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Sample records for bahan sel surya

  1. Recent SEL experiments and studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Smith, Donald

    1993-01-01

    The studies discussed in this paper are all examples of activities that are performed as part of the Software Engineering Laboratory's (SEL's) process improvement model. Using this model, the SEL starts by understanding the product and process, then assesses the impact of new technologies, and finally packages what was learned. The preliminary examination of maintenance effort, error, and change profiles to establish a maintenance baseline exemplifies understanding-phase activities. The ongoing testing study that is examining the effects of various testing approaches on process and product measures is an example of typical assessing efforts. Finally, the derivation of cost and schedule estimation models from locally driven factors such as reuse level, application type, and language is an example of experience packaging. In the SEL, no study is ever really completed. Studies will be repeated and iterated upon in the future as part of the ongoing software improvement process.

  2. Data collection procedures for the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, Gerard; Valett, Jon; Wild, Mary

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guidebook to collecting software engineering data on software development and maintenance efforts, as practiced in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). It supersedes the document entitled Data Collection Procedures for the Rehosted SEL Database, number SEL-87-008 in the SEL series, which was published in October 1987. It presents procedures to be followed on software development and maintenance projects in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for collecting data in support of SEL software engineering research activities. These procedures include detailed instructions for the completion and submission of SEL data collection forms.

  3. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) cleanroom process model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Scott; Basili, Victor; Godfrey, Sally; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Waligora, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) cleanroom process model is described. The term 'cleanroom' originates in the integrated circuit (IC) production process, where IC's are assembled in dust free 'clean rooms' to prevent the destructive effects of dust. When applying the clean room methodology to the development of software systems, the primary focus is on software defect prevention rather than defect removal. The model is based on data and analysis from previous cleanroom efforts within the SEL and is tailored to serve as a guideline in applying the methodology to future production software efforts. The phases that are part of the process model life cycle from the delivery of requirements to the start of acceptance testing are described. For each defined phase, a set of specific activities is discussed, and the appropriate data flow is described. Pertinent managerial issues, key similarities and differences between the SEL's cleanroom process model and the standard development approach used on SEL projects, and significant lessons learned from prior cleanroom projects are presented. It is intended that the process model described here will be further tailored as additional SEL cleanroom projects are analyzed.

  4. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database organization and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Maria; Heller, Gerard; Steinberg, Sandra; Spiegel, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    The organization of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database is presented. Included are definitions and detailed descriptions of the database tables and views, the SEL data, and system support data. The mapping from the SEL and system support data to the base tables is described. In addition, techniques for accessing the database, through the Database Access Manager for the SEL (DAMSEL) system and via the ORACLE structured query language (SQL), are discussed.

  5. Studies and experiments in the Software Engineering Lab (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. E.; Card, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization created nearly 10 years ago for the purpose of identifying, measuring and applying quality software engineering techniques in a production environment. The members of the SEL include NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC, the sponsor and organizer), University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation. Since its inception the SEL has conducted numerous experiments, and has evaluated a wide range of software technologies. This paper describes several of the more recent experiments as well as some of the general conclusions to which the SEL has arrived.

  6. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) relationships, models, and management rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William; Hendrick, Robert; Valett, Jon D.

    1991-01-01

    Over 50 individual Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) research results, extracted from a review of published SEL documentation, that can be applied directly to managing software development projects are captured. Four basic categories of results are defined and discussed - environment profiles, relationships, models, and management rules. In each category, research results are presented as a single page that summarizes the individual result, lists potential uses of the result by managers, and references the original SEL documentation where the result was found. The document serves as a concise reference summary of applicable research for SEL managers.

  7. [Occult medicine in the 20th century: pharmacotherapy by Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer, known as Surya (1873 - 1949)].

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer (1873-1949), called "Surya", Sanskrit for "sun", was an important representative of medical occultism in the first half of the 20th century. He worked as a journal editor and published a 13-volume book series about occult medicine, mainly written by himself. His hypotheses were closely related to the "Lebensreform" movement around 1900. Regarding diagnostics, he relied on astrology, cheiromancy, and clairvoyance, while therapeutics were dominated by diet and spagyric remedies according to Cesare Mattei (1809-1896) and Carl-Friedrich Zimpel (1801-1879). In his later years, he developed his own healing system, initially comprising eight, later only two preparations. Surya remedies were commercially available until the end of the 20th century, PMID:22822609

  8. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data and information policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank

    1991-01-01

    The policies and overall procedures that are used in distributing and in making available products of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) are discussed. The products include project data and measures, project source code, reports, and software tools.

  9. Experimental software engineering: Seventeen years of lessons in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank E.

    1992-01-01

    Seven key principles developed by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. For the past 17 years, the SEL has been experimentally analyzing the development of production software as varying techniques and methodologies are applied in this one environment. The SEL has collected, archived, and studied detailed measures from more than 100 flight dynamics projects, thereby gaining significant insight into the effectiveness of numerous software techniques, as well as extensive experience in the overall effectiveness of 'Experimental Software Engineering'. This experience has helped formulate follow-on studies in the SEL, and it has helped other software organizations better understand just what can be accomplished and what cannot be accomplished through experimentation.

  10. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database organization and user's guide, revision 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morusiewicz, Linda; Bristow, John

    1992-01-01

    The organization of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database is presented. Included are definitions and detailed descriptions of the database tables and views, the SEL data, and system support data. The mapping from the SEL and system support data to the base table is described. In addition, techniques for accessing the database through the Database Access Manager for the SEL (DAMSEL) system and via the ORACLE structured query language (SQL) are discussed.

  11. Transcriptional activation of antioxidants may compensate for selenoprotein deficiencies in Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) injected with selK- or selM-dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Steven; Browning, Rebecca; Singh, Parul; Nobles, Sarah; Villarreal, Ashley; Karim, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    The Gulf-Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, possesses an elaborate set of selenoprotein, which prevent the deleterious effects from oxidative stress that occur during feeding. In the current work, we examined the role of Selenoprotein K (SelK) and Selenoprotein M (SelM) in feeding A. maculatum by bioinformatics, transcriptional gene expression, RNA interference and antioxidant assays. The transcriptional expression of SelK does not vary significantly in salivary glands or midguts throughout the blood meal. However, there is a 58-fold increase in transcript levels of SelM in tick midguts. Ticks injected with selK-dsRNA or selM-dsRNA did not reveal any observable differences in egg viability but oviposition was reduced. Surprisingly, salivary antioxidant activity was higher in selenoprotein knockouts compared to controls, which is likely due to compensatory transcriptional expression of genes involved in combating reactive oxygen species. In fact, RT-qPCR data suggest the transcriptional expression of catalase increased in ticks injected with selM-dsRNA. Additionally, the transcriptional expression of selN decreased ~90% in both SelK/SelM knockdowns. PMID:24698418

  12. Collaboration to Achieve Whole School SEL across a Large, Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porche, Michelle; Grossman, Jenny; Biro, Nova; MacKay, Nancy; Rivers, Sojourner

    2014-01-01

    Research on social and emotional learning (SEL) has largely focused on classroom interventions and student-­ and classroom­-level outcomes. Few studies have examined whole­-school and district-­level SEL implementations, or how to ensure that SEL programs are implemented effectively and sustained over time. This study examines both process…

  13. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) programmer workbench phase 1 evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Phase 1 of the SEL programmer workbench consists of the design of the following three components: communications link, command language processor, and collection of software aids. A brief description, and evaluation, and recommendations are presented for each of these three components.

  14. Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) and Student Benefits: Implications for the Safe Schools/Healthy Students Core Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brief shares the latest research on the effects of social and emotional learning (SEL) on students and includes strategies for implementing SEL. It explains how SEL works, elaborates on how SEL can be an integrative prevention framework that addresses the Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) core elements, and spells out implications of the…

  15. SIMULATING WAVES IN THE UPPER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE WITH SURYA: A WELL-BALANCED HIGH-ORDER FINITE-VOLUME CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, F. G.; McMurry, A. D.; Mishra, S.; Waagan, K. E-mail: a.d.mcmurry@ifi.uio.no E-mail: kwaagan@cscamm.umd.edu

    2011-05-10

    We consider the propagation of waves in a stratified non-isothermal magnetic atmosphere. The situation of interest corresponds to waves in the outer solar (chromosphere and corona) and other stellar atmospheres. The waves are simulated by using a high-resolution, well-balanced finite-volume-based massively parallel code named SURYA. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions involving realistic temperature distributions, driving forces, and magnetic field configurations are described. Diverse phenomena such as mode conversion, wave acceleration at the transition layer, and driving-dependent wave dynamics are observed. We obtain evidence for the presence of coronal Alfven waves in some three-dimensional configurations. Although some of the incident wave energy is transmitted into the corona, a large proportion of it is accumulated in the chromosphere, providing a possible mechanism for chromospheric heating.

  16. Towards understanding software: 15 years in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose

    1990-01-01

    For 15 years, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) at GSFC has been carrying out studies and experiments for the purpose of understanding, assessing, and improving software, and software processes within a production software environment. The SEL comprises three major organizations: (1) the GSFC Flight Dynamics Division; (2) the University of Maryland Computer Science Department; and (3) the Computer Sciences Corporation Flight Dynamics Technology Group. These organizations have jointly carried out several hundred software studies, producing hundreds of reports, papers, and documents: all describing some aspect of the software engineering technology that has undergone analysis in the flight dynamics environment. The studies range from small controlled experiments (such as analyzing the effectiveness of code reading versus functional testing) to large, multiple-project studies (such as assessing the impacts of Ada on a production environment). The key findings that NASA feels have laid the foundation for ongoing and future software development and research activities are summarized.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Sel1-like repeats of SEL1L.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hanbin; Lee, Hakbong; Lee, Changwook

    2014-12-01

    Terminally misfolded or unassembled proteins are selectively recognized and cleared by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Suppressor/enhancer of lin-12-like (SEL1L), a component of the dislocation machinery containing the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1, plays an important role in selecting and transporting ERAD substrates for degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum. In this study, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of recombinant mouse SEL1L (residues 348-533) are reported. The crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at pH 8.5 and 277 K using 30% 2-propanol as a precipitant. Optimized crystals diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution at a synchrotron-radiation source. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the crystals belonged to space group P21 and contained four molecules per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%. PMID:25484212

  18. Crystal structure of SEL1L: Insight into the roles of SLR motifs in ERAD pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hanbin; Sim, Hyo Jung; Song, Eun Kyung; Lee, Hakbong; Ha, Sung Chul; Jun, Youngsoo; Park, Tae Joo; Lee, Changwook

    2016-01-01

    Terminally misfolded proteins are selectively recognized and cleared by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. SEL1L, a component of the ERAD machinery, plays an important role in selecting and transporting ERAD substrates for degradation. We have determined the crystal structure of the mouse SEL1L central domain comprising five Sel1-Like Repeats (SLR motifs 5 to 9; hereafter called SEL1Lcent). Strikingly, SEL1Lcent forms a homodimer with two-fold symmetry in a head-to-tail manner. Particularly, the SLR motif 9 plays an important role in dimer formation by adopting a domain-swapped structure and providing an extensive dimeric interface. We identified that the full-length SEL1L forms a self-oligomer through the SEL1Lcent domain in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we discovered that the SLR-C, comprising SLR motifs 10 and 11, of SEL1L directly interacts with the N-terminus luminal loops of HRD1. Therefore, we propose that certain SLR motifs of SEL1L play a unique role in membrane bound ERAD machinery. PMID:27064360

  19. Assessing efficiency of software production for NASA-SEL data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonmayrhauser, Anneliese; Roeseler, Armin

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses production models to identify and quantify efficient allocation of resources and key drivers of software productivity for project data in the NASA-SEL database. While analysis allows identification of efficient projects, many of the metrics that could have provided a more detailed analysis are not at a level of measurement to allow production model analysis. Production models must be used with proper parameterization to be successful. This may mean a new look at which metrics are helpful for efficiency assessment.

  20. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Data Base Maintenance System (DBAM) user's guide and system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, P. S.; Card, D.

    1983-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Data Base Maintenance System (DBAM) is explained. The various software facilities of the SEL, DBAM operating procedures, and DBAM system information are described. The relationships among DBAM components (baseline diagrams), component descriptions, overlay descriptions, indirect command file listings, file definitions, and sample data collection forms are provided.

  1. Occurrence in vivo of selenocysteyl-tRNA(SERUCA) in Escherichia coli. Effect of sel mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Leinfelder, W.; Stadtman, T.C.; Boeck, A.

    1989-06-15

    The selC gene of Escherichia coli codes for a novel tRNA species which is aminoacylated by L-serine and is required for the insertion of selenocysteine into proteins. As a first step toward the elucidation of the postulated pathway for selenocysteine formation from an L-serine residue esterified to tRNA, we have examined whether an increase in the selC gene dosage allows the demonstration of selenocysteyl-tRNA formation in vivo. To this end, cells of an E. coli strain carrying selC on a multicopy plasmid were labeled with (/sup 75/Se)selenite, their tRNA was isolated and deacylated, and the hydrolysate was analyzed by thin layer chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. Both methods unequivocally demonstrated that the increase in the selC gene product concentration correlated with an augmented level of selenocysteine bound to tRNA. The formation of selenocysteine depended on the presence of functional products of the selA and selD genes but not of the selB gene. The selB gene product, therefore, may have a function in the decoding step itself.

  2. Decameric SelA•tRNA(Sec) ring structure reveals mechanism of bacterial selenocysteine formation.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Bröcker, Markus J; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Hammond, Gifty; Suetsugu, Shiro; Söll, Dieter; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2013-04-01

    The 21st amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), is synthesized on its cognate transfer RNA (tRNA(Sec)). In bacteria, SelA synthesizes Sec from Ser-tRNA(Sec), whereas in archaea and eukaryotes SepSecS forms Sec from phosphoserine (Sep) acylated to tRNA(Sec). We determined the crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus SelA complexes, which revealed a ring-shaped homodecamer that binds 10 tRNA(Sec) molecules, each interacting with four SelA subunits. The SelA N-terminal domain binds the tRNA(Sec)-specific D-arm structure, thereby discriminating Ser-tRNA(Sec) from Ser-tRNA(Ser). A large cleft is created between two subunits and accommodates the 3'-terminal region of Ser-tRNA(Sec). The SelA structures together with in vivo and in vitro enzyme assays show decamerization to be essential for SelA function. SelA catalyzes pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent Sec formation involving Arg residues nonhomologous to those in SepSecS. Different protein architecture and substrate coordination of the bacterial enzyme provide structural evidence for independent evolution of the two Sec synthesis systems present in nature. PMID:23559248

  3. Expression of human selenoprotein genes selh, selk, selm, sels, selv, and gpx-6 in various tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Varlamova, E G; Goltyaev, M V; Fesenko, E E

    2016-05-01

    The expression level of the genes encoding six selenocysteine-containing human proteins was determined in the brain, cervical, liver, breast, prostate, and human fibrosarcoma cancer cells. It was found that a high level of expression in all studied types genes of tumor cells is characteristic for selh, selk, and selm genes, encoding SelH, SelK, and SelM proteins, respectively, whereas a complete lack of such expression was shown for gpx-6, selv, and sels genes. The results of this work can be regarded as a major prerequisite for further studies on the role of the three selenoproteins SelH, SelK, and SelM in the regulation of carcinogenesis processes associated with these types of cancer. PMID:27417721

  4. Impacts of object-oriented technologies: Seven years of SEL studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The premise that object-oriented technology (OOT) is the most significant technology ever examined by the Software Engineering Laboratory is examined. The evolution of the use of OOT in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) 'experience factory' is described in terms of the SEL's original expectations, focusing on how successive generations of projects have used OOT. General conclusions are drawn on how the usage of the technology has evolved in this environment.

  5. Impacts of object-oriented technologies: Seven years of SEL studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Mike

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the premise that object-oriented technology (OOT) is the most significant technology ever examined by the Software Engineering Laboratory. The evolution of the use of OOT in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) 'Experience Factory' is described in terms of the SEL's original expectations, focusing on how successive generations of projects have used OOT. General conclusions are drawn on how the usage of the technology has evolved in this environment.

  6. The maturing of the quality improvement paradigm in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory uses a paradigm for improving the software process and product, called the quality improvement paradigm. This paradigm has evolved over the past 18 years, along with our software development processes and product. Since 1976, when we first began the SEL, we have learned a great deal about improving the software process and product, making a great many mistakes along the way. Quality improvement paradigm, as it is currently defined, can be broken up into six steps: characterize the current project and its environment with respect to the appropriate models and metrics; set the quantifiable goals for successful project performance and improvement; choose the appropriate process model and supporting methods and tools for this project; execute the processes, construct the products, and collect, validate, and analyze the data to provide real-time feedback for corrective action; analyze the data to evaluate the current practices, determine problems, record findings, and make recommendations for future project improvements; and package the experience gained in the form of updated and refined models and other forms of structured knowledge gained from this and prior projects and save it in an experience base to be reused on future projects.

  7. Detection and Measurement of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin-Like K (SEl-K) Secretion by Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Jorge L.; Varshney, Avanish K.; Wang, Xiaobo; Stanford, Lindsay; Scharff, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin-like K (SEl-K) is a potent mitogen that elicits T-cell proliferation and cytokine production at very low concentrations. However, unlike the classical enterotoxins SEB and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), the gene for SEl-K is commonly present in more than half of all Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates and is present in almost all USA300 community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates. Sequencing of the sel-k gene in over 20 clinical isolates and comparative analysis with all 14 published sel-k sequences indicate that there are at least 6 variants of the sel-k gene, including one that is conserved among all examined USA300 strains. Additionally, we have developed a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that specifically detects and measures SEl-K protein in culture supernatants and biological fluids. Quantification of in vitro SEl-K secretion by various S. aureus isolates using this novel capture ELISA revealed detectable amounts of SEl-K secretion by all isolates, with the highest secretion levels being exhibited by MRSA strains that coexpress SEB. In vivo secretion was measured in a murine thigh abscess model, where similar levels of SEl-K accumulation were noted regardless of whether the infecting strain exhibited high or low secretion of SEl-K in vitro. We conclude that SEl-K is commonly expressed in the setting of staphylococcal infection, in significant amounts. SEl-K should be further explored as a target for passive immunotherapy against complicated S. aureus infection. PMID:24808237

  8. Epithelial Sel1L is required for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengyi; Lourie, Rohan; Cohen, Sara B.; Ji, Yewei; Goodrich, Julia K.; Poole, Angela C.; Ley, Ruth E.; Denkers, Eric Y.; McGuckin, Michael A.; Long, Qiaoming; Duhamel, Gerald E.; Simpson, Kenneth W.; Qi, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an incurable chronic idiopathic disease that drastically decreases quality of life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–associated degradation (ERAD) is responsible for the clearance of misfolded proteins; however, its role in disease pathogenesis remains largely unexplored. Here we show that the expression of SEL1L and HRD1, the most conserved branch of mammalian ERAD, is significantly reduced in ileal Crohn’s disease (CD). Consistent with this observation, laboratory mice with enterocyte-specific Sel1L deficiency (Sel1LΔIEC) develop spontaneous enteritis and have increased susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii–induced ileitis. This is associated with profound defects in Paneth cells and a disproportionate increase of Ruminococcus gnavus, a mucolytic bacterium with known association with CD. Surprisingly, whereas both ER stress sensor IRE1α and effector CHOP are activated in the small intestine of Sel1LΔIEC mice, they are not solely responsible for ERAD deficiency–associated lesions seen in the small intestine. Thus our study points to a constitutive role of Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD in epithelial cell biology and the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation in CD. PMID:26631554

  9. The ERdj5-Sel1L complex facilitates cholera toxin retrotranslocation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeffrey M; Inoue, Takamasa; Banks, Lindsey; Tsai, Billy

    2013-03-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) traffics from the host cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the toxin's catalytic CTA1 subunit retrotranslocates to the cytosol to induce toxicity. In the ER, CT is captured by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 via an undefined mechanism to prepare for retrotranslocation. Using loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that the ER-resident factor ERdj5 promotes CTA1 retrotranslocation, in part, via its J domain. This Hsp70 cochaperone regulates binding between CTA and the ER Hsp70 BiP, a chaperone previously implicated in toxin retrotranslocation. Importantly, ERdj5 interacts with the Hrd1 adaptor Sel1L directly through Sel1L's N-terminal lumenal domain, thereby linking ERdj5 to the Hrd1 complex. Sel1L itself also binds CTA and facilitates toxin retrotranslocation. By contrast, EDEM1 and OS-9, two established Sel1L binding partners, do not play significant roles in CTA1 retrotranslocation. Our results thus identify two ER factors that promote ER-to-cytosol transport of CTA1. They also indicate that ERdj5, by binding to Sel1L, triggers BiP-toxin interaction proximal to the Hrd1 complex. We postulate this scenario enables the Hrd1-associated retrotranslocation machinery to capture the toxin efficiently once the toxin is released from BiP. PMID:23363602

  10. SelInv - An Algorithm for Selected Inversion of a Sparse Symmetric Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Lu, Jianfeng; Ying, Lexing; E, Weinan

    2009-10-16

    We describe an efficient implementation of an algorithm for computing selected elements of a general sparse symmetric matrix A that can be decomposed as A = LDL^T, where L is lower triangular and D is diagonal. Our implementation, which is called SelInv, is built on top of an efficient supernodal left-looking LDL^T factorization of A. We discuss how computational efficiency can be gained by making use of a relative index array to handle indirect addressing. We report the performance of SelInv on a collection of sparse matrices of various sizes and nonzero structures. We also demonstrate how SelInv can be used in electronic structure calculations.

  11. SEL and EPNL noise duration coefficients for the 747 and T-38 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, W. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Duration coefficient were calculated for Boeing 747 and T-38 airplanes for sound exposure level (SEL) and effective perceived noise level (EPNL) scales. The measured SEL suration coefficients were 8.4 for the Boeing 747 and 5.5 for the T-38 result was in good agreement with a previous result for a similar F-5 airplane. In EPNL, the duration coefficients were 7.2 for the Boeing 747 and 5.7 for the T-38. The difference in the results between the two airplanes is believed to be due to their different engine noise source spectra. The difference in the Boeing 747 results in the two different metric was due to the different frequency weighting of A-weighted sound pressure level, used in SEL, and tone-corrected perceived noise level, used in EPNL, when applied to the 747 spectra.

