) inhibition and pancreatic ?-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 230.3-460.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.24±0.12 mg/ml, 0.59±0.06 mg/ml, and 3.15±0.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.85±0.41 mg/ml, 0.94±0.11 mg/ml, and 4.41±0.15 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values of roselle and butterfly pea extracts against pancreatic ?-amylase occurred at concentration of 3.52±0.15 mg/ml and 4.05±0.32 mg/ml, respectively. Combining roselle, chrysanthemum, and butterfly pea extracts with mulberry extract showed additive interaction on intestinal maltase inhibition. The results also demonstrated that the combination of chrysanthemum, mulberry, or bael extracts together with roselle extract produced synergistic inhibition, whereas roselle extract showed additive inhibition when combined with butterfly pea extract against pancreatic ?-amylase. Conclusions The present study presents data from five plant-based foods evaluating the intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitory activities and their additive and synergistic interactions. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus.
It is known that certain inorganic trace elements such as vanadium zinc, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, sodium, and nickel\\u000a play an important role in the maintenance of normoglycemia by activating the ?-cells of the pancreas. In the present study,\\u000a the elemental composition in the leaves of four traditional medicinal plants (Murraya koenigii, Mentha piperitae, Ocimum sanctum, and Aegle marmelos) widely
R. T. Narendhirakannan; S. Subramanian; M. Kandaswamy
Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study\\u000a was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone,\\u000a and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus
Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Asokan Bagavan; Abdul Abduz Zahir
Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex
G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; A. Bagavan
The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of leaf hexane and chloroform extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, Andrographis paniculata, Cocculus hirsutus, Eclipta prostrata, and Tagetes erecta on repellent, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The repellent action of the plant extracts tested varied depending on the plant species, part,\\u000a solvent used
Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Sampath Marimuthu; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar
Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate,\\u000a hexane, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus
G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; C. Venkatesan
A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous and methanolic plant extracts of Acorus calamus rhizome, Pongamia glabra leaves, Aegle marmelos unripe fruit and Strychnos nux-vomica root bark for their antidiarrhoeal potential against castor-oil induced diarrhoea in mice. The methanolic plant extracts were more effective than aqueous plant extracts against castor-oil induced diarrhoea. The methanolic plant extracts significantly
F. Gricilda Shoba; Molly Thomas
The broad goal of the project is to understand the mechanisms by which purified dietary compounds prevent the growth and development of tumors. Suring the past cycle, we have identified that curcumin inhibits epidermal growth factor mediated signaling through its cognate receptor EGFR thereby inhibiting AKT activation. We have recently identified a novel protooncogene which activates the Notch-mTOR-AKT signaling pathway. In addition, we have identified a novel compound marmelin from the Indian Medicinal plant Aegle marmelos.
The broad goal of the project is to understand the mechanisms by which purified dietary compounds prevent the growth and development of tumors. Suring the past cycle, we have identified that curcumin inhibits epidermal growth factor mediated signaling through its cognate receptor EGFR thereby inhibiting AKT activation. We have recently identified a novel protooncogene which activates the Notch-mTOR-AKT signaling pathway. In addition, we have identified a novel compound marmelin from the Indian Medicinal plant Aegle marmelos.
The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis
Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman
As a part of our drug discovery program, we identified an alkaloidal amide i.e. Aegeline (V) isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos as a dual acting agent (antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic). In continuation of this program, we synthesized new N-acyl-1-amino-2-alcohols (N-acrylated-1-amino-2-phenylethanol and N-acylated-1-amino-3-aryloxypropanols) via Ritter reaction and screened for their in-vivo antihyperlipdemic activity in Triton induced hyperlipidemia model, LDL-oxidation and antioxidant activity. Compounds 3, 11 and 13 showed good antihyperlipidemic activity, LDL-oxidation as well as antioxidant activity and comparable activity with marketed antidyslipidemic drug. PMID:24769351
Sarkar, Satinath; Sonkar, Ravi; Bhatia, Gitika; Tadigoppula, Narender
The present study evaluated the anticancer potential of 11 plants used in Bangladeshi folk medicine. The extracts were tested for cytotoxicity using the brine shrimp lethality assay, sea urchin eggs assay, hemolysis assay and MTT assay using tumor cell lines. The extract of Oroxylum indicum showed the highest toxicity on all tumor cell lines tested, with an IC(50) of 19.6 microg/ml for CEM, 14.2 microg/ml for HL-60, 17.2 microg/ml for B-16 and 32.5 microg/ml for HCT-8. On the sea urchin eggs, it inhibited the progression of cell cycle since the frist cleavage (IC(50)=13.5 microg/ml). The extract of Aegle marmelos exhibited toxicity on all used assays, but in a lower potency than Oroxylum indicum. In conclusion, among all tested extracts, only the extracts of Oroxylum indicum, Moringa oleifera and Aegles marmelos could be considered as potential sources of anticancer compounds. Further studies are necessary for chemical characterization of the active principles and more extensive biological evaluations. PMID:15848015
Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Ather, Arjumand; Wilke, Diego Veras; Jimenez, Paula Christine; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico
In present study, the effect of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana was studied on serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and on serum urea, total protein and albumin concentrations of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes in rats was induced by single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg i. p.). On confirming the diabetes after 48 h of injection, alcoholic extracts of three plants were administered orally in doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg/d for 30 d. Glibenclamide (300 mug/kg/d) was used as a reference drug for comparison. Streptozotocin diabetic rats showed a significant increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and serum urea concentration but a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin concentrations and albumin/globulin ratio. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana in daily doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg for a period of 1 mo produced dose- and duration-dependent decrease in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities as well as decrease in serum urea concentration and restored the serum total protein and albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio to a great extent in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of these plants in 500 mg/kg dose in streptozotocin diabetic rats were comparable to that of glibenclamide (300 mug/kg), a standard oral hypoglycaemic drug used in clinical practice. PMID:20502588
Sundaram, E N; Reddy, P Uma Maheswara; Singh, K P
In present study, the effect of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana was studied on serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and on serum urea, total protein and albumin concentrations of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes in rats was induced by single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg i. p.). On confirming the diabetes after 48 h of injection, alcoholic extracts of three plants were administered orally in doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg/d for 30 d. Glibenclamide (300 ?g/kg/d) was used as a reference drug for comparison. Streptozotocin diabetic rats showed a significant increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and serum urea concentration but a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin concentrations and albumin/globulin ratio. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana in daily doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg for a period of 1 mo produced dose- and duration-dependent decrease in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities as well as decrease in serum urea concentration and restored the serum total protein and albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio to a great extent in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of these plants in 500 mg/kg dose in streptozotocin diabetic rats were comparable to that of glibenclamide (300 ?g/kg), a standard oral hypoglycaemic drug used in clinical practice.
