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1

Biological activities of crude extracts and chemical constituents of Bael, Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.  

PubMed

Bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.) is an important medicinal plant of India. Leaves, fruits, stem and roots of A. marmelos have been used in ethno medicine to exploit its' medicinal properties including astringent, antidiarrheal antidysenteric, demulcent, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds purified from bael have been proven to be biologically active against several major diseases including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Preclinical studies indicate the therapeutic potential of crude extracts of A. marmelos in the treatment of many microbial diseases, diabetes and gastric ulcer. This review covers the biological activities of some isolated chemical constituents of A. marmelos and preclinical studies on some crude extracts and pure compounds to explore novel bioactive compounds for therapeutic application. PMID:20099458

Maity, Pallab; Hansda, Dhananjay; Bandyopadhyay, Uday; Mishra, Dipak Kumar

2009-11-01

2

Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Bael (Aegle marmelos) Leaf: Mythology Meets Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A green, low-cost, and reproducible bael (Aegle marmelos) leaves–negotiated synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. Synthesis was performed at room temperature. X-ray, selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed to ascertain the formation of Au nanoparticles. Nanoparticles almost spherical in shape with a size of 4–10 nm were found. UV-visible study revealed the surface plasmon resonance

Anal K. Jha; K. Prasad

2011-01-01

3

Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael) and its phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of cancer.  

PubMed

Aegle marmelos, commonly known as Bael and belonging to the family Rutaceae is an important medicinal plant in the traditional Indian system of medicine, the Ayurveda. The extract prepared by boiling the bark, leaves or roots in water is useful as laxative, febrifuge, and expectorant. The extract is also useful in ophthalmia, deafness, inflammations, catarrh, diabetes, and asthmatic complaints. The fruits are used in treating diarrhea, dysentery, stomach ache, and cardiac ailments. Scientific studies have validated many of Bael's ethnomedicinal properties and its potential antimicrobial effects, hypoglycemic, astringent, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, demulcent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound-healing, insecticidal, and gastroprotective properties. In addition, studies have also shown that Bael and some of the Bael phytochemicals possess antineoplastic, radioprotective, chemoprotective, and chemopreventive effects, properties efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. For the first time, the current review summarizes the results related to these properties and emphasizes aspects that require further investigation for Bael's safe and effective use in the near future. PMID:23089553

Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Rao, Suresh; Venkatesh, Ponemone

2013-05-01

4

Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption using bael leaves (Aegle marmelos).  

PubMed

Biosorption of Pb(II) on bael leaves (Aegle marmelos) was investigated for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using different doses of adsorbent, initial pH, and contact time. The maximum Pb loading capacity of the bael leaves was 104 mg g(-1) at 50 mg L(-1) initial Pb(II) concentration at pH 5.1. SEM and FT-IR studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) occurs inside the wall of the hollow tubes present in the bael leaves and carboxylic acid, thioester and sulphonamide groups are involved in the process. The sorption process was best described by pseudo second order kinetics. Among Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, the latter had a better fit with the experimental data. The activation energy E(a) confirmed that the nature of adsorption was physisorption. Bael leaves can selectively remove Pb(II) in the presence of other metal ions. This was demonstrated by removing Pb from the effluent of exhausted batteries. PMID:19765896

Chakravarty, S; Mohanty, Ashok; Sudha, T Nag; Upadhyay, A K; Konar, J; Sircar, J K; Madhukar, A; Gupta, K K

2010-01-15

5

Radioprotective effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael): a concise review.  

PubMed

The effective use of radiotherapy in cancer cure and palliation is compromised by the side-effects resulting from radiosensitivity of bordering normal tissues, which are invariably exposed to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation during treatment. In this situation, use of radioprotective compounds that can protect normal tissues against radiation injury are of immense use. In addition to protecting normal tissue these compounds will also permit use of higher radiation doses to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, to date, no ideal radioprotectors are available as most synthetic compounds are toxic at their optimal concentrations and have produced little success in clinics. Radiation ill-effects are principally the result of generation of free radicals, and the antioxidant compounds that counter them are supposed to be of immense use in preventing them. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been observed to avert/ameliorate free radical-mediated ailments--an effect that has been documented--and such plants have recently been the focus of attention. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael), commonly known as bael, has been used since antiquity for treating various ailments, some of which are now known to be the result of oxidative stress. In studies spanning nearly a decade, it has been observed that bael prevented radiation-induced ill-effects, and the results of these studies indicate that it has the potential to be an effective, nontoxic radioprotective agent. In this current review, for the first time, an attempt is made to summarize these observations and to discuss the plausible reasons responsible for bael's radioprotective effects. PMID:20932194

Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Bhat, Harshith P; Pereira, Manisha Maria; Mathias, Nishan; Venkatesh, Ponemone

2010-10-01

6

Effect of Aegle marmelos Correa. (Bael) fruit extract on tissue antioxidants in streptozotocin diabetic rats.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-lipid peroxidative activity of an aqueous extract of A. marmelos fruits (AMFEt) in streptozotocin diabetic rats in heart and pancreas. Oral administration of AMFEt for 30 days (125 and 250 mg kg(-1) body weight twice daily) produced a significant decrease in the elevated levels of peroxidation products, viz. thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides in the tissues of diabetic rats. The depressed activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and lowered glutathione content in the heart and pancreas of diabetic rats were found to increase on treatment with AMFEt. AMFEt at a dose of 250 mg kg(-1) was more effective than glibenclamide (300 microg kg(-1)) and both reversed all the values significantly. Thus AMFEt exhibits anti-oxidative activity in streptozotocin diabetic rats. PMID:15332498

Kamalakkannan, N; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

2003-11-01

7

In vitro clonal propagation of bael (Aegle marmelos Corr.) CV. CISH-B1 through enhanced axillary branching.  

PubMed

Rapid clonal micropropagation protocol of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. cv. CISH-B1 was achieved by nodal stem segment of mature bearing tree. Three centimeter long shoots having one axillary bud excised from 10-15th nodal region of shoots during September gave quick in vitro bud burst (5.33 days) when cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP, 8.84 ?M + IAA 5.7 ?M. The maximum number of proliferated shoots (9.0/explant) were obtained on same medium supplemented with BAP 8.84 ?M + IAA 5.7 ?M. The micro shoots were rooted (100 %) on + IAA 5.7 ?M. In vitro rooted plants were acclimatized on autoclaved coconut husk containing plant salt mixture and under shade net house (50 % shade 70-80 % RH). The plants were established in the field after acclimatization. The micropropagated plants were tested for its genetic fidelity using 13 RAPD, 3 ISSR and 2 DAMD primers. Profile obtained by all the three Single Primer Amplification Reaction (SPAR) technique from mother tree and micropropagated plants revealed genetic integrity of micropropagated plants with that of mother tree. PMID:23572900

Pati, Rajesh; Chandra, Ramesh; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Mishra, Maneesh; Srivastava, Navin

2008-10-01

8

Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos correa) shell as an adsorbent.  

PubMed

In this study, a new activated carbon prepared from non-usable Bael fruit shell (BS) has been used as an efficient low cost adsorbent to remove the Cr(VI) toxic metal from aqueous phase. Batch mode experiments have been performed as a function of initial pH of solution, agitation time, adsorbate concentration and adsorbent dosage. Maximum chromium removal was found at pH 2.0 in an equilibrium time of 240 min by adsorption-coupled reduction. The sorption data fitted satisfactorily with Langmuir as well as Freundlich adsorption model. Evaluation using Langmuir equation gave the monolayer sorption capacity as 17.27 mg/g. Chromium uptake (adsorption-coupled reduction) by Bael fruit shell activated carbon (BSAC) was best described by pseudo-second-order chemisorption model. The progressive changes on surface texture and the confirmation of chromium binding on adsorbent surface at different stages were obtained by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis. Phosphoric acid activation played a significant role to develop the well defined pores on adsorbent surface. The results obtained in this study illustrate that the BSAC is expected to be an effective and economically viable adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous system. PMID:19339109

Anandkumar, J; Mandal, B

2009-09-15

9

The effect of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in streptozotocin diabetes: a histopathological study.  

PubMed

Aegle marmelos Correa. (Bael) fruit exhibit antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant properties. This study was designed to elucidate the protective effect of an aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos fruits on the histopathology of the pancreas in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of Aegle marmelos fruit extract at doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg twice daily to diabetic rats for a period of 30 days resulted in a significant increase in body weight, weight of the pancreas and insulin levels associated with a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose levels. The fruit extract treated groups showed improved functional state of the pancreatic ss-cells and partially reversed the damage caused by streptozotocin to the pancreatic islets. The findings of our study indicate that Aegle marmelos fruit extract exhibits protective effects on the pancreas. The effects observed in the fruit extract treated animals were better those in animals treated with glibenclamide (300 microg/kg). PMID:16520300

Kamalakkannan, N; Prince, P Stanely Mainzen

2005-01-01

10

Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aegle marmelos (Bael) Fruit Extract and Its Application to Prevent Adhesion of Bacteria: A Strategy to Control Microfouling.  

PubMed

Marine biofilms formed due to adhesion of bacteria and other microorganisms on submerged surfaces are generally considered to be a major form of microfouling. Subsequent attachment of larvae of higher organisms like barnacles, mussels, and so forth, on marine biofilms, causes macrofouling. Several approaches have been used to prevent micro- and macrofouling. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to exhibit strong inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is rapidly gaining importance due to its growing success. Hence, the present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using fruit extract of Aegle marmelos and its characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further isolation and identification of marine biofilm forming bacteria were carried out through 16S rDNA analysis. The antimicrofouling effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs was tested against marine biofilm forming bacteria and the results suggested that it could effectively inhibit biofilm formation. This preliminary study has proved that AgNPs may be used as antimicrofouling agent for the prevention of biofouling in the early stages. PMID:25258620

Nithya Deva Krupa, A; Raghavan, Vimala

2014-01-01

11

Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic agent from Aegle marmelos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant Aegle marmelos belongs to the family of Rutaceae. From the leaves of A. marmelos an alkaloidal-amide, Aegeline 2, was isolated and found to have antihyperglycemic activity as evidenced by lowering the blood glucose levels by 12.9% and 16.9% at 5 and 24h, respectively, in sucrose challenged streptozotocin induced diabetic rats (STZ-S) model at the dose of 100mg\\/kg body

T. Narender; S. Shweta; P. Tiwari; K. Papi Reddy; T. Khaliq; P. Prathipati; A. Puri; A. K. Srivastava; R. Chander; S. C. Agarwal; K. Raj

2007-01-01

12

Immunomodulatory Potential of Methanol Extract of Aegle marmelos in Animals.  

PubMed

The aim of the current research was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos in an experimental animal model of cellular and humoral immunity. Administration of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos (500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, p.o.), produced significant increase in adhesion of neutrophils and an increase in phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay. Both doses of Aegle marmelos prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. Moreover, all treated groups demonstrated significant elevation in circulating antibody titre in the indirect haemagglunation test. From the above results, it can be concluded that methanol extract of Aegle marmelos possess immunomodulatory potential by stimulating cellular and humoral immune mechanisms. However, low dose of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos was more effective for augmenting cellular immunity, whereas, high dose was more inclined towards humoral immunity. PMID:22303072

Govinda, H V; Asdaq, S M B

2011-03-01

13

Immunomodulatory Potential of Methanol Extract of Aegle marmelos in Animals  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current research was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos in an experimental animal model of cellular and humoral immunity. Administration of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos (500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, p.o.), produced significant increase in adhesion of neutrophils and an increase in phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay. Both doses of Aegle marmelos prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. Moreover, all treated groups demonstrated significant elevation in circulating antibody titre in the indirect haemagglunation test. From the above results, it can be concluded that methanol extract of Aegle marmelos possess immunomodulatory potential by stimulating cellular and humoral immune mechanisms. However, low dose of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos was more effective for augmenting cellular immunity, whereas, high dose was more inclined towards humoral immunity. PMID:22303072

Govinda, H V; Asdaq, S. M. B.

2011-01-01

14

Anti adipogenic activity of Aegle marmelos Correa.  

PubMed

In continuation of evaluating the anti-obesity effect of Aegle marmelos, we have screened the n-hexane, dichloro methane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the leaves at the concentration of 25, 50, 75 and 100 ?g/ml for adipogenesis inhibition in the adipocytes. Nile red staining with the help of fluorometry was used as indicator of the antiobesity activity. The most active DCM extract showed the 33.98±3.55% lipid content at 100?g/ml and was selected for the further isolation. 14 compounds were isolated from DCM extract of A. marmelos leaves. The compounds were screened for the adipogenesis inhibition at 50 and 100 ?M concentrations. Out of the 14 compounds, halfordinol, ethyl ether aegeline and esculetin were showing 10.04±0.52, 16.29±0.85 and 25.09±1.31% lipid content respectively at 100 ?M. We hereby report the adipogenesis inhibition by A. marmelos as one of the pathway for its antiobesity effect. PMID:23972792

Karmase, Aniket; Jagtap, Sneha; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

2013-11-15

15

Phytochemical Evaluation, Antimicrobial Activity, and Determination of Bioactive Components from Leaves of Aegle marmelos  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ‘‘Bael,” has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40?mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous?:?ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10?mg/mL to 40?mg/mL whereas in aqueous?:?ethanol it ranged between 40?mg/mL and 160?mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

2014-01-01

16

Phytochemical evaluation, antimicrobial activity, and determination of bioactive components from leaves of Aegle marmelos.  

PubMed

The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ''Bael," has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

2014-01-01

17

Beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide, isolated from Aegle marmelos, as the potent anti-inflammatory agents against lymphoma and neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Aegle marmelos (Indian Bael) is a tree which belongs to the family of Rutaceae. It holds a prominent position in both Indian medicine and Indian culture. We have screened various fractions of Aegle marmelos extracts for their anticancer properties using in vitro cell models. Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to analyze the biomolecules present in the Aegle marmelos extract. Jurkat and human neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells were treated with different concentrations of the fractionated Aegle marmelos extracts. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that optimal concentration (50 µg/ml) of beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide fractions of Aegle marmelos extract can induce apoptosis in Jurkat cell line. cDNA expression profiling of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was carried out using real time PCR (RT-PCR). Down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes (bcl-2, mdm2, cox2 and cmyb) and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (bax, bak1, caspase-8, caspase-9 and ATM) in Jurkat and IMR-32 cells treated with the beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide fractions of Aegle marmelos extract revealed the insights of the downstream apoptotic mechanism. Furthermore, in-silico approach was employed to understand the upstream target involved in the induction of apoptosis by the beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide fractions of Aegle marmelos extract. Herein, we report that beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide isolated from Aegle marmelos can act as potent anti-inflammatory agents and modulators of a newly established therapeutic target, 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX). Beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide can induce apoptosis in lymphoma and neuroblastoma cells via modulation of 15-LOX (up-stream target) followed by the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes. PMID:24484210

Sain, Soumyadeep; Naoghare, Pravin K; Devi, S Saravana; Daiwile, Atul; Krishnamurthi, K; Arrigo, P; Chakrabarti, T

2014-03-01

18

Aegle marmelos fruit pectin for food and pharmaceuticals: Physico-chemical, rheological and functional performance.  

PubMed

Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Bael fruit, obtained from Aegle marmelos, is a rich source of pectin. Bael fruit pectin (BFP) was extracted from ripe Bael fruits. The process yielded 15% (w/w) pure BFP. The swelling index decreased in the following order: water>pH 7.4>pH 6.8>pH 1.2>HCl (0.1N). Galacturonic acid content of 87.8%, degree of esterification of 47.2%, 17.3% methoxy groups, 0.29% acetyl groups and equivalent weight of 1209.5, indicate it to be a good gelling agent and easily amenable to derivatization. BFP exhibited a significant concentration-dependent prolongation of prothrombin time. The absence of hemagglutinating activity and antinutritional factors coupled with the activity to confer better emulsion capacity, stability and antimicrobial activity gives BFP a clear edge over commercial citrus pectin (CP) for exploitation as an additive in food and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23499073

Jindal, Manish; Kumar, Vineet; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, A K

2013-04-01

19

Rapid simultaneous determination of marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin from Aegle marmelos fruit by RP-HPLC.  

PubMed

The surge of interest in naturally occurring phytochemicals with high therapeutic potential has led to the discovery of many molecules, out of which naturally occuring coumarins such as marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin present in Aegle marmelos (Bael) fruit shows good therapeutic potential. The aim of the present work is to develop and validate Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin in A. marmelos fruit extracts. The chromatographic separation was performed with isocratic elution of 55:45 (%, v/v) methanol-water containing 0.1 % acetic acid as mobile phase. The method used to analyse the extract of A. marmelos showed good resolution with retention time within 12 min. The relative concentrations of above phytoconstituent were determined in A. marmelos fruits. The method was found to give compact peaks for scopoletin, umbelliferone and marmelosin (Rt of 4.6, 6.5 and 11.3 min respectively) and were linear over the range 5-30 ?g ml(-1) (R(2)?=?0.9655), 2-10 ?g ml(-1) (R(2)?=?0.9964) and 2-10 ?g ml(-1) (R(2)?=?0.9862) respectively. The mean recoveries for marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin at three concentrations were in the range of 98.8-102.9, 98.8-101.1 and 94.2-98.3 % respectively. The relative standard deviation of accuracy, precision and repeatability were within 2 %, indicating the method produced highly reproducible results. Therefore this simple, precise and accurate method enables simultaneous separation of this phytoconstituent and hence can be successfully applied in analysis and routine quality control of herbal material and formulation containing A. marmelos. PMID:25190892

Shinde, P B; Katekhaye, S D; Mulik, M B; Laddha, K S

2014-09-01

20

Antioxidant properties and stability of aegle marmelos leaves extracts.  

PubMed

Aegle marmelos (AM) leaves were extracted with methanol (ME), ethanol (EE), water (WE) and analyzed for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging method, reducing power and in vitro inhibition by Fenton's reagent-induced oxidation of lipid system. Stability of extracts to pH (4, 7 and 9) and temperature (100 °C, 15 min.) was studied. The three extracts showed varying degree of efficacy in each assay in a dose dependent manner. The inhibition of MDA formation in Linseed oil by EE (47%) was significantly (P?Aegle marmelos as a natural antioxidant. PMID:24425898

Reddy, Vanitha P; Urooj, Asna

2013-02-01

21

Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.)-An overview  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.

Rahman, Shahedur; Parvin, Rashida

2014-01-01

22

Alkaloid and coumarins from the green fruits of Aegle marmelos.  

PubMed

Five (1-5) and 15 known compounds were isolated from the acetone extract of the green fruits of Aegle marmelos. The structure of compounds 1-5, marmesiline (1), 6-(4-acetoxy-3-methyl-2-butenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin (2), 6-(2-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-3-butenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin (3), marmelonine (4) and 8-hydroxysmyrindiol (5), were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of selected compounds were also evaluated. PMID:22196941

Chakthong, Suda; Weaaryee, Paosiyah; Puangphet, Pongsak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Plodpai, Patimaporn; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit

2012-03-01

23

Antioxidant properties and stability of aegle marmelos leaves extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aegle marmelos (AM) leaves were extracted with methanol (ME), ethanol (EE), water (WE) and analyzed for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical\\u000a scavenging method, reducing power and in vitro inhibition by Fenton’s reagent—induced oxidation of lipid system. Stability of extracts to pH (4, 7 and 9) and temperature\\u000a (100 °C, 15 min.) was studied. The three extracts showed varying degree of efficacy in

Vanitha P. Reddy; Asna Urooj

24

Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

2011-01-01

25

Simultaneous Quantification of Furanocoumarins from Aegle marmelos Fruit Pulp Extract.  

