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Sample records for bael aegle marmelos

  1. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael) and its phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Rao, Suresh; Venkatesh, Ponemone

    2013-05-01

    Aegle marmelos, commonly known as Bael and belonging to the family Rutaceae is an important medicinal plant in the traditional Indian system of medicine, the Ayurveda. The extract prepared by boiling the bark, leaves or roots in water is useful as laxative, febrifuge, and expectorant. The extract is also useful in ophthalmia, deafness, inflammations, catarrh, diabetes, and asthmatic complaints. The fruits are used in treating diarrhea, dysentery, stomach ache, and cardiac ailments. Scientific studies have validated many of Bael's ethnomedicinal properties and its potential antimicrobial effects, hypoglycemic, astringent, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, demulcent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound-healing, insecticidal, and gastroprotective properties. In addition, studies have also shown that Bael and some of the Bael phytochemicals possess antineoplastic, radioprotective, chemoprotective, and chemopreventive effects, properties efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. For the first time, the current review summarizes the results related to these properties and emphasizes aspects that require further investigation for Bael's safe and effective use in the near future. PMID:23089553

  2. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption using bael leaves (Aegle marmelos).

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, S; Mohanty, Ashok; Sudha, T Nag; Upadhyay, A K; Konar, J; Sircar, J K; Madhukar, A; Gupta, K K

    2010-01-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II) on bael leaves (Aegle marmelos) was investigated for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using different doses of adsorbent, initial pH, and contact time. The maximum Pb loading capacity of the bael leaves was 104 mg g(-1) at 50 mg L(-1) initial Pb(II) concentration at pH 5.1. SEM and FT-IR studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) occurs inside the wall of the hollow tubes present in the bael leaves and carboxylic acid, thioester and sulphonamide groups are involved in the process. The sorption process was best described by pseudo second order kinetics. Among Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, the latter had a better fit with the experimental data. The activation energy E(a) confirmed that the nature of adsorption was physisorption. Bael leaves can selectively remove Pb(II) in the presence of other metal ions. This was demonstrated by removing Pb from the effluent of exhausted batteries. PMID:19765896

  3. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aegle marmelos (Bael) Fruit Extract and Its Application to Prevent Adhesion of Bacteria: A Strategy to Control Microfouling

    PubMed Central

    Nithya Deva Krupa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Marine biofilms formed due to adhesion of bacteria and other microorganisms on submerged surfaces are generally considered to be a major form of microfouling. Subsequent attachment of larvae of higher organisms like barnacles, mussels, and so forth, on marine biofilms, causes macrofouling. Several approaches have been used to prevent micro- and macrofouling. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to exhibit strong inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is rapidly gaining importance due to its growing success. Hence, the present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using fruit extract of Aegle marmelos and its characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further isolation and identification of marine biofilm forming bacteria were carried out through 16S rDNA analysis. The antimicrofouling effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs was tested against marine biofilm forming bacteria and the results suggested that it could effectively inhibit biofilm formation. This preliminary study has proved that AgNPs may be used as antimicrofouling agent for the prevention of biofouling in the early stages. PMID:25258620

  4. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aegle marmelos (Bael) Fruit Extract and Its Application to Prevent Adhesion of Bacteria: A Strategy to Control Microfouling.

    PubMed

    Nithya Deva Krupa, A; Raghavan, Vimala

    2014-01-01

    Marine biofilms formed due to adhesion of bacteria and other microorganisms on submerged surfaces are generally considered to be a major form of microfouling. Subsequent attachment of larvae of higher organisms like barnacles, mussels, and so forth, on marine biofilms, causes macrofouling. Several approaches have been used to prevent micro- and macrofouling. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to exhibit strong inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is rapidly gaining importance due to its growing success. Hence, the present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using fruit extract of Aegle marmelos and its characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further isolation and identification of marine biofilm forming bacteria were carried out through 16S rDNA analysis. The antimicrofouling effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs was tested against marine biofilm forming bacteria and the results suggested that it could effectively inhibit biofilm formation. This preliminary study has proved that AgNPs may be used as antimicrofouling agent for the prevention of biofouling in the early stages. PMID:25258620

  5. Comparative Effect of Crude and Commercial Enzyme on the Juice Recovery from Bael Fruit (Aegle marmelos Correa) Using Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anurag; Sharma, H. K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Mishra, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of incubation time, incubation temperature, and crude enzyme concentration was observed on the yield, viscosity, and clarity of the juice obtained from bael fruit pulp. The recommended enzymatic treatment conditions from the study were incubation time 475 min, incubation temperature 45°C, and crude enzyme concentration 0.20 mL/25 g bael fruit pulp. The recovery, viscosity, and clarity of the juice under these conditions were 82.9%, 1.41 cps, and 21.32%T, respectively. The variables, clarity, and yield were found as principal components for comparing different samples of the juice treated with enzyme. PMID:26904592

  6. Immunomodulatory Potential of Methanol Extract of Aegle marmelos in Animals.

    PubMed

    Govinda, H V; Asdaq, S M B

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the current research was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos in an experimental animal model of cellular and humoral immunity. Administration of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos (500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, p.o.), produced significant increase in adhesion of neutrophils and an increase in phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay. Both doses of Aegle marmelos prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. Moreover, all treated groups demonstrated significant elevation in circulating antibody titre in the indirect haemagglunation test. From the above results, it can be concluded that methanol extract of Aegle marmelos possess immunomodulatory potential by stimulating cellular and humoral immune mechanisms. However, low dose of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos was more effective for augmenting cellular immunity, whereas, high dose was more inclined towards humoral immunity. PMID:22303072

  7. Anti adipogenic activity of Aegle marmelos Correa.

    PubMed

    Karmase, Aniket; Jagtap, Sneha; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2013-11-15

    In continuation of evaluating the anti-obesity effect of Aegle marmelos, we have screened the n-hexane, dichloro methane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the leaves at the concentration of 25, 50, 75 and 100 ?g/ml for adipogenesis inhibition in the adipocytes. Nile red staining with the help of fluorometry was used as indicator of the antiobesity activity. The most active DCM extract showed the 33.983.55% lipid content at 100?g/ml and was selected for the further isolation. 14 compounds were isolated from DCM extract of A. marmelos leaves. The compounds were screened for the adipogenesis inhibition at 50 and 100 ?M concentrations. Out of the 14 compounds, halfordinol, ethyl ether aegeline and esculetin were showing 10.040.52, 16.290.85 and 25.091.31% lipid content respectively at 100 ?M. We hereby report the adipogenesis inhibition by A. marmelos as one of the pathway for its antiobesity effect. PMID:23972792

  8. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antimicrobial Activity, and Determination of Bioactive Components from Leaves of Aegle marmelos

    PubMed Central

    Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ‘‘Bael,” has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

  9. Phytochemical evaluation, antimicrobial activity, and determination of bioactive components from leaves of Aegle marmelos.

    PubMed

    Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ''Bael," has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

  10. Beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide, isolated from Aegle marmelos, as the potent anti-inflammatory agents against lymphoma and neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sain, Soumyadeep; Naoghare, Pravin K; Devi, S Saravana; Daiwile, Atul; Krishnamurthi, K; Arrigo, P; Chakrabarti, T

    2014-03-01

    Aegle marmelos (Indian Bael) is a tree which belongs to the family of Rutaceae. It holds a prominent position in both Indian medicine and Indian culture. We have screened various fractions of Aegle marmelos extracts for their anticancer properties using in vitro cell models. Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to analyze the biomolecules present in the Aegle marmelos extract. Jurkat and human neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells were treated with different concentrations of the fractionated Aegle marmelos extracts. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that optimal concentration (50 µg/ml) of beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide fractions of Aegle marmelos extract can induce apoptosis in Jurkat cell line. cDNA expression profiling of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was carried out using real time PCR (RT-PCR). Down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes (bcl-2, mdm2, cox2 and cmyb) and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (bax, bak1, caspase-8, caspase-9 and ATM) in Jurkat and IMR-32 cells treated with the beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide fractions of Aegle marmelos extract revealed the insights of the downstream apoptotic mechanism. Furthermore, in-silico approach was employed to understand the upstream target involved in the induction of apoptosis by the beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide fractions of Aegle marmelos extract. Herein, we report that beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide isolated from Aegle marmelos can act as potent anti-inflammatory agents and modulators of a newly established therapeutic target, 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX). Beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide can induce apoptosis in lymphoma and neuroblastoma cells via modulation of 15-LOX (up-stream target) followed by the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes. PMID:24484210

  11. Aegle marmelos fruit pectin for food and pharmaceuticals: Physico-chemical, rheological and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Manish; Kumar, Vineet; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, A K

    2013-04-01

    Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Bael fruit, obtained from Aegle marmelos, is a rich source of pectin. Bael fruit pectin (BFP) was extracted from ripe Bael fruits. The process yielded 15% (w/w) pure BFP. The swelling index decreased in the following order: water>pH 7.4>pH 6.8>pH 1.2>HCl (0.1N). Galacturonic acid content of 87.8%, degree of esterification of 47.2%, 17.3% methoxy groups, 0.29% acetyl groups and equivalent weight of 1209.5, indicate it to be a good gelling agent and easily amenable to derivatization. BFP exhibited a significant concentration-dependent prolongation of prothrombin time. The absence of hemagglutinating activity and antinutritional factors coupled with the activity to confer better emulsion capacity, stability and antimicrobial activity gives BFP a clear edge over commercial citrus pectin (CP) for exploitation as an additive in food and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23499073

  12. Rapid simultaneous determination of marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin from Aegle marmelos fruit by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Shinde, P B; Katekhaye, S D; Mulik, M B; Laddha, K S

    2014-09-01

    The surge of interest in naturally occurring phytochemicals with high therapeutic potential has led to the discovery of many molecules, out of which naturally occuring coumarins such as marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin present in Aegle marmelos (Bael) fruit shows good therapeutic potential. The aim of the present work is to develop and validate Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin in A. marmelos fruit extracts. The chromatographic separation was performed with isocratic elution of 55:45 (%, v/v) methanol-water containing 0.1% acetic acid as mobile phase. The method used to analyse the extract of A. marmelos showed good resolution with retention time within 12min. The relative concentrations of above phytoconstituent were determined in A. marmelos fruits. The method was found to give compact peaks for scopoletin, umbelliferone and marmelosin (Rt of 4.6, 6.5 and 11.3min respectively) and were linear over the range 5-30?gml(-1) (R(2)?=?0.9655), 2-10?gml(-1) (R(2)?=?0.9964) and 2-10?gml(-1) (R(2)?=?0.9862) respectively. The mean recoveries for marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin at three concentrations were in the range of 98.8-102.9, 98.8-101.1 and 94.2-98.3% respectively. The relative standard deviation of accuracy, precision and repeatability were within 2%, indicating the method produced highly reproducible results. Therefore this simple, precise and accurate method enables simultaneous separation of this phytoconstituent and hence can be successfully applied in analysis and routine quality control of herbal material and formulation containing A. marmelos. PMID:25190892

  13. Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.)-An overview

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shahedur; Parvin, Rashida

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.

  14. Antioxidant properties and stability of aegle marmelos leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vanitha P; Urooj, Asna

    2013-02-01

    Aegle marmelos (AM) leaves were extracted with methanol (ME), ethanol (EE), water (WE) and analyzed for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging method, reducing power and in vitro inhibition by Fenton's reagent-induced oxidation of lipid system. Stability of extracts to pH (4, 7 and 9) and temperature (100C, 15min.) was studied. The three extracts showed varying degree of efficacy in each assay in a dose dependent manner. The inhibition of MDA formation in Linseed oil by EE (47%) was significantly (P?Aegle marmelos as a natural antioxidant. PMID:24425898

  15. Alkaloid and coumarins from the green fruits of Aegle marmelos.

    PubMed

    Chakthong, Suda; Weaaryee, Paosiyah; Puangphet, Pongsak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Plodpai, Patimaporn; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit

    2012-03-01

    Five (1-5) and 15 known compounds were isolated from the acetone extract of the green fruits of Aegle marmelos. The structure of compounds 1-5, marmesiline (1), 6-(4-acetoxy-3-methyl-2-butenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin (2), 6-(2-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-3-butenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin (3), marmelonine (4) and 8-hydroxysmyrindiol (5), were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of selected compounds were also evaluated. PMID:22196941

  16. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200g/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

  17. Simultaneous quantification of furanocoumarins from Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Prashant B; Laddha, Kirti S

    2015-04-01

    Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae) is a prominent species in the Sub-Himalayan region, also found in central and south India, and has been widely used as remedy for diarrhea and dysentery. Unripe fruits show antiviral activity and prove to be a potent hypoglycemic agent. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of major furocoumarin components marmelosin, psoralen and bergapten in the extract from fruit pulp of A. marmelos has been developed. Components were found in the range of 5-6.5, >0.4-0.75 and >0.25 mg/g of dried fruit weight, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantification. Linearity was determined over the range of 5-40 g/mL (r > 0.965). Intra- and interday precision showed a relative standard deviation of <2.5%. The accuracy of the method was determined by a spike recovery study, and the average recoveries were 99.46, 101.04 and 100.8% for marmelosin, psoralen and bergapten, respectively. The proposed HPLC method was found to be simple, precise and specific and can be used simultaneously for the routine quality control of raw materials of A. marmelos fruit extracts and their products, and also other products containing these markers. PMID:25122833

  18. Evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aegle marmelos leaves.

    PubMed

    Karmase, Aniket; Birari, Rahul; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2013-07-15

    The study was carried out to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aegle marmelos leaves extracts and its phytochemical constituents in vitro and in vivo. The dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol extracts of A. marmelos leaves were studied for their lipolytic effect. Lipolysis was measured by determining the amount of glycerol released at 12 h and 24 h at 50 ?g/ml and 100 ?g/ml concentrations. Phytochemical investigation of the most active DCM extract yielded 14 compounds. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their lipolytic effects at 50 ?M and 100 ?M. The most active compounds, umbelliferone and esculetin were further screened for their antiobesity effects in vivo in the high fat diet (HFD) induced obese rat model. Umbelliferone and esculetin reduced body weight, total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and glucose level in their respective HFD groups. A. marmelos DCM extract and compounds isolated from it have the potential of counteracting the obesity by lipolysis in adipocytes. PMID:23632084

  19. Semisynthetic studies identify mitochondria poisons from botanical dietary supplements--geranyloxycoumarins from Aegle marmelos.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Jekabsons, Mika B; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G

    2013-04-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation and subsequent structure elucidation of a Bael tree Aegle marmelos lipid extract yielded two unstable acylated geranyloxycoumarin mixtures (1-2), six geranyloxycoumarins (3-8), (+)-9'-isovaleroxylariciresinol (9), and dehydromarmeline (10). In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, 1 and 2 potently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 0.18 and 1.10 ?gmL(-1), respectively). Insufficient material and chemical instability prevented full delineation of the fatty acyl side chain olefin substitution patterns in 1 and 2. Therefore, five fatty acyl geranyloxycoumarin ester derivatives (11-15) were prepared from marmin (3) and commercial fatty acyl chlorides by semisynthesis. The unsaturated C-6' linoleic acid ester derivative 14 that was structurally most similar to 1 and 2, inhibited HIF-1 activation with comparable potency (IC50 0.92 ?M). The octanoyl (11) and undecanoyl (12) ester derivatives also suppressed HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 3.1 and 0.87 ?M, respectively). Mechanistic studies revealed that these geranyloxycoumarin derivatives disrupt mitochondrial respiration, primarily at complex I. Thus, these compounds may inhibit HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondria-mediated hypoxic signaling. One surprising observation was that, while less potent, the purported cancer chemopreventive agent auraptene (8) was found to act as a mitochondrial poison that disrupts HIF-1 signaling in tumors. PMID:23434131