Sundaram, E. N.; Reddy, P. Uma Maheswara; Singh, K. P.
Gymnema sylvestre, Curcuma longa, Azadiracta indica, Aegle marmelos, Salacia chinensis, Emblica officinalis were used as active components and Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceuticalfor development of Churnas. The free radical scavengingpotential of Churnas was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The hydroalcoholic extract of sweet and bitter Churnas at 500?g/ ml showed maximum scavenging of the riboflavin NET system, DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of nitric oxide radicals and iron chelation. This could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. Sweetness potency of Churna was found to be appropriate sweet, acceptable and palatable. These observations can be useful for the justifications of various ingredients and therapeutic applications of the Churnas. PMID:22557329
Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B
In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts. PMID:12063567
Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto
Persistent recruitment of neutrophils in the bronchi of cystic fibrosis patients contributes to airway tissue damage, suggesting the importance of intervening on the expression of the neutrophil chemokine IL-8. Extracts from plants have been investigated to select components able to reduce IL-8 expression in bronchial epithelial cells challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts and purified components have been added to cells 24 h before pro-inflammatory challenge with P. aeruginosa and IL-8 transcription was quantified in the IB3-1 CF cells in vitro. P. aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 mRNA induction was increased by Argemone mexicana and Vernonia anthelmintica whereas no significant modification of transcription was observed with Aphanamixis polystachya, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Hemidesmus indicus. Finally, inhibition of IL-8 was observed with Polyalthia longifolia (IC50=200 microg/ml) and Aegle marmelos (IC50=20 microg/ml). Compounds from A. marmelos were isolated and identified by GC-MS. No significant effect was observed with butyl-p-tolyl sulphate, whereas the inhibition obtained with 6-methyl-4-chromanone concentration was accompanied by an anti-proliferative effect. On the contrary, 5-methoxypsoralen resulted in IL-8 inhibition at 10 microM concentration, without effects on cell proliferation. In synthesis, 5-methoxypsoralen can be taken into consideration to investigate mechanisms of neutrophil chemotactic signalling and for its potential application in modulating the excessive CF lung inflammation. PMID:19720161
Nicolis, Elena; Lampronti, Ilaria; Dechecchi, Maria Cristina; Borgatti, Monica; Tamanini, Anna; Bezzerri, Valentino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Mazzon, Martina; Mancini, Irene; Giri, Maria Grazia; Rizzotti, Paolo; Gambari, Roberto; Cabrini, Giulio
In this study we determined the activity of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Aegle marmelos, Vernonia anthelmintica, Oroxylum indicum, Argemone mexicana) on human breast tumor cell lines. Extracts from E. officinalis and O. indicum displayed anti-proliferative activity on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, while extracts from A. mexicana were active on MCF7 cells, exhibiting on the contrary low antiproliferative effects on MDA-MB-231 cells. Extracts from A. marmelos and V. anthelmintica were antiproliferative on both cell lines, but at higher concentrations. The accumulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA, a marker of neoplastic status, was analysed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data obtained demonstrated that only extracts from E. officinalis induce an increase of ERalpha mRNA in MCF7 cells. When MDA-MB-231 cell line was employed, extracts from E. officinalis, V. anthelmintica and A. mexicana were found to be inducers of the increase of ERalpha mRNA accumulation. Since activation of ERalpha gene expression could have clinical impact, our results suggest a possible use of extracts from medicinal plants to identify compounds of possible interest in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:14719119
Lambertini, Elisabetta; Piva, Roberta; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto
The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite. PMID:15383230
Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath
...Occupational exposures to cyclohexylamine...individuals. Acute exposure in animals...gasping, CNS effects (tremors...very steep exposure-response...margin between exposures producing no observable effects and those...margin between exposures causing little...more severe effects and death...following exposure of rats...