PubMed

Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae) is a prominent species in the Sub-Himalayan region, also found in central and south India, and has been widely used as remedy for diarrhea and dysentery. Unripe fruits show antiviral activity and prove to be a potent hypoglycemic agent. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of major furocoumarin components marmelosin, psoralen and bergapten in the extract from fruit pulp of A. marmelos has been developed. Components were found in the range of 5-6.5, >0.4-0.75 and >0.25 mg/g of dried fruit weight, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantification. Linearity was determined over the range of 5-40 µg/mL (r > 0.965). Intra- and interday precision showed a relative standard deviation of <2.5%. The accuracy of the method was determined by a spike recovery study, and the average recoveries were 99.46, 101.04 and 100.8% for marmelosin, psoralen and bergapten, respectively. The proposed HPLC method was found to be simple, precise and specific and can be used simultaneously for the routine quality control of raw materials of A. marmelos fruit extracts and their products, and also other products containing these markers. PMID:25122833

Shinde, Prashant B; Laddha, Kirti S

2014-08-13

26

Evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aegle marmelos leaves.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aegle marmelos leaves extracts and its phytochemical constituents in vitro and in vivo. The dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol extracts of A. marmelos leaves were studied for their lipolytic effect. Lipolysis was measured by determining the amount of glycerol released at 12 h and 24 h at 50 ?g/ml and 100 ?g/ml concentrations. Phytochemical investigation of the most active DCM extract yielded 14 compounds. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their lipolytic effects at 50 ?M and 100 ?M. The most active compounds, umbelliferone and esculetin were further screened for their antiobesity effects in vivo in the high fat diet (HFD) induced obese rat model. Umbelliferone and esculetin reduced body weight, total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and glucose level in their respective HFD groups. A. marmelos DCM extract and compounds isolated from it have the potential of counteracting the obesity by lipolysis in adipocytes. PMID:23632084

Karmase, Aniket; Birari, Rahul; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

2013-07-15

27

Semisynthetic studies identify mitochondria poisons from botanical dietary supplements--geranyloxycoumarins from Aegle marmelos.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided isolation and subsequent structure elucidation of a Bael tree Aegle marmelos lipid extract yielded two unstable acylated geranyloxycoumarin mixtures (1-2), six geranyloxycoumarins (3-8), (+)-9'-isovaleroxylariciresinol (9), and dehydromarmeline (10). In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, 1 and 2 potently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 0.18 and 1.10 ?gmL(-1), respectively). Insufficient material and chemical instability prevented full delineation of the fatty acyl side chain olefin substitution patterns in 1 and 2. Therefore, five fatty acyl geranyloxycoumarin ester derivatives (11-15) were prepared from marmin (3) and commercial fatty acyl chlorides by semisynthesis. The unsaturated C-6' linoleic acid ester derivative 14 that was structurally most similar to 1 and 2, inhibited HIF-1 activation with comparable potency (IC50 0.92 ?M). The octanoyl (11) and undecanoyl (12) ester derivatives also suppressed HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 3.1 and 0.87 ?M, respectively). Mechanistic studies revealed that these geranyloxycoumarin derivatives disrupt mitochondrial respiration, primarily at complex I. Thus, these compounds may inhibit HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondria-mediated hypoxic signaling. One surprising observation was that, while less potent, the purported cancer chemopreventive agent auraptene (8) was found to act as a mitochondrial poison that disrupts HIF-1 signaling in tumors. PMID:23434131

Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Jekabsons, Mika B; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G

2013-04-01

28

Semisynthetic Studies Identify Mitochondria Poisons from Botanical Dietary Supplements – Geranyloxycoumarins from Aegle marmelos  

PubMed Central

Bioassay-guided isolation and subsequent structure elucidation of a Bael tree Aegle marmelos lipid extract yielded two unstable acylated geranyloxycoumarin mixtures (1–2), six geranyloxycoumarins (3–8), (+)-9?-isovaleroxylariciresinol (9), and dehydromarmeline (10). In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, 1 and 2 potently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 0.18 and 1.10 ?g mL?1, respectively). Insufficient material and chemical instability prevented full delineation of the fatty acyl side chain olefin substitution patterns in 1 and 2. Therefore, five fatty acyl geranyloxycoumarin ester derivatives (11–15) were prepared from marmin (3) and commercial fatty acyl chlorides by semisynthesis. The unsaturated C-6? linoleic acid ester derivative 14 that was structurally most similar to 1 and 2, inhibited HIF-1 activation with comparable potency (IC50 0.92 ?M). The octanoyl (11) and undecanoyl (12) ester derivatives also suppressed HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 3.1 and 0.87 ?M, respectively). Mechanistic studies revealed that these geranyloxycoumarin derivatives disrupt mitochondrial respiration, primarily at complex I. Thus, these compounds may inhibit HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondria-mediated hypoxic signaling. One surprising observation was that, while less potent, the purported cancer chemopreventive agent auraptene (8) was found to act as a mitochondrial poison that disrupts HIF-1 signaling in tumors. PMID:23434131

Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G.

2013-01-01

29

Aegle marmelos fruit extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

Myocardial infarction is a major public health concern and the leading cause of death throughout the world. The present study investigates the ability of Aegle marmelos fruit extract to prevent pathological changes and oxidative stress after isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats. In vitro studies showed that Aegle marmelos fruit extract possesses antioxidant activity. Administration of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, however, cardiac tissue analyses showed decreased activity of the above enzymes compared to experimental control rats. Further, isoproterenol administration significantly increased plasma and cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lowered the activities of cardiac tissue superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase when compared to control groups. Pretreatment with Aegle marmelos fruit extract at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for a period of 45 days significantly prevented the observed alterations. Our data suggest that Aegle marmelos fruit extract exerts its protective effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and elevating antioxidants status in isoproterenol treated rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction model emphasize the beneficial action of Aegle marmelos fruit extract as a cardioprotective agent. PMID:22573921

Krushna, Gadham Setty Saayi; Kareem, Mohammed Abdul; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Hussain, Shaik Althaf; Devi Kodidhela, Lakshmi

2012-05-01

30

Aegle marmelos fruit extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in rats  

PubMed Central

Myocardial infarction is a major public health concern and the leading cause of death throughout the world. The present study investigates the ability of Aegle marmelos fruit extract to prevent pathological changes and oxidative stress after isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats. In vitro studies showed that Aegle marmelos fruit extract possesses antioxidant activity. Administration of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, however, cardiac tissue analyses showed decreased activity of the above enzymes compared to experimental control rats. Further, isoproterenol administration significantly increased plasma and cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lowered the activities of cardiac tissue superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase when compared to control groups. Pretreatment with Aegle marmelos fruit extract at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for a period of 45 days significantly prevented the observed alterations. Our data suggest that Aegle marmelos fruit extract exerts its protective effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and elevating antioxidants status in isoproterenol treated rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction model emphasize the beneficial action of Aegle marmelos fruit extract as a cardioprotective agent. PMID:22573921

Krushna, Gadham Setty Saayi; Kareem, Mohammed Abdul; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Hussain, Shaik Althaf; Devi Kodidhela, Lakshmi

2012-01-01

31

Identification and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase involved in quinolone alkaloid biosynthesis from Aegle marmelos Correa.  

PubMed

Quinolone alkaloids, found abundantly in the roots of bael (Aegle marmelos), possess various biological activities and have recently gained attention as potential lead molecules for novel drug designing. Here, we report the characterization of a novel Type III polyketide synthase, quinolone synthase (QNS), from A. marmelos that is involved in the biosynthesis of quinolone alkaloid. Using homology-based structural modeling, we identify two crucial amino acid residues (Ser-132 and Ala-133) at the putative QNS active site. Substitution of Ser-132 to Thr and Ala-133 to Ser apparently constricted the active site cavity resulting in production of naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Measurement of steady-state kinetic parameters demonstrates that the catalytic efficiency of QNS was severalfold higher for larger acyl-coenzymeA substrates as compared with smaller precursors. Our mutagenic studies suggest that this protein might have evolved from an evolutionarily related member of chalcone synthase superfamily by mere substitution of two active site residues. The identification and characterization of QNS offers a promising target for gene manipulation studies toward the production of novel alkaloid scaffolds. PMID:23329842

Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Verma, Priyanka; Gokhale, Rajesh S; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

2013-03-01

32

Identification and Characterization of a Type III Polyketide Synthase Involved in Quinolone Alkaloid Biosynthesis from Aegle marmelos Correa*  

PubMed Central

Quinolone alkaloids, found abundantly in the roots of bael (Aegle marmelos), possess various biological activities and have recently gained attention as potential lead molecules for novel drug designing. Here, we report the characterization of a novel Type III polyketide synthase, quinolone synthase (QNS), from A. marmelos that is involved in the biosynthesis of quinolone alkaloid. Using homology-based structural modeling, we identify two crucial amino acid residues (Ser-132 and Ala-133) at the putative QNS active site. Substitution of Ser-132 to Thr and Ala-133 to Ser apparently constricted the active site cavity resulting in production of naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Measurement of steady-state kinetic parameters demonstrates that the catalytic efficiency of QNS was severalfold higher for larger acyl-coenzymeA substrates as compared with smaller precursors. Our mutagenic studies suggest that this protein might have evolved from an evolutionarily related member of chalcone synthase superfamily by mere substitution of two active site residues. The identification and characterization of QNS offers a promising target for gene manipulation studies toward the production of novel alkaloid scaffolds. PMID:23329842

Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Verma, Priyanka; Gokhale, Rajesh S.; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

2013-01-01

33

Chemopreventive efficacy of Aegle marmelos on murine transplantable tumors.  

PubMed

Emerging trends for cancer chemotherapy show promising developments with the better understanding of molecules delivering more potent and powerful capabilities. But these are severely limited because of increased side effects and higher probability of tumor recurrence. In this scenario, putative exploration of the indigenous and untapped resources modulating immune system to deliver adequate but potent chemopreventive effects appeals considerable interest. However, these require rigorous scientific validation with regard to potency compared with the existing drugs. Aegle marmelos (Linnaeus) Correa (family Rutaceae), a plant component of polyherbal formulation, Indukantha Ghritha, is known for its widespread medicinal values. But the chemopreventive potential has not been explored in comparison to existing anticancer agents. Our attempt contributes the scientific evidence for beneficial immunoprophylactic and antitumor functions in mice challenged with ascites tumors, Dalton's lymphoma ascites, and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma either alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil. Specifically, the petroleum ether extracts of this plant (AM(PE)) prophylactically activated a cascade of host defense mechanisms by stimulating or restoring total white blood cell count, macrophage phagocytosis, hematopoiesis, lymphocyte proliferation and functions (CD4+ and CD8+) either naturally or under conditions of impaired immunity like in ascites tumor or during standard agent chemotherapy. Overall, AM(PE) also elicited strong antitumor effects by increasing median survival time and life span, while reducing murine ascites tumor volume and viable tumor counts on par with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil especially when administered prophylactically. This study also identified 2 putative components, xanthorrhizol and marmelosin, which could be imparting the immunoprophylactic and antitumor effects in transplantable tumor models. Thus, our attempts provide sufficient proof to warrant further to test this drug in higher animal models or in patients with high risk for tumor recurrence and/or immunocompromised diseases. PMID:23729467

George, Suraj K; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Kumar, Sunil S; Sreelekha, T T; Balaram, Prabha

2014-01-01

34

Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l.) in male wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Background Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be a rich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days. Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days). Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract. Results Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies. Conclusions Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects. PMID:23351957

2012-01-01

35

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ? Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ? The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (?60 nm) were synthesized within ?25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

Jagajjanani Rao, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India); Paria, Santanu, E-mail: santanuparia@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

2013-02-15

36

Effect of Aegle marmelos on DEN initiated and 2-AAF promoted hepatocarcinogenesis: a chemopreventive study.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of Aegle marmelos methanolic extract on diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiated and 2-acetyl aminofluorene (2-AAF) promoted liver carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Interestingly, it was found that A. marmelos (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) resulted in a marked reduction of the incidence of liver tumors, which was further confirmed with histopathology. Furthermore to understand the underlying mechanisms of chemoprevention potential of A. marmelos, we evaluated the levels of hepatic antioxidant defence enzymes, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and hepatic DNA synthesis as a marker for tumor promotion since a direct correlation between these marker parameters and carcinogenicity have been well documented. Treatment of male Wistar rats for five consecutive days with 2-AAF induced significant hepatic toxicity, oxidative stress and hyper-proliferation. Pretreatment of A. marmelos extract (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) prevented oxidative stress and toxicity by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes at both the doses. The promotion parameters (ODC activity and DNA synthesis) induced by 2-AAF administration in diet with partial hepatectomy (PH) were also significantly suppressed dose-dependently by A. marmelos. Therefore, we can conclude that ultimately the protection against liver carcinogenesis by A. marmelos methanolic extract might be mediated by multiple actions, which include restoration of cellular antioxidant enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, ODC activity and DNA synthesis. PMID:21417629

Khan, Tajdar Husain; Sultana, Sarwat

2011-07-01

37

Microwave assisted synthesis and optimization of Aegle marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide): release kinetics studies.  

PubMed

Microwave assisted grafting of poly(acrylamide) on to Aegle marmelos gum was carried out employing 3-factor 3-level full factorial design. Microwave power, microwave exposure time and concentration of gum were selected as independent variable and grafting efficiency was taken as dependent variable. A. marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide) was characterized by FTIR, DSC, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Microwave power, microwave exposure time had synergistic effect on grafting efficiency where as concentration of the gum did not contributed much to grafting efficiency. Batch having microwave power - 80%, microwave exposure time -120 s and concentration of A. marmelos gum - 2% was selected as the optimized formulation. Comparative release behaviour of diclofenac sodium from the matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum and A. marmelos-g-polyacrylamide was evaluated. The results of kinetic studies revealed that the graft copolymer matrix, marketed tablets and polymer matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum released the drug by zero order kinetics and with n value greater than 1, indicating that the mechanism for release as super case II transport i.e. dominated by the erosion and swelling of the polymer. PMID:24530335

Setia, A; Kumar, R

2014-04-01

38

Umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity  

PubMed Central

Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat. Methods Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I – normal control, II – diabetic control, III – UFG (10 mg/kg), IV – UFG (20 mg/kg), V – UFG (40 mg/kg), VI – Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test. Result Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28 days showed significantly (P?

2013-01-01

39

Effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa on the peripheral blood and small intestine of mice exposed to gamma radiation.  

PubMed

The radioprotective effect of bael (Aegle marmelos, AME) extract was studied in Swiss albino mice against radiation-induced changes in the peripheral blood, spleen colony forming units, and intestinal mucosa. The mice were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight of AME orally once daily for five consecutive days before exposure to an acute dose of 7 Gy of gamma radiation after the last administration. The peripheral blood was collected and evaluated for red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin, total leukocyte count (TLC), and lymphocyte count on days one and seven postirradiation. The nucleated bone marrow cells were isolated and tested for colony-forming units (CFUs) in spleen at days one and seven. AME protected mice against the radiation-induced decline in hemoglobin, total leukocyte, and lymphocytes counts and the clonogenicity of hemopoietic progenitor cells assessed by the exogenous spleen colony-forming assay. Irradiation of mice caused a significant decline in the villus height and crypt number with an increase in goblet and dead cells in the small intestine, where the maximum changes were observed on day one postirradiation, indicating a severe damage, and signs of recovery at day seven postirradiation. Treatment of mice with AME before irradiation elevated the peripheral cell count as well as villus height and the crypt number accompanied by a decline in goblet and dead cells when compared with the irradiation control. The recovery and regeneration were faster in AME pretreated animals than the irradiation alone. AME pretreatment significantly decreased lipid peroxidation accompanied by a significant elevation in the GSH concentration in the mouse intestine. The data clearly indicate that the AME significantly reduced the deleterious effect of radiation in the intestine and bone marrow of mouse and could be a useful agent in reducing the side effects of therapeutic radiation. PMID:17341202

Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Venkatesh, Ponemone; Archana, Parampally; Krishnanand, Bhandarkar R; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2006-01-01

40

Quantification and comparison of extraction methods for alkaloids in Aegle marmelos leaves by HPLC.  

PubMed

The leaves of Aegle marmelos are reported to contain multi-bioactive classes of compounds including coumarins, furanocoumarins and alkaloids. HPLC analysis of the crude extract was challenging due to low concentrations of the compounds in the leaves. Five compounds visible in the HPLC chromatogram were separated and identified by HPLC and further elaborated for quantification as marker compounds of A. marmelos leaves using a C18 column with detection at 275 nm. A gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water was used. The developed HPLC method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.994), high precision (RSD<5%), and good recovery (99.27-99.98%) of the compounds. The lowest detection limit was 5 ng and the method was found to be robust. All the validation parameters were within the permissible limits. Therefore, the developed method is accurate and reliable for the quality control of A. marmelos. This is the first report of extensive quantitative HPLC analysis of marker compounds in A. marmelos leaves and method validation. PMID:25230509

Karmase, Aniket; Prasanna, K; Rasabattula, Sruti; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

2014-07-01

41

Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

2010-01-01

42

Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

2010-12-01

43

Amelioration of chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis by Aegle marmelos, an Indian medicinal plant, fruit extract.  

