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Sample records for baixo sul da

  1. Uranium and thorium series disequilibrium in quaternary carbonate deposits from the Serra da Bodoquena and Pantanal do Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul State, central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, F B; Roque, A; Boggiani, P C; Flexor, J M

    2001-01-01

    Activities of gamma-ray emitting members of the uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) series were measured in a quaternary limestone deposit that outcrops in the southeastern Pantanal Matogrossense Basin and in quaternary tufas deposited at the drainage of the Serra da Bodoquena. It is a first step in a study of the mobilization of uranium and thorium series and its relation to surface hydrology, in a region where carbonate deposits are being continuously dissolved and reprecipitated. The obtained results show that all these deposits are characterized by very low concentrations of uranium and thorium. The 238U/226Ra and 228Th/228Ra activity ratios are significantly different than 1.0, indicating that both series are in radioactive disequilibrium. Although the Serra da Bodoquena deposits seem to be very recent, their very fine granulation and high porosity suggest that they behave as open systems for geochemical exchanges of uranium and thorium series members. The Pantanal do Miranda limestone has a radiocarbon age of 3900 yr BP. Since the thorium series is in disequilibrium it is also concluded that this deposit behaves as an open system for geochemical exchanges. PMID:11144246

  2. Conversations with Marcgrave: the Origin of Modern Astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere (Spanish Title: Conversando con Marcgrave: El Origen de la Astronomía Moderna en el Hemisferio Sur) Conversando Com Marcgrave: a Origem da Moderna Astronomia no Hemisfério Sul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Alexandre; Araújo, Fábio

    2005-12-01

    primer observatorio astronómico del hemisferio y autor de las primeras observaciones astronómicas sistemáticas utilizando telescopios de este lado del mundo. Nuestra "conversación" con Marcgrave es imaginada en el marco del Recife antiguo, lugar donde él vivió durante el período de Mauricio de Nassau, y reune algunos colegas profesores apasionados por la enseñanza de la Astronomía. La historia es contada, de esta forma, dentro de un clima ameno y hasta un poco divertido, si bien las informaciones históricas y conceptuales contenidas en ella están basadas en fuentes bibliográficas confiables, debidamente referenciadas al final del texto. Estas fuentes van desde la obra original de este científico, en la cual aparece su relato sobre la observación de un eclipse solar en Recife, pasando por obras clásicas respecto de él mismo, como la del profesor Juliano Moreira, hasta fuentes mucho más recientes como el influyente trabajo del profesor John North. Otros textos importantes referidos al período de la colonización holandesa en el Brasil, tales como las obras clásicas de Charles Boxer, Bouman y Boogaart entre otros, son también utilizados en la construcción de esta dramatización pedagógica que se refiere a un interesante capítulo de la Historia de la Astronomía. O ano de 2004 assinala os 400 anos do nascimento do conde Maurício de Nassau, um importante personagem da história do Brasil. O presente texto está relacionado com o período do domínio holandês em Pernambuco. O artigo tenta resgatar o começo do estudo da Astronomia no hemisfério Sul. Para tal, idealizamos uma dramatização de uma entrevista fictícia com o astrônomo alemão Georg Marcgrave, construtor do primeiro observatório astronômico deste hemisfério e autor das primeiras observações astronômicas sistemáticas com o uso de telescópios neste lado do mundo. Nossa "conversa" com Marcgrave é idealizada no cenário do Recife antigo, local em que ele viveu no período de Maur

  3. Nitrogen and phosphorus discharge of animal origin in the Baixo Vouga: a spatial data analysis.

    PubMed

    Clemêncio, C; Viegas, M; Nadais, H

    2014-08-15

    The livestock production is a strategic and crucial activity for it fixes populations in rural areas, contributing to its conservation, and most importantly because it ensures food production. By producing meat, milk or eggs, this sector contributes to national food self-sufficiency. However, intensive livestock farming activities carry a strong pollution load on the environment, particularly through the emission of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and greenhouse gases (GHG). The Baixo Vouga region in Portugal due to its climatic conditions and soil characteristics holds a high number of livestock production units mainly cattle, poultry and swine. Thus such an activity contributes to a significant portion of the wealth created in this region. This high potential has collided with the existence of environmentally sensitive areas, many of which are protected by European environmental regulations. This work studies the geographical distribution of livestock population of cattle, poultry and swine in the Baixo Vouga region and quantifies its impacts on the environment by calculating the excretion loads of N and P of these species. In the cattle and poultry sectors two clusters or agglomerations are identified, the first in the northern region and the second in the inland region. Moreover, the cattle farming cluster overlaps on vulnerable zones requiring specific monitoring on effluent treatment issues. PMID:24929363

  4. Regulation of SulA cleavage by Lon protease by the C-terminal amino acid of SulA, histidine.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Y; Amano, F

    2001-09-01

    SulA protein, a cell division inhibitor in Escherichia coli, is degraded by Lon protease. The C-terminal eight residues of SulA have been shown to be recognized by Lon; however, it remains to be elucidated which amino acid in the C-terminus of SulA is critical for the recognition of SulA by Lon. To clarify this point, we constructed mutants of SulA with changes in the C-terminal residues, and examined the accumulation and stability of the resulting mutant SulA proteins in vivo. Substitution of the extreme C-terminal histidine residue with another amino acid led to marked accumulation and high stability of SulA in lon(+) cells. A SulA mutant in which the C-terminal eight residues were deleted (SulAC161) showed high accumulation and stability, but the addition of histidine to the C-terminus of SulAC161 (SulAC161+H) made it labile. Similarly, SulAC161+H fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP-SulAC161+H) formed a tight complex with and was degraded rapidly by Lon in vitro. Histidine competitively inhibited the degradation of MBP-SulA by Lon, while other amino acids did not. These results suggest that the histidine residue at the extreme C-terminus of SulA is recognized specifically by Lon, leading to a high-affinity interaction between SulA and Lon. PMID:11513747

  5. [Screening for hemoglobinopathies in blood donors from Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: prevalence in an Italian colony].

    PubMed

    Lisot, Cristina Lucia Alberti; Silla, Lúcia Mariano da Rocha

    2004-01-01

    The high prevalence of beta thalassemia among Italians and their participation in the ethnic formation of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and neighboring cities prompted us to investigate hemoglobinopathies in 608 blood donors at the Caxias do Sul Regional Blood Center. Despite the ethnic influence, abnormal hemoglobin levels were found in only 1.81% of the donors (0.16% Hb AC, 0.99% Hb AS, and 0.66% Hb AH), similar to the levels observed in a study on qualitative disorders conducted in the rural area of Rio Grande do Sul. In our setting, the most commonly used screening tests for thalassemia, combined with DNA sequencing, were unable to detect quantitative hemoglobin synthesis disorders. This may be attributable to still-unknown genetic disorders, technical limitations, or simply to miscegenation. PMID:15608861

  6. Distribution of Class 1 Integrons, sul1 and sul2 Genes Among Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Parvinder; Gautam, Vikas; Tewari, Rupinder

    2015-08-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen responsible for serious human infections. This study was carried out to determine antibiotic susceptibility, resistance mechanisms (integrons, sul1 and sul2), and genetic relatedness (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus [ERIC]-PCR) among 106 clinical isolates of S. maltophilia from India. Twenty-four (22.6%) of S. maltophilia isolates exhibited resistance to mainstay antibiotic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Except for 2 isolates which contained both TMP-SMX resistance determinants sul1 and sul2 genes, all other 22 TMP-SMX-resistant isolates carried either sul1 (10 isolates) or sul2 (12 isolates) genes. Class 1 integrons were present in 8.5% (9 out of 106) of S. maltophilia isolates, and only 5 out of these isolates were TMP-SMX resistant and positive for sul1 gene. The same isolates also carried resistance cassettes containing qac/smr gene. Minocycline and levofloxacin exhibited the maximum in vitro activity against S. maltophilia. ERIC-PCR revealed high diversity among S. maltophilia isolates. The present study demonstrated high (22.4%) TMP-SMX resistance in clinical isolates of S. maltophilia from India. TMP-SMX-resistant isolates carried relatively higher percentage of sul2 gene than sul1 gene as against the reported literature. Majority (58.3%) of sul1 gene positive were not associated with class 1 integrase gene. PMID:25781206

  7. [Job satisfaction among the professionals of AceS Baixo Vouga II].

    PubMed

    Santana, Silvina; Cerdeira, José

    2011-12-01

    Job satisfaction is a measure of quality of life at work and is related to emotional states. The interest for this theme is increasing and, in the last years, many studies have attempted to demonstrate its relation with professional performance. Primary care professionals are in the first line of the Serviço Nacional de Saúde (SNS). Therefore, it is necessary that they feel satisfaction with their jobs, in order to perform the tasks with the quality required. Several factors seem to have impact in the satisfaction of these professionals, such as payment, promotion, recognition from supervisors and peers, physical conditions at work and available resources, opportunities for personal development, among others. Insatisfaction may lead to absentism and in the limit to job quit. The main objective of this work is to study job satisfaction among the professionals working at the health centers of ACeS Baixo Vouga II, namely, the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between job characteristics and considering job quit as a serious option. All the professionals working in the four health centers were inquired. Results show that job characteristics are defined by six dimensions: leadership and supervision, task characteristics and autonomy, payment, personal and professional development and promotion, peers and relations inside the organization and work environment. Globally, payment and opportunities for personal and professional development and promotion are perceived at low level by all the professional groups. Results also show that there are differences by gender and professional groups regarding job satisfaction and the will to quit job. Considering the specificity of the tasks performed by these professionals, measures should be taken in order to improve job satisfaction in the Portuguese health centers. PMID:22849951

  8. The sul1 gene in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with high-level resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hae-Sun; Kim, Kyeongmi; Hong, Sang Sook; Hong, Seong Geun; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-03-01

    Emerging resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) poses a serious threat to the treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections. We determined the prevalence and molecular characteristics of acquired SXT resistance in recent clinical S. maltophilia isolates obtained from Korea. A total of 252 clinical isolates of S. maltophilia were collected from 10 university hospitals in Korea between 2009 and 2010. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by using the CLSI agar dilution method. The sul1, sul2, and sul3 genes, integrons, insertion sequence common region (ISCR) elements, and dfrA genes were detected using PCR. The presence of the sul1 gene and integrons was confirmed through sequence analysis. Among the 32 SXT-resistant isolates, sul1 was detected in 23 isolates (72%), all of which demonstrated high-level resistance (≥64 mg/L) to SXT. The sul1 gene (varying in size and structure) was linked to class 1 integrons in 15 of the 23 isolates (65%) harboring this gene. None of the SXT-susceptible isolates or the SXT-resistant isolates with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 4 and 8 mg/L were positive for sul1. Moreover, the sul2, sul3, and dfrA genes or the ISCR elements were not detected. The sul1 gene may play an important role in the high-level SXT resistance observed in S. maltophilia. PMID:25729729

  9. Comprehensive Analysis of the SUL1 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rich, Matthew S; Payen, Celia; Rubin, Alan F; Ong, Giang T; Sanchez, Monica R; Yachie, Nozomu; Dunham, Maitreya J; Fields, Stanley

    2016-05-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, beneficial mutations selected during sulfate-limited growth are typically amplifications of the SUL1 gene, which encodes the high-affinity sulfate transporter, resulting in fitness increases of >35% . Cis-regulatory mutations have not been observed at this locus; however, it is not clear whether this absence is due to a low mutation rate such that these mutations do not arise, or they arise but have limited fitness effects relative to those of amplification. To address this question directly, we assayed the fitness effects of nearly all possible point mutations in a 493-base segment of the gene's promoter through mutagenesis and selection. While most mutations were either neutral or detrimental during sulfate-limited growth, eight mutations increased fitness >5% and as much as 9.4%. Combinations of these beneficial mutations increased fitness only up to 11%. Thus, in the case of SUL1, promoter mutations could not induce a fitness increase similar to that of gene amplification. Using these data, we identified functionally important regions of the SUL1 promoter and analyzed three sites that correspond to potential binding sites for the transcription factors Met32 and Cbf1 Mutations that create new Met32- or Cbf1-binding sites also increased fitness. Some mutations in the untranslated region of the SUL1 transcript decreased fitness, likely due to the formation of inhibitory upstream open reading frames. Our methodology-saturation mutagenesis, chemostat selection, and DNA sequencing to track variants-should be a broadly applicable approach. PMID:26936925

  10. 40 CFR 721.625 - Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name). 721.625 Section 721.625 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.625 Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name). (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.625 - Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name). 721.625 Section 721.625 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.625 Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name). (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.625 - Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name). 721.625 Section 721.625 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.625 Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name). (a)...

  13. Female homicide in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leites, Gabriela Tomedi; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Hirakata, Vania Noemi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using this as a "proxy" of femicide. This was an ecological study which correlated the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, according to the 35 microregions defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), with socioeconomic and demographic variables access and health indicators. Pearson's correlation test was performed with the selected variables. After this, multiple linear regressions were performed with variables with p < 0.20. The standardized average of female homicide rate due to aggression in the period from 2003 to 2007 was 3.1 obits per 100 thousand. After multiple regression analysis, the final model included male mortality due to aggression (p = 0.016), the percentage of hospital admissions for alcohol (p = 0.005) and the proportion of ill-defined deaths (p = 0.015). The model have an explanatory power of 39% (adjusted r2 = 0.391). The results are consistent with other studies and indicate a strong relationship between structural violence in society and violence against women, in addition to a higher incidence of female deaths in places with high alcohol hospitalization. PMID:25272258

  14. Global Emergence of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Mediated by Acquisition of sul Genes

    PubMed Central

    Toleman, Mark A.; Bennett, Peter M.; Bennett, David M.C.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2007-01-01

    Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) resistance remains a serious threat in the treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections. We analyzed an international collection of 55 S. maltophilia TMP/SMX-sensitive (S) (n = 30) and -resistant (R) (n = 25) strains for integrons; sul1, sul2 and dhfr genes; and insertion element common region (ISCR) elements. sul1, as part of a class 1 integron, was detected in 17 of 25 TMP/SMX-R. Nine TMP/SMX-R strains carried sul2; 7 were on large plasmids. Five TMP/SMX-R isolates were positive for ISCR2, and 4 were linked to sul2; 2 others possessed ISCR3. Two ISCR2s were adjacent to floR. Six TMP/SMX-S isolates harbored novel ISCR elements, ISCR9 and ISCR10. Linkage of ISCR3, ISCR9, and ISCR10 to sul2 and dhfr genes was not demonstrated. The data from this study indicate that class 1 integrons and ISCR elements linked to sul2 genes can mediate TMP/SMX resistance in S. maltophilia and are geographically widespread, findings that reinforce the need for ongoing resistance surveillance. PMID:17553270

  15. Bryozoans from rio grande do sul continental shelf, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Laís V; Calliari, Lauro

    2015-01-01

    The continental shelf of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is predominantly composed of unconsolidated sediments with a few hard substrates represented principally by beachrock. In this area there are elongate deposits of shell gravel material which are interpreted as indicators of the palaeo-shorelines. These Pleistocene deposits are overlapped by Holocene sediments (Recent), but are exposed during erosive events caused by extra-tropical cyclones, which provide the mixture of both sediments mainly during autumn and winter. The few studies on bryozoans made in this area previously recorded seven species, one fossil and the other six from Recent fluvial and marine environments. The aim of the present study was to describe the eight most abundant bryozoan species that occur in the inner RS shelf. Of these, four are new records for RS State (Arachnopusia aff. pusae, Hippomonavella brasiliensis, Turbicellepora pourtalesi, and Lifuella gorgonensis), and the other four are new to science (Chaperia taylori, Micropora nodimagna, Cellaria riograndensis, and Exochella moyani). PMID:25947873

  16. Distribution of selected heavy metals in fluvial sediments of the coal mining region of Baixo Jacuí, RS, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, E.; Ortiz, L.; Alves, M.; Sanchez, J.

    2001-11-01

    The geochemical distributions of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were investigated to provide information about the mobility and availability of these elements in polluted sediments from the Baixo Jacuí region, southern Brazil. Sediment samples were collected at eight sites in the Conde stream, near coal mining and waste disposal areas, and in the Jacuí river, downstream from industrial activities. Total extraction results showed higher metals concentration at some sites, when compared to background values, as well as indicated by the calculated enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index. However, the results were insufficient to establish the existence of anthropogenic contribution to the studied area. The contamination was better evaluated by the sequential extraction. The geochemical distribution in the sediments of the Jacuí river revealed the presence of high concentrations of Cr and Cu in the oxidizable fraction, in response to effluent discharge from coal fired power stations and a steel plant. Higher percentages of the available fraction were verified in the Conde stream for the elements Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn, indicating the sediment contamination by coal-related activities.

  17. Integrated Surveying Techniques for Sensitive Areas: San Felice Sul Panaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Buttolo, V.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2013-07-01

    The last few years have marked an exponential growth in the use of electronic and computing technologies that opened new possibilities and new scenarios in the Geomatic field. This evolution of tools and methods has led to new ways of approaching survey. For what concerns architecture, the new tools for survey acquisition and 3D modelling allow the representation of an object through a digital model, combining the visual potentials of images, normally used for documentation, with the precision of a metric survey. This research focuses on the application of these new technologies and methodologies on sensitive areas, such as portions of the cities affected by earthquakes. In this field the survey is intended to provide a useful support for other structural analysis, in conservation as well as for restoration studies. However, survey in architecture is still a very complex operation both from a methodological and a practical point of view: it requires a critical interpretation of the artefacts and a deep knowledge of the existing techniques and technologies, which often are very different but need to be integrated within a single general framework. This paper describes the first results of the survey conducted on the church of San Geminiano in San Felice sul Panaro (Modena). Here, different tools and methods were used, in order to create a new system that integrates the most recent and cutting-edge technologies in the Geomatic field. The methodologies used were laser scanning, UAV photogrammetry and topography for the definition of the reference system. The present work will focus on the data acquisition and processing whit these techniques and their integration.

  18. The movable digital planetary from the Cruzeiro do Sul University as a distributing agent of astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2012-10-01

    The Movable Digital Planetary from the Cruzeiro do Sul University has been working in order to publicize and to popularize Astronomy, in particular among students and teachers of Primary (EF) and Medium (EM) Education in municipal and state schools of the City of São Paulo, but also for the general public at large. The aim of this paper is to show and publicize the activities already undertaken by this planetary. In 2010, several presentations were recorded, such as: for the School Cruzeiro do Sul, in São Miguel Paulista, serving 161 children in the EF; Eighth Symposium on Education, Cruzeiro do Sul University, 75 students; NGO Educational Project Capuano, Anália Franco, 30 adults: Fair Student Guide in Shopping Center Norte, 455 people; NGO Association for Charitable Paulista, Burgo Paulista, 70 children; Workshop of Advanced Computing and Informatics, Cruzeiro do Sul University, 37 students; Day of Social Responsibility, Social Work in Don Bosco, Itaquera, 133 people! . In 2011 the presentations took place during the XIII Regional Meeting of Astronomy Education at Cruzeiro do Sul University, serving 112 teachers; College Cruzeiro do Sul, São Miguel Paulista, 356 children of the EF; College Brasilia from São Paulo, Anália Franco, 102 children in the EF and for the Scout Group Caramuru, São Paulo, 104 children. The applied methodology in all presentations consisted of the exhibition of two videos about Astronomy with a subsequent discussion about the presented issues. Previous surveys have shown a great interest in the majority of participants in wanting to learn more about the subject, which clearly explains the importance of education in non-formal places for the teaching of Astronomy

  19. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study with sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) delivered to dogs via intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yonglin; Sun, Chengfeng; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) is a water-soluble derivate of formononetin, and an increasing number of studies have shown that Sul-F not only possesses favorable water solubility but also exhibits good lipid-lowering and bioactivities. In the current study, the toxicity of Sul-F was evaluated in dogs after 90-day intravenous infusion. Dogs were treated with Sul-F at dose of 0, 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg, and observed for 90-day followed by 28-day recovery period. Weekly measurement of body weight, temperature and food consumption were conducted. Ophthalmoscopy, ECG examination, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and hematology examination were performed at pre-test, on days 45 and 90, and following by 28-day recovery period. Histological examination was performed on day 90 and 28-day recovery period. No mortality, ophthalmic abnormalities or treatment-related findings in body weight, clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathological examination were detected. However, a white crystal (non-metabolic Sul-F), transient vomiting and recoverable vascular stimulation were observed in 300 mg/kg/day Sul-F treated dogs. Under the conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Sul-F was 100 mg/kg in dogs. PMID:26924788

  20. The novel compound Sul-121 inhibits airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in experimental models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Poppinga, Wilfred J.; Zuo, Haoxiao; Zuidhof, Annet B.; Bos, I. Sophie T.; Smit, Marieke; Vogelaar, Pieter; Krenning, Guido; Henning, Robert H.; Maarsingh, Harm; Halayko, Andrew J.; van Vliet, Bernard; Stienstra, Stef; Graaf, Adrianus Cornelis van der; Meurs, Herman; Schmidt, Martina

    2016-01-01

    COPD is characterized by persistent airflow limitation, neutrophilia and oxidative stress from endogenous and exogenous insults. Current COPD therapy involving anticholinergics, β2-adrenoceptor agonists and/or corticosteroids, do not specifically target oxidative stress, nor do they reduce chronic pulmonary inflammation and disease progression in all patients. Here, we explore the effects of Sul-121, a novel compound with anti-oxidative capacity, on hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in experimental models of COPD. Using a guinea pig model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neutrophilia, we demonstrated that Sul-121 inhalation dose-dependently prevented LPS-induced airway neutrophilia (up to ~60%) and AHR (up to ~90%). Non-cartilaginous airways neutrophilia was inversely correlated with blood H2S, and LPS-induced attenuation of blood H2S (~60%) was prevented by Sul-121. Concomitantly, Sul-121 prevented LPS-induced production of the oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde by ~80%. In immortalized human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, Sul-121 dose-dependently prevented cigarette smoke extract-induced IL-8 release parallel with inhibition of nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit, p65 (each ~90%). Sul-121 also diminished cellular reactive oxygen species production in ASM cells, and inhibited nuclear translocation of the anti-oxidative response regulator, Nrf2. Our data show that Sul-121 effectively inhibits airway inflammation and AHR in experimental COPD models, prospectively through inhibition of oxidative stress. PMID:27229886

  1. The novel compound Sul-121 inhibits airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in experimental models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Poppinga, Wilfred J; Zuo, Haoxiao; Zuidhof, Annet B; Bos, I Sophie T; Smit, Marieke; Vogelaar, Pieter; Krenning, Guido; Henning, Robert H; Maarsingh, Harm; Halayko, Andrew J; van Vliet, Bernard; Stienstra, Stef; Graaf, Adrianus Cornelis van der; Meurs, Herman; Schmidt, Martina

    2016-01-01

    COPD is characterized by persistent airflow limitation, neutrophilia and oxidative stress from endogenous and exogenous insults. Current COPD therapy involving anticholinergics, β2-adrenoceptor agonists and/or corticosteroids, do not specifically target oxidative stress, nor do they reduce chronic pulmonary inflammation and disease progression in all patients. Here, we explore the effects of Sul-121, a novel compound with anti-oxidative capacity, on hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in experimental models of COPD. Using a guinea pig model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neutrophilia, we demonstrated that Sul-121 inhalation dose-dependently prevented LPS-induced airway neutrophilia (up to ~60%) and AHR (up to ~90%). Non-cartilaginous airways neutrophilia was inversely correlated with blood H2S, and LPS-induced attenuation of blood H2S (~60%) was prevented by Sul-121. Concomitantly, Sul-121 prevented LPS-induced production of the oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde by ~80%. In immortalized human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, Sul-121 dose-dependently prevented cigarette smoke extract-induced IL-8 release parallel with inhibition of nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit, p65 (each ~90%). Sul-121 also diminished cellular reactive oxygen species production in ASM cells, and inhibited nuclear translocation of the anti-oxidative response regulator, Nrf2. Our data show that Sul-121 effectively inhibits airway inflammation and AHR in experimental COPD models, prospectively through inhibition of oxidative stress. PMID:27229886

  2. Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to obtain an emerging view of the epidemiology of acaricide resistance in populations of R. microplus from Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil. Twenty four tick samples were collected from cities in the state where farmers reported concerns about resistance or failure of tick...

  3. Functional characterization of solute carrier (SLC) 26/sulfate permease (SulP) proteins in membrane mimetic systems.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Baars, Tonie Luise; Fendler, Klaus; Michel, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Solute carrier (SLC) 26 or sulfate permease (SulP) anion transporters, belong to a phylogenetically ancient family of secondary active transporters. Members of the family are involved in several human genetic diseases and cell physiological processes. Despite their importance, the substrates for transport by this family of proteins have been poorly characterized. In this study, recombinant StmYchM/DauA, a SulP from Salmonella typhimurium was purified to homogeneity and functionally characterized. StmYchM/DauA was found to be a dimer in solution as determined by size exclusion chromatography coupled to multiple angle light scattering. We report a functional characterization of the SulP proteins in two membrane mimetic systems and reveal a dual nature of anionic substrates for SulP. StmYchM/DauA functionally incorporated into nanodiscs could bind fumarate with millimolar affinities (KD = 4.6 ± 0.29 mM) as detected by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence quench studies. In contrast, electrophysiological experiments performed in reconstituted liposomes indicate a strong bicarbonate transport in the presence of chloride but no detectable electrogenic fumarate transport. We hence suggest that while SulP acts as an electrogenic bicarbonate transporter, fumarate may serve as substrate under different conditions indicating multiple functions of SulP. PMID:26774215

  4. First record of Leishmania braziliensis presence detected in bats, Mato Grosso do Sul, southwest Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Julie Teresa; da Costa Lima Junior, Manoel Sebastião; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; de Oliveira França, Adriana; Cepa Matos, Maria de Fatima; Bordignon, Marcelo Oscar

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis, a zoonotic disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, has expanded beyond its natural range and is becoming increasingly urban. Using PCR and PCR-RFLP, we detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in two bats (Chiroptera) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, an endemic area. This is the first record of L. (V.) braziliensis in bats. It is also the first record of any Leishmania sp. in bats in the state. The animals testing positive were found in both a rural site and an urban site. These results indicate the need for further research into the viability of Leishmania in bats and could potentially have implications for public health in Mato Grosso do Sul, given the large populations of urban bats, their mobility, and their ability to roost at close proximity to humans within residences and other buildings. PMID:23886850

  5. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  6. Functional dissection of a cell-division inhibitor, SulA, of Escherichia coli and its negative regulation by Lon.

