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Sample records for baicalein improves histological

  1. Baicalein pretreatment reduces liver ischemia/reperfusion injury via induction of autophagy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Anding; Huang, Liang; Guo, Enshuang; Li, Renlong; Yang, Jiankun; Li, Anyi; Yang, Yan; Liu, Shenpei; Hu, Jifa; Jiang, Xiaojing; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta; Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that baicalein could protect against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. The exact mechanism of baicalein remains poorly understood. Autophagy plays an important role in protecting against I/R injury. This study was designed to determine whether baicalein could protect against liver I/R injury via induction of autophagy in rats. Baicalein was intraperitoneally injected 1 h before warm ischemia. Pretreatment with baicalein prior to I/R insult significantly blunted I/R-induced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels and significantly improved the histological status of livers. Electron microscopy and expression of the autophagic marker LC3B-II suggested induction of autophagy after baicalein treatment. Moreover, inhibition of the baicalein-induced autophagy using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) worsened liver injury. Furthermore, baicalein treatment increased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression, and pharmacological inhibition of HO-1 with tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP) abolished the baicalein-mediated autophagy and the hepatocellular protection. In primary rat hepatocytes, baicalein-induced autophagy also protected hepatocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in vitro and the beneficial effect was abrogated by 3-MA or Atg7 siRNA, respectively. Suppression of HO-1 activity by SnPP or HO-1 siRNA prevented the baicalein-mediated autophagy and resulted in increased hepatocellular injury. Collectively, these results suggest that baicalein prevents hepatocellular injury via induction of HO-1-mediated autophagy. PMID:27150843

  2. The flavonoid baicalein promotes NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and enhances memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Fang; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Long, Li-Hong; Fu, Hui; Xie, Na; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is growing interest in the physiological functions of flavonoids, especially in their effects on cognitive function and on neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the role of the flavonoid baicalein in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region and cognitive behavioural performance. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of baicalein on LTP in rat hippocampal slices were investigated by electrophysiological methods. Phosphorylation of Akt (at Ser473), the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) (at Ser133) were analysed by Western blot. Fear conditioning was used to determine whether baicalein could improve learning and memory in rats. KEY RESULTS Baicalein enhanced the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor-dependent LTP in a bell-shaped concentration-dependent manner. Addition of the lipoxygenase metabolites 12(S)-HETE and 12(S)-HPETE did not reverse these effects of baicalein. Baicalein treatment enhanced phosphorylation of Akt during induction of LTP with the same bell-shaped dose–response curve. LTP potentiation induced by baicalein was blocked by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. CREB phosphorylation was also increased in the CA1 region of baicalein-treated slices. Baicalein-treated rats performed significantly better than controls in a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Furthermore, baicalein treatment selectively increased the phosphorylation of Akt and CREB in the CA1 region of hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex, after fear conditioning training. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results demonstrate that the flavonoid baicalein can facilitate memory, and therefore it might be useful in the treatment of patients with memory disorders. PMID:21133890

  3. The flavonoid baicalein rescues synaptic plasticity and memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun-Hu; Xu, Li-Jun; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Wei, Bo; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Xu, Guo-Gang; Yin, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Wei

    2016-09-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that disruptions of synaptic functions correlate with the severity of cognitive deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous study demonstrated that baicalein enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) in acute rat hippocampal slices and improves hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning in rats. Given that baicalein possess various biological activities, especially its effects on synaptic plasticity and cognitive function, we examined the effect of baicalein on synaptic function both in vitro and in vivo in AD model. The effect of baicalein on Aβ42 oligomer impaired LTP was investigated by electrophysiological methods. Baicalein was administered orally via drinking water to the APP/PS1 mice and sex- and age-matched wild-type mice. Treatment started at 5 months of age and mice were assessed for cognition and AD-like pathology at 7-month-old. Cognition was analyzed by Morris water maze test, fear conditioning test, and novel object recognition test. Changes in hippocampal 12/15 Lipoxygenase (12/15LO) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity, Aβ production, tau phosphorylation, synaptic plasticity, and dendritic spine density were evaluated. Baicalein prevented Aβ-induced impairments in hippocampal LTP through activation of serine threonine Kinase (Akt) phosphorylation. Long-term oral administration of baicalein inhibited 12/15LO and GSK3β activity, reduced β-secretase enzyme (BACE1), decreased the concentration of total Aβ, and prevented phosphorylation of tau in APP/PS1 mice. Meanwhile, baicalein restored spine number, synaptic plasticity, and memory deficits. Our results strengthen the potential of the flavonoid baicalein as a novel and promising oral bioactive therapeutic agent that prevents memory deficits in AD. PMID:27233830

  4. Characterization and Enhanced Antioxidant Activity of the Cysteinyl β-Cyclodextrin-Baicalein Inclusion Complex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwanhee; Yiluo, Hu; Park, Seyeon; Lee, Jae Yung; Cho, Eunae; Jung, Seunho

    2016-01-01

    Baicalein is a type of flavonoid isolated from the roots of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis. Although it has attracted considerable attention due to its antiviral, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, its limited aqueous solubility inhibits the clinical application of this flavonoid. The present study aimed to prepare and characterize a host-guest complex in an effort to improve the solubility and antioxidant activity of baicalein. The host molecule is a macrocyclic β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized with cysteine for a synergetic effect. The structure of the synthesized cysteinyl β-CD was analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The inclusion complex with baicalein was studied by UV-vis, NMR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry. The formed cysteinyl β-CD/baicalein inclusion complex efficiently improved the solubility and antioxidant ability of baicalein. Therefore, we suggest that the present cysteinyl β-CD is a potential host molecule for inclusion complexation and for bioavailability augmentation. PMID:27240335

  5. Enhanced bioavailability after oral and pulmonary administration of baicalein nanocrystal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Lv, Huixia; Jiang, Kun; Gao, Yuan

    2011-11-25

    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of oral and pulmonary nanocrystal to enhance the bioavailability of baicalein, a bioactive flavonoid isolated from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. So far, the nano-sized delivery system of baicalein and its pulmonary delivery have received no exploration. In the present investigation, the baicalein nanocrystal was prepared by anti-solvent recrystallization followed by high pressure homogenization. In vitro characterization was performed including particle size and distribution, Zeta potential, dissolution, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. It was indicated that no crystalline change was observed after nanocrystal preparation. The baicalein nanocrystal containing only trace of stabilizer exhibited a significantly enhanced dissolution of baicalein. In vivo test was also carried out in rats and pharmacokinetic parameters of the baicalein crystal and the baicalein nanocrystal after gavage and pulmonary administration were compared, based on the simultaneous determination of baicalein and baicalin by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean relative bioavailability of oral baicalein nanocrystal was 1.67-fold that of oral baicalein crystal. The pulmonary baicalein nanocrystal had rapid and extensive absorption and had almost identical pharmacokinetic parameters to intravenous baicalein injection. PMID:21878378

  6. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Baicalein Potently Inhibits Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Jiasheng; Liu, Tianrun; Jiang, Lin; Wu, Xiangsong; Cao, Yang; Li, Maolan; Dong, Qian; Liu, Yingbin; Xu, Haineng

    2016-01-01

    Baicalein, a traditional Chinese medicine, is a member of the flavone subclass of flavonoids. It has been reported to have anticancer activities in several human cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the therapeutic effects of baicalein on human gastric cancer and the mechanisms of action of baicalein have not been extensively studied. In the present study, we utilized a cell viability assay and an in vivo tumor growth assay to test the inhibitory effects of baicalein on gastric cancer. Analyses of the cell cycle, apoptosis and alterations in protein levels were performed to elucidate how baicalein functions in gastric cancer. We found that baicalein could potently inhibit gastric cancer cell growth and colony formation. Baicalein robustly induced arrest at the S phase in the gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. It induced SGC-7901 cell apoptosis and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of protein expression levels in SGC-7901 cells showed downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax in response to baicalein treatment. These results indicate that baicalein induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through the mitochondrial pathway. In an in vivo subcutaneous xenograft model, baicalein exhibited excellent tumor inhibitory effects. These results indicate that baicalein may be a potential drug for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:26918059

  7. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. PMID:26033842

  8. Exploring Therapeutic Potentials of Baicalin and Its Aglycone Baicalein for Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haijun; Gao, Yu; Wu, Jianlei; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Buyuan; Hu, Jianda; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Despite tremendous advances in the targeted therapy for various types of hematological malignancies with successful improvements in the survival rates, emerging resistance issues are startlingly high and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In addition, chemoprevention is currently becoming an elusive goal. Plant-derived natural products have garnered considerable attention in recent years due to the potential dual functions as chemotherapeutics and dietary chemoprevention. One of the particularly ubiquitous families is the polyphenolic flavonoids. Among them, baicalin and its aglycone baicalein have been widely investigated in hematological malignancies because both of them exhibit remarkable pharmacological properties. This review focuses on the recent achievements in drug discovery research associated with baicalin and baicalein for hematological malignancy therapies. The promising anticancer activities of these two flavonoids targeting diverse signaling pathways and their potential biological mechanisms in different types of hematological malignancies, as well as the combination strategy with baicalin or baicalein as chemotherapeutic adjuvants for recent therapies in these intractable diseases are discussed. Meanwhile, the biotransformation of baicalin and baicalein and the relevant approaches to improve their bioavailability are also summarized. PMID:25128647

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Baicalin and Baicalein on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianchu; Li, Zhaoliang; Chen, Allen Y.; Ye, Xingqian; Luo, Haitao; Rankin, Gary O.; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the primary causes of death for women all through the Western world. Baicalin and baicalein are naturally occurring flavonoids that are found in the roots and leaves of some Chinese medicinal plants and are thought to have antioxidant activity and possible anti-angiogenic, anti-cancer, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. Two kinds of ovarian cancer (OVCAR-3 and CP-70) cell lines and a normal ovarian cell line (IOSE-364) were selected to be investigated in the inhibitory effect of baicalin and baicalein on cancer cells. Largely, baicalin and baicalein inhibited ovarian cancer cell viability in both ovarian cancer cell lines with LD50 values in the range of 45–55 μM for baicalin and 25–40 μM for baicalein. On the other hand, both compounds had fewer inhibitory effects on normal ovarian cells viability with LD50 values of 177 μM for baicalin and 68 μM for baicalein. Baicalin decreased expression of VEGF (20 μM), cMyc (80 μM), and NFkB (20 μM); baicalein decreased expression of VEGF (10 μM), HIF-1α (20 μM), cMyc (20 μM), and NFkB (40 μM). Therefore baicalein is more effective in inhibiting cancer cell viability and expression of VEGF, HIF-1α, cMyc, and NFκB in both ovarian cancer cell lines. It seems that baicalein inhibited cancer cell viability through the inhibition of cancer promoting genes expression including VEGF, HIF-1α, cMyc, and NFκB. Overall, this study showed that baicalein and baicalin significantly inhibited the viability of ovarian cancer cells, while generally exerting less of an effect on normal cells. They have potential for chemoprevention and treatment of ovarian cancers. PMID:23502466

  10. Phlebotomy improves histology in chronic hepatitis C males with mild iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Massimo; Andorno, Silvano; Rossini, Angelo; Boldorini, Renzo; Bozzola, Cristina; Carmagnola, Stefania; Piano, Mario Del; Albano, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of mild iron depletion and the factors predictive for histological improvement following phlebotomy in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). METHODS: We investigated 28 CHC Caucasians with persistently elevated serum aminotransferase levels and non responders to, or unsuitable for, antiviral therapy who underwent mild iron depletion (ferritin ≤ 70 ng/mL) by long-term phlebotomy. Histological improvement, as defined by at least one point reduction in the staging score or, in case of unchanged stage, as at least two points reduction in the grading score (Knodell), was evaluated in two subsequent liver biopsies (before and at the end of phlebotomy, 48 ± 16 mo apart). RESULTS: Phlebotomy showed an excellent safety profile. Histological improvement occurred in 12/28 phlebotomized patients. Only males responded to phlebotomy. At univariate logistic analysis alcohol intake (P = 0.034), high histological grading (P = 0.01) and high hepatic iron concentration (HIC) (P = 0.04) before treatment were associated with histological improvement. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that in males high HIC was the only predictor of histological improvement following phlebotomy (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.94, P = 0.031). Accordingly, 12 out of 17 (70%) patients with HIC ≥ 20 μmol/g showed histological improvements at the second biopsy. CONCLUSION: Male CHC Caucasian non-responders to antiviral therapy with low-grade iron overload can benefit from mild iron depletion by long-term phlebotomy. PMID:20128028

  11. Novel antiviral activity of baicalein against dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is a serious arboviral disease currently with no effective antiviral therapy or approved vaccine available. Therefore, finding the effective compound against dengue virus (DENV) replication is very important. Among the natural compounds, bioflavonoids derived mainly from plants are of interest because of their biological and medicinal benefits. Methods In the present study, antiviral activity of a bioflavonoid, baicalein, was evaluated against different stages of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) replication in Vero cells using focus forming unit reduction assay and quantitative RT-PCR. Results Baicalein inhibited DENV-2 replication in Vero cells with IC50= 6.46 μg/mL and SI= 17.8 when added after adsorption to the cells. The IC50 against DENV-2 was 5.39 μg/mL and SI= 21.3 when cells were treated 5 hours before virus infection and continuously up to 4 days post infection. Baicalein exhibited direct virucidal effect against DENV-2 with IC 50= 1.55 μg/mL and showed anti-adsorption effect with IC50 = 7.14 μg/mL. Conclusions Findings presented here suggest that baicalein exerts potent antiviral activity against DENV. Baicalein possesses direct virucidal activity against DENV besides its effects against dengue virus adsorption and intracellular replication of DENV-2. Baicalein, hence, should be considered for in vivo evaluation in the development of an effective antiviral compound against DENV. PMID:23140177

  12. IVUS-based histology of atherosclerotic plaques: improving longitudinal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Arash; Pauly, Olivier; Setarehdan, S. Kamaledin; Unal, Gozde; Navab, Nassir

    2010-03-01

    Although Virtual Histology (VH) is the in-vivo gold standard for atherosclerosis plaque characterization in IVUS images, it suffers from a poor longitudinal resolution due to ECG-gating. In this paper, we propose an image-based approach to overcome this limitation. Since each tissue have different echogenic characteristics, they show in IVUS images different local frequency components. By using Redundant Wavelet Packet Transform (RWPT), IVUS images are decomposed in multiple sub-band images. To encode the textural statistics of each resulting image, run-length features are extracted from the neighborhood centered on each pixel. To provide the best discrimination power according to these features, relevant sub-bands are selected by using Local Discriminant Bases (LDB) algorithm in combination with Fisher's criterion. A structure of weighted multi-class SVM permits the classification of the extracted feature vectors into three tissue classes, namely fibro-fatty, necrotic core and dense calcified tissues. Results shows the superiority of our approach with an overall accuracy of 72% in comparison to methods based on Local Binary Pattern and Co-occurrence, which respectively give accuracy rates of 70% and 71%.

  13. Baicalein reduces β-amyloid and promotes nonamyloidogenic amyloid precursor protein processing in an Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, She-Qing; Obregon, Demian; Ehrhart, Jared; Deng, Juan; Tian, Jun; Hou, Huayan; Giunta, Brian; Sawmiller, Darrell; Tan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Baicalein, a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis, is known to modulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors. Given prior reports demonstrating benefits of GABAA modulation for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) treatment, we wished to determine whether this agent might be beneficial for AD. CHO cells engineered to overexpress wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP), primary culture neuronal cells from AD mice (Tg2576) and AD mice were treated with baicalein. In the cell cultures, baicalein significantly reduced the production of β-amyloid (Aβ) by increasing APP α-processing. These effects were blocked by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline. Likewise, AD mice treated daily with i.p. baicalein for 8 weeks showed enhanced APP α-secretase processing, reduced Aβ production, and reduced AD-like pathology together with improved cognitive performance. Our findings suggest that baicalein promotes nonamyloidogenic processing of APP, thereby reducing Aβ production and improving cognitive performance, by activating GABAA receptors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23686791

  14. Using Molecular Phenotyping to Guide Improvements in the Histologic Diagnosis of T Cell-Mediated Rejection.

    PubMed

    Reeve, J; Chang, J; Salazar, I D R; Lopez, M Merino; Halloran, P F

    2016-04-01

    Recognition that some lesions typical of T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) also occur in antibody-mediated rejection requires revision of the histologic TCMR definition. To guide this process, we assessed the relative importance of various lesions and the performance of new histology diagnostic algorithms, using molecular TCMR scores as histology-independent estimates of true TCMR. In 703 indication biopsies, random forest analysis and logistic regression indicated that interstitial infiltrate (i-lesions) and tubulitis (t-lesions) were the key histologic predictors of molecular TCMR, with arteritis (v-lesions) having less importance. Histology predicted molecular TCMR more accurately when diagnoses were assigned by strictly applying the Banff rules to the lesion scores and redefining isolated v-lesion TCMR. This improved prediction from area under the curve (AUC) 0.70 with existing rules to AUC 0.80. Further improvements were achieved by introducing more categories to reflect inflammation (AUC 0.84), by summing the lesion scores (AUC 0.85) and by logistic regression (AUC 0.90). We concluded that histologic assessment of TCMR can be improved by placing more emphasis on i- and t-lesions and incorporating new algorithms for diagnosis. Nevertheless, some discrepancies between histologic and molecular diagnoses persist, partially due to the inherent nonspecificity of i- and t-lesions, and molecular methods will be required to help resolve these cases. PMID:26730747

  15. Anti-Bladder-Tumor Effect of Baicalein from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Its Application In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin-Yi; Li, Yi-Zhen; Chang, Yi-Sheng; Lai, Yi-Chien; Laio, Yu-Han; Wu, Jiann-Der; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Some phytochemicals with the characteristics of cytotoxicity and/or antimetastasis have generated intense interest among the anticancer studies. In this study, a natural flavonoid baicalein was evaluated in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Baicalein inhibits 5637 cell proliferation. It arrests cells in G1 phase at 100 μM and in S phase below 75 μM. The protein expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 is reduced by baicalein. Baicalein-induced p-ERK plays a minor role in cyclin B1 reduction. Baicalein-inhibited p65NF-κB results in reduction of cell growth. Baicalein-induced pGSK(ser9) has a little effect in increasing cyclin B1/D1 expression instead. The translation inhibitor cycloheximide blocks baicalein-reduced cyclin B1, suggesting that the reduction is caused by protein synthesis inhibition. On the other hand, neither cycloheximide nor proteasome inhibitor MG132 completely blocks baicalein-reduced cyclin D1, suggesting that baicalein reduces cyclin D1 through protein synthesis inhibition and proteasomal degradation activation. In addition, baicalein also inhibits cell invasion by inhibiting MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression and activity. In mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, baicalein slightly reduces tumor size but with some hepatic toxicity. In summary, these results demonstrate the anti-bladder-tumor properties of the natural compound baicalein which shows a slight anti-bladder-tumor effect in vivo. PMID:23573134

  16. Preparation and evaluation of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system of baicalein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenli; Tian, Rui; Hu, Wenjing; Jia, Yuntao; Jiang, Huiming; Zhang, Jingqing; Zhang, Liangke

    2012-12-01

    The main object of this work is to prepare self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for oral bioavailability enhancement of a poorly water-soluble drug, baicalein. SMEDDS is the mixture of surfactants, cosurfactants, and oils, which are emulsified in aqueous media under conditions of gentle agitation or gastrointestinal motility. Solubility of baicalein was determined in various vehicles. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the efficient self-emulsification region and droplet size distributions of the resultant microemulsions were determined using a particle size analyzer. Optimized SMEDDS formulations for baicalein were Cremophor RH40 (53.57%) as surfactant, Transcutol P (21.43%) as cosurfactant, and Caprylic capric triglyceride (ODO, 25%) as oil. The drug release rate of SMEDDS was significantly higher than that of the baicalein suspension. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics between baicalein-loaded SMEDDS and baicalein suspension was also performed in rats. The plasma concentrations of baicalein and baicalin, its mainly conjugated metabolite, were determined by HPLC method. The in vivo results showed that the absorption of baicalein from SMEDDS resulted in about 200.7% increase in relative bioavailability compared with that of the baicalein suspension. Our studies illustrated the potential use of SMEDDS for the delivery of hydrophobic compounds, such as baicalein by the oral route. PMID:22982454

  17. Baicalein inhibits the migration and invasive properties of human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Tseng-Hsi; Huang, Wen-Shih; Teng, Chun-Yuh; Liou, Yi-Sheng; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Lin, Wea-Lung; Huang, Hai-I; Tung, Jai-Nien; Huang, Chih-Yang; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Wang, Wen-Hung; Hwang, Jin-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Flavonoids have been demonstrated to exert health benefits in humans. We investigated whether the flavonoid baicalein would inhibit the adhesion, migration, invasion, and growth of human hepatoma cell lines, and we also investigated its mechanism of action. The separate effects of baicalein and baicalin on the viability of HA22T/VGH and SK-Hep1 cells were investigated for 24 h. To evaluate their invasive properties, cells were incubated on matrigel-coated transwell membranes in the presence or absence of baicalein. We examined the effect of baicalein on the adhesion of cells, on the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), protein kinase C (PKC), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and on tumor growth in vivo. We observed that baicalein suppresses hepatoma cell growth by 55%, baicalein-treated cells showed lower levels of migration than untreated cells, and cell invasion was significantly reduced to 28%. Incubation of hepatoma cells with baicalein also significantly inhibited cell adhesion to matrigel, collagen I, and gelatin-coated substrate. Baicalein also decreased the gelatinolytic activities of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA, decreased p50 and p65 nuclear translocation, and decreased phosphorylated I-kappa-B (IKB)-{beta}. In addition, baicalein reduced the phosphorylation levels of PKC{alpha} and p38 proteins, which regulate invasion in poorly differentiated hepatoma cells. Finally, when SK-Hep1 cells were grown as xenografts in nude mice, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of baicalein induced a significant dose-dependent decrease in tumor growth. These results demonstrate the anticancer properties of baicalein, which include the inhibition of adhesion, invasion, migration, and proliferation of human hepatoma cells in vivo. - Highlight: > Baicalein inhibits several essential steps in the onset of metastasis.

  18. Baicalein inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cells through suppressing the expression of CD24.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhengquan; Zhu, Shengming; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zian; Wu, Shiwu; Zheng, Rongsheng

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death and is the most common type of liver cancer. Current therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma are still rather limited and novel therapeutic strategies are required. Baicalein, extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis, has anticancer effects on HCC in vitro and vivo. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well studied yet. In the present study, we evaluated anticancer effects of purified botanical extracts on HCC cells using high-throughput screening and investigated the effects of baicalein on HCC cells using proliferation and apoptosis assays, RT-PCR, and Western blot. Transfection was used to explore the underlying mechanisms of these effects. Our results showed that baicalein is the most efficient botanical extract in a HCC cell line as compared with the other 13 extracts. Baicalein significantly decreased the expression of c-Myc, a crucial regulator of cell proliferation, apoptosis and cellular transformation, in dose- and time-dependent manners in HCC cells. Moreover, baicalein inhibited HCC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. The mRNA and protein expressions of CD24 were downregulated by baicalein in HCC cells and ectopic overexpression of CD24 reversed baicalein-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and survival. Taken together, our results demonstrate efficient anticancer effects of baicalein on HCC cells and indicate that baicalein suppresses cell growth and cell survival through downregulation of CD24. PMID:26548344

  19. Inclusion complexation between baicalein and β-cyclodextrin and the influence of β-cyclodextrin on the binding of baicalein with DNA: a spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sameena, Yousuf; Chandrasekaran, Sowrirajan; Israel V M V, Enoch

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the commonly studied cyclic oligosaccharide and gains importance as it is entered on a drug delivering carbohydrate and provides insight into the oligosaccharide complex-biomolecular interaction. The binding of a flavone, baicalein, to β-cyclodextrin and calf thymus DNA is studied. The binding of baicalein to calf thymus DNA in the presence of β-cyclodextrin is analysed using the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The mode of binding and structure of the baicalein-β-cyclodextrin complex are reported. The role of the structure and the stoichiometry of the inclusion complex of baicalein-β-cyclodextrin in its influence on DNA binding are analysed. Highlights • This paper deals with the binding of a flavone, baicalein to β-cyclodextrin and/or DNA. • The inclusion complexation between baicalein and β-cyclodextrin is analysed. • The stoichiometry and the binding strength of the inclusion complex is reported. • The role of β-cyclodextrin in tuning the binding of baicalein to DNA is emphasized. • Spectroscopic and docking analysis are used to articulate the results. PMID:26308145

  20. Baicalein Reduces the Invasion of Glioma Cells via Reducing the Activity of p38 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaoming; Li, Siyuan; Zhang, Yong; Meng, Lihua; Xue, Rongliang; Li, Zongfang

    2014-01-01

    Baicalein, one of the major flavonids in Scutellaria baicalensis, has historically been used in anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies. However, the anti-metastatic effect and related mechanism(s) in glioma are still unclear. In this study, we thus utilized glioma cell lines U87MG and U251MG to explore the effect of baicalein. We found that administration of baicalein significantly inhibited migration and invasion of glioma cells. In addition, after treating with baicalein for 24 h, there was a decrease in the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression as well as proteinase activity in glioma cells. Conversely, the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2 was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, baicalein treatment significantly decreased the phosphorylated level of p38, but not ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and PI3K/Akt. Combined treatment with a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and baicalein resulted in the synergistic reduction of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and then increase of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression; and the invasive capabilities of U87MG cells were also inhibited. However, p38 chemical activator (anisomycin) could block these effects produced by baicalein, suggesting baicalein directly downregulate the p38 signaling pathway. In conclusion, baicalein inhibits glioma cells invasion and metastasis by reducing cell motility and migration via suppression of p38 signaling pathway, suggesting that baicalein is a potential therapeutic agent for glioma. PMID:24587321

  1. Modulation of Colitis-associated Colon Tumorigenesis by Baicalein and Betaine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Sung, Bokyung; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of modulation of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis by two natural products, baicalein and betaine, which have anti-inflammatory activities. Baicalein and betaine have been shown to provide various health benefits to organism in many ways. Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid derived originally from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. From ancient times, baicalein has widely been used in oriental medicines as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapy. Betaine, trimethylglycine, is an essential biochemical molecule of the methionine/homocysteine cycle and is synthesized by conversion of choline. Betaine is an important human nutrient obtained from various foods including sugar beet and lycium. Betaine has provided various health benefits including disease prevention. However, the action mechanisms of their activity remain poorly understood. Recent studies reported the effects of baicalein and betaine on cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells and chemically induced colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis in mice. Administrations of baicalein and betaine containing diets significantly inhibited the incidence of tumors and hyperplasia with down-regulation of inflammation. Therefore, baicalein and betaine might be applicable to the prevention of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis. PMID:25337584

  2. Baicalein increases the cytotoxicity of cisplatin by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Suzhi; Zhang, Yuan; Tao, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Drug resistance limits the clinical application of cisplatin, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent. Gap junction (GJ) is a channel that enhances cytotoxicity of certain chemotherapeutic agents. Baicalein is well known for its antitumor activity. This study investigated the effect of baicalein on cisplatin cytotoxicity and the relationship between this effect and the modulation of the GJ function in connexin 26 (Cx26)‑transfected HeLa cells. The sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to examine the effect of baicalein on cell viability. A 'parachute' assay was used to investigate the effect of baicalein on GJ function. The effects of baicalein on cisplatin cytotoxicity and GJ function were assayed by standard colony‑forming assays. The expression of Cx26 was monitored by western blotting. It was observed that exposure of Cx26‑transfected cells to cisplatin reduced the number of colonies formed in low‑density cultures (no GJ formation) and in high‑density cultures (GJ formation), but the toxic effect was greater when cells were seeded at a high density. In the absence of connexin expression or with blockage of connexin channels however, cell density had no effect on cisplatin toxicity. Baicalein significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity, but this effect required the presence of functional GJs between the cells. In conclusion, the dependence of cisplatin toxicity on cell density is mediated by GJs. Baicalein increases cisplatin cytotoxicity through enhancing GJ intercellular communication. PMID:24736991

  3. Modulation of Colitis-associated Colon Tumorigenesis by Baicalein and Betaine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Sung, Bokyung; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of modulation of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis by two natural products, baicalein and betaine, which have anti-inflammatory activities. Baicalein and betaine have been shown to provide various health benefits to organism in many ways. Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid derived originally from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. From ancient times, baicalein has widely been used in oriental medicines as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapy. Betaine, trimethylglycine, is an essential biochemical molecule of the methionine/homocysteine cycle and is synthesized by conversion of choline. Betaine is an important human nutrient obtained from various foods including sugar beet and lycium. Betaine has provided various health benefits including disease prevention. However, the action mechanisms of their activity remain poorly understood. Recent studies reported the effects of baicalein and betaine on cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells and chemically induced colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis in mice. Administrations of baicalein and betaine containing diets significantly inhibited the incidence of tumors and hyperplasia with down-regulation of inflammation. Therefore, baicalein and betaine might be applicable to the prevention of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis. PMID:25337584

  4. Baicalein exhibits anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of NF-κB transactivation.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Raghavendra S; Sharma, Deepak; Thoh, Maikho; Checker, Rahul; Sandur, Santosh K

    2016-05-15

    NF-κB is a crucial mediator of inflammatory and immune responses and a number of phytochemicals that can suppress this immune-regulatory transcription factor are known to have promising anti-inflammatory potential. However, we report that inducer of pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB functions as an anti-inflammatory agent. Our findings reveal that a plant derived flavonoid baicalein could suppress mitogen induced T cell activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion. Treatment of CD4+ T cells with baicalein prior to transfer in to lymphopenic allogenic host significantly suppressed graft versus host disease. Interestingly, addition of baicalein to murine splenic lymphocytes induced DNA binding of NF-κB but did not suppress Concanavalin A induced NF-κB. Since baicalein did not inhibit NF-κB binding to DNA, we hypothesized that baicalein may be suppressing NF-κB trans-activation. Thioredoxin system is implicated in the regulation of NF-κB trans-activation potential and therefore inhibition of thioredoxin system may be responsible for suppression of NF-κB dependent genes. Baicalein not only inhibited TrxR activity in cell free system but also suppressed mitogen induced thioredoxin activity in the nuclear compartment of lymphocytes. Similar to baicalein, pharmacological inhibitors of thioredoxin system also could suppress mitogen induced T cell proliferation without inhibiting DNA binding of NF-κB. Further, activation of cellular thioredoxin system by the use of pharmacological activator or over-expression of thioredoxin could abrogate the anti-inflammatory action of baicalein. We propose a novel strategy using baicalein to limit NF-κB dependent inflammatory responses via inhibition of thioredoxin system. PMID:27019135

  5. Baicalein Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and the Quorum Sensing System In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Hou, Changchun; Cai, Shuangqi; Huang, Yingying; Du, Zhongye; Huang, Hong; Kong, Jinliang; Chen, Yiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formed by Staphylococcus aureus significantly enhances antibiotic resistance by inhibiting the penetration of antibiotics, resulting in an increasingly serious situation. This study aimed to assess whether baicalein can prevent Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and whether it may have synergistic bactericidal effects with antibiotics in vitro. To do this, we used a clinically isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus 17546 (t037) for biofilm formation. Virulence factors were detected following treatment with baicalein, and the molecular mechanism of its antibiofilm activity was studied. Plate counting, crystal violet staining, and fluorescence microscopy revealed that 32 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL baicalein clearly inhibited 3- and 7-day biofilm formation in vitro. Moreover, colony forming unit count, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy showed that vancomycin (VCM) and baicalein generally enhanced destruction of biofilms, while VCM alone did not. Western blotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses (RTQ-PCR) confirmed that baicalein treatment reduced staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) and α-hemolysin (hla) levels. Most strikingly, real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction data demonstrated that 32 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL baicalein downregulated the quorum-sensing system regulators agrA, RNAIII, and sarA, and gene expression of ica, but 16 μg/mL baicalein had no effect. In summary, baicalein inhibited Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation, destroyed biofilms, increased the permeability of vancomycin, reduced the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A and α-hemolysin, and inhibited the quorum sensing system. These results support baicalein as a novel drug candidate and an effective treatment strategy for Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated infections. PMID:27128436

  6. Baicalein induces apoptosis via ROS-dependent activation of caspases in human bladder cancer 5637 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ok; Park, Cheol; Hwang, Hye-Jin; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Cho, Eun-Ju; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Baicalein is a flavonoid derived originally from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which has been used in Oriental medicines for treating various diseases. Although this compound has been reported to have anticancer activities in several human cancer cell lines, the therapeutic effects of baicalein on human bladder cancer and its mechanisms of action have not been extensively studied. This study investigated the proapoptotic effects of baicalein in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. For this study, cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, trypan blue dye exclusion assay 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and flow cytometry. Measurements of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase activity assays and western blots were conducted to determine whether 5637 cell death occurred by apoptosis. Treatment with baicalein resulted in a concentration-dependent growth inhibition coupled with apoptosis induction, as indicated by the results of nuclei morphology examination and flow cytometry analyses. The induction of the apoptotic cell death of 5637 cells by baicalein exhibited a correlation with the downregulation of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, including cIAP-1 and cIAP-2, and the activation of caspase-9 and -3 accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. The study also showed that baicalein decreases the expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax, increases antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, and noticeably aggravates the loss of MMP. Concomitantly, the data showed that baicalein increases the levels of death receptors and their associated ligands and enhances the activation of caspase-8 and truncation of Bid. However, the pan-caspase inhibitor can reverse baicalein-induced apoptosis, demonstrating that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. Moreover, it was found that baicalein can induce the production of reactive oxygen

  7. Colon cancer chemopreventive effects of baicalein, an active enteric microbiome metabolite from baicalin

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHONG-ZHI; ZHANG, CHUN-FENG; CHEN, LINA; ANDERSON, SAMANTHA; LU, FANG; YUAN, CHUN-SU

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin is a major constituent of Scutellaria baicalensis, which is a commonly used herbal medicine in many Asian countries. After oral ingestion, intestinal micro-biota metabolism may change parent compound's structure and its biological activities. However, whether baicalin can be metabolized by enteric microbiota and the related anti-cancer activity is not clear. In this study, using human enteric microbiome incubation and HPLC analysis, we observed that baicalin can be quickly converted to baicalein. We compared the antiproliferative effects of baicalin and baicalein using a panel of human cancer cell lines, including three human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. In vitro antiproliferative effects on CRC cells were verified using an in vivo xenograft nude mouse model. Baicalin showed limited antiproliferative effects on some of these cancer cell lines. Baicalein, however, showed significant antiproliferative effects in all the tested cancer cell lines, especially on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells. In vivo antitumor results supported our in vitro data. We demonstrated that baicalein exerts potent S phase cell cycle arrest and pro-apoptotic effects in HCT-116 cells. Baicalein induced the activation of caspase 3 and 9. The in silico modeling suggested that baicalein forms hydrogen bonds with residues Ser251 and Asp253 at the active site of caspase 3, while interactions with residues Leu227 and Asp228 in caspase 9 through its hydroxyl groups. Data from this study suggested that baicalein is a potent anticancer metabolite derived from S. baicalensis. Enteric microbiota play a key role in the colon cancer chemoprevention of S. baicalensis. PMID:26398706

  8. Regulation of bone formation by baicalein via the mTORC1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-fa; Tang, Jia-jun; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Ting; Chen, Tian-yu; Yan, Bo; Huang, Bin; Wang, Liang; Huang, Min-jun; Zhang, Zhong-min; Jin, Da-di

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease that is characterized by low bone density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. The increasing prevalence of osteoporosis has attracted much attention. In this study, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were treated with the natural compound, baicalein (0.1 μmol/L, 1 μmol/L, 10 μmol/L), to stimulate differentiation over a 14-day period. In addition, a canonical ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model was used to investigate the effect of 3-month baicalein treatment (10 mg/kg per day) in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis. In vitro, we found that baicalein induced activation of alkaline phosphatase, stimulated the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway, and induced expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, ie, osteocalcin, osterix, collagen Iα1, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), in osteoblasts. In vivo, several bone parameters, including trabecular thickness, trabecular bone mineral density, and trabecular number, in the distal femoral metaphysis were significantly increased in OVX mice treated intragastrically with baicalein for 3 months compared with OVX mice that were not treated with baicalein. We also found that expression of osteocalcin and RUNX2 was decreased in primary ossified tissue from the OVX group, and baicalein increased the levels of osteocalcin and RUNX2 in OVX mice. These data suggest that baicalein can stimulate MC3T3-E1 cells to differentiate into osteoblasts via activation of the mTORC1 signaling pathway, which includes protein kinases and transcription factors such as P-4E/BP1 and P-S6K1. PMID:26392752

  9. Structural Characteristics of the Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers Stabilized By the Flavonoid Baicalein

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, D.-P.; Fink, A.L.; Uversky, V.N.