  20. Inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 by Aegle marmelos and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Manda, Vamshi K; Avula, Bharathi; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2016-02-01

    1. Aegle marmelos (bael) is a popular tree in India and other Southeast Asian countries. The fruit is usually consumed as dried, fresh or juice, and is reported to have a high nutritional value and many perceived health benefits. Despite its edible nature and therapeutic properties, no studies are reported regarding its effects on major drug metabolizing enzymes. 2. This study was aimed to evaluate the inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of A. marmelos fruit and its constituents (three furanocoumarins, namely marmelosin, marmesinin and 8-hydroxypsoralen, and 1 alkaloid, aegeline) towards major Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP3A4, 2D6, 1A2, 2C9 and 2C19) using human liver microsomes and recombinant CYPs. 3. The methanolic extract and marmelosin was found to be competitive and time-dependant inhibitor of CYP3A4. While reversible and non-competitive inhibition was observed for CYP1A2. Time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 was not affected by the addition of reduced glutathione. Marmesinin showed moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 and 1A2, while aegeline was a very weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 and showed no inhibition for CYP1A2 isoform. No significant inhibition of recombinant CYP2D6, 2C9, and 2C19 was seen with the extract or its constituents. 4. This is the first report of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 inhibition by A. marmelos extract and one of its furanocoumarins, marmelosin. Further studies are warranted to determine if acute or prolonged use of bael fruit could affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 or CYP1A2. PMID:26247834

  1. Aegle marmelos fruit extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Krushna, Gadham Setty Saayi; Kareem, Mohammed Abdul; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Hussain, Shaik Althaf; Devi Kodidhela, Lakshmi

    2012-05-01

    Myocardial infarction is a major public health concern and the leading cause of death throughout the world. The present study investigates the ability of Aegle marmelos fruit extract to prevent pathological changes and oxidative stress after isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats. In vitro studies showed that Aegle marmelos fruit extract possesses antioxidant activity. Administration of isoproterenol (85mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, however, cardiac tissue analyses showed decreased activity of the above enzymes compared to experimental control rats. Further, isoproterenol administration significantly increased plasma and cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lowered the activities of cardiac tissue superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase when compared to control groups. Pretreatment with Aegle marmelos fruit extract at a dose of 150mg/kg body weight for a period of 45 days significantly prevented the observed alterations. Our data suggest that Aegle marmelos fruit extract exerts its protective effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and elevating antioxidants status in isoproterenol treated rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction model emphasize the beneficial action of Aegle marmelos fruit extract as a cardioprotective agent. PMID:22573921

  2. Identification and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase involved in quinolone alkaloid biosynthesis from Aegle marmelos Correa.

    PubMed

    Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Verma, Priyanka; Gokhale, Rajesh S; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2013-03-01

    Quinolone alkaloids, found abundantly in the roots of bael (Aegle marmelos), possess various biological activities and have recently gained attention as potential lead molecules for novel drug designing. Here, we report the characterization of a novel Type III polyketide synthase, quinolone synthase (QNS), from A. marmelos that is involved in the biosynthesis of quinolone alkaloid. Using homology-based structural modeling, we identify two crucial amino acid residues (Ser-132 and Ala-133) at the putative QNS active site. Substitution of Ser-132 to Thr and Ala-133 to Ser apparently constricted the active site cavity resulting in production of naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Measurement of steady-state kinetic parameters demonstrates that the catalytic efficiency of QNS was severalfold higher for larger acyl-coenzymeA substrates as compared with smaller precursors. Our mutagenic studies suggest that this protein might have evolved from an evolutionarily related member of chalcone synthase superfamily by mere substitution of two active site residues. The identification and characterization of QNS offers a promising target for gene manipulation studies toward the production of novel alkaloid scaffolds. PMID:23329842

  3. Chemopreventive efficacy of Aegle marmelos on murine transplantable tumors.

    PubMed

    George, Suraj K; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Kumar, Sunil S; Sreelekha, T T; Balaram, Prabha

    2014-01-01

    Emerging trends for cancer chemotherapy show promising developments with the better understanding of molecules delivering more potent and powerful capabilities. But these are severely limited because of increased side effects and higher probability of tumor recurrence. In this scenario, putative exploration of the indigenous and untapped resources modulating immune system to deliver adequate but potent chemopreventive effects appeals considerable interest. However, these require rigorous scientific validation with regard to potency compared with the existing drugs. Aegle marmelos (Linnaeus) Correa (family Rutaceae), a plant component of polyherbal formulation, Indukantha Ghritha, is known for its widespread medicinal values. But the chemopreventive potential has not been explored in comparison to existing anticancer agents. Our attempt contributes the scientific evidence for beneficial immunoprophylactic and antitumor functions in mice challenged with ascites tumors, Dalton's lymphoma ascites, and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma either alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil. Specifically, the petroleum ether extracts of this plant (AM(PE)) prophylactically activated a cascade of host defense mechanisms by stimulating or restoring total white blood cell count, macrophage phagocytosis, hematopoiesis, lymphocyte proliferation and functions (CD4+ and CD8+) either naturally or under conditions of impaired immunity like in ascites tumor or during standard agent chemotherapy. Overall, AM(PE) also elicited strong antitumor effects by increasing median survival time and life span, while reducing murine ascites tumor volume and viable tumor counts on par with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil especially when administered prophylactically. This study also identified 2 putative components, xanthorrhizol and marmelosin, which could be imparting the immunoprophylactic and antitumor effects in transplantable tumor models. Thus, our attempts provide sufficient proof to warrant further to test this drug in higher animal models or in patients with high risk for tumor recurrence and/or immunocompromised diseases. PMID:23729467

  4. Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l.) in male wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be a rich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days. Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days). Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract. Results Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies. Conclusions Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects. PMID:23351957

  5. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Jassal, Vidhisha; Kaith, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF) nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 (FeHCF), K2Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 (KCuHCF), K2Ni[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O (KNiHCF), and K2Co[Fe(CN)6] (KCoHCF) have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael) and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG), Eriochrome Black T (EBT), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methylene Blue (MB). Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71%) followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%), KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%).

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    SciTech Connect

    Jagajjanani Rao, K.; Paria, Santanu

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  7. Microwave assisted synthesis and optimization of Aegle marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide): release kinetics studies.

    PubMed

    Setia, A; Kumar, R

    2014-04-01

    Microwave assisted grafting of poly(acrylamide) on to Aegle marmelos gum was carried out employing 3-factor 3-level full factorial design. Microwave power, microwave exposure time and concentration of gum were selected as independent variable and grafting efficiency was taken as dependent variable. A. marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide) was characterized by FTIR, DSC, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Microwave power, microwave exposure time had synergistic effect on grafting efficiency where as concentration of the gum did not contributed much to grafting efficiency. Batch having microwave power - 80%, microwave exposure time -120 s and concentration of A. marmelos gum - 2% was selected as the optimized formulation. Comparative release behaviour of diclofenac sodium from the matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum and A. marmelos-g-polyacrylamide was evaluated. The results of kinetic studies revealed that the graft copolymer matrix, marketed tablets and polymer matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum released the drug by zero order kinetics and with n value greater than 1, indicating that the mechanism for release as super case II transport i.e. dominated by the erosion and swelling of the polymer. PMID:24530335

  8. Effect of Aegle marmelos on DEN initiated and 2-AAF promoted hepatocarcinogenesis: a chemopreventive study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tajdar Husain; Sultana, Sarwat

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of Aegle marmelos methanolic extract on diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiated and 2-acetyl aminofluorene (2-AAF) promoted liver carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Interestingly, it was found that A. marmelos (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) resulted in a marked reduction of the incidence of liver tumors, which was further confirmed with histopathology. Furthermore to understand the underlying mechanisms of chemoprevention potential of A. marmelos, we evaluated the levels of hepatic antioxidant defence enzymes, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and hepatic DNA synthesis as a marker for tumor promotion since a direct correlation between these marker parameters and carcinogenicity have been well documented. Treatment of male Wistar rats for five consecutive days with 2-AAF induced significant hepatic toxicity, oxidative stress and hyper-proliferation. Pretreatment of A. marmelos extract (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) prevented oxidative stress and toxicity by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes at both the doses. The promotion parameters (ODC activity and DNA synthesis) induced by 2-AAF administration in diet with partial hepatectomy (PH) were also significantly suppressed dose-dependently by A. marmelos. Therefore, we can conclude that ultimately the protection against liver carcinogenesis by A. marmelos methanolic extract might be mediated by multiple actions, which include restoration of cellular antioxidant enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, ODC activity and DNA synthesis. PMID:21417629

  9. Umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat. Methods Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I normal control, II diabetic control, III UFG (10mg/kg), IV UFG (20mg/kg), V UFG (40mg/kg), VI Glibenclamide (10mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test. Result Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28days showed significantly (P?

  10. Evaluation of protective effect of Aegle marmelos Corr. in an animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lalremruta, Vanphawng; Prasanna, Gurunath S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos in an experimental animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome for potential therapeutic benefit. Materials and Methods: Age/weight-matched female Wistar albino rats were grouped into five groups. (Group I- V) (n = 8). Group I served as nave control and II served as stress control. Except for group I animals, other group animals were subjected to forced swimming every day for 15 minutes to induce a state of chronic fatigue and simultaneously treated with ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos (EEAM) 150 and 250 mg/kg b.w. and Imipramine (20 mg.kg b.w.), respectively. Duration of immobility, anxiety level and locomotor activity were assessed on day 1, 7, 14 and 21 followed by biochemical estimation of oxidative biomarkers at the end of the study. Results: Treatment with EEAM (150 and 250 mg/kg b.w.) resulted in a statistically significant and dose dependent reduction (P <0.001) in the duration of immobility, reduction in anxiety and increase in locomotor activity. Dose dependent and significant reduction in LPO level and increase in CAT and SOD was observed in extract treated animals. Conclusion: The results are suggestive of potential protective effect of A. marmelos against experimentally induced CFS. PMID:22701245

  11. Quantification and comparison of extraction methods for alkaloids in Aegle marmelos leaves by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Karmase, Aniket; Prasanna, K; Rasabattula, Sruti; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2014-07-01

    The leaves of Aegle marmelos are reported to contain multi-bioactive classes of compounds including coumarins, furanocoumarins and alkaloids. HPLC analysis of the crude extract was challenging due to low concentrations of the compounds in the leaves. Five compounds visible in the HPLC chromatogram were separated and identified by HPLC and further elaborated for quantification as marker compounds of A. marmelos leaves using a C18 column with detection at 275 nm. A gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water was used. The developed HPLC method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.994), high precision (RSD<5%), and good recovery (99.27-99.98%) of the compounds. The lowest detection limit was 5 ng and the method was found to be robust. All the validation parameters were within the permissible limits. Therefore, the developed method is accurate and reliable for the quality control of A. marmelos. This is the first report of extensive quantitative HPLC analysis of marker compounds in A. marmelos leaves and method validation. PMID:25230509

  12. Amelioration of chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis by Aegle marmelos, an Indian medicinal plant, fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Annapurna; Jahan, Swafiya; Soyal, Dhanraj; Goyal, Ekank; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Chemoprevention is a novel approach to study the anti-initiating and anti-tumor-promoting efficacy of medicinal plants and their active principles. The present study investigated the chemopreventive potential of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin carcinogenesis and its influence on oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system. The oral administration of A marmelos at 100 mg/kg body weight/day during peri-initiational, postinitiational, and peri- & postinitiational phases of papillomagenesis showed significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, tumor burden, and cumulative number of papillomas when compared with carcinogen-treated control. The average latent period significantly increased (7.88 weeks; control group) to 9.45, 11.11, and 11.54 weeks in different A marmelos extract (AME) experimental groups. Enzyme analysis of skin and liver showed a significant elevation in antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and vitamin C in AME-treated groups when compared with the carcinogen-treated control. The elevated level of lipid peroxidation in the positive control was significantly inhibited by AME administration. These results indicate that AME has the potential to reduce chemical-induced skin papillomas by enhancing the antioxidant defense system. PMID:21862519

  13. Interaction of active compounds from Aegle marmelos CORREA with histamine-1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Agistia, Dany Dwi; Tegar, Maulana; Purnomo, Hari

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the affinity of six active compounds of Aegle Marmelos Correa, they are (E, R)-Marmin, skimmianine, (S)-aegeline, aurapten, zeorin, and dustanin as antihistamines in histamine H1 receptor in comparison to cetirizin, diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine as ligands comparison. Previously, in the in vitro study marmin obviously antagonized the histamine H1 receptor in a competitive manner. Methods: molecular docking to determine the interaction of ligand binding to its receptor. Lower docking score indicates more stable binding to that protein. Results: Marmin, skimmianine, aegeline, aurapten, zeorin, and dustanin were potential to develop as antihistamine agents, especially as histamine H1 receptor antagonists by interacting with amino acid residues, Asp107, Lys179, Lys191, Asn198, and Trp428 of histamine H1 receptor. Conclusions: Based on molecular docking, Amino acid residues involved in ligand protein interactions were Asp107, Lys179, Lys191, Asn198, and Trp428. PMID:23750086

  14. Sulfation of Aegle marmelos gum: synthesis, physico-chemical and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Manish; Rana, Vikas; Kumar, Vineet; Singh, Ram S; Kennedy, John F; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2013-02-15

    The present investigation was aimed at optimizing the conditions for preparing sulfated derivative of gum obtained from partially ripe fruits of Aegle marmelos. Elemental analysis, FTIR-ATR and NMR studies confirmed successful sulfation. The ratio of chlorosulfonic acid to pyridine exerted maximum influence on the degree of substitution followed by reaction temperature and reaction time. The sulfated derivative showed higher swelling in both acidic and alkaline pH as compared to unmodified gum. It also possessed higher negative zeta potential, higher viscosity, work of shear, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity as compared to both unmodified gum as well as sodium alginate. Sulfated derivative was superior to unmodified gum and sodium alginate in terms of antimicrobial and anticoagulant activity. The sulfated sample appears to be a potential substitute over the unmodified gum sample and sodium alginate for modulating physicochemical properties of food and drug release dosage forms. PMID:23399204