    PubMed

    Higashitani, A; Ishii, Y; Kato, Y; Koriuchi, K

    1997-04-28

    SulA is induced in Escherichia coli by the SOS response and inhibits cell division through interaction with FtsZ. To determine which region of SulA is essential for the inhibition of cell division, we constructed a series of N-terminal and C-terminal deletions of SulA and a series of alanine substitution mutants. Arginine at position 62, leucine at 67, tryptophan at 77 and lysine at 87, in the central region of SulA, were all essential for the inhibitory activity. Residues 3-27 and the C-terminal 21 residues were dispensable for the activity. The mutant protein lacking N-terminal residues 3-47 was inactive, as was that lacking the C-terminal 34 residues. C-terminal deletions of 8 and 21 residues increased the growth-inhibiting activity in lon+ cells, but not in lon- cells. The wild-type and mutant SulA proteins were isolated in a form fused to E. coli maltose-binding protein, and tested in vitro for sensitivity to Lon protease. Lon degraded wild-type SulA and a deletion mutant lacking the N-terminal 93 amino acids, but did not degrade the derivative lacking 21 residues at the C-terminus. Furthermore, the wild-type SulA and the N-terminal deletion mutant formed a stable complex with Lon, while the C-terminal deletion did not. MBP fused to the C-terminal 20 residues of SulA formed a stable complex with, but was not degraded by Lon. When LacZ protein was fused at its C-terminus to 8 or 20 amin acid residues from the C-terminal region of SulA the protein was stable in lon+ cells. These results indicate that the C-terminal 20 residues of SulA permit recognition by, and complex formation with, Lon, and are necessary, but not sufficient, for degradation by Lon. PMID:9180687

  7. Commensal Enterobacteriaceae as reservoirs of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, integrons, and sul genes in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Elisabete; Coque, Teresa M.; Cantón, Rafael; Sousa, João C.; Peixe, Luísa

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria colonizing the human intestine have a relevant role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy humans from Portugal and analyzed the distribution of sul genes and class 1 and 2 integrons. Faecal samples (n = 113) were recovered from healthy persons (North/Centre of Portugal, 2001–2004) and plated on MacConkey agar with and without ceftazidime (1 mg/L) or cefotaxime (1 mg/L). Isolates representing different morphotypes/plate and antibiotic susceptibility patterns (n = 201) were selected. Isolates resistant to sulfonamides and/or streptomycin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim were screened (PCR and sequencing) for sul genes (sul1, sul2, sul3) and class 1 and 2 integrons. Presence of ESBLs was inferred using the double disk synergy test (DDST) and further confirmed by PCR and sequencing. ESBL producers were selected for clonal analysis, plasmid characterization and conjugation assays by standard methods. ESBL-producing isolates were found in 1.8% (2/113) of samples, corresponding to Escherichia coli of phylogroups A (n = 1) and B1 (n = 1) carrying transferable blaCTX-M-14 and the new blaTEM-153, respectively. A 80kb IncK plasmid bearing blaCTX-M-14 was found, being highly related to that widely spread among CTX-M-14 producers of humans and animals from Portugal and other European countries. sul genes were found in 88% (22/25; sul2-60%, sul1-48%, sul3-4%) of the sulfonamide resistant isolates. Class 1 integrons were more frequently found than class 2 (7%, 14/201 vs. 3%, 6/201). Interestingly, gene cassette arrangements within these platforms were identical to those commonly observed among Enterobacteriaceae from Portuguese food-producing animals, although aadA13 is here firstly described in Morganella morganii. These results reinforce the relevance of human commensal flora as reservoir of clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes including

  8. HOSPITALIZATIONS FOR CHOLECYSTITIS AND CHOLELITHIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    NUNES, Emeline Caldana; ROSA, Roger dos Santos; BORDIN, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The cholelithiasis is disease of surgical resolution with about 60,000 hospitalizations per year in the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - Brazilian National Health System) of the Rio Grande do Sul state. Aim: To describe the profile of hospitalizations for cholecystitis and cholelithiasis performed by the SUS of Rio Grande do Sul state, 2011-2013. Methods: Hospital Information System data from the National Health System through morbidity list for cholelithiasis and cholecystitis (ICD-10 K80-K81). Variables studied were sex, age, number of hospitalizations and approved Hospitalization Authorizations (AIH), total amount and value of hospital services generated, days and average length of stay, mortality, mortality and case fatality ratio, from health regions of the Rio Grande do Sul. Results: During 2011-2013 there were 60,517 hospitalizations for cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, representing 18.86 hospitalizations per 10,000 inhabitants/year, most often in the age group from 60 to 69 years (41.34 admissions per 10,000 inhabitants/year) and female (27.72 hospitalizations per 10,000 inhabitants/year). The fatality rate presented an inverse characteristic: 13.52 deaths per 1,000 admissions/year for males, compared with 7.12 deaths per 1,000 admissions/year in females. The state had an average total amount spent and value of hospital services of R$ 16,244,050.60 and R$ 10,890,461.31, respectively. The health region "Capital/Gravataí Valley" exhibit the highest total expenditure and hospital services, and the largest number of deaths, and average length of stay. Conclusion: The hospitalization and lethality coefficients, the deaths, the length of stay and spending related to admissions increased from 50 years old. Females had a higher frequency and higher values ​​spent on hospitalization, while the male higher coefficient of mortality and mean hospital stay. PMID:27438030

  9. tet and sul antibiotic resistance genes in livestock lagoons of various operation type, configuration, and antibiotic occurrence.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Chad W; Loftin, Keith A; Meyer, Michael T; Davis, Jessica G; Pruden, Amy

    2010-08-15

    Although livestock operations are known to harbor elevated levels of antibiotic resistant bacteria, few studies have examined the potential of livestock waste lagoons to reduce antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and examine the behavior of tetracycline [tet(O) and tet(W)] and sulfonamide [sul(I) and sul(II)] ARGs in a broad cross-section of livestock lagoons within the same semiarid western watershed. ARGs were monitored for one year in the water and the settled solids of eight lagoon systems by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, antibiotic residues and various bulk water quality constituents were analyzed. It was found that the lagoons of the chicken layer operation had the lowest concentrations of both tet and sul ARGs and low total antibiotic concentrations, whereas sul ARGs were highest in the swine lagoons, which generally corresponded to the highest total antibiotic concentrations. A marginal benefit of organic and small dairy operations also was observed compared to conventional and large dairies, respectively. In all lagoons, sul ARGs were observed to be generally more recalcitrant than tet ARGs. Also, positive correlations of various bulk water quality constituents were identified with tet ARGs but not sul ARGs. Significant positive correlations were identified between several metals and tet ARGs, but Pearson's correlation coefficients were mostly lower than those determined between antibiotic residues and ARGs. This study represents a quantitative characterization of ARGs in lagoons across a variety of livestock operations and provides insight into potential options for managing antibiotic resistance emanating from agricultural activities. PMID:20704205

  10. [Violence and social distress among transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Malvasi, Paulo; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted an ethnographic research with transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2012, using participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and following their everyday lives. These individuals invariably experienced physical and symbolic violence and the resulting distress, a condition they had to deal with in their careers and daily practices and tasks. The article discusses the violence experienced by transvestites (in the family, school, police precincts, and health services), specifically seeking to understand how such violence relates to their experiences with health services and how the latter respond. PMID:25945986

  11. A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takei, Masao; Nakagawa, Hideyuki

    2006-05-15

    The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 microg/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naïve T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-gamma and 51Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3beta. Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3beta. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:16197973

  12. A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Masao . E-mail: mtakei@fz-borstel.de; Nakagawa, Hideyuki

    2006-05-15

    The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 {mu}g/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naive T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-{gamma} and {sup 51}Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3{beta}. Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3{beta}. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Genetic diversity of Brucella ovis isolates from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by MLVA16

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovine epididymitis is predominantly associated with Brucella ovis infection. Molecular characterization of Brucella spp. achieved by multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analyses (MLVA) have proved to be a powerful tool for epidemiological trace-back studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Brucella ovis isolates from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, by MLVA16. Findings MLVA16 genotyping identified thirteen distinct genotypes and a Hunter-Gaston diversity index of 0.989 among the fourteen B. ovis genotyped strains. All B. ovis MLVA16 genotypes observed in the present study represented non-previously described profiles. Analyses of the eight conserved loci included in panel 1 (MLVA8) showed three different genotypes, two new and one already described for B. ovis isolates. Among ten B. ovis isolates from same herd only two strains had identical pattern, whereas the four isolates with no epidemiologic information exhibited a single MLVA16 pattern each. Analysis of minimal spanning tree, constructed using the fourteen B. ovis strains typed in this study together with all nineteen B. ovis MLVA16 genotypes available in the MLVAbank 2014, revealed the existence of two clearly distinct major clonal complexes. Conclusions In conclusion, the results of the present study showed a high genetic diversity among B. ovis field isolates from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, by MLVA16. PMID:25015223

  14. Genetic diversity of locally adapted sheep from Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul.

    PubMed

    Crispim, B A; Grisolia, A B; Seno, L O; Egito, A A; Vargas Junior, F M; Souza, M R

    2013-01-01

    Sheep of the Pantaneiro breed and seven other breeds, raised in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were genotyped using eight microsatellite loci. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, phylogenetic relationship, and patterns of gene introgression and miscegenation among the animals surveyed, to obtain information about the genetic structure of locally adapted sheep in Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 195 animals were used for genetic analysis. The Pantaneiro breed had the largest average number of alleles/locus (9.25), and higher allelic richness (6.95), while the Dorper population had the lowest values for these parameters (4.88 and 3.86, respectively). Analysis of genetic distance values and genetic structure between populations made it possible to characterize these animals with regard to distinct genetic groups. Average expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.72 (Pantaneiro) to 0.55 (Dorper), while average observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.63 (White Dorper) to 0.54 (Dorper). On the basis of the statistical parameters evaluated, it was possible to demonstrate that when compared to other populations, the Pantaneiro breed represented a reservoir of genetic diversity with rare and useful alleles for genetic improvement, emphasizing the importance of preserving the breed. PMID:24301918

  15. Integrated evaluation of the geology, aerogammaspectrometry and aeromagnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, southernmost Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Léo A; Lopes, William R; Savian, Jairo F

    2016-03-01

    An integrated evaluation of geology, aerogammaspectrometry and aeromagnetometry of the Sul-Riogran-dense Shield is permitted by the advanced stage of understanding of the geology and geochronology of the southern Brazilian Shield and a 2010 airborne geophysical survey. Gamma rays are registered from the rocks near the surface and thus describe the distribution of major units in the shield, such as the Pelotas batholith, the juvenile São Gabriel terrane, the granulite-amphibolite facies Taquarembó terrane and the numerous granite intrusions in the foreland. Major structures are also observed, e.g., the Dorsal de Canguçu shear. Magnetic signals register near surface crustal compositions (analytic signal) and total crust composition (total magnetic signal), so their variation as measured indicates either shallow or whole crustal structures. The Caçapava shear is outstanding on the images as is the magnetic low along the N-S central portion of the shield. These integrated observations lead to the deepening of the understanding of the largest and even detailed structures of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, some to be correlated to field geology in future studies. Most significant is the presence of different provinces and their limits depending on the method used for data acquisition - geology, aerogammaspectrometry or aeromagnetometry. PMID:26840006

  16. Paracoccidioidomycosis in southern Rio Grande do Sul: A retrospective study of histopathologically diagnosed cases

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Silvana Pereira; Jorge, Valéria Magalhães; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and is endemic to Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the PCM cases in the countryside south of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The files from four histopathology laboratories located in the city of Pelotas were obtained, and all of the epidemiological and clinical data from the PCM diagnosed cases were collected for analysis. A total of 123 PCM cases diagnosed between 1966 and 2009 were selected. Of these patients, 104 (84.5%) were male, and 17 were female. The patients ranged from 02 to 92 years of age. Fifty-two cases (41.9%) were obtained from the oral pathology laboratory, and the remaining 71 cases (58.1%) were obtained from the three general pathology laboratories. Of all of the patients studied, 65.2% lived in rural zones and worked in agriculture or other related fields. Data on the evolution of this disease was available for 43 cases, and the time frame ranged from 20 to 2920 days (mean = 572.3 days). An accurate diagnosis performed in less than 30 days only occurred in 21% of the cases. PCM is endemic to the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul. Therefore, it is recommended that PCM be included as a differential diagnosis, mainly for individuals between 30 and 60 years of age, living in rural zones and who have respiratory signs and associated-oropharyngeal lesions. PMID:24948940

  17. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Wayne; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in agar gel (AGID) and indirect ELISA, were performed to detect the anti-gp43 P. brasiliensis antibody in horses from five different farms in the region of Bagé, RS, Brazil. Serology was performed in 200 Pure Blood English horses up to two years of age that were born and raised exclusively at the farms. Of these horses, 12% had anti-gp43 antibodies according to the ELISA results, with rates ranging from 0 to 30% according to the farm of origin (p < 0.001). Based on the immunodiffusion results, all equine serum samples were negative. These results indicate the presence of the fungus P. brasiliensis in the middle region of the southwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26273267

  18. [Faunistic analysis of leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) species in vineyards of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ringenberg, Rudiney; Lopes, João R S; Botton, Marcos; Azevedo-Filho, Wilson S De; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2010-01-01

    In some American countries, grapevines are affected by Pierce's disease (PD), which is caused by a particular strain of Xylella fastidiosa not yet reported in Brazil. In order to investigate the potential for PD spread in Brazil in case of pathogen introduction, we conducted a faunistic analysis of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated to vineyards in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, with emphasis in the subfamily Cicadellinae (sharpshooters), which includes the main potential vectors of X. fastidiosa. Leafhopper samplings were carried out fortnightly during two years (9/2004-9/2006) in four Vitis vinifera vineyards in the municipalities of Bento Gonçalves and Farroupilha (RS). Thirtyfour leafhopper and six spittlebug species were collected, but most (98.4%) of the 3,893 specimens trapped were leafhoppers, distributed in the subfamilies Cicadellinae (60.2%), Gyponinae (34.1%), Deltocephalinae (3.8%) and Coelidinae (0.3%). The sharpshooter specimens were divided in the tribes Cicadellini (68.5%; 12 species) and Proconiini (31.5%; 11 species). Based on the faunistic indices, five species of Cicadellini, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg), Dilobopterus dispar (Germar), Macugonalia cavifrons Stal, Sibovia sagata (Signoret) and Spinagonalia rubrovittata Cavichioli, and three of Proconiini, Molomea consolida (Schöder), Oncometopia facialis (Signoret) and Oncometopia fusca Melichar were prevalent in the vineyards. The high diversity of native sharpshooters in Rio Grande do Sul indicates the existence of a high risk of PD spread if the pathogen is introduced in grapevines. PMID:20498954

  19. [Demographic characteristics and mortality among indigenous peoples in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Evanir Vicente; Matsuo, Tiemi; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess mortality rates and related demographic factors among indigenous peoples in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-West Brazil, compared to the State's general population. Mortality rates were estimated based on data obtained from the Health Care Database for Indigenous Peoples and monthly patient care records as well as demographic data from the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and mortality data from the SUS Mortality Database. Compared to the overall population, among indigenous peoples there were proportionally more individuals under 15 years of age and fewer elderly, besides higher mortality rates at early ages and from infectious and parasitic diseases. Indigenous men showed significantly higher mortality rates from external causes and respiratory and infectious diseases, while among women the mortality rates from external causes and infectious diseases were higher. Suicide rates among young indigenous individuals were also particularly alarming. Indigenous people's health conditions are worse than those of the general population in Mato Grosso do Sul. PMID:22218576

  20. Molecular analysis of the iap gene of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from cheeses in rio grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Jozi Fagundes; Einsfeldt, Karen; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes; da Costa, Marisa; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2008-01-01

    The polymorphic region sequences in the iap gene were analyzed in 25 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from cheeses in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and compared with reference strains. This investigation distinguished two clusters of L. monocytogenes: I (20 strains) and II (5 strains). PMID:24031198

  1. Identification of fungi on diseased soybean seeds harvested during a high rainfall period in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of several genera of fungi on soybean seeds harvested during a period of high rainfall in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These plants had received four fungicide applications between the R1 and R6 developmental stages, but disease symptom were neverthe...

  2. Field data observed during the geological excursion in the west-central region of the Sul-Riogrande Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Ohara, T.

    1984-01-01

    Outcrops are studied in the Copper Project test area of the Rio Grande do Sul State of Brazil. The accuracy of LANDSAT-MSS data is checked against field data. A preliminary geological map is included on a scale of 1:500,000 that describes 820 outcrop over an area of 1,700 kilometers.

  3. A toxic cyanobacterial bloom in an urban coastal lake, Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Pipole, Fernando; Werner, Vera Regina; Laughinghouse IV, Haywood Dail; de Camargo, Antonio Carlos M.; Rangel, Marisa; Konno, Katsuhiro; Sant’ Anna, Célia Leite

    2008-01-01

    Reports of cyanobacterial blooms developing worldwide have considerably increased, and, in most cases, the predominant toxins are microcystins. The present study reports a cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Violão, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul State, in January 2005. Samples collected on January 13, 2005, were submitted to taxonomical, toxicological, and chemical studies. The taxonomical analysis showed many different species of cyanobacteria, and that Microcystis protocystis and Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense were dominant. Besides these, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis were also present. The toxicity of the bloom was confirmed through intraperitoneal tests in mice, and chemical analyses of bloom extracts showed that the major substance was anabaenopeptin F, followed by anabaenopeptin B, microcystin-LR, and microcystin-RR. PMID:24031304

  4. Independent Life Skills among psychosocial care network users of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Cândida Garcia Sinott Silveira; Jardim, Vanda Maria da Rosa; Kantorski, Luciane Prado; Coimbra, Valeria Cristina Christello; Treichel, Carlos Alberto Dos Santos; Francchini, Beatriz; Bretanha, Andreia Ferreira; Neutzling, Aline Dos Santos

    2016-08-01

    This is a cross-sectional study that aims to identify the prevalence of lower independent living skills and their associations in 390 users of psychiatric community-based services in the state Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For tracing the outcome it was used the "scale Independent Living Skills Survey", adopting a cut-off value lower than 2. The crude and adjusted analyses were conducted on binary logistic regressions and they considered a hierarchical model developed through a systematic literature review. In adjusted analysis the level of the same variables were adjusted to each other and to previous levels. The statistical significance remained as a < 0.05 p-value. The prevalence of smaller independent living skills was 33% and their associations were: younger age; no partner; lower education; resident at SRT; diagnosis of schizophrenia and younger diagnosis. PMID:27557029

  5. The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Finkelsztejn, Alessandro; Lopes, Juarez Silva; Noal, Janaína; Finkelsztejn, Juliana M

    2014-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the leading causes of neurologic deficits in young adults and can lead to physical, intellectual and emotional problems. Approved treatments are expensive and are among the 10 highest budgets of the Brazilian Health Ministry. Given the diverse prevalence of MS among Brazilian regions, it is important to determine prevalence rates across the country. Seven studies have assessed MS in Brazil and reported rates ranging from 15 cases to 18 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. It has been hypothesized that this rate is even higher in southern Brazil, which has a high proportion of European heritage (mostly German and Italian) immigrants. Here, we report that the prevalence of MS in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is 27.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants. PMID:24604362

  6. Use of LANDSAT images to study cerrado vegetation. [Mato Grosso Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Channel 5 and 7 LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000 made during passes in the dry and rainy seasons were used to select the optimal season for cerrado characterization in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The study area is located around the cities of Campo Grande and Tres Lagoas, a region being used for reforestation and rangeland activities. Imagery acquired during the dry season permitted a good discrimination between "cerrado" (woodsy pasture) vegetation and reforestation. In relation to the altered areas, only the recently modified area presented good discrimination of cerrado vegetation. Imagery of the rainy season did not provide a reasonable separation between cerrado and reforestation areas but the altered area could be easily discriminated.

  7. [Use of dental services by preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Ferreira, Simone; Fischer, Laura de Almeida; Cardoso, Luciana; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of dental services and age at first dental visit in preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A representative sample of under-five children was surveyed on National Children's Vaccination Day. Children's parents completed questionnaires containing socio-demographic data and age at first dental visit. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. 192 children were examined. 13.3% of the sample had already visited the dentist at least once, but only 4.3% had their first dental visit by one year of age. The number of children who had already visited a dentist increased with age. Girls showed higher odds of having visited a dentist (OR = 1.46; 95%CI: 1.01-2.1). Public health strategies are needed to determine the effectiveness of health promotion and improve the use of dental services by preschool children. PMID:18209843

  8. Prevalence and Concomitants of Arthritis in the Elderly in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Blay, Sergio L.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Andreoli, Sergio B.; Gastal, Fábio L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Information on the prevalence and concomitants of arthritis in developing countries is sparse. It is unclear whether they are comparable to findings in developed countries. To ascertain the prevalence, demographic characteristics, and health-related concomitants of arthritis in older persons in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, a middle income country. Methods The state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was subdivided into nine regions. Stratified random sampling was used to identify 880 community residents age ≥60 years in each region. One region with suspect data was excluded. Of 7040 community residents contacted in eight regions, 6963 participated (1.1% refusal rate). In 1995, trained, monitored interviewers, using structured questionnaires, conducted in-home interviews gathering information on demographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, living arrangements, employment status), health behaviors (physical activity, tobacco use, social activity), functional limitations, depression, and 15 self-reported health conditions, including arthritis. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results Arthritis, reported by 43% of the sample, was more prevalent in women, among the less educated, those with lower income, and higher age. Severity, but not prevalence, differed by race/ethnicity. Controlled analyses indicated significant association with female gender, lower education, and less social activity. Arthritis was associated with reduced odds of stroke, but increased odds of hypertension, varicosities, bronchitis, renal problems, headache, gastrointestinal disorders, and depression. Arthritis was not significantly associated with age or functional limitations, and associations did not differ by gender. Conclusions The prevalence, demographic and health characteristics associated with self-reported arthritis in this southern state in Brazil are similar to findings elsewhere in Brazil

  9. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new...)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). 721.1550 Section 721.1550 Protection of Environment...)-, salt with 2-hydroxy-5-sulfobenzoic acid (1:1) (CAS No. 124737-31-1) (P-90-1366) is subject to......

  10. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new...)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). 721.1550 Section 721.1550 Protection of Environment...)-, salt with 2-hydroxy-5-sulfobenzoic acid (1:1) (CAS No. 124737-31-1) (P-90-1366) is subject to......

  11. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). 721.1550 Section 721.1550 Protection of...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). 721.1550 Section 721.1550 Protection of...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). 721.1550 Section 721.1550 Protection of...

  14. ATP-dependent degradation of SulA, a cell division inhibitor, by the HslVU protease in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seong, I S; Oh, J Y; Yoo, S J; Seol, J H; Chung, C H

    1999-07-30

    HslVU is an ATP-dependent protease consisting of two multimeric components, the HslU ATPase and the HslV peptidase. To gain an insight into the role of HslVU in regulation of cell division, the reconstituted enzyme was incubated with SulA, an inhibitor of cell division in Escherichia coli, or its fusion protein with maltose binding protein (MBP). HslVU degraded both proteins upon incubation with ATP but not with its nonhydrolyzable analog, ATPgammaS, indicating that the degradation of SulA requires ATP hydrolysis. The pulse-chase experiment using an antibody raised against MBP-SulA revealed that the stability of SulA increased in hsl mutants and further increased in lon/hsl double mutants, indicating that SulA is an in vivo substrate of HslVU as well as of protease La (Lon). These results suggest that HslVU in addition to Lon plays an important role in regulation of cell division through degradation of SulA. PMID:10452560

  15. [Homeopathic strategies: the Homeopathic League of Rio Grande do Sul in the 1940s and 1950s].

    PubMed

    Weber, Beatriz Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Although the period following 1930 has been considered an era in which homeopathy lost ground within academia, homeopaths nevertheless were advocating for their proposals in a variety of spaces. One such instance was represented by the Homeopathic League of Rio Grande do Sul, founded in 1941, which published a journal until the 1970s, set up three free dispensaries to serve the population in Porto Alegre, and played an active role in political discussions through a group of homeopaths who endeavored to disseminate and expand homeopathic practice. An analysis of the League's Boletim de Homeopatia provides insight into homeopaths' strategies for expanding their role in Porto Alegre, capital of Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:21779687

  16. Reconnaissance for uranium in the coal of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Donald D.; Pierson, Charles T.; White, Max G.

    1958-01-01

    Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous shale of the Rio Bonito formation of Pennsylvanian age have been found in the States of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarlna and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The uranium oxide content of the samples collected in the State of Sao Paulo ranges from 0.001 percent to 0.082 percent. The samples collected in Santa Catarina averaged about 0.002 percent uranium oxide; those collected in Rio Grande do Sul, about 0.003 percent uranium oxide. Since the field and laboratory investigations are still in their initial stages, only raw data on the radioactivity and uranium content of Brazilian coals are given in this report.

  17. Irrigated rice area estimation using remote sensing techniques: Project's proposal and preliminary results. [Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.; Moreira, M. A.; Novaes, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a methodology for annual estimates of irrigated rice crop in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using remote sensing techniques is proposed. The project involves interpretation, digital analysis, and sampling techniques of LANDSAT imagery. Results are discussed from a preliminary phase for identifying and evaluating irrigated rice crop areas in four counties of the State, for the crop year 1982/1983. This first phase involved just visual interpretation techniques of MSS/LANDSAT images.

  18. An application of cluster analysis for determining homogeneous subregions: The agroclimatological point of view. [Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    A stratification oriented to crop area and yield estimation problems was performed using an algorithm of clustering. The variables used were a set of agroclimatological characteristics measured in each one of the 232 municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A nonhierarchical cluster analysis was used and the pseudo F-statistics criterion was implemented for determining the "cut point" in the number of strata.