...with some attention to the chemically...indicate that exposures to JP-4...systemic effects of JP-8...repeated exposure studies addressed...identified as the target organs...regarding human exposures indicate...symptoms of exposure consistent...nonlethal effects in cats and...critical target, the methods...investigating the......
...irritative effects in humans: In a personal communication, Renshaw...noted after exposure to concentrations...subsequent exposures in a teratogenicity...diborane exposure has always...remained the target organ at...concentrations of exposure, and the...8-hour exposures using C...plot of the effective...
...found that an exposure concentration-time...for ocular effects (conjunctival...for acute exposures to chemicals...product to a target tissue...duration of exposure does not influence the concentration...which this effect occurs...sensitization and exposure duration...14192
...notable toxic effects. Although...following oral exposure of laboratory...inhalation exposures were unavailable...shorter-term exposure suggests...carcinogenic effect following acute exposures. The calculated...representing a no-effect level for...an acute exposure; exposures were to...
...endpoints and exposure durations were...Data on irritant effects were available...Although human exposures have occurred, no data on exposure concentrations...and 8-hour exposures; therefore...examine nonlethal effects of ethylenimine...study involved exposure to another...
Two novel type III polyketide synthases, quinolone synthase (QNS) and acridone synthase (ACS), were cloned from Citrus microcarpa (Rutaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. microcarpa QNS is unique, and it shared only 56-60% identities with C. microcarpa ACS, Medicago sativa chalcone synthase (CHS), and the previously reported Aegle marmelos QNS. In contrast to the quinolone- and acridone-producing A. marmelos QNS, C. microcarpa QNS produces 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolone as the "single product" by the one-step condensation of N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. However, C. microcarpa ACS shows broad substrate specificities and produces not only acridone and quinolone but also chalcone, benzophenone, and phloroglucinol from 4-coumaroyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, respectively. Furthermore, the x-ray crystal structures of C. microcarpa QNS and ACS, solved at 2.47- and 2.35-? resolutions, respectively, revealed wide active site entrances in both enzymes. The wide active site entrances thus provide sufficient space to facilitate the binding of the bulky N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA within the catalytic centers. However, the active site cavity volume of C. microcarpa ACS (760 ?(3)) is almost as large as that of M. sativa CHS (750 ?(3)), and ACS produces acridone by employing an active site cavity and catalytic machinery similar to those of CHS. In contrast, the cavity of C. microcarpa QNS (290 ?(3)) is significantly smaller, which makes this enzyme produce the diketide quinolone. These results as well as mutagenesis analyses provided the first structural bases for the anthranilate-derived production of the quinolone and acridone alkaloid by type III polyketide synthases. PMID:23963450
Mori, Takahiro; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Takashi; Kinjo, Keishi; Kato, Ryohei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Allopolyherbal formulation (APHF) consisting of combinations of three well known medicinal plants used in traditional medicines (Trigonella foenum graceum, Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos) and synthetic oral hypoglycaemic drug (Glipizide-GL). The optimized combination of lyophilized hydro-alcoholic extracts of drugs was 2:2:1 using OGTT model. The optimized PHF was simultaneously administered with GL and optimized using OGTT model in diabetic rats and further studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The results (serum glucose level, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and body weight) were compared with the standard drug GL (10 mg/kg body wt). The optimized APHF (500+5 mg/kg body wt) has shown significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities. The results were comparable with the standard; even better than the GL (10 mg/kg body wt) alone. The proposed hypothesis has reduced the no. of drug components from eight to three and dose almost 50% of both PHF and GL which fulfil the FDA requirements for export. Thus the developed APHF will be an ideal alternative for the existing hypoglycemic formulations in the market with an additional advantage of hypolipidemic effect and minimizing the cardiovascular risk factors associated with diabetes. PMID:24377129
Manik, Swati; Gauttam, Vinod; Kalia, A N
Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. PMID:19061265
Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati
In this study, seven exotic/indigenous medicinal plants of Mauritius, namely Coix lacryma-jobi (Poaceae), Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Moraceae), Vangueria madagascariensis (Rubiaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae) and Syzigium cumini (Myrtaceae) were studied for possible effects on starch breakdown by alpha-amylase in vitro. The results showed that only Artocarpus heterophyllus significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited alpha-amylase activity in vitro. To confirm the observed effects, a further biochemical assay was undertaken to investigate the effects of Artocarpus heterophyllus on alpha-amylase activity using rat plasma in vitro. It was found that the aqueous leaf extract significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited alpha-amylase activity in rat plasma. The highest inhibitory activity (27.20 +/- 5.00%) was observed at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. However, in both cases dose dependency was not observed. Enzyme kinetic studies using the Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations were performed to establish the type of inhibition involved. In the presence of the plant extract the maximal velocity (Vmax) remained constant (1/150 g / L/s) whereas the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) increased by 5.79 g / L, indicating that the aqueous leaf extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus behaved as a competitive inhibitor. Results from the present study tend to indicate that Artocarpus heterophyllus could act as a 'starch blocker' thereby reducing post-prandial glucose peaks. PMID:16521114