  12. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    PubMed

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  13. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  14. Se Enhances MLCK Activation by Regulating Selenoprotein T (SelT) in the Gastric Smooth Muscle of Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Jing-Xuan; Wang, Qi; Gu, Gao-Qin; Yang, Shi-Jin; Li, Cheng-Ye; Qiu, Chang-Wei; Deng, Gan-Zhen; Guo, Meng-Yao

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se), a nutritionally essential trace element, is associated with health and disease. Selenoprotein T (SelT) was identified as a redoxin protein with a selenocystein, localizing in the endoplasmic reticulum. The myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain (MLC) play key roles in the contraction process of smooth muscle. The present study was to detect the effect and mechanism of SelT on the contraction process of gastric smooth muscle. The WT rats were fed with different Se concentration diets, and Se and Ca(2+) concentrations were detected in the gastric smooth muscle. Western blot and qPCR were performed to determine SelT, CaM, MLCK, and MLC expressions. MLCK activity was measured by identifying the rates of [γ-32P]ATP incorporated into the MLC. The results showed Se and Ca(2+) concentrations were enhanced with Se intake in gastric smooth muscle tissues. With increasing Se, SelT, CaM, MLCK and MLC expressions increased, and MLCK and MLC activation improved in gastric smooth muscle tissue. The SelT RNA interference experiments showed that Ca(2+) release, MLCK activation, and MLC phosphorylation were regulated by SelT. Se affected the gastric smooth muscle constriction by regulating Ca(2+) release, MLCK activation, and MLC phosphorylation through SelT. Se plays a major role in regulating the contraction processes of gastric smooth muscle with the SelT. PMID:26779623

  15. Safe and Sound: An Educational Leader's Guide to Evidence-Based Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Social and emotional learning (SEL) is the process of developing the ability to recognize and manage emotions, develop caring and concern for others, make responsible decisions, establish positive relationships, and handle challenging situations effectively. SEL provides schools with a framework for preventing problems and promoting students'…

  16. Selective selC-Independent Selenocysteine Incorporation into Formate Dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Zorn, Michael; Ihling, Christian H.; Golbik, Ralph; Sawers, R. Gary; Sinz, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The formate dehydrogenases (Fdh) Fdh-O, Fdh-N, and Fdh-H, are the only proteins in Escherichia coli that incorporate selenocysteine at a specific position by decoding a UGA codon. However, an excess of selenium can lead to toxicity through misincorporation of selenocysteine into proteins. To determine whether selenocysteine substitutes for cysteine, we grew Escherichia coli in the presence of excess sodium selenite. The respiratory Fdh-N and Fdh-O enzymes, along with nitrate reductase (Nar) were co-purified from wild type strain MC4100 after anaerobic growth with nitrate and either 2 µM or 100 µM selenite. Mass spectrometric analysis of the catalytic subunits of both Fdhs identified the UGA-specified selenocysteine residue and revealed incorporation of additional, ‘non-specific’ selenocysteinyl residues, which always replaced particular cysteinyl residues. Although variable, their incorporation was not random and was independent of the selenite concentration used. Notably, these cysteines are likely to be non-essential for catalysis and they do not coordinate the iron-sulfur cluster. The remaining cysteinyl residues that could be identified were never substituted by selenocysteine. Selenomethionine was never observed in our analyses. Non-random substitution of particular cysteinyl residues was also noted in the electron-transferring subunit of both Fdhs as well as in the subunits of the Nar enzyme. Nar isolated from an E. coli selC mutant also showed a similar selenocysteine incorporation pattern to the wild-type indicating that non-specific selenocysteine incorporation was independent of the specific selenocysteine pathway. Thus, selenide replaces sulfide in the biosynthesis of cysteine and misacylated selenocysteyl-tRNACys decodes either UGU or UGC codons, which usually specify cysteine. Nevertheless, not every UGU or UGC codon was decoded as selenocysteine. Together, our results suggest that a degree of misincorporation of selenocysteine into enzymes

  17. Dimer-dimer interaction of the bacterial selenocysteine synthase SelA promotes functional active site formation and catalytic specificity

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Bröcker, Markus J.; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Söll, Dieter; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    The 21st amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), is incorporated translationally into proteins, and is synthesized on its specific tRNA (tRNASec). In Bacteria, the selenocysteine synthase SelA converts Ser-tRNASec, formed by seryl-tRNA synthetase, to Sec-tRNASec. SelA, a member of the fold-type-I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme superfamily, has an exceptional homodecameric quaternary structure with a molecular mass of about 500 kDa. Our previously determined crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus SelA complexed with tRNASec revealed that the ring-shaped decamer is composed of pentamerized SelA dimers, with two SelA dimers arranged to collaboratively interact with one Ser-tRNASec. The SelA catalytic site is close to the dimer-dimer interface, but the significance of the dimer-pentamerization in the catalytic site formation remained elusive. In the present study, we examined the quaternary interactions, and demonstrated their importance for SelA activity by systematic mutagenesis. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of “depentamerized” SelA variants with mutations at the dimer-dimer interface that prevent pentamerization. These dimeric SelA variants formed a distorted and inactivated catalytic site, and confirmed that the pentamer interactions are essential for productive catalytic site formation. Intriguingly, the conformation of the non-functional active site of dimeric SelA shares structural features with other fold-type-I PLP-dependent enzymes with native dimer or tetramer (dimer-of-dimers) quaternary structures. PMID:24456689

  18. Testing Causal Impacts of a School-Based SEL Intervention Using Instrumental Variable Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrente, Catalina; Nathanson, Lori; Rivers, Susan; Brackett, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Children's social-emotional skills, such as conflict resolution and emotion regulation, have been linked to a number of highly regarded academic and social outcomes. The current study presents preliminary results from a causal test of the theory of change of RULER, a universal school-based approach to social and emotional learning (SEL).…

  19. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). Data base organization and user's guide, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, P. S.; Wyckoff, D.; Page, J.; Mcgarry, F. E.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base is described. It defines each data base file in detail and provides information about how to access and use the data for programmers and other users. Several data base reporting programs are described also.

  20. Measuring the software process and product: Lessons learned in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    The software development process and product can and should be measured. The software measurement process at the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has taught a major lesson: develop a goal-driven paradigm (also characterized as a goal/question/metric paradigm) for data collection. Project analysis under this paradigm leads to a design for evaluating and improving the methodology of software development and maintenance.

  1. Toward full life cycle control: Adding maintenance measurement to the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rombach, H. Dieter; Ulery, Bradford T.; Valett, Jon D.

    1992-01-01

    Organization-wide measurement of software products and processes is needed to establish full life cycle control over software products. The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL)--a joint venture between NASA GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation--started measurement of software development more than 15 years ago. Recently, the measurement of maintenance was added to the scope of the SEL. In this article, the maintenance measurement program is presented as an addition to the already existing and well-established SEL development measurement program and evaluated in terms of its immediate benefits and long-term improvement potential. Immediate benefits of this program for the SEL include an increased understanding of the maintenance domain, the differences and commonalities between development and maintenance, and the cause-effect relationships between development and maintenance. Initial results from a sample maintenance study are presented to substantiate these benefits. The long-term potential of this program includes the use of maintenance baselines to better plan and manage future projects and to improve development and maintenance practices for future projects wherever warranted.

  2. Association of the SEL1L protein transmembrane domain with HRD1 ubiquitin ligase regulates ERAD-L.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Nobuko; Wada, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are transported to the cytoplasm for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, a process otherwise known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Mammalian HRD1, an integral membrane ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates ERAD substrates, forms a large assembly in the ER membrane including SEL1L, a single-pass membrane protein, and additional components. The mechanism by which these molecules export misfolded proteins through the ER membrane remains unclear. Unlike Hrd3p, the homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human SEL1L is an unstable protein, which is restored by the association with HRD1. Here we report that the inherently unstable nature of the human SEL1L protein lies in its transmembrane domain, and that association of HRD1 with the SEL1L transmembrane domain restored its stability. On the other hand, we found that the SEL1L luminal domain escaped degradation, and inhibited the degradation of misfolded α1 -antitrypsin variant null Hong Kong by retaining the misfolded cargo in the ER. Overexpression of HRD1 inhibited the degradation of unfolded secretory cargo, which was restored by the interaction of HRD1 with the SEL1L transmembrane domain. Hence, we propose that SEL1L critically regulates HRD1-mediated disposal of misfolded cargo through its short membrane spanning stretch. PMID:26471130

  3. Crystal structure of the full-length bacterial selenocysteine-specific elongation factor SelB

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid in translation, uses its specific tRNA (tRNASec) to recognize the UGA codon. The Sec-specific elongation factor SelB brings the selenocysteinyl-tRNASec (Sec-tRNASec) to the ribosome, dependent on both an in-frame UGA and a Sec-insertion sequence (SECIS) in the mRNA. The bacterial SelB binds mRNA through its C-terminal region, for which crystal structures have been reported. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the full-length SelB from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, in complex with a GTP analog, at 3.2-Å resolution. SelB consists of three EF-Tu-like domains (D1–3), followed by four winged-helix domains (WHD1–4). The spacer region, connecting the N- and C-terminal halves, fixes the position of WHD1 relative to D3. The binding site for the Sec moiety of Sec-tRNASec is located on the interface between D1 and D2, where a cysteine molecule from the crystallization solution is coordinated by Arg residues, which may mimic Sec binding. The Sec-binding site is smaller and more exposed than the corresponding site of EF-Tu. Complex models of Sec-tRNASec, SECIS RNA, and the 70S ribosome suggest that the unique secondary structure of tRNASec allows SelB to specifically recognize tRNASec and characteristically place it at the ribosomal A-site. PMID:26304550

  4. Crystal structure of the full-length bacterial selenocysteine-specific elongation factor SelB.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Sekine, Shun-Ichi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-10-15

    Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21(st) amino acid in translation, uses its specific tRNA (tRNA(Sec)) to recognize the UGA codon. The Sec-specific elongation factor SelB brings the selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec) (Sec-tRNA(Sec)) to the ribosome, dependent on both an in-frame UGA and a Sec-insertion sequence (SECIS) in the mRNA. The bacterial SelB binds mRNA through its C-terminal region, for which crystal structures have been reported. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the full-length SelB from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, in complex with a GTP analog, at 3.2-Å resolution. SelB consists of three EF-Tu-like domains (D1-3), followed by four winged-helix domains (WHD1-4). The spacer region, connecting the N- and C-terminal halves, fixes the position of WHD1 relative to D3. The binding site for the Sec moiety of Sec-tRNA(Sec) is located on the interface between D1 and D2, where a cysteine molecule from the crystallization solution is coordinated by Arg residues, which may mimic Sec binding. The Sec-binding site is smaller and more exposed than the corresponding site of EF-Tu. Complex models of Sec-tRNA(Sec), SECIS RNA, and the 70S ribosome suggest that the unique secondary structure of tRNA(Sec) allows SelB to specifically recognize tRNA(Sec) and characteristically place it at the ribosomal A-site. PMID:26304550

  5. Multi-processing control system for the SEL 840MP (MPCS/1) users guide. Volume 2: Operations guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The generation and operational use of the SEL 840MP multiprocessing control system (MPCS) are considered. System initialization, job task table generation, the MPCS command language, display library generation, and system error summary are reviewed.

  6. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base reporting software user's guide and system description. Volume 1: Introduction and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Reporting software programs provide formatted listings and summary reports of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base contents. The operating procedures and system information for 18 different reporting software programs are described. Sample output reports from each program are provided.

  7. Effects of Se on the Diversity of SelT Synthesis and Distribution in Different Smooth Muscle Tissues in Rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengyao; Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Naisheng; Qiu, Changwei; Li, Chengye; Deng, Ganzhen

    2016-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is a nutritionally essential trace element associated with health and disease, including many muscle diseases. Selenoprotein T (SelT) has been identified as a member of the redoxin protein family that includes selenocysteine, localizing to the endoplasmic reticulum. The synthesis of selenoprotein is influenced by Se. However, there is currently no data concerning the pattern of SelT expression in smooth muscle tissues. To investigate the effects of dietary Se on the expression of SelT, 90 rats were randomly allocated into three groups: LG, NG, and HG. The LG group was fed a basal diet deficient in Se (containing 0.023 mg/kg Se); the NG and HG groups were fed Se-supplemented diets containing either 0.3 or 1.5 mg/kg Se, respectively, for 90 days. The smooth muscle of the esophagus, trachea, stomach, intestine, and blood vessels was collected when the rats were 90 days old. The Se content in the blood and tissues was examined. The messenger RNA (mRNA) of selenocysteine-tRNA([Ser]Sec) synthase (SecS), selenophosphate synthetase 1 (SPS1), selenophosphate synthetase 2 (SPS2), and SelT were examined using qPCR, and SelT protein was detected by Western blotting. The results indicated that Se had an effect on the mRNA levels of SecS, with little effect on those of SPS1 in smooth muscle tissues. SelT was expressed in the smooth muscle tissues of blood vessels, esophagus, bronchus, stomach, and intestine, and the transcription of the SelT was very sensitive to dietary Se. Thus, SelT may play a major role in the mechanisms underlying the biological activity of Se in smooth muscle tissues. PMID:26280902

  8. Texas Instruments-Digital Signal Processor(TI-DSP)SMJ320F20 SEL Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Anthony B.; Poivey, C.; Kim, H. S.; Gee, George B.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the testing of the Texas Instrument Digital Signal Processor(TI-DSP)SMJ320F20. Tests were performed to screen for susceptibility to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and measure sensitivity as a function of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) for an application specific test setup. The Heavy Ion Testing of two TI-DSP SMJ320F240 devices experienced Single Event Latchup (SEL) conditions at an LET of 1.8 MeV/(mg/square cm) The devices were exposed from a fluence of 1.76 x l0(exp 3) to 5.00 x 10(exp 6) particles/square cm of the Neon, Argon and Krypton ion beams. For DI(sub DD) an average latchup current occurred at about 700mA, which is a magnitude of 10 over the nominal current of 700mA.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the mRNA-binding domain of elongation factor SelB in complex with RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Rasubala, Linda; Fourmy, Dominique; Ose, Toyoyuki; Kohda, Daisuke; Maenaka, Katsumi Yoshizawa, Satoko

    2005-03-01

    The mRNA-binding domain of M. thermoacetica selenocysteine-specific elongation factor SelB (residues 512–634, SelB-M) was overproduced in E. coli and its cognate mRNA ligand, 23 nucleotides of the SECIS RNA hairpin, was chemically prepared. The purified SelB-M–SECIS RNA complex has been crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and diffracted to 2.3 Å.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Aquifex aeolicus SelA, a bacterial selenocysteine synthase

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2012-01-01

    Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid, is synthesized on its specific tRNA (tRNASec) via a multi-step process. In bacteria, tRNASec is ligated first with serine by seryl-tRNA synthetase, which is followed by Ser-to-Sec conversion by Sec synthase (SelA). To elucidate its structure and catalytic mechanism, Aquifex aeolicus SelA was crystallized. Although wild-type SelA crystals diffracted X-­rays poorly (to up to 8 Å resolution), the resolution was improved by introducing a quadruple point mutation targeting the loop regions and by methylating the lysine residues, which yielded 3.9 Å resolution diffraction data from a full-length SelA crystal. Truncation of the N-terminal region (ΔN) also improved the resolution. A 3.3 Å resolution data set for phase determination was obtained from a crystal of selenomethionine-substituted Lys-methylated SelA-ΔN. PMID:22949212

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Aquifex aeolicus SelA, a bacterial selenocysteine synthase.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2012-09-01

    Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid, is synthesized on its specific tRNA (tRNA(Sec)) via a multi-step process. In bacteria, tRNA(Sec) is ligated first with serine by seryl-tRNA synthetase, which is followed by Ser-to-Sec conversion by Sec synthase (SelA). To elucidate its structure and catalytic mechanism, Aquifex aeolicus SelA was crystallized. Although wild-type SelA crystals diffracted X-rays poorly (to up to 8 Å resolution), the resolution was improved by introducing a quadruple point mutation targeting the loop regions and by methylating the lysine residues, which yielded 3.9 Å resolution diffraction data from a full-length SelA crystal. Truncation of the N-terminal region (ΔN) also improved the resolution. A 3.3 Å resolution data set for phase determination was obtained from a crystal of selenomethionine-substituted Lys-methylated SelA-ΔN. PMID:22949212

  12. Effect of particle size of rice flour on physical and sensory properties of Sel-roti.

    PubMed

    Subba, Dilip; Katawal, Surendra Bahadur

    2013-02-01

    Sel-roti is a delicious, deep-fat fried, puffed, ring shaped spongy doughnut like Nepalese indigenous food prepared from the batter of rice flour, ghee and sugar. A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of rice flour on bulk density, oil uptake and texture of Sel-roti. Rice was soaked in water and ground with the help of iron mortar and pestle and the flour was analyzed for particle size distribution by using standard sieves and separated into three particle size categories as coarse (> 890 u), medium (120-890 u) and fine (< 120 u). The rice flour of different particle sizes were mixed in different proportions and Sel-roti was prepared from these flours. Bulk density and oil uptake were determined and sensory test was carried out. The results showed significant good positive correlation between mean particle size and bulk density (r = 0.97, p ≤ 0.05) and a good negative correlation between mean particle size and oil-uptake (r = 0.90, p ≤ 0.05). Good positive correlation of mean particle size with texture attributes like hardness (r = 0.99, p ≤ 0.05) and fracturability (r = 0.96, p ≤ 0.05) and good negative correlation with smoothness (r  = -0.97, p ≤ 0.05), cohesiveness (r = -0.92, p ≤ 0.05), stickiness (r = -0.76, p ≤ 0.05) and oily mouth feel (r = -0.85, p ≤ 0.05) and fair positive correlation with chewiness (r = 0.65, p > 0.05) were found. PMID:24425906

  13. Dimer-dimer interaction of the bacterial selenocysteine synthase SelA promotes functional active-site formation and catalytic specificity.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Bröcker, Markus J; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Söll, Dieter; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-04-17

    The 21st amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), is incorporated translationally into proteins and is synthesized on its specific tRNA (tRNA(Sec)). In Bacteria, the selenocysteine synthase SelA converts Ser-tRNA(Sec), formed by seryl-tRNA synthetase, to Sec-tRNA(Sec). SelA, a member of the fold-type-I pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme superfamily, has an exceptional homodecameric quaternary structure with a molecular mass of about 500kDa. Our previously determined crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus SelA complexed with tRNA(Sec) revealed that the ring-shaped decamer is composed of pentamerized SelA dimers, with two SelA dimers arranged to collaboratively interact with one Ser-tRNA(Sec). The SelA catalytic site is close to the dimer-dimer interface, but the significance of the dimer pentamerization in the catalytic site formation remained elusive. In the present study, we examined the quaternary interactions and demonstrated their importance for SelA activity by systematic mutagenesis. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of "depentamerized" SelA variants with mutations at the dimer-dimer interface that prevent pentamerization. These dimeric SelA variants formed a distorted and inactivated catalytic site and confirmed that the pentamer interactions are essential for productive catalytic site formation. Intriguingly, the conformation of the non-functional active site of dimeric SelA shares structural features with other fold-type-I pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes with native dimer or tetramer (dimer-of-dimers) quaternary structures. PMID:24456689

  14. An Integrated Approach to Universal Prevention: Independent and Combined Effects of PBIS and SEL on Youths’ Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Clayton R.; Frye, Megan; Slemrod, Tal; Lyon, Aaron R.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Zhang, Yanchen

    2015-01-01

    Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to achieve prevention-oriented goals. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) are two of the most widely-adopted, evidence-based approaches that have been advocated to address student mental health. These universal prevention approaches, however, stem from different theoretical camps and are often advocated and implemented apart from one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on student mental health outcomes. A quasi-randomized control design at the classroom-level was used to make comparisons across four conditions: business-as-usual (BAU), PBIS alone, SEL alone, and COMBO condition with regard to their acceptability to teachers, integrity of program delivery, and student outcomes. As predicted, the COMBO condition produced significantly greater improvements in overall mental health and reductions in externalizing behaviors when compared to all other conditions. The results also indicated that the PBIS and SEL only conditions were both able to produce significant improvements in overall mental health functioning as compared to the BAU control. The implications of an integrated approach for school-based universal prevention and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25602629

  15. Holding the Line: Sustaining an SEL-Driven Whole-School Approach in a Time of Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasler, Jonathan; Elias, Maurice J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of research has focused on the sustainability of evidence-based interventions aimed at promoting the social emotional and character development of children (SEL) and preventing or reducing problem behaviors in schools. Current discussions of systemic reform in the education system address the capacity of individual schools…

  16. Multi-processing control system for the SEL 840MP (MPCS/1) users guide. Volume 1: Programming guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A programmer's manual is presented for the SEL 840MP multiprocessing control system MPCS. The topics discussed include task control; defining displays; MPCS calls for task control functions; MPCS calls and system interfaces for display functions; MPCS calls for input/output functions and services, file management, and utility services; and MPCS assembly language call sequence summary.

  17. Safe and Sound: An Educational Leader's Guide to Evidence-Based Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) Programs. Illinois Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Based on a three-year study funded by the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (OSDFS) in the U.S. Department of Education, "Safe and Sound" is a comprehensive and inclusive guide for social and emotional learning (SEL) programming. The guide provides a road map for schools and districts that are launching or adding social, emotional, and academic…

  18. An integrated approach to universal prevention: Independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on youths' mental health.

    PubMed

    Cook, Clayton R; Frye, Megan; Slemrod, Tal; Lyon, Aaron R; Renshaw, Tyler L; Zhang, Yanchen

    2015-06-01

    Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to achieve prevention-oriented goals. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) are 2 of the most widely adopted, evidence-based approaches that have been advocated to address student mental health. These universal prevention approaches, however, stem from different theoretical camps and are often advocated and implemented apart from one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on student mental health outcomes. A quasi-randomized control design at the classroom level was used to make comparisons across 4 conditions: business-as-usual (BAU), PBIS alone, SEL alone, and COMBO condition with regard to their acceptability to teachers, integrity of program delivery, and student outcomes. As predicted, the COMBO condition produced significantly greater improvements in overall mental health and reductions in externalizing behaviors when compared to all other conditions. The results also indicated that the PBIS- and SEL-only conditions were both able to produce significant improvements in overall mental health functioning as compared with the BAU control. The implications of an integrated approach for school-based universal prevention and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25602629

  19. Helicobacter pylori Evolution: Lineage- Specific Adaptations in Homologs of Eukaryotic Sel1-Like Genes

    PubMed Central

    Mittl, Peer R. E; Lee, Hae-Kyung; Dailide, Geidrius; Tan, Shumin; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Secka, Ousman; Dailidiene, Daiva; Putty, Kalyani; Berg, Douglas E; Kalia, Awdhesh

    2007-01-01

    Geographic partitioning is postulated to foster divergence of Helicobacter pylori populations as an adaptive response to local differences in predominant host physiology. H. pylori's ability to establish persistent infection despite host inflammatory responses likely involves active management of host defenses using bacterial proteins that may themselves be targets for adaptive evolution. Sequenced H. pylori genomes encode a family of eight or nine secreted proteins containing repeat motifs that are characteristic of the eukaryotic Sel1 regulatory protein, whereas the related Campylobacter and Wolinella genomes each contain only one or two such “Sel1-like repeat” (SLR) genes (“slr genes”). Signatures of positive selection (ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations, dN/dS = ω > 1) were evident in the evolutionary history of H. pylori slr gene family expansion. Sequence analysis of six of these slr genes (hp0160, hp0211, hp0235, hp0519, hp0628, and hp1117) from representative East Asian, European, and African H. pylori strains revealed that all but hp0628 had undergone positive selection, with different amino acids often selected in different regions. Most striking was a divergence of Japanese and Korean alleles of hp0519, with Japanese alleles having undergone particularly strong positive selection (ωJ > 25), whereas alleles of other genes from these populations were intermingled. Homology-based structural modeling localized most residues under positive selection to SLR protein surfaces. Rapid evolution of certain slr genes in specific H. pylori lineages suggests a model of adaptive change driven by selection for fine-tuning of host responses, and facilitated by geographic isolation. Characterization of such local adaptations should help elucidate how H. pylori manages persistent infection, and potentially lead to interventions tailored to diverse human populations. PMID:17696605

  20. Reverse genetic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans presenilins reveals redundant but unequal roles for sel-12 and hop-1 in Notch-pathway signaling

    PubMed Central

    Westlund, Bethany; Parry, Dianne; Clover, Ralph; Basson, Michael; Johnson, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Mutations in the human presenilin genes PS1 and PS2 cause early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mice indicate that one function of presenilin genes is to facilitate Notch-pathway signaling. Notably, mutations in the C. elegans presenilin gene sel-12 reduce signaling through an activated version of the Notch receptor LIN-12. To investigate the function of a second C. elegans presenilin gene hop-1 and to examine possible genetic interactions between hop-1 and sel-12, we used a reverse genetic strategy to isolate deletion alleles of both loci. Animals bearing both hop-1 and sel-12 deletions displayed new phenotypes not observed in animals bearing either single deletion. These new phenotypes—germ-line proliferation defects, maternal-effect embryonic lethality, and somatic gonad defects—resemble those resulting from a reduction in signaling through the C. elegans Notch receptors GLP-1 and LIN-12. Thus SEL-12 and HOP-1 appear to function redundantly in promoting Notch-pathway signaling. Phenotypic analyses of hop-1 and sel-12 single and double mutant animals suggest that sel-12 provides more presenilin function than does hop-1. PMID:10051671

  1. SEL1L SNP rs12435998, a predictor of glioblastoma survival and response to radio-chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Storaci, Alessandra Maria; Annovazzi, Laura; Cassoni, Paola; Melcarne, Antonio; De Blasio, Pasquale; Schiffer, Davide; Biunno, Ida

    2015-01-01

    The suppressor of Lin-12-like (C. elegans) (SEL1L) is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation pathway, malignant transformation and stem cells. In 412 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tumors and 39 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, we determined the frequency of five SEL1L single nucleotide genetic variants with regulatory and coding functions by a SNaPShot™ assay. We tested their possible association with brain tumor risk, prognosis and therapy. We studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of valproic acid (VPA), temozolomide (TMZ), doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), alone or in combination, on 11 GBM cell lines, with respect to the SNP rs12435998 genotype. The SNP rs12435998 was prevalent in anaplastic and malignant gliomas, and in meningiomas of all histologic grades, but unrelated to brain tumor risks. In GBM patients, the SNP rs12435998 was associated with prolonged overall survival (OS) and better response to TMZ-based radio-chemotherapy. GBM stem cells with this SNP showed lower levels of SEL1L expression and enhanced sensitivity to VPA. PMID:25948789

  2. Hardening techniques to counter cumulated dose on SEU and SEL in space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessot, D.