  19. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, Ludiele Souza; FRANÇA, Adriana de Oliveira; FERREIRA, Eduardo de Castro; HANS, Günther; HIGA, Minoru German; GONTIJO, Célia Maria Ferreira; PEREIRA, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of theLeishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. PMID:27007566

  20. H2S Injection and Sequestration into Basalt - The SulFix Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudbrandsson, S.; Moola, P.; Stefansson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric H2S emissions are among major environmental concern associated with geothermal energy utilization. It is therefore of great importance for the geothermal power sector to reduce H2S emissions. Known solutions for H2S neutralization are both expensive and include production of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid that needs to be disposed of. Icelandic energy companies that utilize geothermal power for electricity production have decided to try to find an environmentally friendly and economically feasible solution to reduce the H2S emission, in a joint venture called SulFix. The aim of SulFix project is to explore the possibilities of injecting H2S dissolved in water into basaltic formations in close proximity to the power plants for permanent fixation as sulfides. The formation of sulfides is a natural process in geothermal systems. Due to basalt being rich in iron and dissolving readily at acidic conditions, it is feasible to re-inject the H2S dissolved in water, into basaltic formations to form pyrite. To estimate the mineralization rates of H2S, in the basaltic formation, flow through experiments in columns were conducted at various H2S concentrations, temperatures (100 - 240°C) and both fresh and altered basaltic glass. The results indicate that pyrite rapidly forms during injection into fresh basalt but the precipiation in altered basalt is slower. Three different alteration stages, as a function of distance from inlet, can be observed in the column with fresh basaltic glass; (1) dissolution features along with precipitation, (2) precipitation increases, both sulfides and other secondary minerals and (3) the basalt looks to be unaltered and little if any precipitation is observed. The sulfur has precipitated in the first half of the column and thereafter the solution is possibly close to be supersaturated with respect to the rock. These results indicate that the H2S sequestration into basalt is possible under geothermal conditions. The rate limiting

  1. Saturniidae and Sphingidae (Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea) assemblage in Vossoroca, Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fábio L; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2015-01-01

    The richness and abundance of the assemblage of species in a community are a way to understand the patterns of diversity found around the world. This study describes the assemblages of Saturniidae and Sphingidae in an area of Montana Mixed Ombrophilous Forest, Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brazil, 880m, 25º50'8.93"S, 49º 02'55.20"W. Samples were collected between November 2010 and September 2011 during two nights at the twelve new moons periods with a light trap equipped with black light lamp (ultraviolet) of 46 watts between two mercury mixed-light lamps HWL 250 watts from 6:00 p.m to 06:00 a.m. The sampling effort totaled 288 hours. This sampling effort was responsible for the capture of 1235 specimens, distributed in 124 species: 858 specimens and 86 species of Saturniidae, and 377 specimens and 38 species of Sphingidae. It is noteworthy the sampling of 10 new species: one of Automerella Michener, 1949, two of Hylesia Hübner, [1820], one of Lonomia Walker, 1855 and six of Periga Walker, 1855, that will be described. PMID:25910173

  2. Population data of 17 Y-STR loci from Rio Grande do Sul state (South Brazil).

    PubMed

    Schwengber, Solange P; Kommers, Trícia; Matte, Cecília H F; Raimann, Paulo E; Carvalho, Bianca A; Leite, Fabio P N; Medeiros, Marcelo A; Souza, Luis F; Castro, Cibele S; Chassot, Fernanda G C; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2009-12-01

    A sample of 255 Brazilian males from Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the Brazilian southernmost state, was typed for 17 Y-STR loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA_H4.1 and DYS385ab). A total of 247 haplotypes were identified, of which 239 were unique and eight were found in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity (99.98%) and discrimination capacity (96.86%) were calculated. Pairwise haplotype distances showed that the RS population is not significantly different from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, and Argentina, is different from São Paulo, Italy, and North Portugal, and is very distant from Spain, the Amazon region, Germany, and South Amerindians. When the RS data was separated in the seven geopolitical regions, some pairs of regions were significantly different; however no region was different from the whole Brazilian sample. PMID:19948319

  3. Effect of São Pedro do Sul thermal water on skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M O; Costa, P C; Bahia, M F

    2010-06-01

    Many mineral waters are known for centuries for treating dermatological diseases but there is little scientific evaluation of the effects of these waters in skin. A total of 17 healthy Caucasian volunteers, including men and women, were enrolled in this study. Two skin sites were marked on each volunteer forearm and irritated with sodium lauryl sulphate at 2% (w/v) kept under occlusion for 24 h with Finn chambers. Afterwards, purified water or São Pedro do Sul (SPS) thermal water were applied to the irritated skin sites, and kept under occlusion for 48 h also with Finn chambers. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was used as a measure of the skin barrier function to evaluate the potential anti-irritant effect of the thermal water on skin. Statistically significant differences in the mean TEWL variations were observed for the skin treated with SPS thermal water and with purified water (P = 0.036). The thermal water reduced the degree to which the skin barrier was disrupted compared with purified water alone in 82.4% of the volunteers. The SPS thermal water is anti-irritant and, therefore, can be helpful to relieve skin irritation and in cosmetic formulations to improve the tolerability of the products. PMID:20557578

  4. Synthesis of benthic flux components in the Patos Lagoon coastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of this work is to synthesize components of benthic flux in the Patos Lagoon coastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specifically, the component of benthic discharge flux forced by the terrestrial hydraulic gradient is 0.8 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux associated with the groundwater tidal prism are both 2.1 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity wave setup are both 6.3 m3 d-1; the component of benthic discharge flux that transports radium-228 is 350 m3 d-1; and components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity waves propagating over a porous medium are both 1400 m3 d-1. (All models are normalized per meter shoreline.) Benthic flux is a function of components forced by individual mechanisms and nonlinear interactions that exist between components. Constructive and destructive interference may enhance or diminish the contribution of benthic flux components. It may not be possible to model benthic flux by summing component magnitudes. Geochemical tracer techniques may not accurately model benthic discharge flux or submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). A conceptual model provides a framework on which to quantitatively characterize benthic discharge flux and SGD with a multifaceted approach.

  5. Prevalence of acanthamoeba from tap water in rio grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Winck, Mari Aline Todero; Caumo, Karin; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2011-11-01

    A total of 136 samples of tap water were collected from state and municipal schools between March and November 2009. The samples were filtered through cellulose nitrate membranes that were seeded at non-nutrient agar 1.5% containing an overlayer of Escherichia coli suspension. Thirty-one (22.79%) tap water samples investigated were found positive for free-living amoebae (FLA). From these, 13 presented as FLA that seems to belong to the genus Acanthamoeba. All samples of FLA were cloned and identified as belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba by the morphology of cysts and trophozoites and by PCR using genus-specific primers that amplify the ASA.S1 region of 18S rDNA gene. Physiological tests of thermotolerance and osmotolerance were used to evaluate the pathogenicity of the isolates. The sequencing analysis by comparing the sequences submitted to GenBank, showed genotype distribution into groups T2, T2/T6, T6, and T4. In tests of thermotolerance and osmotolerance, 50% of the isolates had a low pathogenic potential. The results indicated the presence of Acanthamoeba in tap water in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, revealing its importance and the need for more epidemiological studies to determine their distribution in the environment and its pathogenic potential. PMID:21882008

  6. [Work-related accidents: urban violence and death in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed

    Oliveira; Mendes

    1997-01-01

    This article focuses on the magnitude of work-related deaths in Porto Alegre, the capital of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Death certificates were used to investigate 159 cases, or 18% of the 877 deaths from external causes in 1992. Some 31 cases were identified. The principal cause of death among these workers was homicide, with 58% of cases (15 from fire arms and 3 from knives), followed by traffic accidents, with 29% (5 motor vehicle collisions and 4 pedestrians run down by motor vehicles). Of these 31 deaths, 17 were workers from the formal labor market, of whom 11 did not fit into the regular reporting procedures for work-related accidents. The other 14 deaths were of workers from the informal labor market (7), individuals involved in illicit activities (6), and unknown (1), in which cases reporting as work-related accidents was also inappropriate. These data suggest negligence by the public sector in dealing with this issue and the fact that official statistics fail to reflect the reality of daily working conditions. The authors conclude that health surveillance requires other data collection mechanisms besides those used by the Social Welfare System, so as to include all actual risks related to work situations. PMID:10886939

  7. Zoonotic Bartonella species in wild rodents in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species cause disease in humans but little is known about their epidemiology in Brazil. The presence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents captured in two municipalities of the Mato Grosso do Sul state was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of heart tissue from 42 wild rodents were tested using primers targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and citrate synthase gltA gene. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and confirmed at species level by mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome B) sequencing and karyotype. Overall, 42.9% (18/42) of the wild rodents were PCR positive for Bartonella spp.: Callomys callosus (04), Cerradomys maracajuensis (04), Hylaeamus megacephalus (01), Necromys lasiurus (06), Nectomys squamipes (01), Oecomys catherinae (01) and Oxymycterus delator (01). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis was detected in N. lasiurus (46%) and C. callosus (21%) captured in the two study sites. We reported the first molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis in different species of wild rodents collected in the Brazilian territory. Further studies are needed to examine the role of these mammals in the eco-epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil. PMID:26344604

  8. Improved stability and enhanced efficiency to degrade chlorimuron-ethyl by the entrapment of esterase SulE in cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Xu, MingKai; Zhang, Huiwen

    2015-04-28

    Free enzymes often undergo some problems such as easy deactivation, low stability, and less recycling in biodegradation processes, especially in soil condition. A novel esterase SulE, which is responsible for primary degradation of a wide range of sulfonylurea herbicides by methyl or ethyl ester de-esterification, was expressed by strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1 and entrapped for the first time in an environment-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel (CPE). The activity and stability of CPE-SulE were compared with free SulE under varying pH and temperature condition by measuring chlorimuron-ethyl residue. Meanwhile, the three-dimensional network of CPE-SulE was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability compared with free SulE. Furthermore, CPE-SulE enhanced degrading efficiency of chlorimuron-ethyl in both soil and water system, especially in acid environment. The characteristics of CPE-SulE suggested the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ. PMID:25661176

  9. Association of Composite IS26-sul3 Elements with Highly Transmissible IncI1 Plasmids in Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Clones from Humans▿

    PubMed Central

    Curiao, Tânia; Cantón, Rafael; Garcillán-Barcia, M. Pilar; de la Cruz, Fernando; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2011-01-01

    The association of an IS440-sul3 platform with Tn21 class 1 integrons carried by IncI1 plasmids encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs; mainly SHV-12 and CTX-M-14) among worldwide Escherichia coli clones of phylogroups A (ST10, ST23, and ST46), B1 (ST155, ST351, and ST359), and D/B2 (ST131) is reported. An in silico comparative analysis of sul3 elements available in the GenBank database shows the evolution of sul3 platforms by hosting different transposable elements facilitating the potential genesis of IS26 composite transposons and further insertion element-mediated promoted arrangements. PMID:21343460

  10. Tet and sul antibiotic resistance genes in livestock lagoons of various operation type, configuration, and antibiotic occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, C.W.; Loftin, K.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Davis, J.G.; Pruden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although livestock operations are known to harbor elevated levels of antibiotic resistant bacteria, few studies have examined the potential of livestock waste lagoons to reduce antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and examine the behavior of tetracycline [tet(O) and tet(W)] and sulfonamide [sul(I) and su/(II)] ARGsin a broad cross-section of livestock lagoons within the same semiarid western watershed. ARGs were monitored for one year in the water and the settled solids of eight lagoon systems by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, antibiotic residues and various bulk water quality constituents were analyzed. It was found that the lagoons of the chicken layer operation had the lowest concentrations of both tet and sul ARGs and low total antibiotic concentrations, whereas su ARGs were highest in the swine lagoons, which generally corresponded to the highest total antibiotic concentrations. A marginal benefit of organic and small dairy operations also was observed compared to conventional and large dairies, respectively. In all lagoons, su ARGs were observed to be generally more recalcitrant than tet ARGs. Also, positive correlations of various bulk water quality constituents were identified with tet ARGs but not sul ARGs. Significant positive correlations were identified between several metals and tet ARGs, but Pearson's correlation coefficients were mostly lower than those determined between antibiotic residues and ARGs. This study represents a quantitative characterization of ARGs in lagoons across a variety of livestock operations and provides insight into potential options for managing antibiotic resistance emanating from agricultural activities. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ≥60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  12. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods - especially eggs and meat products - were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004. PMID:24516439

  13. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. XIII - Mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of the Putinga, Rio Grande do Sul, chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Lange, D.; Ulbrich, M. N. C.; Gomes, C. B.; Jarosewich, E.; Roisenberg, A.; Souza, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Putinga, Rio Grande do Sul chondrite is described and classified as an L6. The mineral composition and some significant ratios of elements are reported, and the reasons for assignment to the L group and to petrologic type 6 are explained. The analysis suggests that maskelynite of oligoclase composition was formed by solid-state shock transformation of previously existing well-crystallized plagioclase at estimated shock pressures of about 250-350 kbar. This finding indicates that recrystallization (formation of well-crystallized oligoclase) preceded shock transformation formation of the maskelynite.

  14. Determinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade da função de luminosidade através de simulações de Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P. E.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os principais resultados do estudo da população de galáxias anãs de baixo brilho superficial dos grupos compactos HCG44 e HCG68. A inclinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade a da função de luminosidade desses grupos foi estimado através de simulações de Monte Carlo. O método consistiu em simular galáxias anãs de baixo brilho superficial em imagens reais seguindo uma distribuição de magnitudes dada uma função de Schechter. Foram testados vários modelos com diferentes valores para os parâmetros M* e a da função de Schechter, e para cada um dos modelos foi repetido o mesmo processo de recuperação, seleção e análise usados com as galáxias anãs dos grupos. Os resultados de cada modelo foram então comparados com o observado nos grupos. Nossos resultados indicam que a distribuição de magnitudes (para magnitudes absolutas até MR»-12) observadas nos grupos são compatíveis com uma função de luminosidade de Schechter dada por um M* = -16 e um a entre -1.0 e -1.4, e portanto de acordo com a tendência observada de uma inclinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade da função de luminosidade de grupos mais plana (~1.2, Trentham & Tully 2002, MNRAS, 335, 712) que esperado pelo modelo hierárquico de formação de estruturas CDM (Cold Dark Matter - Matéria Escura Fria).

  15. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: multiresistant tick.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fabrício Amadori; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Ferreira, Maiara Sanitá Tafner; Gregorio, Fabiano de Vargas; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acaricide resistance of tick populations in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), which has not previously been reported. Fifty-four cattle farms were visited and specimens of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were collected and subjected to the adult immersion test, using nine commercial acaricides in the amidine, pyrethroid and organophosphate groups. Climatic data, including monthly precipitation, were recorded. The results from the present study demonstrated that seven of the acaricides analyzed presented mean efficacy values of less than 95%, with large differences among the products tested. Nine of them exhibited satisfactory and unsatisfactory acaricide results on at least one farm. In conclusion, the farms located in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, exhibited populations of R. (Boophilus) microplus with variable degrees of susceptibility to different acaricides, thus suggesting that resistance to the active compounds exists. It is suggested that treatment protocols should be implemented at the beginning of winter and summer, using the acaricides that showed efficacy in the adult immersion test. PMID:25271453

  16. SulA-independent filamentation of Escherichia coli during growth after release from high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Kawarai, T; Wachi, M; Ogino, H; Furukawa, S; Suzuki, K; Ogihara, H; Yamasaki, M

    2004-04-01

    To improve the efficiency of sterilization by high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HPT), it is desirable to know the biochemical process of bacteria most sensitive to the treatment. We investigated growth properties after release from HPT of exponentially growing Escherichia coli K-12 cells. We observed growth retardation after treatment (30 min at 37 degrees C) above 75 MPa. Long filamentous cells of about eight times normal cell length were observed at 90 min growth after treatment at 75 MPa. In the subsequent period the filamentous cells divided into normal-sized cells. recA and sulA mutant strains also formed filamentous cells, indicating that filamentation was SulA-independent. Nucleoids segregated normally in the filamentous cells. Only one FtsZ ring (or none) was detected at possible division sites in the elongated cells. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the amount of FtsZ protein was not affected by the treatment. GTP-dependent in vitro polymerization of either FtsZ protein in E. coli crude extract or purified FtsZ protein, however, was sensitive to HPT. These facts suggest that HPT at 75 MPa denatures a fraction of FtsZ molecules, and that these denatured molecules interfere with the polymerization of functional FtsZ, resulting in the significantly reduced number of FtsZ rings. PMID:14566433

  17. Assessing the risk of bovine fasciolosis using linear regression analysis for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Elisa Pereira; Freitas, Corina da Costa; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2016-02-15

    Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a disease that triggers a chronic inflammatory process in the liver affecting mainly ruminants and other animals including humans. In Brazil, F. hepatica occurs in larger numbers in the most Southern state of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of this study was to estimate areas at risk using an eight-year (2002-2010) time series of climatic and environmental variables that best relate to the disease using a linear regression method to municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The positivity index of the disease, which is the rate of infected animal per slaughtered animal, was divided into three risk classes: low, medium and high. The accuracy of the known sample classification on the confusion matrix for the low, medium and high rates produced by the estimated model presented values between 39 and 88% depending of the year. The regression analysis showed the importance of the time-based data for the construction of the model, considering the two variables of the previous year of the event (positivity index and maximum temperature). The generated data is important for epidemiological and parasite control studies mainly because F. hepatica is an infection that can last from months to years. PMID:26827853

  18. Decay t→cγ in models with SUL(3)×UX(1) gauge symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés-Maldonado, I.; Hernández-Tomé, G.; Tavares-Velasco, G.

    2013-07-01

    The one-loop level mediated t→cγ decay is analyzed in the framework of 331 models, which are based on the SUL(3)×UX(1) gauge symmetry and require that the quark families transform differently in order to cancel anomalies, thereby inducing three-level flavor-changing neutral currents mediated by an extra neutral gauge boson Z' and a neutral scalar boson ϕ. These models also predict new charged gauge and scalar bosons, together with three new quarks, which can be exotic (with electric charges of -4/3e and 5/3e) or standard-model-like. Apart from the contribution of the W boson, the t→cγ decay receives contributions induced by the extra gauge boson and the neutral scalar boson, which are generic for 331 models. In the so-called minimal 331 model, there are additional contributions from the new charged gauge and scalar bosons accompanied by the exotic quarks. We present analytical results for the most general t→cγ amplitude in terms of transcendental functions. For the numerical analysis we focus on the minimal 331 model: the current bounds on the model parameters are examined and a particular scenario is discussed in which the corresponding branching ratio could be of the order of 10-6, with the dominant contributions arising from the charged gauge bosons and a relatively light neutral scalar boson with flavor-changing couplings, whereas the Z' contribution would be of the order of 10-9 for mZ'>2TeV. However, a further suppression could be expected due to a potential suppression of the values of the flavor-changing coupling constants. Under the same assumptions, in 331 models without exotic quarks, the t→cγ branching ratio would receive the dominant contribution from the neutral scalar boson, which could be of the order of 10-7 for a Higgs mass of a few hundreds of GeVs.

  19. Dissolved black carbon along the land to ocean continuum of Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques da Silva Junior, Jomar; Dittmar, Thorsten; Niggemann, Jutta; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Rivers annually carry 25-28 Tg of pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (or dissolved black carbon, DBC) into the ocean, which is equivalent to about 10% of the entire land-ocean flux of dissolved organic carbon (Jaffé et al., Science 340, 345-347). Objective of this study was to identify the main processes behind the release and turnover of DBC on a riverine catchment scale. As model system we chose the land to ocean continuum of Paraíba do Sul River (Brazil), the only river system for which long-term DBC flux data exist (Dittmar, Rezende et al., Nature Geoscience 5, 618-622). The catchment was originally covered by Atlantic rain forest (mainly C3 plants) which was almost completely destroyed over the past centuries by slash-and-burn. As a result, large amounts of wood-derived charcoal reside in the soils. Today, fire-managed pasture and sugar cane (both dominated by C4 plants) cover most of the catchment. Water samples were collected at 24 sites along the main channel of the river, at 14 sites of the main tributaries and at 21 sites along the salinity gradient in the estuary and up to 35 km offshore. Sampling was performed in the wet seasons of 2013 and 2014, and the dry season of 2013. DBC was determined on a molecular level as benzenepolycarboxylic acids after nitric acid oxidation (Dittmar, Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 6, 230-235). Stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) were determined in solid phase extractable dissolved organic carbon (SPE-DOC) to distinguish C4 and C3 sources. Our results clearly show a relationship between hydrology and DBC concentrations in the river, with highest DBC concentrations in the wet season and lowest in the dry season. This relationship indicates that DBC is mainly mobilized from the upper soil horizons during heavy rainfalls. A significant correlation between DBC concentrations and δ13C-SPE-DOC indicated that most of DBC in the river system originates from C3 plants, i.e. from the historic burning event of the Atlantic rain

  20. Leptospirosis in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: An Ecosystem Approach in the Animal-Human Interface

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Pereira, Martha M.; Machado, Gustavo; dos Anjos, Celso B.; Rodrigues, Rogério O.; Cavagni, Gabriela M.; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Corbellini, Luis G.; Leone, Mariana; Buss, Daniel F.; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone neglected disease that affects humans and animals, mostly in vulnerable populations. The One Health approach is a recommended strategy to identify drivers of the disease and plan for its prevention and control. In that context, the aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of human cases of leptospirosis in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and to explore possible drivers. Additionally, it sought to provide further evidence to support interventions and to identify hypotheses for new research at the human-animal-ecosystem interface. Methodology and findings The risk for human infection was described in relation to environmental, socioeconomic, and livestock variables. This ecological study used aggregated data by municipality (all 496). Data were extracted from secondary, publicly available sources. Thematic maps were constructed and univariate analysis performed for all variables. Negative binomial regression was used for multivariable statistical analysis of leptospirosis cases. An annual average of 428 human cases of leptospirosis was reported in the state from 2008 to 2012. The cumulative incidence in rural populations was eight times higher than in urban populations. Variables significantly associated with leptospirosis cases in the final model were: Parana/Paraiba ecoregion (RR: 2.25; CI95%: 2.03–2.49); Neossolo Litolítico soil (RR: 1.93; CI95%: 1.26–2.96); and, to a lesser extent, the production of tobacco (RR: 1.10; CI95%: 1.09–1.11) and rice (RR: 1.003; CI95%: 1.002–1.04). Conclusion Urban cases were concentrated in the capital and rural cases in a specific ecoregion. The major drivers identified in this study were related to environmental and production processes that are permanent features of the state. This study contributes to the basic knowledge on leptospirosis distribution and drivers in the state and encourages a comprehensive approach to address the disease in the animal

  1. Comparison of organochlorine chemical body burdens of female breast cancer cases with cancer free women in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil--Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, C.A.; Petreas, M.X.; Caleffi, M.; Barbosa, F.S.; Goth-Goldstein, R.

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study collected preliminary data to examine known and suspected breast cancer risk factors among women living in rural and urban areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by questionnaire. In addition, the body burden levels of a panel of organochlorines was measured in a small clinic-based prospective sample.

  2. Towards a Pedagogy of a New Social Contract: Lessons from the Participatory Budget in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streck, Danilo Romeu

    2004-01-01

    The paper analyses the pedagogical dimension of the process of Participatory Budgeting in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), taking into consideration the local and regional culture as well as the wider political milieu. The question this paper engages with is whether, in this social movement involving around 400,000 people in 2001, there…

  3. Towards a Pedagogy of a New Social Contract: Lessons from Participatory Budgeting in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streck, Danilo R.

    This paper analyzes the pedagogical dimension within the process of participatory budgeting in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, taking into consideration the local and regional culture, as well as the political milieu. The question is whether, in this social movement which involved around 400,000 people in 2001, signs can be identified that…

  4. Epidemiological and biological aspects on Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick), an argasidae tick only found on the highlands region of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soft tick Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Acari: Argasidae) is present in farms along the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil. Reports of human parasitism by O. brasiliensis drew the attention of local health authorities. A preliminary epidemiological survey was conducted to ident...

  5. Genesis of amethyst geodes in basaltic rocks of the Serra Geral Formation (Ametista do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil): a fluid inclusion, REE, oxygen, carbon, and Sr isotope study on basalt, quartz, and calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilg, H. Albert; Morteani, Giulio; Kostitsyn, Yuri; Preinfalk, Christine; Gatter, Istvan; Strieder, Adelir J.

    2003-12-01

    In the Ametista do Sul area, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, amethyst-bearing geodes are hosted by a ~40- to 50-m-thick subhorizontal high-Ti basaltic lava flow of the Lower Cretaceous Paraná Continental Flood Basalt Province. The typically spherical cap-shaped, sometimes vertically elongated geodes display an outer rim of celadonite followed inwards by agate and colorless and finally amethystine quartz. Calcite formed throughout the whole crystallization sequence, but most commonly as very late euhedral crystals, sometimes with gypsum, in the central cavity. Fluid inclusions in colorless quartz and amethyst are predominantly monophase and contain an aqueous liquid. Two-phase liquid-vapor inclusions are rare. Some with a consistent degree of fill homogenize into the liquid between 95 and 98 °C. Ice-melting temperatures in the absence of a vapor phase between -4 and +4 °C indicate low salinities. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of calcites are highly variable and show generally no systematic correlation with the paragenetic sequence. The oxygen isotope composition of calcites is very homogeneous (δ18OVSMOW=24.9±1.1‰, n=34) indicating crystallization temperatures of less than 100 °C. Carbon isotope values of calcites show a considerable variation ranging from -18.7 to -2.9‰ (VPDB). The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of calcites varies between 0.706 and 0.708 and is more radiogenic than that of the host basalt (~0.705). The most likely source of silica, calcium, carbon, and minor elements in the infill of the geodes is the highly reactive interstitial glass of the host basalts leached by gas-poor aqueous solutions of meteoric origin ascending from the locally artesian Botucatú aquifer system in the footwall of the volcanic sequence. The genesis of amethyst geodes in basalts at Ametista do Sul, Brazil, is thus considered as a two-stage process with an early magmatic protogeode formation and a late, low temperature infill of the cavity.

