Science.gov

Sample records for bahlui river romania

  1. Romania.

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    Attention in this discussion of Romania is directed to the following: people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between the US and Romania. In 1981 Romania's population was estimated to be 22.4 million. The annual growth rate was 0.9%. The infant mortality rate is 31/1000. In 1974-77 life expectancy was 69.3 years for men and 71.8 years for women. About 88% of the population are ethnically Romanian, a group that is traced to Latin speaking Romans and Thracian, Slavonic, and Celtic ancestors. Most of the minority populations reside in Transylvania or areas to the north and west of Bucharest. The government's policy toward the national minorities is nondiscriminatory and allows them a degree of cultural autonomy. The Jewish community surviving World War 2 has been reduced by more than 90% over the past 3 decades by emigration to Israel. Romania occupies the greater part of the lower basin of the Danube River system and the hilly eastern regions of the middle Danube basin. It lies on either sie of the mountain systems. Romania has had 22 centuries of violent and dramatic history. Romania was an independent kingdom from 1881 until December 30, 1947, when the communist dominated government forced the abdication of King Michael. In March 1945 King Michael was forced to appoint a communist front government. The King abdicated under pressure in December 1947, when the Romanian People's Republic was declared. With their accession to power, the communists effectively subordinated national Romanian interests to those of the USSR. Since the early 1960s, there has been a resurgence of Romanian nationalism and several significant foreign policy differences between Romania and the Soviet Union. The 3 principal branches of government are the unicameral Grand National Assembly, with its Council of State; a centralized executive consisting of a Council of Ministers, operating ministries, and state committees

  2. Isotopic fingerprint of the middle Olt River basin, Romania.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Axente, Damian

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important tributaries of the Danube River in Romania, the Olt River, was characterized in its middle catchment in terms of the isotopic composition using continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). Throughout a period of 10 months, from November 2010 to August 2011, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected in order to investigate the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the basin waters. The results revealed a significant difference between the Olt River and its tributaries, by the fact that the Olt River waters show smaller seasonal variations in the stable isotopic composition and are more depleted in (18)O and (2)H. The waters present an overall enrichment in heavy isotopes during the warm seasons. PMID:25299076

  3. Geologic control of rivers in the perimeter of Somes River Drainage Basin, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, I.; Rǎdoane, N.; Rusu, S.

    2012-04-01

    The present study highlights the role of geology (structure and neotectonics) on channel typology in the median and inferior parts of Someş River Drainage Basin (15.470 kmp, 124mc/s), NV Romania, based on channel morphology back in 1860 AD, channel planform dynamics between 1860 and 1977, and geological maps of the area. The geological heterogeneity of the area is responsible for abrupt alternation of different channel types, resulting in a mixture of alluvial and mixed sinuous - meandering - sinuous anabranched - meandering anabranched reaches. Additionally, along some tributaries with reduced flow discharges, lakes are reported behind natural dams imposed by resistant rocks occurred in the river's bed. This behavior is complicated by general slopes of graded profiles, superimposed on local structural and tectonic controls, which enforce the rivers to function on different energy levels. Based on channel typology and planform dynamic prior to large scale hydrotechnical intervention, river position in the floodplain perimeter, the type of rivers (main rivers vs. tributaries with less discharge), a general model of channel adjustment to lithology and neotectonic movements in the NV part of Romania is proposed.

  4. The geomorphic evolution of Somesu Mic River (Romania) over the past two millenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persoiu, Ioana; Persoiu, Aurel

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the dynamics of Somesu Mic River (NW Romania) in relation with the climatic changes over the past 2000 years. The results and discussions are based on 1) documentary evidences of important floods in the area (starting with 1200 AD), 2) the spatial position of old bridges, roads, human settlements related to river position (from the Roman Epoch though the Medieval Period), 3) historical planform river dynamic, based on successive cartographic maps (past 250 years) and 4) OSL and 14C absolute dating of channel fills exposed in the river's bank. The climate in the area was reconstructed using stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in ice cores retrieved from Scarisoara Ice Cave, which display two colder (and possibly more humid) periods between 400 - 900 AD (dark Ages Cold Period - DACP) and 1300-1850 AD (Little Ice Age - LIA), and two warmer (and possibly drier) periods, between 0-400AD (Roman Warm Period - RWP) and 900-1300 AD (Medieval Warm Period - MWP) Our results shows that during periods with high incidence of important floods (LIA), the river readjusts its planform morphology trough meander cut-offs or avulsions on a larger scale, while during periods of reduced incidence of important floods (RWP and MWP), lateral migration became the main river planform process. This behaviour is complicated by geology, reflected in specific local adjustments (e.g. high planform stability, preferential channel migration, avulsion).

  5. Reconnaissance Study of Water Quality in the Mining-Affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.; Tindall, James A.; Sardan, Daniel; Fey, David L.; Poputa, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Aries River basin of western Romania has been subject to mining activities as far back as Roman times. Present mining activities are associated with the extraction and processing of various metals including Au, Cu, Pb, and Zn. To understand the effects of these mining activities on the environment, this study focused on three objectives: (1) establish a baseline set of physical parameters, and water- and sediment-associated concentrations of metals in river-valley floors and floodplains; (2) establish a baseline set of physical and chemical measurements of pore water and sediment in tailings; and (3) provide training in sediment and water sampling to personnel in the National Agency for Mineral Resources and the Rosia Poieni Mine. This report summarizes basin findings of physical parameters and chemistry (sediment and water), and ancillary data collected during the low-flow synoptic sampling of May 2006.

  6. Alterations in braided rivers' morphology: a typology for Curvature Subcarpathians (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela; Zaharia, Liliana; Ciobotaru, Nicu

    2015-04-01

    The morphology of braided rivers was altered by human pressures in the last century in Europe. Rivers from Curvature Subcarpathians have the highest sediment charges in Romania, therefore it seems relevant to evaluate the status of their braided sectors. Therefore, the aim of this work is to carry out an inventory of river morphology alterations suffered by braided rivers in Curvature Subcarpathians and to establish a typology based on indicators for channel adjustments and artificiality. For channel adjustments, we calculated the length of the braided sectors, the width of the active-channels and the length of banks covered by a riparian forest for 1900-2011 interval, in GIS. For artificiality, we counted dams, weirs, bridges, as well as artificial banks length for 2011 time horizon. The results indicate a diminishing braiding activity: all the rivers narrowed their braided active-channel (30-70% of the mean width); the majority suffered fluvial metamorphosis, transforming partially into single channels (0-75% of the braided sector length in 1900); artificial banks vary from 0 to 40% of the initial braided sector. We distinguished three main types of braided rivers based on morphological alterations. Type 1 includes rivers with human interventions and important braiding retraction, both upstream and downstream; a sub-type characterises by riparian forest lining the downstream metamorphosed reach; most rivers are in the south-western part of the studied region; the most demonstrative examples are Prahova and Ialomiţa rivers. Type 2 corresponds to rivers with important retraction upstream, without important values of artificiality; most demonstrative is Râmna River. Type 3 regroups rivers with a low level of channel adjustments and artificiality; actually, they had and still have the highest braiding activity in the studied region; they are located in the north-eastern part; typical examples are Putna and Şuşiţa rivers. As a discussion, the variations of active

  7. Study and proposals related to extensive flooding in the Siret River area during the summer of 2008 in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanescu, Victor; Stefan, Sabina; Irimescu, Anisoara

    2010-05-01

    Extensive flooding due to overflowing of the Siret River and associated runoff in smaller rivers in northeastern Romania at the end of July 2008 are discussed, taking into account the meteorological and hydrological contexts. The flooding events in Romania claimed human deaths and population displacement, large-scale destruction of housing and infrastructure. Although the Siret river is quite shallow, and several dams and reservoirs restrict and control its flow, the area along the river remains prone to periodic flooding, mainly in spring and summer. Several observations are made on the viability of settlements close to Siret riverbed in Romania, related to the repeatability of situations such as that during the summer of 2008. Generally, the relative shallowness of the river Siret may cause flash floods, when its level increases rapidly due to abundant precipitation. As such, the horizontal extent of the flooding due to runoff is a factor seemingly more important than the short-lived increases in depth, combined with the speed of the flow. As a direct result of the flooding, crops and buildings were damaged. The probability that similar meteorological contexts can cause flooding with the extent of that in 2008 will be discussed. Also, some possible means to improve the reaction of authorities and delivery of relief by them to the affected population will be proposed. Regarding the meteorological context, a presentation of the cyclonic system that has brought heavy and/or continuous rain in northern and northeastern Romania will be made. As proposal for improving the delivery of resources toward the affected area and population, a software system designed to shorten the process of conveying relevant information to decisional factors, and to increase the speed of information between interesed parties will be discussed. The possible outcome of this specific case study will be the improvement of the decisional flux required in times of natural disasters, flooding

  8. Continuous flow simulation in the Bârlad river basin, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbuş, Ciprian; Mic, Rodica Paula; Mătreaţă, Marius

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the partial results obtained into the project CLIMHYDEX ("Changes in Climate Extremes and associated impact on hydrological events in Romania") project that, among others, have as objectives the development of hydrological models at different spatial and temporal scales and the impact of climate change on extreme runoff in Bârlad catchment. To estimate the impact of climate change and variability on the flow regime in Bârlad catchment CONSUL hydrological model, with lumped parameters, was used. This rainfall-runoff deterministic model simulates the most significant hydrological processes within a hydrographic basin: snow-melting, interception, retention in the depressions, evapotranspiration, infiltration, surface runoff, hypodermic runoff, percolation, base runoff. According to the schematic representation (physiographic modelling) of how water flows and collects in a river basin the model computes the discharge hydrographs on selected simulation points on the river network and then performs their routing and composition on the main river and tributaries. After physiographic modelling resulted for Bârlad river basin: 56 sub-basins and 30 river reaches. CONSUL model was calibrated using historical data in Bârlad river basin by simulating the flow during 1975-2010. Calculation of average precipitation and air temperature (hydrological model input data) for each sub-basin was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from original rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Bârlad river basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. In order to estimate the initial values of CONSUL model parameters the generalization relationships of these parameters based on morphometric characteristics of the river basin or river reach were used. Calibration of model parameters was performed in two stages: (i) individual and (ii) globally. (i) Individual

  9. Environmental changes monitoring by remote sensing for Danube River Delta, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    2003-03-01

    Danube delta, one of the largest European wetlands left, lies predominantly in Romania, being considered a Biosphere Reservation. Environmental impact assessment and detection of spatio-temporal changes is needed for protection, conservation and restoration of the biological diversity specific to this area. Danube Delta wetlands and aquatic ecosystem are increasingly endangered by global or regional environmental changes due to the discharges or deposition of excess nutrients and/or harmful substances, to the reclamation of lands for agriculture, forestry, and engineering of water flows. A multitemporal data set consisting of LANDSAT MSS, TM and SAR-ERS1 images for Romanian Danube River Delta was used for comparing and mapping landcover change via change detection. The main aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive analysis based on existing historical and more recent data to establish the link between phytoplankton bloom development and related harmful phenomena in the North-Western part of Black Sea and changes in the Danube watershed (landuse, fertilizer utilization, waste water treatments). Based on satellite data were analyzed some test areas in the vicinity of the Danube mouths where the nutrient concentration were highest, being assimilated with an expected oxygen depletion, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in the bottom waters and the superficial sediments.

  10. The assessment of river basin and flood management from early twentieth century to the present on the lower Siret River (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salit, F.; Beltrando, B.; Zaharia, L.

    2012-04-01

    The river basin management and flood depends on the politico-historical, economic and environmental context in which it is thought. There is a similar evolution in Romania, where political developments have had as much impact on flood management than hydro-climatic events. The aim of this work is to understand of management systems in a diachronic logic in Romania from the beginning of the 20th century to the Communist period and to accession to the European Union. This work focuses on the lower Siret River. The Siret catchment is one of the last major tributaries of the Danube River east of the Carpathians and the most important of Romania in terms of flow and drainage area. To study the assessment of river basin management, a GIS was constructed using a series of Romanian and Russian topographic maps extending over the period 1916-1990 and Google earth images from 2009 and 2010. The study of the current period was enhanced by field observations (records of existing dykes, testimonials ...) from 2010-2011. Finally, this study is based on the technical literature for the regularization of rivers and the various reports made over this period. Three periods were identified: the major floods of 1970 and 2005 marked a turning point in the logical management of river basin and especially in the fight against flood. From the beginning of the period to 1970, dyke protection was sporadic: they are intended primarily to protect the villages directly threatened by recurrent flood. In 1970 a major flood (3500 m3/s) occurred on the lower Siret and other minor floods in succession from 1970 to 1975. By 1976 a national plan was drawn up to fight against the harmful effects of water. The entire sector of the lower Siret River and its major tributaries is arranged, a network of levees protects not only the villages but also all economic assets in this sector, namely the agricultural land, the main wealth of the region. In 2005 an exceptionally large flood (4650 m3/s) affected the

  11. A Flash Flood Study on the Small Montaneous River Catchments in Western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Győri, Maria-Mihaela; Haidu, Ionel; Humbert, Joël

    2013-04-01

    The present study focuses on flash flood modeling on several mountaneous catchments situated in Western Romania by the use of two methodologies, when rainfall and catchment characteristics are known. Hence, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Method and the Rational Method will be employed for the generation of the 1%, 2% and 10% historical flash flood hydrographs on the basis of data spanning from 1989-2009. The SCS Method has been applied on the three gauged catchments in the study area: Petris, Troas and Monorostia making use of the existing interconnection between GIS and the rainfall-runoff models. The DEM, soil data and land use preprocessing in GIS allowed a determination of the hydrologic parameters needed for the rainfall-runoff model, with special emphasis on determining the time of concentration, Lag time and the weighted Curve Number according to Antecedent Moisture Conditions II, adapted for the Romanian territory. HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model (Hydrologic Engineering Center- Hydrologic Modeling System) facilitates the historical 1%, 2% and 10% flash flood hydrograph generation for the three afore mentioned watersheds. The model is calibrated against measured streamflow data from the three existing gauging stations. The results show a good match between the resulted hydrographs and the observed hydrographs under the form of the Peak Weighted Error RMS values. The hydrographs generated by surface runoff on the ungauged catchments in the area is based on an automation of a workflow in GIS, built with ArcGIS Model Builder graphical interface, as a large part of the functions needed were available as ArcGIS tools. The several components of this model calculate: the runoff depth in mm, the runoff coefficient, the travel time and finally the discharge module which is an application of the rational method, allowing the discharge computation for every cell within the catchment. The result consists of discharges for each isochrones that will be subsequently

  12. Morphological and sedimentological evidences of repeated avulsions of Someşu Mic River (Romania), associated to salt tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persoiu, I.; Radoane, M.

    2009-04-01

    Over the last decades, the Holocene evolution of the rivers became an important topic for the scientific community. Whereas most of these studies emphasized the role of climate in the rivers' evolution, little attention has been paid to tectonics, especially at small scale. Here we present a model of Holocene river evolution from the Transylvanian Basin (Romania), where salt tectonics plays an important role. Someşul Mic River (105 km long, 20 mc/s) is located in the NW part of the Transylvanian Basin, Romania. It has a dranage basin of 3773 km2 and the catchment's area is located in the Apuseni Mountains. The river has a well-developed floodplain, with a length of 75 km (calculated along its axis) and an average width of 2 km. In the upper sector, the river flows on red clays, sandstones and limestone of Eocene and Oligocene age (disposed in monoclinal strata), while in the lower sector, the bedrock consists of marls and volcanic tuffs of Miocene age, affected by diapiric alignments. The sedimentary structure of the floodplain is simple, with coarse Lateglacial gravels at the bottom and more fine Holocene sediments (pebble, sand, clay and silt) in its upper part; but some deviations from this general model, attributed to active tectonics, are observed along the river (e.g., absence of the coarser complex, variable proportion of the two complexes, etc). The main characteristic of the river is the high degree of alternation of channel types, from sinuous, meandering and even braided, to anabranched reaches. In order to decipher which mechanism is responsible for the development of the floodplain, we have analyzed in detail a section of the river, using a combination of high-resolution topographic surveys, electrical imaging, core drilling and granulometric analyses. In the investigated area, the river flows on Miocene marls partly covered by sediments, having a sinuous reach, with 2-3 m high banks. To the east, a diapiric syncline stretches parallel to the valley

  13. The impact of climate change on river discharges in Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Minea, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Climate changes imply many changes in different socioeconomic and environmental fields. Among the most important impacts are changes in water resources. Long- and mid-term river discharge flow analysis is essential for the effective management of water resources. In this work, the changes in two climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) and river discharges and the connections between precipitation and river discharges were investigated. Seasonal and annual climatic and hydrological data collected at six weather stations and 17 hydrological stations were employed. The data sets cover 57 years (1950-2006). The modified Mann-Kendall test was used to calculate trends, and the Bravais-Pearson correlation index was chosen to detect the connections between precipitation and river discharge data series. The main findings are as follows: A general increase was identified in all the three parameters. The air temperature data series showed the highest frequency of statistically significant slopes, mainly in annual and spring series. All data series, except the series for winter, showed an increase in precipitation; in winter, a significant decrease in precipitation was observed at most of the stations. The increase in precipitation is reflected in the upward trends of the river discharge flows, as verified by the good Bravais-Pearson correlations, mainly for annual, summer, and autumn series

  14. The impact of climate changes on rivers discharge in Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Minea, Ionus

    2015-05-01

    Climate changes imply many changes in different socioeconomic and environmental fields. Among the most important impacts are changes in water resources. Long- and mid-term river discharge flow analysis is essential for the effective management of water resources. In this work, the changes in temperature, precipitation, and river discharges as well as the connections between precipitation and river discharges were investigated. Seasonal and annual climatic and hydrological data collected at 6 weather stations and 17 hydrological stations were employed. The data sets cover 57 years (1950-2006). The modified Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope were used to calculate trends and their slopes, whereas the Bravais-Pearson correlation index was chosen to detect the connections between precipitation and river discharge data series. The main findings are as follows: a general increase was identified in all the three variables; the air temperature data series showed the highest frequency of statistically significant slopes, mainly in annual and spring series; all data series, except the series for winter, showed an increase in precipitation, and in winter, a significant decrease in precipitation was observed at most of the stations. The increase in precipitation is reflected in the upward trends of the river discharge flows, as verified by the good Bravais-Pearson correlations, mainly for annual, summer, and autumn series.

  15. Initial Sediment Transport Model of the Mining-Affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian government is interested in understanding the effects of existing and future mining activities on long-term dispersal, storage, and remobilization of sediment-associated metals. An initial Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was prepared using available data to evaluate hypothetical failure of the Valea Sesei tailings dam at the Rosia Poieni mine in the Aries River basin. Using the available data, the initial Aries River Basin SWAT model could not be manually calibrated to accurately reproduce monthly streamflow values observed at the Turda gage station. The poor simulation of the monthly streamflow is attributed to spatially limited soil and precipitation data, limited constraint information due to spatially and temporally limited streamflow measurements, and in ability to obtain optimal parameter values when using a manual calibration process. Suggestions to improve the Aries River basin sediment transport model include accounting for heterogeneity in model input, a two-tier nonlinear calibration strategy, and analysis of uncertainty in predictions.

  16. Channel adjustements over the last century of the Moldova River, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriloaei, F. A.; Radoane, M.; Radoane, N.

    2012-04-01

    Moldova River is a 205 km long river, right tributary of the Siret River, with the confluence close to Roman city. The most important tributaries are Moldoviţa, Suha Mică, Suha Mare, Râsca, Ozana and Topolita Rivers. The drainage basin area is 4316 km2, a discharge of about 32.8 m3/s and is superimposed on four lithostratigraphic units: the crystalline Mesozoic unit, the flysch unit, the molasse unit and the platform unit. The study reach is 110 km long and is located on the external part of the Eastern-Carpathians at the contact with the Moldavian Plateau. This contact is characterised by a piedmont zone. The high rate of alluviation in this piedmont plain had a decisive role on the spatial and temporal evolution of fluvial forms and processes, expressed in the morphology of alluvial terraces in the valley bottom, the morphology of the active channel, the spatial distribution of bars and secondary channels and lateral migration rates. The morphology of the river in the study reach is dominated by braided and wandering channel patterns. The present (2005) active channel width ranges between 700 and 1000 m. Planform changes of river features over the last 100 years were analyzed on three historical maps (1910, 1960, and 1980) and one orthophoto (2005). Channel width average has significantly decreased in the last century. The Moldova river channel width suffered a strong narrowing, approximately 76% (from 1910 to 2005). So, from a channel width about more than 1200 m, it decreased at about 300 m. We can note two phase of narrowing: a first one - stronger, of 56%, untill 1960 (a reduction of active channel width for about 10.5 m/year) and a second phase, of 35%, after 1960, with a narrowing rate for about 8.8 m/an. The historical trend of braiding index shows a remarkable decrease in the last 50 - 60 years, from 3.2 in 1960, at 2.6 in 1980 and 2.0, in 2005, for all the extra-Carpathian study reach (110 km). There are different situations at local scale, shown

  17. Migration and habitats of diadromous Danube River sturgeons in Romania: 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Suciu, R.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Upstream migrant adults of stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus (10 in 1998, 43 in 1999) and Russian sturgeon, A. gueldenstaedtii (three in 1999) were captured at river km (rkm) 58-137, mostly in the spring, and tagged with acoustic tags offering a reward for return. The overharvest was revealed by tag returns (38% in 1998, 28% in 1999) and by harvest within 26 days (and before reaching spawning grounds) of the six stellate sturgeon tracked upstream. A drop-back of > 50% of the tagged sturgeon, some to the Black Sea, shows a high sensitivity to interruption of migration and capture/handling/holding. Harvesting and dropback prevented tracking of sturgeon to spawning sites. Gillnetting and tracking of stellate sturgeon showed that the autumn migration ended in early October (river temperature 16??C) and identified a likely wintering area at river km (rkm) 75-76 (St George Branch). Thus, fishery harvesting after early October captures wintering fish, not migrants. Rare shoreline cliffs in the lower river likely create the only rocky habitat for sturgeon spawning. A survey for potential spawning habitats found five sites with rocky substrate and moderate water velocity, all ???rkm 258. Drift netting caught early life-stages of 17 fish species and one sturgeon, a beluga, Huso huso, larva likely spawned at ???rkm 258. All diadromous Danube sturgeons likely spawn at ???rkm 258.

  18. Analysis of potential climate change impact on mean flow in Somes, river basin, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mic, Rodica Paula; Corbuş, Ciprian

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the results obtained by the National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management (NIHWM) in collaboration with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) within the ECLISE project ("Enabling CLimate Information Services for Europe"). In order to estimate the modifications due by the climate change on the mean flow of the Somes river basin in the time horizon 2021 - 2050 the hydrological model WATBAL was used, a water balance model with monthly time step, using as input data series of monthly precipitation and mean monthly temperature. These series resulted from data processing of climate projections obtained by four regional climate models: CNRM_RM5.1_ARPEGE (A), HC_HadRM3Q0_HadCM3Q0 (B), SMHI_RCA3_BCM (C) and SMHI_RCA3_ECHAM5 (D). WATBAL model parameters were calibrated by the flow simulation in 33 analysed cross-sections from Somes river basin using as input data the monthly precipitation and mean monthly temperatures recorded at weather stations located into the area, during 1971-2000, considered as reference period. Hydrological simulation was performed taking into account two scenarios: Scenario 0, in which mean monthly discharge was computed for the reference period, considering the meteorological inputs simulated with climate models, and Scenario 1, which suppose the simulation of mean monthly discharge for the next period 2021-2050, with the same hydrological model, considering as inputs the climate change projections. Comparative analysis of water flow simulations in Somes river basin, regarding the regime of multi-annual mean monthly, seasonal and annual discharges, for the reference period and for the next period have been carried out. From the analysis performed in this study resulted that the variation of the multi-annual monthly mean discharges based on the 4 climate models considered in the assumption of climate change (period 2021-2050) compared to the current flowing regime (period 1971-2000) is often

  19. Sediment budget for Rediu reservoir catchment, North-Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todosi, Cristian; Niculita, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Sediment budgets are a useful tool for geomorphologic analysis, catchment management and environmental assessment, despite the uncertainties related to their assessment. We present the sediment budget construction and validation for a small catchment of 9.5319 kmp (953.19 ha) situated in the North-Eastern part of Romania. The Rediu reservoir was built between 1986 and 1988, on Rediu valley, a left tributary of Bahlui river, north-west from Iasi city. The catchment of the reservoir has 6.5 km in length and 2.5 km in maximum width, the altitudes decreasing from 170 m in the northern part, to 52 m in the southern part. The valley is symmetric, the altitude of the hillslopes going between 200 m to 75 m in one km length, in the transversal section with the maximum width. The floodplain is narrow having between 20 m to 210 m (in the area of confluence with Breazu tributary). The mean slope of the catchment is 6.4 degree, the maximum slope being 24.6 degrees. The length of channels which show banks of up to 2 m is 19.98 km. The land is used predominantly as crops (58.1 %), 16.7 % being covered by pastures (from which over half are eroded), 11.5 % percent of the catchment being covered by planted forests, 9.2 % by rural constructions and roads, 2.9 % by hayfields, 1.5 % by lakes and 0.1 % by orchards. Beside the Rediu reservoir, there are three ponds (15 771, 1761 and 751 sqm) in the catchment. We considered the trap efficiency for the reservoir and the ponds to be 95%. Aerial images from 1963, 1978 , 1984, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 were used to assess the state of geomorphological processes before and after the reservoir construction. After 1970 a gully system situated in Breazu tributary sub-catchment and several active landslides along the main valley left side were forested. Beside these processes, soil erosion and human impact by constructions are the main processes generating sediment in the study area. The sediment yields were quantified by estimating the

  20. Monitoring and evaluation of the water quality of Budeasa Reservoir-Arges River, Romania.

    PubMed

    Ion, Antoanela; Vladescu, Luminita; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Comanescu, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor and record the specific characteristics and properties of the Arges River water in the Budeasa Reservoir (the principal water resources of municipal tap water of the big Romanian city Pitesti and surrounding area) for a period of 5 years (2005-2009). The monitored physical and chemical parameters were turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, 5 days biochemical oxygen demand, free dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia nitrogen, chloride, total dissolved iron ions, sulfate, manganese, phosphate, total alkalinity, and total hardness. The results were discussed in correlation with the precipitation values during the study. Monthly and annual values of each parameter determined in the period January 2005-December 2009 were used as a basis for the classification of Budeasa Reservoir water, according to the European legislation, as well as for assessing its quality as a drinking water supply. Principal component analysis and Pearson correlation coefficients were used as statistical procedures in order to evaluate the data obtained during this study. PMID:27566323

  1. Characterization and assessment of potential environmental risk of tailings stored in seven impoundments in the Aries river basin, Western Romania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine the potential environmental risk of tailings resulted after precious and base metal ores processing, stored in seven impoundments located in the Aries river basin, Romania. The tailings were characterized by mineralogical and elemental composition, contamination indices, acid rock drainage generation potential and water leachability of hazardous/priority hazardous metals and ions. Multivariate statistical methods were used for data interpretation. Results Tailings were found to be highly contaminated with several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cu, Cd, Pb), and pose potential contamination risk for soil, sediments, surface and groundwater. Two out of the seven studied impoundments does not satisfy the criteria required for inert wastes, shows acid rock drainage potential and thus can contaminate the surface and groundwater. Three impoundments were found to be highly contaminated with As, Pb and Cd, two with As and other two with Cu. The tailings impoundments were grouped based on the enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and contamination degree of 7 hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) considered typical for the studied tailings. Principal component analysis showed that 47% of the elemental variability was attributable to alkaline silicate rocks, 31% to acidic S-containing minerals, 12% to carbonate minerals and 5% to biogenic elements. Leachability of metals and ions was ascribed in proportion of 61% to silicates, 11% to acidic minerals and 6% to the organic matter. A variability of 18% was attributed to leachability of biogenic elements (Na, K, Cl-, NO3-) with no potential environmental risk. Pattern recognition by agglomerative hierarchical clustering emphasized the grouping of impoundments in agreement with their contamination degree and acid rock drainage generation potential. Conclusions Tailings stored in the studied impoundments were found to

  2. Using stable isotopes in tracing contaminant sources in an industrial area: A case study on the hydrological basin of the Olt River, Romania.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Raluca; Mimmo, Tanja; Dinca, Oana Romina; Capici, Calogero; Costinel, Diana; Sandru, Claudia; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Stefanescu, Ioan; Axente, Damian

    2015-11-15

    Tracing pollution sources and transformation of nitrogen compounds in surface- and groundwater is an issue of great significance worldwide due to the increased human activity, translated in high demand of water resources and pollution. In this work, the hydrological basin of an important chemical industrial platform in Romania (Ramnicu Valcea industrial area) was characterized in terms of the physico-chemical and isotope composition of δ(18)O and δ(2)H in water samples and δ(15)N of the inorganic nitrogen species. Throughout a period of one year, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected monthly in the industrial area, when the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the surface waters and the main sources of pollution were determined. Higher inorganic nitrogen concentrations (up to 10.2 mg N L(-1)) were measured between November 2012 and April 2013, which were designated as anthropogenic additions using the mixing calculations. The main sources of pollution with inorganic nitrogen were agriculture and residential release. The inorganic nitrogen from the industrial waste water duct had a distinct δ(15)N fingerprint (mean of -8.6‰). Also, one industrial release into the environment was identified for Olt River, at Ionesti site, in November 2012. The mean precipitation samples had the lowest inorganic nitrogen concentrations (less than 5.5 mg N L(-1)) with a distinct δ(15)N fingerprint compared to the surface and industrial waters. PMID:26150303

  3. Establishing the Ecological Status of Mining-Impacted Freshwaters from Abrud River Catchment Area Using Benthic Diatom Communities (Ros, ia MontanÄă, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenici, Adriana; Baciu, Calin; Momeu, Laura; Cozma, Alexandra; Brahaita, Dorian; Pop, Cristian; Lazar, Laura; Popita, Gabriela; Teodosiu, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: diatom communities, indicator species, mine waters, water quality, Romania. Diatoms are a very distinct group of algae, identifiable under the light microscope by their yellow - brown coloration and by the presence of a thick silica cell wall. The potential for freshwater organisms to reflect changes in environmental conditions was first noted by Kolenati (1848) and Cohn (1853), who observed that biota in polluted waters were different from those in non-polluted situations. Diatoms are widely used to monitor river pollution because they are sensitive to water chemistry, especially to ionic content, pH, dissolved organic matter and nutrients. Wide geographic distribution and well-studied ecology of most diatom species are mentioned as major advantages of using diatoms as indicator organisms. At the same time water quality has begun to deteriorate increasingly, mainly as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological alterations, and the aquatic ecosystems are evermore affected by various types of pollution, the anthropic one being almost always included. A good example is Abrud River and its main tributaries (Roșia Montană and surrounding areas, Romania), which has suffered along the years because of the mining waters discharge. In this context, this study presents data on benthic diatom communities from the Abrud River catchment area. Sixteen sites have been sampled seasonal and the best represented diatom genera were Navicula, Nitzschia, Cymbella, Gomphonema, Achnantes, Surirella and Fragilaria. Qualitatively, the number of diatom species exhibited significant variation among sampling sites, also suggesting seasonal dynamics. For instance, in some sampling sites, algal assemblages were absent, as diatom communities were strongly affected by acid mine waters, released from old mining works and waste rocks depots. Some dominant taxa have been observed as well, suggesting critical saprobic levels of the Abrud River and some of its tributaries. The

  4. Persistent Hg contamination and occurrence of Hg-methylating transcript (hgcA) downstream of a chlor-alkali plant in the Olt River (Romania).