    1991-04-01

    The total dose effect of space particles acting on semiconductor devices by creating charges in the silicon and the silicon dioxide and by creating displacement damage, from the beginning of charge creation to the parameter shifts, is reviewed. Detailed investigations on three phenomena are described: the Single Event Upset (SEU) caused by the heavy ions and the protons which come from the galactic rays and resulting in a transient upset of a critical node voltage; the Single Event Latchup (SEL) caused by the galactic and solar flares cosmic heavy ions and which may be destructive; the displacement damage induced by high energy trapped protons lying in the radiation belts (Van Allen), which involves the creation of permanent defaults over time which act on the mean carrier life, the carrier mobility and the resistivity, thus increasing either generation or recombination rate. These studies allow definition of techniques for the design and fabrication of circuits that are the least vulnerable to radiation. Simulation and test give guarantee that these new techniques assure the margins of the desired specification in space applications.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the mRNA-binding domain of elongation factor SelB from Escherichia coli in complex with RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, Nicolas; Fourmy, Dominique; Yoshizawa, Satoko

    2007-05-01

    The mRNA-binding domain of E. coli selenocysteine-specific elongation factor SelB (residues 478–614; SelB-WH3/4) was overproduced in E. coli and its cognate mRNA ligand, 23 nucleotides of the SECIS RNA hairpin, was prepared by in vitro transcription. The purified SelB-WH3/4–SECIS RNA complex crystallized in space group C2 and diffracted to 2.3 Å. In bacteria, selenocysteine (the 21st amino acid) is incorporated into proteins via machinery that includes SelB, a specific translational elongation factor. SelB binds to an mRNA hairpin called the selenocysteine-insertion sequence (SECIS) and delivers selenocysteyl-tRNA{sup Sec} to the ribosomal A site. The minimum C-terminal fragment (residues 478–614) of Escherichia coli SelB (SelB-WH3/4) required for SECIS binding has been overexpressed and purified. This protein was crystallized in complex with 23 nucleotides of the SECIS hairpin at 294 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A data set was collected to 2.3 Å resolution from a single crystal at 100 K using ESRF beamline BM-30. The crystal belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.50, b = 56.51, c = 48.41 Å. The asymmetric unit contains one WH3/4-domain–RNA complex. The Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 3.37 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and the solvent content was estimated to be 67.4%.

  4. The Sel1L-Hrd1 Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Complex Manages a Key Checkpoint in B Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yewei; Kim, Hana; Yang, Liu; Sha, Haibo; Roman, Christopher A; Long, Qiaoming; Qi, Ling

    2016-09-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a principal mechanism that targets ER-associated proteins for cytosolic proteasomal degradation. Here, our data demonstrate a critical role for the Sel1L-Hrd1 complex, the most conserved branch of ERAD, in early B cell development. Loss of Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD in B cell precursors leads to a severe developmental block at the transition from large to small pre-B cells. Mechanistically, we show that Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD selectively recognizes and targets the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) for proteasomal degradation in a BiP-dependent manner. The pre-BCR complex accumulates both intracellularly and at the cell surface in Sel1L-deficient pre-B cells, leading to persistent pre-BCR signaling and pre-B cell proliferation. This study thus implicates ERAD mediated by Sel1L-Hrd1 as a key regulator of B cell development and reveals the molecular mechanism underpinning the transient nature of pre-BCR signaling. PMID:27568564

  5. A new approach to the analysis of SEU and SEL data to obtain the sensitive volume thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Barak, J.; Levinson, J.; Akkerman, A.; Zentner, A.; David, D.; Even, O.; Lifshitz, Y.; Hass, M.; Victoria, M.

    1996-06-01

    It is proposed to use short-range ions (along with long-range ions) to obtain the thickness of the sensitive volume, d, and the SEU and SEL cross sections vs the energy deposited in this volume, {sigma}{sub ion}({var_epsilon}). These {sigma}{sub ion}({var_epsilon}) and d can be used for calculating the proton induced cross sections {sigma}{sub p}. A study of HM65162 demonstrates this method. The calculated {sigma}{sub p} is in good agreement with the experimental {sigma}{sub p}.

  6. Kinetics of the interaction of translation factor SelB from Escherichia coli with guanosine nucleotides and selenocysteine insertion sequence RNA.

    PubMed

    Thanbichler, M; Bock, A; Goody, R S

    2000-07-01

    The kinetics of the interaction of GTP and GDP with SelB, the specific translation factor for the incorporation of selenocysteine into proteins, have been investigated using the stopped-flow method. Useful signals were obtained using intrinsic (i.e. tryptophan) fluorescence, the fluorescence of methylanthraniloyl derivatives of nucleotides, or fluorescence resonance energy transfer from tryptophan to the methylanthraniloyl group. The affinities of SelB for GTP (K(d) = 0.74 micrometer) and GDP (K(d) = 13.4 micrometer) were considerably lower than those of other translation factors. Of functional significance is the fact that the rate constant for GDP release from its complex with SelB (15 s(-)(1)) is many orders of magnitude larger than for elongation factor Tu, explaining why a GDP/GTP exchange factor is not required for the action of SelB. In contrast, the rate of release of GTP is 2 orders of magnitude slower and not significantly faster than for elongation factor Tu. Using a fluorescently labeled 17-nucleotide RNA minihelix that represents a binding site for the protein and that is part of the fdhF selenocysteine insertion sequence element positioned immediately downstream of the UGA triplet coding for selenocysteine incorporation, the kinetics of the interaction were studied. The high affinity of the interaction (K(d) approximately 1 nm) appeared to be increased even further when selenocysteyl-tRNA(Sec) was bound to SelB, but to be independent of the presence or nature of the guanosine nucleotide at the active site. These results suggest that the affinity of SelB for its RNA binding site is maximized when charged tRNA is bound and decreases to allow dissociation and reading of codons downstream of the selenocysteine codon after selenocysteine peptide bond formation. PMID:10781605

  7. Inactivation of the selB Gene in Methanococcus maripaludis: Effect on Synthesis of Selenoproteins and Their Sulfur-Containing Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Michael; Mathes, Isabella; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Böck, August

    2003-01-01

    The genome of Methanococcus maripaludis harbors genes for at least six selenocysteine-containing proteins and also for homologs that contain a cysteine codon in the position of the UGA selenocysteine codon. To investigate the synthesis and function of both the Se and the S forms, a mutant with an inactivated selB gene was constructed and analyzed. The mutant was unable to synthesize any of the selenoproteins, thus proving that the gene product is the archaeal translation factor (aSelB) specialized for selenocysteine insertion. The wild-type form of M. maripaludis repressed the synthesis of the S forms of selenoproteins, i.e., the selenium-independent alternative system, in selenium-enriched medium, but the mutant did not. We concluded that free selenium is not involved in regulation but rather a successional compound such as selenocysteyl-tRNA or some selenoprotein. Apart from the S forms, several enzymes from the general methanogenic route were affected by selenium supplementation of the wild type or by the selB mutation. Although the growth of M. maripaludis on H2/CO2 is only marginally affected by the selB lesion, the gene is indispensable for growth on formate because M. maripaludis possesses only a selenocysteine-containing formate dehydrogenase. PMID:12486046

  8. The limits of applicability of the sound exposure level (SEL) metric to temporal threshold shifts (TTS) in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V

    2014-05-15

    The influence of fatiguing sound level and duration on post-exposure temporary threshold shift (TTS) was investigated in two beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The fatiguing sound was half-octave noise with a center frequency of 22.5 kHz. TTS was measured at a test frequency of 32 kHz. Thresholds were measured by recording rhythmic evoked potentials (the envelope following response) to a test series of short (eight cycles) tone pips with a pip rate of 1000 s(-1). TTS increased approximately proportionally to the dB measure of both sound pressure (sound pressure level, SPL) and duration of the fatiguing noise, as a product of these two variables. In particular, when the noise parameters varied in a manner that maintained the product of squared sound pressure and time (sound exposure level, SEL, which is equivalent to the overall noise energy) at a constant level, TTS was not constant. Keeping SEL constant, the highest TTS appeared at an intermediate ratio of SPL to sound duration and decreased at both higher and lower ratios. Multiplication (SPL multiplied by log duration) better described the experimental data than an equal-energy (equal SEL) model. The use of SEL as a sole universal metric may result in an implausible assessment of the impact of a fatiguing sound on hearing thresholds in odontocetes, including under-evaluation of potential risks. PMID:24829327

  9. Software Transition Project Retrospectives and the Application of SEL Effort Estimation Model and Boehm's COCOMO to Complex Software Transition Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeill, Justin

    1995-01-01

    The Multimission Image Processing Subsystem (MIPS) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has managed transitions of application software sets from one operating system and hardware platform to multiple operating systems and hardware platforms. As a part of these transitions, cost estimates were generated from the personal experience of in-house developers and managers to calculate the total effort required for such projects. Productivity measures have been collected for two such transitions, one very large and the other relatively small in terms of source lines of code. These estimates used a cost estimation model similar to the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Effort Estimation Model. Experience in transitioning software within JPL MIPS have uncovered a high incidence of interface complexity. Interfaces, both internal and external to individual software applications, have contributed to software transition project complexity, and thus to scheduling difficulties and larger than anticipated design work on software to be ported.

  10. Hydrogeochemical investigation of Küçük Menderes River coastal wetland, Selçuk-Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somay, A. Melis; Gemici, Ünsal; Filiz, Sevki

    2008-07-01

    Küçük Menderes River forms a rich coastal wetland inside in the Selçuk plain. Three saline/brackish lakes, one swamp and Küçük Menderes River are these wetlands’ components. Alkaline-slightly alkaline type lakes are recharged from precipitation and karstic springs that discharge from marble-schist and marble-alluvium contacts in the northern and southern parts of the study area. Water types of the wetland are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Mg-HCO3-Cl in both rainy and dry seasons. Both seawater intrusion and evaporation, as being the sources of the ions, justify the presence of Na-Cl, Na-SO4 and Cl-SO4, in the wetland water. Environmental isotopes were used to identify the relationship between wetland and groundwater in the Selçuk plain. The δ18O and δD composition of wetland area samples have changed between -6.42 to -4.56‰, and -36.40 to -23.80‰, respectively. The lakes and rivers are plotted on the mixing line by slope of 5.2 and these data indicate that wetland is affected from seawater intrusion. The recharge area that was sampled in order to compare the wetland has Ca-HCO3 water type with a neutral-slightly alkaline pH values and the main hydrogeochemical process is weathering the different types of silicates. Iron, manganese and selenium are the dominant minor ions due to the high biological activities and organic matters in the lakes. There are two contamination risks for this wetland: (1) waste disposal site and (2) water treatment plant where the purified waters are released into the river. EC, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe and Zn values exceed those of aquatic life standards. In the near future these sites will pose a danger for wetland wild life and surrounding irrigation water suppliers.

  11. Selenium Supplementation in Fish: A Combined Chemical and Biomolecular Study to Understand Sel-Plex Assimilation and Impact on Selenoproteome Expression in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, John; Martin, Samuel A. M.; Feldmann, Jörg; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential oligonutrient, as a component of several Se-containing proteins (selenoproteins), which exert important biological functions within an organism. In livestock, Se-enriched products have been proposed as dietary supplements to be included into functional feeds for animal preventive health care. To this end, it is important to understand the optimal range of concentrations for supplementation and how long it takes to be assimilated into the organism. Methods In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed a control diet containing 0.9 g Kg-1 Se or the same diet supplemented with a Se-Yeast product (Sel-Plex) to achieve Se concentrations ranging from 1.5–8.9 g Kg-1 for a period of ten weeks. Fish were sampled every two weeks for analysis. The kinetics of Se bioaccumulation and the effects on fish selenoprotein expression was determined in different tissues combining chemical and bimolecular techniques. Results The Sel-Plex enriched diets did not have any effect on survival and growth performance. The highest Se levels were found in liver and kidney followed by muscle and blood cells. Analysis of the Se concentration factor showed that liver is able to initially regulate the amount of Se accumulated. However, with higher dietary Se level (4.8 and 8.9 g Kg-1) and longer times of exposure (10 weeks), regulation is ineffective and the Se tissue concentration increases. The expression of the selected trout selenoprotein transcripts showed an inverse correlation with Sel-Plex augmentation in most cases. In liver, kidney and blood cells the highest up-regulation of the trout selenoprotein genes was seen mostly in the group fed the diet enriched with the lowest concentration of Sel-Plex (0.5 g Kg-1) for 10 weeks. Conclusion Sel-Plex may represent an excellent Se supplement to deliver a high level of Se without provoking harm to the fish and to guarantee the maximal absorption of the element. According to our results, a

  12. [cDNA cloning, expression and determination of substrate specificity of mice selenocysteine-containing protein SelV (Selenoprotein V)].

    PubMed

    Varlamova, E G; Novoselov, S V; Novoselov, V I

    2015-01-01

    To date various bioinformatics tools allowed to identify 25 selenocysteine-containing mammalian proteins. The name of these proteins assumes that they contain the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). Functionally characterized selenocysteine-containing proteins are oxidoreductases with various functions, including glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, deiodinases etc. However, the functions of more than half of identified proteins are still unclear, and mammalian selenoprotein SeIV is among them. We studied the selV in all stages of postnatal development with the maximum level of mRNA expression during puberty, whereas in adult mice (8-18 months) we observed a gradual decrease of expression. In order to get closer to the functional role of Selenoprotein V, we have carried out experiments on the substrate specificity and enzymatic activity measurement of this selenocysteine-containing protein. It was shown that SelV posseses glutathionperoxidase and thioredoxinreductase activities. PMID:26510596

  13. Effects of Dietary Selenium Supplementation on Seminiferous Tubules and SelW, GPx4, LHCGR, and ACE Expression in Chicken Testis.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Ahmed; Khudhair, Nagam; He, Huang; Peng, Zheng; Yaguang, Tian; Guixue, Zhang

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary selenium (Se) supplementation on the development of chicken testis and the expression of selenoprotein W (SelW), glutathione peroxidase4 (GPx4), luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Sixty roosters were assigned randomly into the control group fed with a basic diet (containing 0.3 mg Se/kg) and the experimental group fed with a diet (containing 0.6 mg Se/kg). The testes were collected individually at age of 6, 9, and 12 weeks. Se was supplemented in chicken feed for 15 days before sampling. The results indicated that dietary Se affected the number of cells in the seminiferous tubules and viability of Sertoli cells in vitro culture. SelW and GPx4 expression in the testes increased significantly in the experimental group compared to that in the control group. LHCGR expression in the testes increased significantly in the experimental group after 12 weeks compared to that in the control group. In contrast, ACE expression was inhibited in the experimental group compared to that in the control group. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with Se improved development of the seminiferous tubules at the cellular level and that SelW, GPx4, LHCGR, and ACE are involved. PMID:26899318

  14. Rétention de sels simples par une membrane chargée d'ultrafiltration à base d'alumine gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benalla, R.; Persin, M.; Toreis, N.; Sarrazin, J.; Larbot, A.; Bouhaouss, A.

    1999-09-01

    Filtration of different electrolytes solutions was performed by means of a γ alumina ultrafiltration membrane. The experimental determination of the rejection rate for the salts leads to their phenomenologic parameters σ and P. The observed rejection are in agreement with a Donnan mechanism of exclusion of the coion outside of the membrane pore. Une membrane d'ultrafiltration en alumine γ a été utilisée pour la filtration de différentes solutions salines. Les rétentions des différents sels ont été d'abord mesurées à l'aide de cette membrane puis les coefficients de réflexion σ et les perméabilités P pour chaque sel ont été déterminées. La rétention des sels peut être expliquée par un mécanisme d'exclusion de type Donnan.

  15. Detection of Lactate with a Hadamard Slice Selected, Selective Multiple Quantum Coherence, Chemical Shift Imaging Sequence (HDMD-SelMQC-CSI) on a clinical MRI scanner: Application to Tumors and Muscle Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Eric A.; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Pickup, Stephen; Kim, Sungheon; Goldstein, Steven C.; Floyd, Thomas F.; Poptani, Harish; Delikatny, E. James; Reddy, Ravinder; Glickson, Jerry D.

    2010-01-01

    Lactate is an important metabolite in normal and malignant tissues detectable by NMR spectroscopy; however, it has been difficult to clinically detect the lactate methyl resonance because it is obscured by lipid resonances. The selective homonuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer (SelMQC) technique offers a method for distinguishing lipid and lactate resonances. We implemented a 3D SelMQC version with Hadamard slice selection and 2D phase encoding (HDMD-SelMQC-CSI) on a conventional clinical MR scanner. Hadamard slice selection is explained and demonstrated in vivo. This is followed by 1cm3 resolution lactate imaging with detection to 5 mM concentration in 20 minutes on a 3T clinical scanner. An analysis of quantum selection gradient duration and amplitude effects on lactate and lipid signal is presented. To demonstrate clinical feasibility, a 5 minute lactate scan of a patient with a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the superficial thigh is reported. The elevated lactate signal coincides with the T2-weighted image of this tumor. As a test of SelMQC sensitivity, a thigh tourniquet was applied to a normal volunteer and an increase in lactate was detected immediately after tourniquet flow constriction. In conclusion, the HDMD-SelMQC-CSI sequence is demonstrated on a phantom and in two lipid-rich, clinically relevant, in vivo conditions. PMID:19785016

  16. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Genomic Island Integrated at selC in Locus of Enterocyte Effacement-Negative, Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, H.; Zhang, W.-L.; Hemmrich, U.; Jelacic, S.; Brunder, W.; Tarr, P. I.; Dobrindt, U.; Hacker, J.; Karch, H.

    2001-01-01

    The selC tRNA gene is a common site for the insertion of pathogenicity islands in a variety of bacterial enteric pathogens. We demonstrate here that Escherichia coli that produces Shiga toxin 2d and does not harbor the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) contains, instead, a novel genomic island. In one representative strain (E. coli O91:H− strain 4797/97), this island is 33,014 bp long and, like LEE in E. coli O157:H7, is integrated 15 bp downstream of selC. This E. coli O91:H− island contains genes encoding a novel serine protease, termed EspI; an adherence-associated locus, similar to iha of E. coli O157:H7; an E. coli vitamin B12 receptor (BtuB); an AraC-type regulatory module; and four homologues of E. coli phosphotransferase proteins. The remaining sequence consists largely of complete and incomplete insertion sequences, prophage sequences, and an intact phage integrase gene that is located directly downstream of the chromosomal selC. Recombinant EspI demonstrates serine protease activity using pepsin A and human apolipoprotein A-I as substrates. We also detected Iha-reactive protein in outer membranes of a recombinant clone and 10 LEE-negative, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains by immunoblot analysis. Using PCR analysis of various STEC, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, uropathogenic E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli strains, we detected the iha homologue in 59 (62%) of 95 strains tested. In contrast, espI and btuB were present in only two (2%) and none of these strains, respectively. We conclude that the newly described island occurs exclusively in a subgroup of STEC strains that are eae negative and contain the variant stx2d gene. PMID:11598060

  17. A SEL1L Mutation Links a Canine Progressive Early-Onset Cerebellar Ataxia to the Endoplasmic Reticulum–Associated Protein Degradation (ERAD) Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Seppälä, Eija H.; Suhonen, Esko; Jeserevics, Janis; Sukura, Antti; Syrjä, Pernilla; Lohi, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    Inherited ataxias are characterized by degeneration of the cerebellar structures, which results in progressive motor incoordination. Hereditary ataxias occur in many species, including humans and dogs. Several mutations have been found in humans, but the genetic background has remained elusive in dogs. The Finnish Hound suffers from an early-onset progressive cerebellar ataxia. We have performed clinical, pathological, and genetic studies to describe the disease phenotype and to identify its genetic cause. Neurological examinations on ten affected dogs revealed rapidly progressing generalized cerebellar ataxia, tremors, and failure to thrive. Clinical signs were present by the age of 3 months, and cerebellar shrinkage was detectable through MRI. Pathological and histological examinations indicated cerebellum-restricted neurodegeneration. Marked loss of Purkinje cells was detected in the cerebellar cortex with secondary changes in other cortical layers. A genome-wide association study in a cohort of 31 dogs mapped the ataxia gene to a 1.5 Mb locus on canine chromosome 8 (praw = 1.1×10−7, pgenome = 7.5×10−4). Sequencing of a functional candidate gene, sel-1 suppressor of lin-12-like (SEL1L), revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.1972T>C; p.Ser658Pro, in a highly conserved protein domain. The mutation segregated fully in the recessive pedigree, and a 10% carrier frequency was indicated in a population cohort. SEL1L is a component of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–associated protein degradation (ERAD) machinery and has not been previously associated to inherited ataxias. Dysfunctional protein degradation is known to cause ER stress, and we found a significant increase in expression of nine ER stress responsive genes in the cerebellar cortex of affected dogs, supporting the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our study describes the first early-onset neurodegenerative ataxia mutation in dogs, establishes an ERAD–mediated neurodegenerative disease model

  18. Down-modulation of SEL1L, an unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation protein, sensitizes glioma stem cells to the cytotoxic effect of valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Monica; Baronchelli, Simona; Schiffer, Davide; Mellai, Marta; Caldera, Valentina; Saccani, Gloria Jotti; Dalpra, Leda; Daga, Antonio; Orlandi, Rosaria; DeBlasio, Pasquale; Biunno, Ida

    2014-01-31

    Valproic acid (VPA), an histone deacetylase inhibitor, is emerging as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatments of gliomas by virtue of its ability to reactivate the expression of epigenetically silenced genes. VPA induces the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive pathway displaying a dichotomic yin yang characteristic; it initially contributes in safeguarding the malignant cell survival, whereas long-lasting activation favors a proapoptotic response. By triggering UPR, VPA might tip the balance between cellular adaptation and programmed cell death via the deregulation of protein homeostasis and induction of proteotoxicity. Here we aimed to investigate the impact of proteostasis on glioma stem cells (GSC) using VPA treatment combined with subversion of SEL1L, a crucial protein involved in homeostatic pathways, cancer aggressiveness, and stem cell state maintenance. We investigated the global expression of GSC lines untreated and treated with VPA, SEL1L interference, and GSC line response to VPA treatment by analyzing cell viability via MTT assay, neurosphere formation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR-responsive proteins. Moreover, SEL1L immunohistochemistry was performed on primary glial tumors. The results show that (i) VPA affects GSC lines viability and anchorage-dependent growth by inducing differentiative programs and cell cycle progression, (ii) SEL1L down-modulation synergy enhances VPA cytotoxic effects by influencing GSCs proliferation and self-renewal properties, and (iii) SEL1L expression is indicative of glioma proliferation rate, malignancy, and endoplasmic reticulum stress statuses. Targeting the proteostasis network in association to VPA treatment may provide an alternative approach to deplete GSC and improve glioma treatments. PMID:24311781

  19. La teneur en iode du sel de cuisine consommé à Lubumbashi et le statut iode des personnes vulnérables: cas de femmes enceintes de milieux défavorisés

    PubMed Central

    Banza, Bienvenue Ilunga; Lumbu, Jean Baptiste Simbi; Donnen, Philippe; Twite, Eugène Kabange; Kwete, Daniel Mikobi; Kazadi, Costa Mwadianvita; Ozoza, Jean Okolonken; Habimana, Laurence; Kalenga, Prosper Muenze Kayamba; Robert, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La consommation du sel faiblement iodé peut engendrer des troubles divers liés à la carence iodée Ce travail a pour objectif d’évaluer la teneur en iode du sel consommé à Lubumbashi et de déterminer le statut iodé des femmes enceintes, cible privilégiée de la carence iodée. Méthodes Une étude transversale descriptive a été consacrée à une analyse iodométrique d'iode dans 739 échantillons de sel collectés dans les ménages et marchés de Lubumbashi en 2014. Précédemment, l'iode urinaire a été déterminé par la technique de minéralisation au persulfate d'ammonium chez 225 femmes enceintes reçues en consultation du 15 mars 2009 au 25 avril 2011. Résultats Notre enquête a révélé 47,5% des échantillons de sels de cuisine adéquatement iodés (15 à 40 ppm), 36,9% d’échantillons faiblement iodés, 7,4% d’échantillons trop riches en iode et 8,1% des échantillons non iodés. La disponibilité en iode du sel de cuisine analysé était globalement de 54,9%, se trouvant nettement en dessous des normes OMS (90%). En mesurant l'iode urinaire chez la femme enceinte, la carence iodée (iode urinaire <150 µg/l) a été observée dans une proportion de 52%. Conclusion La faible disponibilité en iode du sel consommé à Lubumbashi pourrait être responsable d'une grande proportion de la carence iodée observée chez la femme enceinte, ce qui expose celle-ci aux risques majeurs des troubles dus à la carence en iode. PMID:27279956

  20. Detecting flooded areas with machine learning techniques: case study of the Selška Sora river flash flood in September 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamovec, Peter; Veljanovski, Tatjana; Mikoš, Matjaž; Oštir, Krištof

    2013-01-01

    Floods seem to appear with increased frequency from one year to another. They create great damage to property and in some cases even result in lost lives. However, a quick and effective response by rescue services can greatly reduce the consequences. Machine learning techniques can reduce the time necessary for flood mapping. We test various machine learning methods to find the one with the highest classification accuracy. We also present the most important points for quick and effective machine learning procedures on remote sensing data. First, the data must be prepared correctly. We use satellite images, digital terrain models (DTMs), and the river network. The data in its primary form (e.g., bands of multispectral satellite images or DTMs) is insufficient. We also need certain derived attributes, such as the vegetation index or the slope derived from the DTM. Second, we must select suitable training samples and a suitable machine learning method. This approach to determining floods is presented in a case study of flash floods in the Selška Sora river valley. Machine learning techniques have proven successful in quickly determining flooded areas. The best results are produced by the J48 decision tree algorithm. The success of the ensemble machine learning methods is comparable to the J48 algorithm, while the JRip classification is not as good.