  15. In vivo healing potential of Aegle marmelos in excision, incision, and dead space wound models.

    PubMed

    Gautam, M K; Purohit, V; Agarwal, M; Singh, A; Goel, R K

    2014-01-01

    The study incorporates the wound healing potential of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract (AME) on excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. AME (200?mg/kg) was administered orally once daily for variable days depending on the type of wound ulcer study. AME was studied for its wound breaking strength (incision wound), rate of contraction, period of epithelization and histology of skin (excision model), and granulation tissue free radicals, antioxidants, acute inflammatory marker, and connective tissue markers and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound). Complete wound contraction and epithelization were observed at the 20th day after treatment with AME as compared to the 24th day in control rats. Mean epithelization period and scar area were decreased while wound breaking strength was increased with AME compared with control. Granulation tissue showed increased levels of collagen determinants (33.7 to 64.4%, P < 0.001) and antioxidants (13.0 to 38.8%, P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), whereas markers of oxidative stress (55.0 to 55.6%, P < 0.001) and myeloperoxidase (21.3%, P < 0.001) were decreased in AME treated group. A. marmelos seems to promote wound healing by enhancing connective tissue formation and antioxidants status with decrease in free radicals and myeloperoxidase having tissue damaging effects. PMID:24737990

  16. In Vivo Healing Potential of Aegle marmelos in Excision, Incision, and Dead Space Wound Models

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Purohit, V.; Agarwal, M.; Singh, A.; Goel, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The study incorporates the wound healing potential of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract (AME) on excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. AME (200?mg/kg) was administered orally once daily for variable days depending on the type of wound ulcer study. AME was studied for its wound breaking strength (incision wound), rate of contraction, period of epithelization and histology of skin (excision model), and granulation tissue free radicals, antioxidants, acute inflammatory marker, and connective tissue markers and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound). Complete wound contraction and epithelization were observed at the 20th day after treatment with AME as compared to the 24th day in control rats. Mean epithelization period and scar area were decreased while wound breaking strength was increased with AME compared with control. Granulation tissue showed increased levels of collagen determinants (33.7 to 64.4%, P < 0.001) and antioxidants (13.0 to 38.8%, P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), whereas markers of oxidative stress (55.0 to 55.6%, P < 0.001) and myeloperoxidase (21.3%, P < 0.001) were decreased in AME treated group. A. marmelos seems to promote wound healing by enhancing connective tissue formation and antioxidants status with decrease in free radicals and myeloperoxidase having tissue damaging effects. PMID:24737990

  17. Healing effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa fruit extract on experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Gautam, M K; Ghatule, R R; Singh, A; Purohit, V; Gangwar, M; Kumar, Mohan; Goel, R K

    2013-02-01

    Graded doses of 50% ethanolic extract of dried fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos (AME) (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) daily for 14 days in acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in rats showed 200 mg/kg of AME as an optimal effective dose against AA-induced colonic damage score and weight. This dose (200 mg/kg; po) was further studied in AA-induced colitis for its effects on various physical (mucous/blood in stool, food and water intake and body weight changes), histology, antibacterial activity and biochemical parameters like free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and myeloperoxidase (acute-inflammatory marker) activities in rat colonic tissue. AME decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (macroscopic and microscopic), mucous/bloody diarrhea, fecal frequency and increased body weight affected in AA-induced colitis. AME showed significant antibacterial activity and enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities thereby decreasing tissue damage and inflammation and thus, affording ulcer healing. The above effects of A. marmelos authenticated its use in indigenous system of Medicine. PMID:23923609

  18. Possible involvement of PPAR-? in the anticonvulsant effect of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Jatinder; Nepali, Kunal; Ishar, M P S

    2013-08-01

    Aegle marmelos is well documented for antihyperglycemic effect and PPAR-? activation has been suggested to be the molecular mechanism of its action. Also, the plant has been used in Ayurveda as a brain tonic and has been postulated to have antidepressant activities. The present study was designed to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of A. marmelos leaf extract (AME) in pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsions; involvement of PPAR-?, nitric oxide pathway and effect of chronic AME treatment on post-ictal depression. AME was administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200mgkg(-1) in PTZ and MES model. Severity of convulsions was noted in both the models. Pretreatment with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was used to study the involvement of PPAR-? and L-arginine and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) to study the involvement of nitric oxide (NO). Chronic treatment with AME interspersed with sub maximal doses of PTZ (50mgkg(-1)) on every fifth day up to 15days was given to study post-ictal depression using forced swimming and actophotometer. AME showed significant increase in the onset time and decrease in the duration of convulsions in PTZ and MES models dose dependently. In MES a dose of 100mgkg(-1) had effect comparable to phenytoin. Pretreatment with BADGE and L-arginine reversed the protective effect while L-NAME did not alter the protective effect, thereby indicating possible involvement of PPAR-? and inhibition of NO. Chronic AME treatment ameliorated the post-seizure depression significantly as evidenced by increase in the locomotor activity and decrease in the immobility time. PMID:23645163

  19. Hypoglycemic and ?-cells regenerative effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. bark extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the antidiabetic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae) bark in a diabetic rat model. Dose dependent effects of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos bark (AM) (200 and 400 mg/kg) on blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total protein, hepatic glycogen, marker enzymes of hepatic function and carbohydrate metabolism were evaluated in (streptozotocin) STZ-induced diabetic rats by oral administration for 30 days. Structural integrity of pancreatic islets was assessed by routine histology while, their functional status was assessed by immunolocalization for insulin. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) study established that AM contained antihyperglycemic constituents, aegelin (1.27% w/w) and lupeol (0.29% w/w). AM at 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant reduction in blood glucose level by 19.14% and 47.32%, respectively in diabetic rats. AM treatment significantly increased insulin level, and produced similar effects on other biochemical parameters. Histological studies showed the regenerative effect of AM on the ?-cells of diabetic rats. Immunohistochemical observations in the extract treated diabetic rats showed increased insulin-immunoreactive ?-cells. These findings suggest that A. marmelos bark extract has the therapeutic potential in STZ-induced hyperglycemia; hence it can be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22310238

  20. Modulation of doxorubicin-induced genotoxicity by Aegle marmelos in mouse bone marrow: a micronucleus study.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Ponemone; Shantala, Bellary; Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Rao, K Koteshwer; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2007-03-01

    The effect of various concentrations of Aegle marmelos (AME) on the doxorubicin (DOX)-induced genotoxic effects in mice bone marrow was studied. Treatment of mice with different concentrations of DOX resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic (MPCE) as well as normochromatic (MNCE) erythrocytes in mouse bone marrow. The frequencies of MPCE and MNCE increased with scoring time, and the greatest elevation for MPCE was observed at 48 hours post-DOX treatment, whereas a maximum increase in MNCE was observed at 72 hours post-DOX treatment. This increase in MPCE and MNCE was accompanied by a decline in the polychromatic erythrocytes-normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) ratio, which showed a DOX-dose-dependent decline. Treatment of mice with 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 mg/kg body weight of AME, orally once daily for 5 consecutive days before DOX treatment, significantly reduced the frequency of DOX-induced micronuclei accompanied by a significant elevation in the PCE/NCE ratio at all scoring times. The greatest protection against DOX-induced genotoxicity was observed at 350 mg/kg AME. The protection against DOX-induced genotoxicity by AME may be due to inhibition of free radicals and increased antioxidant status. PMID:17351026

  1. Gastric Mucosal Protection by Aegle Marmelos Against Gastric Mucosal Damage: Role of Enterochromaffin Cell and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Purnima; Dutta, Shubha R.; Guha, Debjani

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in gastric mucosa inhibits gastric acidity by increasing the gastric mucus secretion. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) ripe fruit pulp (250 mg/kg body weight) on mean ulcer index (MUI), EC cells, 5-HT content, and adherent mucosal thickness of ulcerated gastric tissue in adult albino rats. Material and Methods: Ulceration was induced by using aspirin (500 mg/kg, p.o.), cerebellar nodular lesion and applying cold-restraint stress. Results: In all cases increased MUI in gastric tissue along with decreased EC cell count was observed with concomitant decrease of 5-HT content and adherent mucosal thickness (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with AM for 14 days decreased MUI, increased EC cell count, and 5-HT content as well as adherent mucosal thickness in all ulcerated group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: AM produces gastric mucosal protection mediated by increased EC cell count and 5-HT levels. PMID:25672237

  2. Bioprospecting Endophytic Fungi and Their Metabolites from Medicinal Tree Aegle marmelos in Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Soundari, Arockiamjeyasundar Parimala Gnana; Karthiyaini, Damodharan; Preeth, Kathirvel

    2015-01-01

    The increasing emergence of lead drugs for the resistance produced by the pathogenic strains and arrival of new diseases have initiated the need for searching novel metabolites with best anticancer and antimicrobial properties than the existing one. With this view, the investigation was conducted for the isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of potential endophytic fungi of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal tree used for more than three decades, for curing various disorders. A total of 169 endophytic fungal strains obtained from sampling and among those 67 were pigmented strains. Upon antagonistic screening, five endophytic fungal strains exhibited antagonistic potentiality by inhibiting the pathogens. These five potent strains were characterized at molecular level by sequencing the amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 4 regions of rDNA and they were grouped under order Pleosporales, Eurotiales, and Capnodiales. The metabolites from the respective strains were produced in fungal culturing media and extracted using polar solvents. Further, the extracts of five endophytes manifested antimicrobial activity against tested clinical pathogens and Alternaria alternata (FC39BY), Al. citrimacularis (FC8ABr), and Curvularia australiensis (FC2AP) exhibited significant antimicrobial profile against 9 of 12 tested pathogens, showing broad spectrum activity. The antioxidant levels of all the five endophytes revealed the highest activity at least concentrations, and major activity was unveiled by the members of order Pleosporales FC2AP and FC8ABr. This research explains the value of endophytic fungal extracts and its significance of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. PMID:26539047

  3. An insight into the properties of Aegle marmelos pectin-chitosan cross-linked films.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Manish; Kumar, Vineet; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, A K

    2013-01-01

    Pectin of Aegle marmelos (AP) ripe fruits processed in equal proportion with chitosan (CH) formed films that exhibited minimum swelling index and volume index on exposure to buffers of acidic and alkaline pH. Highest contact angle and spreading coefficient coupled with lowest work of adhesion in all buffers for this film suggested availability of limited number of functional groups for interaction with water molecules due to optimum cross-linking between -NH(3)(+) groups of CH and -COO(-) groups of AP. This contention was substantiated by the presence of almost negligible charge on this film. The endothermic transition ?H characteristic of -NH(3)(+)-COO(-) cross-linking between groups in this film was observed to decrease by only 1% after its sequential exposure to pH 1.2 (3 h) and pH 7.4 (6 h). Furthermore, the absence of pores or erosion in the scanning electron photomicrograph suggested the versatility of this film due to its resistance to acidic and alkaline pH. PMID:23107804

  4. Bioprospecting Endophytic Fungi and Their Metabolites from Medicinal Tree Aegle marmelos in Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Mani, Vellingiri Manon; Soundari, Arockiamjeyasundar Parimala Gnana; Karthiyaini, Damodharan; Preeth, Kathirvel

    2015-09-01

    The increasing emergence of lead drugs for the resistance produced by the pathogenic strains and arrival of new diseases have initiated the need for searching novel metabolites with best anticancer and antimicrobial properties than the existing one. With this view, the investigation was conducted for the isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of potential endophytic fungi of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal tree used for more than three decades, for curing various disorders. A total of 169 endophytic fungal strains obtained from sampling and among those 67 were pigmented strains. Upon antagonistic screening, five endophytic fungal strains exhibited antagonistic potentiality by inhibiting the pathogens. These five potent strains were characterized at molecular level by sequencing the amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 4 regions of rDNA and they were grouped under order Pleosporales, Eurotiales, and Capnodiales. The metabolites from the respective strains were produced in fungal culturing media and extracted using polar solvents. Further, the extracts of five endophytes manifested antimicrobial activity against tested clinical pathogens and Alternaria alternata (FC39BY), Al. citrimacularis (FC8ABr), and Curvularia australiensis (FC2AP) exhibited significant antimicrobial profile against 9 of 12 tested pathogens, showing broad spectrum activity. The antioxidant levels of all the five endophytes revealed the highest activity at least concentrations, and major activity was unveiled by the members of order Pleosporales FC2AP and FC8ABr. This research explains the value of endophytic fungal extracts and its significance of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. PMID:26539047

  5. Biological Activities and Identification of Bioactive Metabolite from Endophytic Aspergillus flavus L7 Isolated from Aegle marmelos.

    PubMed

    Patil, M P; Patil, R H; Maheshwari, V L

    2015-07-01

    Aegle marmelos, a well-known Indian plant with medicinal and religious importance, has been extensively used in Indian traditional medicine. The present study aimed to isolate, identify, and evaluate the biological activities of endophytic fungi from A. marmelos. One of the isolates, labeled as L7, was identified as Aspergillus flavus using morphology and ITS gene sequence. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the culture filtrate were found to be 65.77 mg GAE/ml and 158.33 mg quercetin/ml of crude extract, respectively. The extract showed excellent antimicrobial activity against common human bacterial and fungal pathogens. The test extract at 700 µg/ml, which notably reduced the concentration of DPPH-free radical as percent DPPH scavenging activity, was found to be the highest (64.53 %). The extract, at the concentration of 2 mg/ml, produced 70 % inhibition of hemolysis of RBCs compared to 78 % produced by standard drug (Ibuprofen). Chemical profiling of the fermented extract using TLC followed by UV and FTIR revealed the presence of flavonoids. The HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of bioflavonoid rutin in the extract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on production of bioactive flavonoid by endophytic Aspergillus flavus obtained from A. marmelos and its pharmaceutical potential. In conclusion, the endophytic Aspergillus flavus obtained from the A. marmelos could be explored as an economic and potential natural resource with diverse pharmaceutical and biological activities. PMID:25860867

  6. Pharmacognostic standardisation and antiproliferative activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa leaves in various human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, J.; Saxena, A. K.; Suri, Nitasha; Ishar, M. P. S.

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic management of cancer is a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively explored to have integrated approach to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) is known for its hypoglycaemic, radioprotective, antidiarrhoeal and many other pharmacological activities. The present study is designed to carryout pharmacognostic standardisation and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the leaf extracts Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) and the chromatographic fractions of the most active extract. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the shade dried leaves were prepared by soxhelation and antiproliferative activity was assessed using human cancer cell lines of lung (A-549), colon (CoLo-05), ovary (IGR-OV-1), prostrate (PC3), leukaemia (THP-1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer. Bioactivity-derived fractionation was carried out for most active extract by column chromatography. The phytochemical studies indicated alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids in the alcohol, chloroform extracts and tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars in the petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition in colon and breast carcinoma cell lines at a dose of 100 μg/ml. Column chromatography of the ethanol extract yielded five fractions. Out of this, fractions 2, 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition in leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5, 86.2 and >100 μg/ml for fractions 2, 4 and 5, respectively. High-performance thin layer chromatography of the fraction 2 revealed imperatorin as one of the major phytoconstituents. Among the different extracts investigated, ethanol extract exhibited significant antiproliferative activity and its fraction 2 containing furanocoumarin imperatorin showed antiproliferative activity against leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5 μg/ml. PMID:24591736

  7. Pharmacognostic standardisation and antiproliferative activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa leaves in various human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, J; Saxena, A K; Suri, Nitasha; Ishar, M P S

    2013-11-01

    Therapeutic management of cancer is a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively explored to have integrated approach to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) is known for its hypoglycaemic, radioprotective, antidiarrhoeal and many other pharmacological activities. The present study is designed to carryout pharmacognostic standardisation and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the leaf extracts Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) and the chromatographic fractions of the most active extract. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the shade dried leaves were prepared by soxhelation and antiproliferative activity was assessed using human cancer cell lines of lung (A-549), colon (CoLo-05), ovary (IGR-OV-1), prostrate (PC3), leukaemia (THP-1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer. Bioactivity-derived fractionation was carried out for most active extract by column chromatography. The phytochemical studies indicated alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids in the alcohol, chloroform extracts and tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars in the petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition in colon and breast carcinoma cell lines at a dose of 100 ?g/ml. Column chromatography of the ethanol extract yielded five fractions. Out of this, fractions 2, 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition in leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5, 86.2 and >100 ?g/ml for fractions 2, 4 and 5, respectively. High-performance thin layer chromatography of the fraction 2 revealed imperatorin as one of the major phytoconstituents. Among the different extracts investigated, ethanol extract exhibited significant antiproliferative activity and its fraction 2 containing furanocoumarin imperatorin showed antiproliferative activity against leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5 ?g/ml. PMID:24591736

  8. In-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy of nickel nanoparticles phytofabricated from aqueous leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos Correa.