Kotowaroo, M I; Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H
The activities of membrane-bound ATPases are altered both in erythrocytes and tissues of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and diabetic patients. Umbelliferone (UMB), a natural antioxidant, is a benzopyrone occurring in nature, and it is present in the fruits of golden apple (Aegle marmelos Correa) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). Earlier we evaluated and reported the effect of UMB on plasma insulin and glucose, and this study was designed to evaluate the effect of umbelliferone on membrane-bound ATPases in erythrocytes and tissues (liver, kidney and heart) of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing 180-200 g, were made diabetic by an intraperitonial administration of STZ (40 mg/kg). Normal and diabetic rats were treated with UMB dissolved in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and diabetic rats were also treated with glibenclamide as drug control, for 45 days. In our study, diabetic rats had increased level of blood glucose and lipid peroxidation markers, and decreased level of plasma insulin and decreased activities of total ATPases, (Na(+)+K(+))-ATPase, low affinity Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase in erythrocytes and tissues. Restoration of plasma insulin and glucose by UMB and glibenclamide seemed to have reversed insulin, glucose and lipid peroxidation markers, and diabetes-induced alterations in the activities of membrane-bound ATPases. Thus, our results show that the normalization of membrane-bound ATPases in various tissues, is due to improved glycemic control and antioxidant activity by UMB. PMID:17652835
Ramesh, Balakrishnan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur V
ABSTRACT Umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin), a derivative of coumarin, is benzopyrone in nature, and it is present in the fruits of golden apple (Aegle marmelos Correa) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). The present study was designed with the objective of evaluating the effect of umbelliferone (UMB) on glycemic control and glycoprotein components in the plasma and tissues (liver, kidney, heart, and brain) of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing 180 to 200 g, were induced diabetes by administration of STZ (40 mg/kg b.w.) intraperitoneally. The normal and diabetic rats were treated with UMB dissolved in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 45 days. In our study, diabetic rats had decreased plasma insulin and elevated blood glucose, sialic acid, total hoxoses, fucose, and hexosamines in the plasma and tissues. Treatment with UMB brought the levels of glucose, sialic acid, total hoxoses, fucose, and hexosamines to near-normal level. Thus, our results show that treatment with UMB has improved glycemic control and thereby reduced the formation of glycoprotein components. This leads to the normalization of circulatory and tissue sialic acid, fucose, hexoses, and hexosamines in STZ-diabetic rats, which reflects a protective effect of UMB from the risk of diabetic complications. PMID:20020964
Ramesh, B; Pugalendi, K V
Diabetes mellitus is known to affect collagen in various tissues. Umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin), a natural antioxidant and benzopyrone, is found in golden apple (Aegle marmelos Correa) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). Plant-derived phenolic coumarins have been shown to act as dietary antioxidants. In this study, we have investigated the influence of umbelliferone on collagen content and its effects on the tail tendon in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Male albino Wistar rats (180-200 g) were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg). Normal and diabetic rats were treated with umbelliferone for 45 days. Diabetic rats had increased glucose and decreased insulin levels. Tail tendons of diabetic rats had increased total collagen, glycation and fluorescence, and decreased levels of neutral, acid and pepsin-soluble collagens. We have studied the effect of umbelliferone on haemostatic function because umbelliferone is also a coumarin derivative like the anticoagulant, warfarin. Diabetic rats had a significant decrease in prothrombin, clotting and bleeding time, and treatment with umbelliferone made these parameters almost normal. Our results show that umbelliferone controls glycaemia and has a beneficial effect on collagen content and its properties, i.e. collagen related parameters, in the tail tendon, which indicates recovery from the risk (recovery of animals from the risk of complications) of collagen-mediated diabetic polyneuropathy and diabetic nephropathy. PMID:17651305
Ramesh, Balakrishnan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan
Xanthine oxidase is considered as a potential target for treatment of hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia is predisposing factor for gout, chronic heart failure, atherosclerosis, tissue injury, and ischemia. To date, only two inhibitors of xanthine oxidase viz. allopurinol and febuxostat have been clinically approved for used as drugs. In the process of searching for new xanthine oxidase inhibitors, we screened culture filtrates of 42 endophytic fungi using in vitro qualitative and quantitative XO inhibitory assays. The qualitative assay exhibited potential XO inhibition by culture filtrates of four isolates viz. #1048 AMSTITYEL, #2CCSTITD, #6AMLWLS, and #96 CMSTITNEY. The XO inhibitory activity was present only in the chloroform extract of the culture filtrates. Chloroform extract of culture filtrate #1048 AMSTITYEL exhibited the highest inhibition of XO with an IC50 value of 0.61 ?g ml(-1) which was better than allopurinol exhibiting an IC50 of 0.937 ?g ml(-1) while febuxostat exhibited a much lower IC50 of 0.076 ?g ml(-1). Further, molecular phylogenetic tools and morphological studies were used to identify #1048 AMSTITYEL as Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae. This is the first report of an endophytic Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae from Aegle marmelos exhibiting potential XO Inhibitory activity. PMID:24801403
Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai
Profile of aldose reductase inhibition, anti-cataract and free radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants: an attempt to standardize the botanicals for amelioration of diabetes complications.