  1. SEU and SEL response of the Westinghouse 64K E{sup 2}PROM, analog devices AD7876 12-bit ADC, and the Intel 82527 Serial Communications Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, F.W.; Hash, G.L.; Connors, M.P.; Murray, J.R.; Schwank, J.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Bradley, E.G.

    1994-12-01

    The Westinghouse SA3823 64K E{sup 2}PROM radiation-hardened SONOS non-volatile memory exhibited a single-event-upset (SEU) threshold in the read mode of 60 MeV-cm{sup 2}/mg and 40 MeV-cm{sup 2}/mg for data latch errors. The minimum threshold for address latch errors was 35 MeV-cm{sup 2}/mg. Hard errors were observed with Kr at V{sub p} = 8.5 V and with Xe at Programming voltages (V{sub p}) as low as 7.5 V. NO hard errors were observed with Cu at any angle up to V{sub p} = II V. The system specification of no hard errors for Ar ions or lighter was exceeded. No single-event latchup (SEL) was observed in these devices for the conditions examined. The Analog Devices AD7876 12bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) had an upset threshold of 2 MeV-cm{sup 2}/mg for all values of input voltage (V{sub in}), while the worst-case saturation cross section of {approximately}2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} cm{sup 2} as measured with V{sub in} = 4.49 V. No latchup was observed. The Intel 82C527 serial communications controller exhibited a minimum threshold for upset of 2 MeV-cm{sup 4}/mLi, and a saturation cross section of about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}cm{sup 2}. For latchup the minimum threshold was measured at 17 MeV-cm{sup 2}/mg, and cross section saturated at about 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} cm{sup 2}. Error rates for the expected applications are presented.

  2. SEL Ada reuse analysis and representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Rush

    1990-01-01

    Overall, it was revealed that the pattern of Ada reuse has evolved from initial reuse of utility components into reuse of generalized application architectures. Utility components were both domain-independent utilities, such as queues and stacks, and domain-specific utilities, such as those that implement spacecraft orbit and attitude mathematical functions and physics or astronomical models. The level of reuse was significantly increased with the development of a generalized telemetry simulator architecture. The use of Ada generics significantly increased the level of verbatum reuse, which is due to the ability, using Ada generics, to parameterize the aspects of design that are configurable during reuse. A key factor in implementing generalized architectures was the ability to use generic subprogram parameters to tailor parts of the algorithm embedded within the architecture. The use of object oriented design (in which objects model real world entities) significantly improved the modularity for reuse. Encapsulating into packages the data and operations associated with common real world entities creates natural building blocks for reuse.

  3. A Comprehensive Planning Guide; SEL Pathways to Better Schools. SEL Pathway Series, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Education Lab., Atlanta, GA.

    In an effort to lend technical assistance to rural isolated school systems, the Southeastern Education Laboratory has developed a series of materials and strategies to bring all available resources to bear on local educational problems. First in a series of 7, the "Comprehensive Planning Guide" was developed to assist local school planners in…

  4. Teaching Multiplication of Numbers from 1 to 10 to STKIP Surya Students Using Matematika GASING

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusuma, Josephine; Sulistiawati

    2014-01-01

    Multiplication of numbers from 1 to 10 is very important as it provides the basis for learning multiplication of other larger numbers as well as other related mathematical operations. How do students learn multiplication? Usually students just memorize the results of multiplication. This is often performed without a complete comprehension of the…

  5. Acheii Bahane': Naaki Gone' Yiltsiligii II = Grandfather Stories: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellowhair, Marvin

    At one time all Navaho stories were handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth. Some stories were recorded and then trnsalated into English. In the process of translation, the stories often times lost their meaning. To avoid this, the second volume of "Grandfather Stories," which were told by elders living in the vicinity of Rough…

  6. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Ada performance study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Eric W.; Stark, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the Ada Performance Study are described. The methods used are explained. Guidelines for future Ada development efforts are given. The goals and scope of the study are detailed, and the background of Ada development in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) is presented. The organization and overall purpose of each test are discussed. The purpose, methods, and results of each test and analyses of these results are given. Guidelines for future development efforts based on the analysis of results from this study are provided. The approach used on the performance tests is discussed.

  7. Youth and Schools Today: Why SEL Is Needed. CASEL Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Society and the life experiences of children and youth changed considerably during the last century. Schools today are expected to do more than they have ever done in the past to implement effective educational approaches that promote academic success, enhance health, and prevent problem behaviors have grown significantly. Broad-based, school-wide…

  8. Current research in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D.; Basili, V. R.; Zelkowitz, M.

    1983-01-01

    The basic goal of software engineering is to produce the best possible software at the lowest possible cost. Many practices, tools, and techniques (collectively referred to as technologies) were developed that purport to help do this, some of which have become widely accepted in the software industry. However, few of these technologies were effectively evaluated experimentally. This is due in large part to an insufficient understanding of the software development process, a lack of recognized standards for measurement, and the prohibitive cost of large-scale controlled experiments. The analysis described addresses some of these issues. The specific objectives of this study were to: measure technology use in a production environment; develop a model for evaluating software engineering technologies; and evaluate the effects of productivity and reliability of some specific technologies.

  9. Annotated bibliography of Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D.

    1982-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory is presented. More than 75 publications are summarized. An index of these publications by subject is also included. These publications cover many areas of software engineering and range from research reports to software documentation.

  10. Test results for SEU and SEL immune memory circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, D.; Canaris, J.; Whitaker, S.; Gambles, J.; Arave, K.; Arave, L.

    1993-01-01

    Test results for three SEU logic/circuit hardened CMOS memory circuits verify upset and latch-up immunity for two configurations to be in excess of 120 MeV cm(exp 2)/mg using a commercial, non-radiation hardened CMOS process. Test chips from three separate fabrication runs in two different process were evaluated.

  11. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) compendium of tools, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A set of programs used to aid software product development is listed. Known as software tools, such programs include requirements analyzers, design languages, precompilers, code auditors, code analyzers, and software librarians. Abstracts, resource requirements, documentation, processing summaries, and availability are indicated for most tools.

  12. 'Him bid sona sel': psychiatry in the Anglo-Saxon Leechbooks.

    PubMed

    Pell, Christopher

    2011-12-01

    Classical Greek and Roman writers documented the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric illness in ancient times. Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire however, we find little writing on the topic in early Medieval Europe. Yet in Britain, medical texts survived and were complemented by local traditions and treatments. This article explores the best-known Anglo-Saxon medical texts, the Leechbooks and Lacnunga, for evidence of psychiatric illness and the treatments employed by physicians in the tenth century. The difficulties encountered when working with sources translated from Old English and speculations about the supernatural aetiology ascribed to these illnesses are detailed. The efficacy of the leechdoms (treatments) described are also investigated for both their placebo and potential pharmacological effects. PMID:22530372

  13. USDA's Systematic Entomology Laboratory (SEL): Global leadership and innovation in insect systematics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A longstanding agreement between the USDA and the Smithsonian Institution created the National Insect Collection, one of the premiere entomological resources on the planet. Since its inception, USDA scientists associated with the National Insect Collection have been at the forefront of documenting i...

  14. A study of the portability of an Ada system in the software engineering laboratory (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Linda O.; Valett, Susan Ray

    1990-01-01

    A particular porting effort is discussed, and various statistics on analyzing the portability of Ada and the total staff months (overall and by phase) required to accomplish the rehost, are given. This effort is compared to past experiments on the rehosting of FORTRAN systems. The discussion includes an analysis of the types of errors encountered during the rehosting, the changes required to rehost the system, experiences with the Alsys IBM Ada compiler, the impediments encountered, and the lessons learned during this study.

  15. Analysis of Sel-Gravitating Planetary Satellites in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasenev, S. O.

    As of today there have been more than 180 planetary satellites discovered in the Solar system, and the number of outer moons found continues to grow. Most of those natural satellites have insufficient mass and are able to retain their shape only due to the strength of the electromagnetic force. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moons' physical properties. The analysis of planetary satellites as self-gravitating bodies, i.e. celestial bodies which rely on the weight of their own mass and resulting gravitational force to maintain their shape and tend to bring it closer to the hydrostatic equilibrium, was performed.

  16. Fluage du sel gemme sous très faibles charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérest, Pierre; Blum, Pierre-Antoine; Charpentier, Jean-Pierre; Gharbi, Hakim; Valès, Frédéric

    2004-11-01

    Long-term creep tests have been performed under very small uniaxial loadings ( σ=0.02 to 0.1 MPa). Testing devices were set in an underground gallery, where temperature fluctuations are in the order of one hundredth of a Celsius degree. The mechanical loading was provided by dead weights. The displacements were measured through special sensors whose resolution is Δɛ=10. Strain rates as small as ɛ˙=10 s were measured. The tests prove that constitutive laws deduced from tests performed on rock salt samples under standard mechanical loadings cannot be extrapolated to very small loadings. To cite this article: P. Bérest et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  17. Measuring Ada as a software development technology in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment is in progress to measure the effectiveness of Ada in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center flight dynamics software development environment. The experiment features the parallel development of software in FORTRAN and Ada. The experiment organization, objectives, and status are discussed. Experiences with an Ada training program and data from the development of a 5700-line Ada training exercise are reported.

  18. Usability Characteristics of Sel-Fadministered Computer-Assisted Interviewing in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, D. B.; Nakhasi, A.; Nelson, B.; Rice, S.; Abbott, P. A.; Saber Tehrani, A. S.; Rothman, R. E.; Lehmann, H. P.; Newman-Toker, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Self-administered computer-assisted interviewing (SACAI) gathers accurate information from patients and could facilitate Emergency Department (ED) diagnosis. As part of an ongoing research effort whose long-range goal is to develop automated medical interviewing for diagnostic decision support, we explored usability attributes of SACAI in the ED. Methods Cross-sectional study at two urban, academic EDs. Convenience sample recruited daily over six weeks. Adult, non-level I trauma patients were eligible. We collected data on ease of use (self-reported difficulty, researcher documented need for help), efficiency (mean time-per-click on a standardized interview segment), and error (self-report age mismatched with age derived from electronic health records) when using SACAI on three different instruments: Elo TouchSystems ESY15A2 (finger touch), Toshiba M200 (with digitizer pen), and Motion C5 (with digitizer pen). We calculated descriptive statistics and used regression analysis to evaluate the impact of patient and computer factors on time-per-click. Results 841 participants completed all SACAI questions. Few (<1%) thought using the touch computer to ascertain medical information was difficult. Most (86%) required no assistance. Participants needing help were older (54 ± 19 vs. 40 ± 15 years, p<0.001) and more often lacked internet at home (13.4% vs. 7.3%, p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, female sex (p<0.001), White (p<0.001) and other (p = 0.05) race (vs. Black race), younger age (p<0.001), internet access at home (p<0.001), high school graduation (p = 0.04), and touch screen entry (vs. digitizer pen) (p = 0.01) were independent predictors of decreased time-per-click. Participant misclick errors were infrequent, but, in our sample, occurred only during interviews using a digitizer pen rather than a finger touch-screen interface (1.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.09). Discussion Our results support the facility of interactions between ED patients and SACAI. Demographic factors associated with need for assistance or slower interviews could serve as important triggers to offering human support for SACAI interviews during implementation. Conclusion Understanding human-computer interactions in real-world clinical settings is essential to implementing automated interviewing as means to a larger long-term goal of enhancing clinical care, diagnostic accuracy, and patient safety. PMID:23874364

  19. Crystallization and X-ray analysis of the salmon-egg lectin SEL24K

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Kenji; Fisher, Andrew J.; Hedrick, Jerry L.

    2007-05-01

    The 24 kDa egg lectin of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was purified by affinity chromatography from salmon eggs and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using 15/4 EO/OH (pentaerythritol ethoxylate) as a precipitant. The 24 kDa egg lectin of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is released from the egg during the cortical reaction. The lectin functions in blocking polyspermy during the fertilization process. The egg lectin was purified by affinity chromatography from salmon eggs and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using 15/4 EO/OH (pentaerythritol ethoxylate) as a precipitant. The crystal diffracted synchrotron-radiation X-rays to 1.63 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.0, b = 73.6, c = 113.6 Å, α = 90, β = 92.82, γ = 90°. The crystal is likely to contain eight molecules in the asymmetric unit (V{sub M} = 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}), corresponding to a solvent content of 45.5%. A self-rotation function suggests an arrangement with 222 point symmetry within the asymmetric unit.

  20. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.

    1982-01-01

    Software development predictors, error analysis, reliability models and software metric analysis are studied. The use of dynamic characteristics as predictors for software development is also studied.

  1. Selenoprotein S expression in reactive astrocytes following brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fradejas, Noelia; Serrano-Pérez, Maria Del Carmen; Tranque, Pedro; Calvo, Soledad

    2011-06-01

    Selenoprotein S (SelS) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein involved in the unfolded protein response. Besides reducing ER-stress, SelS attenuates inflammation by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have recently shown that SelS is responsive to ischemia in cultured astrocytes. To check the possible association of SelS with astrocyte activation, here we investigate the expression of SelS in two models of brain injury: kainic acid (KA) induced excitotoxicity and cortical mechanical lesion. The regulation of SelS and its functional consequences for neuroinflammation, ER-stress, and cell survival were further analyzed using cultured astrocytes from mouse and human. According to our immunofluorescence analysis, SelS expression is prominent in neurons and hardly detectable in astrocytes from control mice. However, brain injury intensely upregulates SelS, specifically in reactive astrocytes. SelS induction by KA was evident at 12 h and faded out after reaching maximum levels at 3-4 days. Analysis of mRNA and protein expression in cultured astrocytes showed SelS upregulation by inflammatory stimuli as well as ER-stress inducers. In turn, siRNA-mediated SelS silencing combined with adenoviral overexpression assays demonstrated that SelS reduces ER-stress markers CHOP and spliced XBP-1, as well as inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in stimulated astrocytes. SelS overexpression increased astrocyte resistance to ER-stress and inflammatory stimuli. Conversely, SelS suppression compromised astrocyte viability. In summary, our results reveal the upregulation of SelS expression in reactive astrocytes, as well as a new protective role for SelS against inflammation and ER-stress that can be relevant to astrocyte function in the context of inflammatory neuropathologies. PMID:21456042

  2. Selenoprotein S-dependent Selenoprotein K Binding to p97(VCP) Protein Is Essential for Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jea Hwang; Park, Ki Jun; Jang, Jun Ki; Jeon, Yeong Ha; Ko, Kwan Young; Kwon, Joon Hyun; Lee, Seung-Rock; Kim, Ick Young

    2015-12-11

    Cytosolic valosin-containing protein (p97(VCP)) is translocated to the ER membrane by binding to selenoprotein S (SelS), which is an ER membrane protein, during endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Selenoprotein K (SelK) is another known p97(VCP)-binding selenoprotein, and the expression of both SelS and SelK is increased under ER stress. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of SelS, SelK, and p97(VCP) during ERAD, the interaction of the selenoproteins with p97(VCP) was investigated using N2a cells and HEK293 cells. Both SelS and SelK co-precipitated with p97(VCP). However, the association between SelS and SelK did not occur in the absence of p97(VCP). SelS had the ability to recruit p97(VCP) to the ER membrane but SelK did not. The interaction between SelK and p97(VCP) did not occur in SelS knockdown cells, whereas SelS interacted with p97(VCP) in the presence or absence of SelK. These results suggest that p97(VCP) is first translocated to the ER membrane via its interaction with SelS, and then SelK associates with the complex on the ER membrane. Therefore, the interaction between SelK and p97(VCP) is SelS-dependent, and the resulting ERAD complex (SelS-p97(VCP)-SelK) plays an important role in ERAD and ER stress. PMID:26504085

  3. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base reporting software user's guide and system description. Volume 2: Program descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The structure and functions of each reporting software program for the Software Engineering Laboratory data base are described. Baseline diagrams, module descriptions, and listings of program generation files are included.

  4. Navajo Changes--A History of the Navajo People = Dinetahgi Lahgo Ahoodzaa--Dine Bahane. Fifth-Eighth Grade Navajo Bilingual Bicultural Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Stephen; And Others

    The Navajo bilingual-bicultural social studies curriculum for grades 5-8 contains six chapters of Navajo history. The chapters trace Navajo history beginning with legends of the first Navajos and life in Dinetah and continuing through early contact with the Spaniards, conflict and defeat at the hands of the United States government, and the…

  5. Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Saha, Surya [Cornell University

    2013-02-12

    Surya Saha on "Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  6. Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Surya

    2012-06-01

    Surya Saha on "Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  7. Fluctuations of different endogenous phenolic compounds and cinnamic acid in the first days of the rooting process of cherry rootstock 'GiSelA 5' leafy cuttings.

    PubMed

    Trobec, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Osterc, Gregor

    2005-05-01

    The relationship between the phenol composition of rooting zones and rootability was studied in the first days after the establishment of cuttings. The trial included two different types of cuttings (basal and terminal). Additionally, the influence of exogenously applied auxin (IBA) was observed. The best rooting results (55.6%) were achieved with terminal IBA treated cuttings, while only 1.9% of basal cuttings formed roots. The auxin treatment increased the root formation in terminal, but not in basal cuttings. Low rooting rate of basal cuttings was probably due to higher lignification rate of the basal tissue which can represent a mechanical barrier for root emergence. When measuring phenolic compounds and cinnamic acid, terminal cuttings contained higher (rutin, vanillic acid, (-)-epicatechin, caffeic acid and sinapinic acid) or equal concentrations of detected phenols as basal cuttings, while applied auxin did not influence the level of any of discussed phenolics, neither of cinnamic acid. It is to assume that cuttings for starting of root induction phase should contain certain levels of several phenolic compounds, but higher influence on rooting success is to be ascribed to the impact of the auxin level. During the time of the experiment concentrations of monophenols sinapinic acid and vanillic acid rapidly decreased. This decrease was more pronounced in terminal cuttings, which might have a better mechanism of lowering those two compounds to which a negative influence on rooting is ascribed. Fluctuations and differences between treatments of other phenolics were not significant enough to influence the rooting process. PMID:15940876

  8. Overexpression of pig selenoprotein S blocks OTA-induced promotion of PCV2 replication by inhibiting oxidative stress and p38 phosphorylation in PK15 cells

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Fang; Hu, Zhihua; Huang, Yu; Xue, Hongxia; Huang, Da; Qian, Gang; Hu, Junfa; Chen, Xingxiang; Wang, Tian; Huang, Kehe

    2016-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary cause of porcine circovirus disease, and ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced oxidative stress promotes PCV2 replication. In humans, selenoprotein S (SelS) has antioxidant ability, but it is unclear whether SelS affects viral infection. Here, we stably transfected PK15 cells with pig pCDNA3.1-SelS to overexpress SelS. Selenium (Se) at 2 or 4 μM and SelS overexpression blocked the OTA-induced increases of PCV2 DNA copy number and infected cell numbers. SelS overexpression also increased glutathione (GSH), NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA, and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase mRNA levels; decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels; and inhibited p38 phosphorylation in PCV2-infected PK15 cells, regardless of OTA treatment. Buthionine sulfoximine reversed all of the above SelS-induced changes. siRNA-mediated SelS knockdown decreased Nrf2 mRNA and GSH levels, increased ROS levels, and promoted PCV2 replication in OTA-treated PK15 cells. These data indicate that pig SelS blocks OTA-induced promotion of PCV2 replication by inhibiting the oxidative stress and p38 phosphorylation in PK15 cells. PMID:26943035

  9. Overexpression of pig selenoprotein S blocks OTA-induced promotion of PCV2 replication by inhibiting oxidative stress and p38 phosphorylation in PK15 cells.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fang; Hu, Zhihua; Huang, Yu; Xue, Hongxia; Huang, Da; Qian, Gang; Hu, Junfa; Chen, Xingxiang; Wang, Tian; Huang, Kehe

    2016-04-12

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary cause of porcine circovirus disease, and ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced oxidative stress promotes PCV2 replication. In humans, selenoprotein S (SelS) has antioxidant ability, but it is unclear whether SelS affects viral infection. Here, we stably transfected PK15 cells with pig pCDNA3.1-SelS to overexpress SelS. Selenium (Se) at 2 or 4 μM and SelS overexpression blocked the OTA-induced increases of PCV2 DNA copy number and infected cell numbers. SelS overexpression also increased glutathione (GSH), NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA, and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase mRNA levels; decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels; and inhibited p38 phosphorylation in PCV2-infected PK15 cells, regardless of OTA treatment. Buthionine sulfoximine reversed all of the above SelS-induced changes. siRNA-mediated SelS knockdown decreased Nrf2 mRNA and GSH levels, increased ROS levels, and promoted PCV2 replication in OTA-treated PK15 cells. These data indicate that pig SelS blocks OTA-induced promotion of PCV2 replication by inhibiting the oxidative stress and p38 phosphorylation in PK15 cells. PMID:26943035

  10. 15 CFR 922.10 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Site Evaluation List (SEL) § 922.10 General. (a) The Site Evaluation List (SEL) was established as a comprehensive list of marine sites with high natural resource values... site on the SEL, or selection of a site from the SEL as an active candidate for designation as...

  11. 15 CFR 922.10 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Site Evaluation List (SEL) § 922.10 General. (a) The Site Evaluation List (SEL) was established as a comprehensive list of marine sites with high natural resource values... site on the SEL, or selection of a site from the SEL as an active candidate for designation as...

  12. 15 CFR 922.10 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Site Evaluation List (SEL) § 922.10 General. (a) The Site Evaluation List (SEL) was established as a comprehensive list of marine sites with high natural resource values... site on the SEL, or selection of a site from the SEL as an active candidate for designation as...

  13. 15 CFR 922.10 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Site Evaluation List (SEL) § 922.10 General. (a) The Site Evaluation List (SEL) was established as a comprehensive list of marine sites with high natural resource values... site on the SEL, or selection of a site from the SEL as an active candidate for designation as...