    PubMed

    Angajala, Gangadhara; Ramya, R; Subashini, R

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there is a tremendous growth in the interdisciplinary world of nanotechnology across the globe and emergence of its potential applications remains as a big revolution to the industry. Fusion of green nanotechnology and medicine represents one of the major breakthroughs of modern science with the aim of developing nanomaterials for diagnosis, treatment, prevention of various diseases and overall improving health for the beneficial of mankind. In the present study phytofabrication of nickel nanoparticles (nickel NPs) was carried out by using indigenous Aegle marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. Nickel NPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TGA studies. Phytosynthesis of nickel NPs was monitored both at room temperature (25C) and at 60C for 5h. The green synthesis of triangular shape nickel NPs phytofabricated from A. marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts having face centered cubic structure showing an average particle size of 80-100nm which is in consistent with the particle size calculated by XRD Scherer equation. We further explored and compared nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa with crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa for its in-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy against three blood feeding parasites. The results obtained clearly gives an idea that nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa (NiNPs of AmC) possess an enhanced anti-inflammatory and larvicidal activity when compared to crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa. PMID:24681220

  9. Pharmacological rational of dry ripe fruit of Aegle marmelos L. as an anti-nociceptive agent in different painful conditions.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atiq-ur; Imran, Hina; Taqvi, Syed Intasar Hussain; Sohail, Tehmina; Yaqeen, Zahra; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat

    2015-03-01

    The aim of study is to investigate central and peripheral analgesic effects of methanolic extract of dry ripe fruit of Aegle marmelos Linn. Corea (Am. Cr) by two methods, tail flick test and acetic acid induced writhing test at 100, 250 and 500mg/kg doses in animal models. Analgesic activity against tail flick test revealed that Am. Cr induced significant increase in latency period in dose dependent manner i.e. 65.38% at 100mg/kg, 395.37% at 250mg/kg (p<0.01) and 459.25% at 500mg/kg (p<0.01) body weight at 1hr after drug delivery while at 2hr effect decreased i.e. 61.53% at 100mg/kg, 161.11% (p<0.01) at 250mg/kg and 165.74% (p<0.01) at 500mg/kg but interestingly again there is an elongation in latency period at 3hr i.e. 106.15% at 100mg/kg dose, 251.85% (p<0.01) at 250mg/kg and 293.51% (p<0.05) at 500mg/kg respectively. The standard drug Diclofenac sodium at the dose of 5mg/kg continuously increased the latency period but less significantly as compared to the test substance i.e. 79.43%, 113.08% and 222.42% (p<0.05) respectively. Acetic acid induced writhing test produced highest significant activity at the dose of 100mg/kg i.e. 89.83% (p<0.01) as compared to Diclofenic sodium (standard drug) at a dose of 5mg/kg body weight i.e 63.63% (p<0.01). It is concluded that dry ripe fruit of A. marmelos possesses significant dual analgesic activities i.e. central and peripheral. PMID:25730807

  10. Effects of aegeline, a main alkaloid of Aegle Marmelos Correa leaves, on the histamine release from mast cells.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Riyanto, Sugeng; Sukari, Mohamad Aspollah; Maeyama, Kazutaka

    2011-07-01

    Aegeline or N-[2-hydroxy-2(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-3-phenyl-2-propenamide is a main alkaloid isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa collected in Yogyakarta Indonesia. In our study, we investigated the effects of aegeline on the histamine release from mast cell. The study was performed by using (1) rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, and (2) rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). DNP(24)-BSA, thapsigargin, ionomycin, compound 48/80 and PMA were used as inducers for histamine release from mast cell. In our study, aegeline inhibited the histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells induced by DNP(24)-BSA. Indeed, aegeline showed strong inhibition when RBL-2H3 cells induced by Ca(2+) stimulants such as thapsigargin and ionomycin. Aegeline is suggested to influence the intracellular Ca(2+) pool only since could not inhibit the (45)Ca(2+) influx into RBL-2H3 cells. Aegeline showed weak inhibitory effects on the histamine release from RPMCs, even though still succeed to inhibit when the histamine release induced by thapsigargin. These findings indicate that aegeline altered the signaling pathway related to the intracellular Ca(2+) pool in which thapsigargin acts. Based on the results, the inhibitory effects of aegeline on the histamine release from mast cells depended on the type of mast cell and also involved some mechanisms related to intracellular Ca(2+) signaling events via the same target of the action of thapsigargin or downstream process of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in mast cells. PMID:21715270

  11. Effects of marmin, a compound isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa, on contraction of the guinea pig-isolated trachea.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Anas, Yance; Arsito, Puguh Novi; Wibowo, Joko Tri; Riyanto, Sugeng; Sukari, Mohamad Aspollah

    2011-10-01

    Marmin or 7-(6',7'-dihydroxygeranyl-oxy)coumarin is a compound isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa. In the study, we examined the effects of marmin on the contraction of guinea pig-isolated trachea stimulated by several inducers, namely histamine, metacholine, compound 48/80. We also evaluated its action against contraction induced by extracellular or intracellular calcium ion. The possibility of marmin to potentiate the relaxation effect of isoprenaline was also studied. Marmin added in the organ bath at 10 min prior to the agonist inhibited the contraction elicited by histamine and metacholine in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, marmin antagonized the histamine-induced contraction in competitive manner. Marmin mildly potentiated the relaxation effect of isoprenaline. In the study, marmin abrogated the contraction of tracheal smooth muscle induced by compound 48/80, an inducer of histamine release. Besides, marmin successfully inhibited CaCl(2)-induced contraction in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Marmin also inhibited two phases of contraction which were consecutively induced by metacholine and CaCl(2) in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Based on the results we concluded that marmin could inhibit contraction of the guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle, especially by interfering histamine receptor, inhibiting the histamine release from mast, inhibiting intracellular Ca(2+) release from the intracellular store and the Ca(2+) influx through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. PMID:21959801

  12. Interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. with cholinergic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptors: An ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahaseth, Rakesh Kumar; Tiwari, Mukesh; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Mathur, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to study interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) with cholinergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic receptor systems using appropriate rat tissues-ileum, fundus and tracheal chain, respectively. Materials and Methods: Cumulative concentration-response curves (CRC) were constructed at various doses on each tissue for AM and respective standard agonist. The CRC was again plotted in presence and absence of respective standard antagonist to confirm the interaction of receptor system and AM. Results: AM induced concentration-dependent contractions in isolated rat ileum (0.26.4 mg/ml) and fundus (0.23.2 mg/ml) that were inhibited significantly (P < 0.05) in the presence of atropine (10?7 M) and ketanserin (10?6 M), respectively. The relaxant effect, produced by AM (0.2 mg/ml) on carbachol (10?5 M) precontracted rat tracheal chain, was also inhibited significantly (P < 0.05) by propranolol (1 ng/ml). Conclusion: It may be concluded that AM possesses agonistic activity on cholinergic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptors. PMID:25821322

  13. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of serial extracts from leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Kothari, Saroj; Mishra, Vaibhav; Bharat, Savita; Tonpay, Shrinivas D

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial activity of serial petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts from leaves of Aegle mawmelos were investigated against bacterial and fungal species. All the extracts exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 10 to 22 mm against bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aenrginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, fungi: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Aspergillusflavus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentrations (MMC) of the extracts ranged from 1.25 to 10 mg/mL and 2.5 to 20 mg/mL respectively. Assessment of antibacterial efficacy of different extract revealed that Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli showed high susceptibility to petroleum ether extract. Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed high susceptibility to chloroform extract and Salmonella typhi showed high susceptibility to methanol extract. Petroleum ether extract exhibited the highest antifungal efficacy against all tested fungal species. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, sterols in petroleum ether and chloroform extracts, whereas tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and triterpenoids in methanol extract. The ability of the leaf extracts of Aegle manmelos to inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity which could be a potential source for development of novel bioactive antimicrobial agents. PMID:21928713

  14. Effect of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa on alloxan induced early stage diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Rajbir; Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Jatinder; Singh, Amarjit; Ishar, M P S

    2013-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has a complex pathogenesis and poor prognosis due to the lack of therapeutic interventions. The present study investigates the effect of A. marmelos leaf extract (AME) on early alloxan induced DN. The treatment with AME was found to significantly decrease the fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, blood urea, creatinine and renal TBARS and increased the levels of renal reduced glutathione and catalase significantly as compared to the diabetic control group. The maximum dose-dependent protection was observed at a dose of 200 mg kg(-1). Histological examination revealed marked reversal of the morphological derangements with AME treatment as indicated by a decrease in glomerular expansion, tubular dilatation and inflammatory cells. The present results conclude that AME treatment has a significant ameliorative effect on early changes induced in the kidneys by alloxan and improves the outcome of DN. PMID:23926695

  15. Upregulation of PPAR? by Aegle marmelos ameliorates insulin resistance and ?-cell dysfunction in high fat diet fed-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Bharti, Saurabh; Goyal, Sameer; Arora, Sachin; Nepal, Saroj; Kishore, Kamal; Joshi, Sujata; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2011-10-01

    The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes demands the rapid evaluation of new and accessible interventions. This study investigated whether Aegle marmelos fruit aqueous extract (AMF; 250, 500 and 1000?mg/kg) improves insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and ?-cell dysfunction in high fat diet fed-streptozotocin (HFD-STZ)-induced diabetic rats by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) expression. The serum levels of glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function (HOMA-B), lipid profile, TNF-? and IL-6 were evaluated. Further, the TBARS level and SOD activity in pancreatic tissue and PPAR? protein expression in liver were assessed. In addition, histopathological and ultrastructural studies were performed to validate the effect of AMF on ?-cells. The HFD-STZ treated rats showed a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, TNF-?, IL-6, dyslipidemia with a concomitant decrease in HOMA-B and PPAR? expression. Treatment with AMF for 21?days in diabetic rats positively modulated the altered parameters in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AMF prevented inflammatory changes and ?-cell damage along with a reduction in mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling. These findings suggest that the protective effect of AMF in type 2 diabetic rats is due to the preservation of ?-cell function and insulin-sensitivity through increased PPAR? expression. PMID:21351301

  16. Aegeline from Aegle marmelos stimulates glucose transport via Akt and Rac1 signaling, and contributes to a cytoskeletal rearrangement through PI3K/Rac1.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Ishrat, Nayab; Singh, Rohit; Narender, Tadigoppula; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-09-01

    Aegeline is an alkaloidal-amide, isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos and have shown antihyperglycemic as well as antidyslipidemic activities in the validated animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we delineate, aegeline enhanced GLUT4 translocation mediated 2-deoxy-glucose uptake in both time and concentration-dependent manner. 2-deoxy-glucose uptake was completely stymied by the transport inhibitors (wortmannin and genistein) in C2C12 myotubes. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt (also known as protein kinase B) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) suggest that both Akt and Rac1 operate aegeline-stimulated glucose transport via distinct parallel pathways. Moreover, aegeline activates p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and cofilin (an actin polymerization regulator). Rac1 inhibitor (Rac1 inhib II) and PAK1 inhibitor (IPA-3) completely blocked aegeline-induced phosphorylation of cofilin and p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). In summary, these findings suggest that aegeline stimulates the glucose transport through Akt and Rac1 dependent distinct parallel pathways and have cytoskeletal roles via stimulation of the PI3-kinase-Rac1-PAK1-cofilin pathway in the skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, multiple targets of aegeline in the improvement of insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscle cells may be suggested. PMID:26102565

  17. Effect of drying treatments and storage stability on quality characteristics of bael powder.

    PubMed

    Sagar, V R; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Dehydration of bael pulp in to powder form is a challenging operation, mainly due to the sticky issue of bael pulp and caking of powder during handling and storage. To overcome on this problem maltodextrin MD (drying aid) and tricalcium phosphate, TCP (anti caking agent) were added to the bael pulp at four levels along with control and dried in a mechanical drier into thin layer at 58??2C for 12h, to obtain a moisture content of 4-5% in dehydrated pulp. The dehydrated bael pulp was grounded in a laboratory powder mill and sieve with 30 mesh sieve. The powder was packed in 150gauge PP, 400gauge LDPE and 200gauge HDPE pouches and was stored at low temperature (7C) and ambient condition (18-35C) up to 6months for storage study. The powder was evaluated for its quality characteristics in respect of acidity, sugars, antioxidant, phenol, ascorbic acid, non- enzymatic browning (NEB) before packaging and during storage. The amount of MD and TCP required to reduce powder stickiness and caking were optimized on the powder properties. The amount of MD (0.25kg per kg dry bael solids) and TCP (0.15kg per kg dry bael solids) with the values of degree of caking (19.24%) and stickiness point temperature (45.4C) were found to be optimum for reducing the powder stickiness, caking and nutritional parameters. The adsorption isotherm of bael powder was found to be type-II sigmoid and 200g HDPE as packaging material followed by storage at low temperature were selected as best process. PMID:25190878

  18. REMOVED: Inhibition of doxorubicin-induced clastogenic effect by Aegle marmelos (L.) correa in cultured V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Ponemone; Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Rao, Koteshwer; Shantala, Bellary; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2006-12-27

    This article has been removed consistent with Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. Please see http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy. The Publisher apologies for any inconvenience this may cause. PMID:17270387

  19. Over-expression of bael quinolone synthase in tobacco improves plant vigor under favorable conditions, drought, or salt stress.