Phytotherapy has played an important role in the management of diabetes and related complications. In the present study different fractions of Catharanthus roseus L. (Apocynaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae), Tinospora cordifolia Willd. (Menispermaceae), Aegle marmelos L. (Rutaceae), Ficus golmerata L. (Moraceae), Psoralea corlifolia L. (Fabaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae), and Morinda cetrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) were evaluated as possible inhibitors of aldose reductase (AR: a key enzyme implicated in cataractogenesis) and antioxidant agents. Anti-cataract activity of the selected plants was demonstrated using 'sugar induced lens opacity model' and the cytotoxicity studies were carried out using MTT assay. Among the tested plants, water extract of M. cetrifolia (IC50 0.132 mg/ml) exhibited maximum AR inhibitory activity as compared to other phytofractions which showed the activity in an IC50 range of 0.176-0.0.82 mg/ml. All the plant fractions showed considerable antioxidant potential. Sugar induced lens opacity studies revealed that, M. cetrifolia possess significant anti-cataract potential to maintain lens opacity as compared to glucose induced lens opacity in bovine lens model. The extract of the selected plants showed moderate cytotoxicity against HeLa cell line. Results of the present studies may find useful in converting botanicals into therapeutic modalities. PMID:21570444
Gacche, R N; Dhole, N A
The bioactivity studies of the individual ingredients of Dashamularishta--a classical Ayurvedic preparation were done with the aqueous extracts of the individual ingredients. The Aegle marmelos Correa. exhibited severe toxicity to the brine shrimp (BST) nauplii, wheat rootlet growth (WRG) inhibition bioassay and lettuce seed germination (LSG) bioassay. It exhibited no inhibition to the growth of PPR and Reo virus in vero cell line. The Oroxylum indicum exhibited moderate toxicity to the BST and WRG, but it is not toxic to the LSG. It exhibited no inhibition to the growth of PPR and Reo virus. The Stereospermum suaveolens exhibited severe toxicity to the BST and LSG, but it is not toxic to the WRG. It exhibited total inhibition to the growth of Reo virus, but it has not effect on the PPR virus. The Premna integrifolia showed severe toxicity to the BST, but it was not toxic to the WRG and LSG. It exhibited no inhibition to the growth of PPR and Reo virus. The Gmelina arborea exhibited severe toxicity to the BST and WRG, but it is not toxic to the LSG. It exhibited no inhibition to the growth of PPR and Reo virus. The Solanum xanthocarpum showed mild toxicity to the BST, WRG and LSG. It exhibited 75% inhibition to the growth of Reo virus. The Solanum indicum showed no toxicity to the BST, WRG and LSG. It exhibited 75% inhibition to the growth of PPR virus. The Desmodium gangeticum showed no toxicity to the BST, but moderate toxicity to the WRG and LSG. It exhibited total inhibition to the growth of PPR virus. The Uraria lagopoides showed no toxicity to the BST, WRG and LSG. It exhibited total inhibition to the growth of Reo virus. The Tribulus terrestris showed no toxicity to the BST, but showed moderate toxicity to the WRG and LSG. It exhibited 75% inhibition to the growth of both PPR and Reo virus. PMID:16414581
Jabbar, Shaila; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Choudhuri, M Shahabuddin K; Sil, Bijon K
PBPK models may be used in risk assessment to reduce uncertainties associated with dosimetry; however, other considerations may still lead to incorporation of uncertainty factors (UF). We investigated the consequences of incorporating UFs at three different steps in the modeling...
Palynology, texture, mineralogy, geochemistry, and magnetic susceptibility analysis of a 2 m deep sediment core from Padauna Swamp, southeastern Madhya Pradesh infers that between 8600 and 7500 cal yr BP a warm and relatively less-humid climate prevailed with open tree-savannahs dominated by grasses followed by sedges, Artemisia and members of Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae with scanty trees viz., Schrebera, Aegle marmelos and Sterculia urens. This is well supported by lower organic to carbonate carbon ratio, coarser texture having relatively low CIA and magnetic susceptibility values and presence of some primary minerals. Between 7500 and 6250 cal yr BP the tree-savannahs were succeeded by open mixed deciduous forests with the invasion of a few more trees viz., Madhuca indica, Holoptelea, Emblica officinalis, Mitragyna parvifolia and members of Anacardiaceae in response to onset of a warm and humid climate. A considerable rise in organic carbon generated from the degradation of plentiful biomass along with increase in clay content with signs of kaolinite and increase in immobile over mobile elements with slightly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values also suggest climatic amelioration. The presence of ruderal plants such as Artemisia, Cannabis sativa and Cheno/Am further infers initiation of human activities in the region. Between 6250 and 2800 cal yr BP, the mixed deciduous forests became more diverse and dense, subduing grasses and other herbaceous elements. Sporadic incursion of Shorea robusta (Sal) in forest floristic was recorded around 5000 cal yr BP. The overall change in the vegetation mosaic reflects that a warm and more-humid climate prevailed in the region, probably on account of invigoration of southwest monsoon. This observation is further corroborated by other proxy data showing a spurt in organic/inorganic carbon ratio, increase in clay content with matured mineralogy, significantly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values. Since 2800 cal yr BP onwards, the modern Sal dominated deciduous forests were established indicating continuation of warm and more-humid climate including timely arrival of SW monsoon coinciding with the shedding of Sal seeds as they are viable for a very short period.
Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam; Phartiyal, Binita; Kumar, Kamlesh
...as defined by Federal regulation. The form may be viewed and downloaded from the following URL address: http://www.epo.gov/oppt/aeg1/pubs/ethics.htm. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Hazardous substances, NAC/AEGL...
