Sample records for bael aegle marmelos

  1. Phytochemistry and medicinal uses of the bael fruit ( Aegle marmelos Correa): A concise review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga; Harshith P. Bhat; Nandhini Joseph; Farhan Fazal

    2011-01-01

    Aegle marmelos, a plant indigenous to India has been used by the inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent for over 5000years. The leaves, bark, roots, fruits and seeds are used extensively in the Indian traditional system of medicine the Ayurveda and in various folk medicine to treat myriad ailments. Bael fruits are of dietary use and the fruit pulp is used

  2. Radioprotective effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael): a concise review.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Bhat, Harshith P; Pereira, Manisha Maria; Mathias, Nishan; Venkatesh, Ponemone

    2010-10-01

    The effective use of radiotherapy in cancer cure and palliation is compromised by the side-effects resulting from radiosensitivity of bordering normal tissues, which are invariably exposed to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation during treatment. In this situation, use of radioprotective compounds that can protect normal tissues against radiation injury are of immense use. In addition to protecting normal tissue these compounds will also permit use of higher radiation doses to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, to date, no ideal radioprotectors are available as most synthetic compounds are toxic at their optimal concentrations and have produced little success in clinics. Radiation ill-effects are principally the result of generation of free radicals, and the antioxidant compounds that counter them are supposed to be of immense use in preventing them. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been observed to avert/ameliorate free radical-mediated ailments--an effect that has been documented--and such plants have recently been the focus of attention. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael), commonly known as bael, has been used since antiquity for treating various ailments, some of which are now known to be the result of oxidative stress. In studies spanning nearly a decade, it has been observed that bael prevented radiation-induced ill-effects, and the results of these studies indicate that it has the potential to be an effective, nontoxic radioprotective agent. In this current review, for the first time, an attempt is made to summarize these observations and to discuss the plausible reasons responsible for bael's radioprotective effects. PMID:20932194

  3. Immunomodulatory Potential of Methanol Extract of Aegle marmelos in Animals.

    PubMed

    Govinda, H V; Asdaq, S M B

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the current research was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos in an experimental animal model of cellular and humoral immunity. Administration of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos (500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, p.o.), produced significant increase in adhesion of neutrophils and an increase in phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay. Both doses of Aegle marmelos prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. Moreover, all treated groups demonstrated significant elevation in circulating antibody titre in the indirect haemagglunation test. From the above results, it can be concluded that methanol extract of Aegle marmelos possess immunomodulatory potential by stimulating cellular and humoral immune mechanisms. However, low dose of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos was more effective for augmenting cellular immunity, whereas, high dose was more inclined towards humoral immunity. PMID:22303072

  4. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

  5. Identification and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase involved in quinolone alkaloid biosynthesis from Aegle marmelos Correa.

    PubMed

    Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Verma, Priyanka; Gokhale, Rajesh S; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2013-03-01

    Quinolone alkaloids, found abundantly in the roots of bael (Aegle marmelos), possess various biological activities and have recently gained attention as potential lead molecules for novel drug designing. Here, we report the characterization of a novel Type III polyketide synthase, quinolone synthase (QNS), from A. marmelos that is involved in the biosynthesis of quinolone alkaloid. Using homology-based structural modeling, we identify two crucial amino acid residues (Ser-132 and Ala-133) at the putative QNS active site. Substitution of Ser-132 to Thr and Ala-133 to Ser apparently constricted the active site cavity resulting in production of naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Measurement of steady-state kinetic parameters demonstrates that the catalytic efficiency of QNS was severalfold higher for larger acyl-coenzymeA substrates as compared with smaller precursors. Our mutagenic studies suggest that this protein might have evolved from an evolutionarily related member of chalcone synthase superfamily by mere substitution of two active site residues. The identification and characterization of QNS offers a promising target for gene manipulation studies toward the production of novel alkaloid scaffolds. PMID:23329842

  6. Chemopreventive efficacy of Aegle marmelos on murine transplantable tumors.

    PubMed

    George, Suraj K; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Kumar, Sunil S; Sreelekha, T T; Balaram, Prabha

    2014-01-01

    Emerging trends for cancer chemotherapy show promising developments with the better understanding of molecules delivering more potent and powerful capabilities. But these are severely limited because of increased side effects and higher probability of tumor recurrence. In this scenario, putative exploration of the indigenous and untapped resources modulating immune system to deliver adequate but potent chemopreventive effects appeals considerable interest. However, these require rigorous scientific validation with regard to potency compared with the existing drugs. Aegle marmelos (Linnaeus) Correa (family Rutaceae), a plant component of polyherbal formulation, Indukantha Ghritha, is known for its widespread medicinal values. But the chemopreventive potential has not been explored in comparison to existing anticancer agents. Our attempt contributes the scientific evidence for beneficial immunoprophylactic and antitumor functions in mice challenged with ascites tumors, Dalton's lymphoma ascites, and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma either alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil. Specifically, the petroleum ether extracts of this plant (AM(PE)) prophylactically activated a cascade of host defense mechanisms by stimulating or restoring total white blood cell count, macrophage phagocytosis, hematopoiesis, lymphocyte proliferation and functions (CD4+ and CD8+) either naturally or under conditions of impaired immunity like in ascites tumor or during standard agent chemotherapy. Overall, AM(PE) also elicited strong antitumor effects by increasing median survival time and life span, while reducing murine ascites tumor volume and viable tumor counts on par with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil especially when administered prophylactically. This study also identified 2 putative components, xanthorrhizol and marmelosin, which could be imparting the immunoprophylactic and antitumor effects in transplantable tumor models. Thus, our attempts provide sufficient proof to warrant further to test this drug in higher animal models or in patients with high risk for tumor recurrence and/or immunocompromised diseases. PMID:23729467

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    SciTech Connect

    Jagajjanani Rao, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India); Paria, Santanu, E-mail: santanuparia@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ? Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ? The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (?60 nm) were synthesized within ?25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  8. Umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat. Methods Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I – normal control, II – diabetic control, III – UFG (10 mg/kg), IV – UFG (20 mg/kg), V – UFG (40 mg/kg), VI – Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test. Result Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28 days showed significantly (P?