    PubMed

    Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Vivek, Padmanabhan Jayanthi; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2015-01-30

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the biosynthesis of various medicinally important secondary metabolites in plants, but their role in growth and stress response is unclear. Here, we overexpressed quinolone synthase (QNS) from bael in tobacco. QNS-overexpressing plants showed an overall increase in growth, photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content compared to wild type plants. Second-generation (T2) transgenic plants grew to maturity, flowered early and set viable seeds under favorable conditions without yield penalty. An increased accumulation of flavonoids, phenols and alkaloids was associated with higher tolerance to drought and salinity stress in transgenic plants. Thus, bael QNS seems to function as a positive regulator of plant growth and stress response, and could be potentially used for engineering plants tolerant to abiotic stress. PMID:25555382

  20. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Opresko, Dennis M; Young, Robert A; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  1. Characterization of a human glycoprotein with a potential role in sperm-egg fusion: cDNA cloning, immunohistochemical localization, and chromosomal assignment of the gene (AEGL1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masaru; Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Takano, Hiroko

    1996-03-05

    Acidic epididymal glycoprotein (AEG), thus far identified only in rodents, is one of the sperm surface proteins involved in the fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human glycoprotein related to AEG. Although this protein, designated ARP (AEG-related protein), is not the ortholog of rodent AEG, it resembles AEG in that it is an epididymal secretory glycoprotein that binds to the postacrosomal region of the sperm head. The fact that no AEG mRNA can be detected in the human epididymis suggests that ARP might be the functional counterpart of rodent AEG. The gene encoding ARP (AEGL1) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to 6p21.1-p21.2. This result indicates that AEGL1 and the mouse gene for AEG are located in the chromosomal segments with conserved syntenies. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Muscodor kashayum sp. nov. – a new volatile anti-microbial producing endophytic fungus

    PubMed Central

    Meshram, Vineet; Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

    2014-01-01

    Muscodor kashayum (MycoBank no.: MB 803800; GenBank no.: KC481680) is a newly described endophytic fungus of a medicinal plant Aegle marmelos (Bael tree), growing in the tropical conserved rainforest in the Western Ghats of India. Muscodor kashayum possesses distinct morphological, molecular and physiological features from the earlier reported Muscodor species. The fungus forms characteristic rings of the ropy mycelium on potato dextrose agar medium. This sterile fungus is characterised by the presence of a pungent smell which is attributable to a blend of more than 23 volatile organic constituents, predominantly 3-cyclohexen-1-ol,1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl; 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1-oxopropyl) phenol; 2,4-di-tert-butylthiophenol and 4-octadecylmorpholine. In the in vitro anti-microbial assay using M. kashayum, growth of 75% of test fungi/yeasts and 72% of the test bacteria were completely inhibited. Therefore, M. Kashayum holds potential for future application to be used as a myco-fumigation agent. PMID:24587960

  3. Muscodor kashayum sp. nov. - a new volatile anti-microbial producing endophytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Vineet; Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

    2013-12-01

    Muscodor kashayum (MycoBank no.: MB 803800; GenBank no.: KC481680) is a newly described endophytic fungus of a medicinal plant Aegle marmelos (Bael tree), growing in the tropical conserved rainforest in the Western Ghats of India. Muscodor kashayum possesses distinct morphological, molecular and physiological features from the earlier reported Muscodor species. The fungus forms characteristic rings of the ropy mycelium on potato dextrose agar medium. This sterile fungus is characterised by the presence of a pungent smell which is attributable to a blend of more than 23 volatile organic constituents, predominantly 3-cyclohexen-1-ol,1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl; 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1-oxopropyl) phenol; 2,4-di-tert-butylthiophenol and 4-octadecylmorpholine. In the in vitro anti-microbial assay using M. kashayum, growth of 75% of test fungi/yeasts and 72% of the test bacteria were completely inhibited. Therefore, M. Kashayum holds potential for future application to be used as a myco-fumigation agent. PMID:24587960

  4. Mitochondrial respiration inhibitors suppress protein translation and hypoxic signaling via the hyperphosphorylation and inactivation of translation initiation factor eIF2? and elongation factor eEF2.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Datta, Sandipan; Nagle, Dale G; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2011-09-23

    Over 20,000 lipid extracts of plants and marine organisms were evaluated in a human breast tumor T47D cell-based reporter assay for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitory activity. Bioassay-guided isolation and dereplication-based structure elucidation of an active extract from the Bael tree (Aegle marmelos) afforded two protolimonoids, skimmiarepin A (1) and skimmiarepin C (2). In T47D cells, 1 and 2 inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 0.063 and 0.068 ?M, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also suppressed hypoxic induction of the HIF-1 target genes GLUT-1 and VEGF. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 and 2 inhibited HIF-1 activation by blocking the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1? protein. At the range of concentrations that inhibited HIF-1 activation, 1 and 2 suppressed cellular respiration by selectively inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I (NADH dehydrogenase). Further investigation indicated that mitochondrial respiration inhibitors such as 1 and rotenone induced the rapid hyperphosphorylation and inhibition of translation initiation factor eIF2? and elongation factor eEF2. The inhibition of protein translation may account for the short-term exposure effects exerted by mitochondrial inhibitors on cellular signaling, while the suppression of cellular ATP production may contribute to the inhibitory effects following extended treatment periods. PMID:21875114

  5. Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

  6. Critical roles of Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the regulation of hyperplasia and/or colitis in response to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ishfaq; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Tawfik, Ossama; Xia, Lijun; Anant, Shrikant; Umar, Shahid

    2012-09-01

    Notch and Wnt/?-catenin signals play essential roles in intestinal development and homeostasis. Citrobacter rodentium induces transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) and various degrees of inflammation, depending upon the genetic background. We aimed at delineating the role of the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the regulation of colonic crypt hyperplasia and/or colitis following C. rodentium infection. During TMCH, relative levels of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) increased significantly, along with increases in Jagged-1 and Hes-1 coinciding with the progression and regression phases of hyperplasia. Blocking of Notch signaling with dibenzazepine (DBZ) for 5 days before the onset of hyperplasia also blocked Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Targeting the Notch pathway for 5 days after the onset of hyperplasia failed to inhibit Wnt/?-catenin-regulated crypt hyperplasia. Chronic DBZ administration for 10 days blocked both Notch and Wnt signaling, disrupted the intestinal barrier, and induced colitis. Core-3(-/-) mice, which are defective in mucin secretion and are susceptible to experimental triggers of colitis, also exhibited significant colitis in response to C. rodentium plus DBZ. Chronic DBZ administration in these mice did not result in depletion of the putative stem cell marker doublecortin-like kinase-1 (DCLK1) in the crypts. Dietary bael (Aegle marmelos) extract (4%) and curcumin (4%) restored signaling via the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways, thereby promoting crypt regeneration, and also replenished the mucus layer, leading to amelioration of C. rodentium- and DBZ-induced colitis in NIH:Swiss mice. Thus, the balancing act between cell proliferation and mucus production to restore barrier integrity seems to depend upon the interplay between the Wnt/?-catenin and Notch pathways in the TMCH model. PMID:22710872

  7. Evidence of functional cross talk between the Notch and NF-?B pathways in nonneoplastic hyperproliferating colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ishfaq; Roy, Badal; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Venugopal, Anand; Xia, Lijun; Jensen, Roy; Anant, Shrikant; Umar, Shahid

    2013-02-15

    The Notch and NF-?B signaling pathways regulate stem cell function and inflammation in the gut, respectively. We investigate whether a functional cross talk exists between the two pathways during transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) caused by Citrobacter rodentium (CR). During TMCH, NF-?B activity and subunit phosphorylation in colonic crypts of NIH Swiss mice at days 6 and 12 were associated with increases in downstream target CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)-1/keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) expression. Blocking Notch signaling acutely for 5 days with the Notch blocker dibenzazepine (DBZ) failed to inhibit crypt NF-?B activity or CXCL-1/KC expression. Chronic DBZ administration for 10 days, however, blocked Notch and NF-?B signaling in the crypts and abrogated hyperplasia. Intriguingly, chronic Notch inhibition was associated with significant increases in IL-1?, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, and KC in the crypt-denuded lamina propria or whole distal colon, with concomitant increases in myeloperoxidase activity. In core-3(-/-) mice, which are defective in intestinal mucin, DBZ administration replicated the results of NIH Swiss mice; in Apc(Min/+) mice, which are associated with CR-induced elevation of NF-?B-p65(276) expression, DBZ reversed the increase in NF-?B-p65(276), which may have blocked rapid proliferation of the mutated crypts. DBZ further blocked reporter activities involving the NF-?B-luciferase reporter plasmid or the Toll-like receptor 4/NF-?B/SEAPorter HEK-293 reporter cell line, while ectopic expression of Notch-N(ICD) reversed the inhibitory effect. Dietary bael (Aegle marmelos) extract (4%) and curcumin (4%) restored Notch and NF-?B cross talk in NIH Swiss mice, inhibited CR/DBZ-induced apoptosis in the crypts, and promoted crypt regeneration. Thus functional cross talk between the Notch and NF-?B pathways during TMCH regulates hyperplasia and/or inflammation in response to CR infection. PMID:23203159

  8. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Methods The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle), Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum), Morus alba (mulberry), Aegle marmelos (bael), and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateus reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal ?-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase) inhibition and pancreatic ?-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 230.3-460.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.240.12 mg/ml, 0.590.06 mg/ml, and 3.150.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.850.41 mg/ml, 0.940.11 mg/ml, and 4.410.15 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values of roselle and butterfly pea extracts against pancreatic ?-amylase occurred at concentration of 3.520.15 mg/ml and 4.050.32 mg/ml, respectively. Combining roselle, chrysanthemum, and butterfly pea extracts with mulberry extract showed additive interaction on intestinal maltase inhibition. The results also demonstrated that the combination of chrysanthemum, mulberry, or bael extracts together with roselle extract produced synergistic inhibition, whereas roselle extract showed additive inhibition when combined with butterfly pea extract against pancreatic ?-amylase. Conclusions The present study presents data from five plant-based foods evaluating the intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitory activities and their additive and synergistic interactions. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22849553

  9. Imperatorin a furocoumarin inhibits periplasmic Cu-Zn SOD of Shigella dysenteriae their by modulates its resistance towards phagocytosis during host pathogen interaction.

    PubMed

    Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Roopa, Kothapalli; Devaraj, Sivasitambaram Niranjali

    2011-12-01

    Shigella dysenteriae continues to be a major health problem, which leads to death, due to diarrhoea and dysentery, predominantly in children below the age of 5. Bacterial invasion of the colonic epithelium leads to severe inflammation together with bacterial dissemination generates abscesses and ulcerations. Periplasmic copper, zinc super oxide dismutase of Shigella protects it from exogenous superoxide produced by host, during its invasion. Hence, in present study an attempt was made to study the effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos on host and pathogen defence. Histology analysis of rat ileal loop showed the loss of virulence in aqueous extract of A. marmelos pre-treated Shigella and their intracellular survival was also decreased, where active component present in aqueous extract of A. marmelos was identified as imperatorin confirmed by UV absorption spectrum and HPLC. Increase in peripheral blood mononuclear cell viability and decreased in intracellular bacterial count along with transmission electron microscope analysis of imperatorin treated S. dysenteriae succumb to host oxidative stress. Loss of virulence is associated with attenuation of copper, zinc super oxide dismutase activity in Shigella, which was confirmed by using activity staining of bacterial cell lysate. Further, by performing docking analysis it has been proved that imperatorin present in aqueous extract of A. marmelos inhibited copper, zinc super oxide dismutase. From the above study, we concluded that Shigella succumb to oxidative stress (host defence) due to inhibition of copper, zinc super oxide dismutase (pathogen's defence) by imperatorin, an active compound aqueous extract of A. marmelos. PMID:21194882

  10. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Rani, Phulan; Khullar, Neeraj

    2004-08-01

    Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum, Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and Butea monosperma. PMID:15476301

  11. Synthesis of new N-acryl-1-amino-2-phenylethanol and N-acyl-1-amino-3-aryloxypropanols and evaluation of their antihyperlipidemic, LDL-oxidation and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Satinath; Sonkar, Ravi; Bhatia, Gitika; Tadigoppula, Narender

    2014-06-10

    As a part of our drug discovery program, we identified an alkaloidal amide i.e. Aegeline (V) isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos as a dual acting agent (antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic). In continuation of this program, we synthesized new N-acyl-1-amino-2-alcohols (N-acrylated-1-amino-2-phenylethanol and N-acylated-1-amino-3-aryloxypropanols) via Ritter reaction and screened for their in-vivo antihyperlipdemic activity in Triton induced hyperlipidemia model, LDL-oxidation and antioxidant activity. Compounds 3, 11 and 13 showed good antihyperlipidemic activity, LDL-oxidation as well as antioxidant activity and comparable activity with marketed antidyslipidemic drug. PMID:24769351

  12. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke.

    PubMed

    Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

    2011-03-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) and sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasitic activity was found in leaf ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extract of A. marmelos, A. paniculata, and C. hirsutus against H. bispinosa (LC(50)?= 395.27, 358.45, 327.21 and 420.50 ppm); ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, methanol extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and E. prostrata against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?= 207.70, 258.61, 134.09, 206.00, and 274.33 ppm); hexane extract of A. lineata, ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, E. prostrata, acetone extracts of T. erecta, methanol extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus against P. cervi (LC(50)?= 254.23, 451.17, 425.73, 253.60, 542.71, and 360.17 ppm), respectively. The present study is the first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20922419

  13. Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    C. Jagetia, Ganesh

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

  14. Formulation development and in vitro antioxidant studies of Churnas containing natural sweetener and nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B

    2009-04-01

    Gymnema sylvestre, Curcuma longa, Azadiracta indica, Aegle marmelos, Salacia chinensis, Emblica officinalis were used as active components and Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceuticalfor development of Churnas. The free radical scavengingpotential of Churnas was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The hydroalcoholic extract of sweet and bitter Churnas at 500?g/ ml showed maximum scavenging of the riboflavin NET system, DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of nitric oxide radicals and iron chelation. This could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. Sweetness potency of Churna was found to be appropriate sweet, acceptable and palatable. These observations can be useful for the justifications of various ingredients and therapeutic applications of the Churnas. PMID:22557329

  15. Mass attenuation coefficients of X-rays in different medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Morabad, R B; Kerur, B R

    2010-02-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of specific parts of several plants, (fruits, leaves, stem and seeds) often used as medicines in the Indian herbal system, have been measured employing NaI (TI)) detector. The electronic setup used is a NaI (TI) detector, which is coupled to MCA for analysis of the spectrum. A source of (241)Am is used to get X-rays in the energy range 8-32keV from Cu, Rb, Mo, Ag and Ba targets. In the present study, the measured mass attenuation coefficient of Ocimum sanctum, Catharanthus roseus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, Anacardium occidentale, Momordica charantia and Syzygium cumini show a linear relation with the energy. PMID:19910203

  16. Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Birdi, Tannaz J; Brijesh, S; Daswani, Poonam G

    2014-05-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [(3)H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

  17. Synthesis of novel N-(2-hydroxy-2-p-tolylethyl)-amide and N-(2-oxo-2-p-tolylethyl)-amide derivatives and their antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Narender, T; Rajendar, K; Sarkar, S; Singh, V K; Chaturvedi, Upma; Khanna, A K; Bhatia, G