    PubMed

    Bravo, Andrea G; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Dranguet, Perrine; Makri, Stamatina; Björn, Erik; Ungureanu, Viorel Gh; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    Chlor-alkali plants using mercury (Hg) cell technology are acute point sources of Hg pollution in the aquatic environment. While there have been recent efforts to reduce the use of Hg cells, some of the emitted Hg can be transformed to neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Here, we aimed (i) to study the dispersion of Hg in four reservoirs located downstream of a chlor-alkali plant along the Olt River (Romania) and (ii) to track the activity of bacterial functional genes involved in Hg methylation. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in water and sediments decreased successively from the initial reservoir to downstream reservoirs. Suspended fine size particles and seston appeared to be responsible for the transport of THg into downstream reservoirs, while macrophytes reflected the local bioavailability of Hg. The concentration and proportion of MeHg were correlated with THg, but were not correlated with bacterial activity in sediments, while the abundance of hgcA transcript correlated with organic matter and Cl(-) concentration, indicating the importance of Hg bioavailability in sediments for Hg methylation. Our data clearly highlights the importance of considering Hg contamination as a legacy pollutant since there is a high risk of continued Hg accumulation in food webs long after Hg-cell phase out. PMID:26662302

  5. Histopatological alterations and oxidative stress in liver and kidney of Leuciscus cephalus following exposure to heavy metals in the Tur River, North Western Romania.

    PubMed

    Hermenean, Anca; Damache, Georgiana; Albu, Paul; Ardelean, Aurel; Ardelean, Gavril; Puiu Ardelean, Doru; Horge, Monica; Nagy, Tibor; Braun, Mihály; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-09-01

    Pollution of the aquatic environment by heavy metals is a great concern worldwide. Freshwater fish ingests various metals through gills, skin or diet. Our aim was to investigate the oxidative stress and histopathological injuries induced by Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd in the liver and kidney of Leuciscus cephalus. Fish samples were collected from two sites in the Tur River, NW Romania, in upstream and downstream of a pollution source. Metals were differently distributed in the liver and kidney of fish. The highest concentrations of Fe, Cu and Pb were found in liver, whereas Zn and Cd concentrations were the highest in kidney in specimens collected from the downstream site. The histopathological changes were associated with metal bioaccumulation, being more severe in kidney than liver. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) increased significantly in the liver and kidney of fish from downstream site compared to upstream one, whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) decreased. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) increased significantly in livers, whereas SOD increased in kidney. Our study revealed that liver has a higher capacity and adaptability to counteract ROS compared to kidney. The more pronounced increase of hepatic SOD, CAT and GST activities is related milder structural changes observed in liver compared to kidney, where lesions were not reduced by antioxidant defense system. PMID:26005919

  6. Geochemistry and provenance of some detrital heavy minerals of alluvial sediments from Neagra Şarului River, Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciortescu, Catalina; Iancu, Ovidiu Gabriel; Bulgariu, Dumitru; Popa, Ciprian

    2014-05-01

    The present work focuses on the analyses of a selection of heavy mineral assemblages sampled from the Neagra Şarului River's alluvia, in order to determine their provenance and distribution, using their geochemical and physical characteristics. The study focused on a mountain river of about 30 km long, located in the north-western part of the Eastern Carpathians, an important tributary of the Bistria River. The bedrocks in the river drainage basin are constituted mainly by igneous rocks from Călimani Volcanic Complex in the west, and secondarily by a small area of low to medium grade metamorphic rocks, part of Crystalline-Mesozoic Zone, in the east. In order to trace the source of each individual mineral species, we prepared our samples via field separation and subsequent laboratory sieving using 8 different size fractions. An electromagnetic separator (Frantz Isodynamic) was used to separate and classify each heavy minerals species, depending on their magnetic susceptibility. Thus prepared, more than 500 grains per samples (from the 0.5-1 mm size fraction) were mounted on thin sections and analyzed using a Cambridge Microscan M9 with EDS system. These analyses served for mineral identification and relative abundance determination. The classification of the minerals and the nature of their inclusions are derived from the major element compositions computed from SEM-EDX analysis. We also used a stereo microscope in order to determine complementary properties of the grains, such as: color, degree of roundness and degree of alteration. In order of abundance, the main heavy minerals are magnetite, hematite, pyroxene, pyrite, manganese oxides, garnet, apatite, titanium oxides (ilmenite, titanite and rutile/anatase), chlorite, olivine, epidote, biotite and rhodochrosite. A particularity of the studied area is the presence of an altered magnetite caused first by the hydrothermal alteration and strong weathering of the source rocks and second by the river's acid water

  7. Inventory of Long-Term Braiding Activity at a Regional Scale as a Tool for Detecting Alterations to a Rivers' Hydromorphological State: A Case Study for Romania's South-Eastern Subcarpathians.

    PubMed

    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The inventory of long-term braiding activity is a useful tool for detecting alterations in a rivers' hydromorphological state and for a river's management in the context of the Water Framework Directive on integrated river basin management for Europe. Our study focuses on braided sectors of rivers in South-Eastern Subcarpathians (Romania). The inventory evaluates types of alterations based on the spatial analysis of fluvial morphology indicators (i.e., length of the river sector forming a braided pattern; width of the braided active channel), and vegetation cover (i.e., length of banks covered by forest and shrubs; area of in-stream patches of shrubs) accumulated over the last century. Furthermore, we performed a regional scale hierarchical cluster analysis to estimate the degree of alteration when compared to an historical baseline. In South-Eastern Subcarpathians, the studied rivers experienced a decrease of braiding activity revealed by the shortening and narrowing of their braided sectors, expansion of riparian forests, and the diminishment of vegetated islands' areas. We separated three types of river clusters, corresponding to low (cluster 1), moderate (cluster 2), and high (cluster 3) degree of alteration. Moreover, the clusters demonstrate the evolutionary path of the braided pattern alterations until the functioning of another channel pattern. The inventory is relevant for differing types and levels of alterations. Additionally, this tool may serve as a first step toward the restoration of altered sectors by identifying rivers in cluster 1 as potential candidates of present-day reference sites for altered rivers with similar natural conditions as in cluster 3. PMID:27106481

  8. Inventory of Long-Term Braiding Activity at a Regional Scale as a Tool for Detecting Alterations to a Rivers' Hydromorphological State: A Case Study for Romania's South-Eastern Subcarpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The inventory of long-term braiding activity is a useful tool for detecting alterations in a rivers' hydromorphological state and for a river's management in the context of the Water Framework Directive on integrated river basin management for Europe. Our study focuses on braided sectors of rivers in South-Eastern Subcarpathians (Romania). The inventory evaluates types of alterations based on the spatial analysis of fluvial morphology indicators (i.e., length of the river sector forming a braided pattern; width of the braided active channel), and vegetation cover (i.e., length of banks covered by forest and shrubs; area of in-stream patches of shrubs) accumulated over the last century. Furthermore, we performed a regional scale hierarchical cluster analysis to estimate the degree of alteration when compared to an historical baseline. In South-Eastern Subcarpathians, the studied rivers experienced a decrease of braiding activity revealed by the shortening and narrowing of their braided sectors, expansion of riparian forests, and the diminishment of vegetated islands' areas. We separated three types of river clusters, corresponding to low (cluster 1), moderate (cluster 2), and high (cluster 3) degree of alteration. Moreover, the clusters demonstrate the evolutionary path of the braided pattern alterations until the functioning of another channel pattern. The inventory is relevant for differing types and levels of alterations. Additionally, this tool may serve as a first step toward the restoration of altered sectors by identifying rivers in cluster 1 as potential candidates of present-day reference sites for altered rivers with similar natural conditions as in cluster 3.

  9. Ecological assessment of water quality in relation to hydrogeology in a shallow urban aquifer: Somesul Mic River aquifer (North-Western, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, Sanda; Marin, Constantin; Fekete, Alexandru; Rajka, Geza; Brad, Traian; Samsudean, Cristian

    2014-05-01

    The River Basin Management Plan is the main instrument for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE), one of its main requirements being the evaluation and quantification of human impacts on aquatic environments including the groundwater or groundwater dependent ecosystems. The Someş-Tisa basin is the largest hydrographical basin in NW Romania (22,380 km2), containing 15 Quaternary detrital groundwater bodies prone to intensive agricultural and urban industrial use. So far, no studies have addressed the groundwater fauna assemblages and their ecological response to human disturbances and aquifer contamination. Here we investigate a Quaternary shallow detrital aquifer (< 30 m depth) associated with the Someşul Mic River affected by both urban-industrial and agricultural contaminants, aiming to evaluate the sensitivity and structural patterns of groundwater crustaceans communities to aquifer contamination with trace metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Mo, Pb), As, Se and nitrates. We conducted a survey in seven monitoring boreholes (1-8 m beneath the surface) through the Quaternary porrous aquifer of the Somesul Mic River on a 10 km long longitudinal transect. Hydrologic and geologic variables (rainfall amount, drainage network density, aquifer and drainage elevation, transmisivity and aquifer porosity) were extracted from previous works and Pearson correlations were calculated for paired variables. Water and faunal sampling was performed on a seasonal basis at one pristine and six impacted sites during 2013. Invertebrates were sampled with a submersible pump by extracting a volume of 50-100 l of water and filtering through a 63 microns planktonic net. Subsequently, 2 l of water was extracted after pumping for compositional analyses of major constituents, trace elements (by ICP-MS) and nutrients. The results of water geochemical analyses indicate a significant pollutant charge of groundwater with Mn (max. 29.26 μg/l), Ni (16.55 μg/l), Fe

  10. Synergies between geomorphic hazard and risk and sediment cascade research fields: exploiting geomorphic processes' susceptibility analyses to derive potential sediment sources in the Oltet, river catchment, southern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurchescu, Marta-Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Identifying sediment sources and sediment availability represents a major problem and one of the first concerns in the field of sediment cascade. This paper addresses the on-site effects associated with sediment transfer, investigating the degree to which studies pertaining to the field of geomorphic hazard and risk research could be exploited in sediment budget estimations. More precisely, the paper investigates whether results obtained in assessing susceptibility to various geomorphic processes (landslides, soil erosion, gully erosion) could be transferred to the study of sediment sources within a basin. The study area is a medium-sized catchment (> 2400 km2) in southern Romania encompassing four different geomorphic units (mountains, hills, piedmont and plain). The region is highly affected by a wide range of geomorphic processes which supply sediments to the drainage network. The presence of a reservoir at the river outlet emphasizes the importance of estimating sediment budgets. The susceptibility analyses are conducted separately for each type of the considered processes in a top-down framework, i.e. at two different scales, using scale-adapted methods and validation techniques in each case, as widely-recognized in the hazard and risk research literature. The analyses start at a regional scale, which has in view the entire catchment, using readily available data on conditioning factors. In a second step, the suceptibility analyses are carried out at a medium scale for selected hotspot-compartments of the catchment. In order to appraise the extent to which susceptibility results are relevant in interpreting sediment sources at catchment scale, scale-induced differences are analysed in the case of each process. Based on the amount of uncertainty revealed by each regional-scale analysis in comparison to the medium-scale ones, decisions are made on whether the first are acceptable to the aim of identifying potential sediment source areas or if they should be

  11. Romania: Education Reform Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Romania, one of the largest but also one of the poorest nations in Eastern Europe, is moving toward a market economy and a pluralistic society. Romania's educational system reflects a failure to appreciate the value of general secondary education over early specialized vocational training. Basic schooling is compulsory through grade eight, but…

  12. Development of an Open-GIS decision aid system for ecological and economical management of surface and groundwater resources in the Bistrita River Basin (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifu, M. C.; Craciunescu, V.; Rusu, C.; Pandele, A.; Garnier, J.; Billen, G.; Ledoux, E.

    2007-07-01

    The Bistrita River Basin (a length of 283 km, a surface of 7039 km2, a mean discharge of 65 m3/s) is one of the most important tributary of the Siret River, which is the second major affluent of the Danube River. Heavily influenced by hydraulic management and highly polluted by agricultural and urban activities in some stretches, the Bistrita river has been studied in the framework of the Diminish Project (LIFE03 ENV/ RO/000539), funded by the Life Environment Program. The project aims to support the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and to combat the nutrient pollution by developing an integrated, on-line, GIS-based support system for the management of the water quality in relation with human activities, using socio-economical analysis, at the scale of the river catchments. Based on modeling approaches the decisional system allows to predict which strategy will lead to the most effective reduction of nutrient concentrations within the Bistrita hydrological network and of nutrient loads transported by the Siret River into the Danube. The consequences of the nutrient pollution are discussed for two basin areas, from two points of view: i) the effects of point and diffuse pollution for surface and groundwater, on the basis of the basin response to the changing pressures over the river catchments (industrial, rural, urban, agricultural changes), ii) the economical valuation of environmental costs and cost-effectiveness of the measures, that can be proposed from socio-economic scenarios, for reaching the "good ecological status" of this river.

  13. Perseids 2005 results in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Valentin; Berinde, Štefan; Conu, Alexandru

    2006-08-01

    Since 1993, Perseide (Perseids) is the most important astronomical event in Romania. It changed the history of the Romanian popular astronomy and consecrated the meteor work and the meteor education in Romania. The thirteenth edition was one of the best, with good participation and entirely clear skies between two periods of massive rainfall in Romania.

  14. Land degradation due to erosion in public perception. Case study: Secaşul Mare river basin settlements (Transylvanian Depression, Romania).

    PubMed

    Costea, Marioara; Tăuşan, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    According to the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR 1990-1999), the risk indicates potential losses due to particular natural phenomenon, and these could be reduced by improving of prevention and education. People perceive these losses differently depending on phenomenon occurrence, severity, and impact in time. Starting from this idea, this research presents public perception on land degradation through erosion in a small area from the central part of Romania (south-west of Transylvanian Depression). The research was based on a questionnaire consisting of 16 questions. The items were structured by issues: awareness assessment regarding hazard and risk phenomena, assessment of type of property and land use, assessment of knowledge and information on the possible production of negative effects by natural phenomena, and evaluation of land owners' attitudes towards the occurrence of erosion on their land. Results reveal that the public perception on erosion is weak. This process is perceived as insignificant due to lack of phenomenon knowledge and especially because of scarcity preoccupation in land's quality monitoring. Even though the owned lands are affected by erosion forms, the owners are not aware of the phenomenon that generates them. Material damages caused by erosion, loss of soil quality, and land fertility decrease are less perceived because the economic losses fill only at long term. This perception leads to underestimating erosion risk compared to other natural phenomena and to a passive attitude towards this particular phenomenon. PMID:26960766

  15. Stable isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bădăluţă, Carmen; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Romania has a high potential of mineral waters resources, featuring one of the largest mineral resources at European and global level. In the last decade, due to increased in consumption of bottled water, numerous brands have appeared on the market, with equally numerous and variable sources of provenance. In this study we have analyzed the isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania in order to determine their source and authenticity. We have analysed 32 carbonated and 24 non-carbonated mineral waters from Romania. and the results were analysed in comparison with stable isotope data from precipitation and river waters. Generally, the isotopic values of the mineral waters follow those in precipitation; however, differences occur in former volcanic regions (due to deep circulation of meteoric waters and increased exchange with host rock and volcanic CO2), as well as in mountainous regions, where high-altitude recharge occurs.

  16. Romania: Health System Review.

    PubMed

    Vladescu, Cristian; Scintee, Silvia Gabriela; Olsavszky, Victor; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina; Sagan, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This analysis of the Romanian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Romanian health care system is a social health insurance system that has remained highly centralized despite recent efforts to decentralize some regulatory functions. It provides a comprehensive benefits package to the 85% of the population that is covered, with the remaining population having access to a minimum package of benefits. While every insured person has access to the same health care benefits regardless of their socioeconomic situation, there are inequities in access to health care across many dimensions, such as rural versus urban, and health outcomes also differ across these dimensions. The Romanian population has seen increasing life expectancy and declining mortality rates but both remain among the worst in the European Union. Some unfavourable trends have been observed, including increasing numbers of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses and falling immunization rates. Public sources account for over 80% of total health financing. However, that leaves considerable out-of-pocket payments covering almost a fifth of total expenditure. The share of informal payments also seems to be substantial, but precise figures are unknown. In 2014, Romania had the lowest health expenditure as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) among the EU Member States. In line with the government's objective of strengthening the role of primary care, the total number of hospital beds has been decreasing. However, health care provision remains characterized by underprovision of primary and community care and inappropriate use of inpatient and specialized outpatient care, including care in hospital emergency departments. The numbers of physicians and nurses are relatively low in Romania compared to EU averages. This has mainly been attributed to the high rates of workers emigrating abroad over the

  17. Romania: Brand-New Engineering Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Nicolae Zamfir; Madalina Budu

    2011-01-01

    The HEU spent nuclear fuel transport from Romania was a pilot project in the framework of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), being the first fully certified spent nuclear fuel shipment by air. The successful implementation of the Romanian shipment also brought various new technology in the program, further used by other participating countries. Until 2009, the RRRFR program repatriated to the Russian Federation HEU spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin from many countries, like Uzbekistan, Czech Republic, Latvia, Hungary, Kazakhstan and Bulgaria. The means of transport used were various; from specialized TK-5 train for the carriage of Russian TUK-19 transport casks, to platform trains for 20 ft freight ISO containers carrying Czech Skoda VPVR/M casks; from river barge on the Danube, to vessel on the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Initially, in 2005, the transport plan of the HEU spent nuclear fuel from the National Institute for R&D in Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei' in Magurele, Romania considered a similar scheme, using the specialized TK-5 train transiting Ukraine to the destination point in the Russian Federation, or, as an alternative, using the means and route of the spent nuclear fuel periodically shipped from the Bulgarian nuclear power plant Kosloduy (by barge on the Danube, and by train through Ukraine to the Russian Federation). Due to impossibility to reach an agreement in due time with the transit country, in February 2007 the US, Russian and Romanian project partners decided to adopt the air shipment of the spent nuclear fuel as prime option, eliminating the need for agreements with any transit countries. By this time the spent nuclear fuel inspections were completed, proving the compliance of the burn-up parameters with the international requirements for air shipments of radioactive materials. The short air route avoiding overflying of any other countries except the country of origin and the

  18. Romania's petroleum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanescu, M.O. ); Popescu, B.M. )

    1993-09-01

    In Romania, nine onshore petroleum systems and one offshore petroleum system have recently been identified. Of the onshore systems, three are related to the compressional folded basins: Teleajen-Sita (early Middle Cretaceous marine source rocks), and Puciossa-Fusaru and Alunis-Kliwa (Oligocene-early Miocene marine source rocks). In the same category, we have included the recently discovered Deleni petroleum system with source rocks of not yet identified origin but whose reservoirs certainly belong to a folded basin. In the foreland platform basins, two systems can be distinguished: Rimesti-Fauresti (Middle Jurassic marine source rocks) and Infra-Anhydrite (with presumed Middle Jurassic or middle Miocene marine source rocks). The areas corresponding to the posttectonic basins include three onshore petroleum systems and one offshore system: the Pannonian (Badenian marine and Sarmatian brackish water source rocks), the Valea Caselor-Borsa (oligocene marine source rocks) and the Transylvanian (Badenian marine shales source and Sarmatian brackish water source rocks). Offshore, there is only one petroleum system consisting of Oligocene-Miocene marine source rock and Cretaceous or Eocene reservoirs. The majority of the mentioned petroleum systems reservoirs are Paleozoic to Pliocene clastics, but in the platform areas, carbonate reservoirs are found in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. In all the petroleum systems, despite the different ages of the source rocks, most of the hydrocarbons have been expelled relatively recently during the Late Sarmatian-Pliocene interval. This face is substantiated by examples from two petroleum systems: the Rimesti-Fauresti (duration time 173 m.y., preservation 2 m.y.) and the Alunis-Kliwa (duration time 29-30 m.y., preservation 4 m.y.). The hydrocarbons were first expelled and migrated into described systems reservoirs after Late Styrian and Moldavian overthrusting, i.e. not earlier than 12-14 m.y.

  19. Open Geodata Initiative for Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, Vasile; Iosifescu, Ionut; Ilie, Codrina Maria; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Hurni, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    The concept of open data access is a very important topic nowadays. The concept assumes that all data collected or generated by public sector bodies (excepting personal data and data protected under existing privacy protection or accessibility rules) is made publicly accessible in commonly-used, machine-readable formats and can be re-used for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial. Governmental agencies are considered to be the most significant data owners and providers in modern societies. The sheer volume and wealth of this data makes apparent the potential benefits of reusing, combining, and processing governmental data. Even though metadata (information about the data) is sometimes published, administrations typically express reluctance to making their data available, for various reasons, cultural, political, legal, institutional and technical. The governmental spatial information (also called geospatial data, georeferenced data or geodata) producers in Romania are no exception -with the additional situation that even metadata is not usually available. Starting from 2013 a joint program between a Swiss partner (The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH- Zurich - Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation) and a Romanian partner (Technical University of Civil Engineering - UTCB) is developed in order to establish a new approach on the open geodata topic. The main objective of the project GEOIDEA.RO (GEodata Openness Initiative for Development and Economic Advancement in ROmania) is to improve the scientific basis for open geodata model adoption in Romania. Is our believe that publishing government geodata in Romania over the Internet,under an open license and in a reusable format can strengthen citizen engagement and yield new innovative businesses, bringing substantial social and economic gains.

  20. Landslide study at Sacele reservoir in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Ambrosi, Christian; Spataro, Alessio; Martin, James; Olgun, Guney

    2010-05-01

    Sacele reservoir is locate on the river Tàrlung, about 3 Km upstream from Sacele and about 12 Km from Brasov (Romania). It represents the main drinking water source for Brasov. The Sacele reservoir is recognized as a dam of exceptional importance and therefore it requires special surveillance. In the East side of the basin, in proximity of the barrage, the slope shows evidences of instability; for this reason stabilization works, mainly consisting in re-profiling the slope, and drainage installation, has been conducted without success. This study, financed by the World Bank, aims to provide important information for the estabilishment of an authomatic monitoring system able to reduce the existing risk. Conducted studies includes: - analysis of existing informations - data acquisition by mean of field survey (geodetical and gelogical) and in situ investigation (boreholes, geophisical, sample test) - developement of GIS based geological model - developement of landslide models based on FLAC and FLAC3D Finally the model results leading to the identification of the triggering factors are discussed. The conducted work is a comprehensive study (from data to models) that highligth some interesting conclusions showing how the "stabilization" works increased total displacements and shear strain, and produced a new deeper cinematic.

  1. Water from Romania's heart!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lup, M.

    2012-04-01

    As viewed on a map, the borders of Alba County, which lies in the centre of Transylvania, resembles the shape of a heart. The landscape is of great diversity: the plain of the river Mureş and the Apuseni Mountains. These surroundings are bestowed with three types of gold: yellow gold-Au, green gold - the forests and blue gold - water, joined with the red and brown nuances of specific flora and fauna. Every spring the Forestry Service of Alba Iulia and the association "Silvic Progress" initiate and promote events designed to raise community awareness with regard to protection of the environment. For this purpose, they have created partnerships with different types of institutions, including educational partners. The campaign, "Forest month" is one such action for preserving the treasures of our little universe, such as the area of the city of Teiuş, a town located 19 km North-East of the city of Alba Iulia. It is bordered by the valley of the Mureş River on the East, which gently flows from the Trascău Mountains, situated Northwest of the aforementioned area. It is a place of sweet waters, flora and fauna protected by tree species such as poplar trees, willow trees, species of elderberry, oak trees, fir trees, etc. One day I decided together with the students I teach to engage in an activity for the afforestation of the area. We proceeded using the following steps: Information and curiosity We began with a viewing of a short film produced by the "Silvic Progress" association regarding the mutual relationships between water and the forest, flora and fauna. We identified the benefits of water, which is rich in minerals for the trees and plants of the Apuseni Mountains. Keeping water in the vicinity of the roots requires removing weeds, without increasing evaporation or triggering soil erosion. Each species of trees have a different way of absorbing water from the environment. Annual evaporation depends on the species as well, with the spruce having the greatest

  2. Food Chain Security in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatchi, Liviu-Daniel; Mihalache, Diana-Lacramioara

    During the last years, Romania, as a member country of the European Union, has achieved much progress in the transposition of the Community in the field of foodstuffs. According to the commitments assumed through the position documents during the negotiation process and in order to approach in a unitary way in the field of food safety, the legislative approaches were initiated to promote and adopt a legislative document which may lead to the establishment and organization of a structure corresponding to the European model. In this case, a questionnaire was considered suitable to get a brief and objective data about the food safety, in Romania and other European countries. The questionnaire has been translated and adapted to facilitate the work of the participants, assuring that none of the questions is altered. Most of the results were obtained from the processing sector. The questionnaire was a suitable and useful method for achieving knowledge concerning food safety. It showed that the last years brought an important evolution regarding food industry and its safety around Europe, but still there are many actions that need to be taken.

  3. Ralph Hubner: Who's Who in Romania?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2013-06-01

    A short critical overview of the Ralph Hubner's "Who is who in Romania" and biographical entries of physicists in the Dictionarul Enciclopedic,in 7 volumes, Bucuresti, Editura enciclopedica has been given

  4. The Suitable Geological Formations for Spent Fuel Disposal in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Marunteanu, C.; Ionita, G.; Durdun, I.

    2007-07-01

    Using the experience in the field of advanced countries and formerly Romanian program data, ANDRAD, the agency responsible for the disposal of radioactive wastes, started the program for spent fuel disposal in deep geological formations with a documentary analysis at the national scale. The potential geological formations properly characterized elsewhere in the world: salt, clay, volcanic tuff, granite and crystalline rocks,. are all present in Romania. Using general or specific selection criteria, we presently consider the following two areas for candidate geological formations: 1. Clay formations in two areas in the western part of Romania: (1) The Pannonian basin Socodor - Zarand, where the clay formation is 3000 m thick, with many bentonitic strata and undisturbed structure, and (2) The Eocene Red Clay on the Somes River, extending 1200 m below the surface. They both need a large investigation program in order to establish and select the required homogeneous, dry and undisturbed zones at a suitable depth. 2. Old platform green schist formations, low metamorphosed, quartz and feldspar rich rocks, in the Central Dobrogea structural unit, not far from Cernavoda NPP (30 km average distance), 3000 m thick and including many homogeneous, fine granular, undisturbed, up to 300 m thick layers. (authors)

  5. An Energy Overview of Romania

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Romania. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  6. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania.

    PubMed

    Bohîlțea, R E; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, L C

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women's genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometrial cancer have registered an increasing trend worldwide and also in Romania, a significant decrease of the age of appearance for the entire endometrial pathology sphere being noticed. At the national level, the maximum incidence is situated between 60 and 64 years old, the mortality rate of the women under 65 years old being high in Romania. The study evaluates endometrial cancer, from an epidemiologic point of view, at the national level compared to the international statistic data. PMID:25866582

  7. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, LC

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women’s genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometrial cancer have registered an increasing trend worldwide and also in Romania, a significant decrease of the age of appearance for the entire endometrial pathology sphere being noticed. At the national level, the maximum incidence is situated between 60 and 64 years old, the mortality rate of the women under 65 years old being high in Romania. The study evaluates endometrial cancer, from an epidemiologic point of view, at the national level compared to the international statistic data. PMID:25866582

  8. Studies on the Environmental Improvement in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaki, Mitsuharu; Yoshizumi, Koji; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki; Nakamoto, Yumi; Stanescu, Rodica; Plesca, Marinela

    In Romania, the communist planned economy system was in place for 42 years but ended due to a revolution in 1989. An environmental administration was started 1990. In order to assist with environment related activities, one of the authors worked in Bucharest for two years from March 2002 to March 2004 as a JICA (Japan International Cooperation Activity) member. One of the most important problems regarding environmental protection in Romania is waste management. In Japan, the regulations and penalties system of waste management have been used for a long time. However, there are many serious problems with the system, such as a decrease in waste disposal facilities and illegally disposed waste. The authors studied a new plan that uses a certification system in order to promote recycling industries. This system is both efficient and inexpensive so it is possible that this method of waste management could be transmitted to Romania.