    2009-05-18

    The flavonoid baicalein inhibits fibrillation of alpha-synuclein, which is a major component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease. It has been known that baicalein induces the formation of alpha-synuclein oligomers and consequently prevents their fibrillation. In order to evaluate the structural properties of baicalein-stabilized oligomers, we purified oligomer species by HPLC and examined their stability and structure by CD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography HPLC, small-angle X-ray scattering, and atomic force microscopy. Baicalein-stabilized oligomers are beta-sheet-enriched according to CD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. They did not form fibrils even after very prolonged incubation. From small-angle X-ray scattering data and atomic force microscopy images, the oligomers were characterized as quite compact globular species. Oligomers were extremely stable, with a GdmCl C(m)=3.3 M. This high stability explains the previously observed inhibition properties of baicalein against alpha-synuclein fibrillation. These baicalein-stabilized oligomers, added to the solution of aggregating alpha-synuclein, were able to noticeably inhibit its fibrillation. After prolonged coincubation, short fibrils were formed, suggesting an effective interaction of oligomers with monomeric alpha-synuclein. Membrane permeability tests suggested that the baicalein-stabilized oligomers had a mild effect on the integrity of the membrane surface. This effect was rather similar to that of the monomeric protein, suggesting that targeted stabilization of certain alpha-synuclein oligomers might offer a potential strategy for the development of novel Parkinson's disease therapies.

  10. Functional and histological improvement after everolimus rescue of chronic allograft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Kai Ming; Szeto, Cheuk Chun; Lai, Fernand Mac-Moune; Luk, Cathy Choi-Wan; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Leung, Chi Bon; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background We tested the strategy of mTOR inhibitors with calcineurin inhibitor minimization in renal transplant recipients with known chronic allograft dysfunction. Methods In this open-label, single-arm study, renal transplant patients were recruited after biopsy-confirmed chronic allograft dysfunction in the absence of acute rejection episode within 2 months, with proteinuria <0.8 g/day, and serum creatinine <220 μmol/L or estimated glomerular filtration rate >40 mL/min/1.73 m2. They were converted to everolimus (aiming for trough everolimus level 3–8 ng/mL) with cyclosporine minimization, to assess the effect on renal function, rate of glomerular filtration rate decline, and longitudinal transplant biopsy at 12 months. Results Seventeen Chinese patients (median transplant duration, 4.2 years) were recruited; no patients discontinued study medication. The mean slope of the glomerular filtration rate over time was −4.31±6.65 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year in the year before everolimus, as compared with 1.29±5.84 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year in the 12 months of everolimus therapy, a difference of 5.61 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–10.8) favoring everolimus therapy (P=0.036). Serial renal biopsy histology showed significant decrease of tubular atrophy (15.7%±11.3% versus 7.1%±7.3%, P=0.005) and interstitial fibrosis (14.8%±11.5% versus 7.2%±8.2%, P=0.013). Intrarenal expression of TGF-β1 mRNA showed a nonsignificant decrease after everolimus treatment. Conclusion In renal transplant recipients with biopsy-confirmed chronic allograft dysfunction, we found a significant beneficial effect of everolimus rescue therapy and calcineurin inhibitor minimization strategy on the improvement of glomerular filtration rate decline rate. In secondary analysis, everolimus was shown to slow down the disease progression by reducing the tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis scoring. PMID:26056462

  11. Baicalein induces CD4+Foxp3+ T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:27561877

  12. Baicalein induces CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:27561877

  13. Latest research progress in the correlation between baicalein and breast cancer invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    YAN, WAN-JUN; MA, XING-CONG; GAO, XIAO-YAN; XUE, XING-HUAN; ZHANG, SHU-QUN

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly occurring female malignant tumors. According to the 2012 GLOBOCAN statistics, produced by the International Agency for Research On Cancer (‘IARC’), nearly 1.7 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer, with 522,000 related deaths: An increase in the incidence of breast cancer and associated mortality by nearly 18% from 2008. Metastasis is the final step in breast cancer progression, and represents the most common cause of mortality in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, a search for low-toxicity, safe and effective anti-breast cancer drugs in the form of natural compounds has become an intense focus of research. Baicalein, a widely used Chinese herbal medicine, has extensive antitumor activity. The present review briefly describes the research that has been performed on the association between baicalein and breast cancer metastasis, and further illustrates the influence of baicalein on the underlying mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis, adding a novel theory basis for baicalein antitumor research. In conclusion, baicalein may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of breast cancer. PMID:27073644

  14. γ-Tocotrienol upregulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression and enhances the anticancer effect of baicalein.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shuya; Baba, Kiwako; Makio, Akiko; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Huang, Yuhui; Lin, I-Chian; Bae, Jaehoon; Murata, Motoki; Yamada, Shuhei; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2016-05-13

    Previous studies have identified biomolecules that mediate the physiological actions of food factors, such as amino acids, vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, plant polyphenols, and lactobacilli, suggesting that our bodies are equipped with an innate system that senses which food factors are required to maintain our health. However, the effects of environmental factors on food factor sensing (FFS) remains largely unknown. Tocotorienols (T3s), which belongs to the vitamin E family, possess several physiological functions, including cholesterol lowering and neuroprotective effects. Here, we investigated the effects of naturally abundant γ-T3 on FFS-related gene expressions in melanoma using a DNA chip. Our results showed that γ-T3 increased the expression level of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a sensing molecule to plant polyphenol baicalein. The co-treatment with γ-T3 and baicalein enhanced the anti-proliferative activity of baicalein, accompanied by the downstream events of AhR-activation induced by baicalein. These data suggest that γ-T3 upregulates AhR expression and enhances its sensitivity to baicalein. PMID:27055589

  15. Vascular barrier protective effects of baicalin, baicalein and wogonin in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Soyoung; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Han, Min-Su; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2014-11-15

    Inhibition of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and restoration of endothelial integrity is emerging as an attractive therapeutic strategy in the management of sepsis. Here, three structurally related polyphenols found in the Chinese herb Huang Qui, baicalin (BCL), baicalein (BCN), and wogonin (WGN), were examined for their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated release of HMGB1 and on modulation of HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses. According to our data, BCL, BCN, and WGN inhibited the release of HMGB1 and down-regulated HMGB1-dependent inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells. BCL, BCN, and WGN also inhibited HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability and leukocyte migration in mice. In addition, treatment with BCL, BCN, and WGN reduced CLP-induced release of HMGB1 and sepsis-related mortality and pulmonary injury in mice. These results indicate that BCL, BCN, and WGN could be candidate therapeutic agents for various severe vascular inflammatory diseases owing to their inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • HMGB1 is an inflammatory mediator for vascular inflammation. • Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin inhibited HMGB1-induced hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo. • Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin inhibited HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses. • Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin suppressed the activation of NF-κB and ERK1/2 and production of TNF-α and IL-6. • Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin prevent CLP-induced septic mortality.

  16. Improvements in diagnosis have changed the incidence of histological types in advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Y.; Mori, M.; Kamakura, T.; Haraguchi, Y.; Saku, M.; Sugimachi, K.

    1995-01-01

    The data on 912 patients with early cancer and 1245 with advanced cancer who were seen between 1971 and 1990 were compared. The incidence of undifferentiated-type cancer increased significantly in patients with advanced gastric cancer, but not in patients with early gastric cancer. When the histological types were compared with regard to sex, age and location in patients with early gastric cancer the undifferentiated type was found to increase only in males, while in patients with advanced gastric cancer the undifferentiated type increased in both sexes as well as in younger patients and in both the upper and middle third of the stomach. These differences in the trends between early and advanced cancers are probably due to the different degrees of diagnostic accuracy for the early detection of histological types. PMID:7640228

  17. Baicalein induces programmed cell death in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bao-Di; Cao, Ying-Ying; Huang, Shan; Xu, Yong-Gang; Gao, Ping-Hui; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2009-08-01

    Recent evidence has revealed the occurrence of an apoptotic phenotype in Candida albicans that is inducible with environmental stresses such as acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and amphotericin B. In the present study, we found that the Chinese herbal medicine Baicalein (BE), which was one of the skullcapflavones, can induce apoptosis in C. albicans. The apoptotic effects of BE were detected by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and DAPI, and it was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. After exposure to 4 microg/ml BE for 12 h, about 10% of C. albicans cells were apoptotic. Both the increasing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and upregulation of some redox-related genes (CAP1, SOD2, TRR1) were observed. Furthermore, we compared the survivals of CAP1 deleted, wild-type, and overexpressed strains and found that Cap1p attenuated BE-initiated cell death, which was coherent with a higher mRNA level of the CAP1 gene. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential of C. albicans cells changed significantly ( p<0.001) upon BE treatment compared with control. Taken together, our results indicate that BE treatment induces apoptosis in C.albicans cells, and the apoptosis was associated with the breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:19734718

  18. Eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid 1:1 ratio improves histological alterations in obese rats with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Marine polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been associated with improvement in the Metabolic Syndrome (MS). The aim of this study is to evaluate how three fish-oil diets with different eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratios (EPA/DHA ratio) affect the histology of liver, kidney, adipose tissue and aorta in a preliminary morphological study. This work uses an animal model of metabolic syndrome in comparison with healthy animals in order to provide information about the best EPA:DHA ratio to prevent or to improve metabolic syndrome symptoms. Methods 35 Wistar rats, as a control, and 35 spontaneously hypertensive obese rats (SHROB) were fed for 13 weeks with 3 different suplemmentation of fish oil containing EPA and DHA ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 1:2, respectively). All samples were stained with haematoxylin/eosin stain, except aorta samples, which were stained also with Verhoeff and van Gieson’s stain. A histological study was carried out to evaluate changes. These changes were statistically analyzed using SPSS IBM 19 software. The quantitative data were expressed by mean ± SD and were compared among groups and treatments using ANOVA with post-hoc tests for parametric data and the U-Mann–Whitney for non-parametric data. Qualitative data were expressed in frequencies, and compared with contingency tables using χ2 statistics. Results EPA:DHA 1:1 treatment tended to improve the density and the wrinkling of elastic layers in SHROB rats. Only Wistar rats fed with EPA:DHA 1:1 treatment did not show mast cells in adipose tissue and has less kidney atrophy. In both strains EPA:DHA 1:1 treatment improved inflammation related parameters in liver and kidney. Conclusions EPA:DHA 1:1 treatment was the most beneficial treatment since improved many histological parameters in both groups of rats. PMID:24512213

  19. Baicalein increases keratin 1 and 10 expression in HaCaT keratinocytes via TRPV4 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Feng; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Liu, Pei-Shan; Chen, Bo-Wei; Chueh, Sheau-Huei

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we characterized the effect of baicalein on the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation, which are abnormal in atopic dermatitis or psoriasis. Treatment of HaCaT keratinocytes with 10 μm baicalein slightly inhibited cell growth, caused morphological differentiation and increased expression of keratins 1 and 10 (K1/K10) without affecting ROS generation, cytochrome c release or apoptosis. Baicalein treatment caused growth arrest in G0 /G1 phase and also induced Ca(2+) influx via TRPV4 receptor activation. Phosphorylation of ERK, Akt and p38 MAPK, but not JNK, was increased by baicalein, and inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK, but not that of Akt or p38 MAPK, blocked the baicalein-induced increase in K1/K10 expression, suggesting that ERK activation is involved in this increase. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or blockade of Ca(2+) influx by pharmacological inhibition or silencing of the TRPV4 receptor did not affect growth arrest, ROS generation or apoptosis, but inhibited baicalein-induced ERK phosphorylation and K1/K10 expression. Thus, baicalein treatment increases differentiation, and decreases proliferation, of keratinocytes. The mechanism of differentiation of keratinocytes is distinct from that of proliferation, the former being Ca(2+) dependent and the latter Ca(2+) independent. PMID:27060689

  20. Amylin Amyloid Inhibition by Flavonoid Baicalein: Key Roles of Its Vicinal Dihydroxyl Groups of the Catechol Moiety.

    PubMed

    Velander, Paul; Wu, Ling; Ray, W Keith; Helm, Richard F; Xu, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Amyloid formation of the 37-residue amylin is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and, potentially, diabetes-induced neurological deficits. Numerous flavonoids exhibit inhibitory effects against amylin amyloidosis, but the mechanisms of inhibition remain unclear. Screening a library of natural compounds uncovered a potent lead compound, the flavone baicalein. Baicalein inhibits amylin amyloid formation and reduces amylin-induced cytotoxicity. Analogue analyses demonstrated, for the first time, key roles of the vicinal hydroxyl groups on the A-ring. We provided mass spectrometric evidence that incubating baicalein and amylin leads to their conjugation, consistent with a Schiff base mechanism. PMID:27431615

  1. Baicalein Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis Associated with the Generation of ROS and the Activation of AMPK in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jae; Park, Cheol; Han, Min-Ho; Hong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hoon Hong, Sang; Deuk Kim, Nam; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Preclinical Research Baicalein is one of the main bioactive flavonoids found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Here, we report that baicalein-induced growth inhibition was associated with the induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Baicalein stimulated the expression of DR5, FasL, and FADD, and activated caspase-8 by reducing the levels of FLIPs (FLICE-inhibitory proteins). The apoptotic cell death was also connected with an activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; however, a blockage of caspase activation abolished baicalein-induced apoptotic potentials. Additionally, baicalein caused a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the truncation of Bid, and the translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In turn, baicalein increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, an ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, notably attenuated baicalein-mediated loss of MMP and activation of caspases. Furthermore, baicalein activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Consequently, baicalein-triggered cell death was attenuated by an AMPK inhibitor, but increased by an AMPK activator, compound C. Overall, the results suggest that the apoptotic activity of baicalein may be associated with caspase-dependent cascade through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways connected with ROS generation and AMPK activation. Drug Dev Res 77 : 73-86, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26971531

  2. Chrysin, baicalein and galangin are indirect activators of the human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Carazo Fernández, Alejandro; Smutny, Tomas; Hyrsová, Lucie; Berka, Karel; Pavek, Petr

    2015-03-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a crucial transcriptional regulator of key xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2B6. The flavonoids chrysin, baicalein and galangin have been reported to activate CAR and interfere with EGFR signaling. Nevertheless, it is not known if these flavonoids are direct CAR ligands or indirect phenobarbital-like CAR activators via the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. We analyze the interactions of chrysin, galangin and baicalein and its glycoside baicalin with human CAR. We have employed and validated methods that can study direct interaction with the CAR ligand binding pocket. Secondly, we determined if the compounds affect human EGFR signaling and interact with EGFR. Employing a TR-FRET coactivator assay with recombinant CAR or CAR assembly assay, a consistent activation of CAR with flavonoids and phenobarbital was not observed. It was determined, however, that galangin, chrysin, and baicalein may slightly repress EGFR-Tyr1068 autophosphorylation after EGF treatment, phosphorylation of downstream transcription factor ELK1 and stimulate EGFP-CAR nuclear translocation in primary human hepatocytes. These data suggest that flavonoids chrysin, galangin and baicalein are indirect human CAR activators. This study also demonstrates new approach how to test the direct CAR interaction with its ligands. PMID:25625231

  3. Baicalin, a metabolite of baicalein with antiviral activity against dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Ehsan; Teoh, Boon-Teong; Sam, Sing-Sin; Lani, Rafidah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Chik, Zamri; Yueh, Andrew; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin, a flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, is the main metabolite of baicalein released following administration in different animal models and human. We previously reported the antiviral activity of baicalein against dengue virus (DENV). Here, we examined the anti-DENV properties of baicalin in vitro, and described the inhibitory potentials of baicalin at different steps of DENV-2 (NGC strain) replication. Our in vitro antiviral experiments showed that baicalin inhibited virus replication at IC50 = 13.5 ± 0.08 μg/ml with SI = 21.5 following virus internalization by Vero cells. Baicalin exhibited virucidal activity against DENV-2 extracellular particles at IC50 = 8.74 ± 0.08 μg/ml and showed anti-adsorption effect with IC50 = 18.07 ± 0.2 μg/ml. Our findings showed that baicalin as the main metabolite of baicalein exerting in vitro anti-DENV activity. Further investigations on baicalein and baicalin to deduce its antiviral therapeutic effects are warranted. PMID:24965553

  4. Baicalein antagonizes rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Two active compounds, baicalein and its glycoside baicalin were found in the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and reported to be neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of baicalein on the rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to parkinsonism. Methods Cell viability and cytotoxicity were determined by MTT assay. The degree of nuclear apoptosis was evaluated with a fluorescent DNA-binding probe Hoechst 33258. The production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined by fluorescent staining with DCFH-DA and Rhodanmine 123, respectively. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was determined by the Western blots. Results Baicalein significantly increased viability and decreased rotenone-induced death of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pre- and subsequent co-treatment with baicalein preserved the cell morphology and attenuated the nuclear apoptotic characteristics triggered by rotenone. Baicalein antagonized rotenone-induced overproduction of ROS, loss of ΔΨm, the increased expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and the decreased expression of Bcl-2. Conclusion The antioxidative effect, mitochondrial protection and modulation of anti-and pro-apoptotic proteins are related to the neuroprotective effects of baicalein against rotenone induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:22264378

  5. [Application of diversified teaching methods to improve the teaching effects in the course of oral histology and pathology].

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Lei; Wang, Li-zhen; Hu, Yu-hua; Zhang, Chun-ye; Li, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Oral histology and pathology is one of the most important courses in stomatological education which works as a bridge between basic medical courses and clinical courses of oral science. The knowledge of oral histopathology may help the students to correctly understand the histogenesis and development of oral diseases and provide the information for correct treatment and prevention. In order to make the students grasp the necessary basic theories, increase the interest in learning, and improve the teaching effect, we explored a diversified teaching system which included diverse teaching modes, online courses and courseware construction. The application of this system offered the interaction between students and teachers and combination of classes with the internet, and made the boring pathological knowledge be associated with clinical practice. These diversified teaching methods had been used in practice and obtained good teaching results. PMID:27063324

  6. Synergistic Action of Flavonoids, Baicalein, and Daidzein in Estrogenic and Neuroprotective Effects: A Development of Potential Health Products and Therapeutic Drugs against Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Roy C. Y.; Zhu, Judy T. T.; Yung, Amanda W. Y.; Lee, Pinky S. C.; Xu, Sherry L.; Guo, Ava J. Y.; Zhu, Kevin Y.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the classical hormonal effect, estrogen has been reported to mediate neuroprotection in the brain, which leads to the searching of estrogen-like substances for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Flavonoids, a group of natural compounds, are well known to possess estrogenic effects and used to substitute estrogen, that is, phytoestrogen. Flavonoid serves as one of the potential targets for the development of natural supplements and therapeutic drugs against different diseases. The neuroprotection activity of flavonoids was chosen for a possible development of anti-Alzheimer's drugs or food supplements. The estrogenic activity of two flavonoids, baicalein and daidzein, were demonstrated by their strong abilities in stimulating estrogen receptor phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of estrogen responsive element in MCF-7 breast cells. The neuroprotection effects of flavonoids against β-amyloid (Aβ) were revealed by their inhibition effects on in vitro Aβ aggregation and Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 neuronal cells. More importantly, the estrogenic and neuroprotective activities of individual flavonoid could be further enhanced by the cotreatment in the cultures. Taken together, this synergistic effect of baicalein and daidzein might serve as a method to improve the therapeutic efficacy of different flavonoids against Aβ, which might be crucial in developing those flavonoidsin treating Alzheimer's disease in the future. PMID:24058373

  7. Progesterone improves long-term functional and histological outcomes after permanent stroke in older rats.

    PubMed

    Wali, Bushra; Ishrat, Tauheed; Stein, Donald G; Sayeed, Iqbal

    2016-05-15

    Previous studies have shown progesterone to be beneficial in animal models of central nervous system injury, but less is known about its longer-term sustained effects on recovery of function following stroke. We evaluated progesterone's effects on a panel of behavioral tests up to 8 weeks after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Male Sprague-Dawley rats 12m.o. were subjected to pMCAO and, beginning 3h post-pMCAO, given intraperitoneal injections of progesterone (8mg/kg) or vehicle, followed by subcutaneous injections at 8h and then every 24h for 7 days, with tapering of the last 2 treatments. The rats were then tested on functional recovery at 3, 6 and 8 weeks post-stroke. We observed that progesterone-treated animals showed attenuation of infarct volume and improved functional outcomes at 8 weeks after stroke on grip strength, sensory neglect, motor coordination and spatial navigation tests. Progesterone treatments significantly improved motor deficits in the affected limb on a number of gait parameters. Glial fibrillary acidic protein expression was increased in the vehicle group and considerably lowered in the progesterone group at 8 weeks post-stroke. With repeated post-stroke testing, sensory neglect and some aspects of spatial learning performance showed spontaneous recovery, but on gait and grip-strength measres progesterone given only in the acute stage of stroke (first 7 days) showed sustained beneficial effects on all other measures of functional recovery up to 8 weeks post-stroke. PMID:26921692

  8. Correlation of breast tissue histology and optical signatures to improve margin assessment techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Stephanie; Caldwell, Matthew; Bydlon, Torre; Mulvey, Christine; Mueller, Jenna; Wilke, Lee; Barry, William; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Geradts, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Optical spectroscopy is sensitive to morphological composition and has potential applications in intraoperative margin assessment. Here, we evaluate ex vivo breast tissue and corresponding quantified hematoxylin & eosin images to correlate optical scattering signatures to tissue composition stratified by patient characteristics. Adipose sites (213) were characterized by their cell area and density. All other benign and malignant sites (181) were quantified using a grid method to determine composition. The relationships between mean reduced scattering coefficient (<μs‧>), and % adipose, % collagen, % glands, adipocyte cell area, and adipocyte density were investigated. These relationships were further stratified by age, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), and breast density. We identified a positive correlation between <μs‧> and % collagen and a negative correlation between <μs‧> and age and BMI. Increased collagen corresponded to increased <μs‧> variability. In postmenopausal women, <μs‧> was similar regardless of fibroglandular content. Contributions from collagen and glands to <μs‧> were independent and equivalent in benign sites; glands showed a stronger positive correlation than collagen to <μs‧> in malignant sites. Our data suggest that scattering could differentiate highly scattering malignant from benign tissues in postmenopausal women. The relationship between scattering and tissue composition will support improved scattering models and technologies to enhance intraoperative optical margin assessment.

  9. Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid Treatment in Improving Liver Histology in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alisi, Anna; De Vito, Rita; Franchitto, Antonio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Onori, Paolo; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality in children. Recently, we have reported the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, in children with NAFLD. DHA exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity through the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)120. Our aim was to investigate in pediatric NAFLD the mechanisms underlying the effects of DHA administration on histo-pathological aspects, GPR120 expression, hepatic progenitor cell activation and macrophage pool. Patients and Methods 20 children with untreated NAFLD were included. Children were treated with DHA for 18 months. Liver biopsies before and after the treatment were analyzed. Hepatic progenitor cell activation, macrophage pool and GPR120 expression were evaluated and correlated with clinical and histo-pathological parameters. Results GPR120 was expressed by hepatocytes, liver macrophages, and hepatic progenitor cells. After DHA treatment, the following modifications were present: i) the improvement of histo-pathological parameters such as NAFLD activity score, ballooning, and steatosis; ii) the reduction of hepatic progenitor cell activation in correlation with histo-pathological parameters; iii) the reduction of the number of inflammatory macrophages; iv) the increase of GPR120 expression in hepatocytes; v) the reduction of serine-311-phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) nuclear translocation in hepatocytes and macrophages in correlation with serum inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions DHA could modulate hepatic progenitor cell activation, hepatocyte survival and macrophage polarization through the interaction with GPR120 and NF-κB repression. In this scenario, the modulation of GPR120 exploits a novel crucial role in the regulation of the cell-to-cell cross-talk that drives inflammatory response, hepatic progenitor cell activation and hepatocyte survival. PMID

  10. Baicalein suppresses metastasis of breast cancer cells by inhibiting EMT via downregulation of SATB1 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xingcong; Yan, Wanjun; Dai, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaoyan; Ma, Yinan; Xu, Quntao; Jiang, Jiantao; Zhang, Shuqun

    2016-01-01

    Background The flavonoid baicalein, a historically used Chinese herbal medicine, shows a wide range of biological and pharmaceutical effects, among which its potent antitumor activity has raised great interest in recent years. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the antimetastatic effect of baicalein remains poorly understood. This study aimed to verify the inhibitory effects of baicalein on metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, as well as to investigate the related mechanisms. Methods MTT assay was used to examine the inhibition of baicalein on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. Wound healing assay and the in vitro invasion assay was carried out to investigate the effects of baicalein on migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. In order to explore the effects of baicalein on tumor metastasis in vivo, xenograft nude mouse model of MDA-MB-231 cells was established. Animals were randomly divided into four groups (control, therapy group, and low-dose and high-dose prevention group, n=6), and treated with baicalein as designed. Following sacrifice, their lungs and livers were collected to examine the presence of metastases. qRT-PCR and Western blot were performed to study the effects of baicalein on expression of SATB1, EMT-related molecules, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling components of MDA-MB-231 cells as well as the metastatic tissue. Effects of baicalein on the expression of target proteins in vivo were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results Our results indicated that baicalein suppressed proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Based on assays carried out in xenograft nude mouse model, we found that baicalein inhibited tumor metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, baicalein significantly decreased the expression of SATB1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. It suppressed the expression of vimentin and SNAIL while enhancing the expression of E-cadherin. Baicalein

  11. Cell type-specific dependency on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for the endogenous Epo and VEGF induction by baicalein in neurons versus astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Lin, Shang-Hsuan; Lin, Hung-Cheng; Hung, Chia-Chi; Wang, Chen-Yu; Lin, Yen-Chu; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    The neuroprotective effect of baicalein is generally attributed to inhibition of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) and suppression of oxidative stress, but recent studies showed that baicalein also activates hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF1α) through inhibition of prolyl hydrolase 2 (PHD2) and activation of the phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Yet, the significance and regulation of prosurvival cytokines erythropoietin (Epo) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), two transcriptional targets of HIF1α, in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in neurons and astrocytes remains unknown. Here we investigated the causal relationship between the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and Epo/VEGF expression in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in primary rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. Our results show that baicalein induced Epo and VEGF expression in a HIF1α- and PI3K/Akt-dependent manner in neurons. Baicalein also protected neurons against excitotoxicity in a PI3K- and Epo/VEGF-dependent manner without affecting neuronal excitability. In contrast, at least a 10-fold higher concentration of baicalein was needed to induce Epo/VEGF production and PI3K/Akt activity in astrocytes for protection of neurons. Moreover, only baicalein-induced astrocytic VEGF, but not Epo expression requires HIF1α, while PI3K/Akt signaling had little role in baicalein-induced astrocytic Epo/VEGF expression. These results suggest distinct mechanisms of baicalein-mediated Epo/VEGF production in neurons and astrocytes for neuroprotection, and provide new insights into the mechanisms and potential of baicalein in treating brain injury in vivo. PMID:23904909

  12. Panax Notoginseng Saponins as a Novel Nature Stabilizer for Poorly Soluble Drug Nanocrystals: A Case Study with Baicalein.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuanbiao; Ma, Yueqin; Xu, Junnan; Liu, Yang; Yue, Pengfei; Zheng, Qin; Hu, Pengyi; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at seeking a nature saponin-based stabilizer for drug nanosuspensions. A poorly soluble drug (baicalein, BCL) was used as a model drug. BCL nanosuspensions with particle size of 156 nm were prepared by means of homogenization and converted into BCL nanocrystals (BCL-NC) stabilized with panax notoginseng saponins (PNS). It was found that PNS was able to prevent the aggregation of BCL-NS during storage and improve the redispersibility of BCL-NC after freeze-drying and spray-drying, compared with polymer stabilizer PVPK30. The freeze-dried and spray-dried BCL-NC with PNS exhibited excellent performance as evidenced by scanning_electron_microscope (SEM) analysis. It was the reason that PNS possessed the interfacial property (41.69 ± 0.32 mN/m) and electrostatic effect (-40.1 ± 1.6 mV), which could easily adsorb onto the surface of hydrophobic BCL nanocrystals and prevent from its aggregation. It is concluded that PNS can be used as an effective nature stabilizer for production of drug nanocrystals. PMID:27589712

  13. Development and extraction optimization of baicalein and pinostrobin from Scutellaria violacea through response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Shankar; Raju, Ravikumar; Palanisamy, Anbumathi; Sivasubramanian, Aravind