  6. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in Amblyomma dubitatum tick from the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matias, Jaqueline; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalvante; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia infection of each tick was evaluated by the hemolymph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting gltA and ompA genes. All hemolymph tests were negative and PCR of one A. dubitatum detected both Rickettsia genes. Sequence of ompA exhibited a 99% identity with Rickettsia parkeri and R. africae and a 98% identity with R. sibirica. Rickettsia of the spotted fever group in A. dubitatum is described for the first time in an urban area within the municipality of Campo Grande in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. This finding reinforces the importance of more detailed studies to determine the role of A. dubitatum in the transmission of spotted fever agents. PMID:25454606

  7. [Evolution of overweight and obesity into adulthood, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 1982-2012].

    PubMed

    Lima, Natália Peixoto; Horta, Bernardo L; Motta, Janaína Vieira Dos Santos; Valença, Marina S; Oliveira, Vânia; Santos, Thaíssa Vieira Dos; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescence and adulthood among subjects enrolled in the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, according to social and demographic characteristics. In 1982, hospital births in Pelotas were identified and all live born infants (n = 5,914) were examined and have been followed since. The data were collected at 15, 18, 23, and 30 years of age. In women, prevalence of overweight increased from 23.6% at 15 years to 52.4% at 30 years of age, while obesity increased from 6.6% to 23.8%. In men, overweight increased from 22.9% to 62.9%, and obesity from 7.5% to 22.1%. Overweight and obesity increased more among individuals of both sexes with lower socioeconomic status, which can lead to more inequality in the occurrence of chronic diseases. PMID:26578025

  8. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Glênio Alves de; Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa de; Lima, Rosangela da Costa

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus, and the associations with socioeconomic, demographic, anthropometric, and clinical factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of women 18 to 59 years of age in the Bororó and Jaguapiru villages. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data, and statistical analysis used the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and generalized linear model tests. Of the 385 women, 7% showed abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus. In the final generalized linear model, the following remained associated with the outcome: age (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.002), and ethnicity (p = 0.022). The study shows the need for behavior changes, using educational interventions as a strategy for the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus. PMID:27626648

  9. Quantification and molecular characterization of Salmonella isolated from food samples involved in salmonellosis outbreaks in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mürmann, Lisandra; dos Santos, Maria Cecília; Longaray, Solange Mendes; Both, Jane Mari Corrêa; Cardoso, Marisa

    2008-01-01

    Data concerning the prevalence and populations of Salmonella in foods implicated in outbreaks may be important to the development of quantitative microbial risk assessments of individual food products. In this sense, the objective of the present study was to assess the amount of Salmonella sp. in different foods implicated in foodborne outbreaks in Rio Grande do Sul occurred in 2005 and to characterize the isolated strains using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Nineteen food samples involved in ten foodborne outbreaks occurred in 2005, and positive on Salmonella isolation at the Central Laboratory of the Health Department of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, were included in this study. Food samples were submitted to estimation of Salmonella using the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. Moreover, one confirmed Salmonella colony of each food sample was serotyped, characterized by its XbaI-macrorestriction profile, and submitted to antimicrobial resistance testing. Foods containing eggs, mayonnaise or chicken were contaminated with Salmonella in eight outbreaks. Higher counts (>107 MPN.g-1) of Salmonella were detected mostly in foods containing mayonnaise. The isolation of Salmonella from multiple food items in five outbreaks probably resulted from the cross-contamination, and the high Salmonella counts detected in almost all analyzed samples probably resulted from storing in inadequate temperature. All strains were identified as S. Enteritidis, and presented a unique macrorestriction profile, demonstrating the predominance of one clonal group in foods involved in the salmonellosis outbreaks. A low frequency of antimicrobial resistant S. Enteritidis strains was observed and nalidixic acid was the only resistance marker detected. PMID:24031261

  10. Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations in the Paraiba do Sul basin, Brazil, and its potential implication on the basin ecohydrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriello, Felix; Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Marques Neves, Otto; Vicens, Raul

    2014-05-01

    Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations is an important driver of the Mata Atlântica biome conversion into another land use in the Paraíba do Sul basin, in the southeastern of Brazil. This region is located in one of the most developed areas in Brazil, between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the most important cities in Brazil, linked by Presidente Dutra highway. Between both cities there are another cities that produce a variety of goods - from meat to planes, cars and mobile phones. This area is, at the same time, one the most important hot spot for the Mata Atlântica biome. Here we have a large Mata Atlântica fragment protected by law and others fragments being conversed to pasture, agriculture, silviculture and urban areas. Paraiba do Sul river drains the region and runs into Rio de Janeiro State. The basin is highly anthropized, with multiple approaches of its waters resources. Its waters also serve Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Because land use and land cover changes impact the water yield in a basin, the study of its dynamic its of great importance for water resources management. We study the land use and land cover change in the region between 1986 and 2010, focusing in the development of silviculture of eucaliptus plantations. We used the HAND (Height Above Nearest Drainage) approach that uses the height above the nearest water body, acquired from SRTM Data and transformed into a Terrain Numeric Mode, to classify the landscape into three different ecohydrological environments: floodplain, mountain top and hillslope. This classes were intersected with 1986 and 2010 land use and cover change classification obtained from Landsat imagery. Results show that silviculture has increased in the region from 1986 to 2010. In both years, silviculture areas are mainly located at the hillslope (47%), while floodplain and mountain top share 28 % and 23 % respectively. Available census data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, IBGE, for 1995 and

  11. A biogeochemical and isotopic view of Nitrogen and Carbon in rivers of the Alto Paraíba do Sul basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravagnani, E. D. C.; Coletta, L. D.; Lins, S. R. M.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Rossete, A. L. M.; Andrade, T. M. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude of potential flows of elements in tropical ecosystems is not well represented in the literature, even being very important. The Paraíba do Sul River drains the three more economically developed states in Brazil: São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro and its basin is considered extremely altered. Despite its economic and social importance (~ 5.3 mi inhabitants), we don't know much about carbon and nitrogen transport into its rivers and how these are affected by soil use changes. This work aimed to investigate these nutrients, using an isotopic and a biogeochemical approach, at some third order (Paraibuna, Paraitinga and Paraíba do Sul), second and first order rivers, all inserted at the Alto Paraíba do Sul Basin. In general, the low dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, total dissolved nitrogen and inorganic N concentrations found in the first order rivers, showed the lower variation, despite changes in the soil use. Forested rivers presented higher DOC (3.3 mg.L-1) and TDN (14.2 mM) concentrations than the pasture rivers (2.6 mg.L-1 and 13.8 mM), while these presented higher DIC concentrations than those ones (90.2 mM and 71.2 mM). In third order rivers, the concentrations were also very low. Both carbon and nitrogen contents at the fine and coarse fractions of the suspended particulate material (SPM) were lower at Paraitinga and Paraiba do Sul Rivers. At the Paraibuna River, the fine fraction of SPM presented 25% of C concentration. The concentrations found at the coarse fraction were also higher at this river. The N concentrations were higher at the fine fraction and, consequently, this fraction presented higher C:N ratio. These observations allow us to say that the coarse fraction might be related to plant material, while the fine fraction is probably related to the soils. The δ13C in the SPM was lower in the Paraibuna River, probably due to the predominance of forest, while in the other ones pasture was the main soil use

  12. Henrique da Rocha Lima.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión's disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  13. Henrique da Rocha Lima*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión’s disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  14. [Characterization of tuberculosis among HIV/AIDS patients at a referral center in Mato Grosso do Sul].

    PubMed

    Cheade, Maria de Fátima Meinberg; Ivo, Maria Lúcia; Siqueira, Pedro Henrique Guimarães da Silva; Sá, Robson Gomes de; Honer, Michael Robin

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis was investigated regarding its clinical presentation, treatment outcome and sociodemographic profile among HIV patients attended at a referral center in Mato Grosso do Sul, in 2003-2005. Sixty-six medical files on patients over 14 years of age and data from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases relating to tuberculosis and from the Mortality Information System were analyzed. Most of the patients were male, white, of low schooling level and from urban areas. Increased extrapulmonary clinical presentation was found and it correlated with the degree of immunological competence. The main reasons for ceasing treatment were cure (reached after longer-than-expected follow-up) and death (of six patients at the beginning of the tuberculosis treatment). Information gaps were found in the tuberculosis notification records and medical files. The study revealed the need for early diagnosis of tuberculosis among HIV-positive patients, improvements in medical records and follow-up beyond the recommended duration, because of changes to the clinical evolution of tuberculosis in cases of comorbidity with HIV. PMID:19448926

  15. Homicides among teenagers in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: vulnerability, susceptibility, and gender cultures.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Ana Rosária; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a quantitative and qualitative study on homicides among teenagers in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, based on a historical series during the 1990s and the life and death histories in this group, with a special focus on 1997. In that year there were 68 homicides in which the victims were from 10 to 19 years old. Of the 68, 62 were males and only 6 females, or a ratio of 10:1, showing that young males are more vulnerable and susceptible to being murdered. The data indicate that cause of death is influenced by gender culture and that homicides are based on power and status symbols characterizing a kind of virility. This expression of virility in the shaping of violence also appears in the domination of the female body observed in homicides with young women as the victims. The life and death histories of these teenagers highlight the pertinence of the gender-based analysis as a theoretical-analytical category, in addition to analyses considering socioeconomic aspects and social inequity. PMID:12488876

  16. Immunological Profile of the Yellow Clam Mesodesma mactroides (Mesodesmatidae) from the Southern Coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva Santos, Juan Jethro; Carvalho, Yuri Bovi; de Alcantara Lopes, Diogo Luiz; Romano, Luis Alberto

    2016-03-01

    The yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Mesodesmatidae) is a sandy beach bivalve that is distributed from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to the south of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The yellow clam population has been declining in recent decades. To increase our understanding of this species, we evaluated the immunological status of yellow clams collected during different seasons from various areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We characterized the hemocytes, determined the differential hemocyte counts (DHCs), calculated the apoptotic index, and evaluated the incidence of parasites in yellow clams through histological analysis. We identified two types of hemocyte (hyaline and granular) that showed significant variation in DHCs among sampling areas during the summer and winter. The apoptotic index only exhibited significant variation during the summer. Histopathological analysis results did not significantly differ among sampling areas. This work demonstrated that environmental variation (e.g., temperature and salinity) associated with anthropogenic actions may be affecting the immune system of yellow clams. However, more studies are needed to determine the full influence of these factors on the yellow clam's immune system and thus contribute to future management and aquaculture of the species. Received May 10, 2015; accepted October 28, 2015. PMID:26913557

  17. Leishmania amazonensis DNA in wild females of Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Mateus, Nathália Lopes Fontoura; Murat, Paula Guerra; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    Studies on natural infection by Leishmania spp of sandflies collected in endemic and nonendemic areas can provide important information on the distribution and intensity of the transmission of these parasites. This study sought to investigate the natural infection by Leishmaniain wild female sandflies. The specimens were caught in the city of Corumbá, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) between October 2012-March 2014, and dissected to investigate flagellates and/or submitted to molecular analysis to detect Leishmania DNA. A total of 1,164 females (77.56% of which were Lutzomyia cruzi) representing 11 species were investigated using molecular analysis; 126 specimens of Lu. cruziwere dissected and also submitted to molecular analysis. The infection rate based on the presence of Leishmania DNA considering all the sandfly species analysed was 0.69%; only Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was identified in Lu. cruzi by the molecular analysis. The dissections were negative for flagellates. This is the first record of the presence of L. (L.) amazonensis DNA in Lu. cruzi, and the first record of this parasite in this area. These findings point to the need for further investigation into the possible role of this sandfly as vector of this parasite. PMID:26602870

  18. Mutation rate estimates for 13 STR loci in a large population from Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mardini, Ana Carolina; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Schumacher, Simone; Chula, Fernanda Goulart Lanes; Michelon, Candice Tosi; Gastaldo, André Zoratto; Maciel, Lila Partichelli; de Matos Almeida, Sabrina Esteves; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles

    2013-01-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms have been extensively used in forensic genetics analysis. Knowledge about the locus-specific mutation rates of STRs improves forensic probability calculations and interpretations of diversity data. To incorporate single-locus diversity information into autosomal STR mutation rate estimations, 13 STR loci were studied during 2007-2009 in 10,959 paternity investigation cases from Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil, covering an overall number of 284,934 allelic transfers. A total of 355 mutations were identified; 348 repeats were gains or losses of one step, three were gains or losses of two steps, and four were gains or losses of not stepwise mutation. The mutation rates ranged from 4.6 × 10(-5) to 2.3 × 10(-3), and the overall mutation rate estimate was 1.2 × 10(-3). The average of the paternal mutation rate (1.8 × 10(-3)) was five times higher than the maternal rate (0.36 × 10(-3)). The observed mutational features for STRs have important consequences for forensic applications, including the definition of criteria for exclusion in paternity testing and the interpretation of DNA profiles in identification analysis. PMID:22072310

  19. [Dental fluorosis in schoolchildren in a county in the mountainous region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Toassi, Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti; Abegg, Claídes

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in all schoolchildren (ages 4 to 18 years, n = 259) from the town of Santa Tereza, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and to investigate associated factors. Data were obtained through a questionnaire and by means of clinical tests. Dean's index was used to determine fluorosis occurrence. Prevalence of fluorosis was 63.7%. The predominant category was very mild (43.6%), followed by mild (12.0%), moderate (7.7%), borderline (7.3%), and severe (0.4%). Approximately 85.0% of the schoolchildren currently have, or have had, access to other topical sources of fluoride. Significant associations were found between place of residence and previous or ongoing fluoride mouth rinsing and prevalence and severity of fluorosis (p < 0.05). There was also a significant association between dental fluorosis and parents' level of schooling, frequency of brushing teeth, fluoride rinsing, and use of fluoride gel (p < 0.05). PMID:15905927

  20. Long-term trends in hydrochemistry in the Paraíba do Sul River, southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovalle, A. R. C.; Silva, C. F.; Rezende, C. E.; Gatts, C. E. N.; Suzuki, M. S.; Figueiredo, R. O.

    2013-02-01

    SummaryThe Paraíba do Sul watershed is an important hydrological resource for southeastern Brazil, that has undergone extensive land use changes related to industrial, agricultural and urban activities. Over 11 years, between 1997 and 2007, a long-term study was conducted to evaluate hydrochemical variation in the basin outlet through estimations of annual fluxes and identification of their controlling factors. River water was classified as Na-HCO3, with TDS ranging from 32 to 132 mg L-1. Variation between seasons was found: cations, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate and chlorophyll "a" had increased values the during low discharge period, while concentrations of DOC, ammonium, nitrite, phosphate and SPM had increased values during the high discharge period. Chloride, sulfate, silica and pH showed no clear relationship with discharge. These patterns also were correlated with hydrological flow paths originating from different sources. Wavelet decomposition was used to characterize precipitation anomalies largely associated both with long-term climate factors (i.e. ENSO) and short-term climate responses from the two discharge periods that were studied. Distinct responses of fluvial hydrochemistry were observed including ENSO-induced fluctuation to be particularly strong for DOC, with annual flux varying approximately 60% around measured median value.

  1. Sex education in the eyes of primary school teachers in Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Denise Quaresma; Guerra, Oscar Ulloa; Sperling, Christiane

    2013-05-01

    Sex education has been included in the National Curriculum of the Brazilian Ministry of Education since 1996 as a cross-cutting theme that should be linked to the contents of each school subject in primary and high schools. This paper presents a study of the implementation of this policy in the primary schools of Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, based on interviews between January 2011 and April 2012 with 82 teachers working in those schools. We found that sex education was not being taught as a cross-cutting theme in any of the schools, and that any lessons were mostly dominated by a biomedical discourse focusing primarily on the reproductive organs, fertility, pregnancy, and contraception. Sexual health and relationships and non-heterosexual sex and relationships were being neglected. Sex education was also considered a possible means of correcting or controlling sexual identities and behaviours deemed abnormal or immoral. We recommend far more discussion of how to implement the National Curriculum recommendations. We call for education courses to provide theoretical and methodological training on sex education for teachers, and recommend that the boards of educational institutions take up sex education as a priority subject. Lastly, we suggest that each school studies local sexuality-related problems and based on the findings, each teacher presents a pedagogical proposal of how to integrate sex education into the subjects they teach. PMID:23684194

  2. Children's eating behavior: comparison between normal and overweight children from a school in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, Darlise Rodrigues; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Maciel, Francine Villela; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior in relation to their nutritional status, gender and age. METHODS: Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children´s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) subscales were used to assess eating behaviors: Food Responsiveness (FR), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Desire to Drink (DD), Emotional Overeating (EOE), Emotional Undereating (EUE), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE). Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9±10.4 months and 49.3% had normal weight (n=163), 26% were overweight (n=86), 15% were obese (n=50) and 9.7% were severely obese (n=32). Children with excess weight showed higher scores at the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0.001) and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively) compared to normal weight children. Differences in the eating behavior related to gender and age were not found. CONCLUSIONS: "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excess weight in children, but no associations with gender and age were found. PMID:25662562

  3. Topology mapping to characterize cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters: BicA (SulP/SLC26 family) and SbtA.

    PubMed

    Price, G Dean; Howitt, Susan M

    2014-09-01

    This mini-review addresses advances in understanding the transmembrane topologies of two unrelated, single-subunit bicarbonate transporters from cyanobacteria, namely BicA and SbtA. BicA is a Na(+)-dependent bicarbonate transporter that belongs to the SulP/SLC26 family that is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Topology mapping of BicA via the phoA/lacZ fusion reporter method identified 12 transmembrane helices with an unresolved hydrophobic region just beyond helix 8. Re-interpreting this data in the light of a recent topology study on rat prestin leads to a consensus topology of 14 transmembrane domains with a 7+7 inverted repeat structure. SbtA is also a Na(+)-dependent bicarbonate transporter, but of considerably higher affinity (Km 2-5 μM versus >100 μM for BicA). Whilst SbtA is widespread in cyanobacteria and a few bacteria, it appears to be absent from eukaryotes. Topology mapping of SbtA via the phoA/lacZ fusion reporter method identified 10 transmembrane helices. The topology consists of a 5+5 inverted repeat, with the two repeats separated by a large intracellular loop. The unusual location of the N and C-termini outside the cell raises the possibility that SbtA forms a novel fold, not so far identified by structural and topological studies on transport proteins. PMID:25222859

  4. Determinação de regiões de órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

    2003-08-01

    Neste Trabalho estamos investigando regiões do sistema Terra-Lua que contêm órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua visando a utilização destas órbitas em futuras missões de veículos espaciais como alternativas de trajetórias com baixo custo de manutenção. Adotando-se o problema restrito de três corpos, Terra-Lua-partícula, a localização e a extensão destas regiões de estabilidade foram investigadas numericamente considerando como estável toda órbita que permanece ao redor a Lua por, no mínimo, 1000 dias com energia de dois corpos da partícula em relação à Lua negativa. A estabilidade de tais regiões está associada a duas famílias de órbitas periódicas simples H1 e H2 e a órbitas quase-periódicas associadas a elas. Uma vez identificadas as regiões de estabilidade passamos a analisá-las introduzindo, paulatinamente, outras interações relevantes ao sistema como as perturbações do Sol (via problema restrito de quatro corpos), das marés, da pressão de radiação e do achatamento terrestre. Os resultados encontrados até o momento mostram que a perturbação do Sol é a única que reduz significativamente o tamanho das regiões de estabilidade. Também estamos investigando o comportamento de tais regiões quando características intrínsecas do sistema como as excentricidades das órbitas da Terra e da Lua e a inclinação da órbita Lua são consideradas. Com este estudo estamos reunindo informações que nos permitirão compreender a evolução das regiões de estabilidade no sistema Terra-Lua, bem como estabelecer parâmetros adequados para a utilização das trajetórias estáveis em futuras missões espaciais. Agradecimentos: Este projeto conta com o apoio do CNPq, da Capes e da Fapesp.

  5. Paleoenvironmental implications of early diagenetic siderites of the Paraíba do Sul Deltaic Complex, eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Amanda Goulart; De Ros, Luiz Fernando; Neumann, Reiner; Borghi, Leonardo

    2015-06-01

    Abundant early diagenetic siderites occur as spherulites and rhombohedral microcrystalline and macrocrystalline crystals in the cores of the 2-MU-1-RJ well, drilled in the Paraíba do Sul Deltaic Complex, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The host sediments of the siderites are siliciclastic, hybrid, and carbonate deposits. Intense pedogenetic processes affected the siliciclastic sediments immediately after deposition, comprising clay illuviation, plants bioturbation, feldspar dissolution, and iron oxide/hydroxide precipitation. Siderite and pyrite are the main diagenetic constituents. The other diagenetic products are kaolinite, smectite, argillaceous and carbonate pseudomatrix, quartz overgrowths, diagenetic titanium minerals, jarosite, and iron oxides/hydroxides. Early diagenetic siderites were separated into four groups based on their elemental and stable isotopic composition, as well as on their paragenetic relationships with the other constituents and with the host sediments. Spherulitic to macrocrystalline siderites from group 1 are almost pure (average: 94.7 mol% FeCO3; 1.2 mol% MgCO3; 2.3 mol% CaCO3; 1.8 mol% MnCO3) and precipitated from meteoric porewaters in continental siliciclastic rocks under suboxic conditions (δ18Ovpdb values range in - 10.28 to - 5.57‰ and the δ13Cvpdb values in - 12.68 to - 4.33‰). Microcrystalline rhombohedral siderites from group 2 have zonation due to substantial Ca and Mg substitution (core average: 78.5 mol% FeCO3; 4.2 mol% MgCO3; 15.7 mol% CaCO3; 1.6 mol% MnCO3; edge average: 74.0 mol% FeCO3; 9.2 mol% MgCO3; 15.6 mol% CaCO3; 1.1 mol% MnCO3), and δ13Cvpdb and δ18Ovpdb values of + 0.17‰ and - 1.96‰, precipitated from marine porewaters in packstones/wackestones under methanogenic conditions. The group 3 is represented by irregular spherulitic siderites with moderate Ca and Mg substitutions (average: 80.2 mol% FeCO3; 7.9 mol% MgCO3; 11.3 mol% CaCO3; 0.6 mol% MnCO3), with δ18Ovpdb values ranging from - 5.96 to - 7.61‰ and

  6. Tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; de Sousa, Keyla Cartens Marques; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Domingos, Iara Helena; de Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and Hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. The present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and Hepatozoon spp. DNA in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. Between January and April 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two without gender registration) in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. DNA extracted from cat blood samples was submitted to conventional PCR assays for Theileria/Babesia/Cytauxzoon spp. (18S rRNA, ITS-1), Ehrlichia spp. (16S rRNA, dsb, groESL), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA, groESL) and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA) followed by phylogenetic reconstructions. Out of 151 sampled cats, 13 (8.5%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, 1 (0.66%) for Hepatozoon spp. closely related to Hepatozoon americanum and Hepatozoon spp. isolate from a wild felid, 1 (0.66%) for Cytauxzoon sp. closely related do Cytauxzoon felis, and 18 (11.9%) for Babesia/Theileria (one sequence was closely related to Babesia bigemina, eight for Babesia vogeli, five to Theileria spp. from ruminants [Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi] and four to Theileria sp. recently detected in a cat). The present study showed that Ehrlichia spp., piroplasmids (B. vogeli, Theileria spp. and Cytauxzoon spp.) and, more rarely, Hepatozoon spp. circulate among stray and domesticated cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. PMID:26187416

  7. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  8. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥ 200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective

  9. Cluster analysis applied to the spatial and temporal variability of monthly rainfall in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; da Cunha, Elias Rodrigues; Correa, Caio Cezar Guedes; Torres, Francisco Eduardo; Bacani, Vitor Matheus; Gois, Givanildo; Ribeiro, Larissa Pereira

    2016-04-01

    The State of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) located in Brazil Midwest is devoid of climatological studies, mainly in the characterization of rainfall regime and producers' meteorological systems and rain inhibitors. This state has different soil and climatic characteristics distributed among three biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal. This study aimed to apply the cluster analysis using Ward's algorithm and identify those meteorological systems that affect the rainfall regime in the biomes. The rainfall data of 32 stations (sites) of the MS State were obtained from the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) database, collected from 1954 to 2013. In each of the 384 monthly rainfall temporal series was calculated the average and applied the Ward's algorithm to identify spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Bartlett's test revealed only in January homogeneous variance at all sites. Run test showed that there was no increase or decrease in trend of monthly rainfall. Cluster analysis identified five rainfall homogeneous regions in the MS State, followed by three seasons (rainy, transitional and dry). The rainy season occurs during the months of November, December, January, February and March. The transitional season ranges between the months of April and May, September and October. The dry season occurs in June, July and August. The groups G1, G4 and G5 are influenced by South Atlantic Subtropical Anticyclone (SASA), Chaco's Low (CL), Bolivia's High (BH), Low Levels Jet (LLJ) and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and Maden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Group G2 is influenced by Upper Tropospheric Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV) and Front Systems (FS). The group G3 is affected by UTCV, FS and SACZ. The meteorological systems' interaction that operates in each biome and the altitude causes the rainfall spatial and temporal diversity in MS State.