PubMed

Chemoprevention is a novel approach to study the anti-initiating and anti-tumor-promoting efficacy of medicinal plants and their active principles. The present study investigated the chemopreventive potential of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin carcinogenesis and its influence on oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system. The oral administration of A marmelos at 100 mg/kg body weight/day during peri-initiational, postinitiational, and peri- & postinitiational phases of papillomagenesis showed significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, tumor burden, and cumulative number of papillomas when compared with carcinogen-treated control. The average latent period significantly increased (7.88 weeks; control group) to 9.45, 11.11, and 11.54 weeks in different A marmelos extract (AME) experimental groups. Enzyme analysis of skin and liver showed a significant elevation in antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and vitamin C in AME-treated groups when compared with the carcinogen-treated control. The elevated level of lipid peroxidation in the positive control was significantly inhibited by AME administration. These results indicate that AME has the potential to reduce chemical-induced skin papillomas by enhancing the antioxidant defense system. PMID:21862519

Agrawal, Annapurna; Jahan, Swafiya; Soyal, Dhanraj; Goyal, Ekank; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

2012-09-01

44

Antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) leaves in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites transplanted mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present investigation was performed to evaluate the antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos leaves in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA)-bearing mice. Materials and Methods: The DLA cells maintained in vivo in Swiss albino mice were used for developing ascitic tumor in mice by intraperitoneal transplantation. The standardized 50% ethanolic extract of A. marmelos leaves (AMEE) was administered intraperitoneally in dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, after 24 hours of tumor inoculation in mice for two weeks. Results: The AMEE treatment significantly prevented (P<0.001) the increase in body weight due to tumor cell growth and increased the mean survival time of the tumor-bearing mice as compared to the untreated DLA control mice. The treatment of DLA-bearing mice brought down the Alanine Aminotransferase (ALAT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (ASAT), and alkaline phosphatase to normal levels. The extract decreased the levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of hepatic antioxidants Glutathione, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and catalase. All the changes observed with AMEE treatment were dose dependent. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of A. marmelos exhibits strong antitumor and antioxidant activities in DLA-bearing mice. PMID:22529480

Chockalingam, Vijaya; Kadali, SDV Suryakiran; Gnanasambantham, Pratheesh

2012-01-01

45

Involvement of opioid and monoaminergic pain pathways in Aegle marmelos induced analgesia in mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study analgesic activity and to evaluate the involvement of opioid and monoamines in the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos. Materials and Methods: Analgesic activity of methanol extract (ME) of A. marmelos alone (75,150 and 300mg/kg orally) and in combination with morphine or venlafaxine (subanalgesic) were studied using tail flick test and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The effect of pre-treatment with opioid antagonist naltrexone 1mg/kg was also studied on antinociception induced due to ME. Result: ME produced a dose-dependent significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick test and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. (P<0.05) Administration of subanalgesic dose of ME with morphine or venlafaxine also resulted in significant (P<0.05) antinociceptive activity in both the pain models. Pre-treatment with naltrexone inhibited analgesic activity induced by ME alone and combination with morphine or venlafaxine. Conclusion: A.marmelos in induced antinociception is mediated through both opioid and monoaminergic pain pathways, suggest its possible use in chronic pain. PMID:24014913

Kothari, Saroj; Kushwah, Anjali; Kothari, Dilip

2013-01-01

46

Studies on the antidiarrhoeal activity of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit: Validating its traditional usage  

PubMed Central

Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. However, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. Hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos for its antimicrobial activity and effect on various aspects of pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. Methods The decoction was assessed for its antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities. The effect of the decoction on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells were assessed as a measure of its effect on colonization. The effect of the decoction on production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid receptor (GM1) were assessed by GM1-enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay whereas its effect on production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay. Results The decoction showed cidal activity against Giardia and rotavirus whereas viability of none of the six bacterial strains tested was affected. It significantly reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. The extract also affected production of CT and binding of both LT and CT to GM1. However, it had no effect on ST. Conclusion The decoction of the unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos, despite having limited antimicrobial activity, affected the bacterial colonization to gut epithelium and production and action of certain enterotoxins. These observations suggest the varied possible modes of action of A. marmelos in infectious forms of diarrhoea thereby validating its mention in the ancient Indian texts and continued use by local communities for the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases. PMID:19930633

2009-01-01

47

The Protective Role of Aegle Marmelos on Aspirin–Induced Gastro-Duodenal Ulceration in Albino Rat Model: A Possible Involvement of Antioxidants  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM), family: Rutaceae) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: Mucosal thickness (MT), ulcer index (UI), different biochemical parameters, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in all the groups, to study the possible involvement of antioxidants with gastroduodenal protection. Results: A significant decrease in MT, SOD and CAT activities and GSH level and a significant increase in UI, AST, ALT, and ALP activities and LPO level were observed in aspirin treated stomach and duodenum of albino rats. Conclusions: Pretreatment with AM fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed the reverse effects of aspirin suggesting gastro-duodenal protective and anti- ulcerogenic properties of AM through its antioxidant mechanism. PMID:22626798

Das, Shyamal K.; Roy, Chandan

2012-01-01

48

Sulfation of Aegle marmelos gum: synthesis, physico-chemical and functional characterization.  

PubMed

The present investigation was aimed at optimizing the conditions for preparing sulfated derivative of gum obtained from partially ripe fruits of Aegle marmelos. Elemental analysis, FTIR-ATR and NMR studies confirmed successful sulfation. The ratio of chlorosulfonic acid to pyridine exerted maximum influence on the degree of substitution followed by reaction temperature and reaction time. The sulfated derivative showed higher swelling in both acidic and alkaline pH as compared to unmodified gum. It also possessed higher negative zeta potential, higher viscosity, work of shear, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity as compared to both unmodified gum as well as sodium alginate. Sulfated derivative was superior to unmodified gum and sodium alginate in terms of antimicrobial and anticoagulant activity. The sulfated sample appears to be a potential substitute over the unmodified gum sample and sodium alginate for modulating physicochemical properties of food and drug release dosage forms. PMID:23399204

Jindal, Manish; Rana, Vikas; Kumar, Vineet; Singh, Ram S; Kennedy, John F; Tiwary, Ashok K

2013-02-15

49

In vivo healing potential of Aegle marmelos in excision, incision, and dead space wound models.  

PubMed

The study incorporates the wound healing potential of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract (AME) on excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. AME (200?mg/kg) was administered orally once daily for variable days depending on the type of wound ulcer study. AME was studied for its wound breaking strength (incision wound), rate of contraction, period of epithelization and histology of skin (excision model), and granulation tissue free radicals, antioxidants, acute inflammatory marker, and connective tissue markers and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound). Complete wound contraction and epithelization were observed at the 20th day after treatment with AME as compared to the 24th day in control rats. Mean epithelization period and scar area were decreased while wound breaking strength was increased with AME compared with control. Granulation tissue showed increased levels of collagen determinants (33.7 to 64.4%, P < 0.001) and antioxidants (13.0 to 38.8%, P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), whereas markers of oxidative stress (55.0 to 55.6%, P < 0.001) and myeloperoxidase (21.3%, P < 0.001) were decreased in AME treated group. A. marmelos seems to promote wound healing by enhancing connective tissue formation and antioxidants status with decrease in free radicals and myeloperoxidase having tissue damaging effects. PMID:24737990

Gautam, M K; Purohit, V; Agarwal, M; Singh, A; Goel, R K

2014-01-01

50

Healing effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa fruit extract on experimental colitis.  

PubMed

Graded doses of 50% ethanolic extract of dried fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos (AME) (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) daily for 14 days in acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in rats showed 200 mg/kg of AME as an optimal effective dose against AA-induced colonic damage score and weight. This dose (200 mg/kg; po) was further studied in AA-induced colitis for its effects on various physical (mucous/blood in stool, food and water intake and body weight changes), histology, antibacterial activity and biochemical parameters like free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and myeloperoxidase (acute-inflammatory marker) activities in rat colonic tissue. AME decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (macroscopic and microscopic), mucous/bloody diarrhea, fecal frequency and increased body weight affected in AA-induced colitis. AME showed significant antibacterial activity and enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities thereby decreasing tissue damage and inflammation and thus, affording ulcer healing. The above effects of A. marmelos authenticated its use in indigenous system of Medicine. PMID:23923609

Gautam, M K; Ghatule, R R; Singh, A; Purohit, V; Gangwar, M; Kumar, Mohan; Goel, R K

2013-02-01

51

In Vivo Healing Potential of Aegle marmelos in Excision, Incision, and Dead Space Wound Models  

PubMed Central

The study incorporates the wound healing potential of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract (AME) on excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. AME (200?mg/kg) was administered orally once daily for variable days depending on the type of wound ulcer study. AME was studied for its wound breaking strength (incision wound), rate of contraction, period of epithelization and histology of skin (excision model), and granulation tissue free radicals, antioxidants, acute inflammatory marker, and connective tissue markers and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound). Complete wound contraction and epithelization were observed at the 20th day after treatment with AME as compared to the 24th day in control rats. Mean epithelization period and scar area were decreased while wound breaking strength was increased with AME compared with control. Granulation tissue showed increased levels of collagen determinants (33.7 to 64.4%, P < 0.001) and antioxidants (13.0 to 38.8%, P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), whereas markers of oxidative stress (55.0 to 55.6%, P < 0.001) and myeloperoxidase (21.3%, P < 0.001) were decreased in AME treated group. A. marmelos seems to promote wound healing by enhancing connective tissue formation and antioxidants status with decrease in free radicals and myeloperoxidase having tissue damaging effects. PMID:24737990

Gautam, M. K.; Purohit, V.; Agarwal, M.; Singh, A.; Goel, R. K.

2014-01-01

52

Possible involvement of PPAR-? in the anticonvulsant effect of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa.  

PubMed

Aegle marmelos is well documented for antihyperglycemic effect and PPAR-? activation has been suggested to be the molecular mechanism of its action. Also, the plant has been used in Ayurveda as a brain tonic and has been postulated to have antidepressant activities. The present study was designed to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of A. marmelos leaf extract (AME) in pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsions; involvement of PPAR-?, nitric oxide pathway and effect of chronic AME treatment on post-ictal depression. AME was administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) in PTZ and MES model. Severity of convulsions was noted in both the models. Pretreatment with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was used to study the involvement of PPAR-? and L-arginine and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) to study the involvement of nitric oxide (NO). Chronic treatment with AME interspersed with sub maximal doses of PTZ (50 mg kg(-1)) on every fifth day up to 15 days was given to study post-ictal depression using forced swimming and actophotometer. AME showed significant increase in the onset time and decrease in the duration of convulsions in PTZ and MES models dose dependently. In MES a dose of 100 mg kg(-1) had effect comparable to phenytoin. Pretreatment with BADGE and L-arginine reversed the protective effect while L-NAME did not alter the protective effect, thereby indicating possible involvement of PPAR-? and inhibition of NO. Chronic AME treatment ameliorated the post-seizure depression significantly as evidenced by increase in the locomotor activity and decrease in the immobility time. PMID:23645163

Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Jatinder; Nepali, Kunal; Ishar, M P S

2013-08-01

53

Hypoglycemic and ?-cells regenerative effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. bark extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the antidiabetic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae) bark in a diabetic rat model. Dose dependent effects of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos bark (AM) (200 and 400 mg/kg) on blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total protein, hepatic glycogen, marker enzymes of hepatic function and carbohydrate metabolism were evaluated in (streptozotocin) STZ-induced diabetic rats by oral administration for 30 days. Structural integrity of pancreatic islets was assessed by routine histology while, their functional status was assessed by immunolocalization for insulin. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) study established that AM contained antihyperglycemic constituents, aegelin (1.27% w/w) and lupeol (0.29% w/w). AM at 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant reduction in blood glucose level by 19.14% and 47.32%, respectively in diabetic rats. AM treatment significantly increased insulin level, and produced similar effects on other biochemical parameters. Histological studies showed the regenerative effect of AM on the ?-cells of diabetic rats. Immunohistochemical observations in the extract treated diabetic rats showed increased insulin-immunoreactive ?-cells. These findings suggest that A. marmelos bark extract has the therapeutic potential in STZ-induced hyperglycemia; hence it can be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22310238

Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel

2012-05-01

54

Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic fruit extract of Aegle marmelos in experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulatory action of methanolic extract of Aegle marmelos fruit (FEAM) in experimental model of immunity. Methods Cellular immunity was carried out by neutrophil adhesion test and carbon clearance assay, whereas, humoral immunity was analyzed by mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination assay. FEAM dose was selected by Stair case method (up and down) and administered at 100 and 500 mg/kg orally. The Ocimum sanctum (OSE, 100 mg/kg, p.o) was used as standard. Results FEAM at 100 and 500 mg/kg produced significant increases in adhesion of neutrophils and an increase in phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay. Both high and low doses of FEAM significantly prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. Treatment of animals with FEAM and OSE significantly increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglunation test. Among the different doses, low one was more effective in cellular immunity models than the high. However, all the doses exhibited similar protection in humoral immunity procedures. Conclusion From the above findings, it is concluded that FEAM possesses potential for augmenting immune activity by cellular and humoral mediated mechanisms more at low dose (100 mg/kg) than high dose (500 mg/kg). PMID:23964175

Patel, Phatru; Asdaq, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin

2010-01-01

55

An insight into the properties of Aegle marmelos pectin-chitosan cross-linked films.  

PubMed

Pectin of Aegle marmelos (AP) ripe fruits processed in equal proportion with chitosan (CH) formed films that exhibited minimum swelling index and volume index on exposure to buffers of acidic and alkaline pH. Highest contact angle and spreading coefficient coupled with lowest work of adhesion in all buffers for this film suggested availability of limited number of functional groups for interaction with water molecules due to optimum cross-linking between -NH(3)(+) groups of CH and -COO(-) groups of AP. This contention was substantiated by the presence of almost negligible charge on this film. The endothermic transition ?H characteristic of -NH(3)(+)-COO(-) cross-linking between groups in this film was observed to decrease by only 1% after its sequential exposure to pH 1.2 (3 h) and pH 7.4 (6 h). Furthermore, the absence of pores or erosion in the scanning electron photomicrograph suggested the versatility of this film due to its resistance to acidic and alkaline pH. PMID:23107804

Jindal, Manish; Kumar, Vineet; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, A K

2013-01-01

56

Effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit on inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit extract (AMFE) on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Effect of AMFE was studied on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis (1 ml of 4% acetic acid solution, transrectal) and indomethacin-induced enterocolitis (10 mg/kg, single dose, p.o) in Wistar albino rats. The extract was administered orally at different dose of 150, 200 and 250 mg/kg body weight. Disease pathogenesis was assessed by measuring disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic score, microscopic score, mesenteric mast cell protection, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels in the above two models. Results: The results showed a dose dependent decrease in intestinal inflammation following treatment with AMFE. Significant protection in mast cell degranulation was observed in acetic acid and indomethacin-induced IBD models. Treatment with AMFE significantly decreased the MDA levels and increased SOD activity. Conclusion: In our study, AMFE produced anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and mast cell stabilizing effects demonstrating protective effect in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23112424

Behera, Jayanti P.; Mohanty, Bisweswar; Ramani, Y. Roja; Rath, Bandana; Pradhan, Supriya

2012-01-01

57

Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Aegle marmelos (Bilwa) root  

PubMed Central

Aims and objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous root bark extract of Aegle marmelos (Bilwa) in experimental acute and chronic inflammatory animal models. Materials and Methods: Aqueous extract of root bark of Bilwa was prepared and tested for anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats weighing 150-280 grams. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 each; one group served as control and other two groups received indomethacin and Bilwa orally 1 hour prior to experimentation. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was studied using the acute (Carrageenan induced paw edema) and chronic (Cotton pellet induced granuloma) animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity was expressed as Percent inhibition (PI). Statistical analysis was performed using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The PI with indomethacin and Bilwa in carrageenan induced paw edema were 52.7% and 46% and in cotton pellet induced granuloma were 24.7% and 9.2% respectively. Indomethacin showed highly significant anti-inflammatory activity in both the models. However, Bilwa showed highly significant activity in acute model and but a trend of anti-inflammatory activity in chronic model studied. Conclusions: As Bilwa showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the models studied, it can be a promising anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:21844992

Benni, Jyoti M.; Jayanthi, M.K.; Suresha, R.N.

2011-01-01

58

Isolation and partial characterisation of a novel lectin from Aegle marmelos fruit and its effect on adherence and invasion of Shigellae to HT29 cells.  

PubMed

Lectins are a class of ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins that are abundantly found in nature. Lectins have unique carbohydrate binding property and hence have been exploited as drugs against various infectious diseases. We have isolated one such novel lectin from the fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos. The isolated lectin was partially characterised and its effect against Shigella dysenteriae infection was evaluated. The isolated lectin was found to be a dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, mannose and sialic acid binding specificity. The effect of Aegle marmelos fruit lectin on the adherence of Shigella dysenteriae to human colonic epithelial cells (HT29 cells) was evaluated by Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay and invasion was analysed. The protective nature of the Aegle marmelos fruit lectin was assessed by analyzing apoptosis through dual staining method. Aegle marmelos fruit lectin significantly inhibited hemagglutination activity of Shigella and its minimum inhibitory concentration is 0.625 µg/well. Further, at this concentration lectin inhibited Shigella dysenteriae adherence and invasion of HT29 cells and protects the HT29 cells from Shigella dysenteriae induced apoptosis. To conclude, isolated lectin dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, Mannose and sialic acid binding specificity and inhibits adherence and invasion of Shigellae to HT29 cells thus, protects the host. PMID:21283697

Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kumar, Nirmal Kasinathan; Devaraj, Sivasitambaram Niranjali

2011-01-01

59

Isolation and Partial Characterisation of a Novel Lectin from Aegle marmelos Fruit and Its Effect on Adherence and Invasion of Shigellae to HT29 Cells  

PubMed Central

Lectins are a class of ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins that are abundantly found in nature. Lectins have unique carbohydrate binding property and hence have been exploited as drugs against various infectious diseases. We have isolated one such novel lectin from the fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos. The isolated lectin was partially characterised and its effect against Shigella dysenteriae infection was evaluated. The isolated lectin was found to be a dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, mannose and sialic acid binding specificity. The effect of Aegle marmelos fruit lectin on the adherence of Shigella dysenteriae to human colonic epithelial cells (HT29 cells) was evaluated by Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay and invasion was analysed. The protective nature of the Aegle marmelos fruit lectin was assessed by analyzing apoptosis through dual staining method. Aegle marmelos fruit lectin significantly inhibited hemagglutination activity of Shigella and its minimum inhibitory concentration is 0.625 µg/well. Further, at this concentration lectin inhibited Shigella dysenteriae adherence and invasion of HT29 cells and protects the HT29 cells from Shigella dysenteriae induced apoptosis. To conclude, isolated lectin dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, Mannose and sialic acid binding specificity and inhibits adherence and invasion of Shigellae to HT29 cells thus, protects the host. PMID:21283697

Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kumar, Nirmal Kasinathan; Devaraj, Sivasitambaram Niranjali

2011-01-01

60

Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos leaves in mice.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) leaves as well as its interaction with conventional anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs using elevated plus maze and tail suspension test in mice. Albino mice were treated with AM (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, po), imipramine (20 mg/kg, po), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, po), and combination of sub-effective dose of AM with imipramine or fluoxetine. Effects were observed on (a) time spent on (b) number of entries into (c) number of stretch attend postures (d) number of head dips in arms of elevated plus maze and on duration of immobility in tail suspension test. Effects of pretreatment with prazosin (0.062 mg/kg, po), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, po) and baclofen (10 mg/kg, po) were also studied on AM induced decrease in duration of immobility. Effects of AM (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg po) were observed on locomotor activity using photoactometer. Results showed that AM significantly (P<0.05) and dose dependently increased proportionate time spent on and number of entries into open arms while decreased number of stretch attend postures and head dips in closed arms. Dose dependent and significant (P<0.05) anti-immobility effect was found in mice treated with AM. Combination of AM (75 mg/kg, po) with imipramine (5 mg/ kg, po) or fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, po) also produced significant (P<0.05) anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Antidepressant activity of AM (150 mg/kg, po) was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by prazosin, haloperidol and baclofen. Methanol extract showed insignificant (P>0.05) effect on locomotor activity of mice. It is concluded that AM possess potential anxiolytic and antidepressant activities and it enhances the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of imipramine and fluoxetine. PMID:21675029

Kothari, Saroj; Minda, Manish; Tonpay, S D

2010-01-01

61

Pharmacognostic standardisation and antiproliferative activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa leaves in various human cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Therapeutic management of cancer is a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively explored to have integrated approach to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) is known for its hypoglycaemic, radioprotective, antidiarrhoeal and many other pharmacological activities. The present study is designed to carryout pharmacognostic standardisation and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the leaf extracts Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) and the chromatographic fractions of the most active extract. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the shade dried leaves were prepared by soxhelation and antiproliferative activity was assessed using human cancer cell lines of lung (A-549), colon (CoLo-05), ovary (IGR-OV-1), prostrate (PC3), leukaemia (THP-1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer. Bioactivity-derived fractionation was carried out for most active extract by column chromatography. The phytochemical studies indicated alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids in the alcohol, chloroform extracts and tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars in the petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition in colon and breast carcinoma cell lines at a dose of 100 ?g/ml. Column chromatography of the ethanol extract yielded five fractions. Out of this, fractions 2, 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition in leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5, 86.2 and >100 ?g/ml for fractions 2, 4 and 5, respectively. High-performance thin layer chromatography of the fraction 2 revealed imperatorin as one of the major phytoconstituents. Among the different extracts investigated, ethanol extract exhibited significant antiproliferative activity and its fraction 2 containing furanocoumarin imperatorin showed antiproliferative activity against leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5 ?g/ml. PMID:24591736

Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, J; Saxena, A K; Suri, Nitasha; Ishar, M P S

2013-11-01

62

Pharmacognostic standardisation and antiproliferative activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa leaves in various human cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic management of cancer is a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively explored to have integrated approach to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) is known for its hypoglycaemic, radioprotective, antidiarrhoeal and many other pharmacological activities. The present study is designed to carryout pharmacognostic standardisation and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the leaf extracts Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) and the chromatographic fractions of the most active extract. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the shade dried leaves were prepared by soxhelation and antiproliferative activity was assessed using human cancer cell lines of lung (A-549), colon (CoLo-05), ovary (IGR-OV-1), prostrate (PC3), leukaemia (THP-1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer. Bioactivity-derived fractionation was carried out for most active extract by column chromatography. The phytochemical studies indicated alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids in the alcohol, chloroform extracts and tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars in the petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition in colon and breast carcinoma cell lines at a dose of 100 ?g/ml. Column chromatography of the ethanol extract yielded five fractions. Out of this, fractions 2, 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition in leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5, 86.2 and >100 ?g/ml for fractions 2, 4 and 5, respectively. High-performance thin layer chromatography of the fraction 2 revealed imperatorin as one of the major phytoconstituents. Among the different extracts investigated, ethanol extract exhibited significant antiproliferative activity and its fraction 2 containing furanocoumarin imperatorin showed antiproliferative activity against leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5 ?g/ml. PMID:24591736

Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, J.; Saxena, A. K.; Suri, Nitasha; Ishar, M. P. S.