  9. Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

  10. Antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) leaves in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites transplanted mice

    PubMed Central

    Chockalingam, Vijaya; Kadali, SDV Suryakiran; Gnanasambantham, Pratheesh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation was performed to evaluate the antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos leaves in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA)-bearing mice. Materials and Methods: The DLA cells maintained in vivo in Swiss albino mice were used for developing ascitic tumor in mice by intraperitoneal transplantation. The standardized 50% ethanolic extract of A. marmelos leaves (AMEE) was administered intraperitoneally in dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, after 24 hours of tumor inoculation in mice for two weeks. Results: The AMEE treatment significantly prevented (P<0.001) the increase in body weight due to tumor cell growth and increased the mean survival time of the tumor-bearing mice as compared to the untreated DLA control mice. The treatment of DLA-bearing mice brought down the Alanine Aminotransferase (ALAT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (ASAT), and alkaline phosphatase to normal levels. The extract decreased the levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of hepatic antioxidants Glutathione, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and catalase. All the changes observed with AMEE treatment were dose dependent. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of A. marmelos exhibits strong antitumor and antioxidant activities in DLA-bearing mice. PMID:22529480

  11. In Vivo Healing Potential of Aegle marmelos in Excision, Incision, and Dead Space Wound Models

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Purohit, V.; Agarwal, M.; Singh, A.; Goel, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The study incorporates the wound healing potential of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract (AME) on excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. AME (200?mg/kg) was administered orally once daily for variable days depending on the type of wound ulcer study. AME was studied for its wound breaking strength (incision wound), rate of contraction, period of epithelization and histology of skin (excision model), and granulation tissue free radicals, antioxidants, acute inflammatory marker, and connective tissue markers and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound). Complete wound contraction and epithelization were observed at the 20th day after treatment with AME as compared to the 24th day in control rats. Mean epithelization period and scar area were decreased while wound breaking strength was increased with AME compared with control. Granulation tissue showed increased levels of collagen determinants (33.7 to 64.4%, P < 0.001) and antioxidants (13.0 to 38.8%, P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), whereas markers of oxidative stress (55.0 to 55.6%, P < 0.001) and myeloperoxidase (21.3%, P < 0.001) were decreased in AME treated group. A. marmelos seems to promote wound healing by enhancing connective tissue formation and antioxidants status with decrease in free radicals and myeloperoxidase having tissue damaging effects. PMID:24737990

  12. Biological Activities and Identification of Bioactive Metabolite from Endophytic Aspergillus flavus L7 Isolated from Aegle marmelos.

    PubMed

    Patil, M P; Patil, R H; Maheshwari, V L

    2015-07-01

    Aegle marmelos, a well-known Indian plant with medicinal and religious importance, has been extensively used in Indian traditional medicine. The present study aimed to isolate, identify, and evaluate the biological activities of endophytic fungi from A. marmelos. One of the isolates, labeled as L7, was identified as Aspergillus flavus using morphology and ITS gene sequence. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the culture filtrate were found to be 65.77 mg GAE/ml and 158.33 mg quercetin/ml of crude extract, respectively. The extract showed excellent antimicrobial activity against common human bacterial and fungal pathogens. The test extract at 700 µg/ml, which notably reduced the concentration of DPPH-free radical as percent DPPH scavenging activity, was found to be the highest (64.53 %). The extract, at the concentration of 2 mg/ml, produced 70 % inhibition of hemolysis of RBCs compared to 78 % produced by standard drug (Ibuprofen). Chemical profiling of the fermented extract using TLC followed by UV and FTIR revealed the presence of flavonoids. The HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of bioflavonoid rutin in the extract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on production of bioactive flavonoid by endophytic Aspergillus flavus obtained from A. marmelos and its pharmaceutical potential. In conclusion, the endophytic Aspergillus flavus obtained from the A. marmelos could be explored as an economic and potential natural resource with diverse pharmaceutical and biological activities. PMID:25860867

  13. Pharmacognostic standardisation and antiproliferative activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa leaves in various human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, J; Saxena, A K; Suri, Nitasha; Ishar, M P S

    2013-11-01

    Therapeutic management of cancer is a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively explored to have integrated approach to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) is known for its hypoglycaemic, radioprotective, antidiarrhoeal and many other pharmacological activities. The present study is designed to carryout pharmacognostic standardisation and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the leaf extracts Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) and the chromatographic fractions of the most active extract. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the shade dried leaves were prepared by soxhelation and antiproliferative activity was assessed using human cancer cell lines of lung (A-549), colon (CoLo-05), ovary (IGR-OV-1), prostrate (PC3), leukaemia (THP-1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer. Bioactivity-derived fractionation was carried out for most active extract by column chromatography. The phytochemical studies indicated alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids in the alcohol, chloroform extracts and tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars in the petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition in colon and breast carcinoma cell lines at a dose of 100 ?g/ml. Column chromatography of the ethanol extract yielded five fractions. Out of this, fractions 2, 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition in leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5, 86.2 and >100 ?g/ml for fractions 2, 4 and 5, respectively. High-performance thin layer chromatography of the fraction 2 revealed imperatorin as one of the major phytoconstituents. Among the different extracts investigated, ethanol extract exhibited significant antiproliferative activity and its fraction 2 containing furanocoumarin imperatorin showed antiproliferative activity against leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5 ?g/ml. PMID:24591736

  14. Pharmacological rational of dry ripe fruit of Aegle marmelos L. as an anti-nociceptive agent in different painful conditions.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atiq-ur; Imran, Hina; Taqvi, Syed Intasar Hussain; Sohail, Tehmina; Yaqeen, Zahra; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat

    2015-03-01

    The aim of study is to investigate central and peripheral analgesic effects of methanolic extract of dry ripe fruit of Aegle marmelos Linn. Corea (Am. Cr) by two methods, tail flick test and acetic acid induced writhing test at 100, 250 and 500mg/kg doses in animal models. Analgesic activity against tail flick test revealed that Am. Cr induced significant increase in latency period in dose dependent manner i.e. 65.38% at 100mg/kg, 395.37% at 250mg/kg (p<0.01) and 459.25% at 500mg/kg (p<0.01) body weight at 1hr after drug delivery while at 2hr effect decreased i.e. 61.53% at 100mg/kg, 161.11% (p<0.01) at 250mg/kg and 165.74% (p<0.01) at 500mg/kg but interestingly again there is an elongation in latency period at 3hr i.e. 106.15% at 100mg/kg dose, 251.85% (p<0.01) at 250mg/kg and 293.51% (p<0.05) at 500mg/kg respectively. The standard drug Diclofenac sodium at the dose of 5mg/kg continuously increased the latency period but less significantly as compared to the test substance i.e. 79.43%, 113.08% and 222.42% (p<0.05) respectively. Acetic acid induced writhing test produced highest significant activity at the dose of 100mg/kg i.e. 89.83% (p<0.01) as compared to Diclofenic sodium (standard drug) at a dose of 5mg/kg body weight i.e 63.63% (p<0.01). It is concluded that dry ripe fruit of A. marmelos possesses significant dual analgesic activities i.e. central and peripheral. PMID:25730807