  10. Yellow fever outbreak affecting Alouatta populations in southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State), 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Cruz Cardoso, Jader; da Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes; Noll, Carlos Alberto; Silveira, Vivian Regina; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Kanamura, Cristina; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo

    2012-01-01

    The natural transmission cycle of Yellow Fever (YF) involves tree hole breeding mosquitoes and a wide array of nonhuman primates (NHP), including monkeys and apes. Some Neotropical monkeys (howler monkeys, genus Alouatta) develop fatal YF virus (YFV) infections similar to those reported in humans, even with minimum exposure to the infection. Epizootics in wild primates may be indicating YFV circulation, and the surveillance of such outbreaks in wildlife is an important tool to help prevent human infection. In 2001, surveillance activities successfully identified YF-related death in a black-and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya), Rio Grande do Sul State (RGS) in southern Brazil, and the YFV was isolated from a species of forest-dwelling mosquito (Haemagogus leucocelaenus). These findings led the State Secretariat of Health to initiate a monitoring program for YF and other 18 arboviral infections in Alouatta monkeys. The monitoring program included monkey captures, reporting of monkey casualties by municipalities, and subsequent investigations. If monkey carcasses were found in forests, samples were collected in a standardized manner and this practice resulted in increased reporting of outbreaks. In October 2008, a single howler monkey in a northwestern RGS municipality was confirmed to have died from YF. From October 2008 to June 2009, 2,013 monkey deaths were reported (830 A. caraya and 1,183 A. guariba clamitans). Viruses isolation in blood, viscera, and/or immunohistochemistry led to the detection of YF in 204 of 297 (69%) (154 A. g. clamitans and 50 A. caraya) dead Alouatta monkeys tested. The number of municipalities with confirmed YFV circulation in howlers increased from 2 to 67 and 21 confirmed human cases occurred. This surveillance system was successful in identifying the largest YF outbreak affecting wild NHP ever recorded. PMID:22020690

  11. Chromosome numbers, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability of species of Vriesea and Aechmea genera (Bromeliaceae) native to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Dos Santos, Daniel G; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria H

    2004-06-01

    Chromosome number, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability were analyzed in 15 species of two genera, Vriesea and Aechmea, native to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This study is the first cytogenetic analysis of these taxa. The chromosome numbers are all n = 25, consistent with the proposed base number of x = 25 for Bromeliaceae. All examined taxa displayed regular bivalent pairing and chromosome segregation at meiosis. Observed meiotic abnormalities include univalents in metaphase I; missing or extra chromosomes and precocious division of centromeres in metaphase II; laggards in telophase I and anaphase II/telophase II. The high pollen viability (>88%) reflects a regular meiosis. PMID:21653435

  12. [Poor dad, poor child? An investigation of intergenerational income mobility in the 1982 Birth Cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Bertoldi, Andréa D; Carraro, André; Ribeiro, Felipe Garcia; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Barros, Fernando Celso; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2015-06-01

    Brazil is one of the countries with the lowest intergenerational income mobility. This article aimed to analyze intergenerational income mobility in the 1982 Birth Cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. Two methods were used, intergenerational income elasticity and quantile regressions, in order to measure heterogeneity in income mobility as a function of different levels of parents' past income. The results show relatively high income mobility for Brazilian standards. The main explanation is that the data cover the children's income at a younger age (about 23 years). Quantile regressions show higher social mobility in the intermediary social stratum. The results reinforce the notion of two opposite "traps", poverty and wealth. PMID:26200370

  13. Comparative morphology of immature stages of four species of Chinavia (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae), with a key to the species of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenau, Brenda Bianca Rodrigues Jesse; Schwertner, Cristiano Feldens; Grazia, Jocelia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Chinavia Orian (1965) is one of the most diverse genera of Pentatomidae, distributed in the Afrotropical, Neotropical and Nearctic Regions. Thirty-two species are recorded for Brazil, some of them having potential economic impact because they are found on crops and referred to as pests. The morphology of the five nymphal instars of Chinavia armigera (Stål, 1859), Chinavia aseada (Rolston, 1983), Chinavia brasicola (Rolston, 1983) and Chinavia runaspis (Dallas, 1851) are described here. Through a comparative study, identification keys were developed to allow an early identification of the 12 Chinavia species of Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:24039512

  14. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  15. Variations in the Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Rio Grande do Sul-Brazil: A Comparative Analysis between 2002 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gus, Iseu; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Kato, Sérgio; Bastos, Juliano; Medina, Claudio; Zazlavsky, Claudio; Portal, Vera Lucia; Timmers, Rita; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Gottschall, Carlos Antônio Mascia

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the importance of coronary artery disease (CAD), continuous investigation of the risk factors (RFs) is needed. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of RFs for CAD in cities in Rio Grande do Sul State, and compare it with that reported in a similar study conducted in the same cities in 2002. Methods Cross-sectional study on 1,056 healthy adults, investigating the prevalence and absolute and relative frequencies of the following RFs for CAD: obesity, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), dyslipidemias, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes mellitus, and family history, as well as age and sex. Data was collected in 19 cities, host of the Offices of the Regional Coordinators of Health, as in the 2002 study. Results Twenty-six percent of the sample consisted of older adults and 57% were women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 44%, history family 50%, smoking 23%, overweight/obesity 68%, dyslipidemia (high cholesterol levels) 43%, SAH 40%, and diabetes 11%. When compared to the 2002 study, the prevalence of active smoking and sedentary behavior decreased, whereas the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity increased. Obesity is the most prevalent RF in women, and SAH the most prevalent in men. Conclusions The prevalence of RFs for CAD in Rio Grande do Sul State remains high. Hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia are still prevalent and require major prevention programs. Smoking and physical inactivity have decreased in the state, suggesting the efficacy of related campaigns. PMID:26761368

  16. Oxidative stress and hypermethylation induced by exposure of Oreochromis niloticus to complex environmental mixtures of river water from Cubatão do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fuzinatto, Cristiane Funghetto; Flohr, Letícia; Melegari, Sílvia Pedroso; Matias, William Gerson

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of oxidative stress and hypermethylation through lipid peroxidation and DNA methylation, respectively, in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to environmental complex mixture of water from Cubatão do Sul River throughout the year. This river is the source of drinking water for the region of Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Lipid peroxidation was quantified by the rate of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and DNA methylation was quantified by the rate of 5-methyldeoxycytosine (m(5)dC) formation. In all studied sites, the river water samples caused metabolic changes in O. niloticus. MDA formation rates were significantly different when compared to the negative control (except for samples from Site 1 during spring 2010, summer 2011 and fall 2011). All samples (except Site 1, spring 2010) induced increases in the m(5)dC formation rates, and at the end of the study, the values were near the values found in the positive control (potassium dichromate 2.5mg/L). The results showed that samples of environmental complex mixtures of water from Cubatão do Sul River are capable of inducing high levels of oxidative damage and hypermethylation in O. niloticus. PMID:25638525

  17. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  18. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (P<0.001 and P<0.01). The composite pain scores (CPS) in DA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (P<0.01). Electrophysiological results also showed the biphasic increase in discharge rates of C and Aδ fibers of L5 dorsal root in the two strains, and the net change of the discharge rate of DA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The mechanical thresholds decreased after formalin injection in both strains (P<0.01), and the net change in the mechanical threshold in DA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The expression of RT1-B, representation of MHC class II molecule, in laminae I-II of L4/5 spinal cord in DA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (P<0.05). These results suggested that both DA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity. PMID:25861730

  19. Carbon stocks quantification in agricultural systems employing succession and rotation of crops in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michele K. C.; Marinho, Mara de A.; Denardin, José E.; Zullo, Jurandir, Jr.; Paz-González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Soil and vegetation constitute respectively the third and the fourth terrestrial reservoirs of Carbon (C) on Earth. C sequestration in these reservoirs includes the capture of the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its storage as organic C. Consequently, changes in land use and agricultural practices affect directly the emissions of the greenhouse gases and the C sequestration. Several studies have already demonstrated that conservation agriculture, and particularly zero tillage (ZT), has a positive effect on soil C sequestration. The Brazilian federal program ABC (Agriculture of Low Carbon Emission) was conceived to promote agricultural production with environmental protection and represents an instrument to achieve voluntary targets to mitigate emissions or NAMAS (National Appropriated Mitigation Actions). With financial resources of about US 1.0 billion until 2020 the ABC Program has a target of expand ZT in 8 million hectares of land, with reduction of 16 to 20 million of CO2eq. Our objective was to quantify the C stocks in soil, plants and litter of representative grain crops systems under ZT in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two treatments of a long term experimental essay (> 20 years) were evaluated: 1) Crop succession with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril); 2) Crop rotation with wheat/soybean (1st year), vetch (Vicia sativa L.)/soybean (2nd year), and white oat (Avena sativa L.)/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) (3rd year). C quantification in plants and in litter was performed using the direct method of biomass quantification. The soil type evaluated was a Humic Rhodic Hapludox, and C quantification was executed employing the method referred by "C mass by unit area". Results showed that soybean plants under crop succession presented greater C stock (4.31MgC ha-1) comparing with soybean plants cultivated under crop rotation (3.59 MgC ha-1). For wheat, however, greater C stock was quantified in plants under rotation

  20. A new species of Pareiorhaphis (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the headwaters of the Arroio Garapiá, coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edson H L; Lehmann, Pablo A; Schvambach, Lucas J; Reis, Roberto E

    2015-01-01

    Pareiorhaphis garapia, new species, is described based on specimens collected in the headwaters of the Arroio Garapiá, Rio Maquiné basin, a coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all other Pareiorhaphis species in having the nuchal plate covered by thick skin, the exposed posterior process of the cleithrum comparatively narrow, and the last segment of the preopercular ramus of the latero-sensory canal reduced to an ossified tubule. The absence of a dorsal-fin spinelet, the reduced number of plates in the dorsal and mid-dorsal series of lateral plates, and morphometric traits also distinguish the new species from its congeners. The restricted geographic distribution of P. garapia, endemic to a headwater stream of the Rio Maquiné basin, and the syntopic occurrence of P. nudulus are discussed. PMID:26624457

  1. Comparative study of the floral biology and of the response of productivity to insect visitation in two rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L.) in Rio Grande do Sul.

    PubMed

    Blochtein, B; Nunes-Silva, P; Halinski, R; Lopes, L A; Witter, S

    2014-11-01

    Planning the artificial pollination of agricultural crops requires knowledge of the floral biology and reproductive system of the crop in question. Many studies have shown that rapeseed (Brassica napus Linnaeus) is self-compatible and self-pollinated, but its productivity may be increased by insect visitation. In the present study, the floral biology and the response of productivity to insect visitation of two rapeseed cultivars (Hyola 420 and Hyola 61) were analyzed and compared in three regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The rapeseed flowers presented three stages during anthesis, with the time periods varying between the cultivars. Both cultivars are self-compatible, but free visitation of insects increased productivity by 17% in the Hyola 420 cultivar and by approximately 30% in the Hyola 61 cultivar. Therefore, it is concluded that the cultivar Hyola 61 is more dependent on insect pollination than Hyola 420. PMID:25627587

  2. Distribution and population structure of the fish Cyphocharax gilbert (Characiformes: Curimatidae) in the lower Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menezes, M S; Caramaschi, E P

    2007-01-01

    The distribution and population structure of Cyphocharax gilbert in four areas of the lower Paraíba do Sul River and its major tributaries (22 degrees S, 43 degrees W) were analyzed between March 1989 and February 1990. The species was common throughout the area, preferring major rivers with high turbidity and sand-mud substrates and range of length and size of specimens found varied depending on the particular characteristics of the site. A predominance of females was found in only area. Nevertheless, in all areas the bimonthly analysis showed preponderance of one of the sexes in periods before or after spawning. Males prevailed in shorter length classes and females in longer ones. There was a prevalence of young in one area that probably was used as a growth and feeding zone. v. PMID:19086403

  3. Genetic identification of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in an endemic area of a mild spotted fever in Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo Voizzoni, Vinicius; Barbosa Silva, Arannadia; Medeiros Cardoso, Karen; Barbosa Dos Santos, Fernanda; Stenzel, Barbara; Amorim, Marinete; Vilges de Oliveira, Stefan; Salles Gazeta, Gilberto

    2016-10-01

    Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest causes a less severe rickettsiosis, with two cases confirmed until now. The tick species Amblyomma ovale is appointed as the main vector of this bacterium. The southern region of Brazil has reported patients with spotted fever who have milder symptoms. In 2013, during an investigation of rickettsiosis cases, an A. ovale tick was found attached to a man in an area where there were two cases. The parasite was processed for molecular analysis and the rickettsial infection was confirmed based on phylogenetic analysis of genes ompA, ompB and geneD (sca4). In the present study the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest was identified in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Since A. ovale, its main vector, is found frequently parasitizing dogs, animals that can cross international borders freely in southern Brazil, this bacteria can bring major concerns in terms of public health. PMID:27338183

  4. Mercury contents in aquatic macrophytes from two reservoirs in the Paraíba do Sul: Guandú river system, SE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Molisani, M M; Rocha, R; Machado, W; Barreto, R C; Lacerda, L D

    2006-02-01

    This paper reports on a study to determine the Hg content in the five most abundant aquatic macrophyte species (Elodea densa, Sagittaria montevidensis, Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes) in two artificial reservoirs flooded by water diverted from the Paraíba do Sul river, SE Brazil. The potential of these species for Hg accumulation and their role in Hg transport along the river system due to macrophyte management were evaluated. Mercury concentrations were higher in free-floating than in rooted species. Roots were also richer in Hg than were leaves. Dry weight Hg concentrations in leaves and roots from all species varied from 46-246 ng.g(-1) to 37-314 ng.g(-1), respectively. These values are higher than those reported for uncontaminated lakes in Brazil and in other tropical areas and similar to those reported for moderately contaminated sites. Mercury concentrations can be attributed to fluvial transport from the heavily industrialized Paraíba do Sul river basin. Intensive sampling of Pistia stratiotes from two sites in the Vigário reservoir was performed to evaluate the capacity of Hg incorporation in short periods of time. The results showed a significant negative correlation between Hg content and size class of individual plants, demonstrating the importance of juveniles, fast growing plants in absorbing Hg. The foremost impact related to Hg contents in the studied area concerns the periodic removal of macrophytes for reservoir management, followed by disposal in nearby areas. This results in the mobilization of 0.52 to 1.3 Kg of Hg per year, a significant fraction of the Hg burden present in reservoir waters. Disposal of such material may result in Hg leaching to river systems, affecting the Hg transfer throughout the basin. PMID:16680311

  5. A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

  6. Fluorine substitution enhanced photovoltaic performance of a D-A(1)-D-A(2) copolymer.

    PubMed

    Dang, Dongfeng; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo; Mammo, Wendimagegn; Wang, Ergang

    2013-10-18

    A new alternating donor-acceptor (D-A1-D-A2) copolymer containing two electron-deficient moieties, isoindigo and quinoxaline, was synthesized. The photovoltaic performance of this polymer could be improved by incorporating fluorine atoms into the quinoxaline units, resulting in an efficiency of 6.32%. This result highlights the attractive promise of D-A1-D-A2 copolymers for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells. PMID:24000353

  7. Natural infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in long-nosed armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 from Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Mato Grosso do Sul State, with the description of Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae).

    PubMed

    Lux Hoppe, Estevam G; do Nascimento, Adjair Antonio

    2007-03-15

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of long-nosed armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus, from the Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Aquidauana County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Thirteen species of nematodes, comprising seven genera and four families, were recovered from their gastrointestinal tracts. The following descriptors of infection were determined: prevalence, variation of intensity, average intensity and abundance. Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. is first described here. PMID:17071001

  8. Autocorrelation descriptor improvements for QSAR: 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign.

    PubMed

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Mendenhall, Jeffrey; Meiler, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a branch of computer aided drug discovery that relates chemical structures to biological activity. Two well established and related QSAR descriptors are two- and three-dimensional autocorrelation (2DA and 3DA). These descriptors encode the relative position of atoms or atom properties by calculating the separation between atom pairs in terms of number of bonds (2DA) or Euclidean distance (3DA). The sums of all values computed for a given small molecule are collected in a histogram. Atom properties can be added with a coefficient that is the product of atom properties for each pair. This procedure can lead to information loss when signed atom properties are considered such as partial charge. For example, the product of two positive charges is indistinguishable from the product of two equivalent negative charges. In this paper, we present variations of 2DA and 3DA called 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign that avoid information loss by splitting unique sign pairs into individual histograms. We evaluate these variations with models trained on nine datasets spanning a range of drug target classes. Both 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign significantly increase model performance across all datasets when compared with traditional 2DA and 3DA. Lastly, we find that limiting 3DA_Sign to maximum atom pair distances of 6 Å instead of 12 Å further increases model performance, suggesting that conformational flexibility may hinder performance with longer 3DA descriptors. Consistent with this finding, limiting the number of bonds in 2DA_Sign from 11 to 5 fails to improve performance. PMID:26721261

  9. Comprehensive analysis of regulatory elements of the promoters of rice sulfate transporter gene family and functional characterization of OsSul1;1 promoter under different metal stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Smita; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Dubey, Rama Shanker; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions including heavy metal stress impose severe effects on the plant growth and development limiting productivity and yield. Studies demonstrated that changes in genome-wide expression modulate various biochemical processes and molecular components in response to heavy metal stress in plants. Some of the key components involved in such a regulation are the transcription initiation machinery, nucleotide sequence of promoters and presence of cis-acting elements. Therefore, identification of the putative cis-acting DNA sequences involved in gene regulation and functional characterization of promoters are important steps in understanding response of plants to heavy metal stress. In this study, comprehensive analysis of the proximal promoters of members of rice sulfate transporter gene family which is an essential component of stress response has been carried out. Analysis suggests presence of various common stress related cis-acting elements in the promoters of members of this gene family. In addition, transcriptional regulation of the arsenic-responsive high affinity sulfate transporter, OsSul1;1, has been studied through development of Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing reporter gene encoding β-glucuronidase under the control of OsSul1;1 promoter. Analysis of the transgenic lines suggests differential response of the OsSul1;1 promoter to various heavy metals as well as other abiotic stresses. PMID:25807334

  10. Comprehensive analysis of regulatory elements of the promoters of rice sulfate transporter gene family and functional characterization of OsSul1;1 promoter under different metal stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Smita; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Dubey, Rama Shanker; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions including heavy metal stress impose severe effects on the plant growth and development limiting productivity and yield. Studies demonstrated that changes in genome-wide expression modulate various biochemical processes and molecular components in response to heavy metal stress in plants. Some of the key components involved in such a regulation are the transcription initiation machinery, nucleotide sequence of promoters and presence of cis-acting elements. Therefore, identification of the putative cis-acting DNA sequences involved in gene regulation and functional characterization of promoters are important steps in understanding response of plants to heavy metal stress. In this study, comprehensive analysis of the proximal promoters of members of rice sulfate transporter gene family which is an essential component of stress response has been carried out. Analysis suggests presence of various common stress related cis-acting elements in the promoters of members of this gene family. In addition, transcriptional regulation of the arsenic-responsive high affinity sulfate transporter, OsSul1;1, has been studied through development of Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing reporter gene encoding β-glucuronidase under the control of OsSul1;1 promoter. Analysis of the transgenic lines suggests differential response of the OsSul1;1 promoter to various heavy metals as well as other abiotic stresses. PMID:25807334

  11. [Epidemiological trends for malaria in the cities of the upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil 1990-1996].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, W K; Vicente, M G; Silva, M A; de Castro, L L

    1998-01-01

    Through the Regional Office of the Brazilian National Health Foundation in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, we obtained numerical data on malaria for the upper Paraguay basin (UPB): 159 cases in 1990, 126 in 1991, 135 in 1992, 61 in 1993, 143 in 1994, 41 in 1995, and 20 in 1996, the majority of which were imported cases. There were no autochthonous cases in 1990, and since 1991 the rates of over 15% dropped to around 1.60%. Imported cases, corresponding to 0. 63% in 1990, increased in 1991 and 1992 to some 1.50%, and to 3.28% in 1993. Induced cases were recorded only in 1991 and 1992 (less than 1%). Most cases were between 16 and 45 years of age. There was a predominance of Plasmodium vivax in the thick blood smears. Although autochthonous cases of malaria are not the majority, the disease is still an important public health problem in the UPB in the presence of the Anopheles (N.) darlingi vector and human migration into the region. PMID:9878912

  12. Seroprevalence of Brucella ovis in rams and associated flock level risk factors in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, G; Santos, D V; Kohek, I; Stein, M C; Hein, H E; Poeta, A S; Vidor, A C M; Corbellini, L G

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study based on a planned probabilistic sampling was carried out to estimate animal and flock prevalence of Brucella ovis in rams, as well as to determine risk factors at the flock level. Data regarding the flocks were collected by means of a questionnaire applied on 705 farms in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using one-stage cluster sampling. From the 705 flocks, 20 (2.5%, CI95%: 2.0-3.1%) had at least one positive ram. At the animal level, out of 1800 rams, 52 were positive (2.89%, CI95%: 0.4-5.3%). Statistical analysis identified the following as risk factors: average age of rams in the flocks (PR: 1.99, CI95%: 1.19-3.32); farms larger than 5 km(2) (500 ha) on extension area (PR: 7.46CI95%: 2.03-27.43); and the lack of lambing paddocks (PR: 5.56, CI95%: 1.70-18.11). This study provided relevant information for authorities to elaborate plans for the first Brazilian state based B. ovis disease control and eradication program. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that shows the importance of lambing paddocks in order to keep pre-lambing and lambing ewes away from the rest of the flock, the lack of this infrastructure was considered an important risk factor for B. ovis. PMID:26092724

  13. Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Seixas, Gláucia Helena Fernandes; Guedes, Neiva Maria Robaldo; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2006-10-31

    Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil. PMID:16893616

  14. Epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region. PMID:19967228

  15. The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ∼220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed. PMID:25493694

  16. [Quality of the diet of 18-year-old adolescents belonging to the birth cohort of 1993 in Pelotas in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Cristina Bossle de; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this article is to describe the quality of the diet of adolescents according to sociodemographic and behavioral factors. It involved a cross-sectional study with 3,959 eighteen-year-old adolescents belonging to the birth cohort of 1993 in Pelotas in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire with a recall period of 12 months. The diet quality was assessed using the Diet Quality Index Revised (DQI-R). This index ranges from 0 to 100 points and the higher the score, the better the diet quality. The overall DQI-R mean score was 62.4 points (DP). The lowest rates were observed for dark green and orange vegetables (3.0), total vegetables (3.4) and dairy products (3.6). Non-Caucasian adolescents (63.1), from families in which the heads of the household had less schooling (63.6) and belonging to the lowest quintile of the asset index (64.7) had higher average scores in the DQI-R. Lower averages were found among adolescents who smoked (58.5) and who consumed alcoholic beverages (56.0). This study showed that diet quality of the adolescents assessed deserve attention, especially with regard to the intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products. PMID:26602709

  17. Asymptomatic infection in family contacts of patients with human visceral leishmaniasis in Três Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Lúcia Lyrio de; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Sanches, Marcos Antônio; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Leal, Cássia Rejane Brito; Paula, Fernando Henrique de; Pereira, Luís Gustavo; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da; Bóia, Márcio Neves

    2008-12-01

    The Brazilian city of Três Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul State, has experienced an urban outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis since 2000. In 2002, due to the increase in the number of cases, 46 families with cases of visceral leishmaniasis were studied to verify the prevalence of asymptomatic infection in household contacts. Indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA showed a 36.4% positive infection rate. There were no cases of symptomatic disease among these contacts. There was no statistically significant difference in gender or age. Median age was 21 years, and the 10-19-year age bracket was the most heavily affected (23%). As for family characteristics, no differences were observed in schooling or family income; most families (58.7%) owned their homes, which were built of masonry (97.8%) and had adequate infrastructure. All the families reported what were probably phlebotomine sand flies in the peridomicile. In conclusion, asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis infection is frequent and occurs in both males and females, regardless of age. PMID:19082273

  18. Kinematics and geometry of structures in the southern limb of the Paraíba do Sul divergent structural fan, SE Brazil: a true transtensional shear.