  14. Social and Emotional Learning and the Work of Itinerant Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.

    PubMed

    Norman, Nancy; Jamieson, Janet R

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated how social and emotional learning (SEL) is reflected in the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of itinerant teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing (ITDHHs). A mixed-methods approach was taken to survey 53 ITDHHs about their comfort with teaching SEL, commitment to ongoing professional development in SEL skills, and perceptions of SEL in school cultures. Follow-up interviews with 11 ITDHHs provided a deeper perspective on how these teachers prioritize and teach SEL skills within their unique teaching role. Overall, the findings revealed that ITDHHs overwhelmingly recognized the need to provide SEL support to their students, and very often provided direct teaching of SEL skills. However, they did not necessarily feel adequately prepared, nor supported by their schools, in terms of teaching SEL. Implications of the findings for professional preparation and practice are discussed. PMID:26320750

  15. Learning the Critical Points for Addition in Matematika GASING

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siregar, Johannes Hamonangan; Wiyanti, Wiwik; Wakhyuningsih, Nur Safitri; Godjali, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable). It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the…

  16. Selenoprotein S Is Highly Expressed in the Blood Vessels and Prevents Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells From Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yali; Fu, Fen; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Jie; Liu, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide. The protection of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from apoptosis in the plaque has become an important therapeutic target for atherosclerotic plaque stabilization. A significant association of selenoprotein S (SelS) gene polymorphism with atherosclerotic CVD has been reported in epidemiologic studies, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this paper, SelS expression in the thoracic aorta and its role in the protection of VSMCs from apoptosis have been studied. Western blot analysis showed that SelS was highly expressed in rat thoracic aorta. SelS gene silence by small interference RNA (siRNA) rendered VSMCs more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide- or tunicamycin- induced injury and apoptosis, as determined by MTT assay, Hoechst staining, and annexin V/propidium iodide staining. SelS silence aggravated hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in VSMCs. Furthermore, SelS silence enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by hydrogen peroxide or tunicamycin, as showed by the increased protein levels of ER chaperone 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), ER stress transducer phosphorylated protein kinase RNA like ER kinase (PERK), and the proapoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). In conclusion, the present study suggested that SelS highly expressed in the blood vessel might protect VSMCs from apoptosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and ER stress. Our finding provided mechanistic insights for the potential preventive role of SelS in atherosclerotic CVD. PMID:26058460

  17. "Plays Nice with Others": Social-Emotional Learning and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Brown, Chavaughn

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: Social-emotional learning (SEL) is increasingly becoming an area of focus for determining children's school readiness and predicting their academic success. Practice or Policy: The current article outlines a model of SEL, identifies specific SEL skills, and discusses how such skills contribute and relate to academic success.…

  18. Improving College and Career Readiness by Incorporating Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymnicki, Allison; Sambolt, Megan; Kidron, Yael

    2013-01-01

    This issue brief was written to assist state policymakers in better understanding how social and emotional learning (SEL) can help students to be college and career ready. The brief provides a short description of what SEL is, why it is needed, and what it looks like in practice. In addition, examples of standards that support SEL at the federal…

  19. School Counselors as Social-Emotional Learning Consultants: Where Do We Begin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Velsor, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    School counselors promote student social and emotional learning (SEL), which is fundamental to a school's academic mission. However, while recognizing the importance of SEL, many school stakeholders view it as secondary and/or important for only some students. To ensure delivery of SEL to all students, school counselors must embrace a service…

  20. Social and Emotional Learning in Classrooms: A Survey of Teachers' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Rohanna; Gueldner, Barbara A.; Tran, Oanh K.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2009-01-01

    A survey study was conducted to examine teachers' knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding social and emotional learning (SEL) in the classroom. Teachers from two states (N = 263) provided a range of responses regarding how to promote SEL in their classrooms, increase the effectiveness of SEL, and reduce barriers to implementation. Results…

  1. Social and Emotional Learning Policies and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jenn; Wright, Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is a current push to broaden the educational agenda by integrating social and emotional learning (SEL) competencies into the academic curriculum. This article describes how physical education (PE) provides a strong platform for integrating SEL standards into the curriculum. The alignment between SEL and the affective learning objectives of…

  2. Establishing Systemic Social and Emotional Learning Approaches in Schools: A Framework for Schoolwide Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Meyers, Duncan C.; Weissberg, Roger P.

    2016-01-01

    Social and emotional learning (SEL) is a fundamental part of education. Incorporating high-quality SEL programming into day-to-day classroom and school practices has emerged as a main goal for many practitioners over the past decade. The present article overviews the current state of SEL research and practice, with a particular focus on the United…

  3. Assessing Teachers' Beliefs about Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackett, Marc A.; Reyes, Maria R.; Rivers, Susan E.; Elbertson, Nicole A.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Teachers are the primary implementers of social and emotional learning (SEL) programs. Their beliefs about SEL likely influence program delivery, evaluation, and outcomes. A simple tool for measuring these beliefs could be used by school administrators to determine school readiness for SEL programming and by researchers to better understand…

  4. Development of an Implementation and Evaluation Plan for Strong Teens, a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Tajara Dovie

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on social emotional learning (SEL) curricula has shown that implementing SEL instruction within the classroom is a qualified evidenced-based intervention to help students develop fundamental skills for success in life. SEL curricula help teach students essential skills such as recognizing and managing emotions, developing caring…

  5. Educating Minds and Hearts: Social Emotional Learning and the Passage into Adolescence. Series on Social Emotional Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan, Ed.

    Based on the view that social and emotional learning (SEL) needs to be an integral part of middle school education, this book provides an overview to social and emotional learning and the development of middle school students, presents a representative range of SEL programs and perspectives, and offers reflections on the current status of SEL and…

  6. Tectonique en radeaux au toit d'un ≪ glacier de sel ≫ sous-marin albien de Tunisie du Nord-Ouest: exemple du secteur minier de Gueurn Halfaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Jean-Marie; Youssef, Mohamed Ben; Bouhlel, Salah; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Kassa, Samia; Miaadi, Fethi

    1998-10-01

    In northwestern Tunisia, the new study of the Gueurn Halfaya mining area allows us to define the relationships of the Triassic masses with the surrounding Cretaceous and Miocene formations, and to specify the genesis of several mineralizations (Fe, Sr, Pb-Zn), from an Aptian-Albian tilted block extensional setting, later tectonically inverted during the Tertiary. During the Lower-Middle Cretaceous, a sedimentary slope with boulders, determined by normal faulting, receives a submarine 'salt glacier', like in the Gulf of Mexico. This is then overlain by two successive sedimentary covers (Middle-Upper Albian and Vraconian-Turonian); the depocentres of the second cover directly overlie the saliferous Triassic rocks after the rafting of the first cover. This organisation is similar to the Kuanza basin setting in Angola. The Lower-Middle Cretaceous tectono-sedimentary evolution proposed here, very different to the 'classical' forceful diapiric interpretation, is continuously drived from the extensional tectonics (sedimentation and mineralizations, before, during and after the halokinesis), and afterwards tectonically inverted by the two Tertiary contractional events.

  7. Collected software engineering papers, volume 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1992 through November 1993. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 11th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.

  8. Collected software engineering papers, volume 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1993 through October 1994. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 12th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.

  9. Proteomic analysis of kidneys from selenoprotein M transgenic rats in response to increased bioability of selenium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To characterize changes in global protein expression in kidneys of transgenic rats overexpressing human selenoprotein M (SelM) in response to increased bioabivility of selenium (Sel), total proteins extracted from kidneys of 10-week-old CMV/hSelM Tg and wild-type rats were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and measured for changes in expression. Results Ten and three proteins showing high antioxidant enzymatic activity were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in SelM-overexpressing CMV/hSelM Tg rats compared to controls based on an arbitrary 2-fold difference. Up-regulated proteins included LAP3, BAIAP2L1, CRP2, CD73 antigen, PDGF D, KIAA143 homolog, PRPPS-AP2, ZFP313, HSP-60, and N-WASP, whereas down-regulated proteins included ALKDH3, rMCP-3, and STC-1. After Sel treatment, five of the up-regulated proteins were significantly increased in expression in wild-type rats, whereas there were no changes in CMV/hSelM Tg rats. Only two of the down-regulated proteins showed reduced expression in wild-type and Tg rats after Sel treatment. Conclusions These results show the primary novel biological evidences that new functional protein groups and individual proteins in kidneys of Tg rats relate to Sel biology including the response to Sel treatment and SelM expression. PMID:23937859

  10. Selenoprotein S is involved in maintenance and transport of multiprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Turanov, Anton A; Shchedrina, Valentina A; Everley, Robert A; Lobanov, Alexei V; Yim, Sun Hee; Marino, Stefano M; Gygi, Steven P; Hatfield, Dolph L; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2014-09-15

    SelS (Selenoprotein S) is a selenocysteine-containing protein with roles in ER (endoplasmic reticulum) function and inflammation. It has been implicated in ERAD (ER-associated protein degradation), and clinical studies revealed an association of its promoter polymorphism with cytokine levels and human diseases. However, the pathways and interacting proteins that could shed light on pathogenesis of SelS-associated diseases have not been studied systematically. We performed a large-scale affinity isolation of human SelS and its mutant forms and analysed the proteins that interact with them. All previously known SelS targets and nearly two hundred additional proteins were identified that were remarkably enriched for various multiprotein complexes. Subsequent chemical cross-linking experiments identified the specific interacting sites in SelS and its several targets. Most of these interactions involved coiled-coil domains. The data suggest that SelS participates in intracellular membrane transport and maintenance of protein complexes by anchoring them to the ER membrane. PMID:24897171

  11. Expression and purification of the membrane enzyme selenoprotein K.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Pham, Diane N; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2012-11-01

    Selenoprotein K (SelK) is a membrane protein residing in the endoplasmic reticulum. The function of SelK is mostly unknown; however, it has been shown to participate in anti-oxidant defense, calcium regulation and in the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. In order to study the function of SelK and the role of selenocysteine in catalysis, we have tested heterologous expression of human SelK in E. coli. Consequently, we have developed an over-expression strategy that exploits the maltose binding protein as a fusion partner to stabilize and solubilize SelK. The fusion partner can be cleaved from SelK in the presence of a variety of detergents compatible with structural characterization and the protein purified to homogeneity. SelK acquires a helical secondary structure in detergent micelles, even though it was predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein due to its high percentage of polar residues. The same strategy was successfully applied to preparation of SelK binding partner - selenoprotein S (SelS). Hence, this heterologous expression and purification strategy can be applied to other members of the membrane enzyme family to which SelK belongs. PMID:22963794

  12. Effects of reproductive condition, season, and site on selected temperatures of a viviparous gecko.

    PubMed

    Rock, J; Andrews, R M; Cree, A

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between thermal and reproductive biology is complex and poorly understood. We measured selected body temperatures (T(sel)) for the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus. T(sel) was compared among pregnant females, nonpregnant females, and males from two sites: a cool site with biennially reproducing geckos and a warm site with annually reproducing geckos. T(sel) was measured at five times of day during three seasons and compared with microhabitat temperature (T(top)) and field body temperature (T(b)). T(sel) varied with time of day in all comparisons, and the effect of reproductive condition on T(sel) differed between sites and seasons. At both sites, when T(sel) differed between reproductive conditions, pregnant females had higher T(sel) than nonpregnant females and males. Stage of pregnancy affected the degree of elevation of T(sel). Measurements of microhabitat temperature and field T(b) showed that, even in the warmest season, geckos rarely had the opportunity to achieve T(sel) at the cool site but were able to do so at the warm site. The elevation of T(sel) with pregnancy is extreme in this species (up to 8 degrees C), which suggests that an increase in T(b) is critical to successful reproduction. Interactions between the effects of time of day, season, and reproductive condition on T(sel) must be considered in the assessment of thermoregulation in reptiles. PMID:10893174

  13. Paclitaxel inhibits selenoprotein S expression and attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong-Shuang; Yu, Pei-Pei; Sun, Ying; Wang, Dan-Feng; Deng, Xiao-Fen; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Jun; Sun, Lu-Guo; Song, Zhen-Bo; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-06-01

    The primary effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response or unfolded protein response (UPR) is to reduce the load of unfolded protein and promote survival. However, prolonged and severe ER stress leads to tissue injury and serious diseases. Thus, it is important to identify drugs that can attenuate ER stress for the treatment of diseases. Natural products continue to provide lead compounds for drug discovery and front‑line pharmacotherapy for people worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that selenoprotein S (SelS) is a sensitive and ideal maker of ER stress. In the present study, a firefly luciferase reporter driven by the SelS gene promoter was used to screen for natural compounds capable of attenuating ER stress. From this, paclitaxel (PTX) was identified to efficiently inhibit the promoter activity of the SelS gene, and further results revealed that PTX significantly inhibited the tunicamycin‑induced upregulation of SelS at the mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 and HEK293T cells. In addition, PTX was able to efficiently inhibit the expression of the ER stress marker, glucose‑regulated protein 78, in ER stress, indicating that PTX may reverse ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that PTX is able to inhibit SelS expression during ER stress and attenuate ER stress. PMID:27109260

  14. Paclitaxel inhibits selenoprotein S expression and attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    QIN, HONG-SHUANG; YU, PEI-PEI; SUN, YING; WANG, DAN-FENG; DENG, XIAO-FEN; BAO, YONG-LI; SONG, JUN; SUN, LU-GUO; SONG, ZHEN-BO; LI, YU-XIN

    2016-01-01

    The primary effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response or unfolded protein response (UPR) is to reduce the load of unfolded protein and promote survival. However, prolonged and severe ER stress leads to tissue injury and serious diseases. Thus, it is important to identify drugs that can attenuate ER stress for the treatment of diseases. Natural products continue to provide lead compounds for drug discovery and front-line pharmacotherapy for people worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that selenoprotein S (SelS) is a sensitive and ideal maker of ER stress. In the present study, a firefly luciferase reporter driven by the SelS gene promoter was used to screen for natural compounds capable of attenuating ER stress. From this, paclitaxel (PTX) was identified to efficiently inhibit the promoter activity of the SelS gene, and further results revealed that PTX significantly inhibited the tunicamycin-induced upregulation of SelS at the mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 and HEK293T cells. In addition, PTX was able to efficiently inhibit the expression of the ER stress marker, glucose-regulated protein 78, in ER stress, indicating that PTX may reverse ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that PTX is able to inhibit SelS expression during ER stress and attenuate ER stress. PMID:27109260

  15. Selenoprotein K knockout mice exhibit deficient calcium flux in immune cells and impaired immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Saguna; Hoffmann, FuKun W.; Kumar, Mukesh; Huang, Zhi; Roe, Kelsey; Nguyen-Wu, Elizabeth; Hashimoto, Ann S.; Hoffmann, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Selenoprotein K (Sel K) is a selenium-containing protein for which no function has been identified. We found that Sel K is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane protein expressed at relatively high levels in immune cells and is regulated by dietary selenium. Sel K−/− mice were generated and found to be similar to WT controls regarding growth and fertility. Immune system development was not affected by Sel K deletion, but specific immune cell defects were found in Sel K−/− mice. Receptor-mediated Ca2+ flux was decreased in T cells, neutrophils, and macrophages from Sel K−/− mice compare to controls. Ca2+-dependent functions including T cell proliferation, T cell and neutrophil migration, and Fcγ-receptor-mediated oxidative burst in macrophages were decreased in cells from Sel K−/− mice compared to controls. West Nile virus (WNV) infections were performed and Sel K−/− mice exhibited decreased viral clearance in the periphery and increased viral titers in brain. Furthermore, WNV-infected Sel K−/− mice demonstrated significantly lower survival (2/23; 8.7%) compared to WT controls (10/26; 38.5%). These results establish Sel K as an ER-membrane protein important for promoting effective Ca2+ flux during immune cell activation and provide insight into molecular mechanisms by which dietary selenium enhances immune responses. PMID:21220695

  16. Glossary of Software Engineering Laboratory terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A glossary of terms used in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is given. The terms are defined within the context of the software development environment for flight dynamics at the Goddard Space Flight Center. A concise reference for clarifying the language employed in SEL documents and data collection forms is given. Basic software engineering concepts are explained and standard definitions for use by SEL personnel are established.

  17. An overview of the Software Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the background and structure of the SEL organization, the SEL process improvement approach, and its experimentation and data collection process. Results of some sample SEL studies are included. It includes a discussion of the overall implication of trends observed over 17 years of process improvement efforts and looks at the return on investment based on a comparison of total investment in process improvement with the measurable improvements seen in the organization's software product.

  18. Direct Interaction of Selenoprotein R with Clusterin and Its Possible Role in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Wang, Chao; Ma, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yizhe; Liu, Qing; Qiu, Shi; Liu, Qiong; Tian, Jing; Ni, Jiazuan

    2013-01-01

    Selenoprotein R (SelR) plays an important role in maintaining intracellular redox balance by reducing the R-form of methionine sulfoxide to methionine. As SelR is highly expressed in brain and closely related to Alzheimer's disease (AD), its biological functions in human brain become a research focus. In this paper, the selenocysteine-coding TGA of SelR gene was mutated to cysteine-coding TGC and used to screen the human fetal brain cDNA library with a yeast two-hybrid system. Our results demonstrated that SelR interacts with clusterin (Clu), a chaperone protein. This protein interaction was further verified by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP), and pull-down assays. The interacting domain of Clu was determined by co-IP to be a dynamic, molten globule structure spanning amino acids 315 to 381 with an amphipathic-helix. The interacting domain of SelR was investigated by gene manipulation, ligand replacement, protein over-expression, and enzyme activity measurement to be a tetrahedral complex consisting of a zinc ion binding with four Cys residues. Study on the mutual effect of SelR and Clu showed synergic property between the two proteins. Cell transfection with SelR gene increased the expression of Clu, while cell transfection with Clu promoted the enzyme activity of SelR. Co-overexpression of SelR and Clu in N2aSW cells, an AD model cell line, significantly decreased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, FRET and co-IP assays demonstrated that Clu interacted with β-amyloid peptide, a pathological protein of AD, which suggested a potential effect of SelR and Aβ with the aid of Clu. The interaction between SelR and Clu provides a novel avenue for further study on the mechanism of SelR in AD prevention. PMID:23805218

  19. Process improvement as an investment: Measuring its worth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Jeletic, Kellyann

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses return on investment (ROI) generated from software process improvement programs. It details the steps needed to compute ROI and compares these steps from the perspective of two process improvement approaches: the widely known Software Engineering Institute's capability maturity model and the approach employed by NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The paper then describes the specific investments made in the SEL over the past 18 years and discusses the improvements gained from this investment by the production organization in the SEL.

  20. Closing the loop on improvement: Packaging experience in the Software Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, Sharon R.; Landis, Linda C.; Doland, Jerry T.

    1994-01-01

    As part of its award-winning software process improvement program, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has developed an effective method for packaging organizational best practices based on real project experience into useful handbooks and training courses. This paper shares the SEL's experience over the past 12 years creating and updating software process handbooks and training courses. It provides cost models and guidelines for successful experience packaging derived from SEL experience.

  1. What's Happening in the Software Engineering Laboratory?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Green, Scott; Smith, Donald

    1995-01-01

    Since 1976 the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been dedicated to understanding and improving the way in which one NASA organization the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at Goddard Space Flight Center, develops, maintains, and manages complex flight dynamics systems. This paper presents an overview of recent activities and studies in SEL, using as a framework the SEL's organizational goals and experience based software improvement approach. It focuses on two SEL experience areas : (1) the evolution of the measurement program and (2) an analysis of three generations of Cleanroom experiments.

  2. Promoting social-emotional learning in adolescent Latino ELLs: a study of the culturally adapted Strong Teens program.

    PubMed

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted Jóvenes Fuertes (Strong Teens) Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's effects on students' knowledge of SEL and resiliency. A sample of 102 Spanish-dominant Latino ELLs enrolled in middle or high school participated in this study. The results indicated significant intervention effects on SEL knowledge and social-emotional resiliency. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for preventive, culturally responsive SEL programs in school settings. PMID:24708282

  3. Identification of a redox-modulatory interaction between selenoprotein W and 14-3-3 protein.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yeong Ha; Ko, Kwan Young; Lee, Jea Hwang; Park, Ki Jun; Jang, Jun Ki; Kim, Ick Young

    2016-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) contains a selenocysteine (Sec, U) in a conserved CXXU motif corresponding to the CXXC redox motif of thioredoxin, suggesting a putative redox function of SelW. We have previously reported that the binding of 14-3-3 protein to its target proteins, including CDC25B, Rictor and TAZ, is inhibited by the interaction of 14-3-3 protein with SelW. However, the binding mechanism is unclear. In this study, we sought to determine the binding site of SelW to understand the regulatory mechanism of the interaction between SelW and 14-3-3 and its biological effects. Phosphorylated Ser(pS) or Thr(pT) residues in RSXpSXP or RXXXp(S/T)XP motifs are well-known common 14-3-3-binding sites, but Thr41, Ser59, and T69 of SelW, which are computationally predicted to serve are phosphorylation sites, were neither phosphorylation sites nor sites involved in the interaction. A mutant SelW in which Sec13 is changed to Ser (U13S) was unable to interact with 14-3-3 protein and thus did not inhibit the interaction of 14-3-3 to other target proteins. However, other Cys mutants of SelW(C10S, C33S and C37S) normally interacted with 14-3-3 protein. The interaction of SelW to 14-3-3 protein was enhanced by diamide or H2O2 and decreased by dithiothreitol (DTT). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the Sec of SelW is involved in its interaction with 14-3-3 protein and that this interaction is increased under oxidative stress conditions. Thus, SelW may have a regulatory function in redox cell signaling by interacting with 14-3-3 protein. PMID:26474786

  4. The Positive Impact of Social and Emotional Learning for Kindergarten to Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from Three Scientific Reviews. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payton, John; Weissberg, Roger P.; Durlak, Joseph A.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Taylor, Rebecca D.; Schellinger, Kriston B.; Pachan, Molly

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes results from three large-scale reviews of research on the impact of social and emotional learning (SEL) programs on elementary and middle-school students--that is, programs that seek to promote various social and emotional skills. Collectively the three reviews included 317 studies and involved 324,303 children. SEL programs…

  5. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  6. Social and Emotional Learning: A Framework for Promoting Mental Health and Reducing Risk Behavior in Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payton, John W.; Wardlaw, Dana M.; Graczyk, Patricia A.; Bloodworth, Michelle R.; Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Weissberg, Roger P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes selection criteria based on theory, research, and best educational practice that identify key social and emotional learning (SEL) competencies and program features for promoting students' mental health and reducing risk behaviors. Program features critical to the success of school-based SEL programs emphasize curriculum design,…

  7. A Planning and Development Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Rebeca

    In view of the rapidly changing hardware technology along with the quality and quantity of software and general attitudes toward educational technology, the configuration of the Audio-Visual Distribution System and the Science and Engineering Library (SEL) should be flexible enough to incorporate these variables. SEL has made significant thrusts…

  8. Galectin-1 is an interactive protein of selenoprotein M in the brain.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xifeng; Tian, Jing; Chen, Ping; Wang, Chao; Ni, Jiazuan; Liu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Selenium, an essential trace element for human health, mainly exerts its biological function through selenoproteins. Selenoprotein M (SelM) is one of the highly expressed selenoproteins in the brain, but its biological effect and molecular mechanism remain unclear. Thus, the interactive protein of SelM was investigated in this paper to guide further study. In order to avoid protein translational stop, the selenocysteine-encoding UGA inside the open reading frame of SelM was site-directly changed to the cysteine-encoding UGC to generate the SelM' mutant. Meanwhile, its N terminal transmembrane signal peptide was also cut off. This truncated SelM' was used to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library by the yeast two-hybrid system. A new interactive protein of SelM' was found to be galectin-1 (Gal-1). This protein-protein interaction was further verified by the results of fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques, glutathione S-transferase pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. As Gal-1 plays important roles in preventing neurodegeneration and promoting neuroprotection in the brain, the interaction between SelM' and Gal-1 displays a new direction for studying the biological function of SelM in the human brain. PMID:24284396

  9. 32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Reserve (Sel Res) Sponsor. Sel Res sponsors must be currently enrolled in TRICARE Reserve Select (TRS) before a young adult dependent is eligible to purchase TYA. If TRS coverage is terminated by the sponsor... while enrolled in TRS, the young adult dependent is eligible to purchase TYA coverage for six...

  10. 32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reserve (Sel Res) Sponsor. Sel Res sponsors must be currently enrolled in TRICARE Reserve Select (TRS) before a young adult dependent is eligible to purchase TYA. If TRS coverage is terminated by the sponsor... while enrolled in TRS, the young adult dependent is eligible to purchase TYA coverage for six...

  11. Glossary of software engineering laboratory terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A glossary of terms used in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is presented. The terms are defined within the context of the software development environment for flight dynamics at Goddard Space Flight Center. A concise reference for clarifying and understanding the language employed in SEL documents and data collection forms is provided.

  12. Quantum well, beam deflecting surface emitting lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to surface emitting semiconductor lasers (SELs), with integrated 45 deg. beam deflectors. A SEL is formed on a wafer including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors formed in grooves by tilted ion beam etching. A SEL is a lattice matched, or unstrained, AlGaAs/GaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL. An alternate embodiment is shown, in which a SEL is lattice mismatched, strained or pseudomorphic, or InGaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL which emits radiation at a wavelength to which its substrate is transparent. Both SELs exhibit high output power, low threshold current density, and relatively high efficiency, and each are processing compatible with conventional large scale integration technology. Such SELs may be fabricated in large numbers from single wafers. The novel features of this invention include the use of tilted ion beam etching to form a pair of grooves each including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors. The embodiment provides substantial circuit design flexibility because radiation may be coupled both up and/or down through the substrate.