  15. Interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. with cholinergic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptors: An ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahaseth, Rakesh Kumar; Tiwari, Mukesh; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Mathur, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to study interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) with cholinergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic receptor systems using appropriate rat tissues-ileum, fundus and tracheal chain, respectively. Materials and Methods: Cumulative concentration-response curves (CRC) were constructed at various doses on each tissue for AM and respective standard agonist. The CRC was again plotted in presence and absence of respective standard antagonist to confirm the interaction of receptor system and AM. Results: AM induced concentration-dependent contractions in isolated rat ileum (0.2–6.4 mg/ml) and fundus (0.2–3.2 mg/ml) that were inhibited significantly (P < 0.05) in the presence of atropine (10?7 M) and ketanserin (10?6 M), respectively. The relaxant effect, produced by AM (0.2 mg/ml) on carbachol (10?5 M) precontracted rat tracheal chain, was also inhibited significantly (P < 0.05) by propranolol (1 ng/ml). Conclusion: It may be concluded that AM possesses agonistic activity on cholinergic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptors. PMID:25821322

  16. Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Vijaya; M Ramanathan; B Suresh

    Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg\\/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly

  17. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annetta Paule Watson; Dennis M Opresko; Robert A Young; Veronique Hauschild

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs.

  18. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Young, Robert A [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  19. Adsorptive removal of congo red dye from aqueous solution using bael shell carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rais; Kumar, Rajeev

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the potential use of bael shell carbon (BSC) as an adsorbent for the removal of congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The effect of various operational parameters such as contact time, temperature, pH, and dye concentration were studied. The adsorption kinetics was modeled by first-order reversible kinetics, pseudo-first-order kinetics, and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The dye uptake process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic expression at pH 5.7, 7 and 8 whereas the pseudo-first-order kinetic model was fitted well at pH 9. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models were applied to fit adsorption equilibrium data. The best-fitted data was obtained with the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of CR onto BSC was endothermic in nature and favorable with the positive ? H° value of 13.613 kJ/mol.

  20. Characterization of a human glycoprotein with a potential role in sperm-egg fusion: cDNA cloning, immunohistochemical localization, and chromosomal assignment of the gene (AEGL1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masaru; Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Takano, Hiroko [Hokkaido Univ. School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [and others] [Hokkaido Univ. School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); and others

    1996-03-05

    Acidic epididymal glycoprotein (AEG), thus far identified only in rodents, is one of the sperm surface proteins involved in the fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human glycoprotein related to AEG. Although this protein, designated ARP (AEG-related protein), is not the ortholog of rodent AEG, it resembles AEG in that it is an epididymal secretory glycoprotein that binds to the postacrosomal region of the sperm head. The fact that no AEG mRNA can be detected in the human epididymis suggests that ARP might be the functional counterpart of rodent AEG. The gene encoding ARP (AEGL1) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to 6p21.1-p21.2. This result indicates that AEGL1 and the mouse gene for AEG are located in the chromosomal segments with conserved syntenies. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

  2. Antihyperglycaemic activity of six edible plants in validated animal models of diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akansha Mishra; A. K. Jaitly; Arvind K. Srivastava

    The fruits of edible hypoglycaemic plants of Momordica charantia, dried seeds of Syzigium cumini, seed oil of Aegle marmelos and dried fruit powder of Coccinia indica, dried powder of the roots and rhizomes of Curcuma longa and seeds of Trigonella foenum- graecum were tested on normoglycaemic as well as streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for its antihyperglycaemic efficacy. The investigation confirms the

  3. Adult emergence inhibition and adulticidal activity of leaf crude extracts against Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Bagavan; A. Abduz Zahir

    Mosquitoes have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adult emergence inhibition (EI) and adulticidal activity of the leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex

  4. Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abdul Rahuman; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha

    2008-01-01

    Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants,\\u000a Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest\\u000a larval mortality

  5. Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Asokan Bagavan; Abdul Abduz Zahir

    2011-01-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study\\u000a was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone,\\u000a and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus

  6. Study of antidiarrhoeal activity of four medicinal plants in castor-oil induced diarrhoea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gricilda Shoba; Molly Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous and methanolic plant extracts of Acorus calamus rhizome, Pongamia glabra leaves, Aegle marmelos unripe fruit and Strychnos nux-vomica root bark for their antidiarrhoeal potential against castor-oil induced diarrhoea in mice. The methanolic plant extracts were more effective than aqueous plant extracts against castor-oil induced diarrhoea. The methanolic plant extracts significantly

  7. Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Dhandapani, R.; Sabna, B.

    2008-01-01

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

  8. Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on filarial vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; A. Bagavan

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex

  9. Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; C. Venkatesan

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate,\\u000a hexane, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus

  10. Synthesis of new N-acryl-1-amino-2-phenylethanol and N-acyl-1-amino-3-aryloxypropanols and evaluation of their antihyperlipidemic, LDL-oxidation and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Satinath; Sonkar, Ravi; Bhatia, Gitika; Tadigoppula, Narender

    2014-06-10

    As a part of our drug discovery program, we identified an alkaloidal amide i.e. Aegeline (V) isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos as a dual acting agent (antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic). In continuation of this program, we synthesized new N-acyl-1-amino-2-alcohols (N-acrylated-1-amino-2-phenylethanol and N-acylated-1-amino-3-aryloxypropanols) via Ritter reaction and screened for their in-vivo antihyperlipdemic activity in Triton induced hyperlipidemia model, LDL-oxidation and antioxidant activity. Compounds 3, 11 and 13 showed good antihyperlipidemic activity, LDL-oxidation as well as antioxidant activity and comparable activity with marketed antidyslipidemic drug. PMID:24769351

  11. Phase diagram of a superconductorferromagnet bilayer M. Lange,* M. J. Van Bael, and V. V. Moshchalkov

    E-print Network

    Moshchalkov, Victor V.

    magnetic field H of a Pb film on top of a Co/Pt multilayer with perpendicu- lar magnetic anisotropy for superconducting films cover- ing arrays of ferromagnetic dots with in-plane1­3 and out-of- plane magnetization4. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF THE CoÕPt MULTILAYER The properties of the Co/Pt multilayer have been de- scribed

  12. Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    C. Jagetia, Ganesh

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

  13. Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Birdi, Tannaz J; Brijesh, S; Daswani, Poonam G

    2014-05-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [(3)H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

  14. Formulation development and in vitro antioxidant studies of Churnas containing natural sweetener and nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B

    2009-04-01

    Gymnema sylvestre, Curcuma longa, Azadiracta indica, Aegle marmelos, Salacia chinensis, Emblica officinalis were used as active components and Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceuticalfor development of Churnas. The free radical scavengingpotential of Churnas was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The hydroalcoholic extract of sweet and bitter Churnas at 500?g/ ml showed maximum scavenging of the riboflavin NET system, DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of nitric oxide radicals and iron chelation. This could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. Sweetness potency of Churna was found to be appropriate sweet, acceptable and palatable. These observations can be useful for the justifications of various ingredients and therapeutic applications of the Churnas. PMID:22557329