  9. Secure Transportation of HEU in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-06

    The National Nuclear Security Administration has announced the final shipments of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from Romania. The material was removed and returned to Russia by air for storage at two secure nuclear facilities, making Romania the first country to remove all HEU since President Obama outlined his commitment to securing all vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years. This was also the first time NNSA has shipped spent HEU by airplane, a development that will help accelerate efforts to meet the Presidents objective.

  10. The Leonid Fireball Night from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, V.; Berinde, S.

    1999-02-01

    An overview of the 1998 Leonid activity as seen from Romania by SARM members, with a description of the event on November 16-17 as seen by Valentin Grigore (GRIVA) at Targoviste, lambda=25deg 29' 00'' E, phi=44deg 57' 18'' N, h=350m.

  11. Parental Migration and Children's Outcomes in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robila, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Although Eastern European migration has increased greatly, the research on its impact on children and families has been limited. In this study I examined the impact of parental economic migration on children psychosocial and academic outcomes in Romania, one of largest Eastern European migrant sending country. Surveys were conducted with 382…

  12. The Structure of Vocational Interests in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iliescu, Dragos; Ispas, Dan; Ilie, Alexandra; Ion, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Using data provided by the Self-Directed Search (SDS) on a sample of 1,519 participants comprising 3 subsamples containing high school students, university students, and working adults, the authors examine the structure of vocational interests in Romania. Three competing structural models of vocational interests (Holland's circumplex model and…

  13. Professional Counseling in Romania: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilagyi, Andreea; Paredes, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    The formalization and professionalization processes in Romania resemble the early history of counseling in the United States, where development initially took place in the educational and career/vocational sectors. Brief accounts of the relationship between select periods in Romanian history and access to education and career/vocational support…

  14. Ethnic Attitudes of Hungarian Students in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…

  15. Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes As climate change has been considered a research priority in the European Strategy for enduring development , I have done a detailed research with my students of the new climate change that has been going on in Romania for the past decade. More precisely I have studied together with my students the phenomenon of tornadoes that have seriously affected on some occasions some our our country's locations, such as Facaeni, in the county of Ialomita, in August 2002. A quite unusual phenomenon occurred on that location situated at 44.56 degrees northern latitude and at 27.89 degrees eastern longitude, that caused severe damage to the local environment and three persons lost their lives in the process, as well as other thirty people suffering from bad injuries. The magnitude of that strong phenomenon rose on the Fujita scale at level F3 which implied wing gusts between 252-300 km/ hour . A main cause of occurrence of such a severe weather was the difference in temperature of two huge air masses, one of Polar origin, and other coming from tropical latitudes . Their crossroads was on that precise territory of Romania. The duration of the worst part of the tornado path lasted only for two minutes, but the consequences of its passage were colossal : total destruction of 33 households, and other 395 were partially damaged, 1,000 people afflicted by the devastation and 100 acres of acacia tree forest ripped off the ground. The first ever recorded tornado phenomenon in Romania was around 1894-1896, considered at that time " a freak of nature" was seen as a cloud formation abnormality , an uncontrolled force of nature that had a huge impact , and at the same time, it vanished into "thin air " fast. The most affected areas in Romania by tornadoes are the south-eastern planes where the cloud formations can create fast columns of air rotating up to 500 km/hour. The local people compared the cloud funnels created on the planes to "serpents

  16. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; Dărăbuş, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians. PMID:24553077

  17. Diversity and distribution of reptiles in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Cogălniceanu, Dan; Rozylowicz, Laurentiu; Székely, Paul; Samoilă, Ciprian; Stănescu, Florina; Tudor, Marian; Székely, Diana; Iosif, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The reptile fauna of Romania comprises 23 species, out of which 12 species reach here the limit of their geographic range. We compiled and updated a national database of the reptile species occurrences from a variety of sources including our own field surveys, personal communication from specialists, museum collections and the scientific literature. The occurrence records were georeferenced and stored in a geodatabase for additional analysis of their spatial patterns. The spatial analysis revealed a biased sampling effort concentrated in various protected areas, and deficient in the vast agricultural areas of the southern part of Romania. The patterns of species richness showed a higher number of species in the warmer and drier regions, and a relatively low number of species in the rest of the country. Our database provides a starting point for further analyses, and represents a reliable tool for drafting conservation plans. PMID:24146598

  18. The characteristics of the chemical flow within the Motru catchment area, south — west Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionuş, Oana

    2011-03-01

    The present paper, with reference to the Motru catchment area, contributes to the hydrochemical studies at an international level and to the completion of the characteristics regarding the chemical flow in Romania. In this regard, it emphasizes once again the dependence between the content of dissolved salts (fixed residue — mg/l) on the one hand and the lithological conditions, human activity, flow and the surface of the catchments on the other hand. The calculation and the analysis of the chemical flow for the Motru catchment area (located in the south-west of Romania) was performed on the basis of two parameters: the average flow of dissolved chemical substances (mg/s) and specific average chemical flow (t/kmp year) recorded at the monitoring stations on the Motru River and its tributaries during the period 2005-2009. The values obtained (for example: 2.63 mg/s and 47.7 t/km2 year, at the Fata Motrului station, on the Motru River, in 2009) confirm the importance of the areal factors of natural background in the analysis of chemical flow as a morpho-dynamic process and implicitly for the chemical quality of surface waters.

  19. Emerging Information Society and History of Information Science in Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragulanescu, Nicolae

    2002-01-01

    Discusses cultural influences that prevail in the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data, information, and knowledge in Romania. Highlights include a history of Romania; their scientific and technical information system; economics; governmental control of access; governmental funding; international relations; higher education for…

  20. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

  1. Impact of metals on the environment due to technical accident at Aurul Baia Mare, Romania.

    PubMed

    Michnea, A; Gherheş, I

    2001-01-01

    The S.C. Aurul S.A. is a joint venture company owned by the Esmeralda from Australia and the "Remin" National Company of Precious and Non-ferrous Metals in Romania, established in 1992. The design concept was to transport the mining waste away from the city, while the gold and silver in the tailings could be recovered, using efficient and modern technology that was not available at the time the dam was established. On 30 January, 2000, at 22.00, the dam burst and released 100,000 cubic meters of tailing pulp, heavily contaminated with cyanide and cyanide complexes, especially with copper, into the Lapus and Somes tributaries of the river Tisa. The paper deals with the impact of metals on the environment associated with their presence in surface waters, river sediments and soils. PMID:11764854

  2. Inclusive Education in Romania: Policies and Practices in Post-Communist Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses current inclusive education policies and practices in Romania. There are few accounts of and no systematic study published on this topic. The Romanian special educational policies began to evolve towards integration and inclusion. Today, Romanian special education functions according to democratic principles and Romanian…

  3. Bulgaria and Romania: Geography and Economics. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Bulgaria and Romania).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirtland, Jack

    This lesson plan on Romania and Bulgaria could be adapted for various grade levels and ability groups. Topics addressed include cultural diversity, the period of Soviet control in the region and its lasting effects, factors contributing to political instability, the current attempts to move towards a market economy, and traditions and customs…

  4. Romania and Bulgaria Project. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosla, Bernice C.

    This document consists of six pages of course description accompanied by over 200 pages of reproduced material including the complete constitutions of Bulgaria, Romania, and the United States, respectively. This unit allows students to analyze primary and secondary sources, think critically about the documents, and reflect on whether a country's…

  5. The Role of ESERO Romania in Space and Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Virgiliu

    2015-08-01

    ESERO Romania (The European Space Education Resource Office - Romania) has been established in 2014 as a collaboration between the Europen Space Agency and the Romanian Space Agency. The key aim of ESERO Romania is to increase STEM literacy in Romania by using space as an appealing context to make the teaching and learning of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math subjects more attractive and accessible. In Romania, the Office intends to bridge the gap between the prize-winning elites and the scientifically illiterate mass through the training of teachers, through raising awareness of space activities and through the dissemination of materials, making full use of ESA’s literature and logistical support in this process. The Romanian ESERO is also serving as the main interface between ESA Education and the Romanian educational community. The ultimate aim is to assure the formation of a future work force active in the space and engineering fields - including astronomy. This paper will outline the ways in which ESERO Romania contributes to space and astronomy education in Romania, as well as the challenges and opportunities encountered during the first year of its existence.

  6. Fluvial sensitivity to Late Quaternary climate changes in NW Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, Ioana; Rădoane, Maria; Robu, Delia; Tanţău, Ioan

    2013-04-01

    Fluvial archives became increasingly important for the reconstruction of past environments, as they record a sum of climate, vegetation, hydrologic and anthropic changes. This is especially important for the Late Quaternary, when climate and human activities had recorded large spatial and temporal variations. Here we present a tale of fluvial behavior during the last ca. 24.000 years in NW Romania, based on 1) absolute ages and fluvial architecture of sediments exposed in 8 openings located along the Someşu Mic River, and 2) depth-age models, grain size, LOI and gastropods assemblage analysis on 2 cores located upstream from Ştiucilor Lake, a natural lake along a small tributary of the Someşu Mic River, formed by salt disolution on top of a narrow diapiric anticline. During the Late Glacial (LG), Ştiucilor Lake was more extended then is today, with a high input of coarse materials (sands) from the slopes; and dramatically reducing its size in the Early Holocene, a transition marked by the abrupt occurrence of Holocene gyttja on top of LG sands, 1 km upstream from the present lake. Further upstream, at ca. 4 km from the present day edge of the lake, clays and sandy clays were deposited during the Bolling - Allerod (BA), followed by fine - medium sands of Younger Dryas (YD) age. On top of these sands, clays, sandy clays and gyttja occur, suggesting a returning to a less energetic sedimentary environment in the Holocene. In both cores, the sediments become lacustrine, with clays and fine sands, attesting the expansion of the lake's surface, followed by large fluctuations during the Holocene. The river fed by this stream - Someşu Mic, was a coarse gravel, shallow braided river before the Last Glacial Maximum and until the YD. The channel metamorphosis into a narrow, incised, meandering one, occurred ca. 1500 years after the beginning of the Holocene. However, sedimentological evidences suggest that this transition from braided to meandering channel was not a

  7. Morpho-bathymetrical conditions and the silting rate in Stanca-Costesti reservoir (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanescu, Gheorghe; Stoleriu, Cristian; Romanescu, Ana Maria; Mihu-Pintilie, Alin

    2015-04-01

    Stanca-Costesti Reservoir holds the largest amount of water among reservoirs located in Romania and has multiple purposes, such as flood mitigation, hydropower production, irrigation etc. Our bathymetric survey was conducted along longitudinal, as well as transverse alignments, so as to cover the entire lacustrine surface by using an echo sounder. Data from three different surveys were employed, i.e. topographical (dating back to 1977, before the onset of flooding) and bathymetrical (1986 and 2000) surveys. The drainage basin of this reservoir extends accross three countries, Romania, Ukraine and Republic of Moldova, and whereas the mountain sector of the basin is mostly covered by forest, the lowland (the Moldavian Plateau) is used for agriculture, i.e., cereal crops. Thus, deforestation and inappropriate tillage techniques employed within this basin result in increased soil erosion. Most of the sediment load is carried during flood events, which have grown increasingly common, particularly in summer. The terraces formed along the downstream sector of the reservoir are not covered by alluvium, whereas the corresponding terraces from its upper sector have been covered by submerged glacises. Moreover, in the area of Ciugur river mouth we observed a submerged valley, as well as several submerged natural levees. The deepest area of the reservoir (29.2 m) is located adjacent to the dam and is thought to be the outcome of a circular current generated by the lake bottom morphology. The silting degree is rather high, ranging up to an index value of 7.3% over 33 years.

  8. Tritium laboratory with multiple purposes at NIPNE Magurele Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Matei, L.; Postolache, C.

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Laboratory from NIPNE (Romania)) is part of Radioisotope Research and Production Center. The Tritium Laboratory has been in operation since 1960, and carries out R and D activities involving tritium sources in gaseous, liquids and solid state, provides specialized service to CANDU NPP Cernavoda (Romania)), and provides tritium assay services to internal and external customers. The paper presents the activities and perspectives of Tritium Laboratory and its performances in accordance with Quality System Management. (authors)

  9. New records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763)​ were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721

  10. The structure of vocational interests in Romania.

    PubMed

    Iliescu, Dragos; Ispas, Dan; Ilie, Alexandra; Ion, Andrei

    2013-04-01

    Using data provided by the Self-Directed Search (SDS) on a sample of 1,519 participants comprising 3 subsamples containing high school students, university students, and working adults, the authors examine the structure of vocational interests in Romania. Three competing structural models of vocational interests (Holland's circumplex model and Gati's and Rounds and Tracey's hierarchical models) are analyzed with 3 different approaches: (a) frequency analysis of 2-letter codes, (b) randomization test of hypothesized order relations, and (c) structural equation modeling. The stability of the structure of vocational interests across age is also analyzed. The findings suggest mixed evidence for the 3 models, with Holland's model receiving more support from structural equation modeling, and Gati's and Rounds and Tracey's models receiving more support from the frequency analysis of 2-letter codes. The data conclusively show that the structure of vocational interests becomes clearer with age. PMID:23506513

  11. Triassic lithostratigraphic correlation in the Moesian Platform (Bulgaria-Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemberski, H. I.; Botoucharov, N. D.

    2013-11-01

    The Moesian Platform occupies a wide area in Bulgaria and Romania, being surrounded to the north and west by the South Carpathians and to the south by the Balkans. The lithostratigraphic division of the representative cross-sections of the Triassic system is performed for both countries. The applied methodology in defining the lithostratigraphic units and their comparison is based on the internationally accepted, widely used stratigraphic rules. The key role of the present work is to unify positions and technical usage of the Triassic lithostratigraphic units. However, they are relatively different in Bulgaria and Romania, which hampers the cross correlation. The Bulgarian part of the Moesian Platform is examined according to the "Regional Lithostratigraphic Scheme of the Triassic sediments from borehole sections in North Bulgaria" compiled by Chemberski in 1985. The lithostratigraphic division for the Romanian part is based on Paraschiv's work completed in early 1980s. There are three Triassic complexes defined in the Moesian Platform which are divided into formations and horizons. They follow in order of deposition: Lower red bed complex represented by Petrohan Group (Bulgaria) and Rosiori Formation (Romania); Carbonate complex including Iskar Carbonate Group (Bulgaria) and Alexandria Formation and Putinei evaporates (Romania); Upper variegated complex consisting of Moesian Group (Bulgaria) and Segarcea Formation (Romania). The present correlation determines three types of comparative units: analogous units (subjective synonyms); units defined in Bulgarian territory and probably present also in Romania; units located only in the Bulgarian and respectively in the Romanian part of the Moesian Platform.

  12. Gis Based Multi-Risk and Vulnerability Assessment. A Case Study for Niraj basin area (Transylvanian Depression, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosca, Sanda; Petrea, Danut; Bilasco, Stefan; Vescan, Iuliu; Fodorean, Ioan

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards such as landslides, meandering and flash floods have caused economical damage and environmental changes in the last period of time increasing the risk level of the built-up areas and roads from Romania. Thus, an essential role in the prevention of negative effects and the identification of natural risks is played by the generation of hazard and risk maps. The purpose of the study is represented by the generation of multi-hazard and multi-risk maps using GIS technologies, which requires the identification of cumulated risk for each administrative-territorial unit situated in the study area of Niraj river basin from Transylvania Depression, Romania. The first stage in this approach was to develop the flood risk zonation which is based on floodable stripes, obtained using statistical analysis of past data series and their integration in determinist spatial analysis models, generated as a product of temporal flood probability and vulnerability of the territory. The probability of landslide occurrence was estimated using bivariate statistical analysis, by evaluating the importance of each class of preparatory factors depending of the characteristic/local conditions: lithology, geomorphology, structure, hydro-climatic factors, hydrogeology, seismicity, forestry and anthropogenic factor. Finally, the assessment of the risk associated to lateral river erosion, or meandering, was obtained by using the largest time span available (of the last 102 years) in order to identify the river's present dynamic trends of each river meander. The average and the maximum rate of erosion values were used to determine the meandering potential and to identify the meandering risk zones. Therefore, in order to accurately identify the local risk level, we calculated the spatial and temporal probability of occurrence of potential damaging events, as well as the distribution of the elements at risk based on their characteristic vulnerability. The final results represent valuable

  13. Drought phenomena and groundwater scarcity in Eastern Romania (Siret-Prut region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iulian Catalin, Stanga; Ionut, Minea

    2013-04-01

    Droughts are caused essentially by the climatic elements' variability, being the most known recurring phenomena and one of the most frequent natural disasters in many regions of the world. Acting as disturbances of the natural water cycle, the increasing drought frequency and severity has a high impact on water resources having multiple consequences, especially in regions of high population density or scarce water reserves. In this context, the current approach aims to assess the impact of drought phenomena on groundwater, to improve water management in one of the driest regions of Romania. The study area includes the region between Siret and Prut rivers (about 25,000 km2, in Eastern Romania), being characterized by a hilly and plateau relief, a temperate continental climate with excessive tendencies and a dominant vegetation cover specific to steppe, silvo-steppe and forest domains. Water resources are relatively modest in terms of groundwater or river discharge and characterized by a high time variability. Groundwater reserves and dynamics depend mainly on the climatic conditions, but also on the hydrostatic level depth, the reservoir and drainage conditions. Moreover, the last time, the significant human pressure manifests through a very high density of wells and a continuously increasing consumption, which affect the regenerative capacity of aquifers and perpetuate the water scarcity. In the context of the present climatic changes, the increased frequency and the more accentuated intensity of drought and dryness phenomena significantly affect groundwater reserves. Processing a consistent database from meteorological stations and 256 hydrogeological drills from the eastern part of Romania allowed highlighting some significant correlation between the hydro-climatic elements, with the purpose of relieving the degree of drought exposure of the phreatic aquifers. According to the typology of phreatic aquifers (floodplain or terrace alluvia, proluvio-coluvial slope

  14. Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The author participates to the World Housing Encyclopedia project (www.world-housing.net), an internet based database of housing buildings in earthquake prone areas of the world. This is a voluntary project run by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California and the International Association of Earthquake Engineering, financial means being available only for the website where the information is shared. For broader dissemination in 2004 a summary publication of the reports to date was published. The database can be querried for various parameters and browsed after geographic distribution. Participation is open to any housing experts. Between 2003 and 2006 the author was also member of the editorial board. The author contributed numerous reports about building types in Romania, and each one about building types in Germany and Switzerland. This presentation will be about the contributed reports on building types in Romania. To the Encyclopedia eight reports on building types from Bucharest were contributed, while in further research of the author one more was similarly described regarding the vulnerability and the seismic retrofit. The selection of these types was done considering the historic development of the built substance in Bucharest from 1850 on, time from which a representative amount of housing buildings which can be classified in typologies can be found in Bucharest. While the structural types are not necessarily characteristic for the style, since the style has other time limits, often appearing before the type became common and then remaining being practiced also after another style gained ground, a historic succession can be seen also in this case. The nine types considered can be grouped in seven time categories: - the time 1850-1880, for a vernacular housing type with masonry load bearing walls and timber floors, - the time 1880-1920, for the type of two storey or multi-storey house with masonry walls and timber floors (in which

  15. E-health progresses in Romania.

    PubMed

    Moisil, Ioana; Jitaru, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The paper is presenting the recent evolution of e-health aspects in Romania. Data presented are based on governmental reports. Surveys organized by the "Lucian Blaga" University of Sibiu and studies carried on by the national Institute for Research and Development in Informatics (I.C.I.) have shown that Romania has important health problems, from cardio vascular diseases (CVD) to cancer and infectious diseases, a high score on mortality and morbidity and a low one on natality. Poor management of the health sector did not help to solve all these problems. In the last 14 years there were several attempts to reform healthcare but none succeeded until now. The health insurance system is operational but needs still to be improved. Acknowledging the deep crisis of the health system the Prime Minister nominated a new minister of health and important changes in the health management approach are to be envisaged. One of this is the introduction of the e-procurement system for all health related goods. In spite of the crisis of the health system, e-health applications are flourishing. We can distinguish applications at national and local level and also punctual applications. The main applications refer to hospital information systems (HIS), electronic health records (EHR), e-procurement, image processing, diagnosis and treatment aids, telediagnosis, teleconsultation, education, research and domain oriented web support services. Most academic clinical hospital is now members of a web community "mednet". Unfortunately a lot of medical web sites have disappeared for lack of funds. As the health sector is in general funded from the public budget and the health crisis is deepened in the last years, the driving force in implementing e-health concepts and technologies is not the Ministry of Health but the Information Technology (IT) community, with a strong support from the Ministry of Information Technology and Communications and also from the Ministry of Education and Research

  16. Review of the family Veliidae in Romania (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha).

    PubMed

    Berchi, Gavril Marius; Kment, Petr

    2015-01-01

    A critical review of the family Veliidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) in Romania is provided. In total, two genera and eight species (Microvelia Westwood, 1834-3 species, Velia Latreille, 1804-5 species) are known from the country. Microvelia buenoi Drake, 1920 and Velia serbica Tamanini, 1951 are recorded for the first time from Romania. The occurrence of V. affinis filippii Tamanini, 1947 and V. mancinii mancinii Tamanini, 1947 is confirmed by additional records. Based on proven or suspected misidentifications, V. currens (Fabricius, 1794) and V. rivulorum (Fabricius, 1775) are excluded from the Romanian fauna. A checklist of the Veliidae of Romania and updated distribution maps are provided. Biogeographical aspects of the fauna are summarized. PMID:26249393

  17. Recent changes in reference evapotranspiration in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Piticar, Adrian; Dragotă, Carmen Sofia; Burada, Doina Cristina

    2013-12-01

    In the last few decades, climate changes have become the most important topic in the field of climatology. Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is often used to identify regions prone to drought or aridity. In this paper, we used monthly data recorded in 57 weather stations in Romania over the period 1961-2007. The FAO Penman-Monteith method, based on air temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity and wind speed, was employed in order to calculate ET0. Seasonal, annual, winter wheat and maize growing seasons data sets of ET0 were generated. The trends were detected using the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope, while an ArcGIS software was employed for mapping the results. The main findings of the study are: positive slopes were found in 71% of the data series considered and almost 30% of the total number of series were found significant at α = 0.05; the highest frequency of the increasing trends as well as their absolute maximum magnitude were detected during summer and maize growing season; in winter, significant increasing changes are specific mainly to the extra-Carpathians regions; in autumn decreasing ET0 is specific to more than 80% of the locations, but the significant decrease characterizes mainly the southern half of the country; during the growing seasons of maize and winter wheat, the increase of the ET0 is dominant for the entire country. The relative change decreases with the increase of the length of the period considered: the most intense changes were detected for climatic seasons, followed by crop growing seasons and annual values. Among the climatic seasons, the highest relative increase is specific to winter followed by summer, spring and autumn, while for the crop growing seasons the values detected are similar.

  18. Towards a nationwide Early Warning System in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmureanu, A.; Ionescu, C.; Manea, L.

    2012-04-01

    The need to use early warning methods to reduce natural risks in modern societies is related to their unprecedented dependence upon technology. The strong deep events originating from Vrancea-Romania (Mw =7.5) area and shallow events originating from Banat-Romania or Shabla-Bulgaria areas can generate destructive effects in Romania and neighbor countries, and may seriously affect high risk manmade structures. EWS for deep Vrancea earthquakes uses the time interval (28-32 sec.) between the moment when the earthquake is detected by the local seismic network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area (Bucharest) to send earthquake warning to users. For the shallow events several methodologies to rapidly estimate earthquake magnitude are under testing. NIEP developed an early warning system that is able to evaluate rapidly earthquake magnitude after detection in the epicenter. In the last years, NIEP upgraded its seismic network in order to cover better the seismic zones of Romania. The early warning system consists of seismic stations that allow rapid communication of data, several software modules developed at NIEP and a communication network. The system allows estimation of earthquake magnitude and permits to send earthquake alarm very fast to users. The early warning software modules minimize communication latencies present in other communication protocols in order to have a rapid magnitude determination. This software was developed by NIEP and is running in present at our institute in real time.

  19. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Romania. Education and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivan, Gabriel; Badescu, Mircea; Blendea, Paul; Brancoveanu, Romulus; Diaconescu, Florin; Iosifescu, Serban; Georgescu, Dakmara; Gliga, Lucia Marietta; Narosi, Ioan; Petrescu, Roxana; Pop, Viorica; Serban, Madlen

    This book gives a brief history of education in Romania over the last decade. The text is divided into two parts. Part 1 provides a background report, whereas part 2 presents the results of an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development review team's analysis of recent trends and reform initiatives. The first section describes the…

  20. Values and Desiderata of the Cultural Exchange Program with Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Adrian

    Cultural exchange programs are beneficial to the participating students, professors, and countries, provided that the programs are administered in a way designed to achieve the objectives most usefully. In Romania, the question must be discussed of the role, for example, of American literature in the curricula of the universities, types of…

  1. Overview on the investigations of transgenic plums in Romania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, PT3 and PT5 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natu...

  2. Non-Routine Problems in Primary Mathematics Workbooks from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a research on Hungarian 3th grade primary school textbooks from Romania. These textbooks are analyzed using two classifications. The first classification is based on how much creativity and problem solving skills pupils need to solve a given task. In this classification problems are gouped in three categories:…

  3. Functional Literacy in Romania: Between Myth & Reality. Chapter 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anghel, Florentina

    This chapter reviews the history of literacy training in Romania through the pretotalitarian period (1890-1945), the totalitarian period (1945-1989), and the posttotalitarian period (1989-present). Current literacy development efforts face many challenges including the facts that 592 classrooms do not have indoor plumbing, that more than 1,700…

  4. Overview of the investigation of transgenic plums in Romania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and PT3 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natural i...

  5. Secondary Education in Romania. Guide to Secondary Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgescu, Dakmara-Ana

    Secondary education in Romania is characterized by innovations introduced by the communist system and by recent efforts to restructure the system. This book presents a systematic and coherent exposition of the Romanian educational system, and outlines the essential problems the system faces. The book opens with the historical, social, and…

  6. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciobanu, Adrian; Parciog, Speranta

    Romania's adoption of a more gradual approach in restructuring and privatizing the state-owned sector has resulted in industry with an unchanged structure that remains the main cause of social and economic decline. Employment has shown a steady decline. Industrial employment has decreased dramatically. Sectors like transport, hotels, and…

  7. Preparation of School/Educational Psychologists in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negovan, Valeria; Dinca, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the academic and professional training of educational/school psychologists in Romania. Their training mirrors the country's history, legal provisions, social qualities, and current professional status of psychologists and their specialization. Efforts to increase the quality of training for educational/school psychologists…

  8. NATO Expansion: Romania and Bulgaria within the Larger Context. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Thomas M.

    This paper analyzes the issues regarding current expansion of NATO membership to include Romania and Bulgaria. The perspective given is that of the United States and places the Romanian and Bulgarian cases within the context of those issues. Sections of the paper include: (1) "The Road to Madrid: Expansion of NATO"; (2) "No Easy Answers: The…

  9. The potential of subfossil trunks for deriving floating dendrochronologies in NE Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Nechita; Maria, Radoane; Francisca, Chiriloaei; Nicolae, Radoane; Ionel, Popa

    2015-04-01

    The subfossil wood material collected along rivers from north-eastern part of Romania was dated with radiocarbon and dendrochronological investigated. The study area is represented by Siret and Moldova rivers. Both rivers originate in the Eastern Carpathians where they collect the majority of their tributaries, further crossing through the eastern sector of the mountains by creating transverse valleys. Along these rivers, on reaches covering lengths of 100 km and 140 km, tree-rings samples were collected (n = 40 along Moldova River and n = 37 along Siret River). Of the total number of 77 collected wood samples, we dated 26 in order to determine the absolute age. The species of subfossil trunks belong to Quercus (n=51), Ulmus (n=20) and Alnus genus (n=3). The ratio between the average growth and the trunk age varies greatly, from trees aged as little as 38 years with average diameters above 32 cm, to trees as old as 184 years with diameters of just 45 cm. The absolute age of subfossil trunks varied from few decades to 6900-6670 cal yrs BP. The obtained result consists in dendrochronological series which covers periods from Mid to Late Holocene. The highest concentration of deposited subfossil trunks was carried out in the last 3000 yrs BP. Therefore, it is possible to create an exclusively dendrochronological sequence for this time frame. A first step in this direction is the extension of living tree rings series (180 yrs.) with modern wood in order to create an enlarged series of 383 years, (as illustrated for rings series of modern oaks in Dolhasca site, Siret Valley). Albeit there are many gaps in the reconstruction of these phases, several clusters are easily distinguishable, i.e. 3500-2900 years BP, 2200-2075 years BP, and 1000-800 years BP extending to LIA. By relating this data to obtained information from other proxies (lacustrine sediments, pollen records, lake levels, etc) we may conclude that the two major periods in Holocene history were characterized by

  10. Peculiar Deepwater Slope Morphology in the Semi-enclosed Mio-Pliocene Dacian Basin, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fongngern, R.; Steel, R.; Olariu, C.; Krezsek, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shelf margin clinoforms (400-500 m high) are the prominent building blocks of the Mio-Pliocene (8.5-4.1 Ma) Western Dacian Basin, a foreland of the Southern Carpathians of Romania. The Dacian Basin was a semi-enclosed elongate, para-Tethyan seaway that underwent several brackish to freshwater transitions while being connected to the Black Sea. 3-D seismic and well data show that the basin infill was dominated by coeval multidirectional clinoform progradation, dominantly from NE to SW and from SSE to NNW. The deepwater clinoform slopes were spectacularly irregular, with closely spaced canyons and channel-levee systems giving a ';sawtooth' appearance in both strike sections and horizontal slices. The canyons are approximately 1-2.5 km wide, 50-200 m deep and normally host slope channels. Slope channels range in width from 100-900 m and depth from 25 to 50 m. Most slope channels connected to an indented (valleyed or upper- slope scarred) shelf edge. The irregularity of the slope morphology differs from most open marine slopes which can be irregular downdip of the main shelf-edge fairway but becomes smoother laterally from the transport axis. It is likely that line-sourced hyperpycnal flows from multiple steep, Carpathian shelf-edge rivers were responsible for building and maintaining the unusual slope stratigraphy. The high frequency of river-flood underflows that would have been generated in the reduced salinity Dacian Basin also caused large volumes of river-derived sediments to be transported to the aggradational basin floor. Additional processes that might have contributed to the unusual slope stratigraphy are high-frequency base level changes and earthquake-generated slope failures that would have been common in the Dacian Basin during the studied interval.