    PubMed

    Dehler, Nolan M; Machado, Rômulo; Dehler, Heloisa R S; McReath, Ian; Nummer, Alexis R

    2006-06-01

    Shear zones geometry in the Paraíba do Sul belt, southeastern Brazil, delineates a NE-trending fan-like structure. Shear zones dip towards SE in the northern limb, and towards NW in the southern one. This geometry has been interpreted either due to transpression or to late folding of flat-lying thrust surfaces. Stretching lineation plunges to ENE-ESE in the northern limb and towards NNE-NE in the southern one. Structural data in the southern limb of the divergent fan suggest a two stage kinematic evolution in high-temperature conditions: an earlier stage with top-to-SSW/SW sinistral thrusting and orogenic-parallel tangential motion, and a later stage with top-down to NNE/NE transtensional deformation. We propose a heterogeneous deformation model to explain the observed shear reversal, and suggest that the imposed transpressional displacement gradient may change during progressive deformation due to transient rheological inhomogeneities in bulk pure shear strain. In the earlier stage, the partially molten material could easily accommodate the imposed strain rates, giving rise firstly to the SW-directed shearing. As the thermal disturbance tended to vanish and the convergence increased, the NNE-directed transtensional shearing developed. We propose that the transtensional deformation characterized in this paper could be related to extrusion processes during regional transpressional strain. PMID:16710572

  19. Gastrointestinal parasites and prey items from a mass stranding of false killer whales, Pseudorca crassidens, in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, A L; Pinedo, M C; Barreto, A S

    2001-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of 14 false killer whales, 6 males and 8 females, stranded in June 1995 in southern Brazil, with total standard lengths from 338 to 507 cm, were analysed for endoparasites and food items. A pregnant female had a male foetus of 77.5 cm. Parasites were found in all 14 false killer whales. The nematode Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) was found in the stomach of 57% of the animals and the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma capitatum (Linstow, 1889) Porta, 1908 was present in the intestine of all specimens and showed densities up to 600 m-1. An unidentified cestode (Tethrabothridae) was found also in the intestines of 14% of the individuals. The high infections of B. capitatum and A. simplex were not directly related with the cause of death. In the stomachs of four females, beaks of at least eight specimens of the oceanic and epipelagic species Ommastrephes bartramii (Lesueur, 1821) were found, with mantle lengths ranging from 189.8 to 360.9 mm. The distribution of O. bartramii in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul is consistent with false killer whales feeding in continental shelf waters. PMID:11340462

  20. Phylogenetic and phenotypic relationships among Triatoma carcavalloi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) and related species collected in domiciles in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Marcet, Paula L; Gumiel, Marcia; Takiya, Daniela Maeda; Cardozo-de-Almeida, Margareth; Pacheco, Raquel S; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Dotson, Ellen M; Costa, Jane

    2009-12-01

    Triatoma carcavalloi is considered a rare Chagas disease vector often collected inside domiciles in Rio Grande do Sul State. In this Brazilian state, T. carcavalloi has been collected in the same ecotope (rock piles) with two other species (T. rubrovaria and T. circummaculata), with which it also shares morphological characteristics. Previous morphological studies placed T. carcavalloi in the same species complex ("infestans complex") and subcomplex ("rubrovaria subcomplex") as T. rubrovaria, whereas T. circummaculata was placed in the "circummaculata complex." The phylogeny of a group composed of 16 species of triatomines was reevaluated with the inclusion of T. carcavalloi by Bayesian analysis using mtDNA sequences of subunits 12S and 16S of the ribosomal RNA, and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes. The phenotypic relationship among T. carcavalloi and related triatomines was also inferred from morphometrics. Phylogenetic results indicate that T. carcavalloi is a sister species of T. rubrovaria, and both were recovered as closely related to T. circummaculata. Morphometric studies confirmed the closeness among T. carcavalloi, T. rubrovaria, and T. circummaculata, prompting the placement of the latter species in the "infestans complex" and "rubrovaria subcomplex." PMID:20836820

  1. [The perception of the young and long-lived elderly 'Gauchos' (from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) about the public spaces they live in Resumo].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Joel Hirtz do Nascimento; Andrade, Francini Porcher; Paiva, Tiago Sousa; da Silva, Diovana Ourique; Gessinger, Cristiane Fernanda; Bós, Ângelo José Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    By 2050, the number of Brazilians living in urban areas will be over 200 million and 29% of the population will be elderly. The long-lived elderly are 80 or more years old and the young elderly are between 60 and 79 years of age. The scope of this article was to verify the difference in perception between the young elderly and the long-lived elderly from Rio Grande do Sul (RS) about the urban environment they live in. This is a population-based, observational, descriptive, retrospective study with a quantitative analysis paradigm. Data was analyzed from Elderly Profile research in RS conducted by the Geriatric and Gerontological Institute of PUCRS in partnership with the RS School of Public Health. The sample consisted of 6913 questionnaires answered by the elderly from 59 cities. Data analysis was performed for each age group and independent variables were processed using the Chi-square test, with p under 0.05. Results showed that the perception of difficulties such as a lack of park benches and safety strips, short traffic light times for pedestrians, high steps and bad-smelling public toilets was greater among the young elderly. The long-lived elderly noticed these facts less, though they admitted that they frequent community environments less often. PMID:25715140

  2. Relation of the activities of the IPDF/INPE project (reforestation subproject) during the year 1979. [Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Demedeiros, J. S.; Desantana, C. C.; Alves, E. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The state of Mato Grosso do Sul was selected as the study area to define the recognizable classes of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. by visual and automatic analyses. For visual analysis, a preliminary interpretation key and a legend of 6 groups were derived. Based on these six groups, three final classes were defined for analysis: (1) area prepared for reforestation; (2) area reforested with Eucalyptus spp.; and (3) area reforested with Pinus spp. For automatic interpretation the area along the highway from Ribas do Rio Pardo to Agua Clara was classified into the following classes: eucalytus, bare soil, plowed soil, pine and "cerrado". The results of visual analysis show that 67% of the reforested farms have relative differences in area estimate below 5%, 22%, between 5% and 10%; and 11% between 10% and 20%. The reforested eucalyptus area is 17 times greater than the area of reforested pine. Automatic classification of eucalyptus ranged from 73.03% to 92.30% in the training areas.

  3. [Food insecurity and overweight in first grade students in the municipal school system in São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vicenzi, Keli; Henn, Ruth Liane; Weber, Ana Paula; Backes, Vanessa; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Donatti, Talita; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-05-01

    This cross-sectional school-based study in São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, evaluated the association between food insecurity and overweight in first grade students in the municipal elementary school system. A total of 2,369 students were invited to participate, of whom 847 were examined, and of these, 782 had data available on weight and height. Dietary data were obtained from a parent or guardian. Food insecurity was measured by the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA). Data on weight and height were provided by the Nutrition Service of the Municipal Department of Education. Prevalence rates for overweight and food insecurity were 38.1% and 45.1%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, children with food insecurity had 22% lower odds of overweight. Notwithstanding the inverse association between the exposure and outcome, this sample showed high rates of food insecurity and overweight, revealing a complex relationship and indicating that further research is needed to understand it. Robust public policies are critical for addressing these conditions. PMID:26083182

  4. The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ∼220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed. PMID:25590701

  5. [The role of cultural identities and public health services in the municipalization process taken place in recent decades on small towns of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mejía, Margarita Gaviria; Périco, Eduardo; Oliveira, Laura Barbieri

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents a preliminary results of an ethnographic study in which we observe how is socially experienced the municipality process in six counties of the Forqueta Watershed in Rio Grande do Sul, where the municipal fragmentation has been used as an administrative strategy since the 1990s. Deal about cultural elements and social actions that support construction and/or reconstruction identities to define territories-county's borders. Sociological and anthropological theories have been used to think the identities and the assumption that the integration of social spaces into a territory creates the social necessity to produce a territorial identity, closely linked to a socio-political context and cultural setting. We realize that the decentralization process in small municipalities helps stem the rural exodus, being health services determinant in curbing the migratory flow that characterized these locations reality in recent decades as a result of the agribusiness growth. Today, in these same places, health services represent the main support of collective identity with the territory-county and, instead of emigration, stimulate the immigration. PMID:26017964

  6. The influence of industrial and agricultural waste on water quality in the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Monyque Palagano; Dourado, Priscila Leocadia Rosa; de Souza Rodrigues, Mayara; Raposo, Jorge Luiz; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires

    2015-07-01

    Water quality monitoring is used to determine the impact of human activities on the environment. We evaluated water quality in the Água Boa stream, located within the municipality of Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, by analyzing physico-chemical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, as well as chlorophyll concentrations. Five sets of water samples were collected between December 2012 and November 2013 from three locations within the stream. The results showed the presence of Escherichia coli and antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains and high concentrations of organic matter (total dissolved solids), inorganic species (Mg, Ca, and Fe), and agrochemical residues (thiamethoxam). The main stream water contaminants are derived from urban, industrial, and agricultural activities within the watershed. Given the presence of contaminants, it is important that such findings are disseminated in order to highlight the risks that contact with this water may pose to human health. To preserve the environment and improve site conditions, people would need to participate by demanding that normative national and international standards be respected and that the situation be supervised by the competent governmental agencies; this would make it possible to reverse or minimize contamination problems within the Água Boa stream. PMID:26088756

  7. Virtual observatory publishing with DaCHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Neves, M. C.; Rothmaier, F.; Wambsganss, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building VO and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  8. Origin of the DA and non-DA white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1989-01-01

    Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. 'Primordial' theories, in which the basic bifurcation of the white dwarf sequence is rooted in events predating the white dwarf stage of stellar evolution, are discussed, along with the competing 'mixing' theories in which processes occurring during the white dwarf stage are responsible for the existence of DA or non-DA stars. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th. The non-DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non-DA star.

  9. Salmonella mutagenicity assessment of airborne particulate matter collected from urban areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, differing in anthropogenic influences and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Tatiana S; Gotor, Gemma N; Beltrami, Laiana S; Nolla, Celia G; Rocha, Jocelita A V; Broto, Francesc P; Comellas, Lluis R; Vargas, Vera M F

    2010-09-30

    Urban areas are both major sources and major targets of air pollution. The atmospheric environment receives diverse chemical substances, including genotoxic agents that may affect human health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the atmospheric quality in two urban areas in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil), under the influence of greater (Site 1) or lesser (Site 2) anthropogenic sources. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of environmental interest were quantified and the Salmonella/microsome assay was used for the measurement of mutagenicity. Organic compounds extracted from the airborne particulate matter were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect PAHs of interest (known or possible carcinogens). The organic extracts were also tested for mutagenic and cytotoxic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98, TA100, YG1021 and YG1024, with or without S9 activation. At Site 1, benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP) were found at higher concentrations and mutagenicity (revertants per μg extract) varied from 1.0±0.25 (TA98, no S9) to 5.2±0.45 (TA98, S9). At Site 2, BghiP and IP were present in larger amounts and the mutagenic responses ranged from 0.6 to 3.7 revertants per μg (both in TA98, S9). The occurrence of BghiP and IP may be related to vehicular emissions. These and the other PAHs studied, as well as the nitro compounds, may contribute to the mutagenicity found in these airborne particles. PMID:20643224

  10. Structural and elemental analysis of bottom sediments from the Paraíba do Sul River (SE, Brazil) by analytical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguens, Flávio Costa; Oliveira, Martha Lima de; Ferreira, Amanda de Oliveira; Barbosa, Laís Rodrigues; Melo, Edésio José Tenório de; Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo Veiga de

    2016-03-01

    The Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) is a medium-sized river that flows through the Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro Brazilian states the three most developed states in Brazil. Industrial parks and cities have historically been established along the river basin. The waters of PSR are used in agriculture, industry and human consumption of over 20 million people, including Rio de Janeiro City. Furthermore, the river receives effluent from these activities: agricultural runoff, industrial waste, and domestic sewage. Therefore, PSR has been considered polluted, particularly by heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metals in bottom sediments grains of the PSR, to infer their elemental composition, and to characterize individual sediment grains morphology, a non-destructive methodology - X-ray microanalyses (Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to Energy Dispersive X-rays Spectrometer/SEM/EDS) - was used. Heavy metals - Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Ag, Ba, Au, La, Ce, Nd, Th, Y, Sn, Os and Pb - were detected by SEM/EDS in bottom sediment grains from PSR, predominantly in grains with equivalent diameter ≤10 μm. They occurred as silicates, oxides (hydro-oxides), sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, phosphates and chlorides. All detected heavy metals occurred as, at least, one kind of soluble metal compound, mainly due to ionic exchange from silicates, with the exception of Ag, which was chloride, sulfate or metallic as Os, Au and Pb. These results corroborate heavy metal PSR pollution and food chain risk, considering that near-shore continental shelf is free of heavy metals contamination. Our results also give support to the hypothesis that the PSR estuary can act as a trap for these elements.

  11. Scoring system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in indigenous children and adolescents under 15 years of age in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil *

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Sandra Christo; Marques, Ana Maria Campos; de Oliveira, Roselene Lopes; da Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the process of diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in smear-negative indigenous children and adolescents under 15 years of age with the modified Brazilian National Ministry of Health Scoring System (mBNMH-SS). METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study involving 49 indigenous patients under 15 years of age with tuberculosis, treated between 2007 and 2010 in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. RESULTS: Of the 49 patients, 27 (56%) were under 5 years of age, 33 (67%) had symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis, 24 (49%) were underweight, and 36 (73.5%) had been BCG vaccinated. The tuberculin skin test was positive in 28 patients (57%), 18 (64%) of whom had an induration ≥ 10 mm. Chest X-rays were performed in 37 (76%) of the patients, 31 (84%) of whom had only one chest X-ray taken. Among those 37 patients, the radiological findings were suggestive of tuberculosis in 16 (43%), infiltration/condensation in 10 (27%), and normal in 4 (11%). The Indigenous Health Care Teams made the diagnosis in 31 (63%) of the cases, using the original BNMH-SS in only 14 (45%). We calculated the mBNMH-SS scores for 30 (61%) of the 49 patients. Among the 30 cases scored, a diagnosis of tuberculosis was found to be highly likely, possible, and unlikely in 16 (53%), 11 (37%), and 3 (10%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of highly likely and possible diagnoses was consistent with the standard proportion of cases diagnosed by the teams (90%), demonstrating the epidemiological applicability of the mBNMH-SS for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the indigenous population, within the scenario of the health care provided. PMID:23503490

  12. Palaeobotanical evidence of wildfires in the Late Palaeozoic of South America - Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Mosbrugger, Volker

    2008-12-01

    Fossil charcoal, as direct evidence of palaeowildfires, has repeatedly been reported from several plant-bearing deposits from the Late Palaeozoic of the Northern Hemisphere. In contrast charcoal reports from the Late Palaeozoic deposits of the Southern Hemisphere are relatively rare in comparison to the Northern Hemisphere. Although the presence of pyrogenic coal macerals has repeatedly been reported from Late Palaeozoic coals from South America, no detailed anatomical investigations of such material have been published so far. Here is presented an anatomical analysis of charcoal originating from Early Permian sediments of the Quitéria Outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, located in the central-eastern portion of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This charcoal comes from two different coaly facies, and it was possible to scrutinize between three types, based on anatomical characters of the charcoal. Two of these charcoal types can be correlated to gymnosperm woods, and the other type corresponds to strongly permineralized bark with characteristic features of lycopsids. The presence of charcoal in different facies, ranging from parautochtonous to allochtonous origin, indicates that different vegetation types, i.e. plants which grew under wet conditions in the lowland as well as in the more dry hinterland, have experienced wildfires. Taking into account previous petrographic and lithological analyses from the facies in which the charcoal occurs and from the conditions of the wood and bark fragments, it was possible to speculate that the intensity of such wildfires most probably corresponds to forest-crown fires. Moreover, it is possible to state that wildfires have been a more or less common element in distinct Late Palaeozoic terrestrial ecosystems in the South American part of Gondwana. The data support previous assumptions on the occurrence of wildfires in the Early Permian of the Paraná Basin which were based solely on coal-petrographic data.

  13. Depositional cyclicity and paleoecological variability in an outcrop of Rio Bonito formation, Early Permian, Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, André; Menegat, Rualdo; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; de Souza, Paulo Alves

    2006-07-01

    This article integrates faciological, paleobotanical, and palynological analyses to establish the relationship between depositional cyclicity and paleoecological patterns for the (Early Permian) Quitéria outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, southern Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul state. The basal section of this outcrop represents a coastal lagoon depositional system protected by barriers in microtide conditions, where peat-forming conditions developed in lowlands with ingression of distal alluvial fan deposits. The upper clastic section represents different environmental conditions, originated by the barrier sectioning brought by washover fans. The palynoflora identified in the basal section present a dominance of spores produced by arborescent and herbaceous lycophytes, as well as by sphenophytes and filicophytes, complementary forms of gymnosperm pollen grains. Algae or algae-elements, indicative of fresh, brackish, or marine water, are recorded together with terrestrial spores and pollen grains. The palynological content of matrix-supported conglomerates suggests a close, qualitative similarity with the coaly facies; however, the increase in gymnosperm pollen grains accompanied by a decrease in spores produced by pteridophyte vegetation is remarkable. The autochthonous roof-shale flora related to the clastic upper section is composed of basal stumps of arborescent cormose lycophytes ( Brasilodendron pedroanum), understory vegetation ( Botrychiopsis valida, Lycopodites sp.), small trees ( Coricladus quiteriensis), undetermined filicoid rodheopterid fronds, and parautochthonous elements ( Rubidgea sp., Cordaites sp.). Palynofloras point to floristic similarity between the roof-shale floras and the subjacent coal-forming parautochthonous floras. Correlations between the floristic data and those from high-resolution sequence stratigraphic methods indicate that this interval is associated with the final parasequences of the transgressive tract of Rio Bonito Formation

  14. Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860) and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, F G; Peixoto, M G; Pinto, B C T; Teixeira, T P

    2009-02-01

    Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies) are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone) were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions. PMID:19347144

  15. [Ocurrence of Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888) (Acari: Macronyssidae) on Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl) and Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee) nestlings in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Carolina S; Coimbra, Marco A A; Müller, Gertrud; Brum, João Guilherme W

    2009-01-01

    The Center for Rehabilitation of Wildlife and Center for Selection of Wild Animal of the Federal University of Pelotas has attended two nestlings of Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl) (Strigiformes - Strigidae) and two of Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee) (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae) heavily parasitized by mites, in May 2005 and December 2006, respectively. The nestlings and the nest of P. sulphuratus were collected in the Pelotas urban area after severe storms. The mites were removed, clarified in lactofenol, permanently mounted in Hoyer's medium and identified as Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae). Megascops choliba and Pitangus sulphuratus are reported as host of Ornithonyssus bursa in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. PMID:20040213

  16. The Moon Phases in a Paper Box. (Spanish Title: Las Fases de la Luna en Una Caja de Cartón.) As Fases da Lua Numa Caixa de Papelão

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima O. Saraiva, Maria; Amador, Cláudio B.; Kemper, Érico; Goulart, Paulo; Muller, Angela

    2007-12-01

    material didático de baixo custo para demonstração do conceito de fases de um corpo iluminado. O principal objetivo de nosso material é facilitar a compreensão das fases da Lua da perspectiva de um observador na Terra. O material ajuda na visualização de dois efeitos importantes: (1º) mesmo tendo sempre a metade da "Lua" (representada por uma bolinha de isopor ou de ping-pong) iluminada pelo "Sol" (representado por uma fonte de luz natural ou artificial), nós vemos diferentes frações de sua superfície iluminada, dependendo do ângulo pelo qual a olhamos; (2º) a orientação da borda convexa da Lua nas fases Crescente e Minguante também depende da perspectiva pela qual a olhamos da Terra. O uso de uma caixa fechada permite observar o contraste entre as diferentes fases sem necessidade de estar em uma sala escurecida. Apresentamos também um texto explicativo sobre fases da Lua, enfatizando a dependência da aparência da parte iluminada com o ângulo de visada.

  17. Measurement of D->A Momentum Aperture and Test of D->A Field Qualities

    SciTech Connect

    Halling, Mike

    1992-02-27

    The data presented here were taken during two shifts dedicated to D->A studies. The goal during both of these study periods was a test of the field quality of the D->A channel devices, but for the first study period on 10/21/91 the TBT system was not operational so we simply measured the transfer efficiency as a function of momentum. The conclusion from these measurements is as follows: (1) The momentum aperture of the D->A channel is smaller than expected. (2) The restriction is in physical space is somewhere near A:IKIK. (3) The field quality of the injection channel devices is adequate.

  18. Mineralisation of amethyst-bearing geodes in Ametista do Sul (Brazil) from low-temperature sedimentary brines: evidence from monophase liquid inclusions and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilg, H. Albert; Krüger, Yves; Taubald, Heinrich; van den Kerkhof, Alfons M.; Frenz, Martin; Morteani, Giulio

    2014-10-01

    Fluid inclusion studies in combination with hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur isotope data provide novel insights into the genesis of giant amethyst-bearing geodes in Early Cretaceous Paraná continental flood basalts at Amestita do Sul, Brazil. Monophase liquid inclusions in colourless quartz, amethyst, calcite, barite and gypsum were analysed by microthermometry after stimulating bubble nucleation using single femtosecond laser pulses. The salinity of the fluid inclusions was determined from ice-melting temperatures and a combination of prograde and retrograde homogenisation temperatures via the density maximum of the aqueous solutions. Four mineralisation stages are distinguished. In stage I, celadonite, chalcedony and pyrite formed under reducing conditions in a thermally stable environment. Low δ34SV-CDT values of pyrite (-25 to -32 ‰) suggest biogenic sulphate reduction by organotrophic bacteria. During the subsequent stages II (amethyst, goethite and anhydrite), III (early subhedral calcite) and IV (barite, late subhedral calcite and gypsum), the oxidation state of the fluid changed towards more oxidising conditions and microbial sulphate reduction ceased. Three distinct modes of fluid salinities around 5.3, 3.4 and 0.3 wt% NaCl-equivalent characterise the mineralisation stages II, III and IV, respectively. The salinity of the stage I fluid is unknown due to lack of fluid inclusions. Variation in homogenisation temperatures and in δ18O values of amethyst show evidence of repeated pulses of ascending hydrothermal fluids of up to 80-90 °C infiltrating a basaltic host rock of less than 45 °C. Colourless quartz and amethyst formed at temperatures between 40 and 80 °C, while the different calcite generations and late gypsum precipitated at temperatures below 45 °C. Calculated oxygen isotope composition of the amethyst-precipitating fluid in combination with δD values of amethyst-hosted fluid inclusions (-59 to -51 ‰) show a significant 18O-shift from the

  19. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes. PMID:26606866

  20. Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-02-01

    Three drawings on the back of Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St Anne (circa 1508) have been discovered by researchers led by Michel Menu from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  1. Common colds on Tristan da Cunha

    PubMed Central

    Shibli, M.; Gooch, S.; Lewis, H. E.; Tyrrell, D. A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Eight epidemics of respiratory disease have been observed among islanders of Tristan da Cunha. They seem to be initiated by the arrival of ships and transmission seemed to occur as a result of close human contact but could not always be traced. Islanders suffered from less colds than those in less isolated communities. PMID:5282927

  2. The PAN-DA data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berg, D.; Berman, E.; Bernett, M.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Kaczar, K; MacKinnon, B.; Moore, C.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Votava, M.; White, V.

    1989-05-01

    The Online and Data Acquisition software groups at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have extended the VAXONLINE data acquisition package to include a VME based data path. The resulting environment, PAN-DA, provides a high throughput for logging, filtering, formatting and selecting events. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  3. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  4. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Generating Units § 60.51Da Reporting requirements. (a) For SO2, NOX, PM, and NOX plus CO emissions, the... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 60.51Da Section 60.51Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  5. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial demonstration permit. 60.47Da Section 60.47Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Steam Generating Units § 60.47Da Commercial demonstration permit. (a) An owner or operator of...

  6. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Generating Units § 60.51Da Reporting requirements. (a) For SO2, NOX, PM, and NOX plus CO emissions, the... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 60.51Da Section 60.51Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  7. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial demonstration permit. 60.47Da Section 60.47Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Steam Generating Units § 60.47Da Commercial demonstration permit. (a) An owner or operator of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Generating Units § 60.51Da Reporting requirements. (a) For SO2, NOX, PM, and NOX plus CO emissions, the... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 60.51Da Section 60.51Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  9. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial demonstration permit. 60.47Da Section 60.47Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Steam Generating Units § 60.47Da Commercial demonstration permit. (a) An owner or operator of...

  10. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  11. A Day in the Life at DaVita Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company name means "giving life," the bar for learning and development programs is held high. In this article, the author describes what it takes to graduate from DaVita Academy, the soft skills training program dialysis services company DaVita offers all its employees. DaVita's chief executive officer, Kent Thiry, states that the Academy…

  12. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  13. The DA{phi}NE-Light Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burattini, Emilio; Cinque, Gianfelice; Dabagov, Sultan; Grilli, Antonio; Marcelli, Augusto; Pace, Elisabetta; Piccinini, Massimo; Raco, Agostino; Monti, Francesca

    2004-05-12

    The new Synchrotron Radiation facility at Frascati exploits the intense photon emission from DA{phi}NE, the 0,51 GeV storage ring circulating over 1 A of electrons. Among the three beamlines commissioned, the Synchrotron INfrared Beamline At Da{phi}ne (SINBAD) is fully operational by a brilliant SR beam spanning the entire IR. Recently, the soft X-ray beamline has been characterized and, once implemented the double-crystal monocromator, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is applied on material standards in the distinguishing energy region below 4 keV. An UltraViolet line, presently dedicated to photobiology dosimetry, has also given first results on cell irradiation in the UVB band.

  14. The Real Code of Leonardo da Vinci

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Leiv

    2008-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work. His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In 1506, he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long. This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s. They established that the cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) essentially requires the LDL receptor. In conclusion: this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:19924278

  15. Origin, transport and fate of the dissolved organic matter produced in the watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques da Silva Junior, Jomar; Soares Gonçalves Serafim, Tassiana; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Dittmar, Thorsten; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) is an important river from Southeastern Brazil that flows through the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The PSR is responsible for the water supply of over 14 million of the habitants. Due the human occupation and anthropic pressure, only 8% of it is original forest cover remains in the form of small fragmented patches. The remaining of the basin is mostly covered by grasses, such as pasture and sugar cane. Isotopic studies allows the monitoring of ecosystem changes and promotes specific links between ecology, land use and biogeochemical processes. We investigated the isotopic composition of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in PSR. Our objective was to identify how extensive land use changes, from forest (C3 Plants) to pasture and sugar cane (C4 Plants), have affected river biogeochemistry of organic matter transported by PSR. Water samples were collected at 24 sites along the main channel of the PSR, 14 sites samples at the tributaries and 21 sites samples in the estuarine and marine environmental until 35km of the coast. Sampling was performed in the wet season of the 2013 and the dry season of the 2013. The fluvial and estuarine samples were processed with conventional filtration and the marine samples were processed with the cross-flow filtration. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the PPL cartridges (Styrene divinyl benzene polymer). Isotope measurements, organic carbon and nitrogen concentration were performed with a isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (Thermo Finningan). The 13C and the 15N values ranged from -20.0‰ and -29.0‰, and from -0.80 to 4.59 respectively, while the (C/N)a ratio varied between 8 and 41. The 13C were depleted in 13C at the river samples from the wet season, and in the estuary and marine areas as well. The 13C average values observed during the wet season in the PSR and in the estuarine samples are close to those

  16. [Modello di Management (Mo.Ma) del paziente affetto da schizofrenia: controllo della crisi, mantenimento, prevenzione delle ricadute e recovery con gli antipsicotici LAI].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La schizofrenia colpisce circa l'1% della popolazione e rappresenta un grave disturbo mentale con un notevole impatto anche sul funzionamento sociale, lavorativo e sulle attività della vita quotidiana. Le persone con schizofrenia hanno un tasso di mortalità superiore di 2-2,5 rispetto a quello della popolazione generale. La non aderenza ai farmaci antipsicotici è uno dei più importanti fattori di rischio per le ricadute e le ospedalizzazioni, sia nei pazienti con disturbo cronico sia al primo episodio, e conseguentemente contribuisce all'aumento dei costi sanitari. Gli antipsicotici atipici LAI possono migliorare l'aderenza al trattamento contribuendo a diminuire i tassi di ricaduta nei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia fin dall'esordio. Gli obiettivi primari nella gestione dei pazienti schizofrenici sono diretti, non solo alla riduzione dei sintomi nel breve termine, ma anche al mantenimento fisico e della funzionalità mentale, migliorando la qualità della vita e promuovendo il recupero del paziente. Scopo. Proporre un modello integrato, basato sulle evidenze, che fornisca un algoritmo efficace per il recupero del paziente schizofrenico e indagare l'efficacia e la sicurezza degli antipsicotici LAI nel trattamento, nel mantenimento, nella prevenzione delle ricadute e nella recovery dei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia. Metodi. Dopo un'accurata analisi di letteratura abbiamo identificato, raccolto e analizzato gli elementi qualificanti per un'ottimale gestione del paziente schizofrenico, definendo un modello di gestione e selezione delle alternative terapeutiche. Conclusioni. Il modello di gestione della schizofrenia proposto potrebbe consentire un migliore recupero funzionale del paziente grazie alla scelta di iniziare il percorso terapeutico, fin dalle prime fasi del disturbo soprattutto se in giovane età e al primo episodio, con un farmaco atipico LAI. All'interno dei farmaci antipsicotici atipici la formulazione LAI rappresenta una scelta

  17. Analysis of the characteristics appearing in LANDSAT multispectral images in the geological structural mapping of the midwestern portion of the Rio Grande do Sul shield. M.S. Thesis - 25 Mar. 1982; [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Ohara, T.