2013-01-01

63

Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in mice and its prevention by Aegle marmelos (an Indian medicinal plant) fruit extract.  

PubMed

This study assessed the chemopreventive potential of the Aegle marmelos plant on mouse skin tumorigenesis initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by croton oil. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor multiplicity, and the cumulative number of papillomas, along with a significant increase in the average latent period, was recorded in mice treated orally with A. marmelos extract (AME) at peri - and post-initiation phases (i.e., 7 days before DMBA application and continued until the end of the experiment) of papillomagenesis as compared with the carcinogen-treated controls. Furthermore, a significant increase in catalase activity, reduced glutathione and total proteins, and a depleted level of lipid peroxidation were observed in liver and skin of AME-treated animals as compared with the carcinogen-treated controls. Thus, the oral administration of AME, at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt per day per animal, was found to be significantly effective in reducing skin tumors against chemical carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:22126618

Agrawal, Annapurna; Jahan, Swafiya; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

2011-01-01

64

In-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy of nickel nanoparticles phytofabricated from aqueous leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos Correa.  

PubMed

In recent years there is a tremendous growth in the interdisciplinary world of nanotechnology across the globe and emergence of its potential applications remains as a big revolution to the industry. Fusion of green nanotechnology and medicine represents one of the major breakthroughs of modern science with the aim of developing nanomaterials for diagnosis, treatment, prevention of various diseases and overall improving health for the beneficial of mankind. In the present study phytofabrication of nickel nanoparticles (nickel NPs) was carried out by using indigenous Aegle marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. Nickel NPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TGA studies. Phytosynthesis of nickel NPs was monitored both at room temperature (25°C) and at 60°C for 5h. The green synthesis of triangular shape nickel NPs phytofabricated from A. marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts having face centered cubic structure showing an average particle size of 80-100nm which is in consistent with the particle size calculated by XRD Scherer equation. We further explored and compared nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa with crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa for its in-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy against three blood feeding parasites. The results obtained clearly gives an idea that nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa (NiNPs of AmC) possess an enhanced anti-inflammatory and larvicidal activity when compared to crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa. PMID:24681220

Angajala, Gangadhara; Ramya, R; Subashini, R

2014-07-01

65

Antibacterial activity of Aegle marmelos against leaf, bark and fruit extracts  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of the methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts from the leaves, bark and fruit of A. marmelos was studied using disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram Positive), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B (Gram Negative). Results suggest that the methanolic extract has significant antibacterial activity against tested bacteria. The present study justifies the claimed uses of A. marmelos in the traditional system of medicine to treat various infectious diseases. PMID:22557272

Poonkothai, M.; Saravanan, M.

2008-01-01

66

Effects of aegeline, a main alkaloid of Aegle Marmelos Correa leaves, on the histamine release from mast cells.  

PubMed

Aegeline or N-[2-hydroxy-2(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-3-phenyl-2-propenamide is a main alkaloid isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa collected in Yogyakarta Indonesia. In our study, we investigated the effects of aegeline on the histamine release from mast cell. The study was performed by using (1) rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, and (2) rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). DNP(24)-BSA, thapsigargin, ionomycin, compound 48/80 and PMA were used as inducers for histamine release from mast cell. In our study, aegeline inhibited the histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells induced by DNP(24)-BSA. Indeed, aegeline showed strong inhibition when RBL-2H3 cells induced by Ca(2+) stimulants such as thapsigargin and ionomycin. Aegeline is suggested to influence the intracellular Ca(2+) pool only since could not inhibit the (45)Ca(2+) influx into RBL-2H3 cells. Aegeline showed weak inhibitory effects on the histamine release from RPMCs, even though still succeed to inhibit when the histamine release induced by thapsigargin. These findings indicate that aegeline altered the signaling pathway related to the intracellular Ca(2+) pool in which thapsigargin acts. Based on the results, the inhibitory effects of aegeline on the histamine release from mast cells depended on the type of mast cell and also involved some mechanisms related to intracellular Ca(2+) signaling events via the same target of the action of thapsigargin or downstream process of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in mast cells. PMID:21715270

Nugroho, Agung Endro; Riyanto, Sugeng; Sukari, Mohamad Aspollah; Maeyama, Kazutaka

2011-07-01

67

Effects of marmin, a compound isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa, on contraction of the guinea pig-isolated trachea.  

PubMed

Marmin or 7-(6',7'-dihydroxygeranyl-oxy)coumarin is a compound isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa. In the study, we examined the effects of marmin on the contraction of guinea pig-isolated trachea stimulated by several inducers, namely histamine, metacholine, compound 48/80. We also evaluated its action against contraction induced by extracellular or intracellular calcium ion. The possibility of marmin to potentiate the relaxation effect of isoprenaline was also studied. Marmin added in the organ bath at 10 min prior to the agonist inhibited the contraction elicited by histamine and metacholine in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, marmin antagonized the histamine-induced contraction in competitive manner. Marmin mildly potentiated the relaxation effect of isoprenaline. In the study, marmin abrogated the contraction of tracheal smooth muscle induced by compound 48/80, an inducer of histamine release. Besides, marmin successfully inhibited CaCl(2)-induced contraction in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Marmin also inhibited two phases of contraction which were consecutively induced by metacholine and CaCl(2) in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Based on the results we concluded that marmin could inhibit contraction of the guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle, especially by interfering histamine receptor, inhibiting the histamine release from mast, inhibiting intracellular Ca(2+) release from the intracellular store and the Ca(2+) influx through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. PMID:21959801

Nugroho, Agung Endro; Anas, Yance; Arsito, Puguh Novi; Wibowo, Joko Tri; Riyanto, Sugeng; Sukari, Mohamad Aspollah

2011-10-01

68

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of serial extracts from leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.).  

PubMed

The in vitro antimicrobial activity of serial petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts from leaves of Aegle mawmelos were investigated against bacterial and fungal species. All the extracts exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 10 to 22 mm against bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aenrginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, fungi: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Aspergillusflavus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentrations (MMC) of the extracts ranged from 1.25 to 10 mg/mL and 2.5 to 20 mg/mL respectively. Assessment of antibacterial efficacy of different extract revealed that Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli showed high susceptibility to petroleum ether extract. Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed high susceptibility to chloroform extract and Salmonella typhi showed high susceptibility to methanol extract. Petroleum ether extract exhibited the highest antifungal efficacy against all tested fungal species. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, sterols in petroleum ether and chloroform extracts, whereas tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and triterpenoids in methanol extract. The ability of the leaf extracts of Aegle manmelos to inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity which could be a potential source for development of novel bioactive antimicrobial agents. PMID:21928713

Kothari, Saroj; Mishra, Vaibhav; Bharat, Savita; Tonpay, Shrinivas D

2011-01-01

69

Protective effects of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Aegle marmelos (AM) fruit has been advocated in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, fever, asthma, inflammations, febrile delirium, acute bronchitis, snakebite, epilepsy, leprosy, myalgia, smallpox, leucoderma, mental illnesses, sores, swelling, thirst, thyroid disorders, tumours and upper respiratory tract infections. Objective: The objective of this study was to study the curative effect of 50% ethanol extract of dried fruit pulp of AM (AME) against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Materials and Methods: AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days after TNBS-induced colitis. Rats were given intracolonic normal saline or TNBS alone or TNBS plus oral AME. AME was studied for its in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative intestinal bacteria and on TNBS-induced changes in colonic damage, weight and adhesions (macroscopic and microscopic), diarrhea, body weight and colonic levels of free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and pro-inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) in rats. Results: AME showed antibacterial activity against intestinal pathogens and decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, colonic free radicals and MPO and enhanced body weight and colonic antioxidants level affected by TNBS. The effects of AME on the above parameters were comparable with sulfasalazine, a known colitis protective drug (100 mg/kg, oral). Conclusion: AME shows curative effects against TNBS-induced colitis by its antibacterial activity and promoting colonic antioxidants and reducing free radicals and MPO-induced colonic damage. PMID:24914296

Ghatule, Rohit R.; Gautam, Manish K.; Goel, Shalini; Singh, Amit; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.

2014-01-01

70

Effect of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa on alloxan induced early stage diabetic nephropathy in rats.  

PubMed

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has a complex pathogenesis and poor prognosis due to the lack of therapeutic interventions. The present study investigates the effect of A. marmelos leaf extract (AME) on early alloxan induced DN. The treatment with AME was found to significantly decrease the fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, blood urea, creatinine and renal TBARS and increased the levels of renal reduced glutathione and catalase significantly as compared to the diabetic control group. The maximum dose-dependent protection was observed at a dose of 200 mg kg(-1). Histological examination revealed marked reversal of the morphological derangements with AME treatment as indicated by a decrease in glomerular expansion, tubular dilatation and inflammatory cells. The present results conclude that AME treatment has a significant ameliorative effect on early changes induced in the kidneys by alloxan and improves the outcome of DN. PMID:23926695

Bhatti, Rajbir; Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Jatinder; Singh, Amarjit; Ishar, M P S

2013-06-01

71

Biochemical evaluation of the protective effect of Aegle marmelos (L.), Corr. leaf extract on tissue antioxidant defense system and histological changes of pancreatic beta-cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and is likely involved in the progression of pancreatic damage found in diabetes. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of Aegle marmelos leaf extract, a medicinal plant, on the tissue antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Ethanol extract of A. marmelos was administered orally for 30 days (150 mg/kg body weight/day) to diabetic rats. Activity of the three primary scavenger enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), levels of glutathione, and lipid peroxidation were estimated in plasma and pancreas of diabetic rats and compared to the reference drug, glibenclamide (600 microg/kg body weight/day). A significant increase in the levels of plasma glucose, vitamin E, ceruloplasmin, lipid peroxides, and a concomitant decrease in the levels of vitamin C and reduced glutathione were observed in diabetic rats. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were altered in diabetic rats. These alterations were reverted back to near normal levels after treatment with A. marmelos and glibenclamide. Histopathological studies also revealed the protective effect of A. marmelos on pancreatic beta-cells. The present study indicates that extract of A. marmelos modulates the activity of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants and enhances the defense against reactive oxygen species-generated damage in diabetic rats. PMID:20307140

Narendhirakannan, Ramasamy Thangavelu; Subramanian, Sorimuthu

2010-04-01

72

Upregulation of PPAR? by Aegle marmelos ameliorates insulin resistance and ?-cell dysfunction in high fat diet fed-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes demands the rapid evaluation of new and accessible interventions. This study investigated whether Aegle marmelos fruit aqueous extract (AMF; 250, 500 and 1000?mg/kg) improves insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and ?-cell dysfunction in high fat diet fed-streptozotocin (HFD-STZ)-induced diabetic rats by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) expression. The serum levels of glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function (HOMA-B), lipid profile, TNF-? and IL-6 were evaluated. Further, the TBARS level and SOD activity in pancreatic tissue and PPAR? protein expression in liver were assessed. In addition, histopathological and ultrastructural studies were performed to validate the effect of AMF on ?-cells. The HFD-STZ treated rats showed a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, TNF-?, IL-6, dyslipidemia with a concomitant decrease in HOMA-B and PPAR? expression. Treatment with AMF for 21?days in diabetic rats positively modulated the altered parameters in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AMF prevented inflammatory changes and ?-cell damage along with a reduction in mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling. These findings suggest that the protective effect of AMF in type 2 diabetic rats is due to the preservation of ?-cell function and insulin-sensitivity through increased PPAR? expression. PMID:21351301

Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Bharti, Saurabh; Goyal, Sameer; Arora, Sachin; Nepal, Saroj; Kishore, Kamal; Joshi, Sujata; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2011-10-01

73

7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.  

...Feijoa sellowiana Pineapple guava Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach. Actinidia chinensis Kiwi Mediterranean. Aegle marmelos Indian bael...Capsicum annum Pepper, chili Mediterranean, Melon, Oriental. Capsicum...

2014-01-01

74

7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Feijoa sellowiana Pineapple guava Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach. Actinidia chinensis Kiwi Mediterranean. Aegle marmelos Indian bael...Capsicum annum Pepper, chili Mediterranean, Melon, Oriental. Capsicum...

2011-01-01

75

7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Feijoa sellowiana Pineapple guava Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach. Actinidia chinensis Kiwi Mediterranean. Aegle marmelos Indian bael...Capsicum annum Pepper, chili Mediterranean, Melon, Oriental. Capsicum...

2013-01-01

76

7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Feijoa sellowiana Pineapple guava Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach. Actinidia chinensis Kiwi Mediterranean. Aegle marmelos Indian bael...Capsicum annum Pepper, chili Mediterranean, Melon, Oriental. Capsicum...

2012-01-01

77

7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Feijoa sellowiana Pineapple guava Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach. Actinidia chinensis Kiwi Mediterranean. Aegle marmelos Indian bael...Capsicum annum Pepper, chili Mediterranean, Melon, Oriental. Capsicum...

2010-01-01

78

Effect of drying treatments and storage stability on quality characteristics of bael powder.  

PubMed

Dehydration of bael pulp in to powder form is a challenging operation, mainly due to the sticky issue of bael pulp and caking of powder during handling and storage. To overcome on this problem maltodextrin MD (drying aid) and tricalcium phosphate, TCP (anti caking agent) were added to the bael pulp at four levels along with control and dried in a mechanical drier into thin layer at 58?±?2 °C for 12 h, to obtain a moisture content of 4-5 % in dehydrated pulp. The dehydrated bael pulp was grounded in a laboratory powder mill and sieve with 30 mesh sieve. The powder was packed in 150gauge PP, 400gauge LDPE and 200gauge HDPE pouches and was stored at low temperature (7 °C) and ambient condition (18-35 °C) up to 6 months for storage study. The powder was evaluated for its quality characteristics in respect of acidity, sugars, antioxidant, phenol, ascorbic acid, non- enzymatic browning (NEB) before packaging and during storage. The amount of MD and TCP required to reduce powder stickiness and caking were optimized on the powder properties. The amount of MD (0.25 kg per kg dry bael solids) and TCP (0.15 kg per kg dry bael solids) with the values of degree of caking (19.24 %) and stickiness point temperature (45.4 °C) were found to be optimum for reducing the powder stickiness, caking and nutritional parameters. The adsorption isotherm of bael powder was found to be type-II sigmoid and 200 g HDPE as packaging material followed by storage at low temperature were selected as best process. PMID:25190878

Sagar, V R; Kumar, Rajesh

2014-09-01

79

Supporting Information available online1 Van Bael et al., Endophytic fungi increase the processing rate of leavesby leaf-cutting ants2  

E-print Network

1 Supporting Information available online1 Van Bael et al., Endophytic fungi increase7 Gamboa (Van Bael, personal observation). In Gamboa, foliar endophyte communities of M.8 umbellata to select a species for leaf inoculation12 experiments and manipulation of endophyte densities within plants

Bermingham, Eldredge

80

Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs.

Annetta Paule Watson; Dennis M Opresko; Robert A Young; Veronique Hauschild

2006-01-01

81

Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.  

SciTech Connect

Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Young, Robert A [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2006-01-01

82

Adsorptive removal of congo red dye from aqueous solution using bael shell carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the potential use of bael shell carbon (BSC) as an adsorbent for the removal of congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The effect of various operational parameters such as contact time, temperature, pH, and dye concentration were studied. The adsorption kinetics was modeled by first-order reversible kinetics, pseudo-first-order kinetics, and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The dye uptake process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic expression at pH 5.7, 7 and 8 whereas the pseudo-first-order kinetic model was fitted well at pH 9. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models were applied to fit adsorption equilibrium data. The best-fitted data was obtained with the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of CR onto BSC was endothermic in nature and favorable with the positive ? H° value of 13.613 kJ/mol.

Ahmad, Rais; Kumar, Rajeev

2010-12-01

83

Over-expression of bael quinolone synthase in tobacco improves plant vigor under favorable conditions, drought, or salt stress.  

PubMed

Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the biosynthesis of various medicinally important secondary metabolites in plants, but their role in growth and stress response is unclear. Here, we overexpressed quinolone synthase (QNS) from bael in tobacco. QNS-overexpressing plants showed an overall increase in growth, photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content compared to wild type plants. Second-generation (T2) transgenic plants grew to maturity, flowered early and set viable seeds under favorable conditions without yield penalty. An increased accumulation of flavonoids, phenols and alkaloids was associated with higher tolerance to drought and salinity stress in transgenic plants. Thus, bael QNS seems to function as a positive regulator of plant growth and stress response, and could be potentially used for engineering plants tolerant to abiotic stress. PMID:25555382

Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Vivek, Padmanabhan Jayanthi; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

2015-01-30

84

Design of phosphated cross-linked microspheres of bael fruit gum as a biodegradable carrier.  

PubMed

Present work was aimed at designing of phosphated cross-linked microspheres of bael fruit gum (BFG) by emulsification method using sodium-tri-meta phosphate as a cross-linking agent for treatment of colon cancer using 5-fluorouracil as model drug. Stirring speed was found to be 1,000 rpm for about 5 h to be optimal to obtain reproducible microspheres. It was found that there is an increase in particle size as polymer concentration is increased whereas a reduction in particle size was observed as there is increase in stirring speed. Cross-linked BFG microspheres were successfully prepared by emulsification method. Optimum surfactant concentration was found to be 2 % w/w. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the drug-loaded microspheres were non-aggregated and in spherical shape. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy studies showed that drug and excipients are compatible. Release studies showed that drug release was more profound in cecal medium induced with enzymes causing degradation of the cross linked BFG than that of the release showed in simulated intestinal fluid. Stability studies showed that there were no significant changes in the drug content and physical appearance of microspheres. PMID:24668152

Mahammed, Nawaz; Gowda, D V; Deshpande, Rohan D; Thirumaleshwar, Shailesh

2015-01-01

85

Muscodor kashayum sp. nov. – a new volatile anti-microbial producing endophytic fungus  

PubMed Central

Muscodor kashayum (MycoBank no.: MB 803800; GenBank no.: KC481680) is a newly described endophytic fungus of a medicinal plant Aegle marmelos (Bael tree), growing in the tropical conserved rainforest in the Western Ghats of India. Muscodor kashayum possesses distinct morphological, molecular and physiological features from the earlier reported Muscodor species. The fungus forms characteristic rings of the ropy mycelium on potato dextrose agar medium. This sterile fungus is characterised by the presence of a pungent smell which is attributable to a blend of more than 23 volatile organic constituents, predominantly 3-cyclohexen-1-ol,1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl; 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1-oxopropyl) phenol; 2,4-di-tert-butylthiophenol and 4-octadecylmorpholine. In the in vitro anti-microbial assay using M. kashayum, growth of 75% of test fungi/yeasts and 72% of the test bacteria were completely inhibited. Therefore, M. Kashayum holds potential for future application to be used as a myco-fumigation agent. PMID:24587960

Meshram, Vineet; Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

2014-01-01

86

Mitochondrial respiration inhibitors suppress protein translation and hypoxic signaling via the hyperphosphorylation and inactivation of translation initiation factor eIF2? and elongation factor eEF2.  