  11. New aspects concerning geoelectrical tests on shallow landslides in Telega, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, R.-M.; Rusu, E.; Ciurean, R.; Avram, O.; Scutelnicu, I.; Grigorescu, S.; Grigorescu, A.

    2009-04-01

    New aspects concerning geoelectrical tests on shallow landslides in Telega, Romania Raluca Maftei, Emil Rusu, Roxana Ciurean, Ovidiu Avram, Ionut Scutelnicu, Stefan Grigorescu, Andrei Grigorescu (1) (1) GIR, Bucharest, Romania The analysis of natural hazards involved by landslides requires the revealing of both depth and relief of the slipping surface, and also to show the extension of the dislocated material areas. A particular aspect in Romania is related to the frequent occurrence of salt. It is to be mentioned that Romania contains the largest salt resources/reserves throughout Europe. This potential of about three billion tons could supply salt for the whole world population for over four hundred years. Telega village, separated by Campina town through Doftana River, is situated at 5 km from it, in the west part of Prahova County. The village covers a medium altitude relief (550m), characterized by irregularities of ground, many valleys and swales crossed by streams. On the left bank of Telega valley, the landslides' effects have a large extension, in some places being catastrophic. Among these, the one called at "Butoi" area presents a huge interest according of their produced destructions and because of the influence on Telega Spa, main communal road etc. In the above-mentioned sector, the slope is badly affected over a 0.4 sqkm surface. The morphology presents many scars, sometimes with steeps, waves with variable amplitudes and counter slope aspects in which water accumulates as lakes and swamps, with transversal and longitudinal fissures with different lengths and depths. The slope is very steep, especially in crest area. Besides the covering deluvial, clayey, yellow-gray quaternary rocks, other rocks form the basement are moving, in the detachment area marly, gray-black, fine stratified, sandy rocks interbeded with soft, gray sandstones of Meotian age are affected. Also, the rocks of the "salt breccias horizon" of Badenian age are affected. Predominantly

  12. West Nile virus reemergence in Romania: a serologic survey in host species.

    PubMed

    Ludu Oslobanu, Elena Luanda; Mihu-Pintilie, Alin; Anită, Dragos; Anita, Adriana; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Savuta, Gheorghe

    2014-05-01

    The presence of West Nile virus (WNV) in humans has been known in Romania since the 1950s; the 1996 epidemics emphasized the reemergence potential of WNV in Romania. Serological surveys made on susceptible species, known as good sentinels or reservoir hosts, e.g., horses, wild and domestic birds were undertaken from 2006-2011. Our results corroborated incidence data in human patients and other recent seroprevalence studies in animals, and should partially clarify the emergence of WNV in the eastern rural territories of Romania. It also highlighted risk zones for endemic WNV infection in Romania. PMID:24745699

  13. Transition from HEU to LEU fuel in Romania`s 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    The 14-MW TRIGA steady state reactor (SSR) located in Pitesti, Romania, first went critical in the fall of 1979. Initially, the core configuration for full power operation used 29 fuel clusters each containing a 5 {times} 5 square array of HEU (10 wt%) -- ZrH -- Er (2.8 wt%) fuel-moderator rods (1.295 cm o.d.) clad in Incology. With a total inventory of 35 HEU fuel clusters, burnup considerations required a gradual expansion of the core from 29 to 32 and finally to 35 clusters before the reactor was shut down because of insufficient excess reactivity. At this time each of the original 29 fuel clusters had an overage {sup 235}U burnup in the range from 50 to 62%. Because of the US policy regarding the export of highly enriched uranium, fresh HEU TRIGA replacement fuel is not available. After a number of safety-related measurements, the SSR is expected to resume full power operation in the near future using a mixed core containing five LEU TRIGA clusters of the same geometry as the original fuel but with fuel-moderator rods containing 45 wt% U (19.7% {sup 235}U enrichment) and 1.1 wt% Er. Rods for 14 additional LEU fuel clusters will be fabricated by General Atomics. In support of the SSR mixed core operation numerous neutronic calculations have been performed. This paper presents some of the results of those calculations.

  14. Satellite Observations of NO2 Trend over Romania

    PubMed Central

    Voiculescu, Mirela; Georgescu, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of atmospheric trace gases loading give a realistic image of atmospheric pollution at global, regional, and urban level. The aim of this paper is to investigate the trend of atmospheric NO2 content over Romania for the period 1996–2010 for several regions which are generally characterized by different pollutant loadings, resulting from GOME-1, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2 instruments. Satellite results are then compared with ground-based in situ measurements made in industrial and relatively clean areas of one major city in Romania. This twofold approach will help in estimating whether the trend of NO2 obtained by means of data satellite retrievals can be connected with the evolution of national industry and transportation. PMID:24453819

  15. Satellite observations of NO2 trend over Romania.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Voiculescu, Mirela; Georgescu, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of atmospheric trace gases loading give a realistic image of atmospheric pollution at global, regional, and urban level. The aim of this paper is to investigate the trend of atmospheric NO2 content over Romania for the period 1996-2010 for several regions which are generally characterized by different pollutant loadings, resulting from GOME-1, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2 instruments. Satellite results are then compared with ground-based in situ measurements made in industrial and relatively clean areas of one major city in Romania. This twofold approach will help in estimating whether the trend of NO2 obtained by means of data satellite retrievals can be connected with the evolution of national industry and transportation. PMID:24453819

  16. Kappa and regional attenuation for Vrancea (Romania) earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Florin; Vacareanu, Radu

    2015-07-01

    In this short paper, we investigate ground motion recordings from nine intermediate-depth Vrancea (Romania) earthquakes with M w ≥ 5.2 which occurred between 1986 and 2013. From these recordings, the high-frequency spectral decay parameter (kappa) is computed for 57 seismic stations in Romania. The relation between kappa and several parameters (event, source-to-site distance, soil class, geographical region) is evaluated through inversion techniques. The results show a very distinct influence of the earthquake magnitude and of the geographical position on the kappa values. Subsequently, a conventional frequency-dependent Q model of the form Q( f) = 100* f 1.20 is derived from the geometric spreading functions. The proposed Q model and the site specific kappa values represent the basis for future stochastic simulations of ground motions generated by the Vrancea subcrustal seismic source.

  17. The challenges of tobacco control in Romania. Policy review.

    PubMed

    Loubeau, Patricia R

    2013-06-01

    This article investigates elements of tobacco control issues in Romania. Using European Union requirements for tobacco control legislation as a backdrop, it examines the key issues of smuggling, taxation, and unemployment in a transitional economy. Romania has made some progress by adding text and pictorial warnings to cigarette packages and offering comprehensive help to quit smoking. Using empirical examples, it is argued that more progress in tobacco control is needed in the area of increased taxation, enforcement of non-smoking bans, and new legislation requiring advertising bans at point of sale, kiosks, and billboards. This article draws wider public attention to the problems that smuggling and taxation present for tobacco control, helps identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulates effective interventions. PMID:24053066

  18. Tineret Plus-Perseide 2004, an international project in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, V.; Ogescu, D. M.

    2005-02-01

    It is presented the 12th editions of Perseide (Perseids) manifestation organized by SARM, the most important astronomical event in Romania since 1993. Named this year Tineret Plus-Perseide 2004, it had two usually components, the summer astronomical school and the national observing Perseids network and a special tourist program. Over 80~participants attended this event, including observers from the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany.

  19. First report of OXA-72 producing Acinetobacter baumannii in Romania.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, M; Gheorghe, I; Dudu, A; Czobor, I; Costache, M; Cristea, V-C; Lazăr, V; Chifiriuc, M C

    2016-09-01

    This is the first report of an OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter baumannii strain in Romania, isolated from chronic leg ulcer samples. Identification of the strain was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Presence of carbapenem resistance genes was investigated by PCR and sequencing. Our data support the spread of the bla OXA-72 gene in Eastern Europe. PMID:27547405

  20. Heat pump assisted geothermal heating system for Felix Spa, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Rosca, Marcel; Maghiar, Teodor

    1996-01-24

    The paper presents a pre-feasibility type study of a proposed heat pump assisted geothermal heating system for an average hotel in Felix Spa, Romania. After a brief presentation of the geothermal reservoir, the paper gives the methodology and the results of the technical and economical calculations. The technical and economical viability of the proposed system is discussed in detail in the final part of the paper.

  1. Smoke-free politics--lessons to learn for Romania.

    PubMed

    Mihălţan, Florin

    2015-01-01

    Very recently ASH -Global Action for everyone's health 2014 published two lesson on the progress of smoke free regulations in two countries France and Uruguay with all the explanations and comments referring to the results, limits and benefits of different strategies. I am trying to see in comparison with this two examples what we have done and what is necessary to learn in the future for also having in Romania a strong free regulation for smoke free environment. PMID:26509210

  2. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Magdaş, Virginia; Toriay, Hortenzia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sándor, Attila D; Mărcuţan, Daniel Ioan; Domşa, Cristian; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a common vector-borne disease of humans and animals with natural transmission cycle that involves tick vectors, among which Ixodes ricinus is the most important. The present paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of A. phagocytophilum in 10,438 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 113 locations from 40 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by PCR targeting a portion of ankA gene. The overall prevalence of infection was 3.42%, with local prevalences ranging between 0.29% and 22.45%, with an average prevalence of 5.39% in the infected localities. The infection with A. phagocytophilum was detected in 72 out of 113 localities and in 34 out of 40 counties. The highest prevalence was recorded in females followed by males and nymphs. The results and the distribution model have shown a large distribution of A. phagocytophilum, covering Romania's entire territory. This study is the first large scale survey of the presence of A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks from Romania. PMID:25838178

  3. The use of historical topographic maps in the study of forest-cover changes in Southern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imecs, Zoltán; Bartos-Elekes, Zsombor; Timár, Gábor; Magyari-Sáska, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    In the post-communist period the term "deforestation" becomes well known in Romania. By the middle of 19th-century more than 27% of the country was covered by forests, but since then certain changes took place in this respect. The study of the phenomena can be done by the help of maps. In this regard it is very important to have old maps which can emphasize the situation from the past. As the map of Southern Romania, made about Walachia in 1864, called Charta României Meridionale is now georeferenced and accessible on the web, it can be used as a basis for such studies. Researchers are now able to make quantitative studies. In our poster we made a study of two different regions from Southern Romania: one from a mountain region and one from a plain region. Both are in the basin of Argeş river, tributary of Danube. The mountain region lies in the upper basin of Argeş river which is now occupied Vidraru artificial lake. The plain region lies on wetland and today is a natural reserve. The study regions have almost the same size (about 400 km2). In order to follow the evolution in time of the forest cover we used four data sources which covers a period of more than 150 years: Charta României Meridionale (the survey was made between 1855 and 1859); Lambert-Cholesky maps (the survey was made at the end of the 19th century); Gauss-Krüger maps (from the 1960s) and orthophotographs made in 2005. All these materials are georeferenced. With the help of GIS software we digitized the areas covered by forests in both regions. The areas were determined and compared. Using GIS techniques we can overlap the areas covered by forests, the illustrations were made this way. As a conclusion we can say that the plain region suffered important changes as the natural landscape turns into an agricultural-human landscape in the first part of the 20th century. We can say that the actual forest is preserved only because now it is a protected area. In the mountain region the territory was

  4. Geogenic methane emissions in central and eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baciu, Calin; Ionescu, Artur; Pop, Cristian; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: methane, greenhouse gases, geogenic emissions, Romania Relatively often, the hydrocarbon reservoirs are not completely sealed, thus permitting the channeling to the surface of various amounts of gas, mainly consisting of methane and homologues. When important volumes of gas are released, features as mud volcanoes and everlasting fires may occur. When the gas amount is low, the degassing can be revealed by instrumental means only. The gas seeps may be useful as indicators in the hydrocarbon exploration, but may be also hazardous when gas is accumulating in closed spaces. Additionally, the geogenic methane degassing represents an important contribution to the atmospheric budget of greenhouse gases. Romania is one of the European important hydrocarbon producers, with oil and gas deposits in different geologic and tectonic contexts. As well, the frequency of gas emitting features and seepage areas is high. Some relevant hydrocarbon-prone areas from Romania, namely the Neogene Transylvanian Basin, the Carpathian Foredeep, and the Moldavian Platform, are comparatively analysed within the current work from the point of view of methane emissions. The Carpathian Foredeep hosts the most impressive mud volcanoes and everlasting fires in Romania, classified among the biggest in Europe. The degassing area also extends in the Carpathian Flysch zone. The Transylvanian Basin hosts numerous gas-bearing structures, mainly of biogenic origin. With some exceptions, the methane-emitting features are small, releasing relatively low amounts of gas. A relatively high number of seeps have been described on the Moldavian Platform, although no commercial hydrocarbon reservoirs have been identified. The seeps are small, and they are releasing low amounts of methane. However, it is important to notice that the investigated zone partly corresponds to an area of interest for shale gas, related to the deep-seated Silurian shales. For all mentioned areas, the main geochemical

  5. 77 FR 50465 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (small diameter seamless pipe) from Romania.\\1... Order: Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania... Corporation (the petitioner) alleged that AMTP made sales of small diameter seamless pipe from Romania...

  6. 77 FR 67336 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania... diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. See Certain Small... Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania, 65 FR 48963 (August...

  7. Radon and remediation measures near Băiţa-Ştei old uranium mine (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosma, Constantin; Cucoş, Alexandra; Papp, Botond; Begy, Robert; Dicu, Tiberiu; Moldovan, Mircea; Truţă, Lucia; Niţă, Dan; Burghele, Bety-Denissa; Suciu, Liviu; Sainz, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Băiţa-Ştei mine is an open pit mine in NW Romania (West Carpathian Mountains). It was the largest surface uranium deposit in the world. Two means of uranium transport and dissemination were used over time. The first was the natural way, represented by transportation of geological sediments by Crişul-Băiţa River that crosses the Băiţa surface deposit. These sediments were used as building materials (stone, gravel, sand). The second way was related to the people living in this valley, who used also the uranium waste as building material. The preliminary indoor radon concentrations measured in the buildings ranged from 40 to 4000 Bq m-3 with a mean value of 241 Bq m-3. A focused radon survey facilitated the selection of 20 houses with the highest indoor radon that were therefore proposed for remediation. To find the radon sources of these houses, systematic investigations on radon were performed. The remedial measures for these 20 houses were tested on a chosen pilot house.

  8. 78 FR 2709 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Romania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... 23, 1968 (33 FR 15679). In 2010, Romania instituted a new unitary public pension law that entered... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-- Romania AGENCY: Social...

  9. Scholastic Attainment Following Severe Early Institutional Deprivation: A Study of Children Adopted from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Celia; Maughan, Barbara; Rutter, Michael; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Kreppner, Jana; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between severe early institutional deprivation and scholastic attainment at age 11 in 127 children (68 girls and 59 boys) adopted from institutions in Romania was compared to the attainment of 49 children (17 girls and 32 boys) adopted within the UK from a non-institutional background. Overall, children adopted from Romania had…

  10. Higher Education in Romania: Evolution and Views from the Business Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolescu, Luminita

    2003-01-01

    Describes the evolution of higher education in Romania after 1990 and presents the results of a survey concerning the relationship between higher education and the business community in Romania. The survey had as its main objective to analyze the evolution and performance of graduates, from both private and state universities, in the labor market,…

  11. First identification of Trichinella sp. in golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Romania.

    PubMed

    Blaga, R; Gherman, C; Seucom, D; Cozma, V; Boireau, P

    2008-04-01

    Larvae of Trichinella sp. were identified in a golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Romania by both trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion. The larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction biotyping method. This is the first report of Trichinella sp. in a jackal in Romania. PMID:18436679

  12. Flood Monitoring and Forecasting in the Upper-Tisza River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Z.; Gauzer, B.; Konecsny, K.

    2003-04-01

    The Upper-Tisza river basin is shared by four nations: Ukraine, Romania, Slovakia and Hungary. The river itself is the frontier along several kilometres between Ukraine and Romania and between Ukraine and Hungary. All benefits and all problems a river can cause are also shared by the four nations. The river basin experienced catastrophic floods four times in 28 months between November 1998 and March 2001. Each flood surpassed the previous one in magnitude, reaching heights and causing damages bigger than ever before. At the beginning of March 2001 the highest ever flood occurred in the Transcarpathian region in Ukraine. Flood stages exceeded all previous maximums. Flood protection levees were breached at many sites both in Ukraine and in Hungary, causing enormous economic loss and even demanding human lives. The European Union started flood monitoring projects under the PHARE CBC program in Romania and initial steps were taken under TACIS in Ukraine. The Danish Government together with the Slovakian Government is busy with similar purposes on the northern tributaries. NATO responded by setting up a project with the aim of preparing a comprehensive assessment report on flood problems and proposed measures to improve the efficiency of flood management in Ukraine. The first results of a modular flood forecasting system are reported.

  13. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mouth of the Amazon River     View Larger Image ... over 6450 kilometers eastward across Brazil, the Amazon River originates in the Peruvian Andes as tiny mountain streams that eventually ...

  14. Dr. Lenke Horvath (1917-1991): Creator of Pediatric Neurosurgery in Romania.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dumitru; Moisa, Horatiu Alexandru; Nica, Dan Aurel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad

    2016-04-01

    The development of neurosurgery as an independent specialty took place with great difficulty in Romania. In this respect, the most revered personalities are those of Professor Alexandru Moruzzi (1900-1957) (in Iasi) and Professor Dimitrie Bagdasar (1893-1946) (in Bucharest), who are the fathers of modern neurosurgery in Romania. Professor Bagdasar was schooled in Professor Harvey Cushing's clinic in Boston and is credited with creating the first completely independent neurosurgical unit in Romania. His legacy was carried on with honor by Professor Constantin Arseni (1912-1994), who, in 1975, tasked Dr. Lenke Horvath (1917-1991) with creating the first autonomous pediatric neurosurgery unit in Bucharest. This article is a small tribute to the founder of pediatric neurosurgery in Romania and one of the female pioneer neurosurgeons, who, by personal example of dedication and hard work, radically changed medical thinking and neurosurgery in Romania. PMID:26211853

  15. Nile River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Nile River Fluctuations Near Khartoum, Sudan     ... history, the rising and falling waters of the mighty Nile River have directly impacted the lives of the people who live along its banks. ... the area around Sudan's capital city of Khartoum capture the river's dynamic nature. Acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ...

  16. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Mississippi River Flooding during Spring 2001     ... South TIFF: 1024 x 724 The Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico is ... 2348 miles long. Over the course of it's history, the mighty river has flooded many times. The largest flood recorded in the lower valley ...

  17. Niger River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Niger River after the Rainy Season     View larger image The third largest river in Africa, the Niger, forms an inland delta in central Mali. This ... is situated near the top of the image, where the Niger River changes direction to flow more directly eastward. Six hundred years ago, ...

  18. The regime of sediment transport in the Soloneţ Catchment (Romania): quantification of the controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niga, Bogdan; Obreja, Florin; Robu, Delia; Rǎdoane, Maria

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on the regime of sediment transportation to the river mouth of a catchment of 206 km2, located on the easternmost side of the Eastern Carpathians (NE Romania). The primary aim of the paper is to attempt a quantification of the catchment controlling factors of the sediment volume transited through the drainage network and their annual and multi-annual distribution. Among these factors we will focus on the role of sediment sources and human interventions in the mobilization of sediments towards rivers. The data employed in this study were obtained from the Parhauti gauging station (1973 to 2014), located at a distance of about 1.7 km from the confluence of the Solonet River with the Suceava River. These are represented of measurements of water discharge, suspended sediment discharge (hourly or daily measurements during flash flood intervals) and monthly values. The data were correlated with records on rainfall, local slope and morphological characteristics of the river crosssection. For a more detailed analysis we introduced a further comparison with records obtained at other gauging stations, located within the same physical-geographical settings, in neighboring catchments. Regarding our study catchment, investigations were performed on all variables that control flow formation and sediment load of water flows, i.e. geologic substrate, landforms, catchment morphometry, characteristics of the drainage network, land use, types of human interventions in the catchment area and on the river network. The average drainage network density equals ca. 2.5 km / km2, ranging from less than 1 km / km2 at the watershed, to the maximum of over 4 km / km2 recorded at the cuesta frontslopes. The multi-annual average amount of suspended sediment transport is 3.06 kg / s. Suspended sediment transport occurs most intensely during summer (months VI-VIII), (59.8%) as a result of floods which enhance the power of the river. During winter months (XII-II), sediment

  19. Carbon implications of forest restitution in post-socialist Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, P.; Kuemmerle, T.; Griffiths, P.; Knorn, J.; Baccini, A.; Gancz, V.; Blujdea, V.; Houghton, R. A.; Abrudan, I. V.; Woodcock, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    The collapse of socialism in 1989 triggered a phase of institutional restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe. Several countries chose to privatize forests or to return them to pre-socialist owners. Here, we assess the implications of forest restitution on the terrestrial carbon balance. New forest owners have strong incentives to immediately clearcut their forests, resulting in increased terrestrial emissions. On the other hand, logging generally decreased after 1989 and forests are expanding on unused or abandoned farmland, both of which may offset increased logging on restituted forests. We mapped changes in forest cover for the entire country of Romania using Landsat satellite images from 1990 to 2010. We use our satellite estimates, together with historic data on logging rates and changes in forest cover, to parameterize a carbon book-keeping model for estimating the terrestrial carbon flux (above and below ground) as a consequence of land use change and forest harvest. High logging rates during socialism resulted in substantial terrestrial carbon emissions and Romania was a net carbon source until the 1980s. After the collapse of the Soviet Union forest harvest rates decreased dramatically, but since restitution laws were implemented they have increased by 60% (from 15 122 ± 5397 ha y - 1 in 2000 to 23 884 ± 11 510 ha y - 1 in 2010), but still remain lower than prior to 1989. Romania currently remains a terrestrial carbon sink, offsetting 7.6% ± 2.5% of anthropogenic carbon emissions. A further increase in logging could result in net emissions from terrestrial ecosystems during the coming decades. However, forest expansion on degraded land and abandoned farmland offers great potential for carbon sequestration.

  20. Earthquake early warning for Romania - most recent improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmureanu, Alexandru; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo; Cioflan, Carmen; Toader, Victorin; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Marius Craiu, George; Ionescu, Constantin

    2014-05-01

    EWS for Vrancea earthquakes uses the time interval (28-32 sec.) between the moment when the earthquake is detected by the local seismic network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area (Bucharest) to send earthquake warning to users. In the last years, National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) upgraded its seismic network in order to cover better the seismic zones of Romania. Currently the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) operates a real-time seismic network designed to monitor the seismic activity on the Romania territory, dominated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth (60-200 km) earthquakes. The NIEP real-time network consists of 102 stations and two seismic arrays equipped with different high quality digitizers (Kinemetrics K2, Quanterra Q330, Quanterra Q330HR, PS6-26, Basalt), broadband and short period seismometers (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T,STS2, SH-1, S13, Ranger, gs21, Mark l22) and acceleration sensors (Episensor). Recent improvement of the seismic network and real-time communication technologies allows implementation of a nation-wide EEWS for Vrancea and other seismic sources from Romania. We present a regional approach to Earthquake Early Warning for Romania earthquakes. The regional approach is based on PRESTo (Probabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) software platform: PRESTo processes in real-time three channel acceleration data streams: once the P-waves arrival have been detected, it provides earthquake location and magnitude estimations, and peak ground motion predictions at target sites. PRESTo is currently implemented in real- time at National Institute for Earth Physics, Bucharest for several months in parallel with a secondary EEWS. The alert notification is issued only when both systems validate each other. Here we present the results obtained using offline earthquakes originating from Vrancea area together with several real

  1. Use of GIS Technology in Surface Water Monitoring fro Targeted Policy Intervention in a Mountainous Catchment in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giali, Gabriela; Schneider, Petra

    2015-04-01

    USE OF GIS TECHNOLOGY IN SURFACE WATER MONITORING FOR TARGETED POLICY INTERVENTION IN A MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENT IN ROMANIA The collection of information on surface water quality is a specific activity that takes place systematically and regularly at regional and national scale, and it is important for the assessment of the water quality as well as for water management policy-making. A data base information management using a Geographical Information System (GIS) forms an important aspect of environmental management, which provides the frame for processing and visualisation of water monitoring data and information as well as for the optimisation of monitoring concepts. This paper presents an architecture performed by a GIS which provides a grafic database and attributes the nesessary measurements of the water quality to different sections of the mountainous catchment of the Suceava river in the north of Romania. With this approach the location of the water sampling points can be optimised in terms of the selection and setting of the river sections. To facilitate the setting of the sampling locations in the various sections of water sampling in the river, the presented GIS system provides to the user different information layers with combined or isolated data according to the objectives. In the frame of the research were created 5 layers of information in the basin under study, underlying the determination of a new information layer, namely the "Hydrografic Network Graded to Hydrographic Sections". Practically, in the studied basin were established 8 sections for water sampling locations, and the water quality characterization was done by the consideration of 15 quality indicators. The GIS system presented in this research is a valuable, useful and adaptable to land use changes data base that can be exploited by any number of combinations, its capabilities justify it's role as "tool to support decision making." With this characteristics it supports the policy-making of

  2. Observed variability of drought and aridity and its impact on the hydrological regime in the Barlad catchment (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borcan, Mihaela; Cheval, Sorin; Chendes, Viorel

    2015-04-01

    The drought is a complex phenomenon with slow manifestation which engages, depending on its duration and intensity, a number of different components of the climatic, hydrologic, pedologic systems. This paper investigates the relationships between drought and aridity on one hand and hydrological regime, on the other hand, in Bârlad river basin, in the eastern part of Romania. Recent studies have revealed that both meteorological and hydrological drought events have a significant frequency and magnitude in the area, so that an important impact on the hydrological regime is likely to occur. For the next decades, climate change scenarios estimate increasing temperatures and relatively low decreasing of precipitation. Therefore, eventual changes in the aridity characteristics can be expected, and they might have a considerable impact on the water supply or agriculture in the Bârlad catchment. The analysis covers the period 1961-2013 and it is based on monthly data from meteorological and hydrological stations. Seasonal indices were calculated for characterising the drought (SPI, SFI, PDSI, PHDI) and aridity (UNEP, de Martonne, Pinna), while their temporal variability was further investigated in relations with specific hydrological parameters (monthly discharge time series). The spatial distribution of the selected indices was analysed in the same context using co-variables integrated in a GIS framework. The results show that the hydrological drought is influenced and determined mostly by the meteorological drought. The highest variability between the aridity indices has been identified for the summer season, where the time lag between the hydrological response to the meteorological impulse is up to 2 months. The work has been financed by the research project Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania (CLIMHYDEX), Cod PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, sponsored by the National Authority for Scientific Research.

  3. Flood plain analysis for Petris, , Troas, and Monoros, tia watersheds, the Arad department, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Győri, M.-M.; Haidu, I.