    2011-11-01

    In continuation of our drug discovery program on metabolic diseases, we identified an alkaloidal amide, that is, Aegeline (V) from the plant Aegle marmelos leaves as a dual acting agent (antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic). We therefore synthesized a series of alkaloidal amides [N-(2-hydroxy-2-p-tolylethyl)-amides and N-(2-oxo-2-p-tolylethyl)-amide derivatives] related to Aegeline and screened for their in vivo antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton induced hyperlipidemia model. The synthetic compounds 4, 17 and 20 showed equipotent activity to the natural product, that is, Aegeline (V). These compounds also showed strong antioxidant activity, which support their antihyperlipidemic activity. Compound 12 showed better antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant profile than the natural product V. PMID:21930379

  18. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2004-01-01

    The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite. PMID:15383230

  19. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-03-01

    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (P<0.05). Gallic acid had statistically significantly increased (P<0.05) in almost all the samples by day 7. The Oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay indicated 5 of the Kombucha beverages to have statistically significant increases (P<0.05) by day 7. The α-amylase inhibitory activities ranged from 52.5 to 67.2μg/mL in terms of IC50 values following fermentation, while the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities ranged from 95.2 to 196.1μg/mL. In conclusion, an enhancement of the antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus. PMID:26471559

  20. Cloning and structure-function analyses of quinolone- and acridone-producing novel type III polyketide synthases from Citrus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takahiro; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Takashi; Kinjo, Keishi; Kato, Ryohei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2013-10-01

    Two novel type III polyketide synthases, quinolone synthase (QNS) and acridone synthase (ACS), were cloned from Citrus microcarpa (Rutaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. microcarpa QNS is unique, and it shared only 56-60% identities with C. microcarpa ACS, Medicago sativa chalcone synthase (CHS), and the previously reported Aegle marmelos QNS. In contrast to the quinolone- and acridone-producing A. marmelos QNS, C. microcarpa QNS produces 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolone as the "single product" by the one-step condensation of N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. However, C. microcarpa ACS shows broad substrate specificities and produces not only acridone and quinolone but also chalcone, benzophenone, and phloroglucinol from 4-coumaroyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, respectively. Furthermore, the x-ray crystal structures of C. microcarpa QNS and ACS, solved at 2.47- and 2.35-? resolutions, respectively, revealed wide active site entrances in both enzymes. The wide active site entrances thus provide sufficient space to facilitate the binding of the bulky N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA within the catalytic centers. However, the active site cavity volume of C. microcarpa ACS (760 ?(3)) is almost as large as that of M. sativa CHS (750 ?(3)), and ACS produces acridone by employing an active site cavity and catalytic machinery similar to those of CHS. In contrast, the cavity of C. microcarpa QNS (290 ?(3)) is significantly smaller, which makes this enzyme produce the diketide quinolone. These results as well as mutagenesis analyses provided the first structural bases for the anthranilate-derived production of the quinolone and acridone alkaloid by type III polyketide synthases. PMID:23963450

  1. Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi.

    PubMed

    Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-06-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus L. Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. tested against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). All plant extracts showed moderate adulticidal activity and EI effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in ethyl acetate extract of A.lineata, chloroform extract of A. paniculata, acetone extract of C. hirsutus, and methanol extract of T. erecta (LD(50)?= 126.92, 95.82, 109.40, and 89.83 ppm; LD(90)?= 542.95, 720.82, 459.03, and 607.85 ppm); and effective EI was found in leaf acetone extract of the A. marmelos, ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extracts of C. hirsutus, and T. erecta, (EI(50)?= 128.14, 79.39, 143.97, and 92.82 ppm; EI(90)?= 713.53, 293.70, 682.72, and 582.59 ppm), respectively, against A. subpictus. These results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of C. hirsutus and T. erecta have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. subpictus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity and EI of plant extracts against malaria vector. PMID:21136078

  2. Lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high fat and fructose diet induced obese C57/BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Munisankar; Pandikumar, Perumal; Saravanan, Subramaniam; Toppo, Erenius; Pazhanivel, Natesan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-10-01

    Aegle marmelos Correa., (Rutaceae) is a medium sized tree distributed in South East Asia and used traditionally for the management of obestiy and diabetes. In this study the lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol (Hfn) isolated from leaves of A. marmelos have been investigated. Intracellular lipid accumulation was measured by oil red O staining and glycerol secretion. The expression of genes related to adipocyte differentiation was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hfn decreased intracellular triglyceride accumulation and increased glycerol release in a dose dependent manner (5-20 μg/ml) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In high fat diet fed C57/BL 6J mice, treatment with Hfn for four weeks reduced plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels and showed a significant reduction in total adipose tissue mass by 37.85% and visceral adipose tissue mass by 62.99% at 50mg/kg b.w. concentration. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Hfn decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (CEBPα) and increased the expression of sterol regulatory enzyme binding protein (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), Adiponectin and Glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) compared to the high fat diet group. These results suggested that Hfn decreased adipocyte differentiation and stimulated lipolysis of adipocytes. This study justifies the folklore medicinal uses and claims about the therapeutic values of this plant for the management of insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:24952133

  3. Potential xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of endophytic Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

    2014-07-01

    Xanthine oxidase is considered as a potential target for treatment of hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia is predisposing factor for gout, chronic heart failure, atherosclerosis, tissue injury, and ischemia. To date, only two inhibitors of xanthine oxidase viz. allopurinol and febuxostat have been clinically approved for used as drugs. In the process of searching for new xanthine oxidase inhibitors, we screened culture filtrates of 42 endophytic fungi using in vitro qualitative and quantitative XO inhibitory assays. The qualitative assay exhibited potential XO inhibition by culture filtrates of four isolates viz. #1048 AMSTITYEL, #2CCSTITD, #6AMLWLS, and #96 CMSTITNEY. The XO inhibitory activity was present only in the chloroform extract of the culture filtrates. Chloroform extract of culture filtrate #1048 AMSTITYEL exhibited the highest inhibition of XO with an IC50 value of 0.61?gml(-1) which was better than allopurinol exhibiting an IC50 of 0.937?gml(-1) while febuxostat exhibited a much lower IC50 of 0.076?gml(-1). Further, molecular phylogenetic tools and morphological studies were used to identify #1048 AMSTITYEL as Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae. This is the first report of an endophytic Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae from Aegle marmelos exhibiting potential XO Inhibitory activity. PMID:24801403

  4. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100??g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  5. Screening of selected medicinal plants for in vitro antidermatophytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kalaivanan, C; Chandrasekaran, M; Venkatesalu, V

    2013-12-01

    Different solvent extracts of leaves of Achyranthes aspera, Aegle marmelos, Cleistanthus collinus, Curcuma aromatica and Strychnos nux-vomica were screened against dermatophytes viz., Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T.rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, M.canis and Epidermophyton floccossum var. nigricans. The mean zones of inhibition were between 7.1 and 26.5mm. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were from 7.81 to 500 and from 15.62 to 1000?g/mL respectively. The highest mean zone of inhibition (26.5mm), the lowest MIC value (7.81?g/ml) and the lowest MFC (15.62?g/ml) were observed in ethyl acetate extract of A.aspera against T.rubrum. The standard antifungal drug ketoconazole (10?g/disc) was used as the positive control and mean zones of inhibition were from 23 to 29mm. Further separation of active principle from ethyl acetate extract of A.aspera is under progress. PMID:24135649

  6. Mixed Phytochemicals Mediated Synthesis of Multifunctional Ag-Au-Pd Nanoparticles for Glucose Oxidation and Antimicrobial Applications.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Jagajjanani; Paria, Santanu

    2015-07-01

    The growing awareness toward the environment is increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles by green route syntheses. In this study, alloy-like Ag-Au-Pd trimetallic nanoparticles have been prepared by two plants extracts Aegle marmelos leaf (LE) and Syzygium aromaticum bud extracts (CE). Compositionally different Ag-Au-Pd nanoparticles with an atomic ratio of 5.26:2.16:1.0 (by LE) and 11.36:13.14:1.0 (by LE + CE) of Ag:Au:Pd were easily synthesized within 10 min at ambient conditions by changing the composition of phytochemicals. The average diameters of the nanoparticles by LE and LE + CE are ∼8 and ∼11 nm. The catalytic activity of the trimetallic nanoparticles was studied, and they were found to be efficient catalysts for the glucose oxidation process. The prepared nanoparticles also exhibited efficient antibacterial activity against a model Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. The catalytic and antimicrobial properties of these readymade trimetallic nanoparticles have high possibility to be utilized in diverse fields of applications such as health care to environmental. PMID:26043395

  7. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

  8. Evaluation of aromatic plants and compounds used to fight multidrug resistant infections.

    PubMed

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100? ? g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  9. Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2011-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles. PMID:21365365

  10. Anti-diabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of allopolyherbal formulation in OGTT and STZ-induced diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Manik, Swati; Gauttam, Vinod; Kalia, A N

    2013-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Allopolyherbal formulation (APHF) consisting of combinations of three well known medicinal plants used in traditional medicines (Trigonella foenum graceum, Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos) and synthetic oral hypoglycaemic drug (Glipizide-GL). The optimized combination of lyophilized hydro-alcoholic extracts of drugs was 2:2:1 using OGTT model. The optimized PHF was simultaneously administered with GL and optimized using OGTT model in diabetic rats and further studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The results (serum glucose level, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and body weight) were compared with the standard drug GL (10 mg/kg body wt). The optimized APHF (500+5 mg/kg body wt) has shown significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities. The results were comparable with the standard; even better than the GL (10 mg/kg body wt) alone. The proposed hypothesis has reduced the no. of drug components from eight to three and dose almost 50% of both PHF and GL which fulfil the FDA requirements for export. Thus the developed APHF will be an ideal alternative for the existing hypoglycemic formulations in the market with an additional advantage of hypolipidemic effect and minimizing the cardiovascular risk factors associated with diabetes. PMID:24377129

  11. Profile of aldose reductase inhibition, anti-cataract and free radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants: an attempt to standardize the botanicals for amelioration of diabetes complications.

    PubMed

    Gacche, R N; Dhole, N A

    2011-08-01

    Phytotherapy has played an important role in the management of diabetes and related complications. In the present study different fractions of Catharanthus roseus L. (Apocynaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae), Tinospora cordifolia Willd. (Menispermaceae), Aegle marmelos L. (Rutaceae), Ficus golmerata L. (Moraceae), Psoralea corlifolia L. (Fabaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae), and Morinda cetrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) were evaluated as possible inhibitors of aldose reductase (AR: a key enzyme implicated in cataractogenesis) and antioxidant agents. Anti-cataract activity of the selected plants was demonstrated using 'sugar induced lens opacity model' and the cytotoxicity studies were carried out using MTT assay. Among the tested plants, water extract of M. cetrifolia (IC50 0.132 mg/ml) exhibited maximum AR inhibitory activity as compared to other phytofractions which showed the activity in an IC50 range of 0.176-0.0.82 mg/ml. All the plant fractions showed considerable antioxidant potential. Sugar induced lens opacity studies revealed that, M. cetrifolia possess significant anti-cataract potential to maintain lens opacity as compared to glucose induced lens opacity in bovine lens model. The extract of the selected plants showed moderate cytotoxicity against HeLa cell line. Results of the present studies may find useful in converting botanicals into therapeutic modalities. PMID:21570444

  12. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per million (ppm), 125 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm—were prepared using acetone and tested for ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the treatments and means were separated by Tukey's test of comparison. Results Among the different extracts of the five plants screened, the hexane extract of L. acidissima recorded the highest ovicidal activity of 79.2% and 60% at 500 ppm concentration against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Similarly, the same hexane extract of L. acidissima showed 100% oviposition deterrent activity at all the tested concentrations against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti adult females. Conclusion It is concluded that the hexane extract of L. acidissima could be used in an integrated mosquito management program. PMID:25737834

  13. Isolation and biological evaluation of novel Tetracosahexaene hexamethyl, an acyclic triterpenoids derivatives and antioxidant from Justicia adhatoda.

    PubMed

    Dhankhar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema; Ruhil, Sonam; Balhara, Meenakshi; Malik, Vinay; Chhillar, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Forty five extracts fraction of nine selected Indian medicinal plants, based on their use in traditional systems of medicine were analyzed for their antioxidant potential. All the extracts were investigated for phenol content value calculated in Gallic acid equivalents (% of GAE) and antioxidant potential. Moreover, total phenolic content (% dw equivalents to gallic acid) of all plant extracts were found in the range of 3.04 to 24.03, which correlated with antioxidant activity. The findings indicated a promising antioxidant activity of crude extracts fractions of three plants (Justicia adhatoda, Capparis aphylla and Aegle marmelos) and required the further exploration for their effective utilization. Results indicated that petroleum ether fraction of J. adhatoda out of three plants also possesses the admirable antioxidant abilities with high total phenolic content. Following, in vitro antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, twelve fractions of petroleum ether extract of J. adhatoda were isolated by silica gel column chromatography. One fraction (Rf value: 0.725) showed the noticeable antioxidant activity with ascorbic acid standard in hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The molecular structures elucidations of purified antioxidant compound were carried out using spectroscopic studies ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS). This compound was reported from this species for the first time. The results imply that the J. adhatoda might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 2,6,10,14,18,22-Tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl is an antioxidant ingredient in J. adhatoda. PMID:25001112

  14. 75 FR 44249 - Proposed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... October 31, 1995 (60 FR 55376) (FRL-4987-3) of the establishment of the NAC/AEGL Committee with the stated... substances. These AEGLs represent the 13\\th\\ set of exposure levels proposed and published by the...

  15. Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahuman, A; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants, Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of A. indicum. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. indicum led to the separation and identification of a beta-sitosterol as a potential new mosquito larvicidal compound with LC50 value of 11.49, 3.58 and 26.67 ppm against Aedes aegypti L, Anopheles stephensi Liston and C. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. beta-sitosterol has been recognized as the active ingredient of many medicinal plant extracts. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated toxicity against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. This article reports the isolation and identification of the beta-sitosterol as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. There are no reports of beta-sitosterol in the genus A. indicum, and their larvicidal activities are being evaluated for the first time. Results of this study show that the petroleum ether extract of A. indicum may be considered as a potent source and beta-sitosterol as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent. PMID:18176816

  16. Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Abdul Rahuman A; Gopalakrishnan G; Venkatesan P; Geetha K

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants, Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of A. indicum. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. indicum led to the separation and identification of a beta-sitosterol as a potential new mosquito larvicidal compound with LC50 value of 11.49, 3.58 and 26.67 ppm against Aedes aegypti L, Anopheles stephensi Liston and C. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. beta-sitosterol has been recognized as the active ingredient of many medicinal plant extracts. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated toxicity against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. This article reports the isolation and identification of the beta-sitosterol as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. There are no reports of beta-sitosterol in the genus A. indicum, and their larvicidal activities are being evaluated for the first time. Results of this study show that the petroleum ether extract of A. indicum may be considered as a potent source and beta-sitosterol as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent.