  15. Oral hypoglycaemic activity of some medicinal plants of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Karunanayake, E H; Welihinda, J; Sirimanne, S R; Sinnadorai, G

    1984-07-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the oral hypoglycaemic activity of some Sri Lankan medicinal plants. Approximately 40 plants available locally are reputed to have oral hypoglycaemic activity. Of these, the mostly widely used are (a) Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) (b) Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae) and (c) Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). Aqueous decoctions of these plants were investigated for their ability to lower the fasting blood glucose level and improve the glucose tolerance in laboratory animals. The results indicate that the aqueous decoctions of all three plants possess significant hypoglycaemic effect. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with the three plants. The highest oral hypoglycaemic activity and the maximum improvement of the oral glucose tolerance were associated with the extract of Momordica charantia while the least but significant effects were shown by Salacia reticulata. PMID:6492834

  16. Modulation of expression of IL-8 gene in bronchial epithelial cells by 5-methoxypsoralen.

    PubMed

    Nicolis, Elena; Lampronti, Ilaria; Dechecchi, Maria Cristina; Borgatti, Monica; Tamanini, Anna; Bezzerri, Valentino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Mazzon, Martina; Mancini, Irene; Giri, Maria Grazia; Rizzotti, Paolo; Gambari, Roberto; Cabrini, Giulio

    2009-11-01

    Persistent recruitment of neutrophils in the bronchi of cystic fibrosis patients contributes to airway tissue damage, suggesting the importance of intervening on the expression of the neutrophil chemokine IL-8. Extracts from plants have been investigated to select components able to reduce IL-8 expression in bronchial epithelial cells challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts and purified components have been added to cells 24 h before pro-inflammatory challenge with P. aeruginosa and IL-8 transcription was quantified in the IB3-1 CF cells in vitro. P. aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 mRNA induction was increased by Argemone mexicana and Vernonia anthelmintica whereas no significant modification of transcription was observed with Aphanamixis polystachya, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Hemidesmus indicus. Finally, inhibition of IL-8 was observed with Polyalthia longifolia (IC50=200 microg/ml) and Aegle marmelos (IC50=20 microg/ml). Compounds from A. marmelos were isolated and identified by GC-MS. No significant effect was observed with butyl-p-tolyl sulphate, whereas the inhibition obtained with 6-methyl-4-chromanone concentration was accompanied by an anti-proliferative effect. On the contrary, 5-methoxypsoralen resulted in IL-8 inhibition at 10 microM concentration, without effects on cell proliferation. In synthesis, 5-methoxypsoralen can be taken into consideration to investigate mechanisms of neutrophil chemotactic signalling and for its potential application in modulating the excessive CF lung inflammation. PMID:19720161

  17. 67 FR 7164 - National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Hazardous Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-02-15

    ...produce mild and progressively increasing odor, taste, and sensory irritation or certain...highly volatile, colorless liquid. The odor of propylene oxide has been described as...alcoholic in nature, and has reported odor thresholds ranging from 10 ppm to 200...

  18. 68 FR 42710 - National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Hazardous Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-07-18

    ...produce mild and progressively increasing odor, taste, and sensory irritation, or certain...liquid with a characteristic bitter almond odor due to the presence of free HCN. The major...alkaline gas that has a very pungent odor. The odor detection level ranges...

  19. 65 FR 77866 - National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Hazardous Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-12-13

    ...produce mild and progressively increasing odor, taste, and sensory irritation, or...ambient temperature and pressure. Its odor has been described as similar to new-mown...and pressure. It has an almond- like odor and may cause irritation or burning...

  20. 66 FR 21940 - National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Hazardous Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-05-02

    ...produce mild and progressively increasing odor, taste, and sensory irritation, or certain...volatile flammable liquid with a pungent odor. It is used in industrial production as...between 4.86 and 6.33) with faint odors (``faintly fruity,'' or...

  1. Lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high fat and fructose diet induced obese C57/BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Munisankar; Pandikumar, Perumal; Saravanan, Subramaniam; Toppo, Erenius; Pazhanivel, Natesan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-10-01

    Aegle marmelos Correa., (Rutaceae) is a medium sized tree distributed in South East Asia and used traditionally for the management of obestiy and diabetes. In this study the lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol (Hfn) isolated from leaves of A. marmelos have been investigated. Intracellular lipid accumulation was measured by oil red O staining and glycerol secretion. The expression of genes related to adipocyte differentiation was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hfn decreased intracellular triglyceride accumulation and increased glycerol release in a dose dependent manner (5-20 ?g/ml) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In high fat diet fed C57/BL 6J mice, treatment with Hfn for four weeks reduced plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels and showed a significant reduction in total adipose tissue mass by 37.85% and visceral adipose tissue mass by 62.99% at 50mg/kg b.w. concentration. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Hfn decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein ? (CEBP?) and increased the expression of sterol regulatory enzyme binding protein (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), Adiponectin and Glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) compared to the high fat diet group. These results suggested that Hfn decreased adipocyte differentiation and stimulated lipolysis of adipocytes. This study justifies the folklore medicinal uses and claims about the therapeutic values of this plant for the management of insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:24952133

  2. Cloning and structure-function analyses of quinolone- and acridone-producing novel type III polyketide synthases from Citrus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takahiro; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Takashi; Kinjo, Keishi; Kato, Ryohei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2013-10-01

    Two novel type III polyketide synthases, quinolone synthase (QNS) and acridone synthase (ACS), were cloned from Citrus microcarpa (Rutaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. microcarpa QNS is unique, and it shared only 56-60% identities with C. microcarpa ACS, Medicago sativa chalcone synthase (CHS), and the previously reported Aegle marmelos QNS. In contrast to the quinolone- and acridone-producing A. marmelos QNS, C. microcarpa QNS produces 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolone as the "single product" by the one-step condensation of N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. However, C. microcarpa ACS shows broad substrate specificities and produces not only acridone and quinolone but also chalcone, benzophenone, and phloroglucinol from 4-coumaroyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, respectively. Furthermore, the x-ray crystal structures of C. microcarpa QNS and ACS, solved at 2.47- and 2.35-? resolutions, respectively, revealed wide active site entrances in both enzymes. The wide active site entrances thus provide sufficient space to facilitate the binding of the bulky N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA within the catalytic centers. However, the active site cavity volume of C. microcarpa ACS (760 ?(3)) is almost as large as that of M. sativa CHS (750 ?(3)), and ACS produces acridone by employing an active site cavity and catalytic machinery similar to those of CHS. In contrast, the cavity of C. microcarpa QNS (290 ?(3)) is significantly smaller, which makes this enzyme produce the diketide quinolone. These results as well as mutagenesis analyses provided the first structural bases for the anthranilate-derived production of the quinolone and acridone alkaloid by type III polyketide synthases. PMID:23963450