    2012-04-01

    The present study sets out to determine the flood plains corresponding to flood discharges having 10, 50 and 100 year recurrence intervals on the Monoroštia, Petriš and Troaš Rivers, located in Western Romania, the Arad department. The data of the study area is first collected and pre-processed in ArcGIS. It consists of land use data, soil data, the DEM, stream gauges' and meteorological stations' locations, on the basis of which the watersheds' hydrologic parameters' are computed using the Geospatial Hydrologic Modelling Extension (HEC Geo-HMS). HEC Geo-HMS functions as an interface between ArcGIS and HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Centre- Hydrologic Modelling System) and converts the data collected and generated in ArcGIS to data useable by HEC-HMS. The basin model component in HEC-HMS represents the physical watershed. It facilitates the effective rainfall computation on the basis of the input hyetograph, passing the results to a transform function that converts the excess precipitation into runoff at the subwatersheds' outlet. This enables the estimation and creation of hydrographs for the ungauged watersheds. In the present study, the results are achieved through the SCS CN loss method and the SCS Unit hydrograph transform method. The simulations use rainfall data that is registered at the stations situated in the catchments' vicinity, data that spans over two decades (1989-2009) and which allows the rainfall hyetographs to be determined for the above mentioned return periods. The model will be calibrated against measured streamflow data from the gauging stations on the main rivers, leading to the adjustment of watershed parameters, such as the CN parameter. As the flood discharges for 10, 50 and 100 year return periods have been determined, the profile of the water surface elevation along the channel will be computed through a steady flow analysis, with HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Centre- River Analysis System). For each of the flood frequencies, a

  4. Web-GIS platform for green infrastructure in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sercaianu, Mihai; Petrescu, Florian; Aldea, Mihaela; Oana, Luca; Rotaru, George

    2015-06-01

    In the last decade, reducing urban pollution and improving quality of public spaces became a more and more important issue for public administration authorities in Romania. The paper describes the development of a web-GIS solution dedicated to monitoring of the green infrastructure in Bucharest, Romania. Thus, the system allows the urban residents (citizens) to collect themselves and directly report relevant information regarding the current status of the green infrastructure of the city. Consequently, the citizens become an active component of the decision-support process within the public administration. Besides the usual technical characteristics of such geo-information processing systems, due to the complex legal and organizational problems that arise in collecting information directly from the citizens, additional analysis was required concerning, for example, local government involvement, environmental protection agencies regulations or public entities requirements. Designing and implementing the whole information exchange process, based on the active interaction between the citizens and public administration bodies, required the use of the "citizen-sensor" concept deployed with GIS tools. The information collected and reported from the field is related to a lot of factors, which are not always limited to the city level, providing the possibility to consider the green infrastructure as a whole. The "citizen-request" web-GIS for green infrastructure monitoring solution is characterized by a very diverse urban information, due to the fact that the green infrastructure itself is conditioned by a lot of urban elements, such as urban infrastructures, urban infrastructure works and construction density.

  5. Validation and Upscaling of Soil Moisture Satellite Products in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandric, I.; Diamandi, A.; Oana, N.; Saizu, D.; Vasile, C.; Lucaschi, B.

    2016-06-01

    The study presents the validation of SMOS soil moisture satellite products for Romania. The validation was performed with in-situ measurements spatially distributed over the country and with in-situ measurements concentrated in on small area. For country level a number of 20 stations from the national meteorological observations network in Romania were selected. These stations have in-situ measurements for soil moisture in the first 5 cm of the soil surface. The stations are more or less distributed in one pixel of SMOS, but it has the advantage that covers almost all the country with a wide range of environmental conditions. Additionally 10 mobile soil moisture measurements stations were acquired and installed. These are spatially concentrated in one SMOS pixel in order to have a more detailed validation against the soil type, soil texture, land surface temperature and vegetation type inside one pixel. The results were compared and analyzed for each day, week, season, soil type, and soil texture and vegetation type. Minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation were extracted and analyzed for each validation criteria and a hierarchy of those were performed. An upscaling method based on the relations between soil moisture, land surface temperature and vegetation indices was tested and implemented. The study was financed by the Romanian Space Agency within the framework of ASSIMO project http://assimo.meteoromania.ro.

  6. Climatic significance of stable isotopes in precipitation from western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ersek, Vasile; Onac, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    The oxygen and deuterium (δ18O and δD) isotopic composition of meteoric precipitation has been used as proxy to advance our understanding of past and present atmospheric circulation. Precipitation δ18O is a primary control on cave speleothem δ18O which is one of the main methods used to reconstruct past climatic variability on a variety of timescales. Here we present δ18O and δD in precipitation and cave drip waters from Urşilor Cave located in the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania in order to better understand the relationship between climate and speleothem δ18O at this site. Samples of weekly precipitation and cave drip water (4-day intervals) were collected between July 2010 and June 2011. In order to draw robust palaeoclimatic information from speleothems at Ursilor Cave we aim to establish the climatic controls on δ18O composition of precipitation in western Romania and determine the source of air masses delivering moisture at our site. Furthermore, we evaluate the extent to which any climatic signature is preserved in the drip waters from which the speleothem calcite precipitates.

  7. Regional variability of extreme rainfall events in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breza, Traian; Cheval, Sorin; Baciu, Madalina; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Antonescu, Bogdan; Burcea, Sorin

    2010-05-01

    Extreme rainfall events triggering flash floods occur quite often over the territory of Romania, leaving behind significant damages and casualties. This research is a contribution to the FP6 Project HYDRATE (Hydrometeorological data resources and technologies for effective flash flood forecasting). It aims at investigating the spatial patterns of the extreme rainfall events in Romania, based on the characteristics of their intensity-duration-frequency (IDF). The study uses the peak-over-threshold concept, which basically consists of analyzing all precipitation amounts above certain thresholds selected for different durations. The data come from 60 weather stations. They cover the warm interval (generally, April-October, but less extended for mountain stations), and at least 30 years-datasets have been used. The regional differences were retrieved from the IDF curves and they were also approached by GIS-based mapping the intensities corresponding to sub-daily durations (5 - 180 min.) and to different return periods (10,50, 100 years). The results highlight significant regional variations, that improve the understanding of the impact of the extreme rainfall events and the consequent flash floods on the natural and social environment. At the same time, overlapping the extreme rainfall data and land cover information, we have empahsized the hazard potential of the precipitation events.

  8. Hand, foot and mouth disease--outbreak in Romania?

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Foia, Liliana; Chiriac, Anca; Nanescu, Sonia; Filip, Florina; Solovan, C; Gorduza, E V

    2013-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral illness usually occurring during the summer months in children younger than 5 years of age. In the North-East area of Romania the incidence is usually low, each dermatologist reporting 1-2 cases or even less per year. The diagnosis is usually based on the characteristic clinical aspect: vesicles and papules on the hands and feet and superficial oral ulcers. HFMD is typically a benign and self-limiting disease that resolves in approximately 7 days; in Asia there have been few reported severe cases that developed neurological complications and even death, while in certain areas of China this disease is a more and more serious public health problem. In the summer of 2012 in North-East Romania numerous cases of disease have been reported, some with atypical clinical manifestations and most of them with mild or moderate forms of disease. The present article is a discussion on one of these cases. The diagnosis was made based on lesions location and clinical appearance. An outbreak of HFMD should be confirmed by virology tests. PMID:24505914

  9. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... the Rio Solimoes and the Rio Negro converge to form the Amazon River. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... date:  Jul 23, 2000 Images:  Amazon River location:  South America thumbnail:  ...

  10. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... View Larger Image The mighty Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca, Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico, is ... heavy rainfall on areas traversed by the upper Mississippi River. Each image in this pair covers an identical 195-kilometer x ...

  11. A Short Cultural-Astronomical History on Asteroids, Comets and Meteors in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, V.; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    The poster presents significant moments in astronomy history and culture of meteors, comets and asteroids in Romania and the modern role of the Romanian Society for Meteors and Astronomy (SARM) in research, education, and culture in these fields.

  12. Stable isotope evidence for shifting Mediterranean climatic influences in Western Romania, East-Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, Aurel; Viorica, Nagavciuc; Carmen, Bădăluţă

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation, preserved in various sedimentary archives (speleothems, cave ice, tree rings) is being intensively used to reconstruct past climatic variability in western Romania. These studies heavily rely on the assumption that air temperature is the main factor controlling the isotopic composition of precipitation and hence this climatic parameter is the one reconstructed. However, ongoing monitoring studies are increasingly showing that this, especially along Romania's western border, moisture source is playing an important role in determining the isotopic composition of precipitation, hence complicating the simplistic picture outlined above. One of the main factors influencing climate variability in Romania is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a measure of the strength of the Icelandic Low and Azores High. Over During the positive NAO phase, the Atlantic storms are displaced northward and, although reduced in strength, Mediterranean cyclones penetrate further north. During the negative phase however, the Atlantic storms track is displaced southward, restricting the area receiving Mediterranean precipitation to the SW corner of Romania. Here we present isotopic evidence for a shift in the source of precipitation from North Atlantic to Mediterranean ones in SW Romania that masks the temperature signal recorded in the stable isotopic composition of precipitation. Between April 2012 and 2014 we have collected monthly samples of precipitation along a N-S transect in Western Romania and have analyzed them for their δ18O and δ2H. Precipitation in NW Romania are derived solely from North Atlantic sources, while those in SW Romania mix moisture evaporated from both the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. The northern boundary of the Mediterranean influence is shifting in phase with the NAO index and the position of the jet-stream. As a result, during periods with high NAO index, the stable isotope

  13. Site characterization for LIL radioactive waste disposal in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Diaconu, D. R.; Birdsell, K. H.; Witkowski, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies in radioactive waste management in Romania have focussed mainly on the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of the new nuclear power plant at Cernavoda. Following extensive geological, hydrological, seismological, physical and chemical investigations, a disposal site at Saligny has been selected. This paper presents description of the site at Saligny as well as the most important results of the site characterisation. These are reflected in the three-dimensional, stratigraphical representation of the loess and clay layers and in representative parameter values for the main layers. Based on these data, the simulation of the background, unsaturated-zone water flow at the Saligny site, calculated by the FEHM code, is in a good agreement with the measured moisture profile.

  14. Vermiculation patterns in Coiba Mare cave, Bihor Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Guja, Ovidiu; Stefanescu, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Vermiculation patterns developing on cave surfaces are certainly a spectacular feature. Sometimes vermiculation cover hundreds of square meters, like for example in Coiba Mare cave, which is situated in the Bihor Mountains, Romania. The Coiba Mare Cave is located at 1020 m altitude, on the Gardisoara Valley, not far from the Casa de Piatra Hamlet, in the Apuseni Natural Park (Bihor Mountains) situated in the western part of Romania. The first written document concerning the cave dates back to 1929, when R. Jeannel and E. Racovitza presented a brief description. Speleological investigations, which were started by I. Viehmann, D. Coman and M. Bleahu in 1953, were continued by several speleological clubs during 1975-1976. In this study, we are investigating the mineralogy, stable isotope distribution and patterns of vermiculations in the Coiba Mare cave. Material from the vermiculations developed on cave wall was analysed using Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive analyses (EDS). The material consists mainly of calcite with traces of quartz, muscovite, chlinochlore, kaolinite, potassium feldspar and organic material. In Coiba Mare, the general look of the vermiculation pattern is that of a "pelli de leopardo" (Leopard's spots), a term used by Bini et al. (1978) for large vermiculations composed of clay. In the light of previous literature and according, to the own field and laboratory data a mechanism responsible for the formation of vermiculations is proposed. Evaporation and water film rupture cause the concentration of the loose particles. Evaporation is also associated with the formation of calcite microcrystals at the water-air interface. Concentration of the particle in vermiculations patterns and crystallisation is the result of evaporation and shrinking water spots.

  15. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01

    Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Background Noise Characteristics in the Western Part of Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, B.; Neagoe, C.; Tataru, D.; Stuart, G.

    2012-04-01

    The seismological database of the western part of Romania increased significantly during the last years, when 33 broadband seismic stations provided by SEIS-UK (10 CMG 40 T's - 30 s, 9 CMG 3T's - 120 s, 14 CMG 6T's - 30 s) were deployed in the western part of the country in July 2009 to operate autonomously for two years. These stations were installed within a joint project (South Carpathian Project - SCP) between University of Leeds, UK and National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania that aimed at determining the lithospheric structure and geodynamical evolution of the South Carpathian Orogen. The characteristics of the background seismic noise recorded at the SCP broadband seismic network have been studied in order to identify the variations in background seismic noise as a function of time of day, season, and particular conditions at the stations. Power spectral densities (PSDs) and their corresponding probability density functions (PDFs) are used to characterize the background seismic noise. At high frequencies (> 1 Hz), seismic noise seems to have cultural origin, since notable variations between daytime and nighttime noise levels are observed at most of the stations. The seasonal variations are seen in the microseisms band. The noise levels increase during the winter and autumn months and decrease in summer and spring seasons, while the double-frequency peak shifts from lower periods in summer to longer periods in winter. The analysis of the probability density functions for stations located in different geologic conditions points out that the noise level is higher for stations sited on softer formations than those sited on hard rocks. Finally, the polarization analysis indicates that the main sources of secondary microseisms are found in the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean.

  17. River Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auldridge, Teresa; And Others

    The James River is one of the most precious resources of Virginia. It was the site of the first permanent English settlement in the New World; the power of the water at the Fall Zone was a major factor in the development of Richmond; and the river served as a primary transportation route to the West via the Kanawha Canal. Both the water itself and…

  18. Temporal and spatial distributions of δ18O and δ2H in precipitation in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagavciuc, Viorica; Bădăluță, Carmen-Andreea; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope ratios of meteoric water have an important role in climatic, paleoclimatic, hydrological and meteorological studies. While such data are available from most of Europe, so far, in Romania (East Central Europe), no systematic study of the stable isotopic composition of precipitation exists. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyze the isotopic composition of rainwater, its temporal and spatial distribution, the identification of the main factors influencing these variations and the creation of the first map of spatial distribution of stable isotopes in precipitation in Romania. Between March 2012 and March 2014 we have collected monthly samples from 22 stations in Romania, which were subsequently analyzed for their δ18O and δ2H at the Stable Isotopes Laboratory, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava, Romania. Precipitation in W and NW Romania plot along the GMWL, while those in the East are slightly below it, on an evaporative trend. The LMWL for Romania is defined as δ2H=7,27*δ18O + 6,92. The W-E gradient in the distribution of δ18O and δ2H are less marked than the N-S ones, with local influences dominating in areas of strong evaporation (intramountain basins, rain-shadow areas etc). In SW, and especially in autumn and winter, Meditteranean cyclones carry moisture from the Eastern Mediterranean, the δ18O and δ2H values in precipitation in the area plotting between the GMWL and the Eastern Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line. The isotopic composition of rainwater in Romania correlates well with air temperature, and is influenced to a lesser extent by other factors such as the amount of precipitation, topography configuration, the effect of continentalism and season of the year.

  19. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  20. Impacts of Climate Change on Agricultural Technology Management in the Transylvanian Plain, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Bogdan, Ileana; Ioan Pop, Adrian; Cacovean, Horea

    2013-04-01

    The impact of climate changes varies considerably in Europe, with different degrees of vulnerability. Romania is situated in an area with the lowest capacity to adapt to existing climate change and those that will occur, and the Transylvanian Plain (TP) is one of the most affected areas. In these conditions, the climate monitoring and implementation of measures to adapt to these changes are essential for sustainable development of agricultural technologies. The TP name comes from the Latin "silva" which means forest, namely an area covered with forests approximately 55-60% in the early nineteenth century, but today reached an average of 6.8% in the TP area. In time, the rugged terrain, deforestation, erosive slopes, and irrational agro technical practices for crop production altogether brought about the degradation of large areas of agricultural land, reducing its productivity. The degree of soil degradation in TP and climate change in recent years, have radically modified climatic conditions for cultural crops. Monitoring of temperature and water supply in TP aims to evaluate these two resources for agricultural production. The TP is a geographical region located in north-central Romania and it is bordered by large rivers to the north and south: the Somes and the Mures rivers. The altitude of the TP ranges from 231 to 662 m. TP, with an area of approx. 395,616 ha, includes areas of three counties (Cluj - CJ, Mures -MS, Bistrita-Nasaud - BN), has a predominantly agricultural character, and is characterized by hilly climate with oceanic influences, 9-100C average annual temperatures and 500-700 mm/year average annual precipitations. Monitoring the thermal and water supplies from TP was performed with twenty HOBO micro stations which determine the temperature (to a height of 1 m) and rainfalls same as temperature (at 10, 30, 50 cm depth in soil) and soil moisture (at 10 cm depth). Average precipitation recorded during 2009-2011, is 498.97 mm, which is beneath the

  1. Impacts of Climate Change on Agricultural Technology Management in the Transylvanian Plain, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Bogdan, Ileana; Ioan Pop, Adrian; Cacovean, Horea

    2013-04-01

    The impact of climate changes varies considerably in Europe, with different degrees of vulnerability. Romania is situated in an area with the lowest capacity to adapt to existing climate change and those that will occur, and the Transylvanian Plain (TP) is one of the most affected areas. In these conditions, the climate monitoring and implementation of measures to adapt to these changes are essential for sustainable development of agricultural technologies. The TP name comes from the Latin "silva" which means forest, namely an area covered with forests approximately 55-60% in the early nineteenth century, but today reached an average of 6.8% in the TP area. In time, the rugged terrain, deforestation, erosive slopes, and irrational agro technical practices for crop production altogether brought about the degradation of large areas of agricultural land, reducing its productivity. The degree of soil degradation in TP and climate change in recent years, have radically modified climatic conditions for cultural crops. Monitoring of temperature and water supply in TP aims to evaluate these two resources for agricultural production. The TP is a geographical region located in north-central Romania and it is bordered by large rivers to the north and south: the Somes and the Mures rivers. The altitude of the TP ranges from 231 to 662 m. TP, with an area of approx. 395,616 ha, includes areas of three counties (Cluj - CJ, Mures -MS, Bistrita-Nasaud - BN), has a predominantly agricultural character, and is characterized by hilly climate with oceanic influences, 9-100C average annual temperatures and 500-700 mm/year average annual precipitations. Monitoring the thermal and water supplies from TP was performed with twenty HOBO micro stations which determine the temperature (to a height of 1 m) and rainfalls same as temperature (at 10, 30, 50 cm depth in soil) and soil moisture (at 10 cm depth). Average precipitation recorded during 2009-2011, is 498.97 mm, which is beneath the

  2. Seismo-acoustic analysis of thunderstorms at Plostina (Romania) site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Ghica, Daniela; Moldovan, Iren; Ionescu, Constantin

    2013-04-01

    The National Institute for Earth Physics (Romania) operates one of the largest seismic networks in the Eastern Europe. The network includes 97 stations with velocity sensors of which 52 are broadband and 45 are short period, 102 strong motion stations and 8 seismic observatories. Located in the most active seismic region of Romania, i.e. Vrancea area, the Plostina Observatory included initially two seismic stations, one at surface with both broadband and accelerometer sensors and one at 30 m depth with only short period velocity sensor. Starting with 2007, the facilities at Plostina have been upgraded so that at present, the observatory also includes one seismic array (PLOR) of seven elements (PLOR1, PLOR2, PLOR3, PLOR4, PLOR5, PLOR6, PLOR7) with an aperture of 2.5 km, seven infrasound elements (IPL2, IPL3, IPL4, IPH4, IPH5, IPH6, IPH7), two three-component fluxgate sensors, one Boltek EFM-100 electrometer and one La Crosse weather station. The element PLOR4 is co-located with the accelerometer and borehole sensor, two infrasonic elements (IPL4 and IPH4), one fluxgate sensor, the Boltek electrometer and the weather station. All the date are continuously recorded and real-time transmitted to the Romanian National Data Centre (RONDC) in Magurele. The recent developments at Plostina site made possible the improvement of the local miscroseismic activity monitoring as well as conducting of other geophysical studies such as acoustic measurements, observations of the variation of the magnetic field in correlation with solar activity, observations of the variation of radioactive alpha gases concentration, observations of the telluric currents. In this work, we investigate the signals emitted due to the process of lightning and thunder during thunderstorms activity at Plostina site. These signals are well recorded by both seismic and infrasound networks and they are used to perform spectral and specific array analyses. We also perform multiple correlations between the

  3. Research Reactor Preparations for the Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin; C. Paunoiu; M. Ciocanescu

    2010-03-01

    In June 2009 two air shipments transported both unirradiated (fresh) and irradiated (spent) Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from two research reactors in Romania to the Russian Federation for conversion to low enriched uranium. The Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti (SCN Pitesti) shipped 30.1 kg of HEU fresh fuel pellets to Dimitrovgrad, Russia and the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) shipped 23.7 kilograms of HEU spent fuel assemblies from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both HEU shipments were coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), were managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), and were conducted in cooperation with the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Both shipments were transported by truck to and from respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at secure nuclear facilities in Russia until the material is converted into low enriched uranium. These shipments resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the research reactor preparations and license approvals that were necessary to safely and securely complete these air shipments of nuclear fuel.

  4. Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin

    2010-07-01

    Romania safely air shipped 23.7 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This was the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in a Type B(U) cask under existing international laws without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. This shipment was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in cooperation with the Romania National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), and the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom. The shipment was transported by truck to and from the respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at a secure nuclear facility in Russia where it will be converted into low enriched uranium. With this shipment, Romania became the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the work, equipment, and approvals that were required to complete this spent fuel air shipment.

  5. Picophytoplankton predominance in hypersaline lakes (Transylvanian Basin, Romania).

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Boglárka; Vörös, Lajos; Pálffy, Károly; Székely, Gyöngyi; Bartha, Csaba; Keresztes, Zsolt Gyula

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence and importance of photoautotrophic picoplankton (PPP, cells with a diameter <2 μm) was studied along a trophic and salinity gradient in hypersaline lakes of the Transylvanian Basin (Romania). The studied lakes were found to be rich in PPP, with abundances (maximum 7.6 × 10(6) cells mL(-1)) higher than in freshwater and marine environments of similar trophic conditions. The contribution of PPP to the total phytoplankton biovolume did not decrease with increasing trophic state as it was generally found in other aquatic environments. Regardless of the trophic conditions, the contribution of PPP could reach 90-100 % in these hypersaline lakes. We hypothesized that the PPP predominance might be the result of the low grazing pressure, since heterotrophic nanoflagellates (the main grazers of PPP) were absent in the studied samples. There were significant differences in community composition among the lakes along the salinity gradient. CyPPP predominated in less saline waters (mainly below 5 %), while EuPPP were present along the entire salinity range (up to 18.7 %), dominating the phytoplankton between 3 and 13 % salinity. Above 13 % salinity, the phytoplankton was composed mainly of Dunaliella species. PMID:25116056

  6. Romania program targets methanol and Fischer-Tropsch research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Currently, the chemical organic industry, the petrochemical and engine fuels industry in Romania are entirely based on hydrocarbons from oil. To reduce the oil dependence of this sector and to ensure the stipulated growth rate of 8-9%, research and development programs have been set up with a view to the diversification of raw materials. In research on hydrocarbons from alcohol conversion, three process variants are known, i.e. olefins from methanol, gasolines from methanol and a combined gasolines and aromatic hydrocarbons from methanol. The Romanian process of methanol conversion to hydrocarbons is very flexible, with all the variants mentioned being carried out in the same plant by modifying the catalysts. In research on hydrocarbons from synthesis gas a modern process is being developed for gasification of brown coal in a fluidized bed, under pressure, in the presence of oxygen and water vapors. In the field of carbon oxide hydrogenation, studies have been carried out on selective Fischer-Tropsch processes in which the reaction products are high value hydrocarbon fractions.

  7. Micro-scale hydrological field experiments in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minea, Gabriel; Moroşanu, Gabriela A.

    2016-02-01

    The paper (communication) presents an overview of hydrologic field experiments at micro-scale in Romania. In order to experimentally investigate micro (plot)-scale hydrological impact of soil erosion, the National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management founded Voineşti Experimental Basin (VES) in 1964 and the Aldeni Experimental Basins (AEB) in 1984. AEB and VES are located in the Curvature Subcarpathians. Experimental plots are organized in a double systems and have an area of 80 m2 (runoff plots) at AEB and 300 m2 (water balance plots) at VES. Land use of plot: first plot "grass-land" is covered with perennial grass and second plot (control) consists in "bare soil". Over the latter one, the soil is hoeing, which results in a greater development of infiltration than in the first plot. Experimental investigations at micro-scale are aimed towards determining the parameters of the water balance equation, during natural and artificial rainfalls, researching of flows and soil erosion processes on experimental plots, extrapolating relations involving runoff coefficients from a small scale to medium scale. Nowadays, the latest evolutions in data acquisition and transmission equipment are represented by sensors (such as: sensors to determinate the soil moisture content). Exploitation and dissemination of hydrologic data is accomplished by research themes/projects, year-books of basic data and papers.

  8. Bionic hand exoprosthesis – Perspectives for the future in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Pogarasteanu, ME; Barbilian, AG

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetics is a modern area of interest and a challenge in Orthopedics. Over time, there has been a transition from an artisanal method of prosthetics production to modern concepts and materials, including a re-education through virtual reality. The conditions for an efficient fitting of a prosthesis include the necessity that the prosthesis respects the form and function of the lost limb, both anatomically and biomechanically. Prosthetics are made individually, personalized according to sex, age, physiological characteristics, profession and preference. In our country, thoracic limb prosthetics has a relatively short-recorded history of approximately a century, the most preeminent centers being in Iasi, Cluj and Bucharest. Currently, thoracic limb prosthetics, and particularly hand prosthetics, are in a period of development. A technique for amputation and stump reamputation called “circumferential osteoneuromioplasty” (CONM) is currently being used in the Orthopedics and Trauma Clinic of the Central Military University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest. The method was created with the purpose of obtaining distinct myoelectric signals of better quality, following the contraction of each muscle. The CONM method can be used in conjuncture with both the new hand prostheses that are currently available in Romania, and with the model that is being developed by a mixed team from the Polytechnic University in Bucharest, in collaboration with the Central Military University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest. PMID:25713630

  9. Stratigraphic and structural distribution of reservoirs in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanescu, M.O. )

    1991-08-01

    In Romania, there are reservoirs at different levels of the whole Cambrian-Pliocene interval, but only some of these levels have the favorable structural conditions to accumulate hydrocarbons in commercial quantities. These levels are the Devonian, Triassic, Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous (locally including the uppermost Jurassic), Eocene, Oligocene-lower Miocene, middle and upper Miocene, and Pliocene. The productive reservoirs are represented either by carbonate rocks (in Devonian, Middle Triassic and uppermost Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) or by detrital rocks (in Lower and Upper Triassic, Middle Jurassic, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene). From the structural point of view, the Romanian territory is characterized by the coexistence both of platforms (East European, Scythian, and Moesian platforms) and of the strongly tectonized orogenes (North Dobrogea and Carpathian orogenes). Each importance crust shortening was followed by the accumulation of post-tectonic covers, some of them being folded during subsequently tectonic movements. The youngest post-tectonic cover is common both for the platforms (foreland) and Carpathian orogene, representing the Carpathian foredeep. Producing reservoirs are present in the East European and Moesian platforms, in the outer Carpathian units (Tarcau and Marginal folds nappes) and in certain post-tectonic covers which fill the Carpathian foredeep and the Transylvanian and Pannonian basins. In the platforms, hydrocarbons accumulated both in calcareous and detrital reservoirs, whereas in the Carpathian units and in their reservoirs, whereas in the Carpathian units and in their post-tectonic covers, hydrocarbons accumulated only in detrital reservoirs.

  10. Bionic hand exoprosthesis--perspectives for the future in Romania.

    PubMed

    Pogarasteanu, M E; Barbilian, A G

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetics is a modern area of interest and a challenge in Orthopedics. Over time, there has been a transition from an artisanal method of prosthetics production to modern concepts and materials, including a re-education through virtual reality. The conditions for an efficient fitting of a prosthesis include the necessity that the prosthesis respects the form and function of the lost limb, both anatomically and biomechanically. Prosthetics are made individually, personalized according to sex, age, physiological characteristics, profession and preference. In our country, thoracic limb prosthetics has a relatively short-recorded history of approximately a century, the most preeminent centers being in Iasi, Cluj and Bucharest. Currently, thoracic limb prosthetics, and particularly hand prosthetics, are in a period of development. A technique for amputation and stump reamputation called "circumferential osteoneuromioplasty" (CONM) is currently being used in the Orthopedics and Trauma Clinic of the Central Military University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest. The method was created with the purpose of obtaining distinct myoelectric signals of better quality, following the contraction of each muscle. The CONM method can be used in conjuncture with both the new hand prostheses that are currently available in Romania, and with the model that is being developed by a mixed team from the Polytechnic University in Bucharest, in collaboration with the Central Military University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest. PMID:25713630

  11. Endoparasites in mammals from seven zoological gardens in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dărăbuş, Gheorghe; Afrenie, Mihăită; Hotea, Ionela; Imre, Mirela; Morariu, Sorin

    2014-06-01

    Animals from seven zoological gardens located in Romania, including 18 species of herbivores, 10 species of carnivores, and 13 species of omnivores, were screened for the presence of parasites. Overall, the prevalences of parasites identified in the sampled population were 54.2% (58/107) for herbivores, 54.5% (24/44) for carnivores, and 32.6% (17/52) for omnivores. In herbivores, Eimeria spp., Dicrocelium lanceolatum, and pulmonary and digestive strongyles were detected. In carnivores, the genera Eimeria and Cystoisospora and nematodes from Ancylostomatidae, Strongyloidae, Ascaridae, Capillariidae and Trichocephalidae were identified. Of 13 omnivore species included in the study, parasites from Eimeridae, Ascaridae, Strongyloidae, and Trichocephalidae were identified in seven species. Toxoplasma antibodies were identified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all definitive hosts (lions and wild cats) examined. In intermediate hosts (herbivores and omnivores), antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii had a prevalence of 58.8%, except in wild boars (Sus scrofa), in which the prevalence was 100%. PMID:25000683

  12. Antibacterial activity of different natural honeys from Transylvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Vica, Mihaela Laura; Glevitzky, Mirel; Dumitrel, Gabriela-Alina; Junie, Lia Monica; Popa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Honey is used in food industry and medicine due to its nutritive, therapeutic and dietetic qualities. The microbiological characteristics of 10 unpasteurized honey samples of known origin, collected from Transylvania beekeepers (Romania) were determined. The antibacterial activity of these types of honey against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii and Listeria monocytogenes strains was studied. The most sensitive to the antibacterial activity were the two staphylococus strains (the largest diameter of inhibition zone was 18 mm) and B. subtilis strains (13.5 mm). The strains of B. cereus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were found to present resistance to some of the honey samples. Manna, sunflower and polyfloral honeys presented high antibacterial activity while acacia and linden honeys had a lower activity in terms of the number of sensible strains. Statistical analysis shows that the type of strains and the type of honey have influence on the diameter of inhibition. PMID:24380618

  13. Towards a research pole in photonics in Western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Rominu, Mihai; Miutescu, Eftimie; Burlea, Amelia; Vlascici, Miomir; Gheorghiu, Nicolae; Cira, Octavian; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Mnerie, Corina; Demian, Dorin; Marcauteanu, Corina; Topala, Florin; Rolland, Jannick P.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-07-01

    We present our efforts in establishing a Research Pole in Photonics in the future Arad-Timisoara metropolitan area projected to unite two major cities of Western Romania. Research objectives and related training activities of various institutions and groups that are involved are presented in their evolution during the last decade. The multi-disciplinary consortium consists principally of two universities, UAVA (Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad) and UMF (Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University of Timisoara), but also of the Arad County Emergency University Hospital and several innovative SMEs, such as Bioclinica S.A. (the largest array of medical analysis labs in the region) and Inteliform S.R.L. (a competitive SME focused on mechatronics and mechanical engineering). A brief survey of the individual and joint projects of these institutions is presented, together with their teaching activities at graduate and undergraduate level. The research Pole collaborates in R&D, training and education in biomedical imaging with universities in USA and Europe. Collaborative activities, mainly on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) projects are presented in a multidisciplinary approach that includes optomechatronics, precision mechanics and optics, dentistry, medicine, and biology.