  17. Evaluation of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) for antihypertensive activity in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghelani, Hardik S.; Patel, Bipin M.; Gokani, Rina H.; Rachchh, Manish A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is an incurable pathological condition and lifelong therapy is required. Long term use of conventional synthetic anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with a spectrum of toxic effects. However, therapeutic interventions using herbal drugs for hypertension have gained considerable attention worldwide. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hypertensive activity of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03). Materials and Methods: The polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) comprises of leaves of Aegle marmelos L., fruits of Benincasa hispida Thunb., Garcinia indica Thouars, and flowers of Musa paradiasica L., Rosa indica L., Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. Selected plants as mentioned above were collected, dried and extracted with different solvents. Formulation SJT-HT-03 (250 mg/kg, p.o.), was evaluated using two kidney one clip (2K1C) model and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension model using the enalapril (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and hydrochlorothiazide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as a reference standard drug in respective models. Results: SJT-HT-03 significantly reduced (P < 0.001, one-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey's multiple comparison tests) systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure (BP) in 2K1C and DOCA-salt model. Further, SJT-HT-03 has shown a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum, clipped kidney as well as in lungs in 2K1C model, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum Na+ and increase in serum K+ level in DOCA model. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 possess significant anti-hypertensive activity by producing direct depressant effect on heart, inhibition of ACE, aldosterone antagonistic as well as diuretic effect and thereby act on multiple targets to achieve optimal effect. PMID:26195912

  18. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from these medicinal plants for diabetes. PMID:25176368

  19. Green leafy porridges: how good are they in controlling glycaemic response?

    PubMed

    Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera, Senadheera Pathirannehelage; Ekanayake, Sagarika

    2013-03-01

    Green leafy porridges made with leaf water extracts, rice and coconut milk are common Sri Lankan dietary remedies for diabetes. Though water and ethanolic extracts of most leaves elicit hypoglycaemic effects, data are not available on the efficacy when leaf extracts are incorporated into porridges. Thus, an effort was made to evaluate the proximate compositions and glycaemic index (GI) of some commonly consumed green leafy porridges. The GI of rice porridge and coconut milk porridge were measured to evaluate the effect of other ingredients other than the leaf extracts. Rice was the main contributor to carbohydrate (56-68% on dry weight) and water was the main component in porridges (89-93%). Fat and total dietary fibre contents ranged between 2.5-27% and 5-10%, respectively. The GI of all porridges was low (GI ≤ 55), except Cassia auriculata which had a high GI of 77 ± 12. The GIs of coconut milk, Aerva lanata, Hemidesmus indicus, Scoparia dulcis, Asparagus racemosus, Cephalandra indica, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Murraya koenigii and Aegle marmelos were 31 ± 5, 32 ± 5, 40 ± 8, 39 ± 8, 37 ± 4, 49 ± 8, 46 ± 8, 44 ± 8 and 50 ± 8, respectively. All porridges had a low or medium glycaemic loads ( ≤ 19). However, peak blood glucose reductions of ≥ 25% were observed in all leafy and coconut milk porridges, except in C. auriculata and Atlantia zeylanica, when compared with the glucose control. Therefore, green leafy porridges, except Cassia, can be recommended as breakfast meals for diabetics due to their low GI, peak blood glucose reduction and presence of other nutrients in green leaves. PMID:22849311

  20. In vitro α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial properties of ethyl acetate extract of Aegle tamilnadensis Abdul Kader (Rutaceae) leaf.

    PubMed

    R, Pratap Chandran; S, Nishanth Kumar; S, Manju; S, Abdul Kader; B S, Dileep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis leaves. The extract recorded strong α-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 100 μg/ml. The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated by nitric oxide radical inhibition, lipid peroxidation inhibition, ferric thiocyanate, and ABTS radical scavenging assay, and the extract recorded significant antioxidant activity. The ferric thiocyanate activity of extract was superior to butylated hydroxyl anisol (BHA), the standard antioxidant agent. The anticancer activity of the extract was evaluated against (1) breast cancer cell lines (MDAM B-231), (2) cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa), and (3) lung cancer cell line (A 549) using MTT assay, and significant activity was recorded against A 549 with an IC50 value of 64 μg/ml. Further studies on the morphology, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry confirm the extract-induced apoptosis in A 549. This extract also recorded significant anti-tuberculosis activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The current study suggests that the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis is a potential source of natural α-glucosidase inhibitor and antioxidant for protection as well as prevention of life-threatening diseases like cancer. PMID:25380641

  1. Holocene vegetation and climatic variations in Central India: A study based on multiproxy evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam; Phartiyal, Binita; Kumar, Kamlesh

    2013-11-01

    Palynology, texture, mineralogy, geochemistry, and magnetic susceptibility analysis of a 2 m deep sediment core from Padauna Swamp, southeastern Madhya Pradesh infers that between 8600 and 7500 cal yr BP a warm and relatively less-humid climate prevailed with open tree-savannahs dominated by grasses followed by sedges, Artemisia and members of Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae with scanty trees viz., Schrebera, Aegle marmelos and Sterculia urens. This is well supported by lower organic to carbonate carbon ratio, coarser texture having relatively low CIA and magnetic susceptibility values and presence of some primary minerals. Between 7500 and 6250 cal yr BP the tree-savannahs were succeeded by open mixed deciduous forests with the invasion of a few more trees viz., Madhuca indica, Holoptelea, Emblica officinalis, Mitragyna parvifolia and members of Anacardiaceae in response to onset of a warm and humid climate. A considerable rise in organic carbon generated from the degradation of plentiful biomass along with increase in clay content with signs of kaolinite and increase in immobile over mobile elements with slightly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values also suggest climatic amelioration. The presence of ruderal plants such as Artemisia, Cannabis sativa and Cheno/Am further infers initiation of human activities in the region. Between 6250 and 2800 cal yr BP, the mixed deciduous forests became more diverse and dense, subduing grasses and other herbaceous elements. Sporadic incursion of Shorea robusta (Sal) in forest floristic was recorded around 5000 cal yr BP. The overall change in the vegetation mosaic reflects that a warm and more-humid climate prevailed in the region, probably on account of invigoration of southwest monsoon. This observation is further corroborated by other proxy data showing a spurt in organic/inorganic carbon ratio, increase in clay content with matured mineralogy, significantly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values. Since 2800 cal yr BP onwards, the modern Sal dominated deciduous forests were established indicating continuation of warm and more-humid climate including timely arrival of SW monsoon coinciding with the shedding of Sal seeds as they are viable for a very short period.

  2. 75 FR 62534 - Request for Nominations to the National Advisory Committee for the Development of Acute Exposure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) invites nominations from a diverse range of qualified candidates to be considered for appointment to the National Advisory Committee for the Development of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Hazardous Substances (NAC/AEGL...

  3. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  4. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 ?g/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fentons reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 ?g/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 ?g/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 ?g/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 ?g/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 ?g/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 ?g/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 ?g/g. PMID:22754941

  5. Thanaka: traditional Burmese sun protection.

    PubMed

    Goldsberry, Anne; Dinner, Alan; Hanke, C William

    2014-03-01

    Limonia acidissima or Hesperethusa crenulata is a common tree in Southeast Asia. It is indigenous to the Republic of Myanmar (formerly Burma) as well as India, Sri Lanka, Java, and Pakistan. In English, the common names for Limonia acidissima are sandalwood, wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit tree. The plant has a number of different names in different languages including bal or bael in Assamese, bael in Bengali, kaitha in Hindi, belingai in Malaysia, and thanaka in Burmese. Unique to the Burmese people, thanaka has been used as a cosmetic product for over 2000 years. Mention of thanaka has been traced back to ancient Burmese lyrics, and relics of equipment used by ancient royalty to grind thanaka can be found in museums. PMID:24595576

  6. Evaluation of risk assessment guideline levels for the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H.; Environmental Assessment

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min/m3). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild effects, serious adverse effects, and lethality. They are expressed as air concentrations (in units of mg/m3) and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The report discusses strengths and deficiencies in the levels, important parameters (i.e., exposure time, breathing rate) that need to be explicitly addressed in deriving the guideline levels, and possible impacts that could result from using AEGLs instead of guideline dosages in future assessments.

  7. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  8. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Gal?/?1-6Gal?1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Gal?1-6Gal?1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria. PMID:25157808

  9. Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

    1997-08-01

    One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

  10. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content. PMID:26688969

  11. Vortices in ferromagnetic/superconducting nanostructured bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruynseraede, Yvan

    2002-03-01

    We report on vortex pinning in laterally nanostructured ferromagnetic/superconducting bilayers consisting of superconducting Pb films on top of periodic arrays of dots or antidots patterned in magnetic films with in-plane or out-of-plane magnetization. We show how vortices in the superconductor are influenced by the ferromagnet. For a Co antidot lattice with in-plane magnetization, no matching effects are observed, indicating that the pinning potential does not reflect the periodicity of the antidot lattice. Dots and antidots with out-of-plane magnetization have pronounced field-polarity dependent pinning. Vortex imaging is used to reveal the origin of this asymmetry. This work is performed in collaboration with M. J. Van Bael, K. Temst, L. Van Look, J. Bekaert, M. Lange, S. Raedts, J. Swerts, S. J. Bending and V.V. Moshchalkov, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research - Flanders (FWO), the Belgian Inter-University Attraction Poles (IUAP) and the Flemish Concerted Action (GOA) Programs, and by the European ESF "VORTEX" Program.

  12. Assessing human variability in kinetics for exposures to multiple environmental chemicals: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling case study with dichloromethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene.

    PubMed

    Valcke, Mathieu; Haddad, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude of interindividual variability in internal dose for inhalation exposure to single versus multiple chemicals. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for adults (AD), neonates (NEO), toddlers (TODD), and pregnant women (PW) were used to simulate inhalation exposure to "low" (RfC-like) or "high" (AEGL-like) air concentrations of benzene (Bz) or dichloromethane (DCM), along with various levels of toluene alone or toluene with ethylbenzene and xylene. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and distributions of relevant internal dose metrics of either Bz or DCM were computed. Area under the blood concentration of parent compound versus time curve (AUC)-based variability in AD, TODD, and PW rose for Bz when concomitant "low" exposure to mixtures of increasing complexities occurred (coefficient of variation (CV) = 16-24%, vs. 12-15% for Bz alone), but remained unchanged considering DCM. Conversely, AUC-based CV in NEO fell (15 to 5% for Bz; 12 to 6% for DCM). Comparable trends were observed considering production of metabolites (AMET), except for NEO's CYP2E1-mediated metabolites of Bz, where an increased CV was observed (20 to 71%). For "high" exposure scenarios, Cmax-based variability of Bz and DCM remained unchanged in AD and PW, but decreased in NEO (CV= 11-16% to 2-6%) and TODD (CV= 12-13% to 7-9%). Conversely, AMET-based variability for both substrates rose in every subpopulation. This study analyzed for the first time the impact of multiple exposures on interindividual variability in toxicokinetics. Evidence indicates that this impact depends upon chemical concentrations and biochemical properties, as well as the subpopulation and internal dose metrics considered. PMID:25785556

  13. Contribution of terrigenous rocks of South Belgian coal deposits in geological storage of CO2 : the sandstones case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, N.; Baele, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in unmined coal seams is one of the different options for storing CO2 in geological reservoirs. In favorable situations, it could be coupled with the retrieving of adsorbed methane from coal (ECBM), which can make this solution economically more attractive. However, in the case of South Belgian coal measures, both weak permeability of the coal and frequent faulting/folding of the seams are likely to decrease the efficiency of this technique. Westphalian A and B sediments from South Belgium are containing only about 2.5% vol. of coal; the other rocks consisting of shales/siltstones (~80%) and sandstones (~20%). For all these lithologies, the main processes of CO2 sequestration are 1) adsorption in coal and clay minerals that are partly forming shales, and within rock porosity in the case of sandstones and, to a lesser extent, in the shales/siltstone porosity. In a previous assessment of the sequestration potential in Westphalian coal measures of South Belgium, Baele et al. (2007) showed that coal and shales each account for 25% of the total sequestration potential, and the rest, i.e. 50%, is related to sandstones on a basis of 2% porosity. Beside their significant additional storage capacity, sandstones have also a better permeability than the other finer-grained and organic lithologies. Additionally, sandstones are known to occasionally cut the coal seams (wash-out), thus providing insights in increasing accessibility of injected CO2 into the coal. On the other hand, some sandstone banks are fossil braided rivers that induced peripheral fractures by differential compaction during burial diagenesis (Van Tongeren et al., 2000). These fractures are thus likely to have increased accessibility from high-injectivity sandstones to surrounding lithologies that could significantly contribute to storage capacity. The aim of this study is to refine the contribution of the westphalian South Belgium sandstones to the geological storage of CO2. Measurements were performed on forty rock samples in order to determine their mineral compositions and petrophysical properties. Mineral compositions were determined by light and cathodoluminescence petrography (CL), XRD, SEM, EDS and TOC. Effective porosity and permeability were measured by lab tests on cylindrical core samples. Effective porosities measured in sandstones is ranging between 1.5% and 6% with an average of 3.5%, which is nearly twice the value taken in the previous capacity evaluation. The neutron porosity log of the Saint-Ghislain borehole yields porosity values ranging between 5 and 20% of limestone-equivalent porosity; these values suggest higher in-situ porosity, likely due to fractures in the coal measures. Permeability was estimated from lab permeameter tests to a few milli-darcies. Nevertheless this value, which is fairly low for a conventional reservoir, is higher than that of other Westphalian lithologies. Like porosity, in-situ permeability is expected to be higher. Westphalian sandstones mineral compositions shows mainly quartz, feldspars, clay minerals, coal grains that are cemented by either quartz overgrowth or a matrix consisting of fine detrital (mainly clays) and alteration minerals (authigenic carbonates, pyrite, and clays). These results are comparable to investigations of Westphalian C and D sandstones of North Belgium (Bertier et al., 2006). In the case of Westphalian sandstones, it was observed that the effective porosity is essentially located within this fine-grained matrix, explaining their weak permeability. Results from this study show other promising insights for the sequestration of CO2 within Westphalian sandstones of South Belgium. Carbonate minerals, which occur with 2% vol. in average, could significantly increase the porosity and especially the permeability, due to their dissolution by water acidification caused by CO2 injection. Adsorption onto coal fragments and clay minerals in the sandstones has an estimated sequestration potential similar to that of storage in rock porosity. Finally, for reservoir safety purpose, a preliminary assessment of the mineral trapping potential shows that the whole sequestrated CO2 (within the porosity and by adsorption) could react with CO2-sensitive minerals such as chlorites and feldspars in the long term. References : Baele J.M., Raucq V. , De Weireld G., Legrain H., Billemont P., Tshibangu K. & Dupuis C. (2007) - Geological Storage of CO2 : New Concepts from Storage Capacity Evaluation in Belgian Westphalian Rocks - EGU Meeting, Vienna 2007. Bertier P., Swennen R., Laenen B., Lagrou D. & Dreesen R (2006) - Experimental identification of CO2-water-rock interactions caused by sequestration of CO2 in Westphalian and Buntsandstein sandstones of the Campine Basin (NE-Belgium) - Journal of Geochemical Exploration 89 (2006) : 10-14. Van Tongeren P., Laenen B. & Dreesen R. (2000) - Het koolbedmethaanpotentieel in Vlaanderen en de mogelijkheden tot geologische opslag van CO2 in relatie tot de winning van deze gasreserves: een pré-haalbaarheidsstudie t.b.v. de Administratie Natuurlijke Rijkdommen en Energie. VITO report 2000/ETE/R/028, 100 pp.