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop a process that involves optimization of the amount of baicalein and pinostrobin from the hydro-methanolic extract of the leaves of Scutellaria violacea by response surface methodology (RSM). Materials and Methods: The combinatorial influence of various extraction parameters on the extraction yield was investigated by adopting Box–Behnken experimental design. Preliminary experiments carried out based on the traditional one variable at a time optimization revealed four such operational parameters to play a crucial role by influencing the yield. These four process parameters at three levels were considered to obtain the Box–Behnken experimental design. Results: RSM based model fitted to the resulting experimental data suggested that 52.3% methanol/water, 12.46:1 solvent-solid ratio, 285 rpm agitation and 6.07 h of extraction time are the optimal conditions which yielded a maximized amount of baicalein and pinostrobin of 2.9 and 4.05 mg/g DM. Analysis of variance revealed a high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.999 for baicalein and 0.994 for pinostrobin), signifying a good fit between the regression model (second order) and the experimental observations. Conclusion: The present study signifies that both the metabolites have been extracted from S. violacea for the first time. Further, this study developed an optimized extraction procedure to obtain maximum yield of the metabolites, which is unique and better than conventional extraction methodology. The operational parameters under optimized conditions accounts for the lowest cost in extraction process thus, providing an efficient, rapid and cost-effective method for isolation and scale up of these commercially vital flavonoids. PMID:26109758

  14. Baicalein Triggers Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis and Enhances the Antileukemic Effect of Vincristine in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia CCRF-CEM Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Shan; Shieh, Jeng-Jer; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chung, Ting-Wen; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) accounts for approximately 75% of childhood leukemia, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay therapy. Baicalein is an active flavonoid used in traditional Chinese medicine and has recently been found to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergic properties. This study aims to investigate the molecular apoptotic mechanisms of baicalein in CCRF-CEM leukemic cells and to evaluate the combined therapeutic efficacy of baicalein with several commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs in CCRF-CEM cells. Our results demonstrate that baicalein induces mitochondria-dependent cleavage of caspases-9 and -3 and PARP with concomitant decreases in IAP family proteins, survivin, and XIAP. Furthermore, our results present for the first time that baicalein triggers a convergence of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways via the death receptor-caspase 8-tBid signaling cascade in CCRF-CEM cells. In addition, we also present for the first time that the combination of baicalein and vincristine results in a synergistic therapeutic efficacy. Overall, this combination strategy is recommended for future clinical trials in the treatment of pediatric leukemia owing to baicalein's beneficial effects in alleviating the vomiting, nausea, and skin rashes caused by chemotherapy. PMID:23476680

  15. Baicalein protects C6 glial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis through regulation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ok; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Park, Cheol; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye-Jin; Cho, Eun-Ju; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Baicalein, a flavonoid originally obtained from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to possess various biological properties. Although several studies have demonstrated the anti-oxidative activity of baicalein, its neuroprotective mechanisms have not been clearly established. The present study aimed to detect the effects of baicalein against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal damage in C6 glial cells and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. The results demonstrated that baicalein effectively inhibited H2O2-induced growth and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. We noted that Baicalein also attenuated the H2O2‑induced formation of comet tail, phosphorylation of p-γH2A.X, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP or ΔΨm), and changes to apoptosis‑related protein expression, which suggests that it can prevent H2O2‑induced cellular DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, treatment with baicalein effectively induced the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the protective effects of baicalein against H2O2‑induced DNA damage and apoptosis were abolished by zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, and auranofin, a TrxR inhibitor. In addition, we noted that the cytoprotective effects of baicalein were attenuated by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The findings of our present study suggest that baicalein enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the inhibition of ROS generation and the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, thus protecting C6 cells from H2O2-induced neuronal damage. PMID:26796879

  16. [Preparation of baicalein using thermophilic and sugar-tolerant beta-glucosidase].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-ping; Wen, Jian-hui; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang, Wen-zhe; Pei, Jian-jun; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Zhao, Lin-guo; Xiao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The reaction conditions of baicalin hydrolyzed into baicalein by a kind of thermophilic and sugar-tolerant beta-glucosidase were studied in this paper. The beta-glucosidase could catalyze baicalin into baicalein well in the acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer. The optimal enzyme activity was at 85 degrees C and pH 5.5. The enzyme was stable at the temperature less than 85 degrees C and pH range of 5-7.5. The maximum reaction rate V. and michaelis constant K. were 0.41 mmol x L(-1) x min(-1) and 3.31 mmol x L(-1) respectively. Different metal ions had different effects on the activity of enzyme. Na+ existing in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer had an activation effect on enzyme. The enzyme activity was enhanced by the concentrations of glucose below 0.6 mol x L(-1), and was gradually inhibited when monosaccharide concentration was over 0.6 mol x L(-1). When the monosaccharide concentration reached 1.2 mol x L(-1), the inhibition rate of enzyme activity was about 50%, which showed good glucose tolerance. The good reaction conditions through the experiment have been determined as follows, the substrate: enzyme dose was 1 g: 0.2 mL, acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5, reaction temperature 85 degrees C, reaction time 10 h, and the enzymatic hydrolyzation ratio could reach 97%. PMID:27141672

  17. Baicalein suppresses the viability of MG-63 osteosarcoma cells through inhibiting c-MYC expression via Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Nengbin; Zhang, Zhichang

    2015-07-01

    The major reason responsible for the poor prognosis of osteosarcoma is the malignant proliferation of osteosarcoma cells. The activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling induces c-MYC gene transcription and results in osteocytes' carcinomatous change, which contributes to osteosarcoma development, so c-MYC gene is one of the therapeutic targets. The role of multiple botanical extracts in the expression of β-catenin's target gene c-MYC in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells was tested by cellomics high content screening. Baicalein was identified as the most effective one which can inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of MG-63 cells in a dose-dependent manner by cell counting kit-8 test and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, respectively. This process was associated with the decreased levels of β-catenin and its target gene c-MYC, identified by q-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. When MG-63 cells were treated with both baicalein and JNK inhibitor SP600125, the apoptosis and expression of c-MYC were not significantly decreased. After the construct pcDNA3.1-BANCR (BRAF-regulated lncRNA 1) was transfected into MG-63 cells, RT-PCR, Western blotting and CCK-8 assay showed that BANCR was positively correlated with baicalein. These results indicated that baicalein inhibited osteosarcoma cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis by targeting c-MYC gene through Wnt signaling, in which JNK and BANCR were also involved as well as β-catenin, suggesting a new potential mechanism for us to better understand the inhibiting effect of baicalein on osteosarcoma. PMID:25893737

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of baicalein in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages via estrogen receptor and NF-κB-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Yuan; Jiang, Xiaorui; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Bingyao; Su, Lina; Cao, Wenjie; Zhang, Han; Gao, Xiumei

    2013-12-01

    Baicalein has been used for many years as a popular antiviral and antibacterial in China. Recent investigations revealed that baicalein also has anti-inflammatory activities. Our results indicated that baicalein increases ERE-luciferase activity in an estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent manner when either ERα or ERβ were coexpressed in Hela cells. This study examined whether baicalein exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in RAW264.7 cells through an estrogen receptor-dependent pathway and through regulation of NF-ĸB activation. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells, baicalein exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression; NO production; as well as inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, PGE2, and TNF-α) production through an ER-dependent pathway. These effects are accompanied with the inhibition of the transcription factor NF-ĸB activation and IκBα phosphorylation. We therefore conclude that baicalein inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production via regulation of the NF-ĸB pathway and estrogen-like activity, suggesting that it may be useful for preventing inflammation-related diseases. PMID:23892998

  19. Structure-activity relationship study between baicalein and wogonin by spectrometry, molecular docking and microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Tu, Bao; Li, Rong-Rong; Liu, Zhi-Juan; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Ouyang, Yu; Hu, Yan-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Flavones (e.g. baicalein and wogonin) extensively used worldwide in food preparation and traditional medicine. In this study, a systematically comparative study of their structure-activity relationships (SAR) on their interaction with BSA, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity has been carried out by spectrometry, molecular docking and microcalorimetry. Our results show that the skeleton structure of flavones, the number of hydroxyl groups, the type of functional group, conjugated system and the steric hindrance may be responsible for their different biological activity. These findings not only would lay a scientific foundation for discovering and designing flavones-based food and drug, may also help us to understanding the structure-activity relationship between flavones at the molecular level. PMID:27132840

  20. Baicalein Inhibits MCF-7 Cell Proliferation In Vitro, Induces Radiosensitivity, and Inhibits Hypoxia Inducible Factor.

    PubMed

    Gade, Shruti; Gandhi, Nitin Motilal

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is a key transcription factor responsible for imparting adaptability to the cancer cells growing in tumors. HIF induces the modulation of glucose metabolism, angiogenesis, and prosurvival signaling. Therefore, HIF is one of the attractive targets to treat solid tumors. Results presented in this study indicate that Baicalein (BA) inhibits HIF stabilization and also reduces its transcription activity in MCF-7 cells in vitro. Furthermore, BA was found to have antiproliferative ability as determined by the MTT assay and clonogenic survival. BA also induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 50 µM. We also report the radiosensitization of MCF-7 cells when they are treated with BA, resulting in higher γ-radiation-induced DNA damage. BA is extensively used in Chinese medicine and is known to be nontoxic at pharmacological doses. Our studies indicate that BA is one of the attractive natural compounds suitable for further evaluation as an adjuvant therapy. PMID:26756423

  1. Baicalein reverts L-valine-induced persistent sodium current up-modulation in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Caioli, Silvia; Candelotti, Elena; Pedersen, Jens Z; Saba, Luana; Antonini, Alessia; Incerpi, Sandra; Zona, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    L-valine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) largely used as dietary integrator by athletes and involved in some inherited rare diseases such as maple syrup urine disease. This pathology is caused by an altered BCAA metabolism with the accumulation of toxic keto acids in tissues and body fluids with consequent severe neurological symptoms. In animal models of BCAA accumulation, increased oxidative stress levels and lipid peroxidation have been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze both whether high BCAA concentrations in neurons induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and whether, by performing electrophysiological recordings, the neuronal functional properties are modified. Our results demonstrate that in primary cortical cultures, a high dose of valine increases ROS production and provokes neuronal hyperexcitability because the action potential frequencies and the persistent sodium current amplitudes increase significantly compared to non-treated neurons. Since Baicalein, a flavone obtained from the Scutellaria root, has been shown to act as a strong antioxidant with neuroprotective effects, we evaluated its possible antioxidant activity in primary cortical neurons chronically exposed to L-valine. The preincubation of cortical neurons with Baicalein prevents the ROS production and is able to revert both the neuronal hyperexcitability and the increase of the persistent sodium current, indicating a direct correlation between the ROS production and the altered physiological parameters. In conclusion, our data show that the electrophysiological alterations of cortical neurons elicited by high valine concentration are due to the increase in ROS production, suggesting much caution in the intake of BCAA dietary integrators. PMID:26721313

  2. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin; Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan; Hung, Chein-Hui; Chang, Nai Wen; Lin, Chingju

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  3. [Histological techniques in oncodermatology].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Le Guellec, S; Courtade-Saïdi, M; Gangloff, D; Meresse, T; Chavoin, J-P; Grolleau, J-L; Garrido, I

    2012-04-01

    The skin oncology or "oncodermatology" requires a surgical treatment in most cases. For some surgeons, the oncodermatology takes a very important part of their practice. In the course of diagnostic and therapeutic of skin lesions, the pathologist plays now an essential role. He will guide our surgery. The techniques used by this specialist are numerous. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the different histological methods used to improve our management of skin tumors. PMID:22463986

  4. Baicalein Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 by Regulating the ERK/JNK/AP-1 Pathway in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Cheon; Kang, Sam Sik; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon; Hyun, Jin Won

    2012-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family is involved in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix during normal physiological processes such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes such as pathological aging, arthritis, and metastasis. Oxidative conditions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) (e.g., hydrogen peroxide [H2O2]) in cells, which subsequently induce the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). MMP-1, an interstitial collagenase, in turn stimulates an aging phenomenon. In this study, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) was investigated for its in vitro activity against H2O2-induced damage using a human skin keratinocyte model. Baicalein pretreatment significantly inhibited H2O2-induced up-regulation of MMP-1 mRNA, MMP-1 protein expression and MMP-1 activity in cultured HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, baicalein decreased the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and the expression of c-Fos and c-Jun, both components of the heterodimeric AP-1 transcription factor. Furthermore, baicalein reduced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), which are upstream of the AP-1 transcription factor. The results of this study suggest that baicalein is involved in the inhibition of oxidative stress-induced expression of MMP-1 via inactivation of the ERK/JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway. PMID:24116275

  5. Malpractice in dermatopathology: principles, risk mitigation, and opportunities for improved care for the histologic diagnosis of melanoma and pigmented lesions.

    PubMed

    High, Whitney A

    2008-06-01

    Melanoma represents a substantial source of risk within dermatology and dermatopathology. This article seeks to provide general pathologists, dermatologists and dermatopathologists with an overview of the basics principles of medical malpractice litigation, a review of the essentials of reporting and the importance of expert consultation for melanoma and pigmented lesions, and suggestions to improve quality care and reduce medicolegal risk associated with melanoma and pigmented lesions. PMID:18436070

  6. Salidroside Improves Behavioral and Histological Outcomes and Reduces Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Signaling after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Fu; Tsai, Hsin-Ju; Hung, Tai-Ho; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Lee, Chao Yu; Wu, Chun-Hu; Wang, Pei-Yi; Liao, Nien-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a complex sequence of apopototic cascades that contribute to secondary tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salidroside, a phenolic glycoside with potent anti-apoptotic properties, on behavioral and histological outcomes, brain edema, and apoptosis following experimental TBI and the possible involvement of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury received intraperitoneal salidroside (20, or 50 mg/kg) or vehicle injection 10 min after injury. Behavioral studies, histology analysis and brain water content assessment were performed. Levels of PI3K/Akt signaling-related molecules, apoptosis-related proteins, cytochrome C (CytoC), and Smac/DIABLO were also analyzed. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, was administered to examine the mechanism of protection. The protective effect of salidroside was also investigated in primary cultured neurons subjected to stretch injury. Treatment with 20 mg/kg salidroside_significantly improved functional recovery and reduced brain tissue damage up to post-injury day 28. Salidroside_also significantly reduced neuronal death, apoptosis, and brain edema at day 1. These changes were associated with significant decreases in cleaved caspase-3, CytoC, and Smac/DIABLO at days 1 and 3. Salidroside increased phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and the mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratio at day 1, and enhanced phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 at day 3. This beneficial effect was abolished by pre-injection of LY294002. Moreover, delayed administration of salidroside at 3 or 6 h post-injury reduced neuronal damage at day 1. Salidroside treatment also decreased neuronal vulnerability to stretch-induced injury in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Post-injury salidroside improved long-term behavioral and histological outcomes and reduced brain edema and apoptosis

  7. Radiation therapy for favorable histology Wilms tumor: Prevention of flank recurrence did not improve survival on National Wilms Tumor Studies 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Breslow, Norman E. . E-mail: norm@u.washington.edu; Beckwith, J. Bruce; Haase, Gerald M.; Kalapurakal, John A.; Ritchey, Michael L.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Thomas, Patrick; D'Angio, Giulio J.; Green, Daniel M.

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) of patients with Wilms tumor of favorable histology prevented flank recurrence and thereby improved the survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: Recurrence and mortality risks were compared among groups of patients with Stage I-IV/favorable histology Wilms tumor enrolled in the third (n = 1,640) and fourth (n = 2,066) National Wilms Tumor Study Group studies. Results: Proportions of patients with flank recurrence were 0 of 513 = 0.0% for 20 Gy, 12 of 805 = 1.5% for 10 Gy, and 44 of 2,388 = 1.8% for no flank RT (p trend 0.001 adjusted for stage and doxorubicin); for intra-abdominal (including flank) recurrence they were 5 of 513 = 1.0%, 30 of 805 = 3.7%, and 58 of 2,388 = 2.4%, respectively (p trend = 0.02 adjusted). Survival percentages at 8 years after intra-abdominal recurrence were 0 of 5 = 0% for 20 Gy, 10 of 30 = 33% for 10 Gy, and 34 of 58 = 56% for no RT (p trend = 0.0001). NWTS-4 discontinued use of 20 Gy RT, and the 8-year flank recurrence risk increased to 2.1% from 1.0% on NWTS-3 (p = 0.013). However, event-free survival was unaltered (88% vs. 86%, p = 0.39), and overall survival was better (93.8% vs. 90.8%, p = 0.036) on NWTS-4. Conclusions: Partly because of lower postrecurrence mortality among nonirradiated patients, prevention of flank recurrence by RT did not improve survival. It is important to evaluate entire treatment policies with regard to long-term outcomes.

  8. 17AAG improves histological and functional outcomes in a rat CCI model through autophagy activation and apoptosis attenuation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lixin; Li, Zefu; Liu, Zhihui; Li, Meng; Sui, Dehua; Liu, Yongliang; Shao, Wei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Pengfei; Li, Gang

    2015-07-10

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by both primary and secondary injury mechanisms, all of which cause neuronal cell death and functional deficits. Both apoptosis and autophagy participated in neuronal cell death and functional loss induced following TBI. Preclinical findings implicate that 17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an anticancer drug in clinical, present neuroprotection actions in multiple neurological disorders, but whether 17-AAG is capable of modulating neuronal autophagy has never been addressed. The present study was designed to determine the hypothesis that17-AAG treatment could confer neuroprotection in a rat model of TBI. We also used an autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) as well as an autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAPA) to test its underlining mechanisms. Our results showed that post-TBI administration of 17-AAG could attenuate brain edema, decrease neuronal death, as well as improve the recovery of motor function. Afterwards, in our model, 17-AAG treatment protected against TBI-induced apoptosis activation as well as enhanced neuronal autophagy. The present study provides novel clues in understanding the mechanisms of which 17-AAG exerts its neuroprotective activity on neurological disorders. PMID:25957556

  9. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  10. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  11. An Improved Molecular Histology Method for Ion Suppression Monitoring and Quantification of Phosphatidyl Cholines During MALDI MSI Lipidomics Analyses.

    PubMed

    Jadoul, Laure; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Pamelard, Fabien; Alberts, Deborah; Noël, Agnès; De Pauw, Edwin; Longuespée, Rémi

    2016-02-01

    Tissue lipidomics is one of the latest omics approaches for biomarker discovery in pharmacology, pathology, and the life sciences at large. In this context, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is the most versatile tool to map compounds within tissue sections. However, ion suppression events occurring during MALDI MSI analyses make it impossible to use this method for quantitative investigations without additional validation steps. This is especially true for lipidomics, since different lipid classes are responsible for important ion suppression events. We propose here an improved lipidomics method to assess local ion suppression of phospatidylcholines in tissues. Serial tissue sections were spiked with different amounts of PC(16:0 d31/18:1) using a nebulization device. Settings for standard nebulization were strictly controlled for a detection similar to when using spiked tissue homogenates. The sections were simultaneously analyzed by MALDI MSI using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance analyzer. Such a spray-based approach allows taking into account the biochemical heterogeneity of the tissue for the detection of PC(16:0 d31/18:1). Thus, here we present the perspective to use this method for quantification purposes. The linear regression lines are considered as calibration curves and we calculate PC(16:0/18:1) quantification values for different ROIs. Although those values need to be validated by a using a different independent approach, the workflow offers an insight into new quantitative mass spectrometry imaging (q-MSI) methods. This approach of ion suppression monitoring of phosphocholines in tissues may be highly interesting for a large range of applications in MALDI MSI, particularly for pathology using translational science workflows. PMID:26871868

  12. In vitro potential modulation of baicalin and baicalein on P-glycoprotein activity and expression in Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qing; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Miao, Peipei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yujie; Ma, Shuangcheng

    2016-09-01

    Context Previous studies have shown that Scutellariae Radix, the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae), has a certain inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but the effects of its main active constituents on P-gp are still ambiguous. Objectives In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effects of its main active constituents (baicalin and its aglycone, baicalein) on the activity and expression of P-gp in intestine using Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs. Materials and methods In Caco-2 cell experiments, the effects of baicalin and baicalein on P-gp activity were investigated using a P-gp substrate, rhodamine 123 and non-substrate fluorescein Na, by determining their intracellular fluorescence accumulation, and their effects on P-gp expression were determined using flow cytometry. In addition, rat gut sac model was selected to investigate the effects of baicalin and baicalein on the transport of verapamil, a classical P-gp substrate. The gut sacs of male Sprague-Dawley rats were filled with 0.4 mL the test solution contained verapamil (0.2575 mg/mL) and the drugs [baicalin and baicalein, at concentrations of 1/8 IC50 (59.875, 41.5 μg/mL), 1/4 IC50 (119.75, 83 μg/mL) and 1/2 IC50 (239.5, 166 μg/mL)], and then incubated in Tyrode's solution for a period of time. After termination of the incubation, the incubated solution was processed for the subsequent detection. Results According to the results of MTT assay, the IC50 values of verapamil, baicalin and baicalein were 104, 479, 332 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results from the two models were confirmed mutually. As a result, baicalin exhibited no obvious effect on intracellular accumulation of Rh-123, and almost had no effect on P-gp expression and verapamil transportation, while baicalein significantly increased intracellular accumulation of Rh-123 (p < 0.01), down-regulated P-gp expression (p < 0.01) and increased the transport of verapamil (p < 0

  13. Chronic administration of thiamine pyrophosphate decreases age-related histological atrophic testicular changes and improves sexual behavior in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montiel, H L; Vásquez López, C M; González-Loyola, J G; Vega-Anaya, G C; Villagrán-Herrera, M E; Gallegos-Corona, M A; Saldaña, C; Ramos Gómez, M; García Horshman, P; García Solís, P; Solís-S, J C; Robles-Osorio, M L; Ávila Morales, J; Varela-Echavarría, A; Paredes Guerrero, R

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a multifactorial universal process and constitutes the most important risk factor for chronic-degenerative diseases. Although it is a natural process, pathological aging arises when these changes occur quickly and the body is not able to adapt. This is often associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and a decrease in the endogenous antioxidant systems, constituting a physiopathological state commonly found in chronic-degenerative diseases. At the testicular level, aging is associated with tissue atrophy, decreased steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and sexual behavior disorders. This situation, in addition to the elevated generation of ROS in the testicular steroidogenesis, provides a critical cellular environment causing oxidative damage at diverse cellular levels. To assess the effects of a reduction in the levels of ROS, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) was chronically administered in senile Wistar rats. TPP causes an activation of intermediate metabolism routes, enhancing cellular respiration and decreasing the generation of ROS. Our results show an overall decrease of atrophic histological changes linked to aging, with higher levels of serum testosterone, sexual activity, and an increase in the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in TPP-treated animals. These results suggest that TPP chronic administration decreases the progression of age-related atrophic changes by improving the intermediate metabolism, and by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:24371036

  14. Inhibition of the group I mGluRs reduces acute brain damage and improves long-term histological outcomes after photothrombosis-induced ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hailong; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Grace; Ding, Shinghua

    2013-01-01

    Group I mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors), including mGluR1 and mGluR5, are GPCRs (G-protein coupled receptors) and play important roles in physiology and pathology. Studies on their role in cerebral ischaemia have provided controversial results. In this study, we used a PT (photothrombosis)-induced ischaemia model to investigate whether antagonists to the group I mGluRs may offer acute and long-term protective effects in adult mice. Our results demonstrated that administration with mGluR5 antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine] or mGluR1 antagonist LY367385 by intraperitoneal injection at 3 h after PT decreased brain infarct volume evaluated one day after ischaemia. Additive effects on infarct volume were observed upon co-injection with MPEP and LY367385. These antagonists also significantly alleviated neurodegeneration and apoptosis in the penumbra. In addition, when evaluated 2 weeks after PT, they reduced infarct volume and tissue loss, attenuated glial scar formation, and inhibited cell proliferation in the penumbra. Importantly, co-injection with MPEP and LY367385 reduced the expression levels of calpain, a Ca2+-activated protease known to mediate ischaemia-induced neuronal death. Injection of calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, could inhibit neuronal death and brain damage after PT but injection of calpeptin together with MPEP and LY367385 did not further improve the protective effects mediated by MPEP and LY367385. These results suggest that inhibition of group I mGluRs is sufficient to protect ischaemic damage through the calpain pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of group I mGluRs can mitigate PT-induced brain damage through attenuating the effects of calpain, and improve long-term histological outcomes. PMID:23772679

  15. Synthetic polymers improve vitrification outcomes of macaque ovarian tissue as assessed by histological integrity and the in vitro development of secondary follicles☆

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Alison Y.; Yeoman, Richard R.; Lawson, Maralee S.; Zelinski, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only proven option for fertility preservation in female cancer patients who are prepubertal or require immediate treatment. However it remains unclear which cryopreservation protocol is best in cases where the tissue may contain cancerous cells, as these should be matured in vitro rather than autografted. This study evaluated different cryoprotectant exposure times and whether the addition of synthetic polymers (Supercool X-1000, Z-1000 and polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP K-12]) to the vitrification solution is beneficial to tissue morphology, cellular proliferation and subsequent in vitro function of secondary follicles. Pieces of macaque (n = 4) ovarian cortex were exposed to vitrification solution containing glycerol (25%, v/v) and ethylene glycol (25%, v/v) for 3 or 8 min, without (V3, V8) or with (VP3, VP8) polymers (0.2% [v/v] X-1000, 0.4% Z-1000 and 0.2% PVP). Fresh and vitrified tissues were fixed for histology and phosphohistone H3 (PPH3) analysis, or used for secondary follicle isolation followed by encapsulated 3D culture. Five-week follicle survival and growth, as well as steroid hormones (estradiol [E2], progesterone, androstenedione) were measured weekly. Morphology of the stroma and preantral follicles as well as PPH3 expression, was preserved in all vitrified tissues. Vitrification with polymers and shorter incubation time (VP3) increased in vitro follicle survival and E2 production compared to other vitrified groups. Thus, a short exposure of macaque ovarian tissue to a vitrification solution containing synthetic polymers preserves morphology and improves in vitro function of secondary follicles. PMID:22569078

  16. Appearance Normalization of Histology Slides

    PubMed Central

    Niethammer, Marc; Borland, David; Marron, J. S.; Woosley, John; Thomas, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearances across slides, that is very effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols, and to slide fading. The approach is validated using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. PMID:25360444

  17. Clinico-Histologic Conferences: Histology and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Phyllis A.; Friedman, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical…

  18. A novel molecularly imprinted method with computational simulation for the affinity isolation and knockout of baicalein from Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; He, Hongliang; Huang, Jiaojiao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Gu, Xiaoli; Gao, Yankun; Zhang, Hongjuan; Du, Shuhu; Chen, Lina; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-02-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized by precipitation polymerization with baicalein (BAI) as the template and used as solid-phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent, aiming at the affinity isolation and selective knockout of BAI from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SB). We used computational simulation to predict the optimal functional monomer, polymerization solvent and molar ratio of template to functional monomer. Characterization and performance tests revealed that MIP exhibited uniform spherical morphology, rapid binding kinetics, and higher adsorption capacity for BAI compared with nonimprinted polymer (NIP). The application of MIP in SPE coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography to extract BAI from SB showed excellent recovery (94.3%) and purity (97.0%). Not only the single BAI compound, but also the BAI-removed SB extract was obtained by one-step process. This new method is useful for isolation and knockout of key bioactive compounds from herbal medicines. PMID:26037609

  19. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 8-hydroxypiperidinylmethyl-baicalein (BA-j) as a novel selective CDK1 inhibitor in monkey.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong-Min; Sun, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Xuan; Ju, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ai-Yun; Li, Jing; Zou, Liang; Sun, Xiao-Dan; Li, Hai-Liang; Zheng, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is the only necessary CDK in the cell proliferation process and a new target in the research and development of anti-cancer drugs. 8-Hydroxypiperidinemethyl-baicalein (BA-j) is a Mannich base derivative of baicalein (BA) isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, as a novel selective CDK1 inhibitor. 12 metabolites of BA-j in the monkey urine were identified by LC-MS-MS and (1)H NMR. The major metabolic pathways of BA-j, by capturing oxygen free radicals ((.)O2(-)) and releasing peroxides (H2O2), are degraded into active intermediate metabolite dihydroflavonol, then into main metabolite M179 by Shiff reaction, second metabolite M264 by sulfation, trace amount of metabolite M559 by glucuronidation UGT1A9, and without metabolism by CYP3A4. The metabolic process of BA-j by regulating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was related with BA-j selectively inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Pharmacokinetics of 10mg/kg oral BA-j in monkey by HPLC-UV was best fitted to a two-compartment open model, with t1/2(β) of 4.2h, Cmax 25.4μM at 2h, and Vd 12.6L, meaning the drug distributing widely in body fluids with no special selectivity to certain tissues, and being able to permeate through the blood-brain barrier. The protein binding rate of BA-j was 91.8%. BA-j has excellent druggability for oral administration or injection, and it may be developed into a novel anti-cancer drug as a selective CDK1 inhibitor. PMID:26474673

  20. Baicalein attenuates the quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and relieves the inflammatory response in P. aeruginosa-infected macrophages by downregulating the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Kong, Jin-liang; Dong, Bi-ying; Huang, Hong; Wang, Ke; Wu, Li-hong; Hou, Chang-chun; Liang, Yue; Li, Bing; Chen, Yi-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Burgeoning antibiotic resistance and unfavorable outcomes of inflammatory injury after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection have necessitated the development of novel agents that not only target quorum sensing (QS) but also combat inflammatory injury with the least risk of resistance. This study aimed to assess the anti-QS and anti-inflammatory activities of baicalein, a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the People’s Republic of China, against P. aeruginosa infection. We found that subminimum inhibitory concentrations of baicalein efficiently interfered with the QS-signaling pathway of P. aeruginosa via downregulation of the transcription of QS-regulated genes and the translation of QS-signaling molecules. This interference resulted in the global attenuation of QS-controlled virulence factors, such as motility and biofilm formation, and the secretion into the culture supernatant of extracellular virulence factors, including pyocyanin, LasA protease, LasB elastase, and rhamnolipids. Moreover, we examined the anti-inflammatory activity of baicalein and its mode of action via a P. aeruginosa-infected macrophage model to address its therapeutic effect. Baicalein reduced the P. aeruginosa-induced secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. In addition, baicalein suppressed P. aeruginosa-induced activation of the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways in cocultured macrophages; this may be the mechanism by which baicalein inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, our study demonstrates that baicalein represents a potential treatment for P. aeruginosa infection because it clearly exhibits both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26792984

  1. Histologic diagnosis of sodomy.

    PubMed

    Paparo, G P; Siegel, H

    1979-10-01

    A case of homicidal strangulation with sodomy is presented. Without the use of a simple routine histologic technique, the diagnosis of sodomy could not have been unequivocally substantiated. PMID:541642

  2. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    PubMed

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown. PMID:25863518

  3. Baicalein Protects Against Retinal Ischemia by Antioxidation, Antiapoptosis, Downregulation of HIF-1α, VEGF, and MMP-9 and Upregulation of HO-1

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Min-Jay; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Ho, Li-Kang; Pan, Wynn H.T.; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Liu, Chi-Ming; Tsai, Shen-Kou; Kong, Chi-Woon; Lee, Shou-Dong; Chen, Mi-Mi; Chao, Fang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Retinal ischemia-associated ocular disorders are vision threatening. This study examined whether the flavonoid baicalein is able to protect against retinal ischemia/reperfusion. Methods Using rats, the intraocular pressure was raised to 120 mmHg for 60 min to induce retinal ischemia. In vitro, an ischemic-like insult, namely oxidative stress, was established by incubating dissociated retinal cells with 100 μM ascorbate and 5 μM FeSO4 (iron) for 1 h. The rats or the dissociated cells had been pretreated with baicalein (in vivo: 0.05 or 0.5 nmol; in vitro: 100 μM), vehicle (1% ethanol), or trolox (in vivo: 5 nmol; in vitro: 100 μM or 1 mM). The effects of these treatments on the retina or the retinal cells were evaluated by electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, Western blotting, or in vitro dichlorofluorescein assay. In addition, real-time-polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the retinal expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Results The retinal changes after ischemia included a decrease in the electroretinogram b-wave amplitude, a loss of choline acetyltransferase immunolabeling amacrine cell bodies/neuronal processes, an increase in vimentin immunoreactivity, which is a marker for Müller cells, an increase in apoptotic cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer linked to a decrease in the Bcl-2 protein, and changes in the mRNA levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9, and HO-1. Of clinical importance, the ischemic detrimental effects were concentration dependently and/or significantly (0.05 nmol and/or 0.5 nmol) altered when baicalein was applied 15 min before retinal ischemia. Most of all, 0.5 nmol baicalein significantly reduced the upregulation of MMP-9; in contrast, 5 nmol trolox only had a weak

  4. Histologic classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview of the histology of all glial neoplasms listed in the WHO 2016 classification, including the less frequent "nondiffuse" gliomas and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. For multiple decades the histologic diagnosis of these tumors formed a useful basis for assessment of prognosis and therapeutic management. However, it is now fully clear that information on the molecular underpinnings often allows for a more robust classification of (glial) neoplasms. Indeed, in the WHO 2016 classification, histologic and molecular findings are integrated in the definition of several gliomas. As such, this chapter and Chapter 6 are highly interrelated and neither should be considered in isolation. PMID:26948349