    1982-01-01

    The central-western part of Rio Grande do Sul Shield was geologically mapped to test the use of MSS-LANDSAT data in the study of mineralized regions. Visual interpretation of the images a the scale of 1:500,000 consisted, in the identification and analysis of the different tonal and textural patterns in each spectral band. After the structural geologic mapping of the area, using visual interpretation techniques, the statistical data obtained were evaluated, specially data concerning size and direction of fractures. The IMAGE-100 system was used to enlarge and enhance certain imagery. The LANDSAT MSS data offer several advantages over conventional white and black aerial photographs for geological studies. Its multispectral characteristic (band 6 and false color composition of bands 4, 5 and 7 were best suitable for the study). Coverage of a large imaging area of about 35,000 sq km, giving a synoptical view, is very useful for perceiving the regional geological setting.

  18. Asteroid 2012 DA14 To Whiz Past Earth Safely

    NASA Video Gallery

    The small near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 will pass very close to Earth on Feb. 15, 2013. Asteroid 2012 DA14 will be closest to Earth at about 11:24 a.m. PST (2:24 p.m. EST and 1924 UTC), on Feb. 15,...

  19. 40 CFR 60.52Da - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 60.52Da Section 60.52Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Electric Utility Steam Generating Units for...

  20. The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

  1. Da Costa's syndrome or neurocirculatory asthenia.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, O

    1987-01-01

    The syndrome variously called Da Costa's syndrome, effort syndrome, neurocirculatory asthenia, etc has been studied for more than 100 years by many distinguished physicians. Originally identified in men in wartime, it has been widely recognised as a common chronic condition in both sexes in civilian life. Although the symptoms may seem to appear after infections and various physical and psychological stresses, neurocirculatory asthenia is most often encountered as a familial disorder that is unrelated to these factors, although they may aggravate an existing tendency. Respiratory complaints (including breathlessness, with and without effort, and smothering sensations) are almost universal, and palpitation, chest discomfort, dizziness and faintness, and fatigue are common. The physical examination is normal. The aetiology is obscure but patients usually have a normal life span. Reassurance and measures to improve physical fitness are helpful. PMID:3314950

  2. 75 FR 52292 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA...

  3. 75 FR 75868 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Register on August 25, 2010 (75 FR 52292). That NPRM proposed to require a retrofit of the rear passenger... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration,...

  4. Metazoan parasites of Mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus and of Jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) of Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Aline Cristine Pinto; de Aguiar, Gesilene Ribeiro; Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Alves, Dimitri Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Forty-one specimens of mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) and 54 specimens of jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) were collected from the Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between November 2007 and October 2008. These fish underwent necropsy so their infracommunities of metazoan parasites could be studied. The same three species of parasites were collected in the two fish species studied. These were one monogenean, one nematode, and one hirudinean. Cucullanus pinnai (Travassos, Artiga, and Pereira, 1928) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Aphanoblastella sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) were the dominant species with the highest prevalence in P. maculatus and R. quelen. The parasite species of P. maculatus and R. quelen showed an atypical over-dispersed pattern of distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the siluriform hosts and their prevalence and abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.87 ± 0.67 (0-2) and 0.57 ± 0.56 (0-2) in P. maculatus and R. quelen, respectively, and no correlation with the body total length. PMID:20943019

  5. Ichnology of deglaciation deposits from the Upper Carboniferous Rio do Sul Formation (Itararé Group, Paraná Basin) at central-east Santa Catarina State (southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, João Henrique Dobler; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Corrêa, Camila Graziele; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Corrêa

    2015-11-01

    Trace fossil assemblages dominated by arthropod trackways are common in sediments deposited during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. Ichnofaunas preserved in glacially-influenced sedimentary successions were previously reported from Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. The ichnofauna of the Rio do Sul Formation preserved in the rhythmites exposed in Trombudo Central quarries (Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil) is revised in this paper. Cruziana problematica, Diplichnites gouldi, Diplopodichnus biformis, Glaciichnium liebegastensis, Gluckstadtella elongata isp. nov., Helminthoidichnites tenuis, Mermia carickensis, Protovirgularia dichotoma, Treptichnus pollardi and Umfolozia sinuosa were recorded. Two trace fossil suites were recognized. The undermat miners suite is dominated by H. tenuis, indicating the presence of surface grazers (insect larvae, isopods and amphipods). C. problematica, D. gouldi and U. sinuosa dominate the overmat grazers suite, as result of displacement of terrestrial and aquatic arthropods. The integrated sedimentological and ichnological data from Trombudo Central region suggests colonization of ephemeral, shallow water bodies filled by freshwater from glacier melting. The deposition of the rhythmites took place in a glaciolacustrine context represented by shallow ponds in marginal marine settings.

  6. Metal Lines in DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D.; Reid, I. N.; Hünsch, M.

    2003-10-01

    We report Keck telescope HIRES echelle observations of DA white dwarfs in a continuation of an extensive search for metals. These spectra are supplemented with new JHK magnitudes that are used to determine improved atmospheric parameters. Of the DA white dwarfs not in binary or common proper motion systems, about 25% show Ca II lines. For these, Ca abundances are determined from comparison with theoretical equivalent widths from model atmosphere calculations; in a few cases we also obtain Mg, Fe, Si, and Al abundances. If Ca is not observed, we generally determine very stringent upper limits. We compare the data to predictions of previously published models involving the accretion/diffusion of interstellar matter and of comets. The derived abundances are not obviously compatible with the predictions of either model, which up to now could only be tested with traces of metals in helium-rich white dwarfs. By modifying certain assumptions in the published interstellar accretion model we are able to match the distribution of the elements in the white dwarf atmospheres, but, even so, tests of other expectations from this scenario are less successful. Because comet accretion appears unlikely to be the primary cause of the DAZ phenomenon, the data suggest that no more than about 20% of F-type main-sequence stars are accompanied by Oort-like comet clouds. This represents the first observational estimate of this fraction. A plausible alternative to the accretion of cometary or interstellar matter is disruption and accretion of asteroidal material, a model first suggested in 1990 to explain excess near-infrared emission from the DAZ G29-38. An asteroidal debris model to account for the general DAZ phenomenon does not presently disagree with the HIRES data, but neither is there any compelling evidence in support of such a model. The HIRES data indicate that in close red dwarf/white dwarf binaries not known to be cataclysmic variables there is, nonetheless, significant mass

  7. Der Telemanipulator daVinci als mechanisches Trackingsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käst, Johannes; Neuhaus, Jochen; Nickel, Felix; Kenngott, Hannes; Engel, Markus; Short, Elaine; Reiter, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena

    Der Telemanipulator daVinci (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, Kalifornien) ist ein M aster-Slave System für roboterassistierte minimalinvasive Chirurgie. Da er über integrierte Gelenksensoren verfügt, kann er unter Verwendung der daVinci-API als mechanisches Trackingsystem verwendet werden. In dieser Arbeit evaluieren wir die Präzision und Genauigkeit eines daVinci mit Hilfe eines Genauigkeitsphantoms mit bekannten Maßen. Der ermittelte Positionierungsfehler liegt in der Größenordnung von 6 mm und ist somit für einen Großteil der medizinischen Fragestellungen zu hoch. Zur Reduktion des Fehlers schlagen wir daher eine Kalibrierung der Gelenksensoren vor.

  8. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    PubMed Central

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  9. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section 60... Generating Units § 60.49Da Emission monitoring. (a) An owner or operator of an affected facility subject...

  10. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section 60... Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.49Da Emission...

  11. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section 60... Generating Units § 60.49Da Emission monitoring. (a) An owner or operator of an affected facility subject...

  12. Migration of ATLAS PanDA to CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Klimentov, Alexei; Koblitz, Birger; Lamanna, Massimo; Maeno, Tadashi; Nevski, Pavel; Nowak, Marcin; Emanuel De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; Wenaus, Torre

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) is a key component of the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS production jobs, and a substantial amount of user and group analysis jobs, pass through the PanDA system, which manages their execution on the grid. PanDA also plays a key role in production task definition and the data set replication request system. PanDA has recently been migrated from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), a process we describe here. We discuss how the new infrastructure for PanDA, which relies heavily on services provided by CERN IT, was introduced in order to make the service as reliable as possible and to allow it to be scaled to ATLAS's increasing need for distributed computing. The migration involved changing the backend database for PanDA from MySQL to Oracle, which impacted upon the database schemas. The process by which the client code was optimised for the new database backend is discussed. We describe the procedure by which the new database infrastructure was tested and commissioned for production use. Operations during the migration had to be planned carefully to minimise disruption to ongoing ATLAS offline computing. All parts of the migration were fully tested before commissioning the new infrastructure and the gradual migration of computing resources to the new system allowed any problems of scaling to be addressed.

  13. PKC phosphorylates residues in the N-terminal of the DA transporter to regulate amphetamine-induced DA efflux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Bubula, Nancy; Brown, Jason; Wang, Yunliang; Kondev, Veronika; Vezina, Paul

    2016-05-27

    The DA transporter (DAT), a phosphoprotein, controls extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the central nervous system through transport or reverse transport (efflux). Multiple lines of evidence support the claim that PKC significantly contributes to amphetamine-induced DA efflux. Other signaling pathways, involving CaMKII and ERK, have also been shown to regulate DAT mediated efflux. Here we assessed the contribution of putative PKC residues (S4, S7, S13) in the N-terminal of the DAT to amphetamine-induced DA efflux by transfecting DATs containing different serine to alanine (S-A) point mutations into DA pre-loaded HEK-293 cells and incubating these cells in amphetamine (2μM). The effects of a S-A mutation at the non-PKC residue S12 and a threonine to alanine (T-A) mutation at the ERK T53 residue were also assessed for comparison. WT-DATs were used as controls. In an initial experiment, we confirmed that inhibiting PKC with Go6976 (130nM) significantly reduced amphetamine-induced DA efflux. In subsequent experiments, cells transfected with the S4A, S12A, S13A, T53A and S4,7,13A mutants showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced DA efflux similar to that observed with Go6976. Interestingly, cells transfected with the S7A mutant, identified by some as a PKC-PKA residue, showed unperturbed WT-DAT levels of amphetamine-induced DA efflux. These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of select residues in the DAT N-terminal can regulate amphetamine-induced efflux. PKC can act either independently or in concert with other kinases such as ERK to produce this effect. PMID:27113203

  14. G8P[6] rotaviruses isolated from Amerindian children in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during 2009: close relationship of the G and P genes with those of bovine and bat strains.

    PubMed

    Luchs, Adriana; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2014-03-01

    During the 2009 national group A rotavirus (RVA) surveillance, five unusual strains of the human G8P[6] genotype were detected in Brazilian indian children with acute gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to carry out sequence analysis of the two outer capsid proteins (VP4 and VP7) and the inner capsid protein (VP6) of the G8P[6] strains detected in order to provide further information on the genetic relationship between human and animal RVA. A total of 68 stool samples, collected in Mato Grosso do Sul during 2009, were tested for RVA using ELISA, following by reverse transcriptase-PCR and sequencing. RVA infection was detected in 7.3% of samples (5/68). The IAL-RN376 G8 sequence shares a clade with bovine and human strains, displaying highest nucleotide identity to African human strains DRC86 and DRC88, followed by African bovine strain NGRBg8. IAL-RN376 and IAL-RN377 P[6] sequences showed highest identity to human strain R330 from Ireland, and a close genetic relationship to African fruit bat RVA strain KE4852/07. Strains IAL-RN376 and IAL-RN377 display genogroup I VP6 specificity and the I2 genotype, and share high nucleotide identities with human strains B1711, 272-BF and 06-242, and moderate identities with bovine (RUBV81, 86 and KJ9-1) and porcine (HP140) strains. This study suggested that a reassortment between bovine and bat RVA strains could have occurred in animal host(s) preceding the transmission to humans. In the indigenous population, zoonotic transmission is probably fairly frequent as the inhabitants live in close contact with animals under conditions of poor hygiene. PMID:24259191

  15. Gamma Radiation Dose Rate in Air due to Terrestrial Radionuclides in Southern Brazil: Synthesis by Geological Units and Lithotypes Covered by the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-07

    The absorbed dose rates in air due to terrestrial radionuclides were estimated from aerial gamma spectrometric data for an area of 48,600 km{sup 2} in Southern Brazil. The source data was the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project back-calibrated in a cooperative work among the Geological Survey of Brazil, the Geological Survey of Canada, and Paterson, Grant and Watson Ltd. The concentrations of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and K (%) were converted to dose rates in air (nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}) by accounting for the contribution of each element's concentration. Regional variation was interpreted according to lithotypes and a synthesis was performed according to the basic geological units present in the area. Higher values of total dose were estimated for felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, with average values varying up to 119{+-}24 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}, obtained by Anitapolis syenite body. Sedimentary, metasedimentary and metamafic rocks presented the lower dose levels, and some beach deposits reached the lowest average total dose, 18.5{+-}8.2 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Thorium gives the main average contribution in all geological units, the highest value being reached by the nebulitic gneisses of Atuba Complex, 71{+-}23 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Potassium presents the lowest average contribution to dose rate in 53 of the 72 units analyzed, the highest contribution being obtained by intrusive alkaline bodies (28{+-}12 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}). The general pattern of geographic dose distribution respects well the hypotheses on geo-physicochemical behavior of radioactive elements.

  16. A cosmologia no ensino da geografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, S. C.; Chiaradia, A. P. M.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo deste trabalho é auxiliar o professor de Geografia em sala de aula no ensino de tópicos relacionados com a Cosmologia. A idéia deste trabalho surgiu quando foi constatado que o professor de Geografia tem dificuldades de ensinar este tópico. Esta constatação foi feita por uma das autoras ao lecionar este tópico no ensino fundamental e em discussões com outros professores de Geografia. Da mesma maneira que ocorria desde os tempos mais antigos, os alunos têm muito interesse em conhecer os fenômenos que ocorrem no Cosmo, porém os livros didáticos de Geografia utilizados em sala de aula não são ricos em informações sobre este assunto. Assim, o professor de Geografia tem poucas informações para discutir este assunto em sala de aula e não dá a devida importância para este tópico. Então, foi desenvolvido um material de apoio para professores de Geografia sobre a origem do Universo, sua evolução e seu possível futuro evolutivo segundo as mais recentes teorias, com base em perguntas feitas pelos alunos de ensino fundamental e as informações trazidas nos livros didáticos Não cabe a este material inovar e tão pouco trazer uma metodologia de ensino de Cosmologia. Neste material o professor de Geografia pode encontrará um banco de informações, que constitui no estabelecimento de conceitos, teorias e hipóteses, sobre a Cosmologia, em linguagem simples e de fácil entendimento. Para desenvolvê-lo, foram feitas pesquisas não exaustivas em livros e revistas científicas, compilação e discussão em forma cronológica das teorias aceitas sobre modelos cosmológicos. Portanto, este material será apresentado neste trabalho.

  17. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Wenaus, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G. A.; Walker, R.; Stradling, A.; Caballero, J.; Potekhin, M.; Smith, D.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  18. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    SciTech Connect

    Maeno T.; De K.; Wenaus T.; Nilsson P.; Stewart G. A.; Walker R.; Stradling A.; Caballero J.; Potekhin M.; Smith D.

    2011-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  19. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimentov, A.; Nevski, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  20. Geomagnetic observations on tristan da cunha, south atlantic ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, N.; Maule, C.F.; Pedersen, L.W.; Berarducci, A.M.; Macmillan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37?? 05' S, 12?? 18' W, is therefore of crucial importance. We have conducted several sets of repeat station measurements during magnetically quiet conditions (Kp 2o or less) in 2004. The procedures are described and the results are compared to those from earlier campaigns and to the predictions of various global field models. Features of the local crustal bias field and the solar quiet daily variation are discussed. We also evaluate the benefit of continuous magnetic field recordings from Tristan da Cunha, and argue that such a data set is a very valuable addition to geomagnetic satellite data. Recently, funds were set up to establish and operate a magnetometer station on Tristan da Cunha during the Swarm magnetic satellite mission (2011-2014).

  1. Recent Improvements in the ATLAS PanDA Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Caballero Bejar, J.; Compostella, G.; Contreras, C.; De, K.; Dos Santos, T.; Maeno, T.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) in the ATLAS experiment uses pilots to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. The pilots are designed to deal with different runtime conditions and failure scenarios, and support many storage systems. This talk will give a brief overview of the PanDA pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including CernVM File System integration, the job retry mechanism, advanced job monitoring including JEM technology, and validation of new pilot code using the HammerCloud stress-testing system. PanDA is used for all ATLAS distributed production and is the primary system for distributed analysis. It is currently used at over 130 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its further evolution.

  2. The role of transparency in da Vinci stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Zannoli, Marina; Mamassian, Pascal

    2011-10-15

    The majority of natural scenes contains zones that are visible to one eye only. Past studies have shown that these monocular regions can be seen at a precise depth even though there are no binocular disparities that uniquely constrain their locations in depth. In the so-called da Vinci stereopsis configuration, the monocular region is a vertical line placed next to a binocular rectangular occluder. The opacity of the occluder has been mentioned to be a necessary condition to obtain da Vinci stereopsis. However, this opacity constraint has never been empirically tested. In the present study, we tested whether da Vinci stereopsis and perceptual transparency can interact using a classical da Vinci configuration in which the opacity of the occluder varied. We used two different monocular objects: a line and a disk. We found no effect of the opacity of the occluder on the perceived depth of the monocular object. A careful analysis of the distribution of perceived depth revealed that the monocular object was perceived at a depth that increased with the distance between the object and the occluder. The analysis of the skewness of the distributions was not consistent with a double fusion explanation, favoring an implication of occlusion geometry in da Vinci stereopsis. A simple model that includes the geometry of the scene could account for the results. In summary, the mechanism responsible to locate monocular regions in depth is not sensitive to the material properties of objects, suggesting that da Vinci stereopsis is solved at relatively early stages of disparity processing. PMID:21906614

  3. Situação da Mulher na Astronomia Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Adriana V. R.

    2007-07-01

    O conteúdo desse texto surgiu de uma apresentação de mesmo título que fiz na XXXI Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB) em 2005. Esse tema foi inspirado originalmente pela minha participação no "2nd UIPAP International Conference on Women in Physics" realizado entre 23 e 25 de maio de 2005 no Rio de Janeiro. Essa é uma conferência internacional que acontece de três em três anos, sendo que a primeira ocorreu em 2002 na cidade de Paris, França. Participei dessa conferência como membro da delegação da Sociedade Brasileira de Física e um dos trabalhos que apresentei versava sobre a situação das mulheres na Astronomia brasileira, cujos resultados principais discorro a seguir. A situação das astrônomas, baseada nos dados dos sócios da SAB coletados no final de 2004, é comparada com a das físicas brasileiras e também com as nossas colegas americanas. Os dados identificam ainda uma maior evasão da carreira por parte das mulheres do que os homens. Alguns dos possíveis motivos da evasão são discutidos, como o desejo de constituir família e/ou isolamento. Resultados um tanto preocupantes com relação à distribuição de bolsas de produtividade do CNPq também são apresentados. As principais discussões e estratégias recomendadas nesse congresso são mencionadas de forma resumida ao final.

  4. The future of PanDA in ATLAS distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favour of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addition to new challenges of scale, heterogeneity and increasing user base. PanDA will need to handle rapidly changing computing infrastructure, will require factorization of code for easier deployment, will need to incorporate additional information sources including network metrics in decision making, be able to control network circuits, handle dynamically sized workload processing, provide improved visualization, and face many other challenges. In this talk we will focus on the new features, planned or recently implemented, that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  5. Publishing Planetary Data to the VO using DaCHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.

    2014-04-01

    Publishing to the Virtual Observatory has many advantages, but between standards compliance, registration, data organisation, and server operation it is also requires a nontrivial effort if starting from scratch. The DaCHS software from the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory offers a packaged solution letting publishers concentrate on working with their own data and metadata as much as possible. For the planetary community, publishing is further facilitated by built-in support for the EPN-TAP data model. This contribution will show a typical publishing workflow together with a brief overview of how DaCHS meshes in with the VO and Web-based data usage.

  6. Asteroid 1986 DA - Radar evidence for a metallic composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.; Rosema, K. D.; Campbell, D. B.; Chandler, J. F.; Hine, A. A.; Hudson, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Echoes from the near-earth object 1986 DA show it to be significantly more reflective than other radar-detected asteroids. This result supports the hypothesis that 1986 DA is a piece of NiFe metal derived from the interior of a much larger object that melted, differentiated, cooled, and subsequently was disrupted in a catastrophic collision. This 2-kilometer asteroid, which appears smooth at centimeter to meter scales but extremely irregular at 10- to 100-meter scales, might be (or have been a part of) the parent body of some iron meteorites.

  7. Identification of domains on the extrinsic 23 kDa protein possibly involved in electrostatic interaction with the extrinsic 33 kDa protein in spinach photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Tohri, Akihiko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Ohta, Hisataka; Inoue, Yasunori; Enami, Isao

    2004-03-01

    To elucidate the domains on the extrinsic 23 kDa protein involved in electrostatic interaction with the extrinsic 33 kDa protein in spinach photosystem II, we modified amino or carboxyl groups of the 23 kDa protein to uncharged methyl ester groups with N-succinimidyl propionate or glycine methyl ester in the presence of a water-soluble carbodiimide, respectively. The N-succinimidyl propionate-modified 23 kDa protein did not bind to the 33 kDa protein associated with PSII membranes, whereas the glycine methyl ester-modified 23 kDa protein completely bound. This indicates that positive charges on the 23 kDa protein are important for electrostatic interaction with the 33 kDa protein associated with the PSII membranes. Mapping of the N-succinimidyl propionate-modified sites of the 23 kDa protein was performed using Staphylococcus V8 protease digestion of the modified protein followed by determination of the mass of the resultant peptide fragments with MALDI-TOF MS. The results showed that six domains (Lys11-Lys14, Lys27-Lys38, Lys40, Lys90-Lys96, Lys143-Lys152, Lys166-Lys174) were modified with N-succinimidyl propionate. In these domains, Lys11, Lys13, Lys33, Lys38, Lys143, Lys166, Lys170 and Lys174 were wholly conserved in the 23 kDa protein from 12 species of higher plants. These positively charged lysyl residues on the 23 kDa protein may be involved in electrostatic interactions with the negatively charged carboxyl groups on the 33 kDa protein, the latter has been suggested to be important for the 23 kDa binding [Bricker, T.M. & Frankel, L.K. (2003) Biochemistry42, 2056-2061]. PMID:15009208

  8. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  9. Training and Health. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs in the fields of health and medicine that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) CYTOTRAIN (a transnational vocational training program in cervical cancer screening); (2) Apollo (a program of open and distance learning for paramedical…

  10. The DaVinci Project: Multimedia in Art and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; Schlosser, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of the DaVinci Project, a collaboration of students, teachers, and researchers in chemistry and art to develop multimedia materials for grades 3-12 visualizing basic concepts in chemistry and visual art. Topics addressed include standards in art and science; the conceptual framework for the project; and project goals,…

  11. The Potential da Vinci in All of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petto, Sarah; Petto, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by…

  12. DATA ASSESSMENT REPORTS FOR CEMS AT SUBPART DA FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA promulgated minimum quality assurance (QA) requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) in 40 CFR Part 60 Appendix F. Appendix F requires Da source owners to develop site-specific QA plans and report the results of EPA specified QA activities each calendar q...

  13. Asteroid 1986 DA: Radar evidence for a metallic composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, Steven J.; Campbell, D. B.; Chandler, J. F.; Hine, A. A.; Hudson, R. S.; Rosema, K. D.; Shapiro, Irwin I.

    1991-01-01

    Radar observations of the near-Earth asteroid 1986 DA were carried out at the Arecibo Observatory in April 1986, two months after its discovery. Radar results are consistent with the hypothesis that 1986 HA is a piece of NiFe metal derived from the interior of a much larger object that melted, differentiated, cooled and subsequently was disrupted in a catastrophic collision. This 2-km asteroid might be (or have been part of) the parent body of some iron meteorites. Or 1986 DA might share the parentage and/or part of the dynamical history of some meteorites without ever having contributed any of its own ejecta to our meteorite sample. Analysis of the samples returned from 1986 DA might ultimately involve economic considerations. Meteoritic metal is mostly iron with about 8 percent nickel, but also contains substantial concentrations of precious and strategic metals, including approx. 1 ppm of gold and approx. 10 ppm of platinum group elements. If these abundances apply to 1986 DA, it contains some 10(exp 16) g of iron, 10 (exp 15) g of nickel, 10(exp 11) g of platinum group metals, and 10(exp 10) g of gold.

  14. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... potential combustion concentration (80 percent reduction) for each 24-hour period of steam generator... owner or operator of a fluidized bed combustion electric utility steam generator (atmospheric or... Steam Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.47Da...

  15. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... potential combustion concentration (80 percent reduction) for each 24-hour period of steam generator... owner or operator of a fluidized bed combustion electric utility steam generator (atmospheric or... Steam Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.47Da...

  16. Women and Technical Professions. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…

  17. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  18. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  19. 49 CFR 178.58 - Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.58 Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4DA is a welded steel sphere (two...

  20. 49 CFR 178.58 - Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.58 Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4DA is a welded steel sphere (two...