  14. HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library ( http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser ( http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high energy physics is divided into several stages. Various programs exist for these stages. In this article we are interested in interfacing different Monte Carlo event generators via data files, in particular, Matrix Element (ME) generators and Showering and Hadronization (SH) generators. There is a widely accepted format for data files for such interfaces - Les Houches Event Format (LHEF). Although information kept in an LHEF file is enough for proper working of SH generators, it is insufficient for understanding how events in the LHEF file have been prepared and which physical model has been applied. In this paper we propose an extension of the format for keeping additional information available in generators. We propose to add a new information block, marked up with XML tags, to the LHEF file. This block describes events in the file in more detail. In particular, it stores information about a physical model, kinematical cuts, generator, etc. This helps to make LHEF files self-documented. Certainly, HepML can be applied in more general context, not in LHEF files only. Solution method: In order to overcome drawbacks of the original LHEF accord we propose to add a new information block of HepML tags. HepML is an XML-based markup language. We designed several XML Schemas for all tags in the language. Any HepML document should follow rules of the Schemas. The language is equipped with a library for operation with HepML tags and documents. This C++ library, called libhepml, consists of classes for HepML objects, which represent a HepML document in computer memory, parsing classes, serializating classes, and some auxiliary classes. Restrictions: The software is adapted for solving problems, described in the article. There are no additional restrictions. Running time: Tests have been done on a computer with Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Solo, 1.4 GHz. Parsing of a HepML file: 6 ms (size of the HepML files is 12.5 Kb) Writing of a HepML block to file: 14 ms (file size 12.5 Kb) Merging of two HepML blocks and writing to file: 18 ms (file size - 25.0 Kb).

  15. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

  16. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the north sea: matching CO_2 demand and supply given uncertain market conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, Tine; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Huisman, Kuno; Piessens, Kris; Kort, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Introduction CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) entails the injection of CO2 in mature oil fields in order to mobilize the oil. In particular, the injected CO2 reduces the oil's viscosity and acts as a propellant, resulting in an increased oil extraction rate (Leach et al., 2011). Given uncertainty in both oil price and CO2 price under the EU ETS system, aim of this study is to analyze under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange can be established between a CO2 supplier (an electricity producer for whom CO2 is a by-product) and a CO2 user (an offshore oil company that exploits oil fields in the North Sea and needs CO2 for enhanced oil recovery). Methodology A techno-economic simulation tool, PSS IV, was developed to provide investment decision support on integrated CO2-EOR projects (Welkenhuysen et al., 2014). Until now, a fixed onshore supply of CO2 was presumed. An economic optimization model is now developed for both the CO2 producer and the CO2 user. Because net present value and discounted cash flow methods are inadequate to deal with issues like uncertainty and the irreversibility of an investment decision, the real options theory is applied (Dixit and Pindyck, 1994). The way in which cooperation between the companies can take place, will be studied using game theoretical concepts (Lukas and Welling, 2014). Economic and technical data on CO2 capture are available from the PSS database (Piessens et al., 2012). Data on EOR performance, CO2 requirements and various costs are taken from literature (BERR, 2007; Klokk et al., 2010; Pershad et al., 2012). Results/Findings It will be shown what the impact of price uncertainty is on the investment decision of the electricity producer to capture and sell CO2, and on the decision of the oil producer to make the necessary investments to inject CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. Based on these results, it will be determined under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange and transport can take place. Furthermore, also the role of the ETS system will be discussed. In an initial stage, only the CO2-price and oil price market uncertainties are considered. In a further stage, uncertainties from the supply side (technology) and EOR (geological) will be added. References BERR. 2007. Development of a CO2 transport and storage network in the North Sea: report to the North Sea Basin Task Force. Dixit A, Pindyck R (1994). Investment under Uncertainty. In, Princeton University Press. Klokk Ø, Schreiner PF, Pagès-Bernaus A, Tomasgard A (2010). Optimizing a CO2 value chain for the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Energy Policy 38(11): 6604-6614 Leach A, Mason CF, Veld Kvt (2011). Co-optimization of enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration. Resource Energy Econ 33(4): 893-912 Lukas E, Welling A (2014). Timing and eco(nomic) efficiency of climate-friendly investments in supply chains. Eur J Oper Res 233(2): 448-457 Pershad, H., Durusut, E., Crerar, A., Black, D., Mackay, E. & Oldern, P., 2012. Economic Impacts of CO2-enhanced oil recovery for Scotland, Final report for Scottish Enterprise. Element energy, London. Piessens, K., Welkenhuysen K., Laenen, B., Ferket, H., Nijs, W., Duerinck, J., Cochez, E., Mathieu, Ph., Valentiny, D., Baele, J.-M., Dupont, N. & Hendriks, Ch., 2012. Policy Support System for Carbon Capture and Storage and Collaboration between Belgium-the Netherlands "PSS-CCS", Final report. Belgian Science Policy Office, Research Programme Science for a Sustainable Development contracts SD/CP/04a,b & SD/CP/803, 335p. Welkenhuysen, K., Compernolle, T., Piessens, K., Ramírez, A., Rupert, J. & Swennen, R., 2014. Geological uncertainty and investment risk in CO2-enhanced oil recovery. 12th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-12), Austin, Texas, 05-09/10/2014.

  17. Significance of the giant Lower Cretaceous paleoweathering event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, Médard; Ricordel-Prognon, Caroline; Schmitt, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    Weathering profiles typically develop at the interface with the atmosphere, and thus, record the fluctuations in the paleoatmosphere's chemistry and climatic conditions. Consequently they are one of the main archives to upgrade our understanding on paleoclimate and the Earth's environmental history. In this presentation, we will focus on the linking between paleoatmosphere compositions, weathering rates, and their impact on the subsequent sedimentary records. Distribution of the Lower Cretaceous lateritic weathering facies. During the Early Cretaceous, sea level drops and wide exondations lead to development of deep "lateritic" weathering profiles. Thick kaolinitic weathering profiles occured on the Hercynian basements and diverse kaolinitic and ferruginous weathering products covered the Jurassic limestone platforms. This major lateritic event is not restricted to Europe but also well know in North-America (up to Canada), South-America (down to Argentina), and in Australia. Moreover, recent paleomagnetic and radiometric datations revealed that numerous kaolinitic and ferruginous formations, which classically were ascribed to Tertiary ages, date back to the Lower Cretaceous period (Thiry et al., 2006). Additionally, the Bonherz iron ore deposits in the paleokarsts of the Jurassic limestone plateform of the Paris Basin also have to be reconsidered as of Cretaceous age, probably as well as the Tertiary age of the Swiss and Bavarian Jura Bonherz. Paleoclimatic interpretation. During a long time, the interpretation of these paleoweathering features has been a major palaeoclimatic argument. The spreading out of deep kaolinitic weathering profiles (from the Scandinavian and Canadian shields to southern Argentina and Australia, which was still situated close to Antarctica at that time) has lead to considerations, that during this period a warm and wet climate prevailed globally, with very little latitudinal differentiation. These paleoclimatic interpretations stand in contradiction to the paleobotanical data and the interpretation of the glacial origin of some sedimentary figures, such as dropstones. Additionally, some isotopic data are contradictory to the hypothesis of a warm climate around the whole world; in fact the data indicate cold water masses or even glaciation at high latitudes (Bornemann, 2008). On the other hand, numerous paleontological as well as some isotopic data support the theory of a greenhouse Earth during Cretaceous times (Sellwood & Valdes, 2006. Cretaceous paleoatmosphere. Taking in account the composition of the paleoatmosphere during the Cretaceous has considerably enriched the paleoclimatic debate. It is know that the CO2 concentrations of the Cretaceous atmosphere may have been 5 to 10 times higher than present day values (Berner & Kothavala, 2001). These high CO2 concentrations have often been used to explain higher rates of silicate mineral alteration. Nevertheless, although it is well understood that the CO2 content of the atmosphere controls the climate and therefore weathering, the specific mechanisms that intervene have rarely been studied. Here we will examine some aspects of the influence of CO2 upon weathering in order to reconsider the nature and the distribution of the Lower Cretaceous paleoweathering features. Simulation of granite weathering in high CO2 atmosphere. Two models, one of rainwater in equilibrium with the present day atmosphere and another with a CO2 atmospheric level 10 times higher than present day values (similar to the Lower Cretaceous atmosphere) have been developed and applied to a granite weathering simulation (Schmitt, 1999). The modelling shows that the successive minerals are the same for both simulations. But, under high atmospheric CO2 content, kaolinite appears with three times less rainwater flushed through the profile. This means that under similar rainfall and temperature conditions profiles would deepen three times faster than under present atmospheric conditions. Increased pCO2 has no direct effect on the appearance of gibbsite and hence on bauxite formation. Simulation of granite weathering at higher temperature (35 instead of 25°C) shows that gibbsite appears earlier, with about 20% less rainwater flushed through the profile, as a result of the increase in silica solubility between 25 and 35°C. The modelling also shows that elevated atmospheric CO2 values strongly accelerate the formation of deep kaolinitic profiles. This explains why deep kaolinized profiles, and kaolinite deposits have been widespread during the Cretaceous, even at extratropical latitudes, and under cool, moderately humide climate conditions. There is no direct effect of the simulated increased CO2 atmosphere on the rapidity of bauxitisation, but we know that the induced greenhouse effect and the particular Cretaceous paleogeography have both resulted in an increase in rainfall and in an important warming at intermediate latitudes. The simulation shows that the conjunction of these two factors is likely responsible for the expansion of the bauxites during the Cretaceous. Imprint in the sedimentary record The massive kaolinite formation during the Lower Cretaceous had a major impact on the clay mineral series of the sedimentary basins. The Upper Cretaceous sea level rise lead to the reworking of the kaolinitic weathering cover. Nevertheless the kaolinitic weathering paleoprofiles remained in place on wide continental areas until the Tertiary. A major reworking of these paleoprofiles occurred in Europe during the early Tertiary, when the climate became seasonally drier and vegetation cover more sparse, combined with the first Alpine tectonic movements. The kaolinite deposits of the Lower Eocene are mostly inherited from the Lower Cretaceous giant paleoweathering event. Berner R.A., Kothavala Z., 2001, GEOCARB III: a revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science, 3001, p. 182-204. Bornemann, R.D. Norris, O. Friedrich, B. Beckmann, S. Schouten, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, J. Vogel, P. Hofmann, T. Wagner. (2008). Isotopic evidence for glaciation during the cretaceous supergreenhouse. Science. 319 : 189-192. Schmitt J-M., 1999, Weathering, rainwater and atmosphere chemistry: example and modelling of granite weathering in present conditions, in a CO2-rich, and in an anoxic palaeoatmosphere. In : Palaeoweathering, palaeosurfaces and related continental deposits (eds. Thiry M. & Simon-Coinçon R.), Spec. Publ. Intern. Ass. Sediment., 27, p. 21 41. Thiry M., Quesnel F., Yans J., Wyns R., Vergari A., Théveniaut H., Simon-Coinçon R., Ricordel C., Moreau M.-G., Giot D., Dupuis C., Bruxelles L., Barbarand J., Baele J.-M, 2006, Continental France and Belgium during the Early Cretaceous : paleoweatherings and paleolandforms. Bull. Soc. géol Fr., 177/3 , p. 155 175. Sellwood B.W., Valdes P.J., 2006, Mesozoic climates: general circulation models and the rock record. Sedimentary Geology, 100, p. 269-287.

  18. The Reflectance Spectrum of Troilite and the T-Type Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, D. T.; Bell, J. F.; Haack, H.; Scott, E. R. D.

    1992-07-01

    Troilite (stoichiometric FeS) is a common mineral in most meteorites, but meteorite spectroscopists have neglected to measure its spectral properties and consider its possible role in interpretation of asteroid spectra. Ordinary chondrites are typically 5-6 wt% troilite and this mineral is present in almost all iron meteorites in amounts up to 60%. Troilite's occurrence in meteorites is typically as 0.1-1.0 mm-sized blebs in stony meteorites and cm-sized nodules in iron and stony-iron meteorites [1]. Meteoritical and theoretical evidence strongly suggests that there should be troilite-rich zones in the interiors of differentiated asteroids. The cores of differentiated asteroids probably contained a few wt% S which was largely concentrated in the final 5-10 vol% of eutectic liquid. This liquid crystallized as troilite (90 vol%) and metal. An asteroid derived from a metal core would probably display sections of crystallized eutectic liquid [2] provided that the asteroid is not covered with regolith. The distribution of troilite on the surface of metallic asteroids may therefore provide information about the crystallization history of the core. A fraction of the S may, however, become trapped in the dendrites during crystallization [3]. This would account for the abundance of troilite nodules in iron meteorites. The troilite distribution in the core may also affect the way the core breaks up during impacts. Fractures will preferentially propagate through the much more friable troilite and large core fragments may therefore have dendritic shapes. Regolith present on metal cores may also be enriched in the more friable troilite. Material of the expected eutectic composition would be very fragile, and collisional and/or atmospheric disruption may account for its absence among meteorites. Measurements: The bidirectional reflectance spectrum of troilite was measured from a sample of the Mundrabilla iron meteorite held in the collection of the University of Hawaii. This meteorite has an unusually high sulfur content (8 wt%) and total troilite content is estimated at 25-35 vol%. Average troilite composition in weight % is as follows: 63% Fe, 0.5% Cr, 0.3% Zn, and 36.2% S [4]. The sample was crushed in a clean ceramic mortar and pestle to a bulk powder and dry sieved to a particle size of <250 micrometers. Six additional particle size separates were dry sieved from this bulk sample. Shown in Figure 1 are the spectra of the bulk sample and the particle size separates of Mundrabilla troilite. The spectrum of the bulk material is dark, always less than 10% reflective, and strongly red sloped. The rapid increase in reflectance at the green and red wavelengths (0.4-0.5 microns) is probably responsible for the overall bronze color of hand sample troilite. Since Mundrabilla is a find, the depth of the UV-visible absorption may have been increased by small amounts of Fe3+ from terrestrial rust. Additional samples of troilite from fresh fall need to be measured to confirm this result. The bulk sample has a reflectance between the smallest and largest particle size separates suggesting that its reflectance is dominated by small particles coating larger grains. Previous work with spectral mixture modelling shows that small particle size troilite and metal can dominate the spectra of ordinary chondrite meteorites, producing a dark, subdued and reddened spectrum similar to some dark asteroids [5]. Implications for Asteroids: The strong red slopes and low reflectances of the troilite spectra are similar to the spectral characteristics of the T and possibly some M-class asteroids. Shown in Figure 2 are the spectra of bulk troilite (solid lines) and four T-class asteroids (boxes and error bars). The IR spectra of 96 Aegle, 114 Kassandra, and 233 Asterope are strongly similar to the spectrum of bulk troilite. The deeper W absorption in troilite may be due to terrestrial rust. The spectrum of 308 Polyxo is substantially different, but Polyxo is also the only T-class asteroid that has been shown to have strong water of hydration features at 3.0 m