  3. Fetal Hemoglobin Inducers from the Natural World: A Novel Approach for Identification of Drugs for the Treatment of ?-Thalassemia and Sickle-Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Nicoletta; Zuccato, Cristina; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this review is to present examples of lead compounds identified from biological material (fungi, plant extracts and agro-industry material) and of possible interest in the field of a pharmacological approach to the therapy of ?-thalassemia using molecules able to stimulate production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Concerning the employment of HbF inducers as potential drugs for pharmacological treatment of ?-thalassemia, the following conclusions can be reached: (i) this therapeutic approach is reasonable, on the basis of the clinical parameters exhibited by hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin patients, (ii) clinical trials (even if still limited) employing HbF inducers were effective in ameliorating the symptoms of ?-thalassemia patients, (iii) good correlation of in vivo and in vitro results of HbF synthesis and ?-globin mRNA accumulation indicates that in vitro testing might be predictive of in vivo responses and (iv) combined use of different inducers might be useful to maximize HbF, both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we present three examples of HbF inducers from the natural world: (i) angelicin and linear psoralens, contained in plant extracts from Angelica arcangelica and Aegle marmelos, (ii) resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and several plant extracts and (iii) rapamycin, isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. PMID:18955291

  4. Mixed Phytochemicals Mediated Synthesis of Multifunctional Ag-Au-Pd Nanoparticles for Glucose Oxidation and Antimicrobial Applications.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Jagajjanani; Paria, Santanu

    2015-07-01

    The growing awareness toward the environment is increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles by green route syntheses. In this study, alloy-like Ag-Au-Pd trimetallic nanoparticles have been prepared by two plants extracts Aegle marmelos leaf (LE) and Syzygium aromaticum bud extracts (CE). Compositionally different Ag-Au-Pd nanoparticles with an atomic ratio of 5.26:2.16:1.0 (by LE) and 11.36:13.14:1.0 (by LE + CE) of Ag:Au:Pd were easily synthesized within 10 min at ambient conditions by changing the composition of phytochemicals. The average diameters of the nanoparticles by LE and LE + CE are ?8 and ?11 nm. The catalytic activity of the trimetallic nanoparticles was studied, and they were found to be efficient catalysts for the glucose oxidation process. The prepared nanoparticles also exhibited efficient antibacterial activity against a model Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. The catalytic and antimicrobial properties of these readymade trimetallic nanoparticles have high possibility to be utilized in diverse fields of applications such as health care to environmental. PMID:26043395

  5. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per million (ppm), 125 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm—were prepared using acetone and tested for ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the treatments and means were separated by Tukey's test of comparison. Results Among the different extracts of the five plants screened, the hexane extract of L. acidissima recorded the highest ovicidal activity of 79.2% and 60% at 500 ppm concentration against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Similarly, the same hexane extract of L. acidissima showed 100% oviposition deterrent activity at all the tested concentrations against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti adult females. Conclusion It is concluded that the hexane extract of L. acidissima could be used in an integrated mosquito management program. PMID:25737834

  6. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100??g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  7. Profile of aldose reductase inhibition, anti-cataract and free radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants: an attempt to standardize the botanicals for amelioration of diabetes complications.

    PubMed

    Gacche, R N; Dhole, N A

    2011-08-01

    Phytotherapy has played an important role in the management of diabetes and related complications. In the present study different fractions of Catharanthus roseus L. (Apocynaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae), Tinospora cordifolia Willd. (Menispermaceae), Aegle marmelos L. (Rutaceae), Ficus golmerata L. (Moraceae), Psoralea corlifolia L. (Fabaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae), and Morinda cetrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) were evaluated as possible inhibitors of aldose reductase (AR: a key enzyme implicated in cataractogenesis) and antioxidant agents. Anti-cataract activity of the selected plants was demonstrated using 'sugar induced lens opacity model' and the cytotoxicity studies were carried out using MTT assay. Among the tested plants, water extract of M. cetrifolia (IC50 0.132 mg/ml) exhibited maximum AR inhibitory activity as compared to other phytofractions which showed the activity in an IC50 range of 0.176-0.0.82 mg/ml. All the plant fractions showed considerable antioxidant potential. Sugar induced lens opacity studies revealed that, M. cetrifolia possess significant anti-cataract potential to maintain lens opacity as compared to glucose induced lens opacity in bovine lens model. The extract of the selected plants showed moderate cytotoxicity against HeLa cell line. Results of the present studies may find useful in converting botanicals into therapeutic modalities. PMID:21570444

  8. Influence of selected Indian immunostimulant herbs against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon with reference to haematological, biochemical and immunological changes.

    PubMed

    Citarasu, Thavasimuthu; Sivaram, Veeramani; Immanuel, Grasian; Rout, Namita; Murugan, Vadivel

    2006-10-01

    Immunostimulants are the substances, which enhance the non-specific defence mechanism and provide resistance against the invading pathogenic micro-organism. In order to increase the immunity of shrimps against the WSSV, the methanolic extracts of five different herbal medicinal plants like Cyanodon dactylon, Aegle marmelos, Tinospora cordifolia, Picrorhiza kurooa and Eclipta alba were selected and mixed thoroughly in equal proportion. The mixed extract was supplemented with various concentrations viz. 100 (A), 200 (B), 400 (C), and 800 (D) mgkg(-1) through artificial diets individually. The prepared diets (A-D) were fed individually to WSSV free healthy shrimp Penaeus monodon with an average weight of 8.0+/-0.5g for 25 days. Control diet (E), devoid of herbal extract was also fed to shrimps simultaneously. After 25 days of feeding experiment, the shrimps were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected crustaceans. The shrimps succumbed to death within 7 days when fed on no herbal immunostimulant diet (E). Among the different concentrations of herbal immunostimulant supplemented diets, the shrimps fed on diet D (800mgkg(-1)) significantly (P<0.0001) had more survival (74%) and reduction in the viral load. Also the better performance of haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters was found in the immunostimulant incorporated diets fed shrimps. The present work revealed that the application of herbal immunostimulants will be effective against shrimp viral pathogenesis and they can be recommended for shrimp culture. PMID:16698283

  9. Magnetic properties of submicron Co islands and their use as artificial pinning centers M. J. Van Bael, K. Temst, V. V. Moshchalkov, and Y. Bruynseraede

    E-print Network

    Moshchalkov, Victor V.