...three AEGL exposure levels reflect...range between exposures resulting in minor effects and those...neurological effects. However, definitive exposure data (concentration...for these exposures. Toxicity...tract are the target organ/tissues...an acute exposure. Data on irritant effects in...
Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) are derived to protect the human population from adverse health effects in case of single exposure due to an accidental release of chemicals into the atmosphere. AEGLs are set at three different levels of increasing toxicity for exposure durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h. In the AEGL setting for methylene chloride, specific additional topics had to be addressed. This included a change of relevant toxicity endpoint within the 10-min to 8-h exposure time range from central nervous system depression caused by the parent compound to formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) via biotransformation to carbon monoxide. Additionally, the biotransformation of methylene chloride includes both a saturable step as well as genetic polymorphism of the glutathione transferase involved. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was considered to be the appropriate tool to address all these topics in an adequate way. Two available PBPK models were combined and extended with additional algorithms for the estimation of the maximum COHb levels. The model was validated and verified with data obtained from volunteer studies. It was concluded that all the mentioned topics could be adequately accounted for by the PBPK model. The AEGL values as calculated with the model were substantiated by experimental data with volunteers and are concluded to be practically applicable. PMID:16569727
Bos, Peter Martinus Jozef; Zeilmaker, Marco Jacob; van Eijkeren, Jan Cornelis Henri
The EU Control of Major Accidents Hazards Directive (Seveso II) requires an external emergency plan for each top tier site. This paper sets out a method to build the protection of public health into emergency planning for Seveso sites in the EU. The method involves the review of Seveso site details prescribed under the directive. The site safety report sets out the potential accident scenarios. The safety report's worst-case scenario, and chemical involved, is used as the basis for the external emergency plan. A decision was needed on the appropriate threshold value to use as the level of concern to protect public health. The definitions of the regulatory standards (air quality standards and occupational standards) in use were studied, how they are derived and for what purpose. The 10 min acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) for a chemical is recommended as the threshold value to inform decisions taken to protect public health from toxic cloud releases. The area delimited by AEGL 1 defines the population who may be concerned about being exposed. They need information based on comprehensive risk assessment. The area delimited by AEGL 2 defines the population for long-term surveillance when indicated and may include first responders. The area delimited by AEGL 3 defines the population who may present acutely to the medical services. It ensures that the emergency responders site themselves safely. A standard methodology facilitates discussions with plant operators and concerned public. Examples show how the methodology can be adapted to suit explosive risk and response to fire. PMID:18078713
O'Mahony, Mary T; Doolan, Donal; O'Sullivan, Alice; Hession, Michael
Calculation of the behaviour of photoelectron angular anisotropy in valence ionization of initially neutral NaX (X = 34-58) clusters is provided. The calculations are carried out for 1p, 1d and 1g jellium orbitals as a function of photon energy. The adapted theoretical framework is spherical jellium model using Woods-Saxon potential, which is modified to account for the long-range Coulomb tail in the final state. We discuss on the observed dramatic variations of the angular anisotropy parameter ? as a function incident photon energy. It is shown that the behaviour is connected to the oscillation of the valence photoionization cross sections, that is a specific interference property of such metallic clusters whose valence structure can be described using the jellium model. ISSPIC 16 - 16th International Symposium on Small Particles and Inorganic Clusters, edited by Kristiaan Temst, Margriet J. Van Bael, Ewald Janssens, H.-G. Boyen and Françoise Remacle.
We report on vortex pinning in laterally nanostructured ferromagnetic/superconducting bilayers consisting of superconducting Pb films on top of periodic arrays of dots or antidots patterned in magnetic films with in-plane or out-of-plane magnetization. We show how vortices in the superconductor are influenced by the ferromagnet. For a Co antidot lattice with in-plane magnetization, no matching effects are observed, indicating that the pinning potential does not reflect the periodicity of the antidot lattice. Dots and antidots with out-of-plane magnetization have pronounced field-polarity dependent pinning. Vortex imaging is used to reveal the origin of this asymmetry. This work is performed in collaboration with M. J. Van Bael, K. Temst, L. Van Look, J. Bekaert, M. Lange, S. Raedts, J. Swerts, S. J. Bending and V.V. Moshchalkov, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research - Flanders (FWO), the Belgian Inter-University Attraction Poles (IUAP) and the Flemish Concerted Action (GOA) Programs, and by the European ESF "VORTEX" Program.
One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.
Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.