  13. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  14. Social-Emotional Learning Skill, Self-Regulation, and Social Competence in Typically Developing and Clinic-Referred Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Gumbiner, Laura M.; Russo, Nicole M.; Lipton, Meryl

    2009-01-01

    Social-emotional learning (SEL) skill includes the ability to encode, interpret, and reason about social and emotional information. In two related studies, we examined the relationship between children's SEL skill, their ability to regulate their own behavior, and the competence of their social interactions. Study 1 included 158 typically…

  15. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Social-Emotional Assets and Resiliency Scale for Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Nancy Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of social and emotional learning (SEL) in young children is critical to understanding developmental progress and informing care and instruction. The current study investigated the development of a behavior rating scale designed to measure SEL skills in preschool-age children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the…

  16. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  17. Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMeulenaere, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Michelle DeMeulenaere discusses social/emotional learning (SEL), with a focus on helping preschool children gain knowledge about feelings and getting along with others. SEL is the process in which children are able to acknowledge and recognize the emotions of others, develop empathy, make good decisions, establish friendships, and…

  18. Cultivating Fertile Grounds: Enhancing and Extending the Scientific Base of Social and Emotional Learning--A Commentary on "The Scientific Base Linking Social and Emotional Learning to School Success," a Chapter by Joseph E. Zins, Michelle R. Bloodworth, Roger P. Weissberg, and Herbert J. Walberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manz, Patricia H.

    2007-01-01

    Joseph Zins was a forerunner in empirically demonstrating the interrelationship of SEL interventions and school success. This commentary highlights his perspectives on the accumulating body of evidence for the academic gains that have been associated with various SEL interventions and aims to show how new research methodologies can further extend…

  19. Program Review Rating Scales: Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    "Safe and Sound: An Educational Leader's Guide to Evidence-Based Social and Emotional Learning Programs" introduces the concepts of SEL and comprehensive approaches to SEL, describes the value of such programming to the essential academic mission of schools, and suggests how to approach implementing such programming. This packet contains the…

  20. Progress in Teachers' Readiness to Promote Positive Youth Development among Students during the Lions Quest Teaching Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talvio, Markus; Berg, Minna; Ketonen, Elina; Komulainen, Erkki; Lonka, Kirsti

    2015-01-01

    Modern learning psychology places an emphasis on the ability of teachers to promote their students' social and emotional learning (SEL) and living a good life. Research on precisely how teachers promote SEL and well-being among their students, however, remains scarce. This study focused on evaluating the Lions Quest teaching workshop (LQ), which…

  1. Implementing "Strong Kids" School-Wide to Reduce Internalizing Behaviors and Increase Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Thomas J.; Caldarella, Paul; Young, K. Richard; Fischer, Lane; Warren, Jared S.

    2014-01-01

    Instruction and training in social and emotional learning (SEL) is an important component in addressing the emotional and behavioral needs of students. This study is the first to examine whether "Strong Kids", an SEL program, delivered school-wide in all classrooms, could result in decreased internalizing behaviors and increased…

  2. Social and Emotional Learning Strategies to Support Students in Challenging Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marulanda, Zandra K.

    2010-01-01

    New and veteran educators often face particular challenges in the classroom. Problems include classroom management, student academic achievement, and job satisfaction. This research examines the effects of implementing a Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) approach for students as part of the regular education for elementary public schools. SEL is…

  3. Cultivating the Socially Competent Body: Bodies and Risk in Swedish Programmes for Social Emotional Learning in Preschools and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholdsson, Åsa; Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna; Hultin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Social emotional learning (SEL) is common in preschools and schools both in Europe and North America today. Programmes for socio-emotional training and the rise of what is labelled therapeutic education have dramatically increased during the first decade of the millennium. In this article, a manual-based programme used for SEL in a Swedish school…

  4. Emotional Intelligence in the K-12 Curriculum and its Relationship to American Workplace Needs: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opengart, Rose

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the content of existing social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in the American K-12 curriculum and the relationship between the programs and the needs of the American workplace. SEL programs were examined for their content and compared to the research indicating critical EI skills for the workplace.…

  5. SUBCHRONIC EFFECTS OF SODIUM SELENITE AND SELENOMETHIONINE ON SEVERAL IMMUNE-FUNCTIONS IN MALLARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subchronic effects of selenomethionine (SeM) and sodium selenite (SeL) on several immunologic, hematologic, and serologic parameters in mallards were measured, using concentrations in drinking water of 0, 0.5, and 3.5 mg/L selenium (Se) as SeL and 2.2 mg/L (Se) as SeM. ycloph...

  6. Quantum well, beam deflecting surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae H.

    1992-10-01

    This invention relates to surface emitting semiconductor lasers (SELs), with integrated 45 deg. beam deflectors. A SEL is formed on a wafer including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors formed in grooves by tilted ion beam etching. A SEL is a lattice matched, or unstrained, AlGaAs/GaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL. An alternate embodiment is shown, in which a SEL is lattice mismatched, strained or pseudomorphic, or InGaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL which emits radiation at a wavelength to which its substrate is transparent. Both SELs exhibit high output power, low threshold current density, and relatively high efficiency, and each are processing compatible with conventional large scale integration technology. Such SELs may be fabricated in large numbers from single wafers. The novel features of this invention include the use of tilted ion beam etching to form a pair of grooves each including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors. The embodiment provides substantial circuit design flexibility because radiation may be coupled both up and/or down through the substrate.

  7. Quantum well, beam deflecting surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae H.

    1991-06-01

    This invention relates to surface emitting semiconductor lasers (SELs), with integrated 45 deg. beam deflectors. A SEL is formed on a wafer including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors formed in grooves by tilted ion beam etching. A SEL is a lattice matched, or unstrained, AlGaAs/GaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL. An alternate embodiment is shown, in which a SEL is lattice mismatched, strained or pseudomorphic, or InGaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL which emits radiation at a wavelength to which its substrate is transparent. Both SELs exhibit high output power, low threshold current density, and relatively high efficiency, and each are processing compatible with conventional large scale integration technology. Such SELs may be fabricated in large numbers from single wafers. The novel features of this invention include the use of tilted ion beam etching to form a pair of grooves each including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors. The embodiment provides substantial circuit design flexibility because radiation may be coupled both up and/or down through the substrate.

  8. Eighth-Graders as Role Models: A Service-Learning Art Collaboration for Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzel, Karen; Russell, Robert; Gross, Julia

    2010-01-01

    In a recent article, Russell and Hutzel, two of the authors of this article, proposed a framework for teaching social and emotional learning (SEL) in art education through collaborative service-learning. As defined in that article, SEL is a "process through which children and adults develop the skills, attitudes, and values necessary to acquire…

  9. Reflecting on Social Emotional Learning: A Critical Perspective on Trends in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    This critical cultural analysis of trends in the field of social emotional learning (SEL) in the United States considers how ideas concerning emotional skills and competencies have informed programmatic discourse. While currently stressing links between SEL and academic achievement, program literature also places emphasis on ideals of caring,…

  10. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  11. Building Inclusive Education on Social and Emotional Learning: Challenges and Perspectives--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reicher, Hannelore

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on conceptual and empirical issues related to the links between social and emotional learning (SEL) and inclusive education. SEL can be defined as the process of socialisation and education related to personal, interpersonal and problem-solving skills and competencies. This process takes place in formal and informal settings…

  12. An Observation Tool for Monitoring Social Skill Implementation in Contextually Relevant Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joseph John; Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Dobbins, Nicole; Brown, Nancy B.; Lyons, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Skills related to social-emotional learning (SEL) are essential for college and career readiness. Failure to use appropriate skills for SEL in school is often linked to several negative academic outcomes, including rejection by school community members, academic deficits, and higher rates of problematic behavior. Social skills interventions are…

  13. Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool Students: A Study of "Strong Start Pre-K"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Leslie; Caldarella, Paul; Korth, Byran B.; Young, K. Richard

    2012-01-01

    The inclusion of social and emotional learning (SEL) curricula in preschools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start Pre-K," on the social and emotional competence of 52 preschool students using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Teachers rated…

  14. Effects of a Culturally Adapted Social-Emotional Learning Intervention Program on Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Kristine M.; Castro-Olivo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Student self-reports of resiliency and social-emotional internalizing problems were examined to determine intervention effects of a culturally adapted social and emotional learning (SEL) program. Data were analyzed from 20 culturally and linguistically diverse high school students who participated in a school-based 12-lesson SEL intervention and…

  15. Do Effects of Social-Emotional Learning Programs Vary by Level of Parent Participation? Evidence from the Randomized Trial of INSIGHTS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin; Hill, Jennifer L.; McClowry, Sandee

    2016-01-01

    Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) programs aim to improve students' social-emotional competencies in order to enhance their achievement. Although SEL programs typically implement classroom curricula, some programs also include a component for parents. Yet, little is known about the types of parents likely to participate in services, and whether…

  16. Promoting Desirable Outcomes among Culturally and Ethnically Diverse Children in Social Emotional Learning Programs: A Multilevel Heuristic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita; Brown, Elizabeth L.; Vesely, Colleen K.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this article is to situate the findings from evidence-based studies of social emotional learning (SEL) interventions into a broader social context by reframing the discussion to consider how aspects of sociocultural competence impact the development and delivery of programs. The limitations of current SEL intervention efforts…

  17. Collaboration for a Curriculum of Caring: The Zeitgeist Is Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emily R.; Gill Lopez, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Recent catastrophic school shootings have drawn worldwide attention to issues of gun control and mental health. In the wake of these tragedies, more and more schools have begun to adopt school-wide social and emotional learning (SEL) programs. However, we have few examples of what it looks like to integrate SEL skills into content curricula.…

  18. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-06

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex.

  19. An Increase in Emotional Support, a Reduction in Negative Social Emotional Skills, or Both?: Examining How Universal Social Emotional Programs Achieve Reductions in Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnow, Sam; Downer, Jason; Brown, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Social Emotional Learning (SEL) programs reduces aggressive and antisocial behavior (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011). Theoretically, SEL programs foster social and emotionally intelligent youth through improving children's social and emotional skills, defined in the present study as the ability to…

  20. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  1. Relating to Romeo: Connecting Students and Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Amy Corvino, an English teacher, implements the social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum to increase her students' interest and engagement in English literatures. SEL is the process by which people develop the skills to recognize and manage emotions, form positive relationships, solve problems that…

  2. The Impact of Trial Stage, Developer Involvement and International Transferability on Universal Social and Emotional Learning Programme Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigelsworth, M.; Lendrum, A.; Oldfield, J.; Scott, A.; ten Bokkel, I.; Tate, K.; Emery, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study expands upon the extant prior meta-analytic literature by exploring previously theorised reasons for the failure of school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programmes to produce expected results. Eighty-nine studies reporting the effects of school-based, universal SEL programmes were examined for differential effects…

  3. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  4. "Practice What You Preach": Teachers' Perceptions of Emotional Competence and Emotionally Supportive Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The connections between parents' emotional competence (emotion expression, regulation, and knowledge) and children's social-emotional learning (SEL) have been well studied; however, the associations among teachers' emotional competencies and children's SEL remain widely understudied. In the present study, private preschool and…

  5. Replication of Effects of the "Positive Action" Program in Randomized Trials in Hawai'i and Chicago Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flay, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Several social-emotional learning (SEL) or social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs have been shown to be effective at improving SEL/SECD skills, and some have also provided evidence of effectiveness in improving student behavior and academic achievement (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011). Very few SEL…

  6. Changes and challenges in the Software Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose

    1994-01-01

    Since 1976, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been dedicated to understanding and improving the way in which one NASA organization, the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), develops, maintains, and manages complex flight dynamics systems. The SEL is composed of three member organizations: NASA/GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation. During the past 18 years, the SEL's overall goal has remained the same: to improve the FDD's software products and processes in a measured manner. This requires that each development and maintenance effort be viewed, in part, as a SEL experiment which examines a specific technology or builds a model of interest for use on subsequent efforts. The SEL has undertaken many technology studies while developing operational support systems for numerous NASA spacecraft missions.

  7. Screening of nanosatellite microprocessors using californium single-event latch-up test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Takahiro; Okumura, Yuta; Masui, Hirokazu; Takamiya, Koichi; Cho, Mengu

    2016-09-01

    A single-event latch-up (SEL) test using a 252Cf radioisotope was carried out. The results were compared with those of a proton test and from observation in orbit. A radioisotope can reproduce phenomena observed in orbit that are caused by protons. Considering the inexpensive nature of the 252Cf test, it is more suitable for nanosatellites that require low cost and fast delivery. A SEL occurrence rate of a commercial-off-the-shelf microprocessor was derived from the ground test results. The 252Cf test provided a SEL rate approximately 1×106 times greater than that in orbit. This data can be used to derive the minimum SEL occurrence rate in orbit and help satellite designers to evaluate the risk of SEL and take measures if necessary.

  8. Is Sound Exposure Level a Convenient Metric to Characterize Fatiguing Sounds? A Study in Beluga Whales.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander; Popov, Vladimir; Nechaev, Dmitry; Sysueva, Evgenia; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav

    2016-01-01

    Both the level and duration of fatiguing sounds influence temporary threshold shifts (TTSs) in odontocetes. These two parameters were combined into a sound exposure level (SEL). In the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas, TTSs were investigated at various sound pressure level (SPL)-to-duration ratios at a specific SEL. At low SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was positive: shorter high-level sounds produced greater TTSs than long low-level sounds of the same SEL. At high SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was negative: long low-level sounds produced greater TTSs than short high-level sounds of the same SEL. Thus, the validity of SEL as a metric for fatiguing sound efficiency is limited. PMID:26611076

  9. Selenium-containing analogs of SAHA induce cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Karelia, Nilkamal; Desai, Dhimant; Hengst, Jeremy A; Amin, Shantu; Rudrabhatla, Sairam V; Yun, Jong

    2010-11-15

    Cancer therapy has moved beyond conventional chemotherapeutics to more mechanism-based targeted approaches. Studies demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a promising target for anticancer agents. Numerous, structurally diverse, hydroxamic acid derivative, HDAC inhibitors have been reported and have been shown to induce growth arrest, differentiation, autophagy, and/or apoptotic cell death by inhibiting multiple signaling pathways in cancer cells. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has emerged as an effective anticancer therapeutic agent and was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In our previous study, we reported the development of the novel, potent, selenium-containing HDAC inhibitors (SelSA-1 and SelSA-2). In this study, the effects of SelSA-1 and SelSA-2 on signaling pathways and cytotoxicity were compared with the known HDAC inhibitor, SAHA, in lung cancer cell lines. After 24 h of treatment, SelSA-1 and SelSA-2 inhibited lung cancer cell growth to a greater extent than SAHA in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) values at low micromolar concentrations. SelSA-1 and SelSA-2 inhibited ERK and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways while simultaneously increasing in autophagy in A549 cells in a time dependent manner. This preliminary study demonstrates the effectiveness of the selenium-containing analogs of SAHA, SelSA-1, and SelSA-2, as HDAC inhibitors and provides insight into the improvement and/or development of these analogs as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:20855208

  10. Selenium-Containing Analogs of SAHA Induce Cytotoxicity in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karelia, Nilkamal; Desai, Dhimant; Hengst, Jeremy A.; Amin, Shantu; Rudrabhatla, Sairam V.; Yun, Jong

    2010-01-01

    Cancer therapy has moved beyond conventional chemotherapeutics to more mechanism-based targeted approaches. Studies demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a promising target for anticancer agents. Numerous, structurally diverse, hydroxamic acid derivative, HDAC inhibitors have been reported and have been shown to induce growth arrest, differentiation, autophagy and/or apoptotic cell death by inhibiting multiple signaling pathways in cancer cells. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has emerged as an effective anticancer therapeutic agent and was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of advanced cutaneous T- cell lymphoma. In our previous study, we reported the development of the novel, potent, selenium containing HDAC inhibitors (SelSA-1 and SelSA-2). In this study, the effects of SelSA-1 and SelSA-2 on signaling pathways and cytotoxicity were compared with the known HDAC inhibitor, SAHA, in lung cancer cell lines. After 24 hours of treatment, SelSA-1 and SelSA-2 inhibited lung cancer cell growth to a greater extent than SAHA in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values at low micromolar concentrations. SelSA-1 and SelSA-2 inhibited ERK and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways while simultaneously increasing in autophagy in A549 cells in a time dependent manner. This preliminary study demonstrates the effectiveness of the selenium-containing analogs of SAHA, SelSA-1 and SelSA-2, as HDAC inhibitors and provides insight into the improvement and/or development of these analogs as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:20855208

  11. Link between local scale BC emissions and large scale atmospheric solar absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, P. S.; Ahmed, T.; Kar, A.; Rehman, I. H.; Ramanathan, V.

    2011-07-01

    Project Surya has documented indoor and outdoor concentrations of black carbon (BC) from traditional biomass burning cook stoves in a rural village located in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region of N. India from November 2009- September 2010. In this paper, we systematically document the link between local scale aerosol properties and column averaged regional aerosol optical properties and atmospheric radiative forcing. We report observations from the first phase of Project Surya to estimate the source dependent (biomass and fossil fuels) aerosol optical properties from local to regional scale. Data were collected using surface based observations of BC, organic carbon (OC), aerosol light absorption, scattering coefficient at the Surya village (SVI_1) located in IGP region, and satellite and AERONET observations at the regional scale (IGP). The daily mean BC concentrations at SVI1 showed the large increase of BC during the dry season (December to February) with values reaching 35 μg m-3. Space based LIDAR data reveal how the biomass smoke is trapped within the first kilometre during the dry season and its extension to above 5 km during the pre-monsoon season. As a result during the dry season, the variance in the daily mean SSA and column aerosol optical properties at the local IGP site correlated (with slopes in the range of 0.85 to 1.06 and R2>0.4) well with the "IGP_AERONET" (mean of six AERONET sites), thus suggesting in-situ observations at few locations can be used to infer spatial mean forcing. The atmospheric forcing due to BC and OC exceeded 20 W m-2 during all months from November to May, leading to the deduction that elimination of cook stove smoke emissions through clean cooking technologies will likely have a major positive impact on health and the regional climate.

  12. Link between local scale BC emissions in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and large scale atmospheric solar absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, P. S.; Ahmed, T.; Kar, A.; Rehman, I. H.; Ramanathan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Project Surya has documented indoor and outdoor concentrations of black carbon (BC) from traditional biomass burning cook stoves in a rural village located in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region of N. India from November 2009-September 2010. In this paper, we systematically document the link between local scale aerosol properties and column averaged regional aerosol optical properties and atmospheric radiative forcing. We document observations from the first phase of Project Surya and estimate the source dependent (biomass and fossil fuels) aerosol optical properties from local to regional scale. Data were collected using surface based observations of BC, organic carbon (OC), aerosol light absorption, scattering coefficient at the Surya village (SVI_1) located in IGP region and integrated with satellite and AERONET observations at the regional scale (IGP). The daily mean BC concentrations at SVI1 showed a large increase of BC during the dry season (December to February) with values reaching 35 μg m-3. Space based LIDAR data revealed how the biomass smoke was trapped within the first kilometer during the dry season and extended to above 5 km during the pre-monsoon season. As a result, during the dry season, the variance in the daily mean single scattering albedo (SSA), the ratio of scattering to extinction coefficient, and column aerosol optical properties at the local IGP site correlated (with slopes in the range of 0.85 to 1.06 and R2>0.4) well with the "IGP_AERONET" (mean of six AERONET sites). The statistically significant correlation suggested that in-situ observations can be used to derive spatial mean forcing, at least for the dry season. The atmospheric forcing due to BC and OC exceeded 20 Wm-2 during all months from November to May, supporting the deduction that elimination of cook stove smoke emissions through clean cooking technologies will likely have a major positive impact not only on human health but also on regional climate.

  13. Regulation of Selenocysteine Content of Human Selenoprotein P by Dietary Selenium and Insertion of Cysteine in Place of Selenocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Turanov, Anton A.; Everley, Robert A.; Hybsier, Sandra; Renko, Kostja; Schomburg, Lutz; Gygi, Steven P.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2015-01-01

    Selenoproteins are a unique group of proteins that contain selenium in the form of selenocysteine (Sec) co-translationally inserted in response to a UGA codon with the help of cis- and trans-acting factors. Mammalian selenoproteins contain single Sec residues, with the exception of selenoprotein P (SelP) that has 7–15 Sec residues depending on species. Assessing an individual’s selenium status is important under various pathological conditions, which requires a reliable selenium biomarker. Due to a key role in organismal selenium homeostasis, high Sec content, regulation by dietary selenium, and availability of robust assays in human plasma, SelP has emerged as a major biomarker of selenium status. Here, we found that Cys is present in various Sec positions in human SelP. Treatment of cells expressing SelP with thiophosphate, an analog of the selenium donor for Sec synthesis, led to a nearly complete replacement of Sec with Cys, whereas supplementation of cells with selenium supported Sec insertion. SelP isolated directly from human plasma had up to 8% Cys inserted in place of Sec, depending on the Sec position. These findings suggest that a change in selenium status may be reflected in both SelP concentration and its Sec content, and that availability of the SelP-derived selenium for selenoprotein synthesis may be overestimated under conditions of low selenium status due to replacement of Sec with Cys. PMID:26452064

  14. Opinion: How to manage subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract?

    PubMed

    Franco, Matheus Cavalcante; Schulz, Ricardo Teles; Maluf-Filho, Fauze

    2015-12-10

    Subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract are relatively frequent findings in patients undergoing an upper GI endoscopy. These tumors, which are located below the epithelium and out of reach of conventional biopsy forceps, may pose a diagnostic challenge for the gastroenterologist, especially when SELs are indeterminate after endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The decision to proceed with further investigation should take into consideration the size, location in the GI tract, and EUS features of SELs. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is an example of an SEL that has a well-recognized malignant potential. Unfortunately, EUS is not able to absolutely differentiate GISTs from other benign hypoechoic lesions from the fourth layer, such as leiomyomas. Therefore, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an important tool for correct diagnosis of SELs. However, small lesions (size < 2 cm) have a poor diagnostic yield with EUS-FNA. Moreover, studies with EUS-core biopsy needles did not report higher rates of histologic and diagnostic yields when compared with EUS-FNA. The limited diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA and EUS-core biopsies of SELs has led to the development of more invasive endoscopic techniques for tissue acquisition. There are initial studies showing good results for tissue biopsy or resection of SELs with endoscopic submucosal dissection, suck-ligate-unroof-biopsy, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. PMID:26675266

  15. Selenoprotein W was Correlated with the Protective Effect of Selenium on Chicken Myocardial Cells from Oxidative Damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yao, Haidong; Zhao, Wenchao; Shi, Yuguang; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se) mainly performs its function through Se-containing proteins. Selenoprotein W (SelW), one member of the selenoprotein family, plays important roles in the normal function of the heart. To investigate the possible relationship between Se and SelW for the regulation of oxidative damage in chicken embryo myocardial cells, we treated myocardial cells with Se and H2O2. Then, the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine in the culture media, levels of SelW, inflammatory genes NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, p53, and the cell cycle were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between SelW and the levels of these factors was determined. The results indicated that Se treatment increased the expression of SelW (P < 0.05) and caused a downregulation of p53, NF-κB, and TNF-α (P < 0.05). In contrast, H2O2 increased the expression of p53, NF-κB, TNF-α, and LDH (P < 0.05) and induced early cell apoptosis, which was alleviated by treatment with Se. In addition, SelW had a positive correlation with the levels of inflammatory genes investigated. Taken together, our findings suggested that SelW is sensitive to Se levels and oxidative stress, and may play a role in the protective function of Se against oxidative damage and inflammation in chicken myocardial cells. PMID:26463750

  16. Opinion: How to manage subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract?

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Matheus Cavalcante; Schulz, Ricardo Teles; Maluf-Filho, Fauze

    2015-01-01

    Subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract are relatively frequent findings in patients undergoing an upper GI endoscopy. These tumors, which are located below the epithelium and out of reach of conventional biopsy forceps, may pose a diagnostic challenge for the gastroenterologist, especially when SELs are indeterminate after endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The decision to proceed with further investigation should take into consideration the size, location in the GI tract, and EUS features of SELs. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is an example of an SEL that has a well-recognized malignant potential. Unfortunately, EUS is not able to absolutely differentiate GISTs from other benign hypoechoic lesions from the fourth layer, such as leiomyomas. Therefore, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an important tool for correct diagnosis of SELs. However, small lesions (size < 2 cm) have a poor diagnostic yield with EUS-FNA. Moreover, studies with EUS-core biopsy needles did not report higher rates of histologic and diagnostic yields when compared with EUS-FNA. The limited diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA and EUS-core biopsies of SELs has led to the development of more invasive endoscopic techniques for tissue acquisition. There are initial studies showing good results for tissue biopsy or resection of SELs with endoscopic submucosal dissection, suck-ligate-unroof-biopsy, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. PMID:26675266

  17. Regulation of Selenocysteine Content of Human Selenoprotein P by Dietary Selenium and Insertion of Cysteine in Place of Selenocysteine.