    Magnetic properties of submicron Co islands and their use as artificial pinning centers M. J. Van report on the magnetic properties of elongated submicron magnetic islands and their influence on a superconducting film. The magnetic properties were studied by magnetization hysteresis loop measurements

  10. Supporting Information available online1 Van Bael et al., Endophytic fungi increase the processing rate of leavesby leaf-cutting ants2

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    the processing rate of leavesby leaf-cutting ants2 (Atta). Ecological Entomology3 4 Methods and materials areas,6 along the edges of forests, gaps and estuaries. It is commonly exploited by leaf-cutting ants in to select a species for leaf inoculation12 experiments and manipulation of endophyte densities within plants

  11. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from these medicinal plants for diabetes. PMID:25176368

  12. THE EFFECT OF UNCERTAINTY FACTOR PLACEMENT IN A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) FOR ACUTE EXPOSURE GUIDELINE LEVELS (AEGL).

    EPA Science Inventory

    PBPK models may be used in risk assessment to reduce uncertainties associated with dosimetry; however, other considerations may still lead to incorporation of uncertainty factors (UF). We investigated the consequences of incorporating UFs at three different steps in the modeling...

  13. 75 FR 44249 - Proposed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...general information contact: The TSCA-Hotline, ABVI-Goodwill, 422 South Clinton Ave., Rochester, NY 14620; telephone...AEGLs for hazardous substances through the combined efforts of stakeholder members from both the public and private sectors in a...

  14. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2011, Article ID 617478, 9 pages

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    .1155/2011/617478 Review Article Fungal-Fungal Interactions in Leaf-Cutting Ant Agriculture Sunshine A. Van Bael,1, 2 between two consortia: (i) leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungi (the latter grown as a food crop by the former) and (ii) tropical plants and their foliar endophytes (the cryptic symbiotic fungi within leaves

  15. Bollettino novit GIUGNO LUGLIO 2005

    E-print Network

    Romeo, Alessandro

    .......................................19 #12;2 Monografie acquistate dal CDE W. ARTS, J. HAGENAARS, L. HALMAN (ed. by), The cultural diversity of European Unity. Findings, explanations and reflections from the European values study, Leiden, 2005 (Tirant monografías ; 357). Costituzione europea V. BAEL & J.F. BELLIS, Competition Law

  16. Thanaka: traditional Burmese sun protection.

    PubMed

    Goldsberry, Anne; Dinner, Alan; Hanke, C William

    2014-03-01

    Limonia acidissima or Hesperethusa crenulata is a common tree in Southeast Asia. It is indigenous to the Republic of Myanmar (formerly Burma) as well as India, Sri Lanka, Java, and Pakistan. In English, the common names for Limonia acidissima are sandalwood, wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit tree. The plant has a number of different names in different languages including bal or bael in Assamese, bael in Bengali, kaitha in Hindi, belingai in Malaysia, and thanaka in Burmese. Unique to the Burmese people, thanaka has been used as a cosmetic product for over 2000 years. Mention of thanaka has been traced back to ancient Burmese lyrics, and relics of equipment used by ancient royalty to grind thanaka can be found in museums. PMID:24595576

  17. Performance of crosses among flint maize populations under infestation by Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Soengas, P; Butrón, A; Revilla, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2004-08-01

    Flint maize, Zea mays L., varieties provide some interesting agronomic characteristics and kernels that possess a better ability than other kernels for developing high-quality flour. The pink stem borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre, is an important constraint for the maize crop in Mediterranean regions. The objective of this work was to identify a "flint x flint" heterotic pattern that would perform well under artificial infestation by S. nonagrioides. A 10-population diallel was evaluated under infestation by S. nonagrioides in 2 yr. Variety effects were the only significant effects involved in stem and ear resistance to S. nonagrioides attack. Variety effects and average heterosis effects were the only significant effects for grain yield under artificial infestation conditions. Considering variety effects and cross-performance, the heterotic pattern Basto/Enano levantixo x Longfellow (BA/EL x LO) would be recommended for obtaining flint maize hybrids tolerant to S. nonagrioides attack because BA/EL had the most favorable variety effects for stem resistance, LO exhibited the most positive variety effects for grain yield, and the cross BA/EL x LO yielded significantly more than the remaining crosses. PMID:15384358

  18. Angular anisotropy in valence photoionization of Na clusters: theoretical investigation using jellium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänkälä, Kari

    2013-03-01

    Calculation of the behaviour of photoelectron angular anisotropy in valence ionization of initially neutral NaX (X = 34-58) clusters is provided. The calculations are carried out for 1p, 1d and 1g jellium orbitals as a function of photon energy. The adapted theoretical framework is spherical jellium model using Woods-Saxon potential, which is modified to account for the long-range Coulomb tail in the final state. We discuss on the observed dramatic variations of the angular anisotropy parameter ? as a function incident photon energy. It is shown that the behaviour is connected to the oscillation of the valence photoionization cross sections, that is a specific interference property of such metallic clusters whose valence structure can be described using the jellium model. ISSPIC 16 - 16th International Symposium on Small Particles and Inorganic Clusters, edited by Kristiaan Temst, Margriet J. Van Bael, Ewald Janssens, H.-G. Boyen and Françoise Remacle.

  19. Incorporation of acute dynamic ventilation changes into a standardized physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Ng, Laurel J; Stuhmiller, Louise M; Stuhmiller, James H

    2007-03-01

    A seven-compartment physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating a dynamic ventilation response has been developed to predict normalized internal dose from inhalation exposure to a large range of volatile gases. The model uses a common set of physiologic parameters, including standardized ventilation rates and cardiac outputs for rat and human. This standardized model is validated against experimentally measured blood and tissue concentrations for 21 gases. For each of these gases, body-mass-normalized critical internal dose (blood concentration) is established, as calculated using exposure concentration and time duration specified by the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) or the acute exposure guideline level (AEGL). The dynamic ventilation changes are obtained by combining the standardized PBPK model with the Toxic Gas Assessment Software 2.0 (TGAS-2), a validated acute ventilation response model. The combined TGAS-2P model provides a coupled, transient ventilation and pharmacokinetic response that predicts body mass normalized internal dose that is correlated with deleterious outcomes. The importance of ventilation in pharmacokinetics is illustrated in a simulation of the introduction of Halon 1301 into an environment of fire gases. PMID:17365028

  20. Several Well-observed Asteroidal Occultations in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timerson, Brad; Durech, J.; Abramson, H.; Brooks, J.; Caton, D.; Clark, D.; Conard, S.; Cooke, B.; Dunham, D. W.; Dunham, J.; Edberg, S.; Ellington, C.; Faircloth, J.; Herchak, S.; Iverson, E.; Jones, R.; Lucas, G.; Lyzenga, G.; Maley, P.; Martinez, L.; Menke, J.; Mroz, G.; Nolan, P.; Peterson, R.; Preston, S.; Rattley, G.; Ray, J.; Scheck, A.; Stamm, J.; Stanton, R.; Suggs, R.; Tatum, R.; Thomas, W.