Si/SiGe quantum dots are an attractive option for spin qubit development, because of the long coherence times for electron spins in silicon, arising from weak hyperfine interaction and low spin orbit coupling. I will present measurements of gate-defined single and double quantum dots formed in Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostuctures. Control of the gate voltages on these dots enables tuning of the tunnel coupling to the leads and to other dots. Careful tuning of these tunnel rates, in combination with fast, pulsed-gate manipulation and spin-to-charge conversion, allow spin state measurement using an integrated quantum point contact as a local charge detector. Single spin qubit readout relies on the Zeeman energy splitting from an external magnetic field for spin-to-charge conversion. Two-electron singlet-triplet qubits, on the other hand, can be measured by using Pauli spin blockade of tunneling between the dots to readout the qubit even at zero magnetic field. I will present real-time, single-shot readout measurements of both individual spin  and singlet-triplet qubits  in gated Si/SiGe quantum dots. Work performed in collaboration with J. R. Prance, Zhan Shi, B. J. Van Bael, Teck Seng Koh, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, R. Joynt, L. R. Schreiber, L. M. K. Vandersypen, M. Friesen, S. N. Coppersmith, and M. A. Eriksson. [4pt]  C. B. Simmons et al. Physical Review Letters 106, 156804 (2011). [0pt]  J. R. Prance, et al., e-print: http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/1110.6431
The reactivity of free binary gold-palladium clusters (AuPd2+, Au2Pd+, Au2Pd2+, and Au2Pd3+) toward molecular oxygen was investigated in an ion trap experiment under multi-collision conditions and compared to the reactivities of bare Aun+ and Pdm+ (n, m = 2 - 5) clusters. Reaction kinetics measurements revealed that the reaction rate is mainly determined by the number of palladium atoms in the clusters and only weakly influenced by additional gold atoms. The same holds true for the observed reaction product distributions. Most interestingly, the most reactive cluster ions Pd3+, Au2Pd3+, and Pd5+ exhibit a strong preference to form tetroxide products, AunPdmO4+. In addition, employing temperature dependent mass spectrometry, a second adsorption species consisting of several weakly bound oxygen molecules was identified for all investigated palladium containing clusters which is, however, only formed at cryogenic temperatures. All these observations suggest that the gold atoms largely act upon a spectator role in the reaction of the binary clusters. Nevertheless, a rough estimation of the relative O2 binding energies via statistical rate theory indicates that the addition of gold to the Pdn+ clusters decreases the O2-cluster interaction strength, although the reaction rate stays constant. This effect in the binary clusters may be of importance to a potential activation and dissociation of the adsorbed O2 molecules. ISSPIC 16 - 16th International Symposium on Small Particles and Inorganic Clusters, edited by Kristiaan Temst, Margriet J. Van Bael, Ewald Janssens, H.-G. Boyen and Françoise Remacle.
Lang, Sandra M.; Frank, Anja; Fleischer, Irene; Bernhardt, Thorsten M.
Sequestration of CO2 in unmined coal seams is one of the different options for storing CO2 in geological reservoirs. In favorable situations, it could be coupled with the retrieving of adsorbed methane from coal (ECBM), which can make this solution economically more attractive. However, in the case of South Belgian coal measures, both weak permeability of the coal and frequent faulting/folding of the seams are likely to decrease the efficiency of this technique. Westphalian A and B sediments from South Belgium are containing only about 2.5% vol. of coal; the other rocks consisting of shales/siltstones (~80%) and sandstones (~20%). For all these lithologies, the main processes of CO2 sequestration are 1) adsorption in coal and clay minerals that are partly forming shales, and within rock porosity in the case of sandstones and, to a lesser extent, in the shales/siltstone porosity. In a previous assessment of the sequestration potential in Westphalian coal measures of South Belgium, Baele et al. (2007) showed that coal and shales each account for 25% of the total sequestration potential, and the rest, i.e. 50%, is related to sandstones on a basis of 2% porosity. Beside their significant additional storage capacity, sandstones have also a better permeability than the other finer-grained and organic lithologies. Additionally, sandstones are known to occasionally cut the coal seams (wash-out), thus providing insights in increasing accessibility of injected CO2 into the coal. On the other hand, some sandstone banks are fossil braided rivers that induced peripheral fractures by differential compaction during burial diagenesis (Van Tongeren et al., 2000). These fractures are thus likely to have increased accessibility from high-injectivity sandstones to surrounding lithologies that could significantly contribute to storage capacity. The aim of this study is to refine the contribution of the westphalian South Belgium sandstones to the geological storage of CO2. Measurements were performed on forty rock samples in order to determine their mineral compositions and petrophysical properties. Mineral compositions were determined by light and cathodoluminescence petrography (CL), XRD, SEM, EDS and TOC. Effective porosity and permeability were measured by lab tests on cylindrical core samples. Effective porosities measured in sandstones is ranging between 1.5% and 6% with an average of 3.5%, which is nearly twice the value taken in the previous capacity evaluation. The neutron porosity log of the Saint-Ghislain borehole yields porosity values ranging between 5 and 20% of limestone-equivalent porosity; these values suggest higher in-situ porosity, likely due to fractures in the coal measures. Permeability was estimated from lab permeameter tests to a few milli-darcies. Nevertheless this value, which is fairly low for a conventional reservoir, is higher than that of other Westphalian lithologies. Like porosity, in-situ permeability is expected to be higher. Westphalian sandstones mineral compositions shows mainly quartz, feldspars, clay minerals, coal grains that are cemented by either quartz overgrowth or a matrix consisting of fine detrital (mainly clays) and alteration minerals (authigenic carbonates, pyrite, and clays). These results are comparable to investigations of Westphalian C and D sandstones of North Belgium (Bertier et al., 2006). In the case of Westphalian sandstones, it was observed that the effective porosity is essentially located within this fine-grained matrix, explaining their weak permeability. Results from this study show other promising insights for the sequestration of CO2 within Westphalian sandstones of South Belgium. Carbonate minerals, which occur with 2% vol. in average, could significantly increase the porosity and especially the permeability, due to their dissolution by water acidification caused by CO2 injection. Adsorption onto coal fragments and clay minerals in the sandstones has an estimated sequestration potential similar to that of storage in rock porosity. Finally, for reservoir safety purpose, a prel
Dupont, N.; Baele, J.-M.