    PubMed

    Turanov, Anton A; Everley, Robert A; Hybsier, Sandra; Renko, Kostja; Schomburg, Lutz; Gygi, Steven P; Hatfield, Dolph L; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2015-01-01

    Selenoproteins are a unique group of proteins that contain selenium in the form of selenocysteine (Sec) co-translationally inserted in response to a UGA codon with the help of cis- and trans-acting factors. Mammalian selenoproteins contain single Sec residues, with the exception of selenoprotein P (SelP) that has 7-15 Sec residues depending on species. Assessing an individual's selenium status is important under various pathological conditions, which requires a reliable selenium biomarker. Due to a key role in organismal selenium homeostasis, high Sec content, regulation by dietary selenium, and availability of robust assays in human plasma, SelP has emerged as a major biomarker of selenium status. Here, we found that Cys is present in various Sec positions in human SelP. Treatment of cells expressing SelP with thiophosphate, an analog of the selenium donor for Sec synthesis, led to a nearly complete replacement of Sec with Cys, whereas supplementation of cells with selenium supported Sec insertion. SelP isolated directly from human plasma had up to 8% Cys inserted in place of Sec, depending on the Sec position. These findings suggest that a change in selenium status may be reflected in both SelP concentration and its Sec content, and that availability of the SelP-derived selenium for selenoprotein synthesis may be overestimated under conditions of low selenium status due to replacement of Sec with Cys. PMID:26452064

  18. NASA advanced design program: Analysis, design, and construction of a solar powered aircraft. B.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Agnes; Conley, Kristin; Javorski, Christian T.; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Crivelli, Paul M.; Torrey, Nancy P.; Traver, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as the most logical alternative source of power. The major objective of this project was to build a solar powered remotely controlled aircraft to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design was optimized for minimum weight and maximum strength of the structure. These design constraints necessitated a carbon fiber composite structure. Surya is a lightweight, durable aircraft capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar cells.

  19. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.

  20. Selenoprotein H suppresses cellular senescence through genome maintenance and redox regulation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ryan T Y; Cao, Lei; Chen, Benjamin P C; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress and persistent DNA damage response contribute to cellular senescence, a degeneration process critically involving ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and p53. Selenoprotein H (SelH), a nuclear selenoprotein, is proposed to carry redox and transactivation domains. To determine the role of SelH in genome maintenance, shRNA knockdown was employed in human normal and immortalized cell lines. SelH shRNA MRC-5 diploid fibroblasts under ambient O2 displayed a distinct profile of senescence including β-galactosidase expression, autofluorescence, growth inhibition, and ATM pathway activation. Such senescence phenotypes were alleviated in the presence of ATM kinase inhibitors, by p53 shRNA knockdown, or by maintaining the cells under 3% O2. During the course of 5-day recovery, the induction of phospho-ATM on Ser-1981 and γH2AX by H2O2 treatment (20 μm) subsided in scrambled shRNA but exacerbated in SelH shRNA MRC-5 cells. Results from clonogenic assays demonstrated hypersensitivity of SelH shRNA HeLa cells to paraquat and H2O2, but not to hydroxyurea, neocarzinostatin, or camptothecin. While SelH mRNA expression was induced by H2O2 treatment, SelH-GFP did not mobilize to sites of oxidative DNA damage. The glutathione level was lower in SelH shRNA than scrambled shRNA HeLa cells, and the H2O2-induced cell death was rescued in the presence of N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor. Altogether, SelH protects against cellular senescence to oxidative stress through a genome maintenance pathway involving ATM and p53. PMID:25336634

  1. Functional Implications of RNA Splicing for Human Long Intergenic Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng-Chi; Pan, Chia-Lin; Lin, Hsuan-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been suggested as playing important roles in human gene regulation. The majority of annotated human lincRNAs include multiple exons and are alternatively spliced. However, the connections between alternative RNA splicing (AS) and the functions/regulations of lincRNAs have remained elusive. In this study, we compared the sequence evolution and biological features between single-exonic lincRNAs and multi-exonic lincRNAs (SELs and MELs, respectively) that were present only in the hominoids (hominoid-specific) or conserved in primates (primate-conserved). The MEL exons were further classified into alternatively spliced exons (ASEs) and constitutively spliced exons (CSEs) for evolutionary analyses. Our results indicate that SELs and MELs differed significantly from each other. Firstly, in hominoid-specific lincRNAs, MELs (both CSEs and ASEs) evolved slightly more rapidly than SELs, which evolved approximately at the neutral rate. In primate-conserved lincRNAs, SELs and ASEs evolved slightly more slowly than CSEs and neutral sequences. The evolutionary path of hominid-specific lincRNAs thus seemed to have diverged from that of their more ancestral counterparts. Secondly, both of the exons and transcripts of SELs were significantly longer than those of MELs, and this was probably because SEL transcripts were more resistant to RNA splicing than MELs. Thirdly, SELs were physically closer to coding genes than MELs. Fourthly, SELs were more widely expressed in human tissues than MELs. These results suggested that SELs and MELs represented two biologically distinct groups of genes. In addition, the SEL–MEL and ASE–CSE differences implied that splicing might be important for the functionality or regulations of lincRNAs in primates. PMID:25574121

  2. The Spinal Ependymal Layer in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Moore, S A

    2016-07-01

    Ependymal cells are epithelial support cells that line the central canal and ventricular cavities of the central nervous system, providing the interface between the cerebrospinal fluid and the parenchyma of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal ependymal layer (SEL) is composed of 3 main cell types: tanycytes, ependymocytes, and cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons. A fourth cell type, termed the supraependymal cell, is also occasionally described. Cells of the SEL show restricted proliferative capacity in health but display neural stem cell properties both in vitro and in vivo in various disease states. A growing body of literature is devoted to the regenerative roles of the SEL, particularly in the context of spinal cord injury, where mechanical damage to the spinal cord leads to a significant increase in SEL proliferation. SEL-derived cell progeny migrate to sites of injury within the injured spinal cord parenchyma and contribute primarily to glial scar formation. In additional to their role as endogenous neural stem cells, cells of the SEL may be an important source of cytokines and other cell signaling molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor, heat shock proteins, and various growth factors. The SEL has become of recent interest to neuroscience researchers because of its potential to participate in and respond to diseases affecting the spinal cord (eg, traumatic spinal cord injury) and neurodegenerative disease. The intimate association of the SEL with the cerebrospinal fluid makes intrathecal therapies a viable option, and recent studies highlight the potential promise of treatments that augment SEL responses to disease. PMID:26792842

  3. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Staphylococcal Emetic Toxin.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hisaya K; Sato'o, Yusuke; Narita, Kouji; Naito, Ikunori; Hirose, Shouhei; Hisatsune, Junzo; Asano, Krisana; Hu, Dong-Liang; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Sugai, Motoyuki; Nakane, Akio

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus have superantigenic and emetic activities, which cause toxic shock syndrome and staphylococcal food poisoning, respectively. Our previous study demonstrated that the sequence of SET has a low level of similarity to the sequences of other SEs and exhibits atypical bioactivities. Hence, we further explored whether there is an additional SET-related gene in S. aureus strains. One SET-like gene was found in the genome of S. aureus isolates that originated from a case of food poisoning, a human nasal swab, and a case of bovine mastitis. The deduced amino acid sequence of the SET-like gene showed 32% identity with the amino acid sequence of SET. The SET-like gene product was designated SElY. In the food poisoning and nasal swab isolates, mRNA encoding SElY was highly expressed in the early log phase of cultivation, whereas a high level of expression of this mRNA was found in the bovine mastitis isolate at the early stationary phase. To estimate whether SElY has both superantigenic and emetic activities, recombinant SElY was prepared. Cell proliferation and cytokine production were examined to assess the superantigenic activity of SElY. SElY exhibited superantigenic activity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not in mouse splenocytes. In addition, SElY exhibited emetic activity in house musk shrews after intraperitoneal and oral administration. However, the stability of SElY against heating and pepsin and trypsin digestion was different from that of SET and SEA. From these results, we identified SElY to be a novel staphylococcal emetic toxin. PMID:26231643

  4. Selenoprotein H Suppresses Cellular Senescence through Genome Maintenance and Redox Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ryan T. Y.; Cao, Lei; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and persistent DNA damage response contribute to cellular senescence, a degeneration process critically involving ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and p53. Selenoprotein H (SelH), a nuclear selenoprotein, is proposed to carry redox and transactivation domains. To determine the role of SelH in genome maintenance, shRNA knockdown was employed in human normal and immortalized cell lines. SelH shRNA MRC-5 diploid fibroblasts under ambient O2 displayed a distinct profile of senescence including β-galactosidase expression, autofluorescence, growth inhibition, and ATM pathway activation. Such senescence phenotypes were alleviated in the presence of ATM kinase inhibitors, by p53 shRNA knockdown, or by maintaining the cells under 3% O2. During the course of 5-day recovery, the induction of phospho-ATM on Ser-1981 and γH2AX by H2O2 treatment (20 μm) subsided in scrambled shRNA but exacerbated in SelH shRNA MRC-5 cells. Results from clonogenic assays demonstrated hypersensitivity of SelH shRNA HeLa cells to paraquat and H2O2, but not to hydroxyurea, neocarzinostatin, or camptothecin. While SelH mRNA expression was induced by H2O2 treatment, SelH-GFP did not mobilize to sites of oxidative DNA damage. The glutathione level was lower in SelH shRNA than scrambled shRNA HeLa cells, and the H2O2-induced cell death was rescued in the presence of N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor. Altogether, SelH protects against cellular senescence to oxidative stress through a genome maintenance pathway involving ATM and p53. PMID:25336634

  5. Impact of Ada and object-oriented design in the flight dynamics division at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, Sharon; Bailey, John; Stark, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. The goals of the SEL are (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environment; (2) to measure the effects of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  6. Software process improvement in the NASA software engineering laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin

    1994-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) was established in 1976 for the purpose of studying and measuring software processes with the intent of identifying improvements that could be applied to the production of ground support software within the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SEL has three member organizations: NASA/GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). The concept of process improvement within the SEL focuses on the continual understanding of both process and product as well as goal-driven experimentation and analysis of process change within a production environment.

  7. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. The goals of the SEL are: (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environment; (2) to measure the effects of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that include this document.

  8. Mapping probability of shipping sound exposure level.

    PubMed

    Gervaise, Cédric; Aulanier, Florian; Simard, Yvan; Roy, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    Mapping vessel noise is emerging as one method of identifying areas where sound exposure due to shipping noise could have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems. The probability distribution function (pdf) of sound exposure levels (SEL) is an important metric for identifying areas of concern. In this paper a probabilistic shipping SEL modeling method is described to obtain the pdf of SEL using the sonar equation and statistical relations linking the pdfs of ship traffic density, source levels, and transmission losses to their products and sums. PMID:26093451

  9. Collected Software Engineering Papers, Volume 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from Oct. 1991 - Nov. 1992. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document. For the convenience of this presentation, the 11 papers contained here are grouped into 5 major sections: (1) the Software Engineering Laboratory; (2) software tools studies; (3) software models studies; (4) software measurement studies; and (5) Ada technology studies.

  10. The Effects of Architecture and Process on the Hardness of Programmable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Wang, J. J.; Reed, R.; Kleyner, I.; DOrdine, M.; McCollum, J,; Cronquist, B.; Howard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Architecture and process, combined, significantly affect the hardness of programmable technologies. The effects of high energy ions, ferroelectric memory architectures, and shallow trench isolation are investigated. A detailed single event latchup (SEL) study has been performed.

  11. Extensions of the burst generation rate method for wider application to proton/neutron-induced single event effects

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.

    1998-12-01

    The Burst Generation Rate (BGR) method, originally developed to calculate single event upset (SEU) rates in microelectronics due to neutrons and protons, has been extended for wider application, allowing cross sections for both SEU and single event latchup (SEL) to be calculated, and comparisons to be made with measured data. The method uses the Weibull fit to accurately represent the behavior of the heavy ion SEU cross section. Proton SEU cross sections in RAMs, microprocessors and FPGAs are calculated, with agreement generally to within a factor of 2--3, and similar results are obtained for neutron cross sections for both cosmic ray and fission spectra. The BGR method is also modified to calculate cross sections for proton/neutron induced SEL. Agreement is generally good for SEL for most devices, but there are also limitations, since some very modern devices are shown to have unusually high susceptibility to SEL by protons/neutrons.

  12. 32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enrolled in TRICARE Reserve Select (TRS) before a young adult dependent is eligible to purchase TYA. If TRS.... If the Sel Res sponsor dies while enrolled in TRS, the young adult dependent is eligible to...

  13. 32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enrolled in TRICARE Reserve Select (TRS) before a young adult dependent is eligible to purchase TYA. If TRS.... If the Sel Res sponsor dies while enrolled in TRS, the young adult dependent is eligible to...

  14. Collected software engineering papers, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Topics addressed include: summaries of the software engineering laboratory (SEL) organization, operation, and research activities; results of specific research projects in the areas of resource models and software measures; and strategies for data collection for software engineering research.

  15. Collected software engineering papers, volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period November 1989 through October 1990 is presented. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography. The seven presented papers are grouped into four major categories: (1) experimental research and evaluation of software measurement; (2) studies on models for software reuse; (3) a software tool evaluation; and (4) Ada technology and studies in the areas of reuse and specification.

  16. 75 FR 26828 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    .... Inc. CTIC Cell Therapeutics Inc... SYMC Symantec Corp. MDT Medtronic Inc AMED Amedisys Inc. TIVO TiVo... LDK Solar Co Ltd. Sel. Sec. SPDR Fund. CLF Cliffs Natural Resources SPG Simon Property Group Inc....

  17. Secure Control Systems for the Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rhett; Stewart, John; Chavez, Adrian

    2014-10-22

    The Padlock Project is an alliance between Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc. (SEL). SEL is the prime contractor on the Padlock project. Rhett Smith (SEL) is the project director and Adrian Chaves (SNL) and John Stewart (TVA) are principle investigators. SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. The Tennessee Valley Authority, a corporation owned by the U.S. government, provides electricity for 9 million people in parts of seven southeastern states at prices below the national average. TVA, which receives no taxpayer money and makes no profits, also provides flood control, navigation and land management for the Tennessee River system and assists utilities, and state and local governments with economic development.

  18. PIFCGT: A PIF autopilot design program for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the PIFCGT computer program. In FORTRAN, PIFCGT is a computer design aid for determing Proportional-Integral-Filter (PIF) control laws for aircraft autopilots implemented with a Command Generator Tracker (CGT). The program uses Linear-Quadratic-Regulator synthesis algorithms to determine feedback gains, and includes software to solve the feedforward matrix equation which is useful in determining the command generator tracker feedforward gains. The program accepts aerodynamic stability derivatives and computes the corresponding aerodynamic linear model. The nine autopilot modes that can be designed include four maneuver modes (ROLL SEL, PITCH SEL, HDG SEL, ALT SEL), four final approach models (APR GS, APR LOCI, APR LOCR, APR LOCP), and a BETA HOLD mode. The program has been compiled and executed on a CDC computer.

  19. High-power AlGaAs/GaAs single quantum well surface-emitting lasers with integrated 45° beam deflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lang, Robert J.; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Luke P.; Narayanan, Authi A.

    1990-11-01

    We report on high-power AlGaAs/GaAs graded-index single quantum well surface-emitting lasers (SELs), with etched vertical mirrors and integrated 45° beam deflectors fabricated by a tilted ion beam etching technique. 100-μm-wide, 500-μm-long, broad-area SELs exhibited a threshold current of 300 mA, a peak power of more than 380 mW, and an external differential quantum efficiency of 17% without facet coating. The SELs showed stable operation up to 7th. These results show the highest power and external differential quantum efficiency reported to date for 45° beam deflecting SELs. The full widths at half maximum of the surface-emitting far-field pattern parallel and perpendicular to the laser axis were 8.5° and 14°, respectively.

  20. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED FOR SOX CONTROL. VOLUME I. PROCESS EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes selected process evaluation studies supporting the development of an atmospheric-pressure, fluidized-bed, chemically active gasification process, using a regenerative limestone sulfur sorbent to produce low- to intermediate-Btu fuel gas. Limestone sorbent sel...

  1. From Dodge City to Emerald City: The Importance of Joseph E. Zins' Work in Teacher Education Programs--A Commentary on "The Scientific Base Linking Social and Emotional Learning to School Success," a Chapter by Joseph E. Zins, Michelle R. Bloodworth, Roger P. Weissberg, and Herbert J. Walberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David Lee

    2007-01-01

    This commentary argues that Joseph Zins' work can contribute and enhance university-based teacher preparation programs. Focusing on secondary English Education, it examines how SEL competencies can improve the curricula and field experiences to support pre-service teachers.

  2. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Topics covered in the workshop included studies and experiments conducted in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), a cooperative effort of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation; software models; software products; and software tools.

  3. An unusual case of spinal cord compression from concomitant spinal epidural lipomatosis and Hodgkin's lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzai, Hasib; Khalil, Ali; Mitchell, Ruth A.; Kwok, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) results from an abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated fat within the epidural space and is a rare cause of spinal cord compression, which needs to be considered with a high index of suspicion. It most commonly occurs secondary to chronic corticosteroid use and endocrinopathies. Idiopathic cases are highly associated with obesity. We report an unusual case of idiopathic thoracic SEL in a 69-year-old male, with an adjacent infiltrative Hodgkin's lymphoma and associated vertebral crush fracture, which resulted in ataxia and sensory loss. Magnetic resonance imaging scans displayed extensive SEL and an infiltrative disease process causing thoracic cord compression. Surgical decompression confirmed the presence of extensive epidural lipomatosis and Hodgkin's lymphoma and subsequently led to improvement in neurological symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of concomitant SEL with an adjacent Hodgkin's lymphoma resulting in cord compression. PMID:26962199

  4. Safety equipment list for the 241-SY-101 RAPID mitigation project

    SciTech Connect

    MORRIS, K.L.

    1999-06-29

    This document provides the safety classification for the safety (safety class and safety RAPID Mitigation Project. This document is being issued as the project SEL until the supporting authorization basis documentation, this document will be superseded by the TWRS SEL (LMHC 1999), documentation istlralized. Upon implementation of the authorization basis significant) structures, systems, and components (SSCS) associated with the 241-SY-1O1 which will be updated to include the information contained herein.

  5. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Twenty-third Annual Software Engineering Workshop (SEW) provided 20 presentations designed to further the goals of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) of the NASA-GSFC. The presentations were selected on their creativity. The sessions which were held on 2-3 of December 1998, centered on the SEL, Experimentation, Inspections, Fault Prediction, Verification and Validation, and Embedded Systems and Safety-Critical Systems.

  6. Guide to data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations are presented for the collection of software development data. Motivation and planning for, and implementation and management of, a data collection effort are discussed. Topics covered include types, sources, and availability of data; methods and costs of data collection; types of analyses supported; and warnings and suggestions based on software engineering laboratory (SEL) experiences. This document is intended as a practical guide for software managers and engineers, abstracted and generalized from 5 years of SEL data collection.

  7. A Digital Self Excited Loop for Accelerating Cavity Field Control

    SciTech Connect

    Curt Hovater; Trent Allison; Jean Delayen; John Musson; Tomasz Plawski

    2007-06-22

    We have developed a digital process that emulates an analog oscillator and ultimately a self excited loop (SEL) for field control. The SEL, in its analog form, has been used for many years for accelerating cavity field control. In essence the SEL uses the cavity as a resonant circuit -- much like a resonant (tank) circuit is used to build an oscillator. An oscillating resonant circuit can be forced to oscillate at different, but close, frequencies to resonance by applying a phase shift in the feedback path. This allows the circuit to be phased-locked to a master reference, which is crucial for multiple cavity accelerators. For phase and amplitude control the SEL must be forced to the master reference frequency, and feedback provided for in both dimensions. The novelty of this design is in the way digital signal processing (DSP) is structured to emulate an analog system. While the digital signal processing elements are not new, to our knowledge this is the first time that the digital SEL concept has been designed and demonstrated. This paper reports on the progress of the design and implementation of the digital SEL for field control of superconducting accelerating cavities.

  8. Selenoprotein R Protects Human Lens Epithelial Cells against d-Galactose-Induced Apoptosis by Regulating Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Hongmei; Zhou, Jun; Huang, Kaixun

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans. Much of selenium’s beneficial influence on health is attributed to its presence within 25 selenoproteins. Selenoprotein R (SelR), known as methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1), is a selenium-dependent enzyme that, like other Msrs, is required for lens cell viability. In order to investigate the roles of SelR in protecting human lens epithelial (hLE) cells against damage, the influences of SelR gene knockdown on d-galactose-induced apoptosis in hLE cells were studied. The results showed that both d-galactose and SelR gene knockdown by siRNA independently induced oxidative stress. When SelR-gene-silenced hLE cells were exposed to d-galactose, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) protein level was further increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased and accompanied by a release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. At the same time, the apoptosis cells percentage and the caspase-3 activity were visibly elevated in hLE cells. These results suggested that SelR might protect hLE cell mitochondria and mitigating apoptosis in hLE cells against oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by d-galactose, implying that selenium as a micronutrient may play important roles in hLE cells. PMID:26875981

  9. Increased Muscle Stress-Sensitivity Induced by Selenoprotein N Inactivation in Mouse: A Mammalian Model for SEPN1-Related Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Sandrine; Lainé, Jeanne; Vassilopoulos, Stéphane; Beuvin, Maud; Dubourg, Odile; Vignaud, Alban; Ferry, Arnaud; Krol, Alain; Allamand, Valérie; Guicheney, Pascale; Ferreiro, Ana; Lescure, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element and selenoprotein N (SelN) was the first selenium-containing protein shown to be directly involved in human inherited diseases. Mutations in the SEPN1 gene, encoding SelN, cause a group of muscular disorders characterized by predominant affection of axial muscles. SelN has been shown to participate in calcium and redox homeostasis, but its pathophysiological role in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. To address SelN function in vivo, we generated a Sepn1-null mouse model by gene targeting. The Sepn1−/− mice had normal growth and lifespan, and were macroscopically indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. Only minor defects were observed in muscle morphology and contractile properties in SelN-deficient mice in basal conditions. However, when subjected to challenging physical exercise and stress conditions (forced swimming test), Sepn1−/− mice developed an obvious phenotype, characterized by limited motility and body rigidity during the swimming session, as well as a progressive curvature of the spine and predominant alteration of paravertebral muscles. This induced phenotype recapitulates the distribution of muscle involvement in patients with SEPN1-Related Myopathy, hence positioning this new animal model as a valuable tool to dissect the role of SelN in muscle function and to characterize the pathophysiological process. PMID:21858002

  10. Social-Emotional Learning Profiles of Preschoolers’ Early School Success: A Person-Centered Approach

    PubMed Central

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Mincic, Melissa; Kalb, Sara; Way, Erin; Wyatt, Todd; Segal, Yana

    2011-01-01

    Examined how aspects of social-emotional learning (SEL)—specifically, emotion knowledge, emotional and social behaviors, social problem-solving, and self-regulation—clustered to typify groups of children who differ in terms of their motivation to learn, participation in the classroom, and other indices of early school adjustment and academic success. 275 four-year-old children from private day schools and Head Start were directly assessed and observed in these areas, and preschool and kindergarten teachers provided information on social and academic aspects of their school success. Three groups of children were identified: SEL Risk, SEL Competent-Social/Expressive, and SEL Competent-Restrained. Group members differed on demographic dimensions of gender and center type, and groups differed in meaningful ways on school success indices, pointing to needed prevention/intervention programming. In particular, the SEL Risk group could benefit from emotion-focused programming, and the long-term developmental trajectory of the SEL Competent-Restrained group requires study. PMID:22408363

  11. Social-Emotional Learning Profiles of Preschoolers' Early School Success: A Person-Centered Approach.

    PubMed

    Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko H; Mincic, Melissa; Kalb, Sara; Way, Erin; Wyatt, Todd; Segal, Yana

    2012-04-01

    Examined how aspects of social-emotional learning (SEL)-specifically, emotion knowledge, emotional and social behaviors, social problem-solving, and self-regulation-clustered to typify groups of children who differ in terms of their motivation to learn, participation in the classroom, and other indices of early school adjustment and academic success. 275 four-year-old children from private day schools and Head Start were directly assessed and observed in these areas, and preschool and kindergarten teachers provided information on social and academic aspects of their school success. Three groups of children were identified: SEL Risk, SEL Competent-Social/Expressive, and SEL Competent-Restrained. Group members differed on demographic dimensions of gender and center type, and groups differed in meaningful ways on school success indices, pointing to needed prevention/intervention programming. In particular, the SEL Risk group could benefit from emotion-focused programming, and the long-term developmental trajectory of the SEL Competent-Restrained group requires study. PMID:22408363