PubMed

Over 20,000 lipid extracts of plants and marine organisms were evaluated in a human breast tumor T47D cell-based reporter assay for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitory activity. Bioassay-guided isolation and dereplication-based structure elucidation of an active extract from the Bael tree (Aegle marmelos) afforded two protolimonoids, skimmiarepin A (1) and skimmiarepin C (2). In T47D cells, 1 and 2 inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 0.063 and 0.068 ?M, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also suppressed hypoxic induction of the HIF-1 target genes GLUT-1 and VEGF. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 and 2 inhibited HIF-1 activation by blocking the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1? protein. At the range of concentrations that inhibited HIF-1 activation, 1 and 2 suppressed cellular respiration by selectively inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I (NADH dehydrogenase). Further investigation indicated that mitochondrial respiration inhibitors such as 1 and rotenone induced the rapid hyperphosphorylation and inhibition of translation initiation factor eIF2? and elongation factor eEF2. The inhibition of protein translation may account for the short-term exposure effects exerted by mitochondrial inhibitors on cellular signaling, while the suppression of cellular ATP production may contribute to the inhibitory effects following extended treatment periods. PMID:21875114

Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Datta, Sandipan; Nagle, Dale G; Zhou, Yu-Dong

2011-09-23

87

Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.  

PubMed

Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

2012-01-01

88

Muscodor kashayum sp. nov. - a new volatile anti-microbial producing endophytic fungus.  

PubMed

Muscodor kashayum (MycoBank no.: MB 803800; GenBank no.: KC481680) is a newly described endophytic fungus of a medicinal plant Aegle marmelos (Bael tree), growing in the tropical conserved rainforest in the Western Ghats of India. Muscodor kashayum possesses distinct morphological, molecular and physiological features from the earlier reported Muscodor species. The fungus forms characteristic rings of the ropy mycelium on potato dextrose agar medium. This sterile fungus is characterised by the presence of a pungent smell which is attributable to a blend of more than 23 volatile organic constituents, predominantly 3-cyclohexen-1-ol,1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl; 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1-oxopropyl) phenol; 2,4-di-tert-butylthiophenol and 4-octadecylmorpholine. In the in vitro anti-microbial assay using M. kashayum, growth of 75% of test fungi/yeasts and 72% of the test bacteria were completely inhibited. Therefore, M. Kashayum holds potential for future application to be used as a myco-fumigation agent. PMID:24587960

Meshram, Vineet; Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

2013-12-01

89

Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato  

PubMed Central

Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

Rahman, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Ali, M. E.; Mian, I. H.; Akanda, A. M.; Abd Hamid, S. B.

2012-01-01

90

Mitochondrial Respiration Inhibitors Suppress Protein Translation and Hypoxic Signaling via the Hyperphosphorylation and Inactivation of Translation Initiation Factor eIF2? and Elongation Factor eEF2  

PubMed Central

Over 20000 lipid extracts of plants and marine organisms were evaluated in a human breast tumor T47D cell-based reporter assay for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitory activity. Bioassay-guided isolation and dereplication-based structure elucidation of an active extract from the Bael tree (Aegle marmelos) afforded two protolimonoids, skimmiarepin A (1) and skimmiarepin C (2). In T47D cells, 1 and 2 inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 0.063 µM and 0.068 µM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also suppressed hypoxic induction of the HIF-1 target genes GLUT-1 and VEGF. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 and 2 inhibited HIF-1 activation by blocking the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1? protein. At the range of concentrations that inhibited HIF-1 activation, 1 and 2 suppressed cellular respiration by selectively inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I (NADH dehydrogenase). Further investigation indicated that mitochondrial respiration inhibitors such as 1 and rotenone induced the rapid hyperphosphorylation and inhibition of translation initiation factor eIF2? and elongation factor eEF2. The inhibition of protein translation may account for the short-term exposure effects exerted by mitochondrial inhibitors on cellular signaling, while the suppression of cellular ATP production may contribute to the inhibitory effects following extended treatment periods. PMID:21875114

Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Datta, Sandipan; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

2011-01-01

91

Critical roles of Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the regulation of hyperplasia and/or colitis in response to bacterial infection.  

PubMed

Notch and Wnt/?-catenin signals play essential roles in intestinal development and homeostasis. Citrobacter rodentium induces transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) and various degrees of inflammation, depending upon the genetic background. We aimed at delineating the role of the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the regulation of colonic crypt hyperplasia and/or colitis following C. rodentium infection. During TMCH, relative levels of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) increased significantly, along with increases in Jagged-1 and Hes-1 coinciding with the progression and regression phases of hyperplasia. Blocking of Notch signaling with dibenzazepine (DBZ) for 5 days before the onset of hyperplasia also blocked Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Targeting the Notch pathway for 5 days after the onset of hyperplasia failed to inhibit Wnt/?-catenin-regulated crypt hyperplasia. Chronic DBZ administration for 10 days blocked both Notch and Wnt signaling, disrupted the intestinal barrier, and induced colitis. Core-3(-/-) mice, which are defective in mucin secretion and are susceptible to experimental triggers of colitis, also exhibited significant colitis in response to C. rodentium plus DBZ. Chronic DBZ administration in these mice did not result in depletion of the putative stem cell marker doublecortin-like kinase-1 (DCLK1) in the crypts. Dietary bael (Aegle marmelos) extract (4%) and curcumin (4%) restored signaling via the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways, thereby promoting crypt regeneration, and also replenished the mucus layer, leading to amelioration of C. rodentium- and DBZ-induced colitis in NIH:Swiss mice. Thus, the balancing act between cell proliferation and mucus production to restore barrier integrity seems to depend upon the interplay between the Wnt/?-catenin and Notch pathways in the TMCH model. PMID:22710872

Ahmed, Ishfaq; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Tawfik, Ossama; Xia, Lijun; Anant, Shrikant; Umar, Shahid

2012-09-01

92

Evidence of functional cross talk between the Notch and NF-?B pathways in nonneoplastic hyperproliferating colonic epithelium  

PubMed Central

The Notch and NF-?B signaling pathways regulate stem cell function and inflammation in the gut, respectively. We investigate whether a functional cross talk exists between the two pathways during transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) caused by Citrobacter rodentium (CR). During TMCH, NF-?B activity and subunit phosphorylation in colonic crypts of NIH Swiss mice at days 6 and 12 were associated with increases in downstream target CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)-1/keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) expression. Blocking Notch signaling acutely for 5 days with the Notch blocker dibenzazepine (DBZ) failed to inhibit crypt NF-?B activity or CXCL-1/KC expression. Chronic DBZ administration for 10 days, however, blocked Notch and NF-?B signaling in the crypts and abrogated hyperplasia. Intriguingly, chronic Notch inhibition was associated with significant increases in IL-1?, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, and KC in the crypt-denuded lamina propria or whole distal colon, with concomitant increases in myeloperoxidase activity. In core-3?/? mice, which are defective in intestinal mucin, DBZ administration replicated the results of NIH Swiss mice; in ApcMin/+ mice, which are associated with CR-induced elevation of NF-?B-p65276 expression, DBZ reversed the increase in NF-?B-p65276, which may have blocked rapid proliferation of the mutated crypts. DBZ further blocked reporter activities involving the NF-?B-luciferase reporter plasmid or the Toll-like receptor 4/NF-?B/SEAPorter HEK-293 reporter cell line, while ectopic expression of Notch-NICD reversed the inhibitory effect. Dietary bael (Aegle marmelos) extract (4%) and curcumin (4%) restored Notch and NF-?B cross talk in NIH Swiss mice, inhibited CR/DBZ-induced apoptosis in the crypts, and promoted crypt regeneration. Thus functional cross talk between the Notch and NF-?B pathways during TMCH regulates hyperplasia and/or inflammation in response to CR infection. PMID:23203159

Ahmed, Ishfaq; Roy, Badal; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Venugopal, Anand; Xia, Lijun; Jensen, Roy; Anant, Shrikant

2013-01-01

93

Critical Roles of Notch and Wnt/?-Catenin Pathways in the Regulation of Hyperplasia and/or Colitis in Response to Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

Notch and Wnt/?-catenin signals play essential roles in intestinal development and homeostasis. Citrobacter rodentium induces transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) and various degrees of inflammation, depending upon the genetic background. We aimed at delineating the role of the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the regulation of colonic crypt hyperplasia and/or colitis following C. rodentium infection. During TMCH, relative levels of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) increased significantly, along with increases in Jagged-1 and Hes-1 coinciding with the progression and regression phases of hyperplasia. Blocking of Notch signaling with dibenzazepine (DBZ) for 5 days before the onset of hyperplasia also blocked Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Targeting the Notch pathway for 5 days after the onset of hyperplasia failed to inhibit Wnt/?-catenin-regulated crypt hyperplasia. Chronic DBZ administration for 10 days blocked both Notch and Wnt signaling, disrupted the intestinal barrier, and induced colitis. Core-3?/? mice, which are defective in mucin secretion and are susceptible to experimental triggers of colitis, also exhibited significant colitis in response to C. rodentium plus DBZ. Chronic DBZ administration in these mice did not result in depletion of the putative stem cell marker doublecortin-like kinase-1 (DCLK1) in the crypts. Dietary bael (Aegle marmelos) extract (4%) and curcumin (4%) restored signaling via the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways, thereby promoting crypt regeneration, and also replenished the mucus layer, leading to amelioration of C. rodentium- and DBZ-induced colitis in NIH:Swiss mice. Thus, the balancing act between cell proliferation and mucus production to restore barrier integrity seems to depend upon the interplay between the Wnt/?-catenin and Notch pathways in the TMCH model. PMID:22710872

Ahmed, Ishfaq; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Tawfik, Ossama; Xia, Lijun; Anant, Shrikant

2012-01-01

94

Influence of host plants on feeding, growth and reproduction of Papilio polytes (The common mormon).  

PubMed

We studied the feeding, growth and reproductive behaviour of Papilio polytes (common mormon butterfly) on five different host plants, Murraya koenigii, Toddalia asiatica, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Aegle marmelos and Citrus medica. The growth rate of P. polytes was fastest on M. koenigii followed by T. asiatica, C. medica, G. pentaphylla and A. marmelos. We related this to the nutrient contexts of the five plants. The plants T. asiatica and C. medica had higher water contents, which influenced the growth rate of the insect. M. koenigii was found to contain rich quantities of carbohydrate. M. koenigii, T. asiatica and C. medica were also rich in protein when compared to A. marmelos and G. pentaphylla. Total amino acid levels were comparatively higher in M. koenigii, T. asiatica, C. medica rather than A. marmelos and G. pentaphylla. PMID:20223241

Shobana, K; Murugan, K; Naresh Kumar, A

2010-09-01

95

Evidence of functional cross talk between the Notch and NF-?B pathways in nonneoplastic hyperproliferating colonic epithelium.  

PubMed

The Notch and NF-?B signaling pathways regulate stem cell function and inflammation in the gut, respectively. We investigate whether a functional cross talk exists between the two pathways during transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) caused by Citrobacter rodentium (CR). During TMCH, NF-?B activity and subunit phosphorylation in colonic crypts of NIH Swiss mice at days 6 and 12 were associated with increases in downstream target CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)-1/keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) expression. Blocking Notch signaling acutely for 5 days with the Notch blocker dibenzazepine (DBZ) failed to inhibit crypt NF-?B activity or CXCL-1/KC expression. Chronic DBZ administration for 10 days, however, blocked Notch and NF-?B signaling in the crypts and abrogated hyperplasia. Intriguingly, chronic Notch inhibition was associated with significant increases in IL-1?, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, and KC in the crypt-denuded lamina propria or whole distal colon, with concomitant increases in myeloperoxidase activity. In core-3(-/-) mice, which are defective in intestinal mucin, DBZ administration replicated the results of NIH Swiss mice; in Apc(Min/+) mice, which are associated with CR-induced elevation of NF-?B-p65(276) expression, DBZ reversed the increase in NF-?B-p65(276), which may have blocked rapid proliferation of the mutated crypts. DBZ further blocked reporter activities involving the NF-?B-luciferase reporter plasmid or the Toll-like receptor 4/NF-?B/SEAPorter HEK-293 reporter cell line, while ectopic expression of Notch-N(ICD) reversed the inhibitory effect. Dietary bael (Aegle marmelos) extract (4%) and curcumin (4%) restored Notch and NF-?B cross talk in NIH Swiss mice, inhibited CR/DBZ-induced apoptosis in the crypts, and promoted crypt regeneration. Thus functional cross talk between the Notch and NF-?B pathways during TMCH regulates hyperplasia and/or inflammation in response to CR infection. PMID:23203159

Ahmed, Ishfaq; Roy, Badal; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Venugopal, Anand; Xia, Lijun; Jensen, Roy; Anant, Shrikant; Umar, Shahid

2013-02-15

96

Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

Dhandapani, R.; Sabna, B.

2008-01-01

97

Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study\\u000a was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone,\\u000a and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus

Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Asokan Bagavan; Abdul Abduz Zahir

2011-01-01

98

Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone,\\u000a ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of

G. Elango; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; A. Abdul Rahuman

2009-01-01

99

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis

Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman

2011-01-01

100

Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants,\\u000a Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest\\u000a larval mortality

A. Abdul Rahuman; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha

2008-01-01

101

Efficacy of botanical extracts against Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of leaf hexane and chloroform extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, Andrographis paniculata, Cocculus hirsutus, Eclipta prostrata, and Tagetes erecta on repellent, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The repellent action of the plant extracts tested varied depending on the plant species, part,\\u000a solvent used

Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Sampath Marimuthu; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar

2010-01-01

102

Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

Dhandapani, R; Sabna, B

2008-04-01

103

Synthesis of novel N-(2-hydroxy-2- p-tolylethyl)-amide and N-(2-oxo-2- p-tolylethyl)-amide derivatives and their antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In continuation of our drug discovery program on metabolic diseases, we identified an alkaloidal amide, that is, Aegeline (V) from the plant Aegle marmelos leaves as a dual acting agent (antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic). We therefore synthesized a series of alkaloidal amides [N-(2-hydroxy-2-p-tolylethyl)-amides and N-(2-oxo-2-p-tolylethyl)-amide derivatives] related to Aegeline and screened for their in vivo antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton induced hyperlipidemia

T. Narender; K. Rajendar; S. Sarkar; V. K. Singh; Upma Chaturvedi; A. K. Khanna; G. Bhatia

2011-01-01

104

In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase  

PubMed Central

Background Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Methods The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle), Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum), Morus alba (mulberry), Aegle marmelos (bael), and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal ?-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase) inhibition and pancreatic ?-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 230.3-460.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.24±0.12 mg/ml, 0.59±0.06 mg/ml, and 3.15±0.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.85±0.41 mg/ml, 0.94±0.11 mg/ml, and 4.41±0.15 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values of roselle and butterfly pea extracts against pancreatic ?-amylase occurred at concentration of 3.52±0.15 mg/ml and 4.05±0.32 mg/ml, respectively. Combining roselle, chrysanthemum, and butterfly pea extracts with mulberry extract showed additive interaction on intestinal maltase inhibition. The results also demonstrated that the combination of chrysanthemum, mulberry, or bael extracts together with roselle extract produced synergistic inhibition, whereas roselle extract showed additive inhibition when combined with butterfly pea extract against pancreatic ?-amylase. Conclusions The present study presents data from five plant-based foods evaluating the intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitory activities and their additive and synergistic interactions. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22849553

2012-01-01

105

Imperatorin a furocoumarin inhibits periplasmic Cu-Zn SOD of Shigella dysenteriae their by modulates its resistance towards phagocytosis during host pathogen interaction.  

PubMed

Shigella dysenteriae continues to be a major health problem, which leads to death, due to diarrhoea and dysentery, predominantly in children below the age of 5. Bacterial invasion of the colonic epithelium leads to severe inflammation together with bacterial dissemination generates abscesses and ulcerations. Periplasmic copper, zinc super oxide dismutase of Shigella protects it from exogenous superoxide produced by host, during its invasion. Hence, in present study an attempt was made to study the effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos on host and pathogen defence. Histology analysis of rat ileal loop showed the loss of virulence in aqueous extract of A. marmelos pre-treated Shigella and their intracellular survival was also decreased, where active component present in aqueous extract of A. marmelos was identified as imperatorin confirmed by UV absorption spectrum and HPLC. Increase in peripheral blood mononuclear cell viability and decreased in intracellular bacterial count along with transmission electron microscope analysis of imperatorin treated S. dysenteriae succumb to host oxidative stress. Loss of virulence is associated with attenuation of copper, zinc super oxide dismutase activity in Shigella, which was confirmed by using activity staining of bacterial cell lysate. Further, by performing docking analysis it has been proved that imperatorin present in aqueous extract of A. marmelos inhibited copper, zinc super oxide dismutase. From the above study, we concluded that Shigella succumb to oxidative stress (host defence) due to inhibition of copper, zinc super oxide dismutase (pathogen's defence) by imperatorin, an active compound aqueous extract of A. marmelos. PMID:21194882

Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Roopa, Kothapalli; Devaraj, Sivasitambaram Niranjali

2011-12-01

106

Synthesis of new N-acryl-1-amino-2-phenylethanol and N-acyl-1-amino-3-aryloxypropanols and evaluation of their antihyperlipidemic, LDL-oxidation and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

As a part of our drug discovery program, we identified an alkaloidal amide i.e. Aegeline (V) isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos as a dual acting agent (antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic). In continuation of this program, we synthesized new N-acyl-1-amino-2-alcohols (N-acrylated-1-amino-2-phenylethanol and N-acylated-1-amino-3-aryloxypropanols) via Ritter reaction and screened for their in-vivo antihyperlipdemic activity in Triton induced hyperlipidemia model, LDL-oxidation and antioxidant activity. Compounds 3, 11 and 13 showed good antihyperlipidemic activity, LDL-oxidation as well as antioxidant activity and comparable activity with marketed antidyslipidemic drug. PMID:24769351

Sarkar, Satinath; Sonkar, Ravi; Bhatia, Gitika; Tadigoppula, Narender

2014-06-10

107

Evaluation of repellent properties of botanical extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

In recent times, there were considerable efforts made to promote the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides and repellents, particularly from botanical sources. The present study explored the effects of crude leaf ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. on repellent activity against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of A. marmelos, ethyl acetate extracts of A. lineata, C. hirsutus, and E. prostrata and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with the different extracts tested. The ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata showed 100% repellency in 120 min; acetone extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus and methanol extract of T. erecta showed complete protection in 90 min at 250 ppm, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and C. hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the C. tritaeniorhynchus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the repellent activity against Japanese encephalitis, C. tritaeniorhynchus of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20480375

Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

2010-08-01

108

Effect of alcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants on the altered enzymatic activities of diabetic rats.  