  5. Improved method using a bubble-free adhesion technique for the preparation of semi-serial undecalcified histologic sections containing dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kihara, A; Morimoto, K; Suetsugu, T

    1989-01-01

    The preparation technique, with the minimum of artifacts for the semi-serial undecalcified histologic sections containing dental implants, is presented in this study. The sections enabled finer light-microscopic observations to be made. A formalin-fixed tissue block containing a dental implant was dehydrated in ethanol and acetone, and then embedded in polyester resin under 76 cm Hg reduced pressure. The embedded block was trimmed by a cutter and ground by abrasive paper. In a 1.5 Kg f/cm2 pressurized chamber, its polished surface was bonded to a methacrylate slide by means of ethylcyanoacrylate used in an adhesion loading device. This meant that no bubbles could arise in the interface between the slide and the block. The slide-block was then attached to an adsorptive specimen-holder of a hard-tissue cutting machine and cut to a thickness of approximately 50 microns, with use of a diamond blade. The slide-section was ground to 15-40 microns with wet-type abrasive paper and film on a polishing table. Etching with weak acid and surface staining with toluidine blue and methylene blue/basic fuchsin/light green were performed on the section. PMID:2701107

  6. Histological improvement in salivary gland along with effector memory Th17-1 cell reduction in a primary Sjogren's syndrome patient with dermatomyositis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by R-CHOP therapy.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tomohiro; Mizokami, Akinari; Nakashima, Masahiro; Shimizu, Toshimasa; Nakashima, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Hideki; Chiwata, Masahiko; Daisuke, Niino; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    We treated a 45-year-old Japanese woman with primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS) complicated with dermatomyositis (DM) followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. She was admitted to our hospital for further evaluation of fever, weight loss and peritoneal lymphadenopathy. The histological examination of her lymph node revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient was then treated with 8 cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) therapy, which resulted in histological and functional improvement of her salivary glands. Of note, the percentage of effector memory Th17-1 (CD3+CD4+CD45RA-CCR7-CXCR3+CCR6+) cells in the peripheral blood was decreased after the R-CHOP treatment. This case suggests that an altered Th17-1 cell subset by B-cell depletion therapy is critical for the improvement of tissue damage in patients with SS, and the case suggests that clinicians should consider measuring the effector memory Th-subsets to predict the disease activity in SS patients. PMID:26960952

  7. Anti-fibrillation propensity of a flavonoid baicalein against the fibrils of hen egg white lysozyme: potential therapeutics for lysozyme amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Fazili, Naveed Ahmad; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Bhat, Waseem Feeroze; Naeem, Aabgeena

    2016-10-01

    More than 20 human diseases involve the fibrillation of a specific protein/peptide which forms pathological deposits at various sites. Hereditary lysozyme amyloidosis is a systemic disorder which mostly affects liver, spleen and kidney. This conformational disorder is featured by lysozyme fibril formation. In vivo lysozyme fibrillation was simulated under in vitro conditions using a strong denaturant GdHCl at 3 M concentration. Sharp decline in the ANS fluorescence intensity compared to the partially unfolded states, almost 20-fold increase in ThT fluorescence intensity, increase in absorbance at 450 nm suggesting turbidity, negative ellipticity peak in the far-UVCD at 217 nm, red shift of 50 nm compared to the native state in Congo red assay and appearance of a network of long rope-like fibrils in transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis suggested HEWL fibrillation. Anti-fibrillation potency of baicalein against the preformed fibrils of HEWL was investigated following ThT assay in which there was a dose-dependent decrease in ThT fluorescence intensity compared to the fibrillar state of HEWL with the maximum effect observed at 150-μM baicalein concentration, loss of negative ellipticity peak in the far-UVCD region, dip in the Rayleigh scattering intensity and absorbance at 350 and 450 nm, respectively, together with a reduction in the density of fibrillar structure in TEM imaging. Thus, it could be suggested that baicalein could prove to be a positive therapeutics for hereditary human lysozyme amyloidosis. PMID:26555198

  8. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Marx, Alexander; Schuster, Alexander K.; Schad, Lothar R.; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions. Methods and Results In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin—3,3’-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images. Validation To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images. Context Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics. PMID:26717571

  9. Delivery of baicalein and paclitaxel using self-assembled nanoparticles: synergistic antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Xi, Mei; Duan, Xuezhong; Wang, Yong; Kong, Fansheng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Combination anticancer therapy is promising to generate synergistic anticancer effects to maximize the treatment effect and overcome multidrug resistance. The aim of the study reported here was to develop multifunctional, dual-ligand, modified, self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) for the combination delivery of baicalein (BCL) and paclitaxel (PTX) prodrugs. Methods Prodrug of PTX and prodrug of BCL, containing dual-targeted ligands of folate (FA) and hyaluronic acid (HA), were synthesized. Multifunctional self-assembled NPs for combination delivery of PTX prodrug and BCL prodrug (PTX-BCL) were prepared and the synergistic antitumor effect was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro transfection efficiency of the novel modified vectors was evaluated in human lung cancer A549 cells and drug-resistant lung cancer A549/PTX cells. The in vivo antitumor efficiency and systemic toxicity of different formulations were further investigated in mice bearing A549/PTX drug-resistant human lung cancer xenografts. Results The size of the PTX-BCL NPs was approximately 90 nm, with a positive zeta potential of +3.3. The PTX-BCL NPs displayed remarkably better antitumor activity over a wide range of drug concentrations, and showed an obvious synergism effect with CI50 values of 0.707 and 0.513, indicating that double-ligand modification and the co-delivery of PTX and BCL prodrugs with self-assembled NPs had remarkable superiority over other formulations. Conclusion The prepared PTX-BCL NP drug-delivery system was proven efficient by its targeting of drug-resistant human lung cancer cells and delivering of BCL and PTX prodrugs. Enhanced synergistic anticancer effects were achieved by PTX-BCL NPs, and multidrug resistance of PTX was overcome by this promising targeted nanomedicine. PMID:26045664

  10. Mécano-Stimulation™ of the skin improves sagging score and induces beneficial functional modification of the fibroblasts: clinical, biological, and histological evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Philippe; Fanian, Ferial; Lihoreau, Thomas; Jeudy, Adeline; Elkhyat, Ahmed; Robin, Sophie; Courderot-Masuyer, Carol; Tauzin, Hélène; Lafforgue, Christine; Haftek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of mechanical tension appears to be the major factor underlying decreased collagen synthesis in aged skin. Numerous in vitro studies have shown the impact of mechanical forces on fibroblasts through mechanotransduction, which consists of the conversion of mechanical signals to biochemical responses. Such responses are characterized by the modulation of gene expression coding not only for extracellular matrix components (collagens, elastin, etc.) but also for degradation enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs]) and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases [TIMPs]). A new device providing a mechanical stimulation of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue has been used in a simple, blinded, controlled, and randomized study. Materials and methods Thirty subjects (aged between 35 years and 50 years), with clinical signs of skin sagging, were randomly assigned to have a treatment on hemiface. After a total of 24 sessions with Mécano-Stimulation™, biopsies were performed on the treated side and control area for in vitro analysis (dosage of hyaluronic acid, elastin, type I collagen, MMP9; equivalent dermis retraction; GlaSbox®; n=10) and electron microscopy (n=10). Furthermore, before and after the treatment, clinical evaluations and self-assessment questionnaire were done. Results In vitro analysis showed increases in hyaluronic acid, elastin, type I collagen, and MMP9 content along with an improvement of the migratory capacity of the fibroblasts on the treated side. Electron microscopy evaluations showed a clear dermal remodeling in relation with the activation of fibroblast activity. A significant improvement of different clinical signs associated with skin aging and the satisfaction of the subjects were observed, correlated with an improvement of the sagging cheek. Conclusion Mécano-Stimulation is a noninvasive and safe technique delivered by flaps microbeats at various frequencies, which can significantly improve the skin

  11. [Gastritis from a histological point of view].

    PubMed

    Vieth, M; Stolte, M

    2006-06-01

    Since the rediscovery of spiral-shaped gastric bacteria in 1983 by Warren and Marshal numerous detailed facts have enlarged our knowledge base for a better understanding of gastritis. The WHO classified Helicobacter as a class 1 carcinogen. Helicobacter plays a role in many diseases of the upper GI tract (gastric and duodenal ulcer, MALT lymphoma, and gastric cancer). Knowledge of the interaction between bacterium and host led to an improvement of the diagnosis of gastritis. Unfortunately endoscopy, histology, and patient's symptoms do not correlate with each other. Therefore, gastritis is a purely histological diagnosis. A histological diagnosis always needs to be accompanied by an etiological cause of the inflammation. Only when this information is given a clinical consequence can be drawn from a histological diagnosis. In Germany the so-called ABCD scheme of gastritis is widely used (A: autoimmune gastritis, B: bacterial gastritis, C: chemical reactive gastritis, D: other forms of gastritis). At least two antrum and two corpus biopsies (matrix diagnostics) are necessary to reach representative tissue with an acceptable probability. If less than these four (minimal standard) biopsies are taken, the histological diagnosis will remain uncertain. PMID:16612608

  12. Histologic remission: the ultimate therapeutic goal in ulcerative colitis?

    PubMed

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Bressenot, Aude; Kampman, Wendy

    2014-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease of the mucosal layer, and activity of the disease is assumed to be related to mucosal appearance. Mucosal healing has emerged as a major therapeutic goal in UC. Whether mucosal healing should be the ultimate therapeutic goal in these patients is unknown. Even when endoscopy suggests mucosal healing, evidence of histologic activity has been observed. Histologic healing requires complete recovery of the colonic mucosa, with absence of inflammation or structural changes. Histologic improvements have been linked with improved clinical outcomes, such as a reduced risk of relapse and need for surgery/hospitalization and a reduced risk of developing cancer. Hence, there is a rationale for aiming for histologic remission in UC. Numerous methods of classification of histologic activity in UC have been proposed, although only some of these are widely used. We review the current definitions of histologic remission, the range of scoring systems most commonly used, and the evidence of histologic improvement that is available from the latest therapies for UC. We also highlight questions that will require careful consideration if histologic remission is to become more widely used as an end point in clinical trials and a treatment goal in clinical practice. PMID:23911875

  13. Baicalein protects against the development of angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms by blocking JNK and p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Houzao; Yan, Yunfei; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Shuyang; Liu, Depei

    2016-09-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. In western countries, the morbidity of AAA is approximately 8%. Currently, pharmacotherapies for AAA are limited. Here, we demonstrate that baicalein (BAI), the main component of the Chinese traditional drug "Huang Qin", attenuates the incidence and severity of AAA in Apoe (-/-) mice infused with angiotensin II (AngII). Mechanically, BAI treatment decreases AngII-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the aortic wall. Moreover, BAI inhibits inflammatory cell accumulation in the aortas of mice infused with AngII. It also inhibits AngII-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 to maintain elastin content in vivo. In addition, it blocks AngII cascade by downregulating angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Taken together, our findings show that BAI is an effective agent for AAA prevention. PMID:27333787

  14. The enlightenments from ITMIG Consensus on WHO histological classification of thymoma and thymic carcinoma: refined definitions, histological criteria, and reporting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Fang, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) histological classification of the thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) has been criticized for poor interobserver reproducibility or inconsistencies in the routine pathological diagnosis. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) panel achieved an agreement to maintain the widely accepted WHO framework but to refine historic definitions and histological criteria, and further introduce some new terms with the aim to improve interobserver reproducibility. This review addresses the enlightenments we can get from the ITMIG consensus on the WHO histological classification of the thymoma and TC, which may be helpful for most pathologists. PMID:27114842

  15. Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerongen, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

  16. Histological findings in human brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, A. C.; Bothwell, P. W.

    1967-01-01

    The histological findings in 14 cases of brucellosis are described. Unusual findings include the occurrence of brucellosis in a patient with Hodgkin's disease and in another with lymphosarcoma. A patient with hepatic cirrhosis apparently due to brucellosis is included in the series. Images PMID:5632572

  17. Strongyloidiasis histologically mimicking eosinophilic folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Serafinella P; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Guarneri, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of strongyloidiasis in an Italian patient, who has always lived in Sicily. The patient presented with marked blood eosinophilia and an itching maculo-papular eruption, histologically simulating eosinophilic folliculitis. The clinical resolution was achieved after albendazol therapy. PMID:15319162

  18. Histologic Technician. Laboratory Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for histologic technician is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each task…

  19. Histological evolution of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Takako; Yoshida, Yuji; Kitasato, Yasuhiko; Yoshimi, Michihiro; Koga, Takaomi; Tsuruta, Nobuko; Minami, Masato; Harada, Taishi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Fujita, Masaki; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Nagata, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the histological evolution in the development of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE). Methods and results We examined four patients who had undergone surgical lung biopsy twice, or who had undergone surgical lung biopsy and had been autopsied, and in whom the histological diagnosis of the first biopsy was not PPFE, but the diagnosis of the second biopsy or of the autopsy was PPFE. The histological patterns of the first biopsy were cellular and fibrotic interstitial pneumonia, cellular interstitial pneumonia (CIP) with organizing pneumonia, CIP with granulomas and acute lung injury in cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Septal elastosis was already present in the non-specific interstitial pneumonia-like histology of case 1, but a few additional years were necessary to reach consolidated subpleural fibroelastosis. In case 3, subpleural fibroelastosis was already present in the first biopsy, but only to a small extent. Twelve years later, it was replaced by a long band of fibroelastosis. The septal inflammation and fibrosis and airspace organization observed in the first biopsies were replaced by less cellular subpleural fibroelastosis within 3–12 years. Conclusions Interstitial inflammation or acute lung injury may be an initial step in the development of PPFE. PMID:25234959

  20. Analysis of baicalein, baicalin and wogonin in Scutellariae radix and its preparation by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography with 1-butyl-3-methylimizolium tetrafluoborate ionic liquid as additive.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huige; Tian, Kan; Tang, Jianghong; Qi, Shengda; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2006-10-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF4) ionic liquid (IL) as additive was developed for the analysis of baicalin, wogonin and baicalein in Scutellariae radix and its preparation. After conducting a series of optimizations, baseline separation was obtained for the analytes within 5min under the optimum conditions (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) 0.88% (m/v) ethyl acetate 0.8% (v/v) butan-1-ol 0.2% (v/v) and the buffer composition were 25% acetonitrile (v/v), 7.5 mM BMIM-BF4 and 10 mM NaH2PO4, pH 8.2, applied voltage 17.5 kV and detection at 254 nm), the method has been successfully applied to the determination and quantification of the analytes in the extracts of S. radix (cooked), S. radix (raw) and Qingfeiyihuowan which was the preparation including S. radix. PMID:16952364

  1. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2016-01-01

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness. PMID:26493433

  2. Histological aspects of cervical ripening.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, M; Shimizu, T; Sasai, Y

    1976-02-01

    There is a close relationship between the rate of the uterine cervix opening during parturition and the presence or absence of a completely ripened cervix. In order to learn the basic pattern of the ripening of cervix, histological and histochemical studies were performed on the human uterine cervix during pregnancy. It was noted that the collagen bundles disintegrated into fine fibers and also underwent quantitative changes during the ripening process of the cervix. During pregnancy, the number of connective tissue cells was increased, but that of mast cells was decreased. Acid mucopolysaccharides in the cervical ground substance were found to increase in late pregnancy. PMID:136067

  3. Classification of Tumor Histology via Morphometric Context.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hang; Borowsky, Alexander; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-06-23

    Image-based classification of tissue histology, in terms of different components (e.g., normal signature, categories of aberrant signatures), provides a series of indices for tumor composition. Subsequently, aggregation of these indices in each whole slide image (WSI) from a large cohort can provide predictive models of clinical outcome. However, the performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical and biological variations that are always present in a large cohort. In this paper, we propose two algorithms for classification of tissue histology based on robust representations of morphometric context, which are built upon nuclear level morphometric features at various locations and scales within the spatial pyramid matching (SPM) framework. These methods have been evaluated on two distinct datasets of different tumor types collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the experimental results indicate that our methods are (i) extensible to different tumor types; (ii) robust in the presence of wide technical and biological variations; (iii) invariant to different nuclear segmentation strategies; and (iv) scalable with varying training sample size. In addition, our experiments suggest that enforcing sparsity, during the construction of morphometric context, further improves the performance of the system. PMID:24319324

  4. Histology of the first fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  5. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology.

    PubMed

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M; Schad, Lothar R; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies. PMID:27306927

  6. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies. PMID:27306927

  7. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-06-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies.

  8. Baicalein inhibition of oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis via modulation of ERKs activation and induction of HO-1 gene expression in rat glioma cells C6

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.-C. . E-mail: yc3270@tmu.edu.tw; Chow, J.-M.; Lin, C.-W.; Wu, C.-Y.; Shen, S.-C.

    2006-10-15

    In the present study, we examined the protective mechanism of baicalein (BE) and its glycoside, baicalin (BI), on hydrogen-peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced cell death in rat glioma C6 cells. Results of the MTT assay, LDH release assay, and morphological observation showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition reduced the viability of C6 cells, and this was prevented by the addition of BE but not BI. Incubation of C6 cells with BE significantly decreased the intracellular peroxide level induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} according to flow cytometric analysis using DCHF-DA as a fluorescent substrate. Suppression of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptotic events including DNA ladders, hypodiploid cells, and activation of caspases 3, 8, and, 9 by BE but not BI was identified in C6 cells. The cytotoxicity and phosphorylation of ERK proteins induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were blocked by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Catalase addition prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced ROS production, ERKs protein phosphorylation, and cell death, and BE dose-dependently inhibited H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced ERK protein phosphorylation in C6 cells. These data suggest that ROS-scavenging activity is involved in BE prevention of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death via blocking ERKs activation. Additionally, BE but not BI induced heat shock protein 32 (HSP32; HO-1) protein expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners, but not heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), or heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) protein expression. In the absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, BE induces ERKs protein phosphorylation, and HO-1 protein expression induced by BE was blocked by the addition of cycloheximide, actinomycin D, and the ERK inhibitor PD98059. The addition of the HO inhibitor ZnPP inhibited the protective effect of BE against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in C6 cells according to the MTT assay and apoptotic morphology under microscopic observation, accompanied by blocking the ROS-scavenging activity of BE

  9. Baicalein inhibits pulmonary carcinogenesis-associated inflammation and interferes with COX-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions in-vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrashekar, Naveenkumar; Selvamani, Asokkumar; Subramanian, Raghunandhakumar; Pandi, Anandakumar; Thiruvengadam, Devaki

    2012-05-15

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of baicalein (BE) on inflammatory cytokines, which is in line with tumor invasion factors and antioxidant defensive system during benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] (50 mg/kg body weight) induced pulmonary carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. After experimental period, increased levels of total and differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were observed. Accompanied by marked increase in immature mast cell by toluidine blue staining and mature mast cell by safranin–alcian blue staining in B(a)P-induced lung cancer bearing animals. Protein expression levels studied by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also found to be significantly increased in lung cancer bearing animals. B(a)P-exposed mice lung exhibits activated expression of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B as confirmed by immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis. Administration of BE (12 mg/kg body weight) significantly counteracted all the above deleterious changes. Moreover, assessment of tumor invasion factors on protein levels by immunoblot and mRNA expression levels by RT-PCR revealed that BE treatment effectively negates B(a)P-induced upregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cyclo-oxygenase-2. Further analysis of lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydro-peroxides and antioxidants such as glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione in lung tissue was carried out to substantiate the antioxidant effect of BE. The chemotherapeutic effect observed in the present study is attributed to the potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential by BE against pulmonary carcinogenesis. -- Highlights: ► BE treatment protects from inflammatory cells and mast-cells accumulation in lungs. ► BE altered the expressions of TNF

  10. Comparative histology of pineal calcification.

    PubMed

    Vígh, B; Szél, A; Debreceni, K; Fejér, Z; Manzano e Silva, M J; Vígh-Teichmann, I

    1998-07-01

    The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand" or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree of calcification was associated to various diseases. However, the presence of calcified concretions seems not to reflect a specific pathological state. Corpora arenacea occur not only in the actual pineal tissue but also in the leptomeninges, in the habenular commissure and in the choroid plexus. Studies with the potassium pyroantimonate (PPA) method on the ultrastructural localization of free calcium ions in the human pineal, revealed the presence of calcium alongside the cell membranes, a finding that underlines the importance of membrane functions in the production of calcium deposits. Intrapineal corpora arenacea are characterized by a surface with globular structures. Meningeal acervuli that are present in the arachnoid cover of the organ, differ in structure from intrapineal ones and show a prominent concentric lamination of alternating dark and light lines. The electron-lucent lines contain more calcium than the dark ones. There is a correlation between the age of the subject and the number of layers in the largest acervuli. This suggests that the formation of these layers is connected to circannual changes in the calcium level of the organ. The histological organization of the human pineal is basically the same as that of mammalian experimental animals. Pineal concretions present in mammalian animal species are mainly of the meningeal type. Meningeal cells around acervuli contain active cytoplasmic organelles and exhibit alkaline phosphatase reaction in the rat and mink, an indication of a presumable

  11. Comparative Histology of Plasma Treated Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Kyle

    2009-10-01

    Atmospheric plasmas applied in surgical settings have unique characteristics found in histological results from animal tissue studies. This is evident in both ex vivo bench tissue tests and in vivo fresh tissue. Examples of these histological features are presented as results of a comparative study between plasma treated, common medical argon coagulation, and electrosurgery.

  12. Reproducibility of histologic classification of gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, D.; Bianchi, S.; Cipriani, F.; Duca, P.; Amorosi, A.; Avellini, C.; Russo, A.; Saragoni, A.; Todde, P.; Valdes, E.

    1991-01-01

    A panel review of histologic specimens was carried out as part of a multi-centre case-control study of gastric cancer (GC) and diet. Comparisons of diagnoses of 100 GCs by six pathologists revealed agreement in histologic classification for about 70-80% of the cancers. Concordance was somewhat higher when using the Lauren rather than the Ming or World Health Organization classification systems. Histologic types from reading biopsy tissue agreed with those derived from surgical specimens for 65-75% of the 100 tumours. Intra-observer agreement in histologic classification, assessed by repeat readings up to 3 years apart by one pathologist, was 95%. The findings indicate that, although overall concordance was good, it is important to standardise diagnoses in multi-centre epidemiologic studies of GC by histologic type. PMID:2039701

  13. [Metal implant sensitivity: clinical and histological presentation].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, D; Letulé, V; Schneider, J J; Flaig, M J

    2016-05-01

    Metal implant sensitivity (intolerance) can cause pain, reduced mobility, loosening of the implant and skin rashes. Knowledge of differential diagnoses, histology and appropriate diagnostics are essential for proper diagnosis. To outline typical clinical signs and histology in metal-implant-associated skin lesions we present three exemplary patients from our implant allergy outpatient department and give an overview of the current literature regarding metal implant sensitivity. In patients with a negative patch test the lymphocyte transformation test may reveal metal sensitization. Even "pure" titanium alloys may contain traces of nickel. The histology of implant-associated skin reactions goes from teleangiectatic postimplantation erythema to eczema and vasculitis. Based on the synopsis of history, clinical picture, allergological testing and histology, metal implant sensitivity can be diagnosed more precisely. PMID:27090521

  14. Graphs and Grammars for Histology: An Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Prewitt, Judith M. S.

    1979-01-01

    The invention of the microscope disclosed a whole new world, that of the hitherto invisibly small. Histologic evidence as revealed by the microscope has become a cornerstone of medical diagnosis, and efforts are now being made to lay foundations so that the medical visual information processing burden can be alleviated significantly by cost-effective automation. This paper lays image processing foundations by presenting a graph-theoretic and syntactic model for the analysis of histologic patterns, and presents results to date.

  15. Virtual histology and color flow intravascular ultrasound in peripheral interventions.

    PubMed

    Diethrich, Edward B; Irshad, Khalid; Reid, Donald B

    2006-09-01

    The quality and interpretation of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging has been revolutionized in recent years by two new and major advances: virtual histology and color flow IVUS. Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VHIVUS) is a catheter-based technology where IVUS is generated from the transducer on the catheter tip and the reflected signals from the artery wall produce a color-coded map of the arterial disease. Different histological constituents of the plaque produce different reflected signals and these are assigned different colors (dark green, fibrous; yellow/green, fibrofatty; white, calcified; red, necrotic lipid core plaque). This color-coded map assists the interventionalist in understanding more fully how the lesion will behave at the moment of treatment, whether it will resist complete stent deployment or be liable to embolization. Originally introduced for coronary interventions, VHIVUS is now being applied to peripheral situations. Because it provides a detailed and close-proximity view of plaque, its potential to improve the safety and efficacy of carotid endoluminal repair is stimulating substantial interest. Similarly, color flow IVUS provides greater understanding for the operator of blood flow, and the interface between the vessel wall and the blood stream, lumen size, and success of treatment. Color flow IVUS does not use the Doppler effect, but creates real-time images that resemble color flow Doppler ultrasound. These two technological advances in IVUS have greatly improved the ability of the endovascular specialist to understand the arterial disease they are treating and to assess the completion of treatment. PMID:16996418

  16. Effect of hyaluronan on periodontitis: A clinical and histological study

    PubMed Central

    Gontiya, Gauri; Galgali, Sushama R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Conventional, non-surgical periodontal therapy consists of supra- and subgingival tooth debridement. However, it is a technically demanding procedure and is not always efficient at eradicating all periodontal pathogens and in reducing inflammation. Therefore, local subgingival application of other chemotherapeutic agents may be used as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological outcomes of local subgingival application of 0.2% hyaluronic acid gel (GENGIGEL®) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty sites were chosen from 26 patients with chronic periodontitis (criteria being periodontal pockets ≥5mm). Experimental sites additionally received HA gel subgingivally at baseline, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd week. Clinical parameters were re-assessed at 4th, 6th, and 12th week. At 4th week recall, a gingival biopsy was obtained from test and control site for histologic examination. Results: Intra-group analysis of all the clinical parameters at all sites from baseline to 4th, 6th, and 12th week showed statistically significant changes. Experimental sites showed statistically significant improvement in Gingival index and Bleeding index at 6th and 12th week when compared with control sites. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the PPD and RAL between control and experimental sites at 4th, 6th, and 12th week time interval. No statistically significant association was found between the histological grading of the sites that received HA treatment. Conclusion: Subgingival placement of 0.2% HA gel along with SRP provided a significant improvement in gingival parameters. However, no additional benefit was found in periodontal parameters. Histologically, experimental sites showed reduced inflammatory infiltrate, but it was not statistically significant. PMID:23055583

  17. Histological types of polypoid cutaneous melanoma II.

    PubMed

    Knezević, Fabijan; Duancić, Vjekoslav; Sitić, Sanda; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Ramić, Snjezana; Kostović, Kresimir; Ramljak, Vesna; Vrdoljak, Danko Velemir; Stanec, Mladen; Bozović, Angelina

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which histological types of melanoma can clinically and morphologically appear as polypoid melanomas. In 645 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma we have analyzed criteria for diagnosis of polypoid cutaneous melanoma and afterwards we have analyzed growth phase in each polypoid melanoma, histological type of atypical melanocytes, the number of epidermal ridges which are occupied by atypical melanocytes, and distribution according to age, sex and location, as well as the disease free survival. According to the criteria for polypoid melanomas we have found 147 (22.8%) polypoid cutaneous melanomas. Analyzing the growth phases, histological types of atypical melanocytes and the number of affected epidermal ridges in the group of polypoid melanomas we have ascertained 2 (1.4%) ALMs, 4 (2.8%) LMMs, 42 (28.6%) SSMs and 99 (67.2%) NMs. Our conclusion is that polypoid cutaneous melanomas are morphological forms of various histological melanoma types (ALM, LMM, SSM and NM) and they can all display polypoid morphological form. Polypoid cutaneous melanomas are most often of nodular histological type. PMID:18217457

  18. Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Manthey, Suzanne; Rentsch, Barbe; Rammelt, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate and assess bone regeneration in sheep in combination with new implant materials classical histological staining methods as well as immunohistochemistry may provide additional information to standard radiographs or computer tomography. Available published data of bone defect regenerations in sheep often present none or sparely labeled histological images. Repeatedly, the exact location of the sample remains unclear, detail enlargements are missing and the labeling of different tissues or cells is absent. The aim of this article is to present an overview of sample preparation, staining methods and their benefits as well as a detailed histological description of bone regeneration in the sheep tibia. General histological staining methods like hematoxylin and eosin, Masson-Goldner trichrome, Movat's pentachrome and alcian blue were used to define new bone formation within a sheep tibia critical size defect containing a polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffold implanted for 3 months (n = 4). Special attention was drawn to describe the bone healing patterns down to cell level. Additionally one histological quantification method and immunohistochemical staining methods are described. PMID:24504113

  19. Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants

    PubMed Central

    Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Manthey, Suzanne; Rentsch, Barbe; Rammelt, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate and assess bone regeneration in sheep in combination with new implant materials classical histological staining methods as well as immunohistochemistry may provide additional information to standard radiographs or computer tomography. Available published data of bone defect regenerations in sheep often present none or sparely labeled histological images. Repeatedly, the exact location of the sample remains unclear, detail enlargements are missing and the labeling of different tissues or cells is absent. The aim of this article is to present an overview of sample preparation, staining methods and their benefits as well as a detailed histological description of bone regeneration in the sheep tibia. General histological staining methods like hematoxylin and eosin, Masson-Goldner trichrome, Movat’s pentachrome and alcian blue were used to define new bone formation within a sheep tibia critical size defect containing a polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffold implanted for 3 months (n = 4). Special attention was drawn to describe the bone healing patterns down to cell level. Additionally one histological quantification method and immunohistochemical staining methods are described. PMID:24504113

  20. The International Histological Classification of Tumours*

    PubMed Central

    Sobin, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the development of the WHO project on the histological classification of tumours, which has included the establishment of several collaborating centres and has involved more than 300 pathologists in over 50 countries. The project has resulted in the publication, over the last 14 years, of 25 volumes in the first series of the International Histological Classification of Tumours (IHCT), each giving a classification of tumours specific to a certain site. The classifications are based primarily on the microscopic characteristics of the tumours and are concerned with morphologically identifiable cell types and histological patterns as seen by means of light microscopy and conventional staining techniques. The article also describes the relationship between IHCT and other classification and coding systems and assesses possible future developments that may result from new approaches to diagnosis. PMID:6978190

  1. Idelalisib-associated Colitis: Histologic Findings in 14 Patients.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Anna-Sophie; Panarelli, Nicole C; Geyer, Julia T; Bhavsar, Erica B; Furman, Richard R; Leonard, John P; Jessurun, Jose; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2015-12-01

    Idelalisib is an inhibitor of the PI3Kδ isoform approved for treatment of patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Many patients develop gastrointestinal symptoms during idelalisib therapy; however, the pathologic effects of this drug have not been characterized. We identified 50 patients who received at least 3 months of idelalisib therapy. Clinical findings and symptoms were noted for each patient, and endoscopic findings were recorded for those who underwent colonoscopic examination. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from colonic biopsy samples were evaluated for histologic patterns of injury. Twenty-three (46%) patients experienced diarrhea during treatment with idelalisib, including 8 with severe symptoms (≥7 stools/d above baseline and/or requiring hospitalization). Fourteen patients underwent colonoscopic examination with mucosal biopsy. Twelve (86%) of these had colitis characterized by intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt cell apoptosis, and neutrophilic infiltration of crypt epithelium. Eleven patients had symptoms severe enough to warrant drug withdrawal, including 9 who were also treated with corticosteroids. Idelalisib commonly causes diarrheal symptoms in patients undergoing therapy for B-cell neoplasia, which may be severe in nearly 20% of patients. Characteristic histologic features include the combination of intraepithelial lymphocytosis and crypt cell apoptosis, often accompanied by neutrophils. Discontinuation of the drug results in symptomatic improvement and resolution of histologic changes. PMID:26448188

  2. Meniscal allograft sterilisation: effect on biomechanical and histological properties.

    PubMed

    Bui, David; Lovric, Vedran; Oliver, Rema; Bertollo, Nicky; Broe, David; Walsh, William R