  1. In vivo breakdown products of the 32 kDa thylakoid herbicide binding protein. [Spirodela oligorrhiza

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.M.; Mattoo, A.K.; Gaba, V.; Edelman, M.

    1986-04-01

    The 32 kDa herbicide binding protein of PSII is degraded rapidly in the light. This phenomenon was investigated in Spirodela oligorrhiza. When fronds were radiolabeled in the presence of cycloheximide only the chloroplast-encoded proteins were labeled. Under these conditions, a breakdown product of 23.5 kDa was observed. This polypeptide was further degraded with kinetics similar to that of the 32 kDa protein. The 23.5 kDa polypeptide cross-reacted with an antibody specific to the 32 kDa protein. By protease digestion it was determined that the 23.5 kDa polypeptide is the intact N-terminal piece of the 32 kDa protein. Thus, this product corresponds to the membrane anchor of the 32 kDa protein. Using the same antibody, breakdown products of 16 kDa, 14 kDa and 12 kDa were observed. These products have also been observed in Zea mays and Solanum nigrum. Using DCMU during pulse-chase experiments at different light intensities, evidence was obtained that the 23.5 kDa breakdown product is generated in vivo.

  2. Roles and Delegation of Authority (R/DA) System

    SciTech Connect

    ABBOTT,JOHN P.; HUTCHINS,JAMES C.; SCHOCH,DAVID G.

    1999-11-01

    The processes of defining managerial roles and providing for delegation of authority are essential to any enterprise. At most large organizations, these processes are defined in policy manuals and through sets of standard operating procedures for many, if not all, business and administrative functions. Many of these staff-initiated, administrative functions require the routing of documents for approval to one or more levels of management. These employee-oriented, back office types of workflows tend to require more flexibility in determining to whom these documents should go to, while, at the same time, providing the responsible parties with the flexibility to delegate their approval authority or allow others to review their work. Although this practice is commonplace in manual, paper-based processes that exist in many organizations, it is difficult to provide the same flexibility in the more structured, electronic-based, workflow systems. The purpose of this report is to present a framework or architecture for creating a R/DA system and provide some insights associated with its design and utilization. To improve understanding and clarify subsequent discussion, the goals and requirements for the major R/DA system components, namely, the database and interface modules, are initially presented along with the identification of important concepts and the definition of critical terms. Next high-level functions relating the types of inputs to the outputs of the R/DA interface module are introduced and discussed. Then the relationships between the major R/DA modules and the primary components associated with its creation and maintenance are presented and analyzed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn relative to the advantages associated with developing a R/DA system for use in implementing an enterprise-wide, work-facilitating information system.

  3. JCoDA: a tool for detecting evolutionary selection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The incorporation of annotated sequence information from multiple related species in commonly used databases (Ensembl, Flybase, Saccharomyces Genome Database, Wormbase, etc.) has increased dramatically over the last few years. This influx of information has provided a considerable amount of raw material for evaluation of evolutionary relationships. To aid in the process, we have developed JCoDA (Java Codon Delimited Alignment) as a simple-to-use visualization tool for the detection of site specific and regional positive/negative evolutionary selection amongst homologous coding sequences. Results JCoDA accepts user-inputted unaligned or pre-aligned coding sequences, performs a codon-delimited alignment using ClustalW, and determines the dN/dS calculations using PAML (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Maximum Likelihood, yn00 and codeml) in order to identify regions and sites under evolutionary selection. The JCoDA package includes a graphical interface for Phylip (Phylogeny Inference Package) to generate phylogenetic trees, manages formatting of all required file types, and streamlines passage of information between underlying programs. The raw data are output to user configurable graphs with sliding window options for straightforward visualization of pairwise or gene family comparisons. Additionally, codon-delimited alignments are output in a variety of common formats and all dN/dS calculations can be output in comma-separated value (CSV) format for downstream analysis. To illustrate the types of analyses that are facilitated by JCoDA, we have taken advantage of the well studied sex determination pathway in nematodes as well as the extensive sequence information available to identify genes under positive selection, examples of regional positive selection, and differences in selection based on the role of genes in the sex determination pathway. Conclusions JCoDA is a configurable, open source, user-friendly visualization tool for performing evolutionary

  4. [Lobectomy for lung cancer using the Da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-05-01

    Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci surgical system has attracted attention because of excellent operability without shaking by joint forceps under the clear vision of a three-dimensional high-definition camera in lung cancer surgery. Although this form of advanced medical care is not yet approved for insurance coverage, it is at the stage of clinical research and expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of the lung parenchyma or bronchus. Lung cancer surgery with the da Vinci system has the advantage of combining thoracotomy and minimally invasive surgery in video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, safety management, education, and significant cost are problems to be resolved. Several important issues such as sharing knowledge and technology of robotic surgery, education, training, development of new instruments, and acquisition of advanced medical insurance are discussed for the future development of robotic surgical systems. PMID:24946522

  5. DaVinci's Mona Lisa entering the next dimension.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hesslinger, Vera M

    2013-01-01

    For several of Leonardo da Vinci's paintings, such as The Virgin and Child with St Anne or the Mona Lisa, there exist copies produced by his own studio. In case of the Mona Lisa, a quite exceptional, rediscovered studio copy was presented to the public in 2012 by the Prado Museum in Madrid. Not only does it mirror its famous counterpart superficially; it also features the very same corrections to the lower layers, which indicates that da Vinci and the 'copyist' must have elaborated their panels simultaneously. On the basis of subjective (thirty-two participants estimated painter-model constellations) as well as objective data (analysis of trajectories between landmarks of both paintings), we revealed that both versions differ slightly in perspective. We reconstructed the original studio setting and found evidence that the disparity between both paintings mimics human binocular disparity. This points to the possibility that the two Giocondas together might represent the first stereoscopic image in world history. PMID:24303752

  6. TA-DA: A TOOL FOR ASTROPHYSICAL DATA ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    We present the Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis (TA-DA), a new software aimed to greatly simplify and improve the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models, and allow the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. Its flexibility allows one to address a number of such problems: from the interpolation of stellar models, or sets of stellar physical parameters in general, to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units; from the analysis of observed color-magnitude diagrams to a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data. TA-DA is available as a pre-compiled Interactive Data Language widget-based application; its graphical user interface makes it considerably user-friendly. In this paper, we describe the software and its functionalities.

  7. The Da Vinci code dynamically de-coded.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mariam

    2005-01-01

    The novel The Da Vinci Code, by Dan Brown has been on best-seller lists for over two years. An examination of Brown's previous novels reveals a well-designed plot line shared by all four novels that not only makes them good "thrillers" but also creates a mythological structure to the novels that draws on common unconscious fantasies in the same way that fairy tales do. One aspect of this mythological structure is the use of evil conspiracies (and benign ones as well) for the protagonist to overcome. In addition, The Da Vinci Code presents a religious theme involving legends about Mary Magdalene. This theme touches on the role of a feminine aspect to divinity in allowing for an erotic connection with the divine. PMID:16448349

  8. The da Vinci robot in right adrenalectomy: considerations on technique.

    PubMed

    D'Annibale, Annibale; Fiscon, Valentino; Trevisan, Paolo; Pozzobon, Maurizia; Gianfreda, Valeria; Sovernigo, Gianna; Morpurgo, Emilio; Orsini, Camillo; Del Monte, Daniele

    2004-02-01

    The da Vinci Robotic System (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA) became available at the General Surgery Department of Camposampiero Hospital in May 2001. From May 2001 to October 2002, 139 robotic operations were performed, one of which was a right adrenalectomy for a right adrenal mass. The progressive growth of the mass was the indication for surgical excision. Surgical adrenalectomy was successfully completed with da Vinci Robotic System using 5 ports (3 for the robotic system, 2 as service trocars). The wrist-like movements of the instrument's tip easily enabled the detachment of the right hepatic lobe from the gland and vessel isolation, while the 3-dimensional vision facilitated dissection of the veins from the vena cava. PMID:15259586

  9. PanDaTox: a tool for accelerated metabolic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2012-04-18

    Metabolic engineering is often facilitated by cloning of genes encoding enzymes from various heterologous organisms into E. coli. Such engineering efforts are frequently hampered by foreign genes that are toxic to the E. coli host. We have developed PanDaTox (www.weizmann.ac.il/pandatox), a web-based resource that provides experimental toxicity information for more than 1.5 million genes from hundreds of different microbial genomes. The toxicity predictions, which were extensively experimentally verified, are based on serial cloning of genes into E. coli as part of the Sanger whole genome shotgun sequencing process. PanDaTox can accelerate metabolic engineering projects by allowing researchers to exclude toxic genes from the engineering plan and verify the clonability of selected genes before the actual metabolic engineering experiments are conducted.

  10. Improving Security in the ATLAS PanDA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The security challenges faced by users of the grid are considerably different to those faced in previous environments. The adoption of pilot jobs systems by LHC experiments has mitigated many of the problems associated with the inhomogeneities found on the grid and has greatly improved job reliability; however, pilot jobs systems themselves must then address many security issues, including the execution of multiple users' code under a common 'grid' identity. In this paper we describe the improvements and evolution of the security model in the ATLAS PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system. We describe the security in the PanDA server which is in place to ensure that only authorized members of the VO are allowed to submit work into the system and that jobs are properly audited and monitored. We discuss the security in place between the pilot code itself and the PanDA server, ensuring that only properly authenticated workload is delivered to the pilot for execution. When the code to be executed is from a 'normal' ATLAS user, as opposed to the production system or other privileged actor, then the pilot may use an EGEE developed identity switching tool called gLExec. This changes the grid proxy available to the job and also switches the UNIX user identity to protect the privileges of the pilot code proxy. We describe the problems in using this system and how they are overcome. Finally, we discuss security drills which have been run using PanDA and show how these improved our operational security procedures.

  11. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an alternative to the requirements specified in either paragraph (l... § 60.58b(i)(3) of subpart Eb of this part. (ii) Each 1-hour CO emissions average is calculated using... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section...

  12. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... § 60.58b(i)(3) of subpart Eb of this part. (ii) Each 1-hour CO emissions average is calculated using... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section...

  13. Surgical treatment of parietal defects with "da Vinci" surgical robot.

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, D; Paun, S

    2012-06-12

    The robotic surgery has come through the development of telemedicine and minimally invasive surgery concepts, being developed in the military medicine by NASA during the years 1970-1980. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present our experience in the new field of the robotic surgery, by analyzing the results obtained over a lot of 20 patients operated with the "da Vinci" robot within the last 5 years in the Clinical Emergency Hospital Bucharest for various abdominal defects. PMID:22802899

  14. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  15. The ATLAS PanDA Pilot in Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Caballero, J.; De, K.; Maeno, T.; Stradling, A.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) [1-2] was designed to meet ATLAS [3] requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. Submitted jobs are executed on worker nodes by pilot jobs sent to the grid sites by pilot factories. This paper provides an overview of the PanDA pilot [4] system and presents major features added in light of recent operational experience, including multi-job processing, advanced job recovery for jobs with output storage failures, gLExec [5-6] based identity switching from the generic pilot to the actual user, and other security measures. The PanDA system serves all ATLAS distributed processing and is the primary system for distributed analysis; it is currently used at over 100 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing real LHC data on the OSG [7], EGI [8] and Nordugrid [9-10] infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its evolution.

  16. Common commercial cosmetic products induce arthritis in the DA rat.

    PubMed Central

    Sverdrup, B; Klareskog, L; Kleinau, S

    1998-01-01

    Many different agents, including mineral oil and silicone, have the capacity to act as immunological adjuvants, i.e., they can contribute to the activation of the immune system. Some adjuvants, including mineral oil, are known to induce arthritis in certain strains of rats after intradermal injection or percutaneous application. The aim of this study was to determine if common commercial cosmetic products containing mineral oil could induce arthritis in the highly susceptible DA (Dark Agouti) rat. Intradermal injection of five out of eight assayed cosmetic products without further additives resulted in arthritis with synovitis. One of the products induced a very aggressive arthritis, which had declined after 5-9 weeks. When this product was also assayed for arthritogenicity upon percutaneous administration, it induced a mild and transient arthritis in 5 out of 10 DA rats, whereas control animals showed no clinical signs of joint involvement. No arthritic reaction was seen in rats after peroral feeding with the most arthritogenic product or by intravaginal application of Freund's adjuvants. Silicone gel implants in DA rats did not cause arthritis. We conclude that mineral oils included in common commercially available products retain their adjuvant properties and are arthritogenic in the presently investigated arthritis-prone rat strain. There is yet no evidence that mineral oils present in cosmetics may contribute to arthritis in humans, but we suggest that this question should be subject to further investigation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9417771

  17. OpenDA-NEMO framework for ocean data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Altaf, Muhammad Umer; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Data assimilation methods provide a means to handle the modeling errors and uncertainties in sophisticated ocean models. In this study, we have created an OpenDA-NEMO framework unlocking the data assimilation tools available in OpenDA for use with NEMO models. This includes data assimilation methods, automatic parallelization, and a recently implemented automatic localization algorithm that removes spurious correlations in the model based on uncertainties in the computed Kalman gain matrix. We have set up a twin experiment where we assimilate sea surface height (SSH) satellite measurements. From the experiments, we can conclude that the OpenDA-NEMO framework performs as expected and that the automatic localization significantly improves the performance of the data assimilation algorithm by successfully removing spurious correlations. Based on these results, it looks promising to extend the framework with new kinds of observations and work on improving the computational speed of the automatic localization technique such that it becomes feasible to include large number of observations.

  18. Amelioration of Auditory Response by DA9801 in Diabetic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Bin Na; Her, You Ri; Castañeda, Rodrigo; Moon, Hyo Won

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that involves disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, and diabetic hearing loss. Recently, neurotrophin has become a treatment target that has shown to be an attractive alternative in recovering auditory function altered by DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA9801, a mixture of Dioscorea nipponica and Dioscorea japonica extracts, in the auditory function damage produced in a STZ-induced diabetic model and to provide evidence of the mechanisms involved in enhancing these protective effects. We found a potential application of DA9801 on hearing impairment in the STZ-induced diabetic model, demonstrated by reducing the deterioration produced by DM in ABR threshold in response to clicks and normalizing wave I–IV latencies and Pa latencies in AMLR. We also show evidence that these effects might be elicited by inducing NGF related through Nr3c1 and Akt. Therefore, this result suggests that the neuroprotective effects of DA9801 on the auditory damage produced by DM may be affected by NGF increase resulting from Nr3c1 via Akt transformation. PMID:25878713

  19. Amelioration of Auditory Response by DA9801 in Diabetic Mouse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Ro; Hong, Bin Na; Her, You Ri; Castañeda, Rodrigo; Moon, Hyo Won; Kang, Tong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that involves disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, and diabetic hearing loss. Recently, neurotrophin has become a treatment target that has shown to be an attractive alternative in recovering auditory function altered by DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA9801, a mixture of Dioscorea nipponica and Dioscorea japonica extracts, in the auditory function damage produced in a STZ-induced diabetic model and to provide evidence of the mechanisms involved in enhancing these protective effects. We found a potential application of DA9801 on hearing impairment in the STZ-induced diabetic model, demonstrated by reducing the deterioration produced by DM in ABR threshold in response to clicks and normalizing wave I-IV latencies and Pa latencies in AMLR. We also show evidence that these effects might be elicited by inducing NGF related through Nr3c1 and Akt. Therefore, this result suggests that the neuroprotective effects of DA9801 on the auditory damage produced by DM may be affected by NGF increase resulting from Nr3c1 via Akt transformation. PMID:25878713

  20. OpenDA-NEMO framework for ocean data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Altaf, Muhammad Umer; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Data assimilation methods provide a means to handle the modeling errors and uncertainties in sophisticated ocean models. In this study, we have created an OpenDA-NEMO framework unlocking the data assimilation tools available in OpenDA for use with NEMO models. This includes data assimilation methods, automatic parallelization, and a recently implemented automatic localization algorithm that removes spurious correlations in the model based on uncertainties in the computed Kalman gain matrix. We have set up a twin experiment where we assimilate sea surface height (SSH) satellite measurements. From the experiments, we can conclude that the OpenDA-NEMO framework performs as expected and that the automatic localization significantly improves the performance of the data assimilation algorithm by successfully removing spurious correlations. Based on these results, it looks promising to extend the framework with new kinds of observations and work on improving the computational speed of the automatic localization technique such that it becomes feasible to include large number of observations.

  1. Basic principles of pharmaceutical science in Ayurvĕda.

    PubMed

    Subhose, Varanasi; Srinivas, Pitta; Narayana, Ala

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceutical is one of the allied branches of science, which is closely associated with Medical science. Today pharmaceutical chemistry and pharmacognosy are playing important role in treatment for a disease and its prevention. Herbal medicines are being used by about 80% of the world population mostly in the developing countries in the primary health care. There has been an upsurge in demand for the Phyto-pharmaceutical products of Ayurvĕda in western nations, because of the fact that the synthetic drugs are considered to be unsafe. Due to this many national and multinational pharmaceutical companies are now concentrating on manufacturing of Ayurvĕdic Phyto-pharmaceutical products. Ayurvĕda is the Indian traditional system of medicine, which also deals about pharmaceutical science. The Ayurvĕdic knowledge of the pharmaceutical science is scattered in Ayurvĕdic classical texts. Săranghadhara Samhita, which is written by Săranghadhara, explain systematically about the information of the Ayurvĕdic pharmaceutical science and also updated it. Industrialized manufacturing of Ayurvĕdic dosage forms has brought in new challenges like deviation from basic concepts of medicine preparation. Săranghadhara Samrhită the devout text on pharmaceutics in Ayurvĕda comes handy to solve such problems, as the methods described are very lucid and easy to follow. PMID:17333665

  2. [Pulmonary histoplasmoma in Rio Grande do Sul].

    PubMed

    Unis, Gisela; Pêgas, Karla Lais; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2005-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of sixteen patients with pulmonary nodules diagnosed as histoplasmoma by histopathologic evidence of Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum was done in an endemic area for histoplasmosis. Brazilian literature was reviewed. All patients were white, nine were men, mean age at diagnosis was 50.8 years. Six (37.5%) patients had a relevant epidemiologic story. The pulmonary nodules were 0.7-2.7 cm in diameter, presenting as granulomatous lesions with caseous necrosis. Twelve (75%) patients had solitary nodules. Histoplasmoma as a rule is a solitary nodule of up to 3 cm in an asymptomatic patient. The diagnosis is made from histopathologic evidence of the fungus, which is accomplished using a special fungus stain, Gomori-Grocott methenamine silver. Cultures or seromycology do not help the diagnosis. PMID:15717088

  3. Seeking 'energy' vs. pain relief in spas in Brazil (Caldas da Imperatriz) and Portugal (Termas da Sulfurea).

    PubMed

    Quintela, Maria Manuel

    2011-04-01

    This paper is a comparative ethnography of the therapeutic practices at two different spa locations: Caldas da Imperatriz, SC, Brazil, and Termas da Sulfurea in Cabeco de Vide, Portugal. The comparison reveals the existence of contrasting 'explanatory models' held by the spa-goers as well as by the official medical systems. In the Portuguese context this model is highly medicalized; in the Brazilian case, spa treatments are viewed as 'alternative' or 'complementary' therapy and are also related to religious philosophies. Each model corresponds to a different idiom expressing certain experiences and world views, one focusing on 'pains' (dores) and the other on 'energy' (energia), the former leading to the rationale of 'curing', the latter to the notion of 'energizing'. In this paper the author intends to analyze and contrast the categories found in these models, which originate from different conceptions of health, illness and healing for Brazilian and Portuguese spa-goers. PMID:21563001

  4. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts. PMID:26529894

  5. The 29-kDa proteins phosphorylated ion thrombin-activated human platelets are forms of the estrogen receptor-related 27-kDa heat shock protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.E.; Yan Zhu; O'Neill, S. )

    1991-12-15

    Thrombin plays a critical role in platelet activation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Cellular activation by thrombin leads to the phosphorylation of multiple proteins, most of which are unidentified. The authors have characterized several 29-kDa proteins that are rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of intact human platelets to thrombin. A murine monoclonal antibody raised to an unidentified estrogen receptor-related 29-kDa protein selectively recognized these proteins as well as a more basic, unphosphorylated 27-kDa protein. Cellular activation by thrombin led to a marked shift in the proportion of protein from the 27-kDa unphosphorylated form to the 29-kDa phosphoprotein species. Using this antibody, they isolated and sequenced a human cDNA clone encoding a protein that was identical to the mammalian 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP27), a protein of uncertain function that is known to be phosphorylated to several forms and to be transcriptionally induced by estrogen. The 29-kDa proteins were confirmed to be phosphorylated forms of HSP27 by immunoprecipitation studies. Thus, the estrogen receptor-related protein is HSP27, and the three major 20-kDa proteins phosphorylated in thrombin-activated platelets are forms of HSP27. These data suggest a role for HSP27 in the signal transduction events of platelet activation.

  6. Teaching of Astronomy: Scenarios of Teaching Practice in Elementary Schools. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía: Semblanzas de la Práctica Docente en Educación Primaria.) Ensino de Astronomia: Cenários da Prática Docente no Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi Gonzatti, Sônia Elisa; Spessatto De Maman, Andréia; Fernandes Borragini, Eliana; Kerber, Júlia Cristina; Haetinger, Werner

    2013-12-01

    atomización de los asuntos, aunque temas como movimientos de la Tierra y fenómenos astronómicos hayan sido citados por la mayoría de los participantes. En cuanto a las estrategias, se verifico que se emplean principalmente clases con el apoyo de recursos bidimensionales, como películas, textos, mapas y búsqueda en internet. Las principales dificultades fueron la falta de formación específica con respecto a los contenidos de Astronomía, y el nivel de abstracción exigido por los contenidos. De modo general, esos indicadores convergen para los resultados ya encontrados en otros estudios, en el que las deficiencias de la formación inicial de los profesores, o incluso su ausencia, dificulta el adecuado abordaje de la Astronomía en las clases. Neste trabalho são apresentados os principais resultados de uma investigação realizada no campo da Educação em Astronomia, com professores do ensino fundamental de duas regiões do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar o cenário regional do ensino de Astronomia, estabelecendo um comparativo com o cenário nacional. Esse estudo abordou três questões: identificar os principais temas de astronomia trabalhados em sala de aula, as estratégias metodológicas e quais as dificuldades apresentadas pelos professores ao desenvolver sua prática. Quanto aos conteúdos, encontrouse uma pulverização dos assuntos abordados, embora temas como movimentos da Terra e fenômenos astronômicos tenham sido citados pela maioria dos participantes. Sobre estratégias, são utilizadas principalmente aulas com apoio de recursos bidimensionais, como filmes, textos, mapas e pesquisa na internet. As principais dificuldades foram: falta de formação específica em relação a conteúdos de Astronomia; nível de abstração dos conteúdos, que dificultam sua compreensão, tanto pelos alunos quanto pelos próprios professores. De maneira geral, esses indicadores convergem para resultados já encontrados em outros estudos que

  7. Identification of sequence similarity between 60 kDa and 70 kDa molecular chaperones: evidence for a common evolutionary background?

    PubMed Central

    Flores, A I; Cuezva, J M

    1997-01-01

    Recent findings support the premise that chaperonins (60 kDa stress-proteins) and alpha-subunits of F-type ATPases (alpha-ATPase) are evolutionary related protein families. Two-dimensional gel patterns of synthesized proteins in unstressed and heat-shocked embryonic Drosophila melanogaster SL2 cells revealed that antibodies raised against the alpha-subunit of the F1-ATPase complex from rat liver recognize an inducible p71 member of the 70 kDa stress-responsive protein family. Molecular recognition of this stress-responsive 70 kDa protein by antibodies raised against the F1-ATPase alpha-subunit suggests the possibility of partial sequence similarity within these ATP-binding protein families. A multiple sequence alignment between alpha-ATPases and 60 kDa and 70 kDa molecular chaperones is presented. Statistical evaluation of sequence similarity reveals a significant degree of sequence conservation within the three protein families. The finding suggests a common evolutionary origin for the ATPases and molecular chaperone protein families of 60 kDa and 70 kDa, despite the lack of obvious structural resemblance between them. PMID:9065788

  8. Da Vinci's codex and the anatomy of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Stephens-Borg, Keith

    2012-08-01

    We usually display a laid-back approach to medical jargon throughout our theatre work. The word 'perioperative' is built from the Greek word 'peri' (around) and the Latin 'operari' (to work). Latin and Greek became the prefixed language of choice for Leonardo da Vinci, and his research was pivotal in determining the way in which surgical procedures are documented. Ancient manuscripts aided the unfolding of the secrets of anatomy, and Leonardo revealed that art was the key in expressive detailed explanation. PMID:23248927

  9. Stereoscopic augmented reality for da Vincii™ robotic biliary surgery

    PubMed Central

    Volonté, Francesco; Buchs, Nicolas C.; Pugin, François; Spaltenstein, Joël; Jung, Minoa; Ratib, Osman; Morel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION New laparoscopic techniques put distance between the surgeon and his patient. PRESENTATION OF CASE 3D volume rendered images directly displayed in the da Vinci surgeon's console fill this gap by allowing the surgeon to fully immerse in its intervention. DISCUSSION During the robotic operation the surgeon has a greater control on the procedure because he can stay more focused not being obliged to turn is sight out of his operative field. Moreover, thanks to depth perception of the rendered images he had a precise view of important anatomical structures. CONCLUSION We describe our preliminary experience in the quest of computer-assisted robotic surgery. PMID:23466685

  10. Ultratight crystal packing of a 10 kDa protein

    SciTech Connect

    Trillo-Muyo, Sergio; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Minor, Wladek; Kuisiene, Nomeda

    2013-03-01

    The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase from G. thermoleovorans is reported; it is one of the most tightly packed protein structures reported to date. While small organic molecules generally crystallize forming tightly packed lattices with little solvent content, proteins form air-sensitive high-solvent-content crystals. Here, the crystallization and full structure analysis of a novel recombinant 10 kDa protein corresponding to the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase are reported. The orthorhombic crystal contained only 24.5% solvent and is therefore among the most tightly packed protein lattices ever reported.