PubMed

In present study, the effect of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana was studied on serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and on serum urea, total protein and albumin concentrations of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes in rats was induced by single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg i. p.). On confirming the diabetes after 48 h of injection, alcoholic extracts of three plants were administered orally in doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg/d for 30 d. Glibenclamide (300 mug/kg/d) was used as a reference drug for comparison. Streptozotocin diabetic rats showed a significant increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and serum urea concentration but a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin concentrations and albumin/globulin ratio. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana in daily doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg for a period of 1 mo produced dose- and duration-dependent decrease in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities as well as decrease in serum urea concentration and restored the serum total protein and albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio to a great extent in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of these plants in 500 mg/kg dose in streptozotocin diabetic rats were comparable to that of glibenclamide (300 mug/kg), a standard oral hypoglycaemic drug used in clinical practice. PMID:20502588

Sundaram, E N; Reddy, P Uma Maheswara; Singh, K P

2009-09-01

109

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke.  

PubMed

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) and sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasitic activity was found in leaf ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extract of A. marmelos, A. paniculata, and C. hirsutus against H. bispinosa (LC(50)?= 395.27, 358.45, 327.21 and 420.50 ppm); ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, methanol extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and E. prostrata against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?= 207.70, 258.61, 134.09, 206.00, and 274.33 ppm); hexane extract of A. lineata, ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, E. prostrata, acetone extracts of T. erecta, methanol extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus against P. cervi (LC(50)?= 254.23, 451.17, 425.73, 253.60, 542.71, and 360.17 ppm), respectively. The present study is the first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20922419

Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

2011-03-01

110

Formulation development and in vitro antioxidant studies of Churnas containing natural sweetener and nutraceutical.  

PubMed

Gymnema sylvestre, Curcuma longa, Azadiracta indica, Aegle marmelos, Salacia chinensis, Emblica officinalis were used as active components and Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceuticalfor development of Churnas. The free radical scavengingpotential of Churnas was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The hydroalcoholic extract of sweet and bitter Churnas at 500?g/ ml showed maximum scavenging of the riboflavin NET system, DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of nitric oxide radicals and iron chelation. This could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. Sweetness potency of Churna was found to be appropriate sweet, acceptable and palatable. These observations can be useful for the justifications of various ingredients and therapeutic applications of the Churnas. PMID:22557329

Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B

2009-04-01

111

Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [3H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

Birdi, Tannaz J.; Brijesh, S.; Daswani, Poonam G.

2014-01-01

112

Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [(3)H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

Birdi, Tannaz J; Brijesh, S; Daswani, Poonam G

2014-05-01

113

Larvicidal activities of six plants extracts against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.  

PubMed

Larvicidal activity of crude chloroform, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the leaves and roots of six Indian plants, Aegle marmelos L., Balanites aegyptica L., Calotropis gigantica L., Murraya koenigii L., Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. and Plumbago zeylanica L., were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects. However, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extracts of P. zeylanica roots and B. aegyptica roots against Ae.aegypti (LC50 169.61 mg/lit, 289.59 mg/lit) and An.stephensi (LC50 222.34 mg/lit, 102.29 mg/lit), respectively. The methanol extracts of plants were more effective than the other extracts. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach aid for the control of mosquito species, Ae. aegypti, and An.stephensi. PMID:21399575

Patil, S V; Patil, C D; Salunkhe, R B; Salunke, B K

2010-12-01

114

Synthesis of novel N-(2-hydroxy-2-p-tolylethyl)-amide and N-(2-oxo-2-p-tolylethyl)-amide derivatives and their antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

In continuation of our drug discovery program on metabolic diseases, we identified an alkaloidal amide, that is, Aegeline (V) from the plant Aegle marmelos leaves as a dual acting agent (antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic). We therefore synthesized a series of alkaloidal amides [N-(2-hydroxy-2-p-tolylethyl)-amides and N-(2-oxo-2-p-tolylethyl)-amide derivatives] related to Aegeline and screened for their in vivo antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton induced hyperlipidemia model. The synthetic compounds 4, 17 and 20 showed equipotent activity to the natural product, that is, Aegeline (V). These compounds also showed strong antioxidant activity, which support their antihyperlipidemic activity. Compound 12 showed better antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant profile than the natural product V. PMID:21930379

Narender, T; Rajendar, K; Sarkar, S; Singh, V K; Chaturvedi, Upma; Khanna, A K; Bhatia, G

2011-11-01

115

Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation  

PubMed Central

Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

C. Jagetia, Ganesh

2007-01-01

116

Oral hypoglycaemic activity of some medicinal plants of Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the oral hypoglycaemic activity of some Sri Lankan medicinal plants. Approximately 40 plants available locally are reputed to have oral hypoglycaemic activity. Of these, the mostly widely used are (a) Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) (b) Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae) and (c) Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). Aqueous decoctions of these plants were investigated for their ability to lower the fasting blood glucose level and improve the glucose tolerance in laboratory animals. The results indicate that the aqueous decoctions of all three plants possess significant hypoglycaemic effect. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with the three plants. The highest oral hypoglycaemic activity and the maximum improvement of the oral glucose tolerance were associated with the extract of Momordica charantia while the least but significant effects were shown by Salacia reticulata. PMID:6492834

Karunanayake, E H; Welihinda, J; Sirimanne, S R; Sinnadorai, G

1984-07-01

117

Modulation of expression of IL-8 gene in bronchial epithelial cells by 5-methoxypsoralen.  

PubMed

Persistent recruitment of neutrophils in the bronchi of cystic fibrosis patients contributes to airway tissue damage, suggesting the importance of intervening on the expression of the neutrophil chemokine IL-8. Extracts from plants have been investigated to select components able to reduce IL-8 expression in bronchial epithelial cells challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts and purified components have been added to cells 24 h before pro-inflammatory challenge with P. aeruginosa and IL-8 transcription was quantified in the IB3-1 CF cells in vitro. P. aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 mRNA induction was increased by Argemone mexicana and Vernonia anthelmintica whereas no significant modification of transcription was observed with Aphanamixis polystachya, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Hemidesmus indicus. Finally, inhibition of IL-8 was observed with Polyalthia longifolia (IC50=200 microg/ml) and Aegle marmelos (IC50=20 microg/ml). Compounds from A. marmelos were isolated and identified by GC-MS. No significant effect was observed with butyl-p-tolyl sulphate, whereas the inhibition obtained with 6-methyl-4-chromanone concentration was accompanied by an anti-proliferative effect. On the contrary, 5-methoxypsoralen resulted in IL-8 inhibition at 10 microM concentration, without effects on cell proliferation. In synthesis, 5-methoxypsoralen can be taken into consideration to investigate mechanisms of neutrophil chemotactic signalling and for its potential application in modulating the excessive CF lung inflammation. PMID:19720161

Nicolis, Elena; Lampronti, Ilaria; Dechecchi, Maria Cristina; Borgatti, Monica; Tamanini, Anna; Bezzerri, Valentino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Mazzon, Martina; Mancini, Irene; Giri, Maria Grazia; Rizzotti, Paolo; Gambari, Roberto; Cabrini, Giulio

2009-11-01

118

Cloning and Structure-Function Analyses of Quinolone- and Acridone-producing Novel Type III Polyketide Synthases from Citrus microcarpa*  

PubMed Central

Two novel type III polyketide synthases, quinolone synthase (QNS) and acridone synthase (ACS), were cloned from Citrus microcarpa (Rutaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. microcarpa QNS is unique, and it shared only 56–60% identities with C. microcarpa ACS, Medicago sativa chalcone synthase (CHS), and the previously reported Aegle marmelos QNS. In contrast to the quinolone- and acridone-producing A. marmelos QNS, C. microcarpa QNS produces 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolone as the “single product” by the one-step condensation of N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. However, C. microcarpa ACS shows broad substrate specificities and produces not only acridone and quinolone but also chalcone, benzophenone, and phloroglucinol from 4-coumaroyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, respectively. Furthermore, the x-ray crystal structures of C. microcarpa QNS and ACS, solved at 2.47- and 2.35-? resolutions, respectively, revealed wide active site entrances in both enzymes. The wide active site entrances thus provide sufficient space to facilitate the binding of the bulky N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA within the catalytic centers. However, the active site cavity volume of C. microcarpa ACS (760 ?3) is almost as large as that of M. sativa CHS (750 ?3), and ACS produces acridone by employing an active site cavity and catalytic machinery similar to those of CHS. In contrast, the cavity of C. microcarpa QNS (290 ?3) is significantly smaller, which makes this enzyme produce the diketide quinolone. These results as well as mutagenesis analyses provided the first structural bases for the anthranilate-derived production of the quinolone and acridone alkaloid by type III polyketide synthases. PMID:23963450

Mori, Takahiro; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Takashi; Kinjo, Keishi; Kato, Ryohei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

2013-01-01

119

Lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high fat and fructose diet induced obese C57/BL6J mice.  

PubMed

Aegle marmelos Correa., (Rutaceae) is a medium sized tree distributed in South East Asia and used traditionally for the management of obestiy and diabetes. In this study the lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol (Hfn) isolated from leaves of A. marmelos have been investigated. Intracellular lipid accumulation was measured by oil red O staining and glycerol secretion. The expression of genes related to adipocyte differentiation was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hfn decreased intracellular triglyceride accumulation and increased glycerol release in a dose dependent manner (5-20 ?g/ml) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In high fat diet fed C57/BL 6J mice, treatment with Hfn for four weeks reduced plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels and showed a significant reduction in total adipose tissue mass by 37.85% and visceral adipose tissue mass by 62.99% at 50mg/kg b.w. concentration. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Hfn decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein ? (CEBP?) and increased the expression of sterol regulatory enzyme binding protein (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), Adiponectin and Glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) compared to the high fat diet group. These results suggested that Hfn decreased adipocyte differentiation and stimulated lipolysis of adipocytes. This study justifies the folklore medicinal uses and claims about the therapeutic values of this plant for the management of insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:24952133

Saravanan, Munisankar; Pandikumar, Perumal; Saravanan, Subramaniam; Toppo, Erenius; Pazhanivel, Natesan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2014-10-01

120

Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi.  

PubMed

Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus L. Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. tested against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). All plant extracts showed moderate adulticidal activity and EI effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in ethyl acetate extract of A.lineata, chloroform extract of A. paniculata, acetone extract of C. hirsutus, and methanol extract of T. erecta (LD(50)?= 126.92, 95.82, 109.40, and 89.83 ppm; LD(90)?= 542.95, 720.82, 459.03, and 607.85 ppm); and effective EI was found in leaf acetone extract of the A. marmelos, ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extracts of C. hirsutus, and T. erecta, (EI(50)?= 128.14, 79.39, 143.97, and 92.82 ppm; EI(90)?= 713.53, 293.70, 682.72, and 582.59 ppm), respectively, against A. subpictus. These results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of C. hirsutus and T. erecta have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. subpictus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity and EI of plant extracts against malaria vector. PMID:21136078

Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

2011-06-01

121

Cloning and structure-function analyses of quinolone- and acridone-producing novel type III polyketide synthases from Citrus microcarpa.  

PubMed

Two novel type III polyketide synthases, quinolone synthase (QNS) and acridone synthase (ACS), were cloned from Citrus microcarpa (Rutaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. microcarpa QNS is unique, and it shared only 56-60% identities with C. microcarpa ACS, Medicago sativa chalcone synthase (CHS), and the previously reported Aegle marmelos QNS. In contrast to the quinolone- and acridone-producing A. marmelos QNS, C. microcarpa QNS produces 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolone as the "single product" by the one-step condensation of N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. However, C. microcarpa ACS shows broad substrate specificities and produces not only acridone and quinolone but also chalcone, benzophenone, and phloroglucinol from 4-coumaroyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, respectively. Furthermore, the x-ray crystal structures of C. microcarpa QNS and ACS, solved at 2.47- and 2.35-? resolutions, respectively, revealed wide active site entrances in both enzymes. The wide active site entrances thus provide sufficient space to facilitate the binding of the bulky N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA within the catalytic centers. However, the active site cavity volume of C. microcarpa ACS (760 ?(3)) is almost as large as that of M. sativa CHS (750 ?(3)), and ACS produces acridone by employing an active site cavity and catalytic machinery similar to those of CHS. In contrast, the cavity of C. microcarpa QNS (290 ?(3)) is significantly smaller, which makes this enzyme produce the diketide quinolone. These results as well as mutagenesis analyses provided the first structural bases for the anthranilate-derived production of the quinolone and acridone alkaloid by type III polyketide synthases. PMID:23963450

Mori, Takahiro; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Takashi; Kinjo, Keishi; Kato, Ryohei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

2013-10-01

122

Magnetic properties of submicron Co islands and their use as artificial pinning centers M. J. Van Bael, K. Temst, V. V. Moshchalkov, and Y. Bruynseraede  

E-print Network

to study Weiss oscillations of the magnetoresistance,17­22 or as an artificial pinning array in combination field direc- tion. Periodic lattices of these Co islands act as efficient artificial pinning arrays arrays of noninteracting magnetic particles,3,14 which are ideally in a single-domain state with two

Moshchalkov, Victor V.

123

Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera:Culicidae).  

PubMed

Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present investigations were made to evaluate the repellent, ovicidal and oviposition-deterrent potential of leaf hexane and chloroform extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, Andrographis paniculata, Cocculus hirsutus, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera:Culicidae). The hexane extract of A. lineata was more effective in exhibiting the repellent action against the mosquito as compared with A. marmelos extract. Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane extract of A. lineata at 500 ppm against An. subpictus bites. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. No hatchability was observed with hexane and chloroform extracts of A. lineata, A. paniculata and hexane extract of T. erecta were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 93.07, 93.95, 98.03, 90.43, 92.63, 81.53, 94.81, 97.50, 97.26, 92.22, 82.85 and 72.77 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 62.03, 53.64, 73.47, 59.05, 57.95, 48.17, 62.22, 72.99, 75.48, 67.77, 40.57 and 52.11 at 31.25 ppm in hexane and chloroform extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, E. prostrata and T. erecta, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. These results clearly reveal that the hexane extract of A. lineata, served as a potential repellent, ovicidal and oviposition- deterrent against An. subpictus. PMID:20962710

Elango, G; Abdul Rahuman, A; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T

2010-08-01

124

Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100??g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

2013-01-01

125

Screening of selected medicinal plants for in vitro antidermatophytic activity.  

PubMed

Different solvent extracts of leaves of Achyranthes aspera, Aegle marmelos, Cleistanthus collinus, Curcuma aromatica and Strychnos nux-vomica were screened against dermatophytes viz., Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, M. canis and Epidermophyton floccossum var. nigricans. The mean zones of inhibition were between 7.1 and 26.5mm. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were from 7.81 to 500 and from 15.62 to 1000?g/mL respectively. The highest mean zone of inhibition (26.5mm), the lowest MIC value (7.81?g/ml) and the lowest MFC (15.62?g/ml) were observed in ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera against T. rubrum. The standard antifungal drug ketoconazole (10?g/disc) was used as the positive control and mean zones of inhibition were from 23 to 29mm. Further separation of active principle from ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera is under progress. PMID:24135649

Kalaivanan, C; Chandrasekaran, M; Venkatesalu, V

2013-12-01

126

Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.  

PubMed

The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

2013-01-01

127

Anti-diabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of allopolyherbal formulation in OGTT and STZ-induced diabetic rat model.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Allopolyherbal formulation (APHF) consisting of combinations of three well known medicinal plants used in traditional medicines (Trigonella foenum graceum, Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos) and synthetic oral hypoglycaemic drug (Glipizide-GL). The optimized combination of lyophilized hydro-alcoholic extracts of drugs was 2:2:1 using OGTT model. The optimized PHF was simultaneously administered with GL and optimized using OGTT model in diabetic rats and further studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The results (serum glucose level, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and body weight) were compared with the standard drug GL (10 mg/kg body wt). The optimized APHF (500+5 mg/kg body wt) has shown significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities. The results were comparable with the standard; even better than the GL (10 mg/kg body wt) alone. The proposed hypothesis has reduced the no. of drug components from eight to three and dose almost 50% of both PHF and GL which fulfil the FDA requirements for export. Thus the developed APHF will be an ideal alternative for the existing hypoglycemic formulations in the market with an additional advantage of hypolipidemic effect and minimizing the cardiovascular risk factors associated with diabetes. PMID:24377129

Manik, Swati; Gauttam, Vinod; Kalia, A N

2013-09-01

128

Isolation and biological evaluation of novel Tetracosahexaene hexamethyl, an acyclic triterpenoids derivatives and antioxidant from Justicia adhatoda.  

PubMed

Forty five extracts fraction of nine selected Indian medicinal plants, based on their use in traditional systems of medicine were analyzed for their antioxidant potential. All the extracts were investigated for phenol content value calculated in Gallic acid equivalents (% of GAE) and antioxidant potential. Moreover, total phenolic content (% dw equivalents to gallic acid) of all plant extracts were found in the range of 3.04 to 24.03, which correlated with antioxidant activity. The findings indicated a promising antioxidant activity of crude extracts fractions of three plants (Justicia adhatoda, Capparis aphylla and Aegle marmelos) and required the further exploration for their effective utilization. Results indicated that petroleum ether fraction of J. adhatoda out of three plants also possesses the admirable antioxidant abilities with high total phenolic content. Following, in vitro antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, twelve fractions of petroleum ether extract of J. adhatoda were isolated by silica gel column chromatography. One fraction (Rf value: 0.725) showed the noticeable antioxidant activity with ascorbic acid standard in hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The molecular structures elucidations of purified antioxidant compound were carried out using spectroscopic studies ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS). This compound was reported from this species for the first time. The results imply that the J. adhatoda might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 2,6,10,14,18,22-Tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl is an antioxidant ingredient in J. adhatoda. PMID:25001112

Dhankhar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema; Ruhil, Sonam; Balhara, Meenakshi; Malik, Vinay; Chhillar, Anil K

2014-01-01

129

Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on filarial vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles.  

PubMed

Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees. (Acanthaceae), Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees. (Acanthaceae), Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels (Menispermaceae), Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae) and Tagetes erecta L. (Compositae) on ovicidal and oviposition-deterrent activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of egg hatching in methanol extracts of Andrographis lineata, Cocculus hirsutus and T. erecta were 16, 12 and 16 exerted at 500 ppm, respectively. The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was 97.77 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency was 42.06 at 31.25 ppm in methanol and acetone extracts of Andrographis lineata and Andrographis paniculata, respectively. The oviposition activity index values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Culex tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:20372924

Elango, G; Rahuman, A Abdul; Kamaraj, C; Zahir, A Abduz; Bagavan, A

2010-06-01

130

Evaluation of aromatic plants and compounds used to fight multidrug resistant infections.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100? ? g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

2013-01-01

131

Profile of aldose reductase inhibition, anti-cataract and free radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants: an attempt to standardize the botanicals for amelioration of diabetes complications.  