    2015-09-01

    Sterilisation of allografts are a crucial step in ensuring safety and viability. Current sterilisation standards such as 25 kGy gamma irradiation (γ) can have adverse effects on the ultrastructure and biomechanical properties of allograft tissue. Supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) technology, represents an improved sterilisation process that potentially preserves tissue properties. This study aimed to test the effect of SCCO2 sterilisation on the biomechanical and histological properties of the meniscus and compare this to the current standard of γ. Thirty-two 18-month old ovine menisci were randomly assigned into three groups for sterilisation (SCCO2, γ and control). After treatment, biomechanical indentation testing (stiffness and stress relaxation) or histological analysis [percentage of void, cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) per slide] was undertaken. Both SCCO2 and gamma groups displayed an increase in stiffness and stress relaxation as compared to control, however, this difference was lesser in samples treated with SCCO2. No significant histological quantitative differences were detected between SCCO2 and control specimens. Gamma-treated samples demonstrated a significant increase in void and decrease in ECM. Interestingly, both treatment groups demonstrated a decreasing mean void and increasing ECM percentage when analysed from outer to inner zones. No significant differences were detected in all-endpoints when analysed by section. SCCO2 sterilisation represents a potential feasible alternative to existing sterilization techniques such as γ. PMID:25589449

  3. Appendicitis in Dar es Salaam, histological pattern.

    PubMed

    Mbembati, N A; Lema, L E; Mwakyoma, H A; Ussiri, E V

    1996-03-01

    Histology of 378 appendicectomy specimens submitted to the Histopathology Department of Muhimbili Medical Centre from its surgical wards over a 10 year period (1985 to 1994) were reviewed. There were 185 cases (48.9 pc) of acute appendicitis, 101 cases (26.7 pc) of chronic appendicitis, 74 (19.6 pc) normal appendices and 13 cases (3.5 pc) schistosomal appendicitis. There were two cases of tuberculous appendicitis and two cases of mucocele of the appendix. Apart from the high frequency of chronic appendicitis the histological findings in this study compare well with findings reported from other studies. PMID:8653771

  4. Actual Drawing of Histological Images Improves Knowledge Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balemans, Monique C. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Donders, A. Rogier T.; Van der Zee, Catharina E. E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues…

  5. Psammomatous Melanotic Schwannoma: A Challenging Histological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Merat, Rastine; Szalay-Quinodoz, Ildiko; Laffitte, Emmanuel; Kaya, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Psammomatous melanotic schwannoma (PMS) is a rare pigmented tumor that can be part of the Carney complex. Here, we describe the case of a 35-year-old female patient presenting an isolated subcutaneous PMS. Histopathological analysis could not formally exclude the malignant nature of the tumor. The challenging histological diagnosis and consequently the management of the patient are described. PMID:27047937

  6. Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

    This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

  7. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    SciTech Connect

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  8. Bone welding--a histological evaluation in the jaw.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ronald; Lauer, Günter; Pilling, Eckart; Jung, Roland; Leonhardt, Henry; Proff, Peter; Stadlinger, Bernd; Pradel, Winnie; Eckelt, Uwe; Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    The expansion of biodegradable osteosynthesis systems in clinical application correlates well to the progress in development of new materials as to the improvement of application methods. One of those new application methods is the ultrasound-aided insertion of Resorb-X pins. The aim of this study was the histological evaluation of possible thermal damage to bone due to the ultrasound insertion. For this purpose, condylar neck fractures in 12 sheep were produced, repositioned and fixed by Resorb-X plates and pins. The animals were sacrificed in two groups, one after 2 weeks and one after 9 weeks. The bone-pin interlinkage and the structure of the bone were histologically evaluated. After 2 weeks a tight bone-polymer interlinkage was seen. Neither a pronounced foreign body reaction nor an interposition of fibrous tissue at the interface or a thermally induced necrosis was observed. The late phase of wound healing after 9 weeks showed pathomorphological characteristics within the normal range of bone healing. The bone seemed to be free of any alteration caused by process engineering. We conclude that thermal stress caused by ultrasound-aided pin insertion does not lead to cellular reaction in the bone. The fast and easy application of this improved biodegradable osteosynthesis system will bring a clear advantage in clinical use. PMID:17695991

  9. Porcine deltacoronavirus: histological lesions and genetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leyi; Hayes, Jeff; Sarver, Craig; Byrum, Beverly; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    First identified in 2012 in a surveillance study in Hong Kong, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a proposed member of the genus Deltacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. In February of 2014, PDCoV was detected in pigs with clinical diarrheal symptoms for the first time in the USA. Since then, it has been detected in more than 20 states in the USA and in other countries, including Canada, South Korea, and mainland China. So far, histological lesions in the intestines of pigs naturally infected with PDCoV under field conditions have not been reported. In this report, we describe the characteristic histological lesions in the small intestine that were associated with PDCoV infection, as evidenced by detection of viral nucleic acid by RT-PCR. In addition, we performed genomic analysis to determine the genetic relationship of all PDCoV strains from the four countries. We found that PDCoV mainly caused histological lesions in the small intestines of naturally infected piglets. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the PDCoV strains of different countries are closely related and shared high nucleotide sequence similarity; however, deletion patterns in the spike and 3' untranslated regions are different among the strains from mainland China, Hong Kong, the USA, and South Korea. Our study highlights the fact that continual surveillance is needed to trace the evolution of this virus. PMID:26475155

  10. Histological changes of kidney in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Shafi, Hamid; Babazadeh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic renal disorders and end-stage kidney disease in developed countries. It is the major cause of dialysis and transplantation. Failure in renal function causes wide disorders in the body. Diabetes results in wide range of alterations in the renal tissue. It is believed that early histological changes in diabetic nephropathy are detectable 2 years after diabetes is diagnosed. The glomerular alterations are the most important lesions in the diabetic nephropathy (DN). The Renal Pathology Society provides a new pathological classification for the detection of histopathology of DN. It divides diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions. Alloxan or streptozotocin induced diabetic rat is the one most widely used specie to study DN. Histological changes in the rat DN closely resemble the human disease and the most information of this review was obtained through the study of rat DN. All cell types of the kidney such as mesangial cells, podocytes and tubulointerstitial cells are liable to be affected in the event of DN. Severity of renal lesions is associated to the clinical aspect of renal outcome, but the aim of this article was only to review the histological changes of kidney in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26644877

  11. The histological nature of epulides in dogs.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, F J; Ligthelm, A J; Weber, A

    1992-02-01

    The histological characteristics of a series of 154 oral tumours with the clinical appearance of epulides in 129 dogs were reviewed. Diagnoses were based on current criteria in human oral pathology and compared with the original diagnoses. The histological findings suggested that the majority of epulides in the dog can be classified as focal fibrous hyperplasia (43.5 per cent), peripheral ameloblastoma (17.5 per cent), peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type) (16.9 per cent) and pyogenic granuloma (1.95 per cent). In addition, a number of other odontogenic tumours (1.95 per cent) and non-odontogenic tumours (18.2 per cent) such as fibrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma, which are not traditionally associated with the clinical appearance of an epulis, were diagnosed. Of 74 lesions that were previously diagnosed as fibromatous and ossifying epulides, 50 (68 per cent) were reclassified as focal fibrous hyperplasia and 21 (28 per cent) as peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type). The majority of lesions (76 per cent), which were originally classified as acanthomatous epulis, were found to be peripheral ameloblastoma. In addition, three squamous cell carcinomas, two rare odontogenic tumours and two cases of focal fibrous hyperplasia were diagnosed in this classification. It was concluded that, as in man, the term epulis is a clinically descriptive term and that the renal nature of these lesions should be determined histologically. PMID:1597534

  12. Long Bone Histology and Growth Patterns in Ankylosaurs: Implications for Life History and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Martina; Hayashi, Shoji; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ankylosaurs are one of the major dinosaur groups and are characterized by unique body armor. Previous studies on other dinosaur taxa have revealed growth patterns, life history and evolutionary mechanisms based on their long bone histology. However, to date nothing is known about long bone histology in the Ankylosauria. This study is the first description of ankylosaurian long bone histology based on several limb elements, which were sampled from different individuals from the Ankylosauridae and Nodosauridae. The histology is compared to that of other dinosaur groups, including other Thyreophora and Sauropodomorpha. Ankylosaur long bone histology is characterized by a fibrolamellar bone architecture. The bone matrix type in ankylosaurs is closest to that of Stegosaurus. A distinctive mixture of woven and parallel-fibered bone together with overall poor vascularization indicates slow growth rates compared to other dinosaurian taxa. Another peculiar characteristic of ankylosaur bone histology is the extensive remodeling in derived North American taxa. In contrast to other taxa, ankylosaurs substitute large amounts of their primary tissue early in ontogeny. This anomaly may be linked to the late ossification of the ankylosaurian body armor. Metabolically driven remodeling processes must have liberated calcium to ossify the protective osteodermal structures in juveniles to subadult stages, which led to further remodeling due to increased mechanical loading. Abundant structural fibers observed in the primary bone and even in remodeled bone may have improved the mechanical properties of the Haversian bone. PMID:23894321

  13. A practical hybrid model of application, integration, and competencies at interactive table conferences in histology (ITCH).

    PubMed

    Ettarh, Rajunor

    2016-05-01

    Significant changes have been implemented in the way undergraduate medical education is structured. One of the challenges for component courses such as histology in medical and dental curricula is to restructure and deliver training within new frameworks. This article describes the process of aligning the purpose and experience in histology laboratory to the goal of applying knowledge gained to team-based medical practice at Tulane University School of Medicine. Between 2011 and 2015, 711 medical students took either a traditional laboratory-based histology course (353 students) or a team-based hybrid histology course with active learning in laboratory (358 students). The key difference was in the laboratory component of the hybrid course - interactive table conferences in histology-during which students developed new competencies by working in teams, reviewing images, solving problems by applying histology concepts, and sharing learning. Content, faculty and online resources for microscopy were the same in both courses. More student-student and student-faculty interactions were evident during the hybrid course but student evaluation ratings and grades showed reductions following introduction of table conferences when compared to previous ratings. However, outcomes at National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Subject Examination in Histology and Cell Biology showed significant improvement (72.4 ± 9.04 and 76.44 ± 9.36 for percent correct answers, traditional and hybrid courses, respectively, P < 0.0001). This model of table conferences to augment the traditional histology laboratory experience exemplifies the extent that restructuring enhancements can be used in currently taught courses in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ 9: 286-294. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26749245

  14. The histological aspects of fillers complications.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ute S; Clerici, Thierry J

    2004-12-01

    The histological aspects of resorbable heterologous fillers (bovine collagen, acid hyaluronique), autologous fillers (lipofilling, dermis-fat graft), biodegradable fillers (New-Fill), and permanent fillers (silicone, Artecoll, Evolution, Aquamid, DermaLive, DermaDeep, Bioplastique, Paraffin) are described. This article relates the morphological aspect of these materials, the normal tissue reaction after injection, and its chronological evolution as the morphological aspects from the different side effects, more frequently observed for the permanent fillers. They mainly consist of granulomatous reactions which may appear long after injection. PMID:15745233

  15. Histological healing in inflammatory bowel disease: A still unfulfilled promise

    PubMed Central

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Geboes, Karel; Casella, Giovanni; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is traditionally based on several drugs, including salicylates, corticosteroids, and antibiotics; in addition, the therapeutic armamentarium has considerably evolved with the advent of newer, effective therapeutic measures (such as the biological agents) that are able to improve in a considerable manner both the clinical and endoscopic variables. Thus, mucosal healing, at least considered from an endoscopic point of view, is today regarded as the ultimate endpoint for treatment of these conditions. However, it is also increasingly clear that endoscopic healing is not necessarily paralleled by histological healing; There are few doubts that the latter should be considered as a true, objective healing and the ultimate goal to reach when treating patients with IBD. Unfortunately, and surprisingly, only a few, incomplete, and somewhat conflicting data exist on this topic, especially because there is still the need to standardize both histological assessment and the severity grading of these disorders; Issues that have not been yet been resolved for clinical practice and therapeutic trials. Hopefully, with the help of an increased awareness on the clinical researchers’ side, and the availability of dedicated pathologists on the other side, this matter will be effectively faced and resolved in the near future. PMID:23467585

  16. Usefulness of Skin Explants for Histologic Analysis after Fractional Photothermolysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Bang, Seunghyun; Won, Kwang Hee; Won, Chong Hyun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Fractional laser resurfacing treatment has been extensively investigated and is widely used. However, the mechanism underlying its effects is poorly understood because of the ethical and cosmetic problems of obtaining skin biopsies required to study the changes after laser treatment. Objective To evaluate the usefulness of human skin explants for the investigation of fractional photothermolysis. Methods Full-thickness discarded skin was treated in 4 ways: no treatment (control), fractional carbon dioxide laser, fractional Er:YAG laser, and fractional 1,550-nm erbium-doped fiber laser. Both treated and non-treated skin samples were cultured ex vivo at the air-medium interface for 7 days. Frozen tissue was sectioned and stained with hematoxylin & eosin for histologic examination and nitro blue tetrazolium chloride for viability testing. Results Skin explants cultured for up to 3 days exhibited histologic changes similar to those observed in in vivo studies, including microscopic treatment zones surrounded by a thermal coagulation zone, re-epithelialization, and formation of microscopic epidermal necrotic debris. However, the explant structure lost its original form within 7 days of culture. The viability of skin explants was maintained for 3 days of culture but was also lost within 7 days. Conclusion The skin explant model may be a useful tool for investigating the immediate or early changes following fractional photothermolysis, but further improvements are required to evaluate the long-term and dermal changes. PMID:26082585

  17. Chordoid glioma: a rare radiologically, histologically, and clinically mystifying lesion.

    PubMed

    Bongetta, Daniele; Risso, Andrea; Morbini, Patrizia; Butti, Giorgio; Gaetani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Chordoid glioma (CG) is a rare central nervous system neoplasm (WHO grade II) of uncertain origin whose typical localization is in the anterior part of the third ventricle. Its clinical, radiological, and histological features may vary and furthermore mimic other kind of benign lesions usually associated with a better outcome. We report a case of a 43-year-old female who underwent gross total removal of a lesion of the third ventricle causing hydrocephalus. The imaging studies and the intraoperative examination led at first to a hypothesis of meningioma. Early surgical and neurological outcomes were good. The patient underwent multiple complications related to hypothalamic dysfunctions and thrombohemorragic issues and eventually died because of systemic infections. Definitive examination was of chordoid glioma of the third ventricle. Reviewing literature, we evaluated possible pitfalls in radiological and histological diagnosis as well as in surgical and medical treatment of CGs. Despite their benign presentation, a high incidence of multiple possible severe complications is reported. Early alertness and combined treatment strategies could improve overall CGs treatment strategies. PMID:26018908

  18. The "PIP problem": clinical and histologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Correia-Sá, Inês; Rodrigues-Pereira, Pedro; Marques, Marisa

    2013-10-01

    Implants from Poly Implant Prothése (PIP), the French manufacturer, showed increased risk of implant rupture and silicone leakage through the shell. Concerns also exist about the potential irritant behavior of silicone gel filler in these implants. This report presents the clinical, histologic, and microbiologic characteristics of a capsule and a siliconoma from a patient with a ruptured PIP implant. A 41-year-old woman submitted to breast augmentation in 2005 with PIP silicone gel implants presented with a recent history of progressive asymmetric breast enlargement and an enlarged lymph node on her right axilla. No capsular contracture was observed. A breast ultrasonography showed intra- and extracapsular ruptures of the right implant. The woman underwent explantation. Histologic analysis of the breast capsules showed a thin capsule with a chronic, mild inflammatory response. Microbiologic analysis showed no bacterial agent. The irritant behavior of the PIP silicone gel previously described was not able to produce capsular contracture or an exuberant inflammatory reaction. Studies to evaluate the potential risks of the silicone gel and to define the hazards for women implanted with those prostheses are urgently needed. PMID:23943050

  19. Molecular histology in skin appendage morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Widelitz, R B; Jiang, T X; Noveen, A; Ting-Berreth, S A; Yin, E; Jung, H S; Chuong, C M

    1997-08-15

    Classical histological studies have demonstrated the cellular organization of skin appendages and helped us appreciate the intricate structures and function of skin appendages. At this juncture, questions can be directed to determine how these cellular organizations are achieved. How do cells rearrange themselves to form the complex cyto-architecture of skin appendages? What are the molecular bases of the morphogenesis and histogenesis of skin appendages? Recently, many new molecules expressed in a spatial and temporal specific manner during the formation of skin appendages were identified by molecular biological approaches. In this review, novel molecular techniques that are useful in skin appendage research are discussed. The distribution of exemplary molecules from different categories including growth factors, intracellular signaling molecules, homeobox genes, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix molecules are summarized in a diagram using feather and hair as models. We hope that these results will serve as the ground work for completing the molecular mapping of skin appendages which will refine and re-define our understanding of the developmental process beyond relying on morphological criteria. We also hope that the listed protocols will help those who are interested in this venture. This new molecular histology of skin appendages is the foundation for forming new hypotheses on how molecules are mechanistically involved in skin appendage development and for designing experiments to test them. This may also lead to the modulation of healing and regeneration processes in future treatment modalities. PMID:9297695

  20. Are We Throwing Histology out with the Microscope? A Look at Histology from the Physician's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    A trend in medical schools across the United States is the refurbishing of histology laboratories with digital microscopy systems. Although such systems may reduce curricular time, they do not teach basic microscope skills, and students who learn solely with these systems may be less prepared for their practices or specialties, particularly in…

  1. Liposoluble vitamins in Crustacean feed: Metabolic and Histological responses.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gimenez, Analía Verónica

    2016-05-01

    Vitamins are vital for normal growth and survival of living organisms and they are distributed in feedstuffs in small quantities. This review is focused on the liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) in the diets and metabolic responses of the Argentine penaeoid shrimps Pleoticus muelleri and Artemesia longinaris, distributed along the South American coast line. Growth, survival and histological analyses serve as indicators of the nutritional value derived from vitamin deficiency. Liposoluble vitamins are also related to stress, antioxidant defense and immune response of shrimps. Effective diet for shrimp culture that provide not only macronutrients including protein and lipid but also micronutrients such as vitamins for optimal growth is an ever improving subject. This review may help formulating suitable feeds for shrimps. PMID:27319048

  2. Histological Assessment of PAXgene Tissue Fixation and Stabilization Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Kap, Marcel; Smedts, Frank; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Winther, Rosa; Christensen, Nanna; Reischauer, Bilge; Viertler, Christian; Groelz, Daniel; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Zatloukal, Kurt; Langer, Rupert; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Bodo, Koppany; de Jong, Bas; Oelmuller, Uwe; Riegman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Within SPIDIA, an EC FP7 project aimed to improve pre analytic procedures, the PAXgene Tissue System (PAXgene), was designed to improve tissue quality for parallel molecular and morphological analysis. Within the SPIDIA project promising results were found in both genomic and proteomic experiments with PAXgene-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue derived biomolecules. But, for this technology to be accepted for use in both clinical and basic research, it is essential that its adequacy for preserving morphology and antigenicity is validated relative to formalin fixation. It is our aim to assess the suitability of PAXgene tissue fixation for (immuno)histological methods. Normal human tissue specimens (n = 70) were collected and divided into equal parts for fixation either with formalin or PAXgene. Sections of the obtained paraffin-embedded tissue were cut and stained. Morphological aspects of PAXgene-fixed tissue were described and also scored relative to formalin-fixed tissue. Performance of PAXgene-fixed tissue in immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization assays was also assessed relative to the corresponding formalin-fixed tissues. Morphology of PAXgene-fixed paraffin embedded tissue was well preserved and deemed adequate for diagnostics in most cases. Some antigens in PAXgene-fixed and paraffin embedded sections were detectable without the need for antigen retrieval, while others were detected using standard, formalin fixation based, immunohistochemistry protocols. Comparable results were obtained with in situ hybridization and histochemical stains. Basically all assessed histological techniques were found to be applicable to PAXgene-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. In general results obtained with PAXgene-fixed tissue are comparable to those of formalin-fixed tissue. Compromises made in morphology can be called minor compared to the advantages in the molecular pathology possibilities. PMID:22110732

  3. Rheumatoid neuropathy: a histological and electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Weller, R. O.; Bruckner, F. E.; Chamberlain, M. Anne

    1970-01-01

    Peripheral nerves in five patients with rheumatoid neuropathy were examined electrophysiologically and by sural nerve biopsy. There was close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease and the degree of nerve damage found histologically and by EMG. Group 1 patients with a mild distal sensory neuropathy showed varying degrees of axonal degeneration in the large myelinated fibres and some segmental demyelination. Group 2 patients with a severe, rapidly progressive sensori-motor neuropathy had extensive loss of myelinated fibres. In one case all the large fibres had degenerated. The second case had lost both large and small myelinated fibres together with many of the non-myelinated axons. The major nerve damage in both groups appeared to be axonal degeneration but some segmental demyelination was detected. Occlusive vascular disease in the vasa nervorum was considered to be the major cause of the nerve damage. Images PMID:4320255

  4. The Histological Slides and Drawings of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lopez, Pablo; Garcia-Marin, Virginia; Freire, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Ramón y Cajal's studies in the field of neuroscience provoked a radical change in the course of its history. For this reason he is considered as the father of modern neuroscience. Some of his original preparations are housed at the Cajal Museum (Cajal Institute, CSIC, Madrid, Spain). In this article, we catalogue and analyse more than 4,500 of Cajal's histological preparations, the same preparations he used during his scientific career. Furthermore, we catalogued Cajal's original correspondence, both manuscripts and personal letters, drawings and plates. This is the first time anyone has compiled an account of Cajal's enormous scientific production, offering some curious insights into his work and his legacy. PMID:20339483

  5. Histological healing after infliximab induction therapy in children with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wiernicka, Anna; Szymanska, Sylwia; Cielecka-Kuszyk, Joanna; Dadalski, Maciej; Kierkus, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To verify the impact of induction therapy with infliximab (IFX) on mucosal healing in children with ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: The study included all UC pediatric patients treated with IFX at our center over the last 10 years. The data were collected from patients’ medical charts and analyzed retrospectively. A total of 16 patients with UC underwent colonoscopy with sample collection before and after three IFX injections. Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI) was used to assess the clinical condition; endoscopic features were classified according to the Baron scale; and histological changes were evaluated according to the protocol of The British Society of Gastroenterology and Geboes Index. Clinical response was defined as a ≥ 20-point reduction in PUCAI index, and clinical remission as PUCAI index < 10 points. Endoscopic mucosal remission was defined as completely normal (score 0) on the Baron scale. Histological remission was defined as grade 0 in the Geboes Index. To assess correlation between variables, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used. RESULTS: Clinical remission (PUCAI < 10) at week 8 was achieved in 68.75% of investigated subjects. Endoscopic mucosal remission at week 8 (Baron 0) was observed in 12.5% of patients. Histological remission (Geboes 0) after induction therapy with IFX was noticed in 18.75% cases. A general histological improvement, expressed by normal surface and crypt architecture, number of crypts, and lamina propria cellularity, was observed in six (37.5%) patients; there was no improvement in nine (56.25%) individuals, and worsening was observed in one (3.75%) case. Changes were not related to UC location. A reduction of inflammatory process was observed in 10 (62.5%) patients; there were no changes in four (25%) individuals, and the inflammation became more severe in two (12.5 %) cases. Simultaneous clinical, endoscopic and histological improvement of parameters assessing disease activity at

  6. Cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy. Combined clinical and histological criteria for diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Robinson, M J; Prathap, K; Sumithran, E; Yadav, M

    1978-01-01

    Cows' milk protein enteropathy is recognised as a significant cause of persistent diarrhoea and malabsorption in young infants, but there are as yet no generally accepted diagnostic criteria. A combined clinical and histological approach to the diagnosis of cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy has been used in 15 patients, and the following set of criteria are proposed. (1) Clinical disease (diarrhoea with or without vomiting) while receiving cows' milk protein. (2) Clinical improvement on a diet free of cows' milk protein. (3) Normal or mildly abnormal histology of jejunal mucosa when taken 6-8 weeks after symptoms subside. (4) Histological relapse, with or without clinical relapse, after re-exposure to cows' milk protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:564668

  7. Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses.

    PubMed

    Blanke, A; Aupperle, H; Seeger, J; Kubick, C; Schusser, G F

    2015-12-01

    Clinical, anatomical and histological aspects of the equine acoustic organ have been poorly investigated and illustrated in literature so far. It is understood that an intact acoustic organ and hearing function are of vital importance for the well-being of flight animals like horses. The knowledge of the acoustic organ is usually transferred analogously from other mammals to horses. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy equine auditory organ, and to determine its congruity to other mammalians. Anatomical dissections and histological preparations were carried out on ten cadaver heads. Specimens of various parts of the equine acoustic organ were taken and evaluated histologically. The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time. Results obtained in this study can be employed as references for further research on the equine acoustic organ and improve the understanding of the clinical development of hearing loss, otitis externa/media/interna or tympanosclerosis. PMID:25283481

  8. Histology of salmonid testes during maturation.

    PubMed

    Dziewulska, Katarzyna; Domagała, Józef

    2003-03-01

    The commonly applied classification systems of fish gonad maturity divide the maturation process into certain stages. However, the scales do not entirely reflect the continuity of the maturation process. Based on light microscope observations, the paper describes a comprehensive pattern of testicular transformations during maturation. The study was carried out on precocious underyearling and 1-year-old males of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.), 1-year-old males of salmon (Salmo salar L.), and males of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.) aged from 7 months to 4 years. A total of 821 gonads collected during all seasons of the year were examined. The fish were fixed in Bouin's fluid. Histological slides of the mid-part of the gonad were made using the standard paraffin technique. The 3-6 microm sections were stained with Heidenhain haematoxylin. Histological changes of testes during maturation were similar in the three species studied. Immature and resting gonads contained type A spermatogonia in lobules only. The appearance of cystic structures containing type B spermatogonia in the lobules signalled the beginning of the sexual cycle in male gonads. Type B spermatogonia underwent synchronous mitotic divisions resulting in an increase in the total number of spermatogonia. As the spermatogenesis continued, the gonads showed a gradual increase in the number of cysts containing cells at all the spermatogenetic stages: type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa. The well-formed spermatozoa were released to the lobule lumen once the Sertoli cells and spermatozoa connections broke up and the cyst disappeared. This was a continuous process observed throughout the spawning season. The spermatozoa were moved to the efferent duct. While some of the germ cells were completing spermatogenesis, the lobules contained less and less cysts with type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, and spermatids; eventually all

  9. Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Tailoring Resection to Histologic Subtype.

    PubMed

    Cable, Matthew G; Randall, R Lor

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas comprise tumors originating from mesenchymal or connective tissue. Histologic grade is integral to prognosis. Because sarcoma management is multimodal, histologic subtype should inform optimum treatment. Appropriate biopsy and communication between surgeon and pathologist can help ensure a correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves surgical excision with wide margins and adjuvant radiotherapy. There is no consensus on what constitutes an adequate margin for histologic subtypes. An appreciation of how histology corresponds with tumor biology and surgical anatomic constraints is needed for management of this disease. Even with the surgical goal of wide resection being obtained, many patients do not outlive their disease. PMID:27591492

  10. Derivation and validation of murine histologic alterations resembling asthma, with two proposed histologic grade parameters

    PubMed Central

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Shome, Goutam; Sutherland, Mhairi; McGlone, John J

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective was to define murine histologic alterations resembling asthma in a BALB/c OVA model and to suggest grading criteria. Identified were six salient histologic findings in lungs with putative allergic inflammation: 1) bronchoarterial space inflammation; 2) peri-venular inflammation; 3) inflammation about amuscular blood vessels; 4) inter-alveolar space inflammation, not about capillaries; 5) pleural inflammation; and 6) eosinophils within the inflammatory aggregates. An initial study comprised six groups of twelve mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, sensitized; 3) stressed, challenged; 4) not physically stressed, control; 5) not physically stressed, sensitized; 6) not physically stressed, challenged. A second study comprised four experimental groups of twenty mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, challenged; 3) not physically stressed, control; 4) not physically stressed, challenged. A third study evaluated two grading criteria, 1) the proportion of non-tracheal respiratory passages with inflammatory aggregates and 2) mitoses in the largest two non-tracheal respiratory passages, in five groups of five mice each, evaluated at different times after the last exposure. Results The first study suggested the six histological findings might reliably indicate the presence of alterations resembling asthma: whereas 82.4% of mice with a complete response had detectable interleukin (IL)-5, only 3.8% of mice without one did; whereas 77.8% of mice with a complete response were challenged mice, only 6.7% of mice without complete responses were. The second study revealed that the six histological findings provided a definition that was 97.4% sensitive and 100% specific. The third study found that the odds of a bronchial passage's having inflammation declined 1) when mitoses were present (OR = 0.73, 0.60 - 0.90), and 2) with one day increased time (OR = 0.75, 0.65 - 0.86). Conclusion A definition of murine histologic alterations resembling

  11. Spermatogenesis in Leptodactylus chaquensis. Histological study.

    PubMed

    Iruzubieta Villagra, Ana Lucrecia; Cisint, Susana Beatriz; Crespo, Claudia Alejandra; Medina, Marcela Fátima; Ramos, Inés; Fernández, Silvia Nélida

    2014-08-01

    The organization and the histological characteristics of Leptodactylus chaquensis testis throughout the reproductive cycle were analyzed in the presented study. Gonads of adult males, processed with routine techniques for optical microscopy, revealed that during the reproductive period the seminiferous tubules were characterized by presentation of a large number of cysts, germ cells at the same maturation stage supported by Sertoli cells. All the germ line cells were also present in the postreproductive period and maintained their morphological characteristics. Primary spermatogonia were large-sized cells found isolated or in small groups. The rest of the cells of the germ line formed cysts. Secondary spermatogonia showed morphological characteristics similar to their predecessors, although they were smaller. Primary and secondary spermatocytes showed images of the different stages of the first and second meiotic division respectively. One finding was the presence of intercytoplasmic bridges between the secondary spermatocytes. Primary spermatids were rounded cells with an acrosomal vesicle associated with the nucleus and had cysts that were characterized by large intercellular spaces. Secondary spermatids were elongated cells with a well defined acrosome, which in the spermatozoa had the shape of an arrowhead. Another peculiar characteristic of this species was the fusion of the walls of the seminiferous tubule with the efferent duct that formed a path for spermatozoa during spermiation. The presence in the seminiferous tubules of all stages of the spermatogenic line during the two periods of the cycle studied indicated that Leptodactylus chaquensis had a potentially continuous reproductive cycle. PMID:23171585

  12. Are histologic studies of adenotonsillectomy really necessary?

    PubMed

    Rebechi, Giseli; Pontes, Thiago Euênio; Braga, Elias Lobo; Matos, Willian Maduel; Rebechi, Fernando; Matsuyama, Cícero

    2013-10-01

    Introduction In most ear, nose, and throat services, it is routine to send the material extracted from tonsillectomy for histologic study to research malignancy, to analyze suspect material, or to provide medical-legal documentation. Recent studies have shown that this routine analysis is dispensable. Objective To evaluate the actual need and perform a cost-benefit analysis of routine histopathologic examination in tonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy. Methods A retrospective observational study evaluated the charts of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy from January 2008 to September 2009 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology CEMA-SP. Costs of this test for the public health system were analyzed and the literature reviewed. Results We studied 281 patients between 2 and 22 years of age; 142 (50.5%) were male and 139 (49.5%) were female. Of the surgeries, 201 were adenotonsillectomies (71.5%), 41 were tonsillectomies (14.5%), and 39 were adenoidectomies (14%). The most common indication for surgery was recurrent infection (63.3%). None of study patients had clinical suspicion of malignancy. The tests showed a cost of R$20.03 per tonsil analyzed. Conclusion Routine histopathologic examination in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy is dispensable and increases the cost of the surgeries. PMID:25992042

  13. Are Histologic Studies of Adenotonsillectomy Really Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Rebechi, Giseli; Pontes, Thiago Euênio; Braga, Elias Lobo; Matos, Willian Maduel; Rebechi, Fernando; Matsuyama, Cícero

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In most ear, nose, and throat services, it is routine to send the material extracted from tonsillectomy for histologic study to research malignancy, to analyze suspect material, or to provide medical-legal documentation. Recent studies have shown that this routine analysis is dispensable. Objective To evaluate the actual need and perform a cost–benefit analysis of routine histopathologic examination in tonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy. Methods A retrospective observational study evaluated the charts of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy from January 2008 to September 2009 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology CEMA-SP. Costs of this test for the public health system were analyzed and the literature reviewed. Results We studied 281 patients between 2 and 22 years of age; 142 (50.5%) were male and 139 (49.5%) were female. Of the surgeries, 201 were adenotonsillectomies (71.5%), 41 were tonsillectomies (14.5%), and 39 were adenoidectomies (14%). The most common indication for surgery was recurrent infection (63.3%). None of study patients had clinical suspicion of malignancy. The tests showed a cost of R$20.03 per tonsil analyzed. Conclusion Routine histopathologic examination in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy is dispensable and increases the cost of the surgeries. PMID:25992042