  12. Formation of a Ternary Complex for Selenocysteine Biosynthesis in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ivan R; Serrão, Vitor H B; Manzine, Livia R; Faim, Lívia M; da Silva, Marco T A; Makki, Raphaela; Saidemberg, Daniel M; Cornélio, Marinônio L; Palma, Mário S; Thiemann, Otavio H

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis of selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins) involves the interaction of selenocysteine synthase (SelA), tRNA (tRNA(Sec)), selenophosphate synthetase (SelD, SPS), a specific elongation factor (SelB), and a specific mRNA sequence known as selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS). Because selenium compounds are highly toxic in the cellular environment, the association of selenium with proteins throughout its metabolism is essential for cell survival. In this study, we demonstrate the interaction of SPS with the SelA-tRNA(Sec) complex, resulting in a 1.3-MDa ternary complex of 27.0 ± 0.5 nm in diameter and 4.02 ± 0.05 nm in height. To assemble the ternary complex, SPS undergoes a conformational change. We demonstrated that the glycine-rich N-terminal region of SPS is crucial for the SelA-tRNA(Sec)-SPS interaction and selenoprotein biosynthesis, as revealed by functional complementation experiments. Taken together, our results provide new insights into selenoprotein biosynthesis, demonstrating for the first time the formation of the functional ternary SelA-tRNA(Sec)-SPS complex. We propose that this complex is necessary for proper selenocysteine synthesis and may be involved in avoiding the cellular toxicity of selenium compounds. PMID:26378233

  13. Genetics and evidence for an esterase-associated mechanism of resistance to indoxacarb in a field population of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Wright, Denis J

    2006-11-01

    Bioassays (at generation G2) with a newly collected field population (designated CH3) of Plutella xylostella L. from farmers' fields in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia, indicated resistance ratios of 813-, 79-, 171-, 498- and 1285-fold for indoxacarb, fipronil, spinosad, deltamethrin and Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac respectively compared with a laboratory susceptible population (Lab-UK). At G2 the field-derived population was divided into two subpopulations: one was selected (G2 to G7) with indoxacarb (indoxa-SEL), while the second was left unselected (UNSEL). A significant reduction in the resistance ratio for each compound was observed in UNSEL at G8. For indoxa-SEL, bioassays at G8 found that selection with indoxacarb gave a resistance ratio of 2594 compared with Lab-UK and of 90 compared with UNSEL. The toxicity of fipronil, spinosad and deltamethrin was not significantly different in indoxa-SEL at G8 compared with G2 but was significantly greater than UNSEL at G8. The toxicity of Cry1Ac was significantly reduced in indoxa-SEL at G8 compared with G2 but was also significantly greater than UNSEL at G8. This suggests that indoxacarb selection maintained resistance to these compounds in the indoxa-SEL population. Synergist studies indicated that resistance to indoxacarb in indoxa-SEL was esterase associated. Logit regression analysis of F1 reciprocal crosses between indoxa-SEL and Lab-UK indicated that resistance to indoxacarb was inherited as an autosomal, incompletely recessive (D(LC) = 0.35) trait. Tests of monogenic inheritance suggested that resistance to indoxacarb was controlled by a single locus. PMID:16886171

  14. In Situ Electron Microscopy of Lactomicroselenium Particles in Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gabor; Pinczes, Gyula; Pinter, Gabor; Pocsi, Istvan; Prokisch, Jozsef; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2016-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to test whether or not (a) in statu nascendi synthesized, and in situ measured, nanoparticle size does not differ significantly from the size of nanoparticles after their purification; and (b) the generation of selenium is detrimental to the bacterial strains that produce them. Elemental nano-sized selenium produced by probiotic latic acid bacteria was used as a lactomicroselenium (lactomicroSel) inhibitor of cell growth in the presence of lactomicroSel, and was followed by time-lapse microscopy. The size of lactomicroSel produced by probiotic bacteria was measured in situ and after isolation and purification. For these measurements the TESLA BS 540 transmission electron microscope was converted from analog (aTEM) to digital processing (dTEM), and further to remote-access internet electron microscopy (iTEM). Lactobacillus acidophilus produced fewer, but larger, lactomicroSel nanoparticles (200–350 nm) than Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), which generated many, smaller lactomicroSel particles (85–200 nm) and grains as a cloudy, less electrodense material. Streptococcus thermophilus cells generated selenoparticles (60–280 nm) in a suicidic manner. The size determined in situ in lactic acid bacteria was significantly lower than those measured by scanning electron microscopy after the isolation of lactomicroSel particles obtained from lactobacilli (100–500 nm), but higher relative to those isolated from Streptococcus thermopilus (50–100 nm). These differences indicate that smaller lactomicroSel particles could be more toxic to the producing bacteria themselves and discrepancies in size could have implications with respect to the applications of selenium nanoparticles as prebiotics. PMID:27376279

  15. P-selectin increases angiotensin II-induced cardiac inflammation and fibrosis via platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    LIU, GAIZHEN; LIANG, BIN; SONG, XIAOSU; BAI, RUI; QIN, WEIWEI; SUN, XU; LU, YAN; BIAN, YUNFEI; XIAO, CHUANSHI

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activation is important in hypertension-induced cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. P-selectin expression significantly (P<0.05) increases when platelets are activated during hypertension. Although P-selectin recruits leukocytes to sites of inflammation, the role of P-selectin in cardiac inflammation and fibrosis remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate whether platelet-derived P-selectin promotes hypertensive cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. P-selectin knockout (P-sel KO) mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 littermates were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) at 1,500 ng/kg/min for 7 days and then cross-transplanted with platelets originating from either WT or P-sel KO mice. P-selectin expression was increased in the myocardium and plasma of hypertensive mice, and the P-sel KO mice exhibited significantly (P<0.05) reduced cardiac fibrosis. The fibrotic areas were markedly smaller in the hearts of P-sel KO mice compared with WT mice, as assessed by Masson's trichrome staining. In addition, α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression levels were decreased in the P-sel KO mice, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Following platelet transplantation into P-sel KO mice, the number of Mac-2 (galectin-3)- and TGF-β1-positive cells was increased in mice that received WT platelets compared with those that received P-sel KO platelets, and the mRNA expression levels of collagen I and TGF-β1 were also increased. The results from the present study suggest that activated platelets secrete P-selectin to promote cardiac inflammation and fibrosis in Ang II-induced hypertension. PMID:27121797

  16. P-selectin is required for neutrophils and macrophage infiltration into injured site and contributes to generation of behavioral hypersensitivity following peripheral nerve injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liou, Jiin-Tarng; Lee, Chiou-Mei; Lin, Yi-Chiao; Chen, Chun-Yu; Liao, Chia-Chih; Lee, Hung-Chen; Day, Yuan-Ji

    2013-10-01

    Growing evidence suggests that leukocyte extravasation is initiated by the interaction of selectins with their ligands; as well as an essential role for P-selectin in the initial recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of inflammation. In this study, P-selectin-deficient (P-sel-/-) mice were used to test the hypothesis that lack of P-selectin would attenuate the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of inflammation, thereby modulating pain in a murine chronic neuropathic pain model. Nociceptive sensitization and the microenvironment of the peripheral injury site were studied in wild-type (P-sel+/+) and P-selectin-deficient (P-sel-/-) mice after partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). Variables measured included myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, several inflammatory cell infiltration profiles, cytokines, and endogenous opioid peptide expression in damaged nerves. Results indicate that behavioral hypersensitivity, MPO activity, and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages were attenuated in P-sel-/- mice after PSNL. Proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin (IL)-6, were reduced in damaged nerves following PSNL; however, several antiinflammatory cytokines - IL-1Ra, IL-4, and IL-10 - were significantly increased in P-sel-/- mice. In addition, endogenous opioid peptides mRNA was significantly lower in P-sel-/- mice compared with P-sel +/+ mice. The current results demonstrated that the absence of P-selectin in mice leads to an altered microenvironment that attenuated behavioral hypersensitivity. The specific role of P-selectin could have been a result of decreased neutrophils, as well as the accumulation of macrophages at the site of injury, which may subsequently modulate the inflammatory cytokine expression and impact behavioral hypersensitivity within the injured nerve. PMID:23831400

  17. In Situ Electron Microscopy of Lactomicroselenium Particles in Probiotic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Gabor; Pinczes, Gyula; Pinter, Gabor; Pocsi, Istvan; Prokisch, Jozsef; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2016-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to test whether or not (a) in statu nascendi synthesized, and in situ measured, nanoparticle size does not differ significantly from the size of nanoparticles after their purification; and (b) the generation of selenium is detrimental to the bacterial strains that produce them. Elemental nano-sized selenium produced by probiotic latic acid bacteria was used as a lactomicroselenium (lactomicroSel) inhibitor of cell growth in the presence of lactomicroSel, and was followed by time-lapse microscopy. The size of lactomicroSel produced by probiotic bacteria was measured in situ and after isolation and purification. For these measurements the TESLA BS 540 transmission electron microscope was converted from analog (aTEM) to digital processing (dTEM), and further to remote-access internet electron microscopy (iTEM). Lactobacillus acidophilus produced fewer, but larger, lactomicroSel nanoparticles (200-350 nm) than Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), which generated many, smaller lactomicroSel particles (85-200 nm) and grains as a cloudy, less electrodense material. Streptococcus thermophilus cells generated selenoparticles (60-280 nm) in a suicidic manner. The size determined in situ in lactic acid bacteria was significantly lower than those measured by scanning electron microscopy after the isolation of lactomicroSel particles obtained from lactobacilli (100-500 nm), but higher relative to those isolated from Streptococcus thermopilus (50-100 nm). These differences indicate that smaller lactomicroSel particles could be more toxic to the producing bacteria themselves and discrepancies in size could have implications with respect to the applications of selenium nanoparticles as prebiotics. PMID:27376279

  18. Idiopathic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis in the Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Al-Omari, Ali A; Phukan, Rishabh D; Leonard, Dana A; Herzog, Tyler L; Wood, Kirkham B; Bono, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    Overgrowth of epidural fat, known as spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL), can cause symptomatic compression of the spinal cord, conus medullaris, or cauda equina. Suggested predisposing factors such as obesity, steroid use, and diabetes mellitus have been based on a few reported cases, many of which were not surgically confirmed. There is a paucity of epidemiological data in surgically confirmed cases for this disorder. The purpose of this independently reviewed, retrospective, matched cohort analysis was to compare the demographics and incidence of comorbidities of patients who underwent lumbar decompression for SEL vs degenerative stenosis without SEL. Two surgeons' databases were reviewed to identify patients older than 18 years who underwent decompression surgery for magnetic resonance imaging-verified, symptomatic lumbar SEL. A matched control group comprised an equal number of patients with degenerative stenosis (n=14). Demographic data, body mass index, symptom type/duration, comorbidities, complications, treatment history, and associated pathology were collected from medical records. Previously suggested risk factors, such as obesity, endocrinopathy, and epidural steroid injections, were not significantly different between the SEL and control groups. Furthermore, there were no differences in operative times, complications, or blood loss. The only noted difference between the 2 groups was the preoperative duration of symptoms, on average double in patients with SEL. This series represents the largest of its kind reported to date. Because symptom duration was the only difference noted, it is postulated to be the result of lack of awareness of SEL. Future prospective study in a larger group of patients is warranted. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):163-168.]. PMID:27018608

  19. Genetic, biochemical, and physiological characterization of spinosad resistance in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Saeed, Shafqat; Noor-Ul-Ane, M; Crickmore, Neil

    2008-10-01

    Bioassays (at generation G2) with a newly collected field population (designated MN) of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Multan, Pakistan, indicated resistance to spinosad, indoxacarb, deltamethrin, abamectin, and acetamiprid. At G2 the field-derived population was divided into two subpopulations, one was selected (G2 to G11) with spinosad (Spino-SEL), whereas the second was left unselected (UNSEL). A significant reduction in the resistance ratio for each compound was observed in UNSEL at G12, indicating that the observed resistance to each insecticide was unstable. For Spino-SEL, bioassays at G12 found that selection with spinosad gave a resistance ratio of 283 compared with MN at G2. The resistance to indoxacarb and acetamiprid in the Spino-SEL population increased to 13- and 67-fold, respectively, compared with MN at G2. The toxicity of deltamethrin to Spino-SEL was similar to its toxicity to the MN population at G2. This suggests that spinosad selection maintained the otherwise unstable resistance to the compound. In contrast, resistance to abamectin decreased significantly from G2 to G12 in Spino-SEL. Logit regression analysis of F1 reciprocal crosses between Spino-SEL and the susceptible Lab-UK indicated that resistance to spinosad was inherited as an autosomal, incompletely recessive trait. The spinosad resistance allele significantly delays the developmental time, reduced pupal weight, number of eggs laid, and number of eggs hatched compared with Lab-UK. Further analysis suggests Spino-SEL exhibited a significantly lower intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) to all other populations tested. PMID:18950049

  20. Seletracetam enhances short term depression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Meehan, Anna L; Rothman, Steven M; Dubinsky, Janet M

    2015-11-01

    Seletracetam (SEL), an analog of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV), decreases seizure activity in a number of epilepsy models and binds to the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A with a higher affinity than LEV. Experiments were performed to determine if SEL, like LEV, reduces the later EPSPs in long trains of stimuli in a manner dependent upon access to the interior of synaptic vesicles and SV2A binding. When hippocampal slices were incubated in 3-30μM SEL for 3h, but not 30 min, the relative amplitude of the CA1 field excitatory synaptic potentials decreased over the course of a train of high frequency stimuli more than for control slices. This short term depression was frequency and dose dependent and largely disappeared when the spontaneous activity during the loading period was removed by cutting the Schaffer collaterals. The SEL effect was also observed in slices loaded during prolonged stimulation at 1Hz, but not 10Hz. Hippocampal slices loaded with both SEL and FM1-43 to visualize synaptic boutons released the FM1-43 in response to prolonged stimulation much more slowly than control slices during prolonged stimulation. Like LEV, SEL produced a frequency-dependent decrement of synaptic transmission that was dependent upon the drug entering recycling synaptic vesicles and compatible with SV2A binding. Previous observations of SV2A binding affinity correlated with the current effect of SEL and the previously reported effect of LEV on synaptic transmission validate SV2A as an extremely attractive target for future antiepileptic drug development. PMID:26320080

  1. Characterization of Selenoprotein M and Its Response to Selenium Deficiency in Chicken Brain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Qiang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Jiang, Yun-Yun; Lei, XinGen

    2016-04-01

    Selenoprotein M (SelM) may function as thiol disulfide oxidoreductase that participates in the formation of disulfide bonds and can be implicated in calcium responses. SelM may have a functional role in catalyzing free radicals and has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, studies of SelM in chicken remain very limited. In this study, two groups of day-old broiler chicks (n = 40/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (BD, 13 μg Se/kg) and BD supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3 mg/kg. The brain was collected at 14, 21, 28, and 42 days of age. We performed a sequence analysis and predicted the structure and function of SelM. We also investigated the effects of Se deficiency on the expression of Selt, Selw, and Selm and the Se status in the chicken brain. The results show that Se deficiency induced the lower (P < 0.05) Se content, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities; increased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) content; and reduced (P < 0.05) the expression of Selm messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein abundance of SelM in the brain. However, there were no significant brain Selt and Selw mRNA levels by dietary Se deficiency in chicks. The different regulations of these three redox (Rdx) protein expressions by Se deficiency represent a novel finding of the present study. Our results demonstrated that SelM may have an important role in protecting against oxidative damage in the brain of chicken, which might shed light on the role of SelM in human neurodegenerative disease. More studies are needed to confirm our conclusion. PMID:26315306

  2. P‑selectin increases angiotensin II‑induced cardiac inflammation and fibrosis via platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gaizhen; Liang, Bin; Song, Xiaosu; Bai, Rui; Qin, Weiwei; Sun, Xu; Lu, Yan; Bian, Yunfei; Xiao, Chuanshi

    2016-06-01

    Platelet activation is important in hypertension‑induced cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. P-selectin expression significantly (P<0.05) increases when platelets are activated during hypertension. Although P‑selectin recruits leukocytes to sites of inflammation, the role of P‑selectin in cardiac inflammation and fibrosis remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate whether platelet‑derived P‑selectin promotes hypertensive cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. P‑selectin knockout (P‑sel KO) mice and wild‑type (WT) C57BL/6 littermates were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) at 1,500 ng/kg/min for 7 days and then cross‑transplanted with platelets originating from either WT or P‑sel KO mice. P‑selectin expression was increased in the myocardium and plasma of hypertensive mice, and the P‑sel KO mice exhibited significantly (P<0.05) reduced cardiac fibrosis. The fibrotic areas were markedly smaller in the hearts of P‑sel KO mice compared with WT mice, as assessed by Masson's trichrome staining. In addition, α‑smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF‑β1) expression levels were decreased in the P‑sel KO mice, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Following platelet transplantation into P‑sel KO mice, the number of Mac‑2 (galectin‑3)‑ and TGF‑β1‑positive cells was increased in mice that received WT platelets compared with those that received P‑sel KO platelets, and the mRNA expression levels of collagen I and TGF‑β1 were also increased. The results from the present study suggest that activated platelets secrete P‑selectin to promote cardiac inflammation and fibrosis in Ang II‑induced hypertension. PMID:27121797

  3. Aircraft noise-induced awakenings are more reasonably predicted from relative than from absolute sound exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Mestre, Vincent; Fidell, Linda

    2013-11-01

    Assessment of aircraft noise-induced sleep disturbance is problematic for several reasons. Current assessment methods are based on sparse evidence and limited understandings; predictions of awakening prevalence rates based on indoor absolute sound exposure levels (SELs) fail to account for appreciable amounts of variance in dosage-response relationships and are not freely generalizable from airport to airport; and predicted awakening rates do not differ significantly from zero over a wide range of SELs. Even in conjunction with additional predictors, such as time of night and assumed individual differences in "sensitivity to awakening," nominally SEL-based predictions of awakening rates remain of limited utility and are easily misapplied and misinterpreted. Probabilities of awakening are more closely related to SELs scaled in units of standard deviates of local distributions of aircraft SELs, than to absolute sound levels. Self-selection of residential populations for tolerance of nighttime noise and habituation to airport noise environments offer more parsimonious and useful explanations for differences in awakening rates at disparate airports than assumed individual differences in sensitivity to awakening. PMID:24180775

  4. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility safety equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-02-24

    This document provides the safety equipment list (SEL) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The SEL was prepared in accordance with the procedure for safety structures, systems, and components (SSCs) in HNF-PRO-516, ''Safety Structures, Systems, and Components,'' Revision 0 and HNF-PRO-097, Engineering Design and Evaluation, Revision 0. The SEL was developed in conjunction with HNF-SO-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998). The SEL identifies the SSCs and their safety functions, the design basis accidents for which they are required to perform, the design criteria, codes and standards, and quality assurance requirements that are required for establishing the safety design basis of the SSCs. This SEL has been developed for the CVDF Phase 2 Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future phases of the CVDF SAR until the CVDF final SAR is approved.

  5. Mechanism, stability and fitness cost of resistance to pyriproxyfen in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-03-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a bio-rational insecticide, used worldwide for the management of many insect pests including the house fly, Musca domestica. To devise a retrospective resistance management strategy, biological parameters of pyriproxyfen resistant (Pyri-SEL), unselected (UNSEL), Cross1 and Cross2M. domestica strains were studied in the laboratory. Additionally, the stability and mechanism of resistance was also investigated. After 30 generations of pyriproxyfen selection, a field-collected strain developed 206-fold resistance compared with susceptible strain. Synergists such as piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate did not alter the LC50 values, suggesting another cause of target site resistance to pyriproxyfen in the Pyri-SEL strain. The resistance to all tested insecticides was unstable in Pyri-SEL strain. The relative fitness of 0.51 with lower fecundity, hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, reduced mean population growth rate and net reproductive rate were observed in the Pyri-SEL strain compared with the UNSEL strain. The cost of fitness associated with pyriproxyfen resistance was evident in Pyri-SEL strain. The present study provides useful information for making pro-active resistance management strategies to delay resistance development. PMID:25868819

  6. Dominant fitness costs of resistance to fipronil in Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem

    2016-08-15

    House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica. PMID:27514889

  7. Association of selenoprotein S gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke in a Chinese case-control study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Xia; Guan, Hong-Jun; Liu, Jian-Ping; Guo, Yu-Peng; Yang, Yong; Niu, Ying-Ying; Yao, Li-Yan; Yang, Yin-Dong; Yue, Hong-Yu; Meng, Li-Li; Cui, Xin-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Jin-Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that selenoprotein S (SELS) was associated with a range of inflammatory markers, and its gene expression was influenced by a polymorphism in the promoter region. The genetic basis of the ischemic stroke has now been largely determined, so the aim of the study was to examine the role of SELS genetic variants in the ischemic stroke risk in a Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study with 239 ischemic stroke patients and 240 controls. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SELS genes were analyzed for association with the risk of ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population. No evidence of ischemic stroke association was observed with the SNP rs34713741. Interestingly, the strongest evidence showed that SELS SNP rs4965814 was associated with ischemic stroke (P < 0.05). We found a significant association with increased ischemic stroke risk in women carrying the CC genotype of rs4965814 [hazard ratio: 2.43(1.03-5.75)]; a similar trend was also found in men carrying the TC genotype of rs4965814 [hazard ratio: 1.81(1.06-3.08)]. SNP rs4965814 of SELS may affect the susceptibility to ischemic stroke. Understanding the inflammatory mechanisms of ischemic stroke may give new therapeutic targets to pharmacologists. PMID:25390504

  8. Temporary threshold shift in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) exposed to mid-frequency tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, James J.; Carder, Donald A.; Schlundt, Carolyn E.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2005-10-01

    A behavioral response paradigm was used to measure hearing thresholds in bottlenose dolphins before and after exposure to 3 kHz tones with sound exposure levels (SELs) from 100 to 203 dB re 1 μPa2 s. Experiments were conducted in a relatively quiet pool with ambient noise levels below 55 dB re 1 μPa2/Hz at frequencies above 1 kHz. Experiments 1 and 2 featured 1-s exposures with hearing tested at 4.5 and 3 kHz, respectively. Experiment 3 featured 2-, 4-, and 8-s exposures with hearing tested at 4.5 kHz. For experiment 2, there were no significant differences between control and exposure sessions. For experiments 1 and 3, exposures with SEL=197 dB re 1 μPa2 s and SEL>=195 dB re 1 μPa2 s, respectively, resulted in significantly higher TTS4 than control sessions. For experiment 3 at SEL=195 dB re 1 μPa2 s, the mean TTS4 was 2.8 dB. These data are consistent with prior studies of TTS in dolphins exposed to pure tones and octave band noise and suggest that a SEL of 195 dB re 1 μPa2 s is a reasonable threshold for the onset of TTS in dolphins and white whales exposed to midfrequency tones.

  9. Collected software engineering papers, volume 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1990 through October 1991. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the ninth such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. For the convenience of this presentation, the eight papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) software models studies; (2) software measurement studies; and (3) Ada technology studies. The first category presents studies on reuse models, including a software reuse model applied to maintenance and a model for an organization to support software reuse. The second category includes experimental research methods and software measurement techniques. The third category presents object-oriented approaches using Ada and object-oriented features proposed for Ada. The SEL is actively working to understand and improve the software development process at GSFC.

  10. Cucumber Mosaic Virus Movement Protein Severs Actin Filaments to Increase the Plasmodesmal Size Exclusion Limit in Tobacco[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shengzhong; Liu, Zhaohui; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xu; Zhu, Lei; Miao, Long; Wang, Xue-Chen; Yuan, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Plant viral movement proteins (MPs) enable viruses to pass through cell walls by increasing the size exclusion limit (SEL) of plasmodesmata (PD). Here, we report that the ability of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) MP to increase the SEL of the PD could be inhibited by treatment with the actin filament (F-actin)–stabilizing agent phalloidin but not by treatment with the F-actin–destabilizing agent latrunculin A. In vitro studies showed that CMV MP bound globular and F-actin, inhibited actin polymerization, severed F-actin, and participated in plus end capping of F-actin. Analyses of two CMV MP mutants, one with and one without F-actin severing activities, demonstrated that the F-actin severing ability was required to increase the PD SEL. Furthermore, the Tobacco mosaic virus MP also exhibited F-actin severing activity, and its ability to increase the PD SEL was inhibited by treatment with phalloidin. Our data provide evidence to support the hypothesis that F-actin severing is required for MP-induced increase in the SEL of PD. This may have broad implications in the study of the mechanisms of actin dynamics that regulate cell-to-cell transport of viral and endogenous proteins. PMID:20435906