    2011-10-01

    During 2010 IOTA observers in North America reported about 190 positive observations for 106 asteroid occultation events. For several asteroids, this included observations with multiple chords. For two events, an inversion model was available. An occultation by 16 Psyche on 2010 August 21 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 235.4 x 230.4 km. On 2010 December 24, an occultation by 93 Minerva produced a best-fit ellipse of 179.4 x 133.4 km. An occultation by 96 Aegle on 2010 October 29 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 124.9 x 88.0 km. An occultation by 105 Artemis on 2010 June 24 showed a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 x 92.0 km. An occultation by 375 Ursula on 2010 December 4 produced a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 km x 135.0 km. Of note are two events not summarized in this article. On 2010 August 31, an occultation by 695 Bella yielded a new double star. That event will be summarized in the JDSO. Finally, on 2010 April 6, an occultation of zeta Ophiuchi by 824 Anastasia was observed by 65 observers at 69 locations. Unfortunately a large shift in the path yielded only 4 chords. Results of that event, and all the events mentioned here, can be found on the North American Asteroidal Occultation Results web page.

  1. Single-shot readout of spin qubits in Si/SiGe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Christie

    2012-02-01

    Si/SiGe quantum dots are an attractive option for spin qubit development, because of the long coherence times for electron spins in silicon, arising from weak hyperfine interaction and low spin orbit coupling. I will present measurements of gate-defined single and double quantum dots formed in Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostuctures. Control of the gate voltages on these dots enables tuning of the tunnel coupling to the leads and to other dots. Careful tuning of these tunnel rates, in combination with fast, pulsed-gate manipulation and spin-to-charge conversion, allow spin state measurement using an integrated quantum point contact as a local charge detector. Single spin qubit readout relies on the Zeeman energy splitting from an external magnetic field for spin-to-charge conversion. Two-electron singlet-triplet qubits, on the other hand, can be measured by using Pauli spin blockade of tunneling between the dots to readout the qubit even at zero magnetic field. I will present real-time, single-shot readout measurements of both individual spin [1] and singlet-triplet qubits [2] in gated Si/SiGe quantum dots. Work performed in collaboration with J. R. Prance, Zhan Shi, B. J. Van Bael, Teck Seng Koh, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, R. Joynt, L. R. Schreiber, L. M. K. Vandersypen, M. Friesen, S. N. Coppersmith, and M. A. Eriksson. [4pt] [1] C. B. Simmons et al. Physical Review Letters 106, 156804 (2011). [0pt] [2] J. R. Prance, et al., e-print: http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/1110.6431

  2. Is gold actor or spectator in the reaction of small AunPd{m/+} clusters with O2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Sandra M.; Frank, Anja; Fleischer, Irene; Bernhardt, Thorsten M.

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity of free binary gold-palladium clusters (AuPd2+, Au2Pd+, Au2Pd2+, and Au2Pd3+) toward molecular oxygen was investigated in an ion trap experiment under multi-collision conditions and compared to the reactivities of bare Aun+ and Pdm+ (n, m = 2 - 5) clusters. Reaction kinetics measurements revealed that the reaction rate is mainly determined by the number of palladium atoms in the clusters and only weakly influenced by additional gold atoms. The same holds true for the observed reaction product distributions. Most interestingly, the most reactive cluster ions Pd3+, Au2Pd3+, and Pd5+ exhibit a strong preference to form tetroxide products, AunPdmO4+. In addition, employing temperature dependent mass spectrometry, a second adsorption species consisting of several weakly bound oxygen molecules was identified for all investigated palladium containing clusters which is, however, only formed at cryogenic temperatures. All these observations suggest that the gold atoms largely act upon a spectator role in the reaction of the binary clusters. Nevertheless, a rough estimation of the relative O2 binding energies via statistical rate theory indicates that the addition of gold to the Pdn+ clusters decreases the O2-cluster interaction strength, although the reaction rate stays constant. This effect in the binary clusters may be of importance to a potential activation and dissociation of the adsorbed O2 molecules. ISSPIC 16 - 16th International Symposium on Small Particles and Inorganic Clusters, edited by Kristiaan Temst, Margriet J. Van Bael, Ewald Janssens, H.-G. Boyen and Françoise Remacle.

  3. Assessing human variability in kinetics for exposures to multiple environmental chemicals: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling case study with dichloromethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene.

    PubMed

    Valcke, Mathieu; Haddad, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude of interindividual variability in internal dose for inhalation exposure to single versus multiple chemicals. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for adults (AD), neonates (NEO), toddlers (TODD), and pregnant women (PW) were used to simulate inhalation exposure to "low" (RfC-like) or "high" (AEGL-like) air concentrations of benzene (Bz) or dichloromethane (DCM), along with various levels of toluene alone or toluene with ethylbenzene and xylene. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and distributions of relevant internal dose metrics of either Bz or DCM were computed. Area under the blood concentration of parent compound versus time curve (AUC)-based variability in AD, TODD, and PW rose for Bz when concomitant "low" exposure to mixtures of increasing complexities occurred (coefficient of variation (CV) = 16-24%, vs. 12-15% for Bz alone), but remained unchanged considering DCM. Conversely, AUC-based CV in NEO fell (15 to 5% for Bz; 12 to 6% for DCM). Comparable trends were observed considering production of metabolites (AMET), except for NEO's CYP2E1-mediated metabolites of Bz, where an increased CV was observed (20 to 71%). For "high" exposure scenarios, Cmax-based variability of Bz and DCM remained unchanged in AD and PW, but decreased in NEO (CV= 11-16% to 2-6%) and TODD (CV= 12-13% to 7-9%). Conversely, AMET-based variability for both substrates rose in every subpopulation. This study analyzed for the first time the impact of multiple exposures on interindividual variability in toxicokinetics. Evidence indicates that this impact depends upon chemical concentrations and biochemical properties, as well as the subpopulation and internal dose metrics considered. PMID:25785556