PubMed

Phytotherapy has played an important role in the management of diabetes and related complications. In the present study different fractions of Catharanthus roseus L. (Apocynaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae), Tinospora cordifolia Willd. (Menispermaceae), Aegle marmelos L. (Rutaceae), Ficus golmerata L. (Moraceae), Psoralea corlifolia L. (Fabaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae), and Morinda cetrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) were evaluated as possible inhibitors of aldose reductase (AR: a key enzyme implicated in cataractogenesis) and antioxidant agents. Anti-cataract activity of the selected plants was demonstrated using 'sugar induced lens opacity model' and the cytotoxicity studies were carried out using MTT assay. Among the tested plants, water extract of M. cetrifolia (IC50 0.132 mg/ml) exhibited maximum AR inhibitory activity as compared to other phytofractions which showed the activity in an IC50 range of 0.176-0.0.82 mg/ml. All the plant fractions showed considerable antioxidant potential. Sugar induced lens opacity studies revealed that, M. cetrifolia possess significant anti-cataract potential to maintain lens opacity as compared to glucose induced lens opacity in bovine lens model. The extract of the selected plants showed moderate cytotoxicity against HeLa cell line. Results of the present studies may find useful in converting botanicals into therapeutic modalities. PMID:21570444

Gacche, R N; Dhole, N A

2011-08-01

132

Potential xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of endophytic Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae.  

PubMed

Xanthine oxidase is considered as a potential target for treatment of hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia is predisposing factor for gout, chronic heart failure, atherosclerosis, tissue injury, and ischemia. To date, only two inhibitors of xanthine oxidase viz. allopurinol and febuxostat have been clinically approved for used as drugs. In the process of searching for new xanthine oxidase inhibitors, we screened culture filtrates of 42 endophytic fungi using in vitro qualitative and quantitative XO inhibitory assays. The qualitative assay exhibited potential XO inhibition by culture filtrates of four isolates viz. #1048 AMSTITYEL, #2CCSTITD, #6AMLWLS, and #96 CMSTITNEY. The XO inhibitory activity was present only in the chloroform extract of the culture filtrates. Chloroform extract of culture filtrate #1048 AMSTITYEL exhibited the highest inhibition of XO with an IC50 value of 0.61 ?g ml(-1) which was better than allopurinol exhibiting an IC50 of 0.937 ?g ml(-1) while febuxostat exhibited a much lower IC50 of 0.076 ?g ml(-1). Further, molecular phylogenetic tools and morphological studies were used to identify #1048 AMSTITYEL as Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae. This is the first report of an endophytic Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae from Aegle marmelos exhibiting potential XO Inhibitory activity. PMID:24801403

Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

2014-07-01

133

Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles. PMID:21365365

Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

2011-07-01

134

Fetal Hemoglobin Inducers from the Natural World: A Novel Approach for Identification of Drugs for the Treatment of ?-Thalassemia and Sickle-Cell Anemia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this review is to present examples of lead compounds identified from biological material (fungi, plant extracts and agro-industry material) and of possible interest in the field of a pharmacological approach to the therapy of ?-thalassemia using molecules able to stimulate production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Concerning the employment of HbF inducers as potential drugs for pharmacological treatment of ?-thalassemia, the following conclusions can be reached: (i) this therapeutic approach is reasonable, on the basis of the clinical parameters exhibited by hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin patients, (ii) clinical trials (even if still limited) employing HbF inducers were effective in ameliorating the symptoms of ?-thalassemia patients, (iii) good correlation of in vivo and in vitro results of HbF synthesis and ?-globin mRNA accumulation indicates that in vitro testing might be predictive of in vivo responses and (iv) combined use of different inducers might be useful to maximize HbF, both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we present three examples of HbF inducers from the natural world: (i) angelicin and linear psoralens, contained in plant extracts from Angelica arcangelica and Aegle marmelos, (ii) resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and several plant extracts and (iii) rapamycin, isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. PMID:18955291

Bianchi, Nicoletta; Zuccato, Cristina; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

2009-01-01

135

Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of Mauritius for possible alpha-amylase inhibitory effects in vitro.  

PubMed

In this study, seven exotic/indigenous medicinal plants of Mauritius, namely Coix lacryma-jobi (Poaceae), Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Moraceae), Vangueria madagascariensis (Rubiaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae) and Syzigium cumini (Myrtaceae) were studied for possible effects on starch breakdown by alpha-amylase in vitro. The results showed that only Artocarpus heterophyllus significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited alpha-amylase activity in vitro. To confirm the observed effects, a further biochemical assay was undertaken to investigate the effects of Artocarpus heterophyllus on alpha-amylase activity using rat plasma in vitro. It was found that the aqueous leaf extract significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited alpha-amylase activity in rat plasma. The highest inhibitory activity (27.20 +/- 5.00%) was observed at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. However, in both cases dose dependency was not observed. Enzyme kinetic studies using the Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations were performed to establish the type of inhibition involved. In the presence of the plant extract the maximal velocity (Vmax) remained constant (1/150 g / L/s) whereas the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) increased by 5.79 g / L, indicating that the aqueous leaf extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus behaved as a competitive inhibitor. Results from the present study tend to indicate that Artocarpus heterophyllus could act as a 'starch blocker' thereby reducing post-prandial glucose peaks. PMID:16521114

Kotowaroo, M I; Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H

2006-03-01

136

Possible implication of oxidative stress in anti filarial effect of certain traditionally used medicinal plants in vitro against Brugia malayi microfilariae  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Tropical disease research scheme of World Health Organization has duly recognized traditional medicine as alternative for antifilarial drug development. Polyphenolic compounds present in traditionally used herbal medicines are natural antioxidants; however, paradoxically they may exert pro-oxidant effect. Popular drug diethyl carbamazine citrate harnesses the innate inflammatory response and the consequent oxidative assault to combat invading microbes. Methods: With this perspective, extracts of Vitex negundo L. (roots), Butea monosperma L. (leaves), Aegle marmelos Corr. (leaves), and Ricinus communis L. (leaves) were selected to explore the possible role of oxidative rationale in the antifilarial effect in vitro. Results: Apart from the last, other three plant extracts were reported to have polyphenolic compounds. Dose-dependent increase was found in the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation for all the three plant extracts except Ricinus communis L. (leaves). Such increase in oxidative parameters also showed some degree of plant-specific predilection in terms of relatively higher level of particular oxidative parameter. High degree of correlation was observed between the antifilarial effect and the levels of corresponding oxidative stress parameters for these three plants. However, extracts of Ricinus communis L. (leaves) which is relatively deficient in polyphenolic ingredients recorded maximum 30% loss of motility and also did not show any significant difference in various stress parameters from corresponding control levels. Conclusion: These results reveal that targeted oxidative stress might be crucial in the pharmacodynamics. PMID:21713137

Sharma, R. D.; Veerpathran, A. R.; Dakshinamoorthy, G.; Sahare, K. N.; Goswami, K.; Reddy, M.V.R.

2010-01-01

137

Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats.  

PubMed

In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose values are brought down close to normal fasting level using herbal samples at a dose of 250 mg/kg once, twice or thrice daily, as needed. While evaluating comparative hypoglycaemic activity of the experimental herbal samples, significant blood glucose lowering activities are observed in decreasing order in the following 24 samples-Coccinia indica, Tragia involucrata, G. sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Eugenia jambolana, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirayita, Momordica charantia, Ficus glomerata, Ficus benghalensis, Vinca rosea, Premna integrifolia, Mucuna prurita, Terminalia bellirica, Sesbenia aegyptiaca, Azadirachta indica, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Zingiber officinale, Aegle marmelos, Cinnamomum tamala, Trichosanthes cucumerina and Ocimum sanctum. Present studies besides confirming hypoglycaemic activities of the experimental herbal samples, help identify more potent indigenous hypoglycaemic herbs (in crude ethanolic extract) from the comparative study of the reported experimental results. PMID:12499084

Kar, Ajit; Choudhary, B K; Bandyopadhyay, N G

2003-01-01

138

In Vitro ?-Glucosidase Inhibition, Antioxidant, Anticancer, and Antimycobacterial Properties of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Aegle tamilnadensis Abdul Kader (Rutaceae) Leaf.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate in vitro ?-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis leaves. The extract recorded strong ?-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 100 ?g/ml. The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated by nitric oxide radical inhibition, lipid peroxidation inhibition, ferric thiocyanate, and ABTS radical scavenging assay, and the extract recorded significant antioxidant activity. The ferric thiocyanate activity of extract was superior to butylated hydroxyl anisol (BHA), the standard antioxidant agent. The anticancer activity of the extract was evaluated against (1) breast cancer cell lines (MDAM B-231), (2) cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa), and (3) lung cancer cell line (A 549) using MTT assay, and significant activity was recorded against A 549 with an IC50 value of 64 ?g/ml. Further studies on the morphology, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry confirm the extract-induced apoptosis in A 549. This extract also recorded significant anti-tuberculosis activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The current study suggests that the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis is a potential source of natural ?-glucosidase inhibitor and antioxidant for protection as well as prevention of life-threatening diseases like cancer. PMID:25380641

R, Pratap Chandran; S, Nishanth Kumar; S, Manju; S, Abdul Kader; B S, Dileep Kumar

2015-01-01

139

Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).  

PubMed

This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from these medicinal plants for diabetes. PMID:25176368

Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

2014-09-01

140

Green leafy porridges: how good are they in controlling glycaemic response?  

PubMed

Green leafy porridges made with leaf water extracts, rice and coconut milk are common Sri Lankan dietary remedies for diabetes. Though water and ethanolic extracts of most leaves elicit hypoglycaemic effects, data are not available on the efficacy when leaf extracts are incorporated into porridges. Thus, an effort was made to evaluate the proximate compositions and glycaemic index (GI) of some commonly consumed green leafy porridges. The GI of rice porridge and coconut milk porridge were measured to evaluate the effect of other ingredients other than the leaf extracts. Rice was the main contributor to carbohydrate (56-68% on dry weight) and water was the main component in porridges (89-93%). Fat and total dietary fibre contents ranged between 2.5-27% and 5-10%, respectively. The GI of all porridges was low (GI ? 55), except Cassia auriculata which had a high GI of 77 ± 12. The GIs of coconut milk, Aerva lanata, Hemidesmus indicus, Scoparia dulcis, Asparagus racemosus, Cephalandra indica, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Murraya koenigii and Aegle marmelos were 31 ± 5, 32 ± 5, 40 ± 8, 39 ± 8, 37 ± 4, 49 ± 8, 46 ± 8, 44 ± 8 and 50 ± 8, respectively. All porridges had a low or medium glycaemic loads ( ? 19). However, peak blood glucose reductions of ? 25% were observed in all leafy and coconut milk porridges, except in C. auriculata and Atlantia zeylanica, when compared with the glucose control. Therefore, green leafy porridges, except Cassia, can be recommended as breakfast meals for diabetics due to their low GI, peak blood glucose reduction and presence of other nutrients in green leaves. PMID:22849311

Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera, Senadheera Pathirannehelage; Ekanayake, Sagarika

2013-03-01

141

Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.  

PubMed

Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants, Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of A. indicum. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. indicum led to the separation and identification of a beta-sitosterol as a potential new mosquito larvicidal compound with LC50 value of 11.49, 3.58 and 26.67 ppm against Aedes aegypti L, Anopheles stephensi Liston and C. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. beta-sitosterol has been recognized as the active ingredient of many medicinal plant extracts. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated toxicity against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. This article reports the isolation and identification of the beta-sitosterol as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. There are no reports of beta-sitosterol in the genus A. indicum, and their larvicidal activities are being evaluated for the first time. Results of this study show that the petroleum ether extract of A. indicum may be considered as a potent source and beta-sitosterol as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent. PMID:18176816

Abdul Rahuman, A; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

2008-04-01

142

Holocene vegetation and climatic variations in Central India: A study based on multiproxy evidences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palynology, texture, mineralogy, geochemistry, and magnetic susceptibility analysis of a 2 m deep sediment core from Padauna Swamp, southeastern Madhya Pradesh infers that between 8600 and 7500 cal yr BP a warm and relatively less-humid climate prevailed with open tree-savannahs dominated by grasses followed by sedges, Artemisia and members of Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae with scanty trees viz., Schrebera, Aegle marmelos and Sterculia urens. This is well supported by lower organic to carbonate carbon ratio, coarser texture having relatively low CIA and magnetic susceptibility values and presence of some primary minerals. Between 7500 and 6250 cal yr BP the tree-savannahs were succeeded by open mixed deciduous forests with the invasion of a few more trees viz., Madhuca indica, Holoptelea, Emblica officinalis, Mitragyna parvifolia and members of Anacardiaceae in response to onset of a warm and humid climate. A considerable rise in organic carbon generated from the degradation of plentiful biomass along with increase in clay content with signs of kaolinite and increase in immobile over mobile elements with slightly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values also suggest climatic amelioration. The presence of ruderal plants such as Artemisia, Cannabis sativa and Cheno/Am further infers initiation of human activities in the region. Between 6250 and 2800 cal yr BP, the mixed deciduous forests became more diverse and dense, subduing grasses and other herbaceous elements. Sporadic incursion of Shorea robusta (Sal) in forest floristic was recorded around 5000 cal yr BP. The overall change in the vegetation mosaic reflects that a warm and more-humid climate prevailed in the region, probably on account of invigoration of southwest monsoon. This observation is further corroborated by other proxy data showing a spurt in organic/inorganic carbon ratio, increase in clay content with matured mineralogy, significantly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values. Since 2800 cal yr BP onwards, the modern Sal dominated deciduous forests were established indicating continuation of warm and more-humid climate including timely arrival of SW monsoon coinciding with the shedding of Sal seeds as they are viable for a very short period.

Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam; Phartiyal, Binita; Kumar, Kamlesh

2013-11-01

143

75 FR 62534 - Request for Nominations to the National Advisory Committee for the Development of Acute Exposure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...as defined by Federal regulation. The form may be viewed and downloaded from the following URL address: http://www.epo.gov/oppt/aeg1/pubs/ethics.htm. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Hazardous substances, NAC/AEGL...

2010-10-12

144

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.  

PubMed

Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 ?g/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fenton’s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 ?g/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 ?g/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 ?g/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 ?g/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 ?g/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 ?g/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 ?g/g. PMID:22754941

Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

2011-01-01

145

Development of acute exposure guideline levels for airborne exposures to hazardous substances.  

PubMed

Hazardous substances can be released into the atmosphere due to industrial and transportation accidents, fires, tornadoes, earthquakes, and terrorists, thereby exposing workers and the nearby public to potential adverse health effects. Various enforceable guidelines have been set by regulatory agencies for worker and ambient air quality. However, these exposure levels generally are not applicable to rare lifetime acute exposures, which possibly could occur at high concentrations. Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) provide estimates of concentrations for airborne exposures for an array of short durations that possibly could cause mild (AEGL-1), severe, irreversible, potentially disabling adverse health effects (AEGL-2), or life threatening effects (AEGL-3). These levels can be useful for emergency responders and planners in reducing or eliminating potential risks to the public. Procedures and methodologies for deriving AEGLs are reviewed in this paper that have been developed in the United States, with direct input from international representatives of OECD member-countries, by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guidelines for Hazardous Substances and reviewed by the National Research Council. Techniques are discussed for the extrapolation of effects across different exposure durations. AEGLs provide a viable approach for assisting in the prevention, planning, and response to acute airborne exposures to toxic agents. PMID:15041148

Krewski, Daniel; Bakshi, Kulbir; Garrett, Roger; Falke, Ernest; Rusch, George; Gaylor, David

2004-04-01

146

DISCUSSIONPAPER August 2006 RFF DP 06-35  

E-print Network

DISCUSSIONPAPER August 2006 RFF DP 06-35 Toward Globalization of the Forest Products Industry Some of the Forest Products Industry: Some Trends David Bael and Roger A. Sedjo Abstract This paper examines of areas where productive forests can be grown, as well as overall forest productivity. We find

147

Denis White ~ Publications PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL ARTICLES  

E-print Network

. A simplified ecological footprint at a regional scale. Journal of Environmental Management 111:279-286. White D, Olszyk D. 2012. In Oregon, the EPA calculates nature's worth now and in the future. Solutions 2 E, White D, Bael D, Lawler JJ. 2008. Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon

Jenny, Bernhard

148

Evaluation of risk assessment guideline levels for the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min/m3). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild effects, serious adverse effects, and lethality. They are expressed as air concentrations (in units of mg/m3) and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The report discusses strengths and deficiencies in the levels, important parameters (i.e., exposure time, breathing rate) that need to be explicitly addressed in deriving the guideline levels, and possible impacts that could result from using AEGLs instead of guideline dosages in future assessments.

Hartmann, H.; Environmental Assessment

2002-06-01

149

Thanaka: traditional Burmese sun protection.  

PubMed

Limonia acidissima or Hesperethusa crenulata is a common tree in Southeast Asia. It is indigenous to the Republic of Myanmar (formerly Burma) as well as India, Sri Lanka, Java, and Pakistan. In English, the common names for Limonia acidissima are sandalwood, wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit tree. The plant has a number of different names in different languages including bal or bael in Assamese, bael in Bengali, kaitha in Hindi, belingai in Malaysia, and thanaka in Burmese. Unique to the Burmese people, thanaka has been used as a cosmetic product for over 2000 years. Mention of thanaka has been traced back to ancient Burmese lyrics, and relics of equipment used by ancient royalty to grind thanaka can be found in museums. PMID:24595576

Goldsberry, Anne; Dinner, Alan; Hanke, C William

2014-03-01

150

Large positive magnetoresistance at low temperatures in a ferromagnetic natural multilayer, LaMn2Ge2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of magnetoresistance measurements on a naturally occurring multilayer LaMn2Ge2, which is ferromagnetic below 326 K, are reported. The magnitude of magnetoresistance is found to be positive below 70 K gradually increasing to an unusually large value (nearly 100%) at 4.2 K in the presence of a field of 70 kOe as the temperature is lowered, similar to the recent observations by Verbanck, Temst, Mae, Schad, Van Bael, Moshchalkov, and Bruynseraede [Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1477 (1997)] in Cr/Ag/Cr trilayers. The positive sign of magnetoresistance for a ferromagnet is unexpected and possible explanations are offered.

Mallik, R.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.; Paulose, P. L.

1997-10-01

151

A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa.  

PubMed

Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Gal?/?1-6Gal?1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Gal?1-6Gal?1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria. PMID:25157808

Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

2014-10-01

152

Impact of spatiotemporal fluctuations in airborne chemical concentration on toxic hazard assessment.  

PubMed

Models widely used to assess atmospheric chemical-dispersion hazards for emergency response rely on acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) or similar concentration guidelines to map geographic areas potentially affected by corresponding levels of toxic severity. By ignoring substantial, random variability in concentration over time and space, such standard methods routinely underestimate the size of potentially affected areas. Underestimation due to temporal fluctuation - applicable to chemicals like hydrogen cyanide (HCN) for which peak concentrations best predict acute toxicity - becomes magnified by spatial fluctuation, defined as heterogeneity in average concentration at each location relative to standard-method predictions. The combined impact of spatiotemporal fluctuation on size of assessed threat areas was studied using a statistical-simulation assessment method calibrated to Joint Urban 2003 Oklahoma City field-tracer data. For a hypothetical 60-min urban release scenario involving HCN gas, the stochastic method predicted that lethal/severe effects could occur in an area 18 or 25 times larger than was predicted by standard methods targeted to a 60-min AEGL, assuming wind speeds > or =2.0 or < or =1.5m/s, respectively. The underestimation doubled when the standard method was targeted to a 10-min AEGL. Further research and field data are needed for improved stochastic methods to assess spatiotemporal fluctuation effects. PMID:17706864

Bogen, K T; Gouveia, F J

2008-03-21

153

Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and sugar content of selected Thai health beverages.  