  14. Histological investigations on the Tyrolean Ice Man.

    PubMed

    Hess, M W; Klima, G; Pfaller, K; Künzel, K H; Gaber, O

    1998-08-01

    The 5,200-year-old Tyrolean Ice Man discovered in 1991 in the Otztal Alps is the world's most ancient known human glacier mummy. Histological investigation was aimed at 1) optimizing specimen preparation and 2) documenting the preservation state of (sub)cellular components. Minute pieces of frozen tissue were removed endoscopically from rib bone and cartilage, major blood vessels, oral cavity and alimentary tract, liver, spleen, diaphragm, respiratory system, femoral muscle and nerve, sympathetic trunk, brain, and skin. Double fixation with glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide and embedding in Epon/Araldite epoxy resins proved to be the method of choice for both light and transmission electron microscopy combined with classical histochemistry. In particular, mild evacuation of the desiccated tissue was determined to be essential to ensure homogeneous infiltration with fixatives and resins; as a result, sections of excellent quality could be obtained with any kind of sample. With regard to the preservation degree of (sub)cellular components, distinct tissue-specific patterns were observed. There were highly intact skeletal and connective tissues proper, however, most interestingly, there were remarkably intact nervous tissue components as well. By contrast, epithelial, muscle, and reticular connective tissues as well as blood had generally disintegrated due to autolysis, freeze/thaw damage, and adipocere formation. For a tentative interpretation of these patterns, we considered general aspects of cryopreservation, such as physicochemical properties of subcellular constituents and tissue physiology. PMID:9712480

  15. Histological Validity and Clinical Evidence for Use of Fractional Lasers for Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K; Arora, Pooja; Khurana, Nita

    2012-01-01

    Though fractional lasers are widely used for acne scars, very little clinical or histological data based on the objective clinical assessment or the depth of penetration of lasers on in vivo facial tissue are available. The depth probably is the most important aspect that predicts the improvement in acne scars but the studies on histology have little uniformity in terms of substrate (tissue) used, processing and stains used. The variability of the laser setting (dose, pulses and density) makes comparison of the studies difficult. It is easier to compare the end results, histological depth and clinical results. We analysed all the published clinical and histological studies on fractional lasers in acne scars and analysed the data, both clinical and histological, by statistical software to decipher their significance. On statistical analysis, the depth was found to be variable with the 1550-nm lasers achieving a depth of 679 μm versus 10,600 nm (895 μm) and 2940 nm (837 μm) lasers. The mean depth of penetration (in μm) in relation to the energy used, in millijoules (mj), varies depending on the laser studied. This was statistically found to be 12.9–28.5 for Er:glass, 3–54.38 for Er:YAG and 6.28–53.66 for CO2. The subjective clinical improvement was a modest 46%. The lack of objective evaluation of clinical improvement and scar-specific assessment with the lack of appropriate in vivo studies is a case for combining conventional modalities like subcision, punch excision and needling with fractional lasers to achieve optimal results. PMID:23060702

  16. Histological evidence for muscle insertion in extant amniote femora: implications for muscle reconstruction in fossils

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Holger; Sander, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Since the 19th century, identification of muscle attachment sites on bones has been important for muscle reconstructions, especially in fossil tetrapods, and therefore has been the subject of numerous biological and paleontological studies. At the microscopic level, in histological thin sections, the only features that can be used reliably for identifying tendon–bone or muscle–tendon-bone interactions are Sharpey's fibers. Muscles, however, do not only attach to the bone indirectly with tendons, but also directly. Previous studies failed to provide new indicators for muscle attachment, or to address the question of whether muscles with direct attachment can be identified histologically. However, histological identification of direct muscle attachments is important because these attachments do not leave visible marks (e.g. scars and rugosities) on the bone surface. We dissected the right hind limb and mapped the muscle attachment sites on the femur of one rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), one Alligator mississippiensis, and one turkey (Meleagris cuniculus). We then extracted the femur and prepared four histological thin sections for the rabbit and the turkey and five histological thin sections for the alligator. Sharpey's fibers, vascular canal orientation, and a frayed periosteal margin can be indicators for indirect but also direct muscle attachment. Sharpey's fibers can be oriented to the cutting plane of the thin section at high angles, and two Sharpey's fibers orientations can occur in one area, possibly indicating a secondary force axis. However, only about 60% of mapped muscle attachment sites could be detected in thin sections, and frequently histological features suggestive of muscle attachment occurred outside mapped sites. While these insights should improve our ability to successfully identify and reconstruct muscles in extinct species, they also show the limitations of this approach. PMID:23439026

  17. Lip enhancement: surgical alternatives and histologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Niechajev, I

    2000-03-01

    This study included 66 consecutive patients, 58 women and 8 men, who underwent 86 surgical procedures on the lips during 1989-1998. Lip enlargement was performed in 59 patients, and lip reduction was performed in 7 patients. Indications were purely aesthetic in 61 cases and reconstructive in 5 cases. The following surgical techniques were used for lip augmentation: implantation of crystal silicone, polyacrylamide hydrogel, Gore-Tex tubes, autologous fat, and dermis-fat graft. A new instrument originally designed by the author, the dermis-fat graft passer, significantly speeded up and facilitated execution of the latter procedure. Other operations included V-Y plasty, lip lifting by buffalo horn excision, lip lengthening by frenulum plasty, and lip reduction by wavy tangential excision. Eighty-six percent of patients could be followed up; the mean length of follow-up was 4.2 years. Use of silicone microparticles (Bioplastique) was abandoned because of the tendency for lumping. Polyacrylamide gel is promising because of its ease of use, and Gore-Tex tubes are promising because of their ability to create and accentuate the Cupid's bow form for the upper lip. However, these products are new, and follow-up studies with longer observation times are needed to reach definite conclusions. Of these studied methods, autologous fat transplant was found to be particularly useful for enlargement and restoration in cases of age-related atrophy of the lips and perioral tissues. Dermis-fat grafting was the most efficient, versatile, and reliable method of lip enlargement. Long-term survival of transplanted autologous tissues was confirmed by histologic studies of biopsy specimens. PMID:10724279

  18. Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

    2013-08-01

    No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

  19. Could magnetic resonance provide in vivo histology?

    PubMed Central

    Dominietto, Marco; Rudin, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of a suspected tumor lesion faces two basic problems: detection and identification of the specific type of tumor. Radiological techniques are commonly used for the detection and localization of solid tumors. Prerequisite is a high intrinsic or enhanced contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue. Identification of the tumor type is still based on histological analysis. The result depends critically on the sampling sites, which given the inherent heterogeneity of tumors, constitutes a major limitation. Non-invasive in vivo imaging might overcome this limitation providing comprehensive three-dimensional morphological, physiological, and metabolic information as well as the possibility for longitudinal studies. In this context, magnetic resonance based techniques are quite attractive since offer at the same time high spatial resolution, unique soft tissue contrast, good temporal resolution to study dynamic processes and high chemical specificity. The goal of this paper is to review the role of magnetic resonance techniques in characterizing tumor tissue in vivo both at morphological and physiological levels. The first part of this review covers methods, which provide information on specific aspects of tumor phenotypes, considered as indicators of malignancy. These comprise measurements of the inflammatory status, neo-vascular physiology, acidosis, tumor oxygenation, and metabolism together with tissue morphology. Even if the spatial resolution is not sufficient to characterize the tumor phenotype at a cellular level, this multiparametric information might potentially be used for classification of tumors. The second part discusses mathematical tools, which allow characterizing tissue based on the acquired three-dimensional data set. In particular, methods addressing tumor heterogeneity will be highlighted. Finally, we address the potential and limitation of using MRI as a tool to provide in vivo tissue characterization. PMID:24454320

  20. Promoting Rapid Learning in the Histology Laboratory by Integrating Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Vonnie

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of incorporating technology in the histology laboratory by using high-resolution video-imaging equipment (VIE). The study sought to determine if (1) the VIE would allow students to more easily and rapidly find histological structures over more conventional methods, and (2) if they could find the structures with the…

  1. Image-based histologic grade estimation using stochastic geometry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petushi, Sokol; Zhang, Jasper; Milutinovic, Aladin; Breen, David E.; Garcia, Fernando U.

    2011-03-01

    Background: Low reproducibility of histologic grading of breast carcinoma due to its subjectivity has traditionally diminished the prognostic value of histologic breast cancer grading. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness and reproducibility of grading breast carcinomas with automated computer-based image processing that utilizes stochastic geometry shape analysis. Methods: We used histology images stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) from invasive mammary carcinoma, no special type cases as a source domain and study environment. We developed a customized hybrid semi-automated segmentation algorithm to cluster the raw image data and reduce the image domain complexity to a binary representation with the foreground representing regions of high density of malignant cells. A second algorithm was developed to apply stochastic geometry and texture analysis measurements to the segmented images and to produce shape distributions, transforming the original color images into a histogram representation that captures their distinguishing properties between various histological grades. Results: Computational results were compared against known histological grades assigned by the pathologist. The Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) similarity metric and the K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classification algorithm provided correlations between the high-dimensional set of shape distributions and a priori known histological grades. Conclusion: Computational pattern analysis of histology shows promise as an effective software tool in breast cancer histological grading.

  2. Bowenoid papulosis: clinical and histological study of eight cases.

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, E; Vilata, J J; Sanchez, J L; Lloret, A; Fortea, J M

    1987-01-01

    Eight cases of bowenoid papulosis are reported. The clinical diagnoses were confirmed by histology. In one case an immunoperoxidase method showed the presence of papillomavirus antigen in the nucleus of the most superficial epidermal cells. We consider bowenoid papulosis to be a condition with specific features that distinguish it clinically and histologically from carcinoma in situ and condylomata acuminata. Images PMID:3034760

  3. Histological Study of Fresh Versus Frozen Semitendinous Muscle Tendon Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Alexandre Carneiro; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Pereira, João Alberto Ramos Maradei; França Bisneto, Edgard N.; Giovani, Arlete Mazzini Miranda; Oliveira, Claudia Regina G. C. M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to histologically analyze allografts from cadaveric semitendinous muscle after cryopreservation at −80°C in comparison to a control group kept at only −4°C to test the hypothesis that the histological characteristics of the tissue are maintained when the tendons are kept at lower temperatures. METHODS: In a tissue bank, 10 semitendinous tendons from 10 cadavers were frozen at −80ºC as a storage method for tissue preservation. They were kept frozen for 40 days, and then a histological study was carried out. Another 10 tendon samples were analyzed while still “fresh”. RESULTS: There was no histological difference between the fresh and frozen samples in relation to seven variables. CONCLUSIONS: Semitendinous muscle tendon allografts can be submitted to cryopreservation at −80ºC without suffering histological modifications. PMID:20360921

  4. Dermoscopy of Grover's disease: Variability according to histological subtype.

    PubMed

    Errichetti, Enzo; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Pegolo, Enrico; Stinco, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Distinguishing Grover's disease from other papular dermatoses is often a troublesome task. According to two relatively recent case reports, dermoscopy may be useful in assisting the diagnosis of such a disorder by showing a peculiar pattern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermoscopic features of Grover's disease in a larger series of patients and correlate dermoscopy with histopathological findings. Seven patients with histopathologically confirmed Grover's disease were included in the study, with three of them displaying a Darier-like histology and the remaining four cases having a spongiotic histological pattern. The results of our study suggest that Grover's disease may display different features according to the histological subtype, with a central star-shaped/branched polygonal/roundish-oval brownish area surrounded by a whitish halo being characteristic of the Darier-like histological subtype and whitish scales over a reddish-yellowish background being characteristic of the spongiotic histological subtype. PMID:26892381

  5. Correlation between histological grade and positron emission tomography parameters in cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mocciaro, Vanessa; Scollo, Paolo; Stefano, Alessandro; Gieri, Stefania; Russo, Giorgio; Scibilia, Giuseppe; Cosentino, Sebastiano; Murè, Gabriella; Baldari, Sara; Sabini, Maria Gabriella; Fraggetta, Filippo; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Ippolito, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in cervical cancer glucose metabolism for different levels of cellular differentiation. The metabolic activity was measured by standardized uptake value (SUV), SUV normalized to lean body mass, metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET). A correlation study of these values could be used to facilitate therapeutic choice and to improve clinical practice and outcome. This study considered 32 patients with diagnosed cervical cancers, at different International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages. Glucose metabolism was assessed by PET examination, and histological specimens were examined to determine their initial grade of differentiation. A correlation study of these values was evaluated. Histological examination showed that all cases were of squamous cell carcinoma. Regarding the differentiation of the tumor, 19 well- to moderately-differentiated tumors and 13 poorly-differentiated tumors were determined. Negative findings for correlations between metabolic parameters and initial grade of histological differentiation were found, and considering that histological grade has been shown to have no consistent prognostic value in cervical cancer treatment, PET imaging could play a significant role in cervical cancer prognosis. PMID:27446445

  6. Dental students' evaluations of an interactive histology software.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Cristian; Rubí, Rafael; Donoso, Manuel; Uribe, Sergio

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed dental students' evaluations of a new Interactive Histology Software (IHS) developed by the authors and compared students' assessment of the extent to which this new software, as well as other histology teaching methods, supported their learning. The IHS is a computer-based tool for histology learning that presents high-resolution images of histology basics as well as specific oral histologies at different magnifications and with text labels. Survey data were collected from 204 first-year dental students at the Universidad Austral de Chile. The survey consisted of questions for the respondents to evaluate the characteristics of the IHS and the contribution of various teaching methods to their histology learning. The response rate was 85 percent. Student evaluations were positive for the design, usability, and theoretical-practical integration of the IHS, and the students reported they would recommend the method to future students. The students continued to value traditional teaching methods for histological lab work and did not think this new technology would replace traditional methods. With respect to the contribution of each teaching method to students' learning, no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found for an evaluation of IHS, light microscopy, and slide presentations. However, these student assessments were significantly more positive than the evaluations of other digital or printed materials. Overall, the students evaluated the IHS very positively in terms of method quality and contribution to their learning; they also evaluated use of light microscopy and teacher slide presentations positively. PMID:23144485

  7. Histology, imaging and new diagnostic work-flows in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, John; Yagi, Yukako

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Since their introduction in 1999, fully automated, high speed, high-resolution whole slide imaging devices have become increasing more reliable, fast and capable. While by no means perfect, these devices have evolved to a point where one can consider placing them in a pre-diagnostic role in a clinical histology lab. Methods At the Massachusetts General Hospital, we are running a pilot study placing high end WSI devices in our main clinical histology lab (after the cover slipper and before slides are sent to the pathologist) to examine the requirement for both the machine and the laboratory. Results Placing WSI systems in the clinical lab stresses the system in terms of reliability and throughput. Significantly however, success requires significant modification to the lab workflow. It is likely laboratories need to move from manual, large batch processes to increasingly automated, continuous flow (or mini-batch) processes orchestrated by the LIS using bar coding to track and direct slides, and incorporating the decision to image into the specimen type and the histology orders. Furthermore, image quality, capture speed and reliability are functions of the quality of the histology presented to the WSI devices. Conclusion Imaging in pathology does not begin in a WSI robot but in the grossing room and in the histology lab. As more and more imaging devices are placed in histology lab, the inter-relationships histology and pathology imaging will become increasing understood. PMID:18673502

  8. H2O2 Improves Quality of Radix scutellariae Through Anti-oxidant Effect

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Song; Wu-lin, Cao; Hua, Jiang; Ai-hua, Zhang; Xiang-cai, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The correlation between the quality and geographical origin of herbal medicine was traced back to Tang Dynasty in China, more than 1200 years, and the effects of ecological environments on the secondary metabolites such as flavonoids have been confirmed. However, little is known about how the adversity impacts on the quality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be medium between the ecological environment and the secondary metabolism. Materials and Methods: The fresh roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi were treated with 0.002 μmol/L, 0.2 μmol/L, and 20 μmol/L H2O2, respectively. A stress model was established to elucidate the change of secondary metabolism, anti-oxidant enzyme system, and enzymes relating to flavonoids. Results: The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase decreased. Too much H2O2, firstly, boosted transformation of flavonoids glycoside into aglucon with the most remarkable activities through UDP-glucuronate baicalein 7-O-glucuronosyltransferase (UBGAT), and β-glucuronidase (GUS), then regulated the gene expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase, GUS, and UBGAT, and increased the contents of flavones, motivated the flavonoid glycoside converting into aglucon. With this action, the flavones displaced the anti-oxidant enzymes. The higher the dosage, the more baicalein and wogonin increased, the later they took action. Conclusion: The plant secondary metabolites to keep ROS constant are identical to the effective materials in clinic. They are closely linked. H2O2 can improve flavones, especially the aglucon, and further increased the quality of herbal medicine, which possesses very important value in medical practice. SUMMARY H2O2 decreasing the activities of CAT and POD lead to accumulation of more H2O2. Excess of H2O2 up-regulated PAL, BUG, promote biosynthesis of flavones, and enhance the nonenzyme system. “↑” and “↓” represent activity or content “up” and “down” respectively. PMID:27019566

  9. YAG lasers in restorative dentistry: a histological investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koort, Hans J.; Frentzen, Matthias

    1992-06-01

    An important indicator to prove the effectiveness of laser radiation and to control the side effects are histological studies of dental hard tissues. In our study, different pulsed, rare earth doped YAG-laser systems in the range from 1 micrometers to 3 micrometers were investigated. An improved plastic embedding technique based on a penetrating uv-activated PMMA-medium was developed to cut undecalcified sections of 15 micrometers thickness. The Nd:YAG laser showed wide zones of necrosis but little carbonization. The radiation of Holmium and Thullium-doped YAG lasers causes strong but well-defined zones of carbonization comparable to those of pulsed (ms) CO2 lasers. The Erbium-doped YAG-laser was the most effective system. As predominant side effects, residual zones of debris and microcracks were observed. In deeper cavities, the zones of damages increase. The side effects of the pulsed infrared laser types seem to be mainly influenced by the physical or chemical properties of the dental tissues and not by the selected laser parameters.

  10. The atlas of mouse development eHistology resource.

    PubMed

    Graham, Elizabeth; Moss, Julie; Burton, Nick; Roochun, Yogmatee; Armit, Chris; Richardson, Lorna; Baldock, Richard

    2015-06-01

    The Atlas of Mouse Development by Professor Mathew Kaufman is an essential text for understanding mouse developmental anatomy. This definitive and authoritative atlas is still in production and is essential for any biologist working with the mouse embryo, although the last revision dates back to 1994. Here, we announce the eHistology online resource that provides free access to high-resolution colour images digitized from the original histological sections (www.emouseatlas.org/emap/eHistology/index.php) used by Kaufman for the Atlas. The images are provided with the original annotations and plate numbering of the paper atlas and enable viewing the material to cellular resolution. PMID:26015534

  11. [Incus homograft--histological study of implanted ossicles (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sprem, N; Zirdum, A

    1976-11-01

    The methodes of obtaining, preparing and storing of ossicles for homoiotransplantation is described. Using this method, 21 patients have been operated. Four reoperations have been performed, and in two cases implants were found and subsequently subjected to histological analysis. The method of preparing the histological slides is described. The study of examined homografts revealed the normal bone structure and signs of revitalisation, which is clearly shown in the micrographs. On the basis of functional results and histological examination, the authors conclude that the use of devitalised homografts is recommanded in total and/or partial defects of ossicles. PMID:136576

  12. Photopneumatic Technology in Acne Treatment and Skin Rejuvenation: Histological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Tokuya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent reports indicate that a variety of light-based devices have been used for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation. A new technology combining intense pulsed light with negative pressure, photopneumatic technology, has recently attracted interest. The present study assessed acne treatment and skin rejuvenation with this novel approach Subjects and Methods: Acne, 450 nm tip. Five Japanese volunteers (1 male, 4 female; mean age 28.6 yr; skin type III) with mild to moderate/moderate active acne participated. The face was treated with 2 sessions, 2 weeks apart. Biopsies were obtained immediately after the first session and 1 week after the second session, and routinely processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rejuvenation, profusion tip with topical preparation. In 5 Japanese volunteers (3 male, 2 female; mean age 37.6 yr, skin type III), the volar aspect of both forearms was treated with the 530 nm head at P6 (around 12 J/cm2). The left arm was then treated with a pre-infused profusion tip and vacuum only. Four sessions were given, 14-day intervals. Biopsies were taken from both arms 2 weeks after the 2nd session and 3 weeks after the 4th session. One-half of each biopsy was assessed with histo-and immunohistochemistry, and the other with TEM. Results Acne trial: A combination of physical extraction of comedones, mild photothermal damage of the follicle and damage to identified bacilli was noted post-treatment, with macroscopic improvement of the skin. Rejuvenation with profusion: Significant morphological and immunohistochemical differences were seen between the control and profusion-treated arms at the first assessment. These differences became less significant at the 2nd assessment. Conclusions Macroscopically and histologically, photopneumatic technology improved acne lesions, suggesting a synergistic effect between the components of the technology. In skin rejuvenation, the profusion therapy accelerated the regenerative

  13. OOGENESIS AND OVARIAN HISTOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although folliculogenesis and oogenesis have been observed in numerous reptiles, these phenomena have not been described in detail in a crocodilian. Oogenesis and histological features of the adult ovary of Alligator mississippiensis are described. Using a complex process, the ov...

  14. PREPARATION OF WHOLE SMALL FISH FOR HISTOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicologic pathology, which is primarily concerned with chemically-induced structural changes in cells or tissues, depends on the proper histological processing of test specimens. In fishes, histopathological examination is widely recognized as a reliable method for disease diag...

  15. Insight into the Dissociation of Behavior from Histology in Synucleinopathies and in Related Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sekiyama, Kazunari; Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Koike, Wakako; Waragai, Masaaki; Takenouchi, Takato; Sugama, Shuei; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2016-03-31

    Recent clinical trials using immunization approaches against Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed to demonstrate improved cognitive functions in patients, despite potent suppression in the formation of both senile plaques and other amyloid-β deposits in postmortem brains. Similarly, we observed that treatment with ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was effective in improving the histopathology, such as reducing both protein aggregation and glial activation, in the brains of transgenic mice expressing dementia with Lewy bodies-linked P123H β-synuclein. In contrast, only a small improvement in cognitive functions was observed in these mice. Collectively, it is predicted that histology does not correlate with behavior that is resilient and resistant to therapeutic stimuli. Notably, such a 'discrepancy between histology and behavior' is reminiscent of AD-like pathologies and incidental Lewy bodies, which are frequently encountered in postmortem brains of the elderly who had been asymptomatic for memory loss and Parkinsonism during their lives. We suggest that 'the discrepancy between histology and behavior' may be a universal feature that is associated with various aspects of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, given that the cognitive reserve is specifically observed in human brains, human behavior may be evolutionally distinct from that in other animals, thus, contributing to the differential efficiency of therapy between human and lower animals, an important issue in the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, it is important to better understand 'the discrepancy between histology and behavior' in the mechanism of neurodegeneration for the development of effective therapies against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27031478

  16. Radiologic and histologic presentation of male mammary myofibroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Omar, Lena A; Rojanapremsuk, Theera; Saluja, Karan; Merchant, Kanwal A; Sharma, Pooja B

    2016-07-01

    Mammary myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that typically presents in older men and women. Less commonly, these benign tumors may also occur in soft tissues located outside of the breast, in which case they are referred to as mammary-type myofibroblastomas. The histologic composition of this benign spindle cell tumor can be markedly varied. We present a case of a large mammary myofibroblastoma in a male patient and discuss the typical imaging and histologic makeup of these tumors. PMID:27365886

  17. Radiologic and histologic presentation of male mammary myofibroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Rojanapremsuk, Theera; Saluja, Karan; Merchant, Kanwal A.; Sharma, Pooja B.

    2016-01-01

    Mammary myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that typically presents in older men and women. Less commonly, these benign tumors may also occur in soft tissues located outside of the breast, in which case they are referred to as mammary-type myofibroblastomas. The histologic composition of this benign spindle cell tumor can be markedly varied. We present a case of a large mammary myofibroblastoma in a male patient and discuss the typical imaging and histologic makeup of these tumors. PMID:27365886

  18. Efficacy of mesotherapy in facial rejuvenation: a histological and immunohistochemical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    El-Domyati, Moetaz; El-Ammawi, Tarek S.; Moawad, Osama; El-Fakahany, Hasan; Medhat, Walid; Mahoney, Mỹ G.; Uitto, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Background Mesotherapy, commonly known as “biorejuvenation” or “biorevitalization”, is a technique used to rejuvenate the skin by means of a transdermal injection of a multivitamin solution and natural plant extracts that are thought to improve the signs of skin aging. Objectives This prospective study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of mesotherapy applied to periorbital wrinkles and to quantitatively evaluate histological changes in the skin occurring in response to the same treatment. Methods Six volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types III or IV and Glogau class I–III wrinkles were subjected to a three-month course of mesotherapy injections in the periocular area (six sessions administered at two-week intervals). Standard photographs and skin biopsies were obtained from the treatment area at baseline, at the end of treatment, and at three months post-treatment. Quantitative evaluation of collagen types I, III, and VII, newly synthesized collagen, total elastin, and tropoelastin was performed using a computerized morphometric analysis. Results The clinical evaluation of volunteers at baseline, end of treatment, and three months post-treatment revealed no significant differences. Histological and immunostaining analysis of collagen types I, III, and VII, newly synthesized collagen, total elastin, and tropoelastin showed no statistically significant changes (P > 0.05) after mesotherapy injection. Conclusions The present study indicates that mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation does not result in statistically significant histological changes or clinical improvement. PMID:22788806

  19. An examination of factors that could affect choice reaction time in histology technicians

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.; Thornton, J.C.; Husmark, I.

    1989-01-01

    Histology technicians exposed to formaldehyde and solvents have symptoms and objective evidence of neurobehavioral impairment of memory, judgment, and equilibrium. Because reaction time has been prolonged in many groups of workers exposed to toxicants, choice reaction time was measured in 385 female formaldehyde and solvent-exposed histology technicians, and 79 unexposed female laboratory workers. Choice reaction time to a visual stimulus (CRT) is defined, for the purpose of this study, as the time required for discriminated cancellation of two different letters on a microcomputer screen by pressing the matching keys. Initial analysis showed that increases in age, years of cigarette smoking, and hours per day of formaldehyde exposure significantly lengthened CRT, but xylene-toluene exposure had no effect. Since duration of smoking and length of daily formaldehyde exposure were age related, multiple linear regression analysis of CRT was performed using them as independent variables. Increasing age was the only significant factor in lengthening CRT. However, in these female histology technicians, the second measurement one year later was 44 msec faster (p less than .04). The reason for improved performance is unclear, but it may be an effect of training encompassing familiarity, improved attention, or learning.

  20. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  1. Histology-directed MALDI mass spectrometry for the diagnostic pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hark Kyun; Kim, In-Hoo

    2012-10-01

    With the advent of targeted agents, it has become clinically important to distinguish histologic types of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) using biopsy samples. We investigated whether direct tissue matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis on lipid may classify histology of NSCLCs. Twentyone pairs of frozen, resected NSCLCs were analyzed using histology-directed, MALDI MS. 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid were manually deposited on areas of each tissue section enriched in epithelial cells to identify lipid profiles, and mass spectra were acquired using a MALDI-time of flight instrument. Squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, two major histologic types of NSCLC, were found to have different lipid profiles. Discriminatory lipids correctly classified the histology of 80.4% of independent NSCLC surgical tissue samples (41 out of 51) in validation set, suggesting that lipid profiles can classify NSCLCs according to the histologic type. We also found that protein and lipid MALDI MS profiles can classify 30 breast cancers according to the intrinsic subtypes. Immunohistochemistry-defined, luminal, HER2+, and triple-negative tumors demonstrated different protein and lipid profiles, as evidenced by cross validation P values < 0.01. Discriminatory proteins and lipids classified tumors according to the intrinsic subtype with median prediction accuracies of 80.0-81.3% in 100 random test sets. Potential advantages of this label-free approach may include small tissue requirement, relatively rapid procedure, and low reagent cost. Day-today variation of this technology is also acceptable, with the Pearson correlation of 0.95. Taken together, these results suggest the possible clinical utility of histology-directed, lipid and protein MALDI MS.

  2. Oral isotretinoin in photoaging: objective histological evidence of efficacy and durability*

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Bruna Souza Felix; Azulay, David Rubem; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Mandarim-De-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Cuzzi, Tullia; Azulay, Mônica Manela

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The off-label use of oral isotretinoin in photoaging is a therapeutic tool that has been used by dermatologists. There are few studies to corroborate its effectiveness and durability. OBJECTIVES To assess, both clinically and histologically, the changes caused by the use of oral isotretinoin in skin photoaging as well as the duration of the effects. METHODS 20 female patients, aged 45-50 years, with phototypes II-VI, none of whom had experienced menopause, were treated with 20mg oral isotretinoin, 3 days a week, for 12 weeks. They underwent clinical analysis and skin biopsies in the pre-auricular region, while histologic cuts enabled assessment of the solar elastosis level and morphologic analysis. RESULTS Clinically, patients, as well as the researching and the assessor physicians, noticed improvement in skin quality. One patient presented severe solar elastosis, 11 manifested the moderate form, while 8 presented the discreet type. According to histological analysis, 65% of the patients revealed alteration in the distribution and thickness of the elastic fibers, which can be interpreted as a histological improvement, while 60% showed an increase in collagen density. We observed an increase in collagen density, from 51.2% to 57.4%, (p=0.004). At the end of the 12-week follow-up period, this density decreased to 54.7% (p=0.050). There was an increase in the density of elastic fibers, from 26.5% to 31.3%, (p=0.02), which had dropped to 27.5% at the end of the 12-week follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS The study confirmed the role of oral isotretinoin in remodeling the extracellular matrix against photoaging, as well as its durability after 12 weeks, especially when we consider collagen fibers. PMID:26375216

  3. Histological study of excimer laser on carotid artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavantes, Maria C.; Pasqualucci, C. A.; Zamorano, Lucia J.

    1992-06-01

    The employment of photoablative effect on coronary artery angioplasty has been a new exciting field as a treatment option. Guided by good results in the literature, our group decided to study the laser/tissue interaction on carotid arteries with the intent of a less invasive treatment of intracranial and extracranial obstructed disease in vascular neurosurgery. We studied human cartoid arteries from ten male autopsy specimens with an average age of 53 years (34 - 37 years old) which a total of 22 laser applications were performed. Using the same repetition rate and energy, 20 Hz and 30 mJ, we compared the effect of the laser energy on 'normal' and 'pathologic' areas of the carotid arteries. The pathologic specimens, presenting calcified and non-calcified plaques, the same as the macroscopical 'normal' specimens, were submitted to the energy of the Excimer Laser with 308 nm wavelength. The laser beam was delivered perpendicularly through continuous flushing of saline on the targeted artery wall varying from 200 to 400 pulses. Histological studies were done and statistical analysis was performed. The results showed that the depth of penetration varied from 113 micrometers to 1200 micrometers , with a width of the lesion ranging from 150 micrometers - 1500 micrometers . In our study we found that the range between non-effective and destructive effect caused by the laser was around 400 pulses. We encountered minimal degree of carbonization while lasering on calcified plaques. We concluded that Excimer laser is a feasible and secure tool to prevent thermical complications of laser treatment, which will allow neurosurgeons in the future athermic laser angioplasty. Progress in this field must rely on further in vitro and in vivo research, before it can be clinically applied as well as improvements in delivery systems.