Dianex, a polyherbal formulation consisting of the aqueous extracts of Gymnema sylvestre, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Azadirachta indica, Cassia auriculata, Aegle marmelose, Withania somnifera and Curcuma longa was screened for hypoglycemic activity in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Dianex was administered in different doses of 100-500 mg/kg/day orally in acute (6 h) and long-term (6 weeks) studies. Blood glucose levels were checked 2-6 h after treatment in acute studies and every 2 weeks in long-term studies. Body weight was recorded on the first and final day of the treatment in the long-term studies with diabetic mice. After 6 weeks, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspertate transaminase (AST), urea and creatinine were estimated in serum of the diabetic mice. Glycogen and total protein levels were estimated in the liver. Also, the liver and pancreas was subjected to histological examination. Oral glucose tolerance and in vitro free radical scavenging activity was also studied. Dianex produced significant (p<0.05) hypoglycemic activity at 250-500 mg/kg doses in both normal and diabetic mice in acute and long-term studies. The body weight of diabetic mice significantly (p<0.05) increased with all tested doses of Dianex. The elevated triglycerides, cholesterol, ALT, AST, urea and creatinine levels in diabetic mice were significantly (p<0.05) reduced at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The liver glycogen and protein levels were both significantly (p<0.05) increased in diabetic mice at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. Dianex increased the glucose tolerance significantly (p<0.05) in both normal and diabetic mice at all the doses tested. Histopathological examination showed that the formulation decreased streptozotocin induced injury to the tissues at all the doses tested. It produced significant (p<0.05) free radical scavenging activity against ABTS+, DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals at the concentrations ranging between 10-1000 microg/ml.Thus, in the present study, Dianex produced significant hypoglycemic activity in both normal and diabetic animals. It also reversed other diabetic complications in diabetic mice at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. In our earlier study, Dianex was well tolerated in laboratory animals at higher doses (upto 10 g/kg in mice, acute toxicity; up to 2.5 g/kg in rats, subacute toxicity studies for 30 days) without exhibiting any toxic manifestation. Hence, Dianex may be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:16106394
Mutalik, S; Chetana, M; Sulochana, B; Devi, P Uma; Udupa, N
Background: Preparation of highly standardized herbal products with respect to chemical composition and biological activity is considered to be a valuable approach in this field. SJT-DI-02 polyherbal formulation was successfully developed at our institute and filed for patent at Mumbai patent office. Objective: The present work was marker based standardization of patented, novel and efficacious polyherbal formulation namely SJT-DI-02 for the treatment of diabetes. The SJT-DI-02 was comprised of dried extracts of rhizomes of Acorus calamus, leaves of Aegle marmelose, fruits of Benincasa hispida, roots of Chlorophytum arendinaceum, seeds of Eugenia jambolana, leaves of Ocimum sanctum, pericarp of Punica granatum, seeds of Tamarindus indica. Selected plants were collected, dried and extracted with suitable solvents. The formulation was prepared by mixing different fractions of extracts. Materials and Methods: For successful and best standardization, first of all selection and procurement was carried out. Selection is done on the basis of therapeutic efficacy and amount of the marker present in the particular plant part. At the time of procurement side by side phytochemical screening and estimation of phytoconstituents was carried out. After completion of preliminary screening using characterized markers, we tried to develop best TLC systems using selected solvent composition. Finally well-developed TLC systems were applied in HPTLC. In the present study polyherbal formulation was standardized by using different four markers. TLC Densitometric methods were developed using HPTLC for the quantification of these marker compounds. Solvent systems were optimized to achieve best resolution of the marker compounds from other components of the sample extract. The identity of the bands in the sample extracts were confirmed by comparing the Rf and the absorption spectra by overlaying their UV absorption spectra with those of their respective standards. The purity of the bands due to marker compounds in the sample extracts were confirmed by overlaying the absorption spectra recorded at start, middle and end position of the band in the sample tracks. After conforming all these things fingerprints were developed for all three formulations which will be act as authentification and quality control tool. Results: % w/w of asarones is 3.61, % w/w of marmelosin is 4.60, % w/w of gallic acid is 10.80 and % w/w of lupeol is 4.13. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability, limit of detection, limit of quantification and accuracy. In well-developed mobile phase system linearity was found to be in the range of 0.983-0.995, % recovery was found to be in the range of 97.48-99.63, % RSD for intraday and interday was found to be 0.13- 0.70 and 0.32 -1.41 and LOD and LOQ was found to be in the range of 0.15- 0.61 and 0.45 -1.83 microgram per ml. Conclusion: Thus High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods were developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability, limit of detection, limit of quantification and accuracy. The methods were rapid, sensitive, reproducible and economical. It does not suffer any positive or negative interference due to common other component present in the formulation and would also serve as a tool for authentication of herbal products containing marmelosin, gallic acid, lupeol and asarones. Thus this work provides standardized and therapeutically active polyherbal formulations for the different ailments.
Ladva, Bhakti J.; Mahida, Vijay M.; Kantaria, Urmi D.; Gokani, Rina H.
Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.
Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.