  4. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

  5. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the north sea: matching CO_2 demand and supply given uncertain market conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, Tine; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Huisman, Kuno; Piessens, Kris; Kort, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Introduction CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) entails the injection of CO2 in mature oil fields in order to mobilize the oil. In particular, the injected CO2 reduces the oil's viscosity and acts as a propellant, resulting in an increased oil extraction rate (Leach et al., 2011). Given uncertainty in both oil price and CO2 price under the EU ETS system, aim of this study is to analyze under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange can be established between a CO2 supplier (an electricity producer for whom CO2 is a by-product) and a CO2 user (an offshore oil company that exploits oil fields in the North Sea and needs CO2 for enhanced oil recovery). Methodology A techno-economic simulation tool, PSS IV, was developed to provide investment decision support on integrated CO2-EOR projects (Welkenhuysen et al., 2014). Until now, a fixed onshore supply of CO2 was presumed. An economic optimization model is now developed for both the CO2 producer and the CO2 user. Because net present value and discounted cash flow methods are inadequate to deal with issues like uncertainty and the irreversibility of an investment decision, the real options theory is applied (Dixit and Pindyck, 1994). The way in which cooperation between the companies can take place, will be studied using game theoretical concepts (Lukas and Welling, 2014). Economic and technical data on CO2 capture are available from the PSS database (Piessens et al., 2012). Data on EOR performance, CO2 requirements and various costs are taken from literature (BERR, 2007; Klokk et al., 2010; Pershad et al., 2012). Results/Findings It will be shown what the impact of price uncertainty is on the investment decision of the electricity producer to capture and sell CO2, and on the decision of the oil producer to make the necessary investments to inject CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. Based on these results, it will be determined under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange and transport can take place. Furthermore, also the role of the ETS system will be discussed. In an initial stage, only the CO2-price and oil price market uncertainties are considered. In a further stage, uncertainties from the supply side (technology) and EOR (geological) will be added. References BERR. 2007. Development of a CO2 transport and storage network in the North Sea: report to the North Sea Basin Task Force. Dixit A, Pindyck R (1994). Investment under Uncertainty. In, Princeton University Press. Klokk Ø, Schreiner PF, Pagès-Bernaus A, Tomasgard A (2010). Optimizing a CO2 value chain for the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Energy Policy 38(11): 6604-6614 Leach A, Mason CF, Veld Kvt (2011). Co-optimization of enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration. Resource Energy Econ 33(4): 893-912 Lukas E, Welling A (2014). Timing and eco(nomic) efficiency of climate-friendly investments in supply chains. Eur J Oper Res 233(2): 448-457 Pershad, H., Durusut, E., Crerar, A., Black, D., Mackay, E. & Oldern, P., 2012. Economic Impacts of CO2-enhanced oil recovery for Scotland, Final report for Scottish Enterprise. Element energy, London. Piessens, K., Welkenhuysen K., Laenen, B., Ferket, H., Nijs, W., Duerinck, J., Cochez, E., Mathieu, Ph., Valentiny, D., Baele, J.-M., Dupont, N. & Hendriks, Ch., 2012. Policy Support System for Carbon Capture and Storage and Collaboration between Belgium-the Netherlands "PSS-CCS", Final report. Belgian Science Policy Office, Research Programme Science for a Sustainable Development contracts SD/CP/04a,b & SD/CP/803, 335p. Welkenhuysen, K., Compernolle, T., Piessens, K., Ramírez, A., Rupert, J. & Swennen, R., 2014. Geological uncertainty and investment risk in CO2-enhanced oil recovery. 12th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-12), Austin, Texas, 05-09/10/2014.

  6. The Reflectance Spectrum of Troilite and the T-Type Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, D. T.; Bell, J. F.; Haack, H.; Scott, E. R. D.

    1992-07-01

    Troilite (stoichiometric FeS) is a common mineral in most meteorites, but meteorite spectroscopists have neglected to measure its spectral properties and consider its possible role in interpretation of asteroid spectra. Ordinary chondrites are typically 5-6 wt% troilite and this mineral is present in almost all iron meteorites in amounts up to 60%. Troilite's occurrence in meteorites is typically as 0.1-1.0 mm-sized blebs in stony meteorites and cm-sized nodules in iron and stony-iron meteorites [1]. Meteoritical and theoretical evidence strongly suggests that there should be troilite-rich zones in the interiors of differentiated asteroids. The cores of differentiated asteroids probably contained a few wt% S which was largely concentrated in the final 5-10 vol% of eutectic liquid. This liquid crystallized as troilite (90 vol%) and metal. An asteroid derived from a metal core would probably display sections of crystallized eutectic liquid [2] provided that the asteroid is not covered with regolith. The distribution of troilite on the surface of metallic asteroids may therefore provide information about the crystallization history of the core. A fraction of the S may, however, become trapped in the dendrites during crystallization [3]. This would account for the abundance of troilite nodules in iron meteorites. The troilite distribution in the core may also affect the way the core breaks up during impacts. Fractures will preferentially propagate through the much more friable troilite and large core fragments may therefore have dendritic shapes. Regolith present on metal cores may also be enriched in the more friable troilite. Material of the expected eutectic composition would be very fragile, and collisional and/or atmospheric disruption may account for its absence among meteorites. Measurements: The bidirectional reflectance spectrum of troilite was measured from a sample of the Mundrabilla iron meteorite held in the collection of the University of Hawaii. This meteorite has an unusually high sulfur content (8 wt%) and total troilite content is estimated at 25-35 vol%. Average troilite composition in weight % is as follows: 63% Fe, 0.5% Cr, 0.3% Zn, and 36.2% S [4]. The sample was crushed in a clean ceramic mortar and pestle to a bulk powder and dry sieved to a particle size of <250 micrometers. Six additional particle size separates were dry sieved from this bulk sample. Shown in Figure 1 are the spectra of the bulk sample and the particle size separates of Mundrabilla troilite. The spectrum of the bulk material is dark, always less than 10% reflective, and strongly red sloped. The rapid increase in reflectance at the green and red wavelengths (0.4-0.5 microns) is probably responsible for the overall bronze color of hand sample troilite. Since Mundrabilla is a find, the depth of the UV-visible absorption may have been increased by small amounts of Fe3+ from terrestrial rust. Additional samples of troilite from fresh fall need to be measured to confirm this result. The bulk sample has a reflectance between the smallest and largest particle size separates suggesting that its reflectance is dominated by small particles coating larger grains. Previous work with spectral mixture modelling shows that small particle size troilite and metal can dominate the spectra of ordinary chondrite meteorites, producing a dark, subdued and reddened spectrum similar to some dark asteroids [5]. Implications for Asteroids: The strong red slopes and low reflectances of the troilite spectra are similar to the spectral characteristics of the T and possibly some M-class asteroids. Shown in Figure 2 are the spectra of bulk troilite (solid lines) and four T-class asteroids (boxes and error bars). The IR spectra of 96 Aegle, 114 Kassandra, and 233 Asterope are strongly similar to the spectrum of bulk troilite. The deeper W absorption in troilite may be due to terrestrial rust. The spectrum of 308 Polyxo is substantially different, but Polyxo is also the only T-class asteroid that has been shown to have strong water of hydration features at 3.0 m