  14. The Last Descendant of Tycho Brahe Lives in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    On 24 October 1601 passed away, in the 55th year of his life, the great astronomer Tycho Brahe. Now, four centuries since his death, his last descendant is living in Romania: Lydia Baroness Løvendal-Papae. An encyclopedic culture and training as hers can rarely be found today; she also is an excellent specialist in genealogy and heraldry. She has not only the merit of studying the cosmic symbols in heraldry, but especially that of establishing the genealogical tree of the famous Danish astronomer. She also holds a genealogical record: as the last descendant of the old Danish dynasty, she descends from all European dynasties, including the founders of the Romanian countries. We shall dwell here neither upon the great personality of Tycho Brahe, nor on his role in the modern astronomy. We shall not refer to the Tycho catalogue resulted from the space mission Hipparcos. We shall dwell upon the ancient aristocratic family Brahe. The oldest firm mention goes as far back as in 1364, but there are data enough on the existence of some members of this family in the 13th century. The Brahe family was related to a no less famous family, that of the Barons Løvendal. One of the ancestors of Lydia Baroness Løvendal is the renowned Ulrik Frederik Voldemar, Baron, then Count Lovendal, marshal of France (1700-1755), whose name was assigned to one of the most important boulevards of Paris.

  15. Trace element distribution in the water and sediments of certain storage lakes from the Jijia catchment, (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dughila, A.; Iancu, O. G.; Romanescu, G. T.

    2012-04-01

    The present study aims at investigating the concentrations and distribution levels of a series of trace elements in water and sediment samples collected from six storage lakes located in the Jijia catchment - NE of Romania. The lakes are multi-purpose water reservoirs, three of them being mainly used as a source of municipal drinking water, or for fishing, irrigation for the farms in the area, protection against floods and the regulation of river flows. By contrast, agricultural wastes, fertilizers, raw sewage effluents and road runoff constitute the predominant anthropogenic sources, which supply the lakes in question with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The present study was conducted on a series of 63 sediment samples and 18 water samples, collected from the same locations, in order to establish the distribution levels of certain trace elements from the water through sediments. Sediment cores were collected from two sections across each lake by means of a motor boat, using a system that consists of a graduated sampling tube (0.9 m in length and 72.5 mm in diameter) made of Plexiglas (Eijkelkamp sample tube guide). Prior to the analyses, the samples were air-dried, ground and homogenized using an agate mortar, oven-dried at 50 °C for 6 days and then sieved through 63 µm sieves. The sediment and water samples were subjected to a digestion technique with concentrated nitric acid using a microwave oven (Berghof type), and analyzed for the following elements: Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni. The total concentration of the elements was measured through atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with an RSD of < 10 % from solutions. The vertical distribution of most elements in the cores examined could be characterized as relatively uniform, with higher concentrations for those collected from the lakes which are more influenced by anthropogenic factors, compared to those situated in forested areas. The lake-water quality characteristics were below the recommended drinking water standards

  16. Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu's contribution to the development of science and culture in Romania.

    PubMed

    Rotaru, Alexandru; Petrovai, Ion; Rotaru, Horatiu

    2016-01-01

    When speaking about Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu (1863-1926) and his major contribution to the establishment of Romanian medical education in Cluj, he should be considered not only in terms of scientist and creator of the Dental School, but also through his commitment to the development of science and culture in Romania. A wealthy dentist in Budapest where he graduated from the Dental School, he supported a lot of Romanian students to attend schools and universities in the Budapest, thus contributing to the development of culture in his own country. Finally, he left his private practice in the Capital of Hungary to come to Cluj to support the efforts of building the Dental School and profession in Romania. This paper illustrates the contribution that Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu made to the development of higher education in Romania, as well as his support of the local culture. PMID:27547068

  17. Late Miocene/Pliocene Ostracod Biostratigraphy from South Carpathian Foredeep, Romania (Badislava-Topolog Area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floroiu, Alina; Stoica, Marius; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    The Paratethys epicontinental sea has been an essential paleogeographic feature defining the Eurasian interior since Oligocene. By the end of the Miocene, ongoing tectonic activity in the region determined severe restrictions of the connection of the large former Paratethys sea resulting in the formation of several smaller subbasins: the Pannonian basin, the Dacian basin, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. In the western part of the Dacian Basin, the thick and continuous Mio-Pliocene sedimentary successions of the Getic Depression of Romania provide an exceptional opportunity to study the paleoecological changes in the Eastern Paratethys during the time when the Mediterranean and Black Sea experienced important sea level changes related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. These sedimentary successions were the basis of high-resolution magnetobiostratigraphic studies that allow a detailed correlation to the Geological Time Scale. Here, we present the main characteristics of the ostracod assemblages of the Late Miocene/Pliocene sedimentary succession from Badislava-Topolog section covering the Eastern Paratethys regional Maeotian and Pontian, stages that are, at moment, under ongoing formal stratigraphic definition process. The Mio-Pliocene is exposed in the central part of the Getic Depression, especially Topolog-Arges area, where it riches up to 500 m in thickness being incorporated into a large monocline structure with 15o-20o plungeto the south. The Upper Maeotian deposits from the area have developed mainly in fluviatile-deltaic facies with frequent continental intercalations. The ostracod assemblage is represented by rare fresh water ostracods of Candona, Pseudocandona and Ilyocypris genera, capable to populate unstable environments like flood-plains, lakes and rivers with temporary existence. The scarce Maeotian ostracod fauna from this marginal section differs essentially from the more diversified one of the same age recorded in areas that evolved in basinal

  18. Characterizing the hydrological system in Rosia Montana mining area (Romania) for AMD mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozma, Alexandra; Baciu, Calin; Olenici, Adriana; Brahaita, Dorian; Pop, Cristian; Lazar, Laura; Roba, Carmen; Popita, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: mining, AMD mitigation, isotopic analyses, Romania Rosia Montana is one of the most important European gold fields, with a long history of mining. The extraction of gold started on site during the Roman age, and the mining operations that spanned over almost two millennia have produced a visible environmental footprint. More than 140 km of mining galleries are documented by historical sources and recent surveys. Water streams are the main vectors spreading the pollution outside the mining area. The main streams, Rosia, Corna, and Saliste, tributaries of Abruzel River are significantly impacted by the acid waters issued by adits, exposed rock surfaces, or rock waste heaps, and tailings depots. Low contamination has been observed in the streams outside the mining area, artificial ponds, and shallow groundwater. Excepting the shallow groundwater system that can be sampled in domestic wells and some springs, the circulation of groundwater is largely unknown. An important amount of the infiltration water is channelled through galleries. The waters sampled at the galleries outlets have low pH, generally between 2 and 3, and very high content of heavy metals. A systematic approach based on monthly sampling and chemical analyses, and isotopic measurements, has been initiated, in order to better understand the underground itinerary of water and the chemical transformations that occur. A sampling network of 28 water points, including streams, ponds, dug wells, springs, and gallery outlets has been setup. Beyond producing a water circulation model in the mining area, the main purpose of the research is to identify ways of decreasing the acid water production and to design low cost techniques for the AMD mitigation. The deposit still hosts about 300 tonnes of gold, and 1600 tonnes of silver. A new large scale mining project is currently under permitting. Cost-effective solutions for the water treatment would be beneficial, especially for the post-mining stage of any

  19. The Impact of a Research Ethics Training Program: Romania as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Loue, Sana

    2014-12-01

    Case Western Reserve University's (CWRU) Training Program in International Research Ethics, funded by the Fogarty International Center, has been ongoing in Romania since 2000. The program consists of multiple components: a U.S.- based MA degree program for long-term trainees, Romania-based short courses, a U.S.-based opportunity for mid-and senior-level personnel to develop collaborative writing or research projects and present lectures, and a newsletter and various Internet-based activities. We evaluated the impact of the training program on bioethics in Romania through a survey of the training program's long-term trainees, a literature search for trainee publications, interviews with key informants, and identification of key events during the course of the program. Findings indicate that the program has had a considerable impact in the field of bioethics through trainee authorship of peer-reviewed publications, books, and chapters; trainee career trajectories that encompass activities related to research ethics; and the development of a Romania-based master's degree program in bioethics and a Center of Bioethics and Health Policy. We attribute these achievements to the establishment of strong relationships between CWRU in Cleveland and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Gr. T. Popa in Iasi, Romania, prior to the initiation of the training program; collaboration with key Romania-based institutional partners that are equally invested in the program's success; reliance of the program on a solid theoretical framework; ongoing program responsiveness to trainee and country needs; and a sustained commitment of time, expertise, and funding by the funders, sponsors, and in-country collaborators. PMID:26247075

  20. Towards an unitary technical approach for monitoring urban growth in Romania using remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldea, Mihaela; Petrescu, Florian; Sercaianu, Mihai; Gaman, Florian; Iacoboaea, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Monitoring urban growth process and its patterns for the city of Bucharest was the starting point in our attempt to identify and propose a more general procedure for monitoring this type of process in Romania using remote sensing data. Several important technical aspects such as comparable data sources, comparable algorithms, interoperability issues as well as final presentation standards are discussed. The paper is meant to be considered as a basis for promoting a unitary technical approach concerning urban growth monitoring in Romania using remote sensing data.

  1. Gender stereotypes in management: a comparative study of communist and postcommunist Romania.

    PubMed

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Boroş, Smaranda

    2011-08-01

    This study sets out to investigate the changes in the perception of women in leading positions in communist and postcommunist Romania. The study uses a noninvasive paradigm of analyzing the content of obituaries for women and men in leading positions published in a national journal, and shows that the gender gap in management widened during the postcommunist period. In postcommunist Romania, women are perceived as being less able to lead/manage and more relational in their leadership style as compared to men, while in the communist period the gender differences were not significant. PMID:22044273

  2. Alcoholism in Romania in the Late Nineteenth Century and at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    ANDREESCU, OANA; LEAŞU, FLORIN; ROGOZEA, LILIANA

    2014-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption has been described from the earliest times, alcohol abuse has grown significantly since the mid-nineteenth century as a consequence of the industrialization progress. Due to the socio-economic profile of Romania, which was considered to be agrarian, the idea of developing mainly the industry branches belonging to agriculture was considered. Amongst these branches, the production of alcohol appeared to be the most appropriate. The political state leaders from Romania enjoyed the taxes collected from alcohol commercialization, disregarding the costs involved in alcoholism which went far beyond them. PMID:26528038

  3. RAPID COMMUNICATION-- POLIO VACCINE COVERAGE IN THE ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS (AFP) CASES IN ROMANIA.

    PubMed

    Băicuş, Anda

    2015-01-01

    Poliovirus (PV), a member of the Enterovirus genus, is the etiological agent of poliomyelitis. A study carried out between 2013-2014 on 30 serum samples from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases, showed a protective antibody level of 90% against poliovirus Sabin strains type 1 and type 2 and of 88% against type 3. No PV strains were isolated from 2009 to 2015 in Romania. Maintaining a high vaccine coverage level against polio is mandatory until global polio eradication, especially as the risk of polio importation remains elevated in Romania. PMID:26727855

  4. First report of canine ocular thelaziosis in the Muntenia Region, Romania.

    PubMed

    Tudor, Poliana; Bădicu, Adina; Mateescu, Romaniţa; Tudor, Niculae; Mateescu, Cosmin; Ionaşcu, Iuliana

    2016-04-01

    Ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda is a vector-borne disease that infects domestic and wild carnivores as well as humans. In this paper, we present two cases of ocular thelaziosis in dogs that had never traveled outside Romania. Both presented with moderate conjunctivitis and ocular discharge. In total, 41 adult nematodes were removed from the conjunctival sacs of both dogs; these were identified via morphology as T. callipaeda. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of canine ocular thelaziosis caused by T. callipaeda from the Muntenia Region of Romania. PMID:26898833

  5. Revealing the crust of western Romania using CCP tehniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataru, D.; Stuart, G.; Grecu, B.

    2012-04-01

    The western part of Romania was poorly investigated until now in terms of crust and lithosphere structure. The South Carpathian Project (SCP) is a joint project in Romania aimed at determining the lithospheric structure and geodynamical evolution of the South Carpathian Orogen using a dense, temporary network of broad-band seismographs. Alongside existing permanent broad band stations in the study region (12), 33 broadband seismic stations were installed in September 2009 to operate autonomously for two years. We analyze teleseismic P-to-S receiver functions to image crustal structure and uppermost lithosphere. The receiver functions (RF) are calculated in time domain by iterative deconvolution. The further data processing and analysis was performed using FuncLab, a GUI-based MATLAB receiver function processing toolkit (Eagar and Fouch, submitted 2011). We apply a common conversion point (CCP) stacking of receiver functions - a method used to image smooth regional topography on subhorizontal interfaces (Eagar et al. 2010). It is a back-projection method in which the receiver function amplitudes are placed in the appropriate position along the raypath based on a time-to-depth conversion. These amplitudes are then binned at each depth based on the position of the ray piercing point and then stacked to enhance the signal originating from that approximate position. We first perform 1-D ray tracing, then accommodate for large lateral variations in seismic velocities across the region by applying linear timing corrections based on a high resolution regional S wave tomography model (Young et al., in preparation) and then compute the time-to-depth conversion of the receiver functions. The final step in the workflow is CCP stacking. We also apply a Gaussian-weighted common conversion point stacking (GCCP) by weighting the receiver functions within the stacks by the distance of the piercing point from the image point, which is the same as the center point of the CCP bin. The

  6. Sustainable gold mining management waste policy in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, Elena; Filipciuc, Constantina

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable mining practices and consistent implementation of the mining for the closure planning approach, within an improved legislative framework, create conditions for the development of creative, profitable, environmentally-sound and socially-responsible management and reuse of mine lands. According to the World Commission on Environment and Development definition, sustainable development is the type of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Romania has the largest gold reserves in Europe (760 million tons of gold-silver ores, of which 40 million tons in 68 gold deposits in the Apuseni Mountains. New mining projects draw particular attention regarding the environmental risks they cause. Rehabilitation is an ongoing consideration throughout the mine's lifecycle, both from a technical and a financial standpoint. The costs of land rehabilitation are classified as the mine's operating costs. According to Directive 2004/35/EC on environmental liability, the prevention and remedying of environmental damage should be implemented by applying the "polluter pays" principle, in line with the principle of sustainable development. Directive on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive obliges operators to provide (and periodically adjust in size) a financial guarantee for waste facility maintenance and post-closure site restoration, including land rehabilitation. According to the Romanian Mining Law, the license holder has the following obligations related to land use and protection: to provide environmental agreements as one of the prerequisites for a building permit; to regularly update the mine closure plan; to set up and maintain the financial guarantee for environmental rehabilitation; and to execute and finalize the environmental rehabilitation of affected land in the mining site, according to the mine closure plan, including the post

  7. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile couples in romania

    PubMed Central

    Mierla, D; Malageanu, M; Tulin, R; Albu, D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in one of the partners and infertility. This retrospective study was performed at the Department of Reproductive Medicine, Life Memorial Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, between August 2007 to December 2011. Two thousand, one hundred and ninety-five patients with reproductive problems were investigated, and the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was calculated. The control group consisting of 87 fertile persons who had two or more children, was investigated in this retrospective study. All the patients of this study were investigated by cytogenetic techniques and the results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. In this study, 94.99% patients had a normal karyotype and 5.01% had chromosomal abnormalities (numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities). In the study group, numerical chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.14% of infertile men and 0.62% of infertile women, and structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.38% of infertile men and 1.87% of infertile women, respectively. The correlation between the incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the two sexes in couple with reproductive problems was not statistically significant. Recently, a possible association between infertility and chromosomal abnormalities with a significant statistical association has been reported. Our study shows that there is no association between chromosomal abnormalities and infertility, but this study needs to be confirmed with further investigations and a larger control group to establish the role of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of infertility. PMID:26929902

  8. Near surface shear wave velocity in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Steht, M.; Jaskolla, B.; Ritter, J. R. R.

    2008-12-01

    Bucharest, the capital of Romania with nearly 2 1/2 million inhabitants, is endangered by the strong earthquakes in the Vrancea seismic zone. To obtain information on the near surface shear-wave velocity Vs structure and to improve the available microzonations we conducted seismic refraction measurements in two parks of the city. There the shallow Vs structure is determined along five profiles, and the compressional-wave velocity (Vp) structure is obtained along one profile. Although the amount of data collected is limited, they offer a reasonable idea about the seismic velocity distribution in these two locations. This knowledge is useful for a city like Bucharest where seismic velocity information so far is sparse and poorly documented. Using sledge-hammer blows on a steel plate and a 24-channel recording unit, we observe clear shear-wave arrivals in a very noisy environment up to a distance of 300 m from the source. The Vp model along profile 1 can be correlated with the known near surface sedimentary layers. Vp increases from 320 m/s near the surface to 1280 m/s above 55 65 m depth. The Vs models along all five profiles are characterized by low Vs (<350 m/s) in the upper 60 m depth and a maximum Vs of about 1000 m/s below this depth. In the upper 30 m the average Vs30 varies from 210 m/s to 290 m/s. The Vp-Vs relations lead to a high Poisson's ratio of 0.45 0.49 in the upper ~60 m depth, which is an indication for water-saturated clayey sediments. Such ground conditions may severely influence the ground motion during strong Vrancea earthquakes.

  9. Typologically-differentiated landslide susceptibility assessment for Romania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Mihai; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Balteanu, Dan; Margarint, Ciprian; Niculita, Mihai; Jurchescu, Marta; Chitu, Zenaida; Sandric, Ionut; Simota, Catalin; Mathieu, Alexandre

    2014-05-01

    Alongside floods and earthquakes, landslides are representing one of the main geomorphic hazards in Romania, a country with more then 2/3 of its territory consisting of mountains, hills and tablelands prone to such slope processes. Diversity of morphostructural and lithological features are imposing a large variety in landslide typology, dominated by mud and debris-slides and mud-debris-flows and rockfalls. The purpose of this paper is to propose the first national inventory-based landslide susceptibility assessment. By compiling literature data, personal or institutional landslide inventories, a database of more that 27,900 cases (split in three main categories, i.e. slide, flow, fall) was set up as the basis for a multi-criteria modelling approach. For this assessment, a restricted number of spatial predictors is used (lithology, land-cover, slope). The assessment is based on a DEM of 90×90 m derived from ASTERGDEM v2; a classification of different topographic regions is proposed. Following classification and weighting procedures, a pairwise comparison was performed in order to rank the importance of each conditioning factor. The results (consisting in three nation-wide maps; slides, flows and falls) outline very well the correlation between the major morphostructural units and different susceptibility classes. The medium and high Carpathians, built mainly on metamorphic and igneous rock formations (sometimes on limestone and dolostones), present the highest susceptibility to (rock/debris) falls and (debris) flows. The low Carpathians, consisting of more or less cohesive flysch formations are very prone to (mud/debris) slides. The Subcarpathian hills and the extended homocline or hilly tablelands shows high susceptibility to (mud/debris) slides and (mud) flows. Further steps will include the integration of dynamic factors (climate maps, peak ground acceleration map) in the analysis. The work is performed in the framework of the "Pan-European and nation

  10. Relationship between gullying and landslides within the Barlad Plateau, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niacsu, Lilian; Ionita, Ion

    2016-04-01

    Located in the eastern Romania and extending on 8200 km2 the Barlad Plateau is considered the most typical subunit of the Moldavian Plateau. The sedimentary Miocene-Pliocene clay-sandy layers, inter-bedded with shallow sandstone and limestone are gently dipping toward S-SE as homoclinal structure. Land degradation through soil erosion, gullying and landslides represent the most important environmental threat in the region. By using both the classical research methods such as repeated field surveys and mapping, mathematical-statistical processing as well as the present-day methods based on the GIS software it was possible to precisely measure and evaluate the gully erosion rates and triggered landslides during the last two centuries, especially with a very high accuracy since 1960. Results have indicated that the landslide development is strongly controlled by gullying. Generally, by combining the areal growth of both gullying and new landslides within the selected study catchments, it is noticeable that 62 % of the total recent land degradation occurred during the last 55 years, with the remainder pre-1960. In addition, half of the gully areal growth occurred since 1961 but the new triggered landslides amount over three-quarters of the total area under landslides. This asymmetrical distribution reveals that usually a preparing time lag of tens of years is required for triggering landslides by gullying and this pattern depicts the common mechanism for landslide development. Acknowledgements: This work was partly supported by a grant from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNDI-UEFISCDI, Project number PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.2-0975.

  11. Quantification of the aridity process in South-Western Romania.

    PubMed

    Peptenatu, Daniel; Sîrodoev, Igor; Pravalie, Remus

    2013-01-01

    The report released by the Intergovernmental Committee for Climate Change indicates that Romania ranks among the top seven countries in Europe that would be strongly impacted by aridity in the next few years, with climate changes consisting in a rise of average annual temperatures by as much as 5°C. The research work was conducted in the South of the Oltenia South-Western Development Region, where more than 700,000 hectares of farmland is impacted by aridification, more than 100,000 hectares among them impacted by aridity. Research methodology encompassed the analysis of average annual temperatures over the time span data was available for, at three weather stations, an analysis of average annual precipitations, an analysis of the piezometric data, the evolution of land use as a result of the expansion of the aridity process. The assessment of the aridity process also involved taking into consideration the state of the vegetation by means of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), used to assess the quality of the vegetal stratum, an important element in the complex analysis of the territory. The aridity process is an effect of global warming, and, based on the results of this study, the post-1990 escalation of its effects was brought about by socio-economic factors. The destruction of the irrigation systems and protective forest belts because of the uncertain situation of land ownership are the main factors that contributed to amplification of the effects of aridity on the efficiency of agricultural systems that nowadays are exposed to very high risks. PMID:24499565

  12. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile couples in romania.

    PubMed

    Mierla, D; Malageanu, M; Tulin, R; Albu, D

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in one of the partners and infertility. This retrospective study was performed at the Department of Reproductive Medicine, Life Memorial Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, between August 2007 to December 2011. Two thousand, one hundred and ninety-five patients with reproductive problems were investigated, and the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was calculated. The control group consisting of 87 fertile persons who had two or more children, was investigated in this retrospective study. All the patients of this study were investigated by cytogenetic techniques and the results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. In this study, 94.99% patients had a normal karyotype and 5.01% had chromosomal abnormalities (numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities). In the study group, numerical chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.14% of infertile men and 0.62% of infertile women, and structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.38% of infertile men and 1.87% of infertile women, respectively. The correlation between the incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the two sexes in couple with reproductive problems was not statistically significant. Recently, a possible association between infertility and chromosomal abnormalities with a significant statistical association has been reported. Our study shows that there is no association between chromosomal abnormalities and infertility, but this study needs to be confirmed with further investigations and a larger control group to establish the role of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of infertility. PMID:26929902

  13. Ancient human footprints in Ciur-Izbuc Cave, Romania.

    PubMed

    Webb, David; Robu, Marius; Moldovan, Oana; Constantin, Silviu; Tomus, Bogdan; Neag, Ionel

    2014-09-01

    In 1965, Ciur-Izbuc Cave in the Carpathian Mountains of Romania was discovered to contain about 400 ancient human footprints. At that time, researchers interpreted the footprints to be those of a man, woman and child who entered the cave by an opening which is now blocked but which was usable in antiquity. The age of the prints (≈10-15 ka BP) was based partly on their association with cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) footprints and bones, and the belief that cave bears became extinct near the end of the last ice age. Since their discovery, the human and bear evidence and the cave itself have attracted spelunkers and other tourists, with the result that the ancient footprints are in danger of destruction by modern humans. In an effort to conserve the footprints and information about them and to reanalyze them with modern techiques, Ciur-Izbuc Cave was restudied in summer of 2012. Modern results are based on fewer than 25% of the originally described human footprints, the rest having been destroyed. It is impossible to confirm some of the original conclusions. The footprints do not cluster about three different sizes, and the number of individuals is estimated to be six or seven. Two cases of bears apparently overprinting humans help establish antiquity, and C-14 dates suggest a much greater age than originally thought. Unfortunately, insufficient footprints remain to measure movement variables such as stride length. However, detailed three-dimensional mapping of the footprints does allow a more precise description of human movements within the cave. PMID:25043334

  14. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  15. 33 CFR 162.90 - White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River, Ark., and Catoosa, Okla.; use... White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River, Ark... apply to: (1) Waterways. White River between Mississippi River and Arkansas Post Canal, Ark.;...

  16. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  17. The Hard Work of Interpretation: The National Politics of PISA Reception in Hungary and Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Eszter; Kiss, Adel; Fejes, Ildiko

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the dynamic interaction between global policy and knowledge flows and two post-communist education systems--Hungary and Romania--with special attention to the appropriation of post-bureaucratic regulation tools and the structural changes enhanced by the knowledge transmitted by the Programme for International Student…

  18. Legacy and Change--Higher Education and Restoration of Academic Work in Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadlak, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of higher education in postcommunist Romania looks at the system's history since World War II, enrollment patterns from 1948-49 to 1992-93, control of academic appointments, public policy concerning science and the conditions of academic work, and restructuring of higher education institutions after 1970 to support technological and…

  19. Examination of Mathematics Textbooks in Use in Hungarian Primary Schools in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tünde, Baranyai; Gabriella, Stark

    2011-01-01

    A good textbook must meet a number of pedagogical, psychological, scientific, esthetical, and other requirements. The presented research examines whether the mathematics textbooks in use in Hungarian primary schools in Romania meet those requirements. We used documentation, contents analysis and surveys as research methods. We examined the…

  20. Hierarchy, Complicity and Culture in the Library and Information Science Preservation Agenda: Observations from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimaszewski, Cheryl; Bader, Gail E.; Nyce, James M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that researchers involved in cultural heritage preservation need to adopt a more inclusive ethnographic research methodology that pays special attention to how power, class, and status shape the communities we study. Based on observations from field research in Ghimes-Faget, Romania, we discuss why the Hungarian ethnic identity…

  1. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Romania 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirea, Veronica-Gabriela; Modrescu, Alexandru; Modrescu, Tincuta

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Romania's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education, Research and Youth is responsible for setting the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of formal education provided by the national education system. However, the Ministry of Culture and Cults promotes programmes and projects in the domain of adult…

  2. Comparative Views Of Water Quality In The Coastal Conurbations Of Miami FL And Constantza Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, R.

    2003-04-01

    Water quality has been severely influenced by ever expanding human settlements and the tourist industry along various coasts throughout the World. Poor planning and unbridled expansion are major culprits. The consequences but also suggested remedies are examined for areas in Romania, Belgium and the Southeastern United States.

  3. Faculty and Peer Influences on Academic Integrity: College Cheating in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorescu, Daniel; Andrei, Tudorel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine student perceptions of academic integrity among faculty and peers at a sample of public universities in Romania. The study explores the factors that influence academic dishonesty among college students and compares the relative importance of faculty influences and peer influences on students' intent to…

  4. Critical Approaches to Financial Delegation in Public Education in Post-Communist Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Ana-Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on tracking financial delegation (introduced nationally in January 2010) as part of the broader process of education restructuring and decentralisation in post-communist Romania. The aim is to critically pinpoint some of the challenges specific to the Romanian context, such as the multitude of policies and legislation (due to…

  5. Doctoral Studies in Romania: Admission Procedures, Social, and Legal Aspects of Doctoral Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miclea, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    This contribution presents a concise and up-to-date report of doctoral studies in Romania, with a special emphasis on legal and social aspects. The author also argues that in order to be sustainable, the reform of doctoral studies should be substantiated by the differentiation of universities, reliable post-doctoral programmes, and a substantive…

  6. Private Pre-University Education in Romania: Mixing Control with Lack of Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanus, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper approaches private provision of pre-university education in Romania, exploring available data on the sector's size and main characteristics and evaluating the extent to which the current regulatory framework enables positive effects in terms of freedom of choice, quality, equity, and social cohesion. The paper argues that the lack…

  7. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Romania 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Roxana

    2009-01-01

    For ISCED levels 1 and ISCED 2 student assessment is conducted according to the same principles applicable in the whole pre-university education in Romania: the specific policies and strategies developed by The Ministry of Education, Research and Innovation (1) are seeking a balance between teacher made, school-based assessment, and national…

  8. The Road to Change? A Case Study Examining Educational Reform in Sibiu County, Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stan; Trotman, Dave; Rusu, Horatiu; Mara, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines processes of educational reform and change in a post-Communist Eastern European country. Focusing on the experiences and challenges facing one geographical community in Sibiu County, Romania, an attempt is made to understand some of the macro and micro factors, influences and external policy drivers, shaping the organization…

  9. "Nobody Told Us about What Happened": The Current State of Holocaust Education in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misco, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    This research study sought to understand the current state of Holocaust education in Romanian classrooms and how sociocultural and institutional forces influence its treatment. By identifying the obstacles, challenges, and successes of Holocaust education in Romania, this study can both disseminate the techniques and conditions that bring about…

  10. Minority Rights and Majority Rule: Ethnic Tolerance in Romania and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Mary E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of data from national surveys of majority ethnic groups in Romania and Bulgaria examined the effects on tolerance toward minority groups of education, community ethnic composition, urbanism, age, gender, perceived threat to national security from the minority group's homeland, democratic values, and prevailing political ideology. Contains…

  11. The Supply of Birth Control Methods, Education, and Fertility: Evidence from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the supply of birth control methods on fertility behavior by examining Romania's 23-year period of pronatalist policies. Following the lifting of the restrictions in 1989 the immediate decrease in fertility was 30 percent. Women who spent most of their reproductive years under the restrictive regime…

  12. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... the determination regarding small- diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Romania. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on April 1, 2011 (76 FR 18251) and determined on July 5, 2011 that it would conduct expedited reviews (76 FR 44608, July 26,...