PubMed

This study was to determine antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and sugar content of 12 pasteurized and sterilized Thai health beverages, products of The Royal Chitralada Projects. The antioxidant capacities were analyzed using 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and the photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. Folin-Ciocalteu assay and Nelson's reducing sugar test were used to determine total phenolic compounds and sugar contents, respectively. Sacred lotus root drink showed the significantly highest antioxidant capacity in both equivalents to trolox and equivalents to ascorbic acid but not in the PCL test. In contrast, chrysanthemum drink and roselle drink showed the significantly highest values of both the total antioxidant capacity of water and lipid-soluble substances in the PCL assay. Bael fruit drink had the significantly highest total phenolic compounds. There were significant correlations between the total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity values of both assays (r = 0.4-0.5). PMID:17415958

Abdullakasim, Pajaree; Songchitsomboon, Sriwatana; Techagumpuch, Marasri; Balee, Nattaya; Swatsitang, Prasan; Sungpuag, Pongtorn

2007-02-01

154

Isomer-separated photodissociation of large sized silicon and carbon cluster ions: Drift tube experiment combined with a tandem reflectron mass spectrometer for Si{24/+}- Si{27/+} and C{32/+}-C{38/+}  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isomer-resolved multiphoton dissociations (PDs) with 4.66-eV laser photons were applied to carbon and silicon cluster cations, Cn+ (n = 32, 34, 36, and 38) and Sim+ (m = 24-27), in order to investigate correlations between the isomer structures and dissociation reactions. Cyclic and fullerene structures of Cn+ and prolate and spherical isomers of Sim+, which are the coexisting isomers in these size ranges, were separated by ion mobility spectrometry, followed by photolysis using a tandem reflectron mass spectrometer. Photofragment ion distributions were revealed to depend on the parent isomer structures. Dissociation mechanisms were discussed from the fragment ion distributions. ISSPIC 16 - 16th International Symposium on Small Particles and Inorganic Clusters, edited by Kristiaan Temst, Margriet J. Van Bael, Ewald Janssens, H.-G. Boyen and Françoise Remacle.

Moriyama, Ryoichi; Ohtaki, Tomohiro; Hosoya, Jun; Koyasu, Kiichirou; Misaizu, Fuminori

2013-01-01

155

Sampling the energy landscape of Pt13 with metadynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential energy surface of a metallic nanoparticle formed by 13 atoms of platinum is efficiently explored using metadynamics in combination with empirical potential molecular dynamics. The scenario obtained is wider and more complex of what was previously reported: more than thirty independent energy basins are found, corresponding to different local minima of Pt. It is demonstrated that in almost all the cases these motifs are local minima even at ab-initio level, hence proving the effectiveness of the method to sample the energy landscape. A classification of the minima in structural families is proposed, and a discussion regarding the shape and the connections between energy basins is reported. ISSPIC 16 - 16th International Symposium on Small Particles and Inorganic Clusters, edited by Kristiaan Temst, Margriet J. Van Bael, Ewald Janssens, H.-G. Boyen and Françoise Remacle.

Pavan, Luca; Di Paola, Cono; Baletto, Francesca

2013-02-01

156

Angular anisotropy in valence photoionization of Na clusters: theoretical investigation using jellium model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculation of the behaviour of photoelectron angular anisotropy in valence ionization of initially neutral NaX (X = 34-58) clusters is provided. The calculations are carried out for 1p, 1d and 1g jellium orbitals as a function of photon energy. The adapted theoretical framework is spherical jellium model using Woods-Saxon potential, which is modified to account for the long-range Coulomb tail in the final state. We discuss on the observed dramatic variations of the angular anisotropy parameter ? as a function incident photon energy. It is shown that the behaviour is connected to the oscillation of the valence photoionization cross sections, that is a specific interference property of such metallic clusters whose valence structure can be described using the jellium model. ISSPIC 16 - 16th International Symposium on Small Particles and Inorganic Clusters, edited by Kristiaan Temst, Margriet J. Van Bael, Ewald Janssens, H.-G. Boyen and Françoise Remacle.

Jänkälä, Kari

2013-03-01

157

Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

1997-08-01

158

Vortices in ferromagnetic/superconducting nanostructured bilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on vortex pinning in laterally nanostructured ferromagnetic/superconducting bilayers consisting of superconducting Pb films on top of periodic arrays of dots or antidots patterned in magnetic films with in-plane or out-of-plane magnetization. We show how vortices in the superconductor are influenced by the ferromagnet. For a Co antidot lattice with in-plane magnetization, no matching effects are observed, indicating that the pinning potential does not reflect the periodicity of the antidot lattice. Dots and antidots with out-of-plane magnetization have pronounced field-polarity dependent pinning. Vortex imaging is used to reveal the origin of this asymmetry. This work is performed in collaboration with M. J. Van Bael, K. Temst, L. Van Look, J. Bekaert, M. Lange, S. Raedts, J. Swerts, S. J. Bending and V.V. Moshchalkov, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research - Flanders (FWO), the Belgian Inter-University Attraction Poles (IUAP) and the Flemish Concerted Action (GOA) Programs, and by the European ESF "VORTEX" Program.

Bruynseraede, Yvan

2002-03-01

159

Is gold actor or spectator in the reaction of small AunPd{m/+} clusters with O2?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactivity of free binary gold-palladium clusters (AuPd2+, Au2Pd+, Au2Pd2+, and Au2Pd3+) toward molecular oxygen was investigated in an ion trap experiment under multi-collision conditions and compared to the reactivities of bare Aun+ and Pdm+ (n, m = 2 - 5) clusters. Reaction kinetics measurements revealed that the reaction rate is mainly determined by the number of palladium atoms in the clusters and only weakly influenced by additional gold atoms. The same holds true for the observed reaction product distributions. Most interestingly, the most reactive cluster ions Pd3+, Au2Pd3+, and Pd5+ exhibit a strong preference to form tetroxide products, AunPdmO4+. In addition, employing temperature dependent mass spectrometry, a second adsorption species consisting of several weakly bound oxygen molecules was identified for all investigated palladium containing clusters which is, however, only formed at cryogenic temperatures. All these observations suggest that the gold atoms largely act upon a spectator role in the reaction of the binary clusters. Nevertheless, a rough estimation of the relative O2 binding energies via statistical rate theory indicates that the addition of gold to the Pdn+ clusters decreases the O2-cluster interaction strength, although the reaction rate stays constant. This effect in the binary clusters may be of importance to a potential activation and dissociation of the adsorbed O2 molecules. ISSPIC 16 - 16th International Symposium on Small Particles and Inorganic Clusters, edited by Kristiaan Temst, Margriet J. Van Bael, Ewald Janssens, H.-G. Boyen and Françoise Remacle.

Lang, Sandra M.; Frank, Anja; Fleischer, Irene; Bernhardt, Thorsten M.

2013-01-01

160

Single-shot readout of spin qubits in Si/SiGe quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Si/SiGe quantum dots are an attractive option for spin qubit development, because of the long coherence times for electron spins in silicon, arising from weak hyperfine interaction and low spin orbit coupling. I will present measurements of gate-defined single and double quantum dots formed in Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostuctures. Control of the gate voltages on these dots enables tuning of the tunnel coupling to the leads and to other dots. Careful tuning of these tunnel rates, in combination with fast, pulsed-gate manipulation and spin-to-charge conversion, allow spin state measurement using an integrated quantum point contact as a local charge detector. Single spin qubit readout relies on the Zeeman energy splitting from an external magnetic field for spin-to-charge conversion. Two-electron singlet-triplet qubits, on the other hand, can be measured by using Pauli spin blockade of tunneling between the dots to readout the qubit even at zero magnetic field. I will present real-time, single-shot readout measurements of both individual spin [1] and singlet-triplet qubits [2] in gated Si/SiGe quantum dots. Work performed in collaboration with J. R. Prance, Zhan Shi, B. J. Van Bael, Teck Seng Koh, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, R. Joynt, L. R. Schreiber, L. M. K. Vandersypen, M. Friesen, S. N. Coppersmith, and M. A. Eriksson. [4pt] [1] C. B. Simmons et al. Physical Review Letters 106, 156804 (2011). [0pt] [2] J. R. Prance, et al., e-print: http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/1110.6431

Simmons, Christie

2012-02-01

161

PREFACE: E-MRS Fall Symposium K: Solution-Derived Electronic-Oxide Films, Nanostructures and Patterning, from Materials to Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Materials Research Society (EMRS) Fall Meeting 2011 Symposium K: Solution-Derived Electronic-Oxide Films, Nanostructures and Patterning, from Materials to Devices brought together the scientific community working in the field of solution-derived electronic-oxide thin films, patterned structures and related devices. The meeting took place on 19-23 September 2011 in Warsaw, Poland. The participants shared their results in 12 sessions and 2 poster sessions. There were 15 invited talks, 31 oral presentations and 28 poster contributions, 74 in total. The meeting provided an excellent opportunity for an overview and a forum for the interchange of information and expertise on the cutting-edge research, advanced technologies and applications in the field. The symposium addressed solution processing of different materials with specific functionalities, for example transparent conductive oxides which can be used in amorphous phase, and can therefore be processed at temperatures as low as 200°C, or thin film materials for solid oxide fuel cells, which require high processing temperatures to obtain the required properties. In addition to already established thin film processing, novel direct patterning methods were presented. The influence of processing on materials and functional properties of thin films and structures and integration issues were addressed. We would like to thank all the oral and poster contributors, and the session chair-persons, who devoted their time and energy to the success of this symposium. We are indebted to the Advisory Board for their advice. We would like to thank the European Materials Research Society for the support and organisation of the meeting. Barbara Malic Viorica Musat Marlies Van Bael Theodor Schneller January 2012

Malic, Barbara; Musat, Viorica; Van Bael, Marlies; Schneller, Theodor

2012-02-01

162

Several Well-observed Asteroidal Occultations in 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2010 IOTA observers in North America reported about 190 positive observations for 106 asteroid occultation events. For several asteroids, this included observations with multiple chords. For two events, an inversion model was available. An occultation by 16 Psyche on 2010 August 21 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 235.4 x 230.4 km. On 2010 December 24, an occultation by 93 Minerva produced a best-fit ellipse of 179.4 x 133.4 km. An occultation by 96 Aegle on 2010 October 29 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 124.9 x 88.0 km. An occultation by 105 Artemis on 2010 June 24 showed a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 x 92.0 km. An occultation by 375 Ursula on 2010 December 4 produced a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 km x 135.0 km. Of note are two events not summarized in this article. On 2010 August 31, an occultation by 695 Bella yielded a new double star. That event will be summarized in the JDSO. Finally, on 2010 April 6, an occultation of zeta Ophiuchi by 824 Anastasia was observed by 65 observers at 69 locations. Unfortunately a large shift in the path yielded only 4 chords. Results of that event, and all the events mentioned here, can be found on the North American Asteroidal Occultation Results web page.

Timerson, Brad; Durech, J.; Abramson, H.; Brooks, J.; Caton, D.; Clark, D.; Conard, S.; Cooke, B.; Dunham, D. W.; Dunham, J.; Edberg, S.; Ellington, C.; Faircloth, J.; Herchak, S.; Iverson, E.; Jones, R.; Lucas, G.; Lyzenga, G.; Maley, P.; Martinez, L.; Menke, J.; Mroz, G.; Nolan, P.; Peterson, R.; Preston, S.; Rattley, G.; Ray, J.; Scheck, A.; Stamm, J.; Stanton, R.; Suggs, R.; Tatum, R.; Thomas, W.

2011-10-01

163

Effect of Dianex, a herbal formulation on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Dianex, a polyherbal formulation consisting of the aqueous extracts of Gymnema sylvestre, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Azadirachta indica, Cassia auriculata, Aegle marmelose, Withania somnifera and Curcuma longa was screened for hypoglycemic activity in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Dianex was administered in different doses of 100-500 mg/kg/day orally in acute (6 h) and long-term (6 weeks) studies. Blood glucose levels were checked 2-6 h after treatment in acute studies and every 2 weeks in long-term studies. Body weight was recorded on the first and final day of the treatment in the long-term studies with diabetic mice. After 6 weeks, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspertate transaminase (AST), urea and creatinine were estimated in serum of the diabetic mice. Glycogen and total protein levels were estimated in the liver. Also, the liver and pancreas was subjected to histological examination. Oral glucose tolerance and in vitro free radical scavenging activity was also studied. Dianex produced significant (p<0.05) hypoglycemic activity at 250-500 mg/kg doses in both normal and diabetic mice in acute and long-term studies. The body weight of diabetic mice significantly (p<0.05) increased with all tested doses of Dianex. The elevated triglycerides, cholesterol, ALT, AST, urea and creatinine levels in diabetic mice were significantly (p<0.05) reduced at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The liver glycogen and protein levels were both significantly (p<0.05) increased in diabetic mice at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. Dianex increased the glucose tolerance significantly (p<0.05) in both normal and diabetic mice at all the doses tested. Histopathological examination showed that the formulation decreased streptozotocin induced injury to the tissues at all the doses tested. It produced significant (p<0.05) free radical scavenging activity against ABTS+, DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals at the concentrations ranging between 10-1000 microg/ml.Thus, in the present study, Dianex produced significant hypoglycemic activity in both normal and diabetic animals. It also reversed other diabetic complications in diabetic mice at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. In our earlier study, Dianex was well tolerated in laboratory animals at higher doses (upto 10 g/kg in mice, acute toxicity; up to 2.5 g/kg in rats, subacute toxicity studies for 30 days) without exhibiting any toxic manifestation. Hence, Dianex may be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:16106394

Mutalik, S; Chetana, M; Sulochana, B; Devi, P Uma; Udupa, N

2005-05-01

164

Contribution of terrigenous rocks of South Belgian coal deposits in geological storage of CO2 : the sandstones case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequestration of CO2 in unmined coal seams is one of the different options for storing CO2 in geological reservoirs. In favorable situations, it could be coupled with the retrieving of adsorbed methane from coal (ECBM), which can make this solution economically more attractive. However, in the case of South Belgian coal measures, both weak permeability of the coal and frequent faulting/folding of the seams are likely to decrease the efficiency of this technique. Westphalian A and B sediments from South Belgium are containing only about 2.5% vol. of coal; the other rocks consisting of shales/siltstones (~80%) and sandstones (~20%). For all these lithologies, the main processes of CO2 sequestration are 1) adsorption in coal and clay minerals that are partly forming shales, and within rock porosity in the case of sandstones and, to a lesser extent, in the shales/siltstone porosity. In a previous assessment of the sequestration potential in Westphalian coal measures of South Belgium, Baele et al. (2007) showed that coal and shales each account for 25% of the total sequestration potential, and the rest, i.e. 50%, is related to sandstones on a basis of 2% porosity. Beside their significant additional storage capacity, sandstones have also a better permeability than the other finer-grained and organic lithologies. Additionally, sandstones are known to occasionally cut the coal seams (wash-out), thus providing insights in increasing accessibility of injected CO2 into the coal. On the other hand, some sandstone banks are fossil braided rivers that induced peripheral fractures by differential compaction during burial diagenesis (Van Tongeren et al., 2000). These fractures are thus likely to have increased accessibility from high-injectivity sandstones to surrounding lithologies that could significantly contribute to storage capacity. The aim of this study is to refine the contribution of the westphalian South Belgium sandstones to the geological storage of CO2. Measurements were performed on forty rock samples in order to determine their mineral compositions and petrophysical properties. Mineral compositions were determined by light and cathodoluminescence petrography (CL), XRD, SEM, EDS and TOC. Effective porosity and permeability were measured by lab tests on cylindrical core samples. Effective porosities measured in sandstones is ranging between 1.5% and 6% with an average of 3.5%, which is nearly twice the value taken in the previous capacity evaluation. The neutron porosity log of the Saint-Ghislain borehole yields porosity values ranging between 5 and 20% of limestone-equivalent porosity; these values suggest higher in-situ porosity, likely due to fractures in the coal measures. Permeability was estimated from lab permeameter tests to a few milli-darcies. Nevertheless this value, which is fairly low for a conventional reservoir, is higher than that of other Westphalian lithologies. Like porosity, in-situ permeability is expected to be higher. Westphalian sandstones mineral compositions shows mainly quartz, feldspars, clay minerals, coal grains that are cemented by either quartz overgrowth or a matrix consisting of fine detrital (mainly clays) and alteration minerals (authigenic carbonates, pyrite, and clays). These results are comparable to investigations of Westphalian C and D sandstones of North Belgium (Bertier et al., 2006). In the case of Westphalian sandstones, it was observed that the effective porosity is essentially located within this fine-grained matrix, explaining their weak permeability. Results from this study show other promising insights for the sequestration of CO2 within Westphalian sandstones of South Belgium. Carbonate minerals, which occur with 2% vol. in average, could significantly increase the porosity and especially the permeability, due to their dissolution by water acidification caused by CO2 injection. Adsorption onto coal fragments and clay minerals in the sandstones has an estimated sequestration potential similar to that of storage in rock porosity. Finally, for reservoir safety purpose, a prel

Dupont, N.; Baele, J.-M.

2009-04-01

165

Marker based standardization of polyherbal formulation (SJT-DI-02) by high performance thin layer chromatography method  

PubMed Central

Background: Preparation of highly standardized herbal products with respect to chemical composition and biological activity is considered to be a valuable approach in this field. SJT-DI-02 polyherbal formulation was successfully developed at our institute and filed for patent at Mumbai patent office. Objective: The present work was marker based standardization of patented, novel and efficacious polyherbal formulation namely SJT-DI-02 for the treatment of diabetes. The SJT-DI-02 was comprised of dried extracts of rhizomes of Acorus calamus, leaves of Aegle marmelose, fruits of Benincasa hispida, roots of Chlorophytum arendinaceum, seeds of Eugenia jambolana, leaves of Ocimum sanctum, pericarp of Punica granatum, seeds of Tamarindus indica. Selected plants were collected, dried and extracted with suitable solvents. The formulation was prepared by mixing different fractions of extracts. Materials and Methods: For successful and best standardization, first of all selection and procurement was carried out. Selection is done on the basis of therapeutic efficacy and amount of the marker present in the particular plant part. At the time of procurement side by side phytochemical screening and estimation of phytoconstituents was carried out. After completion of preliminary screening using characterized markers, we tried to develop best TLC systems using selected solvent composition. Finally well-developed TLC systems were applied in HPTLC. In the present study polyherbal formulation was standardized by using different four markers. TLC Densitometric methods were developed using HPTLC for the quantification of these marker compounds. Solvent systems were optimized to achieve best resolution of the marker compounds from other components of the sample extract. The identity of the bands in the sample extracts were confirmed by comparing the Rf and the absorption spectra by overlaying their UV absorption spectra with those of their respective standards. The purity of the bands due to marker compounds in the sample extracts were confirmed by overlaying the absorption spectra recorded at start, middle and end position of the band in the sample tracks. After conforming all these things fingerprints were developed for all three formulations which will be act as authentification and quality control tool. Results: % w/w of asarones is 3.61, % w/w of marmelosin is 4.60, % w/w of gallic acid is 10.80 and % w/w of lupeol is 4.13. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability, limit of detection, limit of quantification and accuracy. In well-developed mobile phase system linearity was found to be in the range of 0.983-0.995, % recovery was found to be in the range of 97.48-99.63, % RSD for intraday and interday was found to be 0.13- 0.70 and 0.32 -1.41 and LOD and LOQ was found to be in the range of 0.15- 0.61 and 0.45 -1.83 microgram per ml. Conclusion: Thus High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods were developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability, limit of detection, limit of quantification and accuracy. The methods were rapid, sensitive, reproducible and economical. It does not suffer any positive or negative interference due to common other component present in the formulation and would also serve as a tool for authentication of herbal products containing marmelosin, gallic acid, lupeol and asarones. Thus this work provides standardized and therapeutically active polyherbal formulations for the different ailments. PMID:25035642

Ladva, Bhakti J.; Mahida, Vijay M.; Kantaria, Urmi D.; Gokani, Rina H.

2014-01-01