  4. Endoscopic and histologic characteristics of serrated lesions.

    PubMed

    Moussata, Driffa; Boschetti, Gilles; Chauvenet, Marion; Stroeymeyt, Karine; Nancey, Stéphane; Berger, Françoise; Lecomte, Thierry; Flourié, Bernard

    2015-03-14

    In recent years, a second pathway for colonic carcinogenesis, distinct from the adenomatous pathway, has been explored. This is referred to as serrated pathway and includes three types of polyp, characterised by a serrated appearance of the crypts: hyperplastic polyps (HP), sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) or lesions, and traditional serrated adenomas. Each lesion has its own genetic, as well as macroscopic and microscopic morphological features. Because of their flat aspect, their detection is easier with chromoendoscopy (carmin indigo or narrow-band imaging). However, as we show in this review, the distinction between SSA and HP is quite difficult. It is now recommended to resect in one piece as it is possible the serrated polyps with a control in a delay depending on the presence or not of dysplasia. These different types of lesion are described in detail in the present review in general population, in polyposis and in inflammatory bowel diseases patients. This review highlights the need to improve characterization and understanding of this way of colorectal cancerogenesis. PMID:25780286

  5. Atypical fibroxanthoma: a histological and immunohistochemical review of 171 cases.

    PubMed

    Beer, Trevor W; Drury, Paul; Heenan, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    The clinical and histological features of 171 atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) from a single institution in Western Australia are outlined. This area experiences high levels of solar radiation, and all assessable biopsies showed solar elastosis. Patients were aged between 41 and 97 years (median age 74), with 76% of tumors occurring in men (male to female ratio approximately 3 to 1). Most tumors were small, with a median diameter of 10 mm and a range of 4-35 mm. Only 5% exceeded 20 mm in diameter. Most AFX were well-circumscribed dermal lesions, with limited invasion of subcutis in a minority. Histological variants identified included keloidal (n = 8), clear cell (n = 3), and granular cell (n = 3), plaque like (n = 4), and myxoid (n = 1). Bland cytological appearances (spindle cell nonpleomorphic AFX) were noted in 5 tumors, with osteoclast-like giant cells in 2. Features suggesting regression were present in 22 cases. Two cases recurred locally, none metastasized. No tumors expressed melanocytic or epithelial markers. Seventy-four percent of cases expressed smooth muscle actin, typically strongly and diffusely. No AFX stained with desmin. Only 1 of 50 cases was CD117 positive. In conclusion, AFX may show a wide range of histological appearances, and a panel of immunohistochemical markers is essential to make the correct diagnosis. Histological mimics, such as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, must be carefully excluded. Specific diagnosis is important because there seems to be a very low risk of recurrence or metastasis despite the frequently alarming histology. PMID:20526171

  6. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam*

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  7. Syphilitic lymphadenitis clinically and histologically mimicking lymphogranuloma venereum.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Annesu; Bamford, Colleen; Lewis, David; Martini, Markus; Wainwright, Helen

    2016-01-01

    An inguinal lymph node was discovered incidentally during surgery for a suspected strangulated inguinal hernia. The patient had recently been treated for candidal balanoposthitis and was known to have a paraphimosis. A new foreskin ulcer was discovered when he was admitted for the hernia surgery. The lymph node histology showed stellate abscesses suggestive of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Chlamydial serologic tests were negative. As the histological appearance and clinical details provided were thought to suggest LGV, tissue was also sent for a real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction assay. This was used to screen for Chlamydia trachomatis in conjunction with other genital ulcer-related pathogens. The assay was negative for C. trachomatis, but positive for Treponema pallidum. Further histochemical staining of the histological specimen confirmed the presence of spirochaetes. PMID:27138664

  8. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  9. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour. PMID:26258698

  10. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam.

    PubMed

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  11. Intestinal Preparation Techniques for Histological Analysis in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan M; Duckworth, Carrie A; Vowell, Kate; Burkitt, Michael D; Pritchard, D Mark

    2016-01-01

    The murine intestinal tract represents a difficult organ system to study due to its long convoluted tubular structure, narrow diameter, and delicate mucosa which undergoes rapid changes after sampling prior to fixation. These features do not make for easy histological analysis as rapid fixation in situ, or after simple removal without careful dissection, results in poor postfixation tissue handling and limited options for high quality histological sections. Collecting meaningful quantitative data by analysis of this tissue is further complicated by the anatomical changes in structure along its length. This article describes two methods of intestinal sampling at necropsy that allow systematic histological analysis of the entire intestinal tract, either through examination of cross sections (circumferences) by the gut bundling technique or longitudinal sections by the adapted Swiss roll technique, together with basic methods for data collection. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27248432

  12. Grading of soft tissue sarcomas: from histological to molecular assessment.

    PubMed

    Neuville, Agnes; Chibon, Frédéric; Coindre, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    Several histological grading systems for soft tissue sarcomas have been described since the early 1980s. Their main objective is to select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy. Two histological grading systems are used in daily practice, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group (FNCLCC) systems. They have been devised by combining histological parameters: number of mitoses per high-power field, the presence of necrosis, cellular and nuclear morphology and the degree of cellularity for the NCI grading; and tumour differentiation, mitotic index and extent of necrosis for the French system. Histological grading is far more appropriate to assess the risk of metastasis. However, several limitations prevent its use: grade cannot be applied to all histological types, its reproducibility is not perfect, a three-grade system generates an intermediate grade with undetermined prognosis, and finally the core needle biopsy, now widely used for the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, is not the best sample to assess the grade. The development of molecular grading in addition to histological grading probably represents the next step. Molecular signatures based on quantitative evaluation of chromosomal complexity such as CINSARC (complexity index in sarcomas) appear as a strong independent predictive factor for metastasis in several types of sarcoma, and even in several other types of cancer. When they can be instituted in daily practice on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded material, molecular signatures will not only provide information on risk of metastasis, but also better understanding of cancer development, response or resistance to evaluated drugs, and potential targets for future treatments. PMID:24378389

  13. Comprehensive histologic analysis of ALK-rearranged lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Tsuta, Koji; Nakamura, Harumi; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Asamura, Hisao; Sekine, Ikuo; Fukayama, Masashi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Furuta, Koh; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2011-08-01

    A subset (1% to 5%) of non-small-cell lung carcinomas harbors the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Data from previous studies on the histomorphology of ALK-rearranged lung cancer are inconsistent, and the specific histologic parameters that characterize this subset and how accurately such parameters predict underlying ALK abnormality remain uncertain. To answer these questions, we performed a comprehensive histologic analysis of 54 surgically resected, extensively sampled ALK-rearranged lung carcinomas and compared them with 100 consecutive resections of ALK-wild-type lung cancers. All 54 cases showed at least a focal adenocarcinoma component, and 3 and 2 cases had additional squamous and sarcomatoid differentiation, respectively. Solid or acinar growth pattern, cribriform structure, presence of mucous cells (signet-ring cells or goblet cells), abundant extracellular mucus, lack of lepidic growth, and lack of significant nuclear pleomorphism were more common in ALK-positive cancers. Two recognizable constellations of findings, a solid signet-ring cell pattern and a mucinous cribriform pattern, were present at least focally in the majority (78%) of ALK-positive tumors, but were rare (1%) in ALK-negative tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that a combination of these 2 patterns was the most powerful histologic indicator of ALK rearrangement. Characteristic histologies were present both in primary sites and in metastases. Thus, histologic findings may help to identify cases for ALK testing. However, none of the histologic parameters were completely sensitive or specific to ALK rearrangement, and histomorphology should not replace confirmatory molecular or immunohistochemical studies. ALK-positive cancers commonly showed coexpression of thyroid transcription factor-1 and p63, and its significance is currently unclear. PMID:21753699

  14. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008-2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC. PMID:27472385

  15. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008–2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC. PMID:27472385

  16. Non-Invasive Prediction of Histologic Chorioamnionitis in Women with Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Ah; Lee, Seung Mi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a model based on non-invasive clinical and ultrasonographic parameters for predicting the likelihood of subsequent histologic chorioamnionitis in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and to determine whether the inclusion of invasive test results improves the predictive value of the model. Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study included 146 consecutive women presenting with PPROM (20–33 weeks). Transvaginal ultrasonographic assessment of cervical length was performed. Maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and white blood cell (WBC) counts were measured after amniocentesis. Amniotic fluid (AF) obtained by amniocentesis was cultured, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and WBC counts were determined. The primary outcome measure was histologic chorioamnionitis. Results Risk scores based on serum CRP concentrations and gestational age (model 1) were calculated for each patient. The model was shown to have adequate goodness of fit and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.742. When including AF test results (e.g., AF IL-6 levels) in model 1, serum CRP concentrations were found to be insignificant, and thus, were excluded from model 2, comprising AF IL-6 levels and gestational age. No significant difference in AUC was found between models 1 and 2. Conclusion For women with PPROM, the newly developed model incorporating non-invasive parameters (serum CRP and gestational age) was moderately predictive of histologic chorioamnionitis. The inclusion of invasive test results added no predictive information to the model in this setting. PMID:26847301

  17. Histological findings of divided muscle after peroral endoscopic myotomy

    PubMed Central

    Shiwaku, Hironari; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nimura, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kanefumi; Ohmiya, Toshihiro; Takeno, Shinsuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a revolutionary therapy for achalasia and related disorders. POEM utilizes almost the same myotomy procedure as the Heller myotomy; thus, it would be expected to have the same or greater duration of therapeutic effect. However, to date, there have been no reports to prove the basis for this procedure in achalasia. In this case, we were able to histologically show the divided muscle after POEM since the patient had an esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Histology showed that the muscle tissue divided by the POEM procedure was completely replaced by fibrosis. These findings may indirectly show the permanence of the POEM procedure. PMID:26752956

  18. Histological findings of divided muscle after peroral endoscopic myotomy.

    PubMed

    Shiwaku, Hironari; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nimura, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kanefumi; Ohmiya, Toshihiro; Takeno, Shinsuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a revolutionary therapy for achalasia and related disorders. POEM utilizes almost the same myotomy procedure as the Heller myotomy; thus, it would be expected to have the same or greater duration of therapeutic effect. However, to date, there have been no reports to prove the basis for this procedure in achalasia. In this case, we were able to histologically show the divided muscle after POEM since the patient had an esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Histology showed that the muscle tissue divided by the POEM procedure was completely replaced by fibrosis. These findings may indirectly show the permanence of the POEM procedure. PMID:26752956

  19. Practical quantification of necrosis in histological whole-slide images.

    PubMed

    Homeyer, André; Schenk, Andrea; Arlt, Janine; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Hahn, Horst K

    2013-06-01

    Since the histological quantification of necrosis is a common task in medical research and practice, we evaluate different image analysis methods for quantifying necrosis in whole-slide images. In a practical usage scenario, we assess the impact of different classification algorithms and feature sets on both accuracy and computation time. We show how a well-chosen combination of multiresolution features and an efficient postprocessing step enables the accurate quantification necrosis in gigapixel images in less than a minute. The results are general enough to be applied to other areas of histological image analysis as well. PMID:23796718

  20. Effect of storage media and storage time on histological and ultrastructural changes in cat epididymal cells.

    PubMed

    Tittarelli, C M; Jurado, S B; Nuñez-Favre, R; Bonaura, M C; de la Sota, R L; Stornelli, M A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the histological and ultrastructural changes in cat epididymides (n = 22) stored at 4 °C in two different media [saline solution (SAL) or tris-egg yolk (TEY)]. Our hypothesis was that epididymides stored in TEY would have delayed epithelial cell autolysis. Four epididymides were fixed and processed immediately, and the remaining 18 epididymides were stored at 4 °C in SAL or TEY for 24, 48 or 72 h. In histological sections, the nuclear features and stereocilia morphology were scored from 0 to 3. Ultrastructurally, nuclear chromatin and stereocilia morphology were scored from 0 to 3. In addition, using transmission electron microscopy nuclear number, nuclear area, mitochondrial number and mitochondrial area were recorded. In the histological study, parameters changed with time and media (p < 0.01). A significant effect of time was observed (p < 0.01), and the morphological changes were greatest when the storage time increased. Morphological changes were higher in SAL compared with TEY (p < 0.01). In the ultrastructural study, nuclear chromatin and stereocilia morphology decreased with time and media as in the histological study (p < 0.01). In addition, nuclear number and nuclear area changed with time (p < 0.004; p < 0.001) but not with media. Conversely, mitochondrial number and mitochondrial area did not change with media or time (p > 0.05). In conclusion, these results show that TEY preserved epididymal epithelial cells better than SAL; this finding could help improve sperm quality of stored epididymides. PMID:23279519

  1. Tumor histology and location predict deep nuclei toxicity: Implications for late effects from focal brain irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Plaga, Alexis; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Sun, David A.; Vitaz, Todd W.; Spalding, Aaron C.

    2012-10-01

    Normal tissue toxicity resulting from both disease and treatment is an adverse side effect in the management of patients with central nervous system malignancies. We tested the hypothesis that despite these improvements, certain tumors place patients at risk for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory late effects. Defining patient groups at risk for these effects could allow for development of preventive strategies. Fifty patients with primary brain tumors underwent radiation planning with magnetic resonance imaging scan and computed tomography datasets. Organs at risk (OAR) responsible for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory function were defined. Inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy was optimized with priority given to target coverage while penalties were assigned to exceeding normal tissue tolerances. Tumor laterality, location, and histology were compared with OAR doses, and analysis of variance was performed to determine the significance of any observed correlation. The ipsilateral hippocampus exceeded dose limits in frontal (74%), temporal (94%), and parietal (100%) lobe tumor locations. The contralateral hippocampus was at risk in the following tumor locations: frontal (53%), temporal (83%), or parietal (50%) lobe. Patients with high-grade glioma were at risk for ipsilateral (88%) and contralateral (73%) hippocampal damage (P <0.05 compared with other histologies). The pituitary gland and hypothalamus exceeded dose tolerances in patients with pituitary tumors (both 100%) and high-grade gliomas (50% and 75%, P <0.05 compared with other histologies), respectively. Despite application of modern radiation therapy, certain tumor locations and histologies continue to place patients at risk for morbidity. Patients with high-grade gliomas or tumors located in the frontal, temporal, or parietal lobes are at risk for neurocognitive decline, likely because of larger target volumes and higher radiation doses. Data from this study

  2. Skin Biopsy in Netherton Syndrome: A Histological Review of a Large Series and New Findings.

    PubMed

    Leclerc-Mercier, Stephanie; Bodemer, Christine; Furio, Laetitia; Hadj-Rabia, Smail; de Peufeilhoux, Laetitia; Weibel, Lisa; Bursztejn, Anne-Claire; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Ortonne, Nicolas; Molina, Thierry Jo; Hovnanian, Alain; Fraitag, Sylvie

    2016-02-01

    Netherton syndrome (NS) is a severe genetic skin disorder, with often delayed or misleading clinical signs. The histological features of skin biopsies, usually described as a psoriasiform hyperplasia, have only been reported in isolated case reports or small case series. The aim of this study is to define, for the first time, the precise histological pattern of cutaneous lesions, in a large cohort of skin biopsies from confirmed NS patients. The study included 80 consecutive skin biopsies from 67 patients taken between January 1995 and June 2014. All were from confirmed NS patients with either a negative lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) immunohistochemistry and/or molecular confirmation by identified mutation in SPINK5. In this cohort, the most frequent histological finding was also psoriasiform hyperplasia, but there were additional, less common, or previously unreported findings, including compact parakeratosis with large nuclei, subcorneum or intracorneum splitting, presence of clear cells in the upper epidermis or stratum corneum, dyskeratosis, dermal infiltrate with neutrophils and/or eosinophils, and dilated blood vessels in the superficial dermis. An early confirmation of the diagnosis of NS is essential for improved patient management. Thus, in the situation of a patient with an unknown skin disorder and non specific clinical presentation, the dermatopathologist may now be able to suggest the diagnosis of NS based on these newly reported characteristics. However, LEKTI immunohistochemistry remains the essential diagnostic investigation in cases with misleading or nonspecific histological features and is mandatory for the definitive diagnosis of NS in all patients. PMID:26825155

  3. Remote Histology Learning from Static versus Dynamic Microscopic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Histology is the study of microscopic structures in normal tissue sections. Curriculum redesign in medicine has led to a decrease in the use of optical microscopes during practical classes. Other imaging solutions have been implemented to facilitate remote learning. With advancements in imaging technologies, learning material can now be digitized.…

  4. [Modified histological methods using a nuclear dye gallocyanine].

    PubMed

    Zadorozhnyĭ, V V

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that a nuclear stain; gallocyanine, be used simultaneously with the three main histological staining methods: hematoxylin-eosin, Van-Gieson's, and Nissl' stainings. This modification is technically simple, gives preparations of a high quality, and is time- and labour-saving. PMID:6186229

  5. Evaluation of Virtual Microscopy in Medical Histology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication…

  6. Partial hydatidiform mole: histologic parameters in correlation with DNA genotyping.

    PubMed

    Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei

    2013-05-01

    Histologic diagnosis of partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) continues to be problematic, and DNA genotyping has recently become cost-effective for precise separation of PHM from its mimics. We performed a comprehensive reevaluation of histologic parameters of PHM in correlation with DNA genotyping. A total of 143 early abortion specimens were subjected to genotyping as part of the routine workup, resulting in 60 cases of PHM, 52 cases of various chromosomal trisomies, and 31 cases of nonmolar diploid gestations. All available hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed retrospectively by 2 gynecologic pathologists blinded to the genotyping results. Significant histologic overlaps were present among genetically confirmed PHM, hydropic abortions, and chromosomal trisomy syndromes. The following morphologic parameters emerged with diagnostic significance for PHM: villus size, presence of 2 villous populations, round or oval pseudoinclusions, at least moderate villous hydrops, cistern formation, and trophoblastic hyperplasia. The most sensitive morphologic features for PHM included villous hydrops (86% sensitivity) or the presence of at least 1 of the following 3 parameters: 2 villous populations, round or oval pseudoinclusions, and cisterns (84% sensitivity). The presence of cisterns and villous size ≥2.5 mm had the highest positive predictive value (90%) for PHM. In conclusion, no single or combined morphologic features are sufficient for definitive diagnosis of PHM. The presence of any one of the following histologic findings should prompt DNA genotyping workup to rule out PHM: round or oval pseudoincludions, cistern formation, 2 populations of villi, and a villous size of ≥2.5 mm. PMID:23518914

  7. Early Renal Histological Changes in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Nasiri, Ebrahim; Shafi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease. Most investigators have focused on glomerular changes in diabetic kidney and non-glomerular alterations have been less attended. The present study has been conducted to find early non-glomerular histological changes in diabetic renal tissue. Twenty male Wistar rats weighting 200-250 g were used for the diabetic group. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single injection of Alloxan. After 8 weeks, paraffin embedded blocks of kidneys were prepared for evaluating the histological changes due to diabetes. Histological study showed the deposit of eosinophilic materials in the intermediate substantial of medulla and thickening of renal arterial wall in the kidney of 70% of diabetic rats. The average weight of kidneys increased when compared to non diabetic animals. Furthermore, the amount of blood flow in arteries of all diabetic kidneys has been enhanced. The present study demonstrates some early renal histological changes in diabetes mellitus which were earlier compared to those reported previously. Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive disease and renal care design can help better prognosis achievement. PMID:24551816

  8. Histology image analysis for carcinoma detection and grading

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Thoma, George R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the image analysis techniques in the domain of histopathology, specifically, for the objective of automated carcinoma detection and classification. As in other biomedical imaging areas such as radiology, many computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems have been implemented to aid histopathologists and clinicians in cancer diagnosis and research, which have been attempted to significantly reduce the labor and subjectivity of traditional manual intervention with histology images. The task of automated histology image analysis is usually not simple due to the unique characteristics of histology imaging, including the variability in image preparation techniques, clinical interpretation protocols, and the complex structures and very large size of the images themselves. In this paper we discuss those characteristics, provide relevant background information about slide preparation and interpretation, and review the application of digital image processing techniques to the field of histology image analysis. In particular, emphasis is given to state-of-the-art image segmentation methods for feature extraction and disease classification. Four major carcinomas of cervix, prostate, breast, and lung are selected to illustrate the functions and capabilities of existing CAD systems. PMID:22436890

  9. HISTOLOGICAL PROGRESSION OF HEPATIC NEOPLASIA IN RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI')

    EPA Science Inventory

    The histological progression of hepatic neoplasia has not been as systematically studied in rainbow trout as it has been in rodents. Two putative preneoplastic lesions have been identified, the eosinophilic focus and the basophilic focus, but whether these correspond to similar l...

  10. The diagnostic value of the ThinPrep pap test in endometrial carcinoma: a prospective study with histological follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianhong; Tomashefski, Joseph F; Sawady, Joram; Ferrer, Hector; Khiyami, Amer

    2013-05-01

    Case-control studies have demonstrated that the ThinPrep Pap test may provide improved detection of endometrial carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to prospectively examine the diagnostic potential of the ThinPrep Pap test in the detection of endometrial carcinoma. ThinPrep Pap test slides were collected from high-risk patient groups. Pap-stained slides were reviewed and the cytological diagnosis was rendered independently by investigators. Each case was assigned to one of the four diagnostic categories: within normal limit (WNL); atypical glandular cells (AGC); atypical endometrial cells (AEC); or adenocarcinoma, probably endometrial origin. After cytological diagnosis was made, the histological follow-up diagnosis was obtained through the laboratory information system and the cyto-histological correlation was analyzed. Of 106 patients identified, 60 had histological follow-up. For all eight cases interpreted by cytology as positive, endometrial carcinoma was confirmed histologically. Among 25 patients with normal endometrial cells present, histological follow-up showed benign endometrium. Among 17 cases interpreted cytologically as AEC, 14 cases (82.4%) had benign histological follow-up and 3 cases (17.6%) had endometrial carcinoma. All 11 cases (100%) classified as AGC had benign histological follow-up. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting endometrial malignancy were 72.7% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 100%. In this prospective study, we demonstrated that the Thin Prep Pap test had a reasonably high sensitivity and/or specificity in detecting endometrial carcinoma. PMID:22351503

  11. Histological and histometrical evidences for phenol immunotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Louei Monfared, Ali; Jaafari, Afsaneh; Sheibani, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Phenol is a common industrial and ubiquitous environmental chemical which is used to synthesize resins and plastics. Due to its anesthetic and disinfectant properties, phenol is also widely used in pharmaceutical products. Since there were no adequate data about phenol immunotoxicity, the purpose of the present study is to investigate its toxic effects on the histological structures of the lymphoid organs in the mice. A total of 80 mice were randomly distributed into one control group and three experimental groups. The control group received only distilled water, whereas experimental groups were orally administered phenol at the concentrations of 80, 180, and 320 mg/kg/day, respectively. After 28 consecutive days, tissue samples were taken and histological changes of the spleens, thymuses, adrenal glands, and lymph nodes were examined using optical microscopy. The results showed that in the phenol treated animals; splenic megakaryocyte counts increased, the diameter of the splenic follicles decreased, the thymocyte population in both cortex and medulla reduced, the thickness of the reticular layers of adrenal gland increased and lymphatic cells populations in the lymph node were reduced, significantly (P < 0.01). Also, remarkable histological changes were noted in the various lymphatic organs of the treated mice. Overall, present findings give some histological evidences that selected qualitative and quantitative parameters of the lymphatic organs were significantly altered by phenol administration. In conclusion, the significant decreases of the immune cell populations together with histological alterations in the immunocompetent organs of the mice exposed to phenol indicate the immunosuppressive and immunotoxic properties of this chemical material. PMID:24829551

  12. Histological examination has a major impact on macroscopic necropsy diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, F D C; Saldiva, P H N; Mauad, T

    2005-01-01

    Background: Necropsy is the gold standard for clinicopathological discrepancy studies and epidemiological surveys. Inadequate sampling or lack of tissue may hamper the final interpretation and quality of the necropsy. Aim: To compare the histological and gross necropsy diagnoses of different organs. Methods: A retrospective comparison of the provisional reports (gross findings only) and the final reports (after histological examination) of the necropsies performed at the department of pathology of the Hospital das Clínicas, Sao Paulo University, Brazil, a large tertiary care complex, in 2001. The total number of diagnoses listed for the lungs, heart, liver, pancreas, kidneys, and spleen were calculated. Findings were categorised into concordant/refined diagnosis, discordant/additional diagnosis, histology needed, and inconclusive. Results: Three hundred and seventy one postmortem reports were analysed. There were 214 men and 157 women, with a mean age of 50.3 years, ranging from 1 to 92. The lung received the highest number (954) and the pancreas the lowest number (390) of diagnoses. The highest frequencies of discrepancies between the gross and microscopic findings were found in the lung and the liver: 38.7% and 35.1%, respectively. The brain had the lowest frequency of discrepancies. In a small number of cases, the final diagnosis could only be achieved through microscopic analysis, with the highest frequency being found in the kidneys (8.5%). Conclusions: Histological analysis has a major impact on previously performed gross diagnosis at necropsy, especially in the lungs, liver, and kidneys. Adequate sampling and histological analysis are important for necropsy quality. PMID:16311344

  13. The combined positive impact of Lean methodology and Ventana Symphony autostainer on histology lab workflow

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Histologic samples all funnel through the H&E microtomy staining area. Here manual processes intersect with semi-automated processes creating a bottleneck. We compare alternate work processes in anatomic pathology primarily in the H&E staining work cell. Methods We established a baseline measure of H&E process impact on personnel, information management and sample flow from historical workload and production data and direct observation. We compared this to performance after implementing initial Lean process modifications, including workstation reorganization, equipment relocation and workflow levelling, and the Ventana Symphony stainer to assess the impact on productivity in the H&E staining work cell. Results Average time from gross station to assembled case decreased by 2.9 hours (12%). Total process turnaround time (TAT) exclusive of processor schedule changes decreased 48 minutes/case (4%). Mean quarterly productivity increased 8.5% with the new methods. Process redesign reduced the number of manual steps from 219 to 182, a 17% reduction. Specimen travel distance was reduced from 773 ft/case to 395 ft/case (49%) overall, and from 92 to 53 ft/case in the H&E cell (42% improvement). Conclusions Implementation of Lean methods in the H&E work cell of histology can result in improved productivity, improved through-put and case availability parameters including TAT. PMID:20181123

  14. Endoscopic atrophic classification before and after H. pylori eradication is closely associated with histological atrophy and intestinal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Masaaki; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Ogawa, Ryo; Mizukami, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: The relationship between endoscopic atrophy classification (EAC) and histological gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (IM) was examined before and after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in order to evaluate the usefulness of EAC for detecting the risk of gastric cancer following eradication. Patients and methods: A total of 230 patients (137 males, 93 females; mean age: 58.0 ± 11.8 y) with successful eradication were enrolled. EAC score was defined as follows: C0(none): 0, C1: 1, C2: 2, C3: 3, O1: 4, O2: 5, and O3(severe): 6. Histological atrophy and IM score (0 to 3) from the antrum and the corpus were evaluated with updated Sydney system for histological atrophy and IM. Results: The mean EAC scores were 3.46 before eradication and 3.20 after eradication (P = 0.026). The mean atrophy scores before and after eradication were 1.45 and 0.92 at the antrum (P < 0.001) and 0.50 and 0.07 at the corpus (P < 0.001), respectively. The mean IM scores before and after eradication were 0.55 and 0.47 at the antrum (P = 0.154), and 0.09 and 0.05 at the corpus (P = 0.096), respectively. The histological atrophy scores showed significant improvement after eradication, while IM showed no significant change. The Mantel-Haenszel test for trend indicated there was a significant correlation between EAC and histological atrophy and IM, except antral atrophy after eradication. Conclusions: EAC exhibited a significant correlation between histological atrophy and IM, and represents a noninvasive classification method. EAC may be beneficial in evaluating the risk of gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication. PMID:26357676

  15. Functional and Histological Assessment of an Experimental Model of Takotsubo's Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Jaspreet; Dai, Wangde; Kloner, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Our objectives were to characterize functional and structural features of an experimental model of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and its response to beta‐blockers. Methods and Results In protocol 1, a dose‐finding study: 69 rats received various doses of isoproterenol (ISO) and echocardiographic and histologic parameters were measured on days 2 to 3 or day 8. There were no dose‐dependent effects and, out of 69 ISO‐treated rats, 40 (58.0%) survived and 29 (42.0%) died within 24 hours. Of survivors, 30 had apical akinesis averaging 12.1±1.6% of the long axis LV circumference. Out of the 40 survivors, 32.5% showed apical akinesis ≥10%, 42.5% showed akinesis<10% and 25% showed no apical akinesis. The basal portion of the LV was always preserved. At 24 hours, histology and ultrastructure showed necrosis, vacuolization, lipid droplets, mononuclear cell infiltration, damaged mitochondria, and edema. On day 8, apical akinesis fully resolved but histologic abnormalities were still present. In protocol 2, rats were randomized to Control; ISO100 mg/kg; propranolol+ISO; and metoprolol+ISO groups. Pretreatment with propranolol and metoprolol improved survival to 90% and 100% respectively, compared with 60% in the ISO group, but did not reduce the incidence and extent of akinesis or the structural damage. Conclusion TC can be mimicked in a rat model of ISO exposure that demonstrates apical akinesis on days 2 to 3 with full recovery of systolic regional wall motion abnormality despite the presence of persistent foci of necrosis and fibrosis on day 8. Pretreatment with beta‐blockers improved survival but did not affect structural and functional alterations. PMID:24958782

  16. Identifying neutrophils in H&E staining histology tissue images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiazhuo; MacKenzie, John D; Ramachandran, Rageshree; Chen, Danny Z

    2014-01-01

    Identifying neutrophils lays a crucial foundation for diagnosing acute inflammation diseases. But, such computerized methods on the commonly used H&E staining histology tissue images are lacking, due to various inherent difficulties of identifying cells in such image modality and the challenge that a considerable portion of neutrophils do not have a "textbook" appearance. In this paper, we propose a new method for identifying neutrophils in H&E staining histology tissue images. We first segment the cells by applying iterative edge labeling, and then identify neutrophils based on the segmentation results by considering the "context" of each candidate cell constructed by a new Voronoi diagram of clusters of other neutrophils. We obtain good performance compared with two baseline algorithms we constructed, on clinical images collected from patients suspected of having inflammatory bowl diseases. PMID:25333103

  17. Interactive histology of large-scale biomedical image stacks.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Schneider, Jens; Turney, Stephen G; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Meyer, Dominik; Westermann, Rüdiger; Reid, R Clay; Lichtman, Jeff; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2010-01-01

    Histology is the study of the structure of biological tissue using microscopy techniques. As digital imaging technology advances, high resolution microscopy of large tissue volumes is becoming feasible; however, new interactive tools are needed to explore and analyze the enormous datasets. In this paper we present a visualization framework that specifically targets interactive examination of arbitrarily large image stacks. Our framework is built upon two core techniques: display-aware processing and GPU-accelerated texture compression. With display-aware processing, only the currently visible image tiles are fetched and aligned on-the-fly, reducing memory bandwidth and minimizing the need for time-consuming global pre-processing. Our novel texture compression scheme for GPUs is tailored for quick browsing of image stacks. We evaluate the usability of our viewer for two histology applications: digital pathology and visualization of neural structure at nanoscale-resolution in serial electron micrographs. PMID:20975179

  18. Computer-aided Image Processing of Angiogenic Histological

    PubMed Central

    Sprindzuk, Matvey; Dmitruk, Alexander; Kovalev, Vassili; Bogush, Armen; Tuzikov, Alexander; Liakhovski, Victor; Fridman, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the questions regarding the image evaluation of angiogeneic histological samples, particularly the ovarian epithelial cancer. Review is focused on the principles of image analysis in the field of histology and pathology. The definition, classification, pathogenesis and angiogenesis regulation in the ovaries are also briefly discussed. It is hoped that the complex image analysis together with the patient’s clinical parameters will allow an acquiring of a clear pathogenic picture of the disease, extension of the differential diagnosis and become a useful tool for the evaluation of drug effects. The challenge of the assessment of angiogenesis activity is the heterogeneity of several objects: parameters derived from patient’s anamnesis as well as of pathology samples. The other unresolved problems are the subjectivity of the region of interest selection and performance of the whole slide scanning. Keywords Angiogenesis; Image processing; Microvessel density; Cancer; Pathology PMID:22481986

  19. Histologic diagnoses of tissues from two nineteenth century Habsburgs.

    PubMed

    Józsa, László G

    2008-03-01

    This study describes the histological alterations of the internal organs of Prince Joseph Habsburg (1776-1847) and his first wife, Alexandra Pavlovna Romanova (1783-1801). Both corpses were mummified and the internal organs were stored separately in rosemary oil, in metal vessels. Royal Prince Joseph Habsburg died on 13 January 1847. The microscopic study confirms focal subacute glomerulonephritis (type Berg) with IgA precipitate on the glomerular mesangium and Bowmann's capsule. To the best of this author's knowledge, this is the first case in the paleopathological literature in which the subacute IgA glomerulonephritis could be confirmed immunohistochemically. Gout (urate nephropathy), severe arteriosclerosis, prostate adenoma and purulent prostatitis could also be diagnosed. The Prince's first wife, Alexandra Pavlovna Romanova, died in childbirth at age 18 years, along with her newborn daughter. Histological examination of Alexandra's organs revealed severe fibrocaseous and miliary tuberculosis, with dissemination to the lymph nodes, liver and spleen. PMID:18831390

  20. Osgood Schlatter lesion: histologic features of slipped anterior tibial tubercle.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, F; Giordano, M; Aulisa, A G; Poggiaroni, A; Guzzanti, V

    2011-01-01

    No study reports the histological features of the various zone of the anterior tubercle of the tibia in the different stages of the Osgood-Schlatter (O-S) lesion. For this reason we carried on an histological study. Specimens were taken from 13 patients with O-S lesion prior to surgery. In 4 cases in the apophyseal stage lesions were present in an altered fibrocartilage anterior to the ossification centre. In 9 cases in the epiphyseal stage varying degrees of reparative tissues were observed in the bed of the fragment of the secondary ossification centre. In 3 of them a zone of lesion was observed within the fibrocartilage anterior to the ossification centre. These results suggest that the slippage of the patellar tendon insertion may be progressive and caused by pathological fibrocartilage. PMID:21669134

  1. Remote histology learning from static versus dynamic microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Histology is the study of microscopic structures in normal tissue sections. Curriculum redesign in medicine has led to a decrease in the use of optical microscopes during practical classes. Other imaging solutions have been implemented to facilitate remote learning. With advancements in imaging technologies, learning material can now be digitized. Digitized microscopy images can be presented in either a static or dynamic format. This study of remote histology education identifies whether dynamic pictures are superior to static images for the acquisition of histological knowledge. Test results of two cohorts of second-year Bachelor in Medicine students at Ghent University were analyzed in two consecutive academic years: Cohort 1 (n = 190) and Cohort 2 (n = 174). Students in Cohort 1 worked with static images whereas students in Cohort 2 were presented with dynamic images. ANCOVA was applied to study differences in microscopy performance scores between the two cohorts, taking into account any possible initial differences in prior knowledge. The results show that practical histology scores are significantly higher with dynamic images as compared to static images (F (1,361) = 15.14, P < 0.01), regardless of student's gender and performance level. Several reasons for this finding can be explained in accordance with cognitivist learning theory. Since the findings suggest that knowledge construction with dynamic pictures is stronger as compared to static images, dynamic images should be introduced in a remote setting for microscopy education. Further implementation within a larger electronic learning management system needs to be explored in future research. Anat Sci Educ 9: 222-230. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26441000

  2. Histological effects of calcium chloride in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature apples, Malus domestica Borkh., cv. 'Golden Delicious' were immersed for 2 min in 0, 0.14, 0.27, or 0.41 mol L-1 (0, 2%, 4%, or 6%, respectively) aqueous solutions (w/v) of CaCl2 at 0 or 68.95 Kpa, and stored at 0°C. Histological samples of peel/cortex were taken at harvest and at four month...