  13. Prevalence of Sedentary Behaviour in Young People in Romania and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soos, Istvan; Biddle, Stuart; Boros-Balint, Iuliana; Sandor, Iosif; Szabo, Peter; Hamar, Pal; Simonek, Jaromir

    2012-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour is becoming a popular area of health research, but most studies report data on samples from Australia, the UK and USA, and on a narrow range of behaviours. The present study reports on the prevalence of multiple sedentary behaviours in a sample of secondary school students (n = 635; mean age 16.0 years) from Romania and…

  14. Teacher Education Budget Cuts in Romania and the US: Points of Contrast and Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, B.; Alama, M.; Mosora, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Budgets for teacher education programmes have been substantially reduced as a result of the global economic crisis. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the teacher education budget cutting processes and procedures for universities in Romania versus one university in the United States. Sample: The data were collected from…

  15. Toxoplasma gondii in horse meat intended for human consumption in Romania.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, an economically important zoonotic protozoan, was investigated in horses slaughtered for export and human consumption in the North of Romania. This study has aimed to assess the potential impact of Romanian horses’ toxoplasmosis on the public health. Pairs of sam...

  16. Affirmative Action in Romania's Higher Education: Roma Students' Perceived Meanings and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantea, Maria-Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative paper explores Roma students' perceptions on the policy of assigning "special places" for Roma in Romania's universities. Findings suggest that Roma see themselves as occupying a precarious social space, concerned not as much to hide perceived merit violation but to handle (alleged) inadequacies given by their…

  17. The Caregiving Context in Institution-Reared and Family-Reared Infants and Toddlers in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyke, Anna T.; Koga, Sebastian F.; Johnson, Dana E.; Fox, Nathan A.; Marshall, Peter J.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: We assess individual differences in the caregiving environments of young children being raised in institutions in Romania in relation to developmental characteristics such as physical growth, cognitive development, emotional expression, and problem and competence behaviors. Method: Videotaped observations of the child and favorite…

  18. State of Impunity: Human Rights Abuse of Roma in Romania. Country Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude; Petrova, Dimitrina

    This report documents civil violations and discriminatory actions against Roma in Romania, contending that, due to the Romanian government's inadequate efforts to bring perpetrators of anti-Romani crimes to justice and to eradicate discrimination against Roma, a climate of impunity surrounding anti-Romani actions has taken deep root. Chapter 1…

  19. Molecular detection of Rickettsia conorii and other zoonotic spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks, Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Mariana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Edouard, Sophie; Parola, Philippe; Pfister, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The diverse tick fauna as well as the abundance of tick populations in Romania represent potential risks for both human and animal health. Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of emerging human tick-borne diseases worldwide. However, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases has been poorly investigated in Romania. In urban habitats, companion animals which are frequently exposed to tick infestation, play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks infesting dogs in a greater urban area in South-eastern Romania. Adult ixodid ticks (n=205), including Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=120), Dermacentor reticulatus (n=76) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9) were collected from naturally infested dogs and were screened for SFG rickettsiae using conventional PCR followed by sequencing. Additionally, ticks were screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. Four zoonotic SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia raoultii (16%) and Rickettsia slovaca (3%) in D. reticulatus, Rickettsia monacensis (11%) in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia conorii (0.8%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. Moreover, pathogens of veterinary importance, such as B. canis (21%) in D. reticulatus and E. canis (7.5%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. were identified. The findings expand the knowledge on distribution of SFG rickettsiae as well as canine pathogens in Romania. Additionally, this is the first report describing the molecular detection of R. conorii in ticks from Romania. PMID:26507182

  20. The use of computational models to predict response to HIV therapy for clinical cases in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Revell, Andrew D; Ene, Luminiţa; Duiculescu, Dan; Wang, Dechao; Youle, Mike; Pozniak, Anton; Montaner, Julio; Larder, Brendan A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A major challenge in Romania is the optimisation of antiretroviral therapy for the many HIV-infected adults with, on average, a decade of treatment experience. The RDI has developed computational models that predict virological response to therapy but these require a genotype, which is not routinely available in Romania. Moreover the models, which were trained without any Romanian data, have proved most accurate for patients from the healthcare settings that contributed the training data. Here we develop and test a novel model that does not require a genotype, with test data from Romania. Methods A random forest (RF) model was developed to predict the probability of the HIV viral load (VL) being reduced to <50 copies/ml following therapy change. The input variables were baseline VL, CD4 count, treatment history and time to follow-up. The model was developed with 3188 treatment changes episodes (TCEs) from North America, Western Europe and Australia. The model’s predictions for 100 independent TCEs from the RDI database were compared to those of a model trained with the same data plus genotypes and then tested using 39 TCEs from Romania in terms of the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results When tested with the 100 independent RDI TCEs, the AUC values for the models with and without genotypes were 0.88 and 0.86 respectively. For the 39 Romanian TCEs the AUC was 0.60. However, when 14 cases with viral loads that may have been between 50 and 400 copies were removed, the AUC increased to 0.83. Discussion Despite having been trained without data from Romania, the model predicted treatment responses in treatment-experienced Romanian patients with clade F virus accurately without the need for a genotype. The results suggest that this approach might be generalisable and useful in helping design optimal salvage regimens for treatment-experienced patients in countries with limited resources where genotyping is not always available. PMID:24432257

  1. The improved broadband Real-Time Seismic Network in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, C.; Ionescu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Starting with 2002 the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) has developed its real-time digital seismic network. This network consists of 96 seismic stations of which 48 broad band and short period stations and two seismic arrays are transmitted in real-time. The real time seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broadband seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T) and strong motions sensors Kinemetrics episensors (+/- 2g). SeedLink and AntelopeTM (installed on MARMOT) program packages are used for real-time (RT) data acquisition and exchange. The communication from digital seismic stations to the National Data Center in Bucharest is assured by 5 providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite communication, radio lease line and internet), which will assure the back-up communications lines. The processing centre runs BRTT's AntelopeTM 4.10 data acquisition and processing software on 2 workstations for real-time processing and post processing. The Antelope Real-Time System is also providing automatic event detection, arrival picking, event location and magnitude calculation. It provides graphical display and reporting within near-real-time after a local or regional event occurred. Also at the data center was implemented a system to collect macroseismic information using the internet on which macro seismic intensity maps are generated. In the near future at the data center will be install Seiscomp 3 data acquisition processing software on a workstation. The software will run in parallel with Antelope software as a back-up. The present network will be expanded in the near future. In the first half of 2009 NIEP will install 8 additional broad band stations in Romanian territory, which also will be transmitted to the data center in real time. The Romanian Seismic Network is permanently exchanging real -time waveform data with IRIS, ORFEUS and different European countries through internet. In Romania, magnitude and location of an earthquake are now

  2. Site Response and Liquefaction Risk Analysis for Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannich, D.; Ehret, D.; Hoetzl, H.; Grandas, C.; Huber, G.; Bala, A.

    2007-12-01

    Bucharest, the capital of Romania, with more than 2 million inhabitants, is considered, after Istanbul, the second- most earthquake-endangered metropolis in Europe. Four major earthquakes with moment-magnitudes between 6.9 and 7.7 hit Bucharest in the last 65 years. All disastrous earthquakes are generated within a small epicentral area - the Vrancea region - about 150 km northeast of Bucharest. Thick unconsolidated sedimentary layers in the area of Bucharest amplify the arriving seismic shear waves causing severe destruction. Thus, pertinent site response analysis combined with liquefaction risk analysis for the city area are of highest priority for the disaster prevention and mitigation of earthquake effects. Within the frame of the Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 461: "Strong Earthquakes: A Challenge for Geosciences and Civil Engineering, at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany, recently detailed field investigations for the near-surface soil layers in Bucharest were performed. These include Seismic Cone Penetration Tests (SCPTU) and seismic refraction measurements for shallow depths. SCPTU is used to obtain a detailed distribution of the shear wave velocities and in situ state parameters of soils. The results are used for site response analysis with linear and non-linear wave-propagation models as well as for a liquefaction risk analysis. Commonly linear-equivalent models are used to simulate the response of the soil during earthquakes. Nevertheless, the linear-equivalent model cannot reproduce non-linear effects like liquefaction, layer isolation, and consolidation during shaking. Thus, a 1-D wave propagation model was used to study the influence of non- linear effects in the site response analysis. Cone resistance, sleeve friction and pore water pressure registered continuous by the SCPTU method until depths of 35m permit to determine by simplified empirical methods the factor of safety and the probability of liquefaction for different soil layers at

  3. YELLOWSTONE RIVER WATCH (YRW)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yellowstone River Watch seeks to expand its monitoring and education efforts throughout the Yellowstone River Basin by actively recruiting and training new teacher members. Yellowstone River Watch also seeks to advance existing school programs by offering quality assurance/quali...

  4. Radiometric, SEM and XRD investigation of black sands at Chituc placer deposit North of the City of Navodari, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Gomoiu, Claudia; Margineanu, Romul M.; Costea, Constantin; Dumitras, Delia; Ion, Adriana

    2014-05-01

    The black sand of the Chituc marine sandbank situated northern of the city of Navodari (Romania), displayed anomalous high ambient dose rates. Field measurements performed during 2013 Summer campaign recorded in some places dose rate up to 200 nSv/h, significantly overpassing the average value of 44 ± 20 nSv/h recorded along the entire Southern sector of Romanian Black Sea shore. Here, the sand presented a black-brownish hue, different by the usual white yellowish colour. Gamma ray spectrometry performed on both Slanic-Prahove Underground Low Background Laboratory and Gological Institute Radiometric Facilities showed with clarity the dominance of 228-Ac radioisotope in the 50 microns fraction together with the 226-Ra and traces of 40-K. No significant amount of anthropogenic 137-Cs were identified. The other granulometric fractions, i.e. 315, 200 as well 100 microns presented a significant lower level of radioactivity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) data attested the presence of monazite, zircon, magnetite, ilmenite, andradite, quartz, aragonite and albite in different proportions, the monazite and zircon being preponderant in the 50 microns, the most radioactive fraction. Based on both radiometric and XRD determinations we come to the conclusion that the evidenced radioactivity could be attributed to both uranium and thorium series in the zircon and monazite fractions and to a lesser extent in the garnet fraction. By its position with respect to Danube Delta, the Chituc marine sandbank could be regarded as a placer where heavy minerals discharged in the Black Sea by the Danube River and transported southward by the Great Black Sea Rim are deposited by gravity separation during sedimentary processes. The implications of the Chituc levee radioactive anomaly for any further human activity are analysed and discussed. Acknowledgement: Work done within the BS ERA NET 041 project in the frame of BS-ERA.NET Pilot Joint CAll 2010-2011.

  5. Application And Implication Of Nanomaterials In The Environment: An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency (Romania)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to teach a course on analytical techniques, quality assurance, environmental research protocols, and basic soil environmental chemistry at the Environmental Health Center and Babes Bolyai University in Cluj, Romania. FOR FURTHER INFORMATI...

  6. Old and new radionuclide presence in Romania after Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra; Nita, Dan; Pantelica, Ana; Prodan, Eugen

    2013-04-01

    Our laboratory measured the radionuclide presence in Transylvania region both after Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. The paper presents old and new data connected with these disasters obtained not only by us but also by others laboratories from Romania. It is an attempt to mark the mainly aspects regarding the radioactive contamination in our country connected with these catastrophes. After the Chernobyl accident the radioactive cloud passage over Romania on NE - SW direction brought relatively intesive radionuclide deposition. On this direction the highest deposition were found in the areas where this passage during April 30-st and May 1-st were accompanied by rainfalls. In the rain water and fresh sediment colected at May 1-st, 1986 and measured the next days, all radionuclide species from Chernobyl could be identified [1]. Additional measurements of 90Sr and 239/240Pu have been made several years later in different environmental samples (roof sediment, soil, pollen, sand, roof-water, street dust) collected in 1986 from Cluj-Napoca, Romania [2]. In the case of Fukushima disaster the air transport from west and north-west brought small quantities of radionuclides over the Romanian teritorry. Even if in this case the radioactive cloud was very dilluted, 131I could be clearly identified and measured in air, rain water and other products as: milk, vegetables, grass, fresh meat from the NW of Romania [3]. Measurements have been also conducted in Bucharest and Pitesti. During the last 5 years suplimentary 137Cs measurements were made in different areas as an attempt to use this radionuclide as soil and sediment tracer. [1]. C. Cosma, Some Aspects of Radioactive Contamination after Chernobyl Accident in Romania, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 251, 2, 221-226 (2002) [2]. C. Cosma, Strontium-90 Measurement without Chemical Separation in Samples after Chernobyl Accident, Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, 55, 1165-1171 (2000) [3]. C. Cosma, AR. Iurian, DC. Ni?, R. Begy R, C. C

  7. Early findings in outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome among young children caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Romania, January to February 2016.

    PubMed

    Peron, Emilie; Zaharia, Alina; Zota, Lavinia Cipriana; Severi, Ettore; Mårdh, Otilia; Usein, Codruta; Bălgrădean, Mihaela; Espinosa, Laura; Jansa, Josep; Scavia, Gaia; Rafila, Alexandru; Serban, Amalia; Pistol, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    As at 29 February 2016, 15 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome with onset between 25 January and 22 February were reported among children between five and 38 months in Romania, and three of them died. Cases were mostly from southern Romania. Six cases tested positive for Escherichia coli O26 by serology. Fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products were among the possible common food exposures. Investigations are ongoing in Romania to control the outbreak. PMID:27020906

  8. Using GIS techniques to detect the impact of territorial evolution on producing natural hazard in Northern Romania, commune Vorniceni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gălbău, Ionela

    2015-04-01

    Using techniques of information, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), on spatial analysis, offers numerous possibilities in terms of spatial emphasizing the study area and marking hazard risk areas (especially landslides). Although the means ultra modern techniques have advanced, using GIS in spatial planning remains the most important technique used. Also, GIS maps obtained are more objective than paper made by hand, using the same data and the same conceptual model. The study area, commune Vorniceni is situated in the north of Romania, Ibaneasa River basin, a tributary of Jijiei and occupies an area of 63 km2. The area has experienced over the past 50 years, a trend not only territorial but also morphological and morphometric. This study involves a relation between the evolution of territorial distribution of the population of the commune Vorniceni and influence on the environment. The construction of the dam reservoir Ibaneasa River using poor borrow pits, meant a starting point for the development of landslides. Brutal antropic intervention on the environment by building a dam or lake clogging the two reservoirs (ponds) increased possibility of negative phenomena in the area. These phenomena directly affect the village population as territorial evolution involved the construction of settlements in areas with potential risk of landslides. The analysis of the factors that have influenced the evolution of territorial and producing negative phenomena and making GIS database will be followed by the realization of a hypsometric map of slopes, slope inclination and land use. All this, highlights the relationship anthropic environment - natural environment, and not turning both low population provides another opportunity to use the land in a beneficial way by harnessing the risk map obtained. Although not without shortcomings, the method proved to be a feasible and cost-effective approach for assessing landslide susceptibility and mapping. "ACKNOWLEDGMENT This

  9. The face of madness in Romania: the origin of psychiatric photography in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Buda, Octavian

    2010-09-01

    In 1870 the Romanian physician Nicolae G. Chernbach published a photographic atlas of the main types of mental alienation, a collection of twelve plates depicting mentally ill patients from the Marcutza Asylum in Bucharest. Each photograph included a diagnosis based on the clinical nosography and theories of the physiognomy of insanity acknowledged during the period. The publication of the atlas--just a few years after Hugh W. Diamond's initial use of photography for this purpose in Britain in the 1850s--means that the photographs were not only the first taken in Romania, but among the first photographs of the mentally ill. This study provides an insight into the origins of modern clinical psychiatry and medical advances in Romania, and the contemporary personalities in Romanian and Eastern European medicine. PMID:21879687

  10. Two cases of imported malaria in Western Romania, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Nicola, Elena Doina; Nita, Camelia; Musta, Virgil; Nicoara, Emilia; Olariu, Tudor Rares

    2012-04-01

    Malaria is a major problem for European travelers to endemic regions. In Romania during 1980-2007 approximately 20 imported cases were detected annually. The aim of our short communication is to present 2 interesting cases of imported malaria detected in Western Romania. The first patient was a 20-year female who traveled to India and acquired an infection with Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax). The second patient, a 60-year female, contracted an infection with Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) during a trip to Ghana; the evolution of the disease was severe with many complications and the patient finally died. The cases presented revealed the difficulties in establishing a correct diagnosis of malaria in a non-endemic country, consequences of an incomplete taken anamnesis. Travel history should always represent a mandatory part of a well conducted investigation. At the same time, we must underline the importance of a correct and complete prophylaxis prior to every departure to tropical countries. PMID:22449528

  11. A framework for the ecological rehabilitation of degraded soilscapes in Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bireescu, Geanina; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo

    2016-04-01

    In the last 20 years, particularly in the Eastern part of Romania, anthropogenic unreasonable and aggressive actions corroborated with soil water erosion, accentuated the processes of environmental degradation and decreased the productive potential of the soilscapes. This research starts from the practical necessity to increase the functional efficiency of these soilscapes, through the assessment of the risk factors, for diminishing the negative impact of degradation. The target is to develop a Sustainable Management Plan based of a general matrix description of the environmental factors in the Eastern part of Romania, to intervene (in terms of scientific, technological, administrative-economical and managerial aspects) for the ecological rehabilitation of the soilscapes. Thus, the research has an applicative character, establishing the measures for decreasing soil vulnerability to degradation and increasing the soil resilience.

  12. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection on dairy cattle in farms from southern Romania.

    PubMed

    Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Enachescu, Violeta; Radulescu, Ruxandra; Ionita, Mariana

    2012-02-01

    Neospora caninum, a coccidian parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the major causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. Conventional serological techniques, such as the indirect fluorescent antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are routinely used in adult animals and aborted fetuses for the detection of anti- N. caninum antibodies. In Romania, infection with N. caninum in cattle has been reported recently, but only in limited areas from the north and central parts of the country. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain additional seroepidemiological data on infection with N. caninum on dairy farms from the south of Romania. A total of 258 blood samples was analyzed from 230 dairy cows and 28 calves from 9 dairy farms in southern Romania; the presence of specific IgG antibodies against N. caninum was determined using an indirect ELISA test. The average seroprevalence was 40.3%, but the within-herd prevalence ranged between 11.5 and 80.0%; the seroprevalence in dairy cows was 41.7%, while in calves it was 28.6%. Of the positive samples, 74.0% (77/104) had a high positive reaction (S/P ratio more than 1.0), while 26.0% (27/104) had a low positive reaction (S/P ratio between 0.5 and 1.0). This study indicates that N. caninum infection is widespread in the south of Romania, which could explain the causes of abortions registered in some herds in the studied area. However, a serological screening across the country is planned in order to assess the actual national prevalence of N. caninum infection, followed by implementation of a prevention and control program. PMID:21955278

  13. Considerations over the distribution of the organic matter in the soil cover of Transylvania Plain (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacovean, Horia; Man, Titus; Rusu, Teodor

    2010-05-01

    Considerations over the distribution of the organic matter in the soil cover of Transylvania Plain (Romania) Horea Cacovean*, Titus Man**, Teodor Rusu*** *OSPA-Cluj- 1Faglui street, Cluj Napoca, RO-40048, Romania- turda75@yahoo.com ** Faculty of Geographie, University of Babes-Bolyai, 5-7 Clinicilor street, Cluj Napoca, RO-400006, Romania *** Faculty of Agriculture, USAMV, 3-5 Calea Manastur street,Cluj Napoca, RO-400372, Romania Soil degradation has become a major concern in the Transylvania Plain. Erosion, landslides, salinization, gleysation, and loss of humus are the main forms of soil deterioration in that region. This factsheet deals with the role of organic matter in soil productivity and the effects of various management practices and abandonment of the lands on soil organic matter. Soils in Transylvania Plain are analyzed concerning the amount of humus they contain. The influence of soil texture, climatic variables, and soil management on the qualitative soil humus content was studied in the top 20 cm of different managed loess soils of more then 100 profiles along a climosequence in that region. Taken together, soil, landform, land use and vegetation data suggest: (1) summit positions are relatively stable with immobilizing humus environments; (2) the content of humus increase progressively down steep at the contact with the floodplains; 3) without the influx of organic materials, erodible backslopes may become humus depleted as it happen the poor inputs of grassland and forest litter are mixed with surface soil horizon; 4) influx of mixed sediment and organic materials from backslopes maintains concentrations of humus on footslopes and toeslopes. This influence was more pronounced in the heavy clayey soils, suggesting that the accumulation of humus was enhanced by organo-mineral interactions. Entrenchment of drainage ways can circumvent these translocation processes. The results underscore the importance of functional connectivity between upland

  14. Current issues and future directions in evidence-based child protection practices: a view from Romania.

    PubMed

    Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan

    2013-10-01

    The constantly changing nature of social care practice necessitates continuous development of educational programs to prepare current practitioners. Basing social work practice on methodologically sound research evidence is an appealing prospect for the child protection services. However, Romania, once considered an Eastern European model for child welfare policy and practice, is somehow lagging behind. In this article the author gives a short overview of where the Romanian Child Protection System currently stands in terms of evidence-based practice. PMID:24066629

  15. Prevalence and assessment of malnutrition risk among hospitalized children in Romania.

    PubMed

    Mărginean, Oana; Pitea, Ana Maria; Voidăzan, Septimiu; Mărginean, Claudiu

    2014-03-01

    Malnutrition is a prevalent condition in hospitalized children. Our aims were to evaluate the nutritional state and to validate the STRONGkids risk assessment tool in a hospitalized paediatric population in Romania. This is a prospective single-centre study in a tertiary teaching hospital in Romania (May 2011-January 2012). We calculated the STRONGkids score and measured the children's height and weight. Standard deviation < -2 for weight-for-height and height-for-age was considered to indicate acute or chronic malnutrition respectively. Two hundred seventy-one children were included, with median age of 5.2 years and median hospital stay of 2.01 days. Prevalence of malnutrition and severe malnutrition was 37% and 15% respectively. Using the STRONGkids screening tool, 58% of the children were found at risk of malnutrition (24% were at high risk). The kappa coefficient of agreement between STRONGkids and WHO malnutrition classification was 0.61. When a low serum protein level was used in upgrading STRONGkids risk category, kappa increased significantly to 0.71 (p = 0.001). A modified STRONGkids score, incorporating total serum protein levels, performs well in predicting malnutrition in hospitalized paediatric population in Romania. PMID:24847598

  16. Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Romania: A Six-Month Survey

    PubMed Central

    Straut, Monica; Usein, Codruta Romanita; Cristea, Dana; Ciontea, Simona; Codita, Irina; Rafila, Alexandru; Nica, Maria; Buzea, Mariana; Baicus, Anda; Ghita, Mihaela Camelia; Nistor, Irina; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Indreas, Marina; Antohe, Felicia; Glasner, Corinna; Grundmann, Hajo; Jasir, Aftab; Damian, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first characterization of carbapenem-non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates by means of a structured six-month survey performed in Romania as part of an Europe-wide investigation. Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates from different anatomical sites were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by phenotypic methods and confirmed by PCR for the presence of four carbapenemase genes. Genome macrorestriction fingerprinting with XbaI was used to analyze the relatedness of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected from eight hospitals. Among 75 non-susceptible isolates, 65 were carbapenemase producers. The most frequently identified genotype was OXA-48 (n = 51 isolates), eight isolates were positive for blaNDM-1 gene, four had the blaKPC-2 gene, whereas two were positive for blaVIM-1. The analysis of PFGE profiles of OXA-48 and NDM-1 producing K. pneumoniae suggests inter-hospitals and regional transmission of epidemic clones. This study presents the first description of K. pneumoniae strains harbouring blaKPC-2 and blaVIM-1 genes in Romania. The results of this study highlight the urgent need for the strengthening of hospital infection control measures in Romania in order to curb the further spread of the antibiotic resistance. PMID:26599338

  17. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle from north-west and centre of Romania

    PubMed Central

    Gavrea, R.R.; Iovu, A.; Losson, B.; Cozma, V.

    2011-01-01

    Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in different animals groups. A total number of 901 samples (862 sera from adult cows and 39 sera from calves) were collected from dairy farms and were screened for the presence of specific IgG anti-bodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence for neosporosis was 34.6%. In adult cows and calves seroprevalences reached 34.8% (300/862) and 30.8% for calves (12/39) respectively. In cattle which had previously aborted, seroprevalence was 40.9%. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among animals reared in dairy systems from Romania and a program for farmer training and a strategy for reducing the economic impact of the disease are needed. PMID:22091468

  18. The 3D geological model of the Eastern Romania tectonics and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necula, Nicusor; Sorin Baciu, Dorin; Niculita, Mihai; Dumitriu, Tony-Cristian

    2016-04-01

    3D geologic modelling is a modern tool which allow the conceptualization of geologic relations in an interactive environment, strengthening the ability to understand and present tectonic and structural geologic models. We integrated the data available in the literature (wells, maps, cross-sections) for the geological structure of the Eastern Romania, comprising the Eastern Carpathians Orogen and its foreland. The subducting East European plate generated the Eastern Carphatians thrusts. Under the Eastern Carpathians, beside East European plate, the Tornquist-Teysseire zone is caught. East European Craton (Proterozoic), Scythian Platform (Paleozoic), North Dobrogean Orogen (Paleozoic) and Moesian Platform (Paleozoic), all neighbor Tornquist-Teysseire zone (Paleozoic), playing the role of foreland for the Eastern Carpathian Orogen. The Eastern Carphatians Orogen has two flysch belts, the Inner Carpathian called Dacides formed in Cretacic deformations and the Outer Carpathian called Moldavides and formed in Late Badenian to Sarmatian deformations. The modelling was performed in Midland Valley's Move software. The boundaries of all the structural units presented above were modelled, together with the faults which are represented on the various osurces used. The created 3D geological model is seen as a tool to better understand and represent the tectonic and structural model of the Eastern ROmania and will also allow a better quantification of the relations between geology and landforms in Eastern Romania.

  19. Serological reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs and horses from distinct areas in Romania.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Timea; Cadar, Daniel; Krupaci, Alexandra Florina; Bordeanu, Armela; Brudaşcă, Gheorghe Florinel; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Mircean, Viorica; Gliga, Lucia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Spînu, Marina

    2011-09-01

    Lyme disease is a perfect model of the complex relationship between host, vector, and the vector-borne bacteria. Both dogs and horses in Romania are exposed to infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the seroreactivity against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs and horses from different regions of Romania. 276 samples from dogs and 260 samples from horses located in different regions of Romania were analyzed by ELISA and IFA, respectively. The effect of several factors potentially affecting seroreactivity (location, age, gender, occupation, and vector exposition risk) was evaluated using Fisher's exact test (R 2.12.0). The overall prevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies was 6.52% (18/276) in dogs, with a significantly higher positivity (46.15%, 6/13, p = 0.0005) recorded in a midcountry region. Seroreactivity was correlated with occupation, with working dogs being more exposed. The results may indicate that Lyme borreliosis foci are restricted to small areas, but further studies on Borrelia prevalence in tick populations are needed to confirm this hypothesis. In horses, a global seroprevalence of 11.92% (31/260) was observed. No correlations were found between positive results and age, sex, county, or occupation. This is the first serological survey on antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato in Romanian dogs and horses. PMID:21612524

  20. Transmission and molecular characterisation of wild measles virus in Romania, 2008 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Necula, G; Lazar, M; Stanescu, A; Pistol, A; Santibanez, S; Mankertz, A; Lupulescu, E

    2013-01-01

    Molecular characterisation of measles virus is a powerful tool for tracing transmission. Genotyping may prove the absence of endemic circulation of measles virus, i.e. transmission for more than 12 months, which is one of the criteria for verifying elimination of the disease. We have genetically characterised measles viruses detected in Romania from 2008 to 2012, focusing on the recent outbreaks from 2010 to 2012 that affected mainly groups with limited access to healthcare and schools. The findings emphasise the importance of genotyping during the different phases of an outbreak. A total of 8,170 cases were notified, and 5,093 (62%) of the 7,559 possible cases were serologically confirmed. RT-PCR was performed for 104 samples: from the 101 positive samples obtained from sporadic measles cases or clusters from different counties, 73 were genotyped. Sporadic measles cases associated with D4 and D5 viruses were observed from2008 to 2009. Genotype D4-Manchester was predominant in 2011 and 2012. In addition, the related variant D4-Maramures and MVs/Limoges.FRA/17.10[D4] and a few D4-Hamburg strains were detected. The detection of several distinct MV-D4 genotypes suggests multiple virus importations to Romania. The outbreak associated with D4 genotype is the second largest outbreak in Romania in less than 10 years. PMID:24342518

  1. Changes in precipitation, runoff and sediment transport in the Eastern Romania during the period 1950 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maria, Radoane; Constantin, Nechita; Francisca, Chiriloaei; Nicolae, Radoane

    2016-04-01

    dendrochronological analysis we will establish years with exceptional hydrological events prior to years with instrumental registrations. The obtained data will be modeled considering the known data in order to reconstruct water discharge (Q), suspended sediments (Qs) This application was elaborated for Eastern part of Romania, covered by the hydrographic basins of Siret and Prut, respectively for an area of more than 43000 km2. The conditions for geological structure, relief, land use, etc. offers the potential to better understand the spatial variability of some natural processes behavior in the last 6 decades. Also, a number of human interventions have occurred within the Siret and Prut River's drainage basins (i.e., dam construction, channelization, sediment mining, and deforestation), primarily during the past century. The history of human interventions in the area began during the twentieth century with the construction of bank protection structures, especially following the catastrophic 1970-1975 flood events. Natural reforestation, which followed several centuries of intense deforestation, has been most intense from the 1950s onward.