  3. Clinical, radiological, histological, and molecular characteristics of paediatric epithelioid glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Broniscer, Alberto; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Sabin, Noah D.; Klimo, Paul; Dalton, James; Lee, Ryan; Gajjar, Amar; Ellison, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims A few case series in adults have described the characteristics of epithelioid glioblastoma (e-GB), one of the rarest variants of this cancer. We evaluated clinical, radiological, histological, and molecular characteristics in the largest series to date of paediatric e-GB. Methods Review of clinical characteristics and therapy, imaging studies, and histology was performed in patients younger than 22 years with e-GB seen at our institution over 15 years. Sequencing of hotspot mutations and FISH of relevant genes were undertaken. Results Median age at diagnosis of six patients was 7.6 years. Tumours originated in the cerebral cortex (n=2) or diencephalon (n=4). Three patients presented with acute, massive haemorrhage and three had leptomeningeal dissemination at diagnosis. Paediatric e-GB had the typical histological characteristics seen in adult tumours. Universal immunoreactivity for INI1 and lack of diverse protein expression were seen in all cases. One tumour had a chromosome 22q loss. Three tumours (50%) harboured a BRAF: p.V600E. One thalamic tumour had an H3F3A p.K27M. All patients received radiation therapy with (n=3) or without chemotherapy (n=3). All patients experienced tumour progression with a median survival of 169 days. One patient with non-metastatic disease had early leptomeningeal progression. Two patients had symptomatic tumour spread outside the central nervous system (CNS) through a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. One additional patient had widespread metastases outside the CNS identified at autopsy. Conclusions Paediatric e-GBs are rare cancers with an aggressive behaviour that share histological and genetic characteristics with their adult counterparts. BRAF inhibition is a potential treatment for these tumours. PMID:24127995

  4. Histologic and temperature alterations induced by skin refrigerants.

    PubMed

    Dzubow, L M

    1985-05-01

    The histologic alterations induced by spray refrigerants independent of and in combination with dermabrasion were studied with the use of the domestic pig as a model. Tissue injury was found to be a function of spray duration and freeze intensity. Both preabrasion freezing and postabrasion refreezing could produce damage additive to that of mechanical planing. Skin surface and intradermal temperature variations during refrigeration were recorded. The possible implications of these findings as they pertain to clinical dermabrasion are discussed. PMID:4008684

  5. [Epidemiologic aspects of the histologic types of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Wilde, J; Matthäi, C; Wilde, J

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed in the county of Erfurt including all lung cancer patients of the years 1963, 1968, and 1972 to 1977, together 2,585 males and 358 females. The following results were found: 1. The incidence of lung cancer increased significantly from 1963 to 1977. 2. About 60% of all lung cancer patients were younger than 70 years. 3. In male patients squamous cell carcinomas prevailed with 44.8%. Small cell cancers came up to 34.6% and adenocarcinomas to 10.1%. Large cell cancers reached 10.5%. These types in female patients had a proportion to each other like 26.9%: 30.8%: 30.4%: 11.9%. The proportion of adenocarcinomas increased significantly during 1963 to 1977. 4. We found a non significant age relation of histological types. The adenocarcinoma and the small cell cancers dropped with rising age. 5. The classification of histological types and the conditions of detection of lung cancers did not change in the study interval. Therefore the altering of patterns of histological types, especially the increase of adenocarcinomas was attached to the beginning of cigarette smoking in younger ages and the increasing proportion of filter tipped brands as well to a variation of exposition against professional cancerogens. 6. Patients with adenocarcinomas have the highest survival rate after 5 years: 8.1%. Squamous cell lung cancer patients have a 5 year survival rate of 6.8%. Patients with small cell cancers and large cell cancers ranged at 2.7% or 2.6%. 7. Peripheral tumors of each histological type will be detected earlier by fluorographic screening than central carcinomas. Therefore the 5 year survival rates of peripheral cancers always are more favourable than that of central cancers. 8. For the problems in exact typing and staging we propose an internationally adjusted definition of tumor localization as a third parameter for prognosis. PMID:2171236

  6. Renal histology in diabetic nephropathy: A novel perspective.

    PubMed

    Sahay, M; Mahankali, R K; Ismal, K; Vali, P S; Sahay, R K; Swarnalata, G

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease all over the world. India has a high incidence and prevalence of diabetes and >30% have nephropathy. Recently, a histological classification has been proposed. This study analyzed the renal histology in 114 diabetic patients with renal dysfunction. Nearly 75% of patients had DN. Fifty five (63.95%) were males. Mean duration of diabetes was 7.04 ± 4.9 years. Mean serum creatinine in study group was 5.2 ± 2.9 mg/dl, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 23.43 ± 21.48 ml/min/1.732 m(2). Forty eight patients (55.81%) had diabetic retinopathy (DR); prevalence of DR was more in patients who had diabetes for > 10 years than patients who had diabetes for <6 years (P = 0.022). The most common histological class was Class IV observed in 37 (43.02. %) cases, Class III DN in 24 (27.90%) cases, Class IIa and Class IIb in 11 (12.79%) cases each and Class I DN in 3 (3.48%) cases. Higher histological class was associated with higher proteinuria, lower glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.001) and was more likely to be associated with retinopathy (P = 0.012) and hypertension (P = 0.0003) but did not correlate with duration of diabetes (P = 0.85). There was a poor correlation between retinopathy and DN. Biopsy helps to stage the renal lesions in diabetics with renal dysfunction. PMID:25097335

  7. Frequency of MED12 mutations in phyllodes tumors: Inverse correlation with histologic grade.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Nara; Bae, Go Eun; Kang, So Young; Choi, Mi Sun; Hwang, Hye Won; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Gong, Gyungyub; Lee, Hee Jin; Bae, Young Kyung; Lee, Ahwon; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2016-06-01

    Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare breast biphasic tumor with a potential risk of recurrence and metastasis. In this study, the frequency of MED12 mutations in 176 PTs (49 benign, 49 borderline, and 78 malignant) was determined and the prognostic effect of these mutations in malignant type PT was evaluated. Analysis of MED12 mutations was performed by Sanger sequencing targeting the hotspot mutation region (exon 2) of MED12. Immunohistochemistry was also applied for evaluation of MED12 protein expression on tissue microarray blocks for 133 PTs including 50 benign, 50 borderline, and 33 malignant cases. A notable difference in the frequency of MED12 mutations was found according to histologic grade (71.4% of benign PTs, 51% of borderline PTs, 26.9% of malignant PTs; P < 0.001). MED12 protein expression was not correlated with MED12 mutation status. Patients with malignant PTs that harbored MED12 mutations demonstrated improved disease-free survival (DFS) compared with those without MED12 mutation (P = 0.07). MED12 mutation was a common molecular alteration in PT and the frequency of MED12 mutation decreased with increasing histologic grade. In malignant PT, MED12 exon 2 mutations showed improved DFS but without significance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856273

  8. Histological preparation of developing vestibular otoconia for scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The unique nature of vestibular otoconia as calcium carbonate biominerals makes them particularly susceptible to chemical deformation during histological processing. We fixed and stored otoconia from all three otolith endorgans of embryonic, hatchling and adult Japanese quail in glutaraldehyde containing either phosphate or non-phosphate buffers for varying lengths of time and processed them for scanning electron microscopy. Otoconia from all age groups and otolith endorgans processed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) showed abnormal surface morphology when compared to acetone fixed controls. Otoconia processed in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate or HEPES buffered artificial endolymph (pH 7.4) showed normal morphology that was similar to controls. The degree of otoconial deformation was directly related to the time exposed to phosphate buffer. Short duration exposure produced particulate deformations while longer exposures resulted in fused otoconia that formed solid sheets. Otoconial surface deformation and fusing was independent of the glutaraldehyde component of the histological processing. These findings should help vestibular researchers to develop appropriate histological processing protocols in future studies of otoconia.

  9. Histology of the cricothyroid membrane: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Prithishkumar, Ivan James; Felicia, Christilda

    2014-01-01

    Puncture of the cricothyroid membrane is a component of several clinical procedures. Among the several complications are the immediate risk of bleeding, long-term risk of subglottic stenosis and hoarseness of voice. Presence of blood vessels in the cricothyroid membrane has also been implicated in the extra-laryngeal spread of laryngeal cancers. Though various authors have described the attachments of the cricothyroid membrane, very few have studied its histology. We studied the histology of the cricothyroid membrane using hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's trichrome and Verhoeff's special stain. The cricothyroid membrane was found to be continuous on its deeper aspect with the mucosa of the subglottic larynx and lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. The membrane was observed to be fibroelastic, containing equal proportions of collagen and elastic fibers and numerous fibroblast nuclei. Numerous blood vessels are seen traversing through the membrane, which probably connect intralaryngeal with other extralaryngeal vessels. These histological findings help to further understand the complications of cricothyroidotomy and spread of laryngeal cancer. PMID:24533406

  10. Histological/biological characterization of decellularized bovine jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Liu, Wei-Yong; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Jin, Zhen-Xiao

    2007-04-01

    Several deficiencies in currently available right ventricular valved conduits make them problematic for use in infants and children. A solution would be to develop a tissue-engineered valved conduit containing autologous cells. A method was devised to produce a decellularized bovine matrix scaffold for developing a tissue-engineered right ventricular valved conduit. Fresh bovine jugular veins were treated with sodium deoxycholate and Triton X-100. The major structural proteins of the fresh and decellularized jugular venous valves and vessel walls were detected by histological methods. Thickness, water absorption rate, water maintenance rate, disruption strength, and extensibility were determined. Circumferential and radial specimens of valves and vessel walls were subjected to tensile testing. Histological analysis showed that no cell fragments were retained within the decellularized matrix scaffold and the major structural proteins had been retained intact. There were no significant differences in thickness, rates of absorption and maintenance of water, disruption strength, and extensibility between the decellularized and fresh veins. It was concluded that this treatment can successfully remove cellular components while maintaining the major structural components and the histological and biological properties of bovine jugular veins. PMID:17387188

  11. The human sunburn reaction: histologic and biochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrest, B.A.; Soter, N.A.; Stoff, J.S.; Mihm, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet-induced erythema reaction was investigated histologically and biochemically in four subjects, utilizing suction blister aspirates, analyzed for histamine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and Epon-embedded 1-mu skin biopsy sections from control skin and from irradiated skin at intervals for 72 hours after exposure to a Hanovia lamp. Major histologic alterations in the epidermis included dyskeratotic and vacuolated keratinocytes (sunburn cells), and disappearance of Langerhans cells. In the dermis the major changes were vascular, involving both the superficial and deep venular plexuses. Endothelial cell enlargement was first apparent within 30 minutes of irradiation, peaked at 24 hours, and persisted throughout the 72-hour study period. Mast cell degranulation and associated perivenular edema were first apparent at 1 hour and striking at the onset of erythema, 3 to 4 hours postirradiation; edema was absent and mast cells were again normal in number and granule content at 24 hours. Histamine levels rose approximately fourfold above control values immediately after the onset of erythema and returned to baseline within 24 hours. PGE2 levels were statistically elevated even before the onset of erythema and reached approximately 150% of the control value at 24 hours. These data provide the first evidence that histamine may mediate the early phase of the human sunburn reaction and increase our understanding of its complex histologic and biochemical sequelae.

  12. An automatic nonrigid registration for stained histological sections.

    PubMed

    Auer, Martin; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2005-04-01

    Automatic computer-based analyses of histological sections which are differently stained require that they are related to each other. Most registration methods are only able to perform rigid-body motion and are sensitive to noise and artifacts. Histological images, however, are accompanied by several artifacts and different contrasts, which require a nonrigid registration. In this paper, we present a hierarchical nonrigid registration algorithm able to align images, which contain minor image artifacts. The algorithm requires no a priori knowledge of the true image. The hierarchical design of the algorithm enhances robustness and accuracy, and saves computational costs. The proposed algorithm is decomposed into a fast, coarse, rigid registration step and a slower, but finer, nonrigid step. For the coarse registration, we use image pyramids, while for the second step, we combine a point-based registration with an elastic thin-plate spline interpolation. Accuracy tests, performed for 20 histological images obtained from human arteries, have shown that the error measure is acceptable, and that the image noise does not cause a problem. The associated convergence rate of the mean pixel displacement error during the rigid and nonrigid registrations is satisfying. The algorithm can be applied to various multicontrast elastic registration problems in medical imaging and may be extended to three dimensions. PMID:15825482

  13. Histologic evaluation of fresh human ovarian tissue before cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Azem, Foad; Hasson, Joseph; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Kossoy, Nadia; Cohen, Tanya; Almog, Beni; Amit, Ami; Lessing, Joseph B; Lifschitz-Mercer, Batriz

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation of cryopreserved tissue from patients with cancer may carry the risk of reactivation or redissemination of micrometastases. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the potential involvement of micrometastases in ovarian tissue in cancer patients. Ovarian biopsies were collected from patients who underwent ovarian tissue cryopreservation, in our IVF unit before chemotherapy between 2000 and 2008. Indications for cryopreservation included breast cancer (n=13), osteosarcoma (n=13), hematologic malignancies (n=13), uterine cervix carcinoma (n=2), endometrial carcinoma (n=1), colon cancer (n=1), and brain medulloblastoma (n=1). The samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined histologically. Immunoperoxidase broad-spectrum cytokeratin staining was also performed on specimens from breast cancer patients. There were 44 patients (age range 5-40 yr) who yielded 40 specimens. No gross pathologic involvement was observed, and the histologic examination revealed normal histology with no evidence of metastases. Our findings showed that for the purpose of considering ovarian tissue cryopreservation in cancer patients, the likelihood of microscopic metastases within ovaries of normal appearance is apparently very low. Clarification of the actual risk of ovarian involvement and any subsequent risk of micrometastases and tumor reimplantation requires further investigation. PMID:19952943

  14. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Cantisani, Vito; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ignee, Andre; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) in comparison to other multilocular benign focal liver lesions (FLL). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HEHE and 45 patients with histologically proven multilocular benign FLL were retrospectively reviewed. Four radiologists assessed the CEUS enhancement pattern in consensus. RESULTS: HEHE manifested as a single (n = 3) or multinodular (n = 22) FLL. On CEUS, HEHE showed rim-like (18/25, 72%) or heterogeneous hyperenhancement (7/25, 28%) in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement (25/25, 100%) in the portal venous and late phases (PVLP), a sign of malignancy. Eighteen patients showed central unenhanced areas (18/25, 72%); in seven patients (7/25, 28%), more lesions were detected in the PVLP. In contrast, all patients with hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia showed hyperenhancement as the most distinctive feature (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CEUS allows for characterization of unequivocal FLL. By analyzing the hypoenhancement in the PVLP, CEUS can determine the malignant nature of HEHE. PMID:27217705

  15. Observer reliability in assessing placental maturity by histology.

    PubMed Central

    Khong, T Y; Staples, A; Bendon, R W; Chambers, H M; Gould, S J; Knowles, S; Shen-Schwarz, S

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the ability of five experienced perinatal pathologists to assess placental maturity reliably by histology. METHODS--Twenty four haematoxylin and eosin slides, six each from placentas of 27, 31, 35, and 39 weeks' gestation, were circulated to five pathologists on three separate occasions. The slides were labelled with the correct or incorrect gestational ages. RESULTS--The mean absolute error over all 360 readings was 2.72 weeks. Only 54% of the slides were assessed within two weeks of the correct gestation. Pathologist tended to overestimate younger gestations and underestimate older gestations. Two, and possibly three, pathologist were influenced by the gestational age state on the label. One pathologist, who did not appear to be influenced by the label, was more accurate in diagnosing gestation of the placentas than other colleagues. CONCLUSIONS--Experienced pathologists can have difficulty in assessing the villous maturity of placentas by histology. They can also be influenced by clinical information provided, such as gestational age. Other observer reliability studies must address the issue of the influence of labelled information on observer variation. A difference in maturation would have to be of a six week magnitude to have a chance of being detected by current methods. This may limit the value of the histological diagnosis of placental dysmaturity as a surrogate marker for uteroplacental ischaemia. PMID:7629287

  16. Identification of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Histological Samples by Enhanced Darkfield Microscopy and Hyperspectral Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Gary A.; Sosa Peña, Maria del Pilar; Neu-Baker, Nicole M.; Tahiliani, Sahil; Brenner, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are increasingly prevalent throughout industry, manufacturing, and biomedical research. The need for tools and techniques that aid in the identification, localization, and characterization of nanoscale materials in biological samples is on the rise. Currently available methods, such as electron microscopy, tend to be resource-intensive, making their use prohibitive for much of the research community. Enhanced darkfield microscopy complemented with a hyperspectral imaging system may provide a solution to this bottleneck by enabling rapid and less expensive characterization of nanoparticles in histological samples. This method allows for high-contrast nanoscale imaging as well as nanomaterial identification. For this technique, histological tissue samples are prepared as they would be for light-based microscopy. First, positive control samples are analyzed to generate the reference spectra that will enable the detection of a material of interest in the sample. Negative controls without the material of interest are also analyzed in order to improve specificity (reduce false positives). Samples can then be imaged and analyzed using methods and software for hyperspectral microscopy or matched against these reference spectra in order to provide maps of the location of materials of interest in a sample. The technique is particularly well-suited for materials with highly unique reflectance spectra, such as noble metals, but is also applicable to other materials, such as semi-metallic oxides. This technique provides information that is difficult to acquire from histological samples without the use of electron microscopy techniques, which may provide higher sensitivity and resolution, but are vastly more resource-intensive and time-consuming than light microscopy. PMID:26709947

  17. Identification of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Histological Samples by Enhanced Darkfield Microscopy and Hyperspectral Mapping.

    PubMed

    Roth, Gary A; Sosa Peña, Maria del Pilar; Neu-Baker, Nicole M; Tahiliani, Sahil; Brenner, Sara A

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are increasingly prevalent throughout industry, manufacturing, and biomedical research. The need for tools and techniques that aid in the identification, localization, and characterization of nanoscale materials in biological samples is on the rise. Currently available methods, such as electron microscopy, tend to be resource-intensive, making their use prohibitive for much of the research community. Enhanced darkfield microscopy complemented with a hyperspectral imaging system may provide a solution to this bottleneck by enabling rapid and less expensive characterization of nanoparticles in histological samples. This method allows for high-contrast nanoscale imaging as well as nanomaterial identification. For this technique, histological tissue samples are prepared as they would be for light-based microscopy. First, positive control samples are analyzed to generate the reference spectra that will enable the detection of a material of interest in the sample. Negative controls without the material of interest are also analyzed in order to improve specificity (reduce false positives). Samples can then be imaged and analyzed using methods and software for hyperspectral microscopy or matched against these reference spectra in order to provide maps of the location of materials of interest in a sample. The technique is particularly well-suited for materials with highly unique reflectance spectra, such as noble metals, but is also applicable to other materials, such as semi-metallic oxides. This technique provides information that is difficult to acquire from histological samples without the use of electron microscopy techniques, which may provide higher sensitivity and resolution, but are vastly more resource-intensive and time-consuming than light microscopy. PMID:26709947

  18. Non-ablative radio-frequency rejuvenation: a histological and bio-molecular report.

    PubMed

    Avantaggiato, A; Andreasi Bassi, M; Cura, F; Pascali, M; Carinci, F

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency machines for medical use are known to produce moderate clinical improvement of skin laxity without invasive procedures. Numerous equipment with different characteristics have been proposed after the introduction in 2002 of the first FDA approved device. This report is aimed to test if RF treatment is effective when performed at low frequency and low energy level. Two RF treatments were performed unilaterally 7 and 2 days before a planned eyebrow lifting surgery, with a radiofrequency device with 0.52 to 0.7 MHz frequencies, maximum energy of 200 W, used at 40% of its power. A bipolar handpiece with a diameter of 30 mm and a maximum power of 9-9.5 W was massaged along the temporal area for 10 min. Skin samples of treated and untreated sides were collected during surgery and processed for histologic examination and RT-PCR analysis, to test differences in gene activation in a panel of proteins that are relevant in extracellular matrix of dermal connective tissue. The histological examination of the samples showed that the treatment induced a loss of the typical oriented structure in the reticular dermis. The study through RT-PCR evidenced that ELN, the gene codifying for Elastine was strongly enhanced. Some collagen-tested genes (COL1A1, COL3A1 and COL9A1) were inhibited by the treatment, whereas COL2A1 and COL11 were activated. The genes responsible for Metallo-proteases (MMP) 2, 3 and 13 were depressed, while the MMP9 was stimulated. Gene codifying for Hyaluronic synthase 1 (HAS1), Hyluronidase 1 (HYAL1), Neutrophyl elastase (Elane), Desmoplakin (DSP) and GDF6 were inhibited. Insulin like growth factor (IGF1) gene activity was enhanced. RF treatment, with the tested non-ablative equipment, produced histological effects and change in DNA expression of some extracellular matrix related genes, confirming the biostimulatory role of this procedure. PMID:27469572

  19. Histological characteristics of collagen denaturation and injuries in bipolar radiofrequency-induced colonic anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingxi; Zhuo, Changhua; Song, Chengli; Li, Xinxiang; Zhou, Yu; Shi, Debing

    2015-03-01

    Bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermo-fusion has been explored as an advanced surgical method for intestinal anastomoses; however, the histological characteristics of collagen denaturation and injuries arising from this process remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the microcosmic changes and tissue damage of fusion regions with various parameters of injury. Ex vivo colons of pigs were fused serosa-serosa on two carrier rings, which were installed on a homemade anastomotic device. Five levels of compressive pressure from 171 to 313 kPa were applied for 5s to fuse the colons under radiofrequency power of 160 W, and then the collagen denaturation of the fused region was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Light microscopy was utilized to observe histological slices that were stained with picrosirius red in order to visualize the tissue injuries under two levels of radiofrequency power (120 vs. 140 W) and operation time (5 vs. 10s). Transmission electron micrographs showed that increased compressive pressure led to thicker denatured collagen fibrils and wider gaps between each collagen fibril. Serosa adhesion regions appeared abundant in collagen. No histological differences were observed when 120 W of power was applied for 5 and 10s. Significant muscle cracking occurred when colons were fused using 140 W for 5s. When the operation time was extended to 10s, 140 W led to tight fusion and less splitting on muscles. These results suggest that higher compressive pressure results in more severe collagen unfolding and also reduces collagen crosslinking in fused colons. Improved radiofrequency power along with operation time could avoid tissue injury upon radiofrequency-induced colonic anastomoses. PMID:25434604

  20. The development of a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial histological sections for E-learning environments.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jeremy A; Wilson, Timothy D; Sandig, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a core subject in the anatomical sciences where learners are challenged to interpret two-dimensional (2D) information (gained from histological sections) to extrapolate and understand the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of cells, tissues, and organs. In gross anatomical education 3D models and learning tools have been associated with improved learning outcomes, but similar tools have not been created for histology education to visualize complex cellular structure-function relationships. This study outlines steps in creating a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial, semi-thin, histological sections obtained from epoxy resin-embedded kidney tissue. The virtual renal corpuscle model was generated by digital segmentation to identify: Bowman's capsule, nuclei of epithelial cells in the parietal capsule, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, glomerular capillaries, podocyte nuclei, nuclei of extraglomerular mesangial cells, nuclei of epithelial cells of the macula densa in the distal convoluted tubule. In addition to the imported images of the original sections the software generates, and allows for visualization of, images of virtual sections generated in any desired orientation, thus serving as a "virtual microtome". These sections can be viewed separately or with the 3D model in transparency. This approach allows for the development of interactive e-learning tools designed to enhance histology education of microscopic structures with complex cellular interrelationships. Future studies will focus on testing the efficacy of interactive virtual 3D models for histology education. PMID:25808044

  1. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern University. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained through formative research methodology. Findings indicate that CAI should be used as complimentary to traditional histology instruction.

  2. Design Principles for Computer-assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained through formative research methodology. Findings indicate that computer-assisted instruction should be used as complimentary to traditional histology instruction.

  3. Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Volker; Rollins, Andrew M.; Willis, Joseph; Sivak, Michael J., Jr.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2000-04-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique that allows high-resolution cross- sectional imaging of tissue microstructure. We have recently developed a system for endoscopic OCT (EOCT) to examine the gastrointestinal tract of humans in vivo. Compared to endoscopic ultrasonic devices it offers a higher resolution and does not require coupling gels or fluids. EOCT may lead to a versatile tool for biopsy site selection or optical biopsy itself. The EOCT unit is comprised of an interferometer unit with a high speed scanning reference arm and an endoscopically compatible radially scanning probe as the sample arm. Fast data acquisition allows real-time display. Temporal averaging for speckle reduction and a transformation to correct nonlinear scanning were included in the EOCT control software, both in real-time. During in vivo clinical trials, we have observe the structure of the mucosa and submucosa in several gastrointestinal organs as well as glands, blood vessels, pits, villi and crypts. The purpose of this study was to correlate images acquired in vitro with EOCT to corresponding histological sections. EOCT images were obtained on fresh specimens, which were then fixed in formalin and submitted for standard histology. Tissues examined were normal specimens, which were then fixed in formalin and submitted for standard histology. Tissues examined were normal specimens of stomach, ileum, colon and rectum. It was shown that he thickness of the mucosa correlates well with the first bright layer in EOCT. The R2-value was determined to be 0.69. The submucosa and the muscularis propria could be identified. Furthermore, we were able to show the effect of pressure on the tissue on the visible details in the EOCT images.

  4. SOX10 expression distinguishes desmoplastic melanoma from its histologic mimics.

    PubMed

    Palla, Beth; Su, Albert; Binder, Scott; Dry, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) presents diagnostic challenges due to histologic mimics and limited immunohistochemical staining. Although S100 usually stains DM, other melanoma markers (HMB-45 and Melan-A) are often negative. Dermal/subcutaneous mimics of DM [spindle cell/poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), and sarcoma] show negative or unreliable immunohistochemical staining. Recently, SOX10 expression has been shown to be a sensitive and specific marker of DM. However, there are no published studies comparing the sensitivity and specificity of SOX10 for DM compared with its most common histologic mimics of the dermis/subcutis. We examined 76 cases, including DM (n = 15), spindle cell/poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 18), AFX (n = 13), sarcoma with spindled morphology (n = 20), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) (n = 10). Most (75%, 15/20) of sarcomas were centered in the dermis/subcutis and included sarcoma not otherwise specified, DFSP with sarcomatous transformation and myxofibrosarcoma. SOX10 was diffusely positive in 100% (15/15) of DMs and showed focal staining in 30% (3/10) of MPNSTs. All other tumors were negative for SOX10 [0% (0/18) of carcinomas, 0% (0/13) of AFXs, 0% (0/20) of sarcomas]. In conclusion, SOX10 is a highly useful marker to confirm the diagnosis of DM. In our study, SOX10 showed 100% sensitivity for DM and SOX10 was negative in all histologic mimics of the dermis/subcutis, including spindle cell carcinoma, AFX and sarcomas. Similar to S-100 protein, some MPNSTs show scattered positivity but did not show diffuse positivity seen in DM. PMID:23291581

  5. Evaluation of virtual microscopy in medical histology teaching.

    PubMed

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication technologies in the study of digital microscopic images. A virtual microscopy program was recently introduced at Ghent University. Since little empirical evidence is available concerning the impact of virtual microscopy (VM) versus optical microscopy (OM) on the acquisition of histology knowledge, this study was set up in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. A pretest-post test and cross-over design was adopted. In the first phase, the experiment yielded two groups in a total population of 199 students, Group 1 performing the practical sessions with OM versus Group 2 performing the same sessions with VM. In the second phase, the research subjects switched conditions. The prior knowledge level of all research subjects was assessed with a pretest. Knowledge acquisition was measured with a post test after each phase (T1 and T2). Analysis of covariance was carried out to study the differential gain in knowledge at T1 and T2, considering the possible differences in prior knowledge at the start of the study. The results pointed to non-significant differences at T1 and at T2. This supports the assumption that the acquisition of the histology knowledge is independent of the microscopy representation mode (VM versus OM) of the learning material. The conclusion that VM is equivalent to OM offers new directions in view of ongoing innovations in medical education technology. PMID:23463716

  6. High definition i-SCAN endoscopy with water immersion technique accurately reflects histological severity of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Iacucci, Marietta; Poon, Tiffany; Gui, X. Sean; Subrata, Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Severe villous atrophy can be revealed with conventional white light endoscopy (WLE), however, milder grades or patchy villous atrophy are more difficult to detect. Novel endoscopic techniques such as high definition i-SCAN endoscopy with the water immersion technique (i-SCAN-HDWI) may provide the ability to visualize duodenal villi more accurately. We aimed to determine the performance of i-SCAN-HDWI in evaluating the severity of histological damage in the duodenum of patients with celiac disease. Patients and methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed in a single tertiary academic endoscopic center. We studied 58 patients (46 women; median age 36.5 years, range 18 – 72 years) with positive anti-TTG IgA antibody. The villous pattern of the second part of the duodenum was assessed by WLE and i-SCAN-HDWI. The endoscopic grades in both techniques were correlated using Marsh histologic grades by Spearman correlation coefficient. The diagnostic accuracy of i-SCAN-HDWI for detection of patchy or complete atrophy of the villi was evaluated. Results: A significant correlation was demonstrated between endoscopic grade using i-SCAN-HDWI and Marsh histologic grade (r = 0.732; P < 0.00001). The correlation between WLE grade and Marsh histologic grade was inferior to i-SCAN-HDWI (r = 0.31; P = 0.01). The sensitivity of i-SCAN-HDWI was 96 % (95 %CI: 85 – 99 %) and the specificity was 63 % (95 %CI: 26 – 90 %) in diagnosing abnormal biopsy consistent with celiac disease. Conclusion: i-SCAN-HDWI endoscopy can reflect the histological severity of celiac disease more accurately than conventional WLE alone. This novel endoscopic imaging can improve the diagnostic yield of duodenal biopsies in celiac patients, especially for those with a patchy distribution of villous damage. PMID:27227112

  7. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained…

  8. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    PubMed

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component. PMID:24706527

  9. Basic histological structure and functions of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Arda, Oktay; Göksügür, Nadir; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2014-01-01

    The skin and its appendages that derive from the epidermis (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails, and mammary glands) establish the integumentary system. Histologically, skin has two main layers-the epidermis and the dermis-with a subcutaneous fascia called the hypodermis, which lies deep in the dermis. The epidermis is formed of four to five layers of cells made mostly out of keratinocytes, along with three other different and less abundant cells. The dermis underlies the epidermis. The hypodermis is a looser connective tissue that is located beneath the dermis. It blends to the dermis with an unclear boundary. PMID:24314373

  10. Newer applications of the histological stain prepared from Pterocarpus santalinus.

    PubMed

    Sen Gupta, P C; Mukherjee, A K

    1981-03-01

    A histological stain prepared from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. has been found to be an excellent nuclear stain for various cells of animal and plant origin. As an elastic tissue stain, the results are comparable to standard elastic tissue stains. The striations of voluntary muscle fibers are well shown. The Nissl granules and fibers of cranial nerves in the pons are visualized. When counterstained with light green, it differentially stains muscle and fibrous tissue. The stain can be used as counterstain with certain histochemical procedures with satisfactory results. The preparation and use of this versatile stain are described. PMID:6166099