  2. Water and precipitation patterns in the North-East of Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchian, A.-M.; Machidon, O.-M.; Luchian, D.; Luchian, N.; Machidon, D.

    2012-04-01

    We have studied the changing precipitation patterns, intensity and extremes in the climate variability in the last 55 years, focusing on the temporal and spatial distribution of the precipitation and the temperature in the period of 1956 to 2010, in the North-East of Romania, especially at 8 meteorological stations in Moldavia: Iasi, Podu-Iloaie, Cotnari, Rauseni, Botosani, Dorohoi, Avrameni and Darabani (from south to the north). The obtained results following this study proves that it is a randomized line of the annual values of the observational data which represent an important and useful element supporting the understanding of a certain dynamic aspects related to the regime of precipitation in the N-E of Romania. Different precipitation producing mechanisms are associated with the northern precipitation regime and the atmospheric air circulation mainly from North-West. Space-time distributions that give the statistical number of cases of quantities of rainfall on medium, maximum and minimum threshold of values are needed to detect the climate changes given by the natural variability. The graphics of the annual rainfall thresholds represent 33% of all analysis cases. We did case studies of regional hydrological behavior in climate sensitive and drought or flood regions in the north-east of Romania. We have considered the average, maximum and minimal precipitation quantities recorded at the meteorological stations on scales higher than 0.1 and the higher than 1.0, 10.0, 20.0 and higher than 30.0. We have identified four dangerous levels of precipitation especially for flood and drought regions in the north-east Romania. Through this study we have the documented information about the structure of the annual precipitation regime over the North-East of Romania. The goal is to detect climate change impact on the evolution of the meteorological phenomena of risk (extreme temperatures and precipitation, droughts, hail, storms), very important in agriculture, economy

  3. Tick parasites of rodents in Romania: host preferences, community structure and geographical distribution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ticks are among the most important vectors of zoonotic diseases in temperate regions of Europe, with widespread distribution and high densities, posing an important medical risk. Most ticks feed on a variety of progressively larger hosts, with a large number of small mammal species typically harbouring primarily the immature stages. However, there are certain Ixodidae that characteristically attack micromammals also during their adult stage. Rodents are widespread hosts of ticks, important vectors and competent reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Micromammal-tick associations have been poorly studied in Romania, and our manuscript shows the results of a large scale study on tick infestation epidemiology in rodents from Romania. Methods Rodents were caught using snap-traps in a variety of habitats in Romania, between May 2010 and November 2011. Ticks were individually collected from these rodents and identified to species and development stage. Frequency, mean intensity, prevalence and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the EpiInfo 2000 software. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results We examined 423 rodents (12 species) collected from six counties in Romania for the presence of ticks. Each collected tick was identified to species level and the following epidemiological parameters were calculated: prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance. The total number of ticks collected from rodents was 483, with eight species identified: Ixodes ricinus, I. redikorzevi, I. apronophorus, I. trianguliceps, I. laguri, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis sulcata. The overall prevalence of tick infestation was 29.55%, with a mean intensity of 3.86 and a mean abundance of 1.14. Only two polyspecific infestations were found: I. ricinus + I. redikorzevi and I. ricinus + D. marginatus. Conclusions Our study showed a relatively high diversity of ticks parasitizing rodents in Romania. The most

  4. Investigation of thyroid nodules in the female population in Cyprus and in Romania

    PubMed Central

    PICIU, ANDRA; ANDRIANOU, XANTHI D.; IRIMIE, ALEXANDRU; BĂLĂCESCU, OVIDIU; ZIRA, CHRISTINA; BĂRBUş, ELENA; PEŞTEAN, CLAUDIU; ARISTEIDOU, KYRIAKOS; THEOFANOUS, THALIA; AGATHOKLEOUS, MARGERITA; PICIU, DOINA; MAKRIS, KONSTANTINOS C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims The most common thyroid disorders, with an increasing detection worldwide, are the thyroid nodules and thyroiditis, which leads to an increase of thyroid cancer incidence . In two different countries with a different exposure to risk factors for thyroid cancer, such as Cyprus and Romania, the rank of thyroid cancer among other neoplasms is very different: the 3rd most prevalent cancer among females in Cyprus and the 12th in Romania, respectively. Environmental chemicals, such as bisphenol A have a proven effect on the thyroid function. However, the relation between the exposure to the endocrine disruptor and the development of thyroid nodules, with a potential of malignant transformation has not been previously studied. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential factors that lead to the difference of thyroid nodules incidence in the mentioned countries. Methods A pilot case-control study has been conducted in 2014–2015 in the “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuţă” Institute of Oncology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania and the Endocrinology Department of Archbishop Makarios III Hospital, Nicosia, Cyprus. Females older than 20 years with no medical history were recruited. Cases were women with ultrasound-confirmed thyroid nodules of size >3mm. Controls were women without thyroid nodules after ultrasound confirmation. All participants provided blood samples for measurements of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (FT4), anti-thyroglobulin (ATg) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (ATPO); urine samples. Demographics, anthropometrics and other relevant information were provided through the administration of a questionnaire. Results In Romania we selected 51 patients with thyroid nodules (case group) and 41 without thyroid nodules (control group) and in Cyprus 57 cases, respectively 65 controls. After the statistical analysis of the data collected we observed statistically significant differences between the populations of the two countries

  5. Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian - Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defined the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System and the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System, which contain three assessment units, in the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria. The Moesian Platform Assessment Unit, contained within the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System, is composed of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks within the Moesian platform region of southern Romania and northern Bulgaria and also within the Birlad depression in the northeastern platform area. In Romania, hydrocarbon sources are identified as carbonate rocks and bituminous claystones within the Middle Devonian, Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Neogene stratigraphic sequences. In the Birlad depression, Neogene pelitic strata have the best potential for generating hydrocarbons. In Bulgaria, Middle and Upper Jurassic shales are the most probable hydrocarbon sources. The Romania Flysch Zone Assessment Unit in the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System encompasses three structural and paleogeographic subunits within the Pre-Carpathian Mountains region: (1) the Getic depression, a segment of the Carpathian foredeep; (2) the flysch zone of the eastern Carpathian Mountains (also called the Marginal Fold nappe); and (3) the Miocene zone (also called the Sub-Carpathian nappe). Source rocks are interpreted to be Oligocene dysodile schist and black claystone, along with Miocene black claystone and marls. Also part of the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System is the Romania Ploiesti Zone Assessment Unit, which includes a zone of diapir folds. This zone lies between the Rimnicu Sarat and Dinibovita valleys and between the folds of the inner Carpathian Mountains and the external flanks of the Carpathian foredeep. The Oligocene Dysodile Schist is considered the main hydrocarbon source rock and Neogene black marls and claystones are likely secondary sources; all are thought to be at their maximum

  6. Stable isotope distribution in precipitation in Romania and its relevance for palaeoclimatic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, Aurel; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Bădăluţă, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    A surge of recent studies in Romania have targeted various aspects of palaeoclimate (based on stable isotopes in ice, speleothems, tree rings), mineral water origin, wine and other juices provenance. However, while much needed, these studies lack a stable isotope in precipitation background, with only two LMWL's being published so far. In this paper we discuss the links between the stable isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18O and δ2H), climate (air temperature, precipitation amount and large scale circulation) and their relevance for the palaeocllimatic interpretation of stable isotope values in cave ice, cryogenic calcite and tree rings from different sites in Romania. Most of the precipitation in Romania is delivered by the Westerlies, bringing moisture from the North Atlantic; however, their influence is greatly reduced in the eastern half of the country where local evaporative sources play an important role in the precipitation balance. The SW is dominated by water masses from the Mediterranean Sea, while the SE corner clearly draws most of the moisture from the Black Sea and strongly depleted North Atlantic vapor masses. In 2012, Romania experienced the worst draught in 60 years, possibly due to a northward shift of the jest stream associated to blocking conditions in summer, which led to a more northern penetration of the Mediterranean-derived air masses, as well increased precipitation of re-evaporated waters. We have further analyzed cave drip water (δ18O and δ2H), cryogenic cave calcite (δ18O and δ13C) and tree rings (δ18O and δ13C) from selected sites across NW Romania, where the water isotopes in precipitation showed the best (and easiest to understand, given the climatic conditions in 2012) correlation with climatic parameters. Our results that 1) δ18O and δ2H in cave ice are a good proxy for late summer through early winter air temperature; 2) δ13C in cryogenic cave calcite are possible indicators of soil humidity and 3) δ18O in pine

  7. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  8. Brazil: Xingu River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... title:  Fire and Deforestation near the Xingu River     View Larger Image Numerous fires occurred near the headwaters of the Xingu River and the Xingu Indigenous Peoples' Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, during ...

  9. Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu’s contribution to the development of science and culture in Romania

    PubMed Central

    ROTARU, ALEXANDRU; PETROVAI, ION; ROTARU, HORATIU

    2016-01-01

    When speaking about Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu (1863–1926) and his major contribution to the establishment of Romanian medical education in Cluj, he should be considered not only in terms of scientist and creator of the Dental School, but also through his commitment to the development of science and culture in Romania. A wealthy dentist in Budapest where he graduated from the Dental School, he supported a lot of Romanian students to attend schools and universities in the Budapest, thus contributing to the development of culture in his own country. Finally, he left his private practice in the Capital of Hungary to come to Cluj to support the efforts of building the Dental School and profession in Romania. This paper illustrates the contribution that Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu made to the development of higher education in Romania, as well as his support of the local culture. PMID:27547068

  10. Measuring River Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  11. Mathematics. Rivers Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brueggeman, Gail; Clendenin, Donna

    The Rivers Project at Southern Illinois University began in February, 1990 as a pilot program involving eight high schools along the Mississippi and lower Illinois River. The Rivers Project network has grown through the training of teachers from across the United States and Canada. With scientific literacy as the ultimate goal, students collect…

  12. Flowing with Rivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students compare how artists have depicted rivers in paintings, using different styles, compositions, subject matter, colors, and techniques. They create a watercolor landscape that includes a river. Students can learn about rivers by studying them on site, through environmental study, and through works of…

  13. Amu Darya River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Amu Darya River     View Larger Image This false-color image of the Amu Darya River was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) in late ... highly vegetated areas to appear red. The Amu Darya river forms a wide delta in the western deserts of Uzbekistan and northeastern ...

  14. Rethinking the River.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, David

    1994-01-01

    Examines the ecological impacts of the Mississippi River flood of 1993 and the rethinking of river management practices that has resulted. Provides a map of the flood area which shows the occurrence of rare wildlife found in or near the region's rivers. (LZ)

  15. Paleoenvironmental evolution of the East Carpathian foredeep during the late Miocene-early Pliocene (Dacian Basin; Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, M.; Lazăr, I.; Krijgsman, W.; Vasiliev, I.; Jipa, D.; Floroiu, A.

    2013-04-01

    The thick and continuous Mio-Pliocene sedimentary successions of the Focşani Depression in the Dacian Basin of Romania provide an excellent opportunity to study the paleoecological changes in the Eastern Paratethys during the time when the Mediterranean and Black Sea experienced major sea level fluctuations related to the closure and re-opening of the marine connection to the Atlantic Ocean during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. These successions form the basis of high-resolution magneto-biostratigraphic studies that allow a detailed correlation to the standard Geological Time Scale. Here, we analyze the paleoenvironmental evolution of the East Carpathian foredeep by integrating micro- and macropaleontological data and sedimentological analyses. The ostracod and mollusc fossil associations from the Râmnicu Sărat river section indicate that the late Maeotian depositional environment was characterized by shallow waters and littoral to fluvio-deltaic sediments. The Maeotian-Pontian boundary (6.04 Ma) is marked by a marine ingression, comprising benthic (agglutinated and calcareous) and planktonic (Streptochilus spp.) foraminifera and nanofossils. Following this marine ingression, the Lower Pontian (Odessian; 6.04-5.8 Ma) fauna shows an increased bathymetry of the basin. The presence of ostracod species with eye tubercles indicates depositional environments within the photic zone (< 100 m). The Middle Pontian (Portaferrian; 5.8-5.5 Ma) is marked by a widespread sea level lowering resulting in dominant fluvio-deltaic conditions. This ecostratigraphy demonstrates that the main Messinian sea-level draw down (at 5.6-5.5 Ma) occurred in mid-Portaferrian times. Paleoenvironmental indicators show that the water level in the Foçsani Depression dropped less than 100 m during Mediterranean desiccation. The Dacian Basin remained filled with water, suggesting a positive hydrological balance for the region. This is compatible with the presence of a shallow barrier at Dobrogea

  16. Local community perception and awareness of flash floods vulnerability at a small catchment scale in the Bend Subcarpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Dana; Balteanu, Dan; Sima, Mihaela; Dumitrascu, Monica; Chendes, Viorel; Grigorescu, Ines; Dragota, Carmen; Dogaru, Diana; Costache, Andra

    2015-04-01

    The study aims to identify local communities perception and awareness in terms of hydro-meteorological extreme events in order to better understand the local context of vulnerability and communities resilience to flash floods as well as the mitigation measures undertaken by local authorities to cope with these phenomena. The study-area is located in the Bend Subcarpathians, Romania, a region well known for high tectonic mobility and dynamics of hydro-geomorphic processes (e.g. floods and flash floods, landslides). The study was conducted in the framework of VULMIN project (PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.1-1587), funded by the Ministry of National Education for the period 2012-2016 (http://www.igar-vulmin.ro). The previous analyses conducted in the project showed a high exposure to flash floods of small river catchments (generally below 200 km2 ) located in the study-area (Teleajen-Buzau hydrographic area). Some of the most recent events (2005, 2008, 2010 and 2014) had a high impact on local communities in terms of important losses to their assets and psychological effects. Thus, in the summer 2014, a questionnaire-based survey was addressed to over 50 households (from 5 villages), significantly affected by flash floods and structured interviews were held with local authorities (local municipalities, county Civil Protection Inspectorates). The questionnaire was focused on the perception of human vulnerability to environmental change and extreme events, mainly floods, aiming to outline the personal experience, post-disaster rehabilitation, awareness, worrying and opinion on the measures aimed to prevent and mitigate the effects of flooding. The flash flood events are of major concern for local community, due to their high return period (1-5 years) and magnitude in the recent years. This influences also the population response and adaptive capacity to these events, which is limited to individual measures (e.g. buildings consolidations and relocations). The survey showed a

  17. Levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in topsoils from SE Romania.

    PubMed

    Ene, Antoaneta; Bogdevich, Oleg; Sion, Alina

    2012-11-15

    The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in topsoils (n=17) at two sampling depths in Southeastern Romania, including industrial (Galati iron and steel plant) and agricultural sites in Galati and Braila counties, as well as nature reserves such as Lower Prut Meadow (Galati County) and Bugeac Lake (Constanta County), and to compare them with national guidelines and values reported for other regions. The total detectable OCP concentrations vary in the ranges 58-1662ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) for 0-5cm depth and 6-12,644ngg(-1) dw for 5-20cm depth. Of these, the concentrations of HCHs, DDTs, and heptachlor varied in the ranges 6-6818ngg(-1), 27-5826ngg(-1), and 108-873ngg(-1) dw, respectively, the highest values being registered near a cultivated area, located in the proximity of Siret River and Galati town, probably due to extensive use of pesticides in the past. Chlordane was detected only at one industrial site in Galati (53ngg(-1) dw), while the levels of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and mirex were below the detection limits in all the locations and for both depths. The total PAH concentrations for 5-20cm depth range from 9ngg(-1) (Lower Prut Meadow) to 25,352ngg(-1) dw (cattle farm), being lower than those reported for the upper 5cm layer. The PAH distribution pattern in this study is in agreement with that previously obtained for surface soils from Lower Prut Meadow (prevalence of 3-ring PAHs), industrial area and farmland (prevalence of 4- and 5-ring PAHs), their sources being industrial activity, traffic and agricultural waste burning. Carcinogenic PAHs contribute 44.8-56.4% for 5-20cm and 43.7-55.8% for 0-5cm depth to total PAHs. In some locations the HCH, DDT and PAH amounts exceed the legal values. PMID:23063641

  18. Climate Monitoring and Recommendations on the Optimum Sowing Period for the Main Crops in the Transylvanian Plain, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, T.; Moraru, P. I.; Sopterean, M. L.; Pop, A. I.; Cacovean, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Transylvanian Plain (TP) is a geographical region located in north-central Romania and is bordered by large rivers to the north and south, the Somes and the Mures, respectively. TP with an area of approx. 395,616 ha, includes areas of three counties (Cluj - CJ, Mures -MS, Bistrita-Nasaud - BN), has a predominantly agricultural character, and is characterized by hilly climate floor with oceanic influences, 6-10 0C average annual temperatures and 500-700 mm/year average annual precipitations. The presence of the Carpathian mountains ring and the arrangement, almost concentric, of the relief from Transylvanian Depression, determines the development of a zonal sequence of soil types, a horizontal zonality as a direct influence of lithology and indirect of the relief, by changing climate and vegetation. Diversity of the pedogenetical factors - highly fragmented relief, forest and herbaceous vegetation grafted on a lithological background predominantly acid in the north - west and predominantly basic in south - est, parent rock composition and especially their combination in the contact zones, have conditioned in this hilly area of TP a tessellated soil cover. During soil pedogenesis, soil properties and features developed in response to differential lithology and macro/microrelief. Evaluated soils were found to largely be a complex mix of Cernisols, Luvisols and Antrisols. Zoning cultures and establishing the optimum sowing periods was made after the observations arising from practice and after the results obtained in the agricultural experimental research stations. Climate changes in recent years and climate monitoring from TP offers the possibility to check the calendar for the optimum sowing period. Monitorization of the thermal and water regime from TP was performed with twenty HOBO microstations which determine the temperature (to a height of 1 m) and rainfalls, same as temperature (at 10, 30, 50 cm depth in soil) and soil moisture (at 10 cm depth). Recorded

  19. Variability of climate extremes in Romania and associated large-scale mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busuioc, Aristita; Dobrinescu, Andreea; Orzan, Alina; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    The characteristics of spatial and temporal variability of seasonal indices associated to four thermal extremes (frequency of very warm days/nights, longest period of very warm days/nights) and three precipitation extremes (longest period without precipitation, frequency of very wet days, longest very wet period) in Romania are firstly analysed. This analysis is achieved over the period 1961-2010 using daily temperature and precipitation data recorded at all Romanian stations with complete observations (78 for temperature and 98 for precipitation). For these indices, the statistical significance of linear trends (given by the Mann Kendall test) as well as characteristics of their simultaneous variability (using multifield EOF analysis) is achieved. Secondly, to understand the large-scale mechanisms controlling the characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of the analysed climate extremes (predictands), the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) is used. As large-scale predictors, various climate variables extracted from the NCEP/ERA40 (sea level pressure, temperature at 850 hPa, specific humidity at 700/850 hPa, etc) reanalysis data are used, either separately or together. In the CCA, the predictands are also used in various combinations allowing identification the complexity of interactions between climate extremes in Romania and large-scale predictors. The results show a significant increasing trend, in all seasons (except for autumn), for all indices associated to the 4 thermal extremes, the increase rate being more pronounced in summer, when it is significant at 5% level for the entire country, and less pronounced in spring. Regarding precipitation, there were found significant increasing trends over large areas in the frequency of very wet days during autumn, and in the maximum interval without precipitation during summer. All other trends are not significant, except for few isolated stations. In order to enforce these findings, the same indices

  20. Estimation of m.w.e (meter water equivalent) depth of the salt mine of Slanic Prahova, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, B.; Margineanu, R.; Stoica, S.; Petcu, M.; Brancus, I. M.; Petre, M.; Toma, G.; Saftoiu, A.; Apostu, A.; Jipa, A.; Lazanu, I.; Sima, O.; Haungs, A.; Rebel, H.

    2010-11-24

    A new mobile detector was developed in IFIN-HH, Romania, for measuring muon flux at surface and in underground. The measurements have been performed in the salt mines of Slanic Prahova, Romania. The muon flux was determined for 2 different galleries of the Slanic mine at different depths. In order to test the stability of the method, also measurements of the muon flux at surface at different altitudes were performed. Based on the results, the depth of the 2 galleries was established at 610 and 790 m.w.e. respectively.

  1. Study Case of Air-Mass Modification over Poland and Romania Observed by the Means of Multiwavelength Raman Depolarization Lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Nemuc, Anca; Talianu, Camelia; Heese, Birgit; Engelmann, Ronny

    2016-06-01

    An air-mass modification, on its way from Poland to Romania, observed between 19-21 July 2014 is discussed. The air-mass was investigated using data of two multi-wavelength lidars capable of performing regular elastic, depolarization and Raman measurements in Warsaw, Poland, and in Magurele, Romania. The analysis was focused on evaluating optical properties of aerosol in order to search for similarities and differences in the vertical profiles describing the atmospheric layers above the two stations within given period.

  2. AIDS may be rising, but Romania won't admit it.

    PubMed

    Doder, D

    1994-07-18

    Pronatalist policy under Nicolae Ceausescu and the Orthodox Church have perpetuated a social climate in Romania in which family planning and contraceptive usage are taboo. Abortion is the most common method of birth control and condoms are expensive when available. The consistent and correct use of condoms has been demonstrated to largely prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS. The prurient attitude toward sexuality and contraception in Romania, however, combined with ignorance about AIDS and its prevention is fueling an impending epidemic of HIV infection and disease in the country. The Ministry of Health under the control of Health Minister Iulian Minu, former dictator Ceausescu's personal physician and creator of the Communist diet claiming meat and other foods in short supply to be unhealthy, is doing nothing to control the spread of HIV and AIDS. Funding for AIDS research ended in 1992 when Minu was appointed in a new government of nonreformers. Some say that government inaction against AIDS and its refusal to acknowledge the existence of a growing problem in Romania stem from the desire based in national pride to avoid worldwide scrutiny like that of 1990 about AIDS babies in the country. Many children with AIDS remain in inhuman conditions, even chained to cots in villages in Transylvania. Vertical transmission of HIV has appeared for the first time and youths aged 13-14 years are now falling ill from HIV-related diseases. Charges have also been leveled that national blood banks are contaminated with HIV and the Health Ministry has misused World Health Organization funds. Although the government claims that 2547 children and 189 adults were registered as having AIDS in the four years ending March 1994, more people are definitely infected in the country, but no one knows for sure how many. PMID:12287705

  3. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  4. Infant mortality evolution in Romania: perspectives from a country in transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlea, A.-M.; Muntele, I.

    2012-04-01

    In the last two decades transition was a word used to describe the important mutations that have characterized social and economic structures in Romania. All the changes left their mark on every aspects of life including on population health status, and all modifications were reflected in the evolution of health indicators. Considered one of the most sensitive indicators of living conditions, population health literacy level and healthcare system efficiency infant mortality rate is a negative indicator which reflects the intensity of children deaths before their first anniversary. Based on the current statistical data collected at county level, this research aims to underline the existing spatial differences in Romania at county level, to identify spatial patterns, time trend and to point out the territories that need special attention and a more profound analysis for understanding the causes that are generating them. Using mathematical and statistical methods we have calculated infant mortality for a previous and available period of time (1990 - 2010) and identified a trend influenced by exogenous and endogenous factors. With the help of GIS techniques we have created cartographic material for allowing us an easier identification of spatial disparities. Following the global trend, Romania achieved significant progress in reduction infant mortality. From values that exceeded 26 ‰ at the beginning of the nineties this indicator has continued to diminish until 9.79 ‰ in 2010. But, with all the improvements, value is still double in compare with European Union average. Although characteristic for Romania is the general downward trend, at the county level there can be identified different types of evolution and different spatial pattern. Having the lowest economic development level in the country, Northeast and Southeast counties maintain high values for infant mortality rate. Positive examples are given by Bucharest and some central and western districts, all with

  5. Population data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by 17 STRs in South-East Romania.

    PubMed

    Stanciu, Florin; Cuţăr, Veronica; Pîrlea, Sorina; Stoian, Veronica; Stoian, Ionel Marius; Sevastre, Olivia; Popescu, Oana Raluca

    2010-09-01

    Haplotypes and allele frequencies for 17 STR loci included in AmpFlSTR YFiler kit (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y GATAH4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448) were determined in a sample of 122 unrelated males living in the South-East Romania. Genetic distances had been calculated and dendrograms had been generated for South-East Romanian population and other eighteen surrounding populations. PMID:20621540

  6. Dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dortet, Laurent; Flonta, Mirela; Boudehen, Yves-Marie; Creton, Elodie; Bernabeu, Sandrine; Vogel, Anaïs; Naas, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    Fifteen carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates and 12 carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were recovered from patients hospitalized between August 2011 and March 2013 at the Hospital of Infectious Disease, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. One KPC-, nine NDM-1-, four OXA-48-, and one VIM-4-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates along with 11 VIM-2-producing and one IMP-13-producing P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered from clinical samples. All carbapenemase genes were located on self-conjugative plasmids and were associated with other resistance determinants, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases and RmtC methylases. PMID:26303798

  7. Molecular identification of emergent GII.P17-GII.17 norovirus genotype, Romania, 2015.

    PubMed

    Dinu, Sorin; Nagy, Mariana; Negru, Dana Gabriela; Popovici, Emilian Damian; Zota, Lavinia; Oprișan, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    The novel GII.P17-GII.17 norovirus genotype has been reported as cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in China and Japan since the winter season 2014/15, replacing the pandemic strain GII.4 Sydney 2012. These emergent strains have also been sporadically reported on other continents than Asia. GII.P17-GII.17 isolates, similar to Kawasaki308 2015, were identified in three patients during a large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis affecting 328 people in Romania, in neighbouring localities, in 2015. PMID:26924169

  8. Pollution of the stream waters and sediments associated with the Crucea uranium mine (East Carpathians, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, L.; Bilal, E.; Iatan, E. L.

    2009-04-01

    Uranium and thorium are omnipresent in our environment. Various anthropogenic activities involving the processing or use of materials rich in uranium may modify the natural abundance of uranium in water. The study is related to uranium mineralization located within Crucea ore deposit, in the East Carpathians, Romania. The Crucea uranium ore deposit is located in the eastern part of the Bistrita Mountains (40 Km southeast of the town of Vatra Dornei) in the headwaters of Crucea, Lesu and Livezi valleys. At present, this is the largest uranium mine in the country. In the past, the mining area covered 18 km2, but was gradually overtaken by logging activities. The exploration and mining facilities include thirty-two galleries, situated between 780 and 1040 m above sea level. Radioactive waste resulted from mining are disposed next to the mining facilities. The waste rock was disposed in piles of variable size that are spread over an area of 364,000 m2. Older dumps (18) have been already naturally reclaimed by forest vegetation. The vegetation cover played an important role in stabilizing the waste dump cover and in slowing down the uranium migration processes. A number of 46 water samples were taken in order to evaluate the impact of ore deposit (including its exploitation process) on the chemical composition of waters down to the exploitation galleries. The sediment samples were collected at 16 sampling points from the bottom of the studied stream waters. ICP-OES, XRF and IC methods was used to evaluate the impact of uranium mine dumps on the surface waters from Crucea region. According to the analytical data the stream waters showed a Ca - carbonate character. In relation to salinity, the pH and the anion NO3-, CO32-and SO42- contents display generally non-linear relationships with chloride. Uranium is the most significant trace element in the river waters nearby the waste rock dumps, sometimes reaching levels up to 1-mgṡL-1, well in excess of the Romanian

  9. 76 FR 51887 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...) entitled ``Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 36447). We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY... safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River Air Expo '11,'' which consists of aerial...

  10. Reductions in abortion-related mortality following policy reform: evidence from Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal mortality; however, abortion law and policy liberalization could lead to drops in unsafe abortion and related deaths. This review provides an analysis of changes in abortion mortality in three countries where significant policy reform and related service delivery occurred. Drawing on peer-reviewed literature, population data and grey literature on programs and policies, this paper demonstrates the policy and program changes that led to declines in abortion-related mortality in Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh. In all three countries, abortion policy liberalization was followed by implementation of safe abortion services and other reproductive health interventions. South Africa and Bangladesh trained mid-level providers to offer safe abortion and menstrual regulation services, respectively, Romania improved contraceptive policies and services, and Bangladesh made advances in emergency obstetric care and family planning. The findings point to the importance of multi-faceted and complementary reproductive health reforms in successful implementation of abortion policy reform. PMID:22192901