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Sample records for bak mediated apoptosis

  1. Vitamin K2 covalently binds to Bak and induces Bak-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Satoki; Azuma, Motoki; Kasama, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Kabe, Yasuaki; Imai, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Handa, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin K2 (VK2, menaquinone) is known to have anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Although its effect is thought to be mediated, at least in part, by the induction of apoptosis, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we identified Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (Bak) as a molecular target of VK2-induced apoptosis. VK2 directly interacts with Bak and induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Although Bak and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), another member of the Bcl-2 family, are generally thought to be functionally redundant, only Bak is necessary and sufficient for VK2-induced cytochrome c (cyt c) release and cell death. Moreover, VK2-2,3 epoxide, an intracellular metabolite of VK2, was shown to covalently bind to the cysteine-166 residue of Bak. Several lines of evidence suggested that the covalent attachment of VK2 is critical for apoptosis induction. Thus this study reveals a specific role for Bak in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. This study also provides insight into the anticancer effects of VK2 and suggests that Bak may be a potential target of cancer therapy. PMID:23229512

  2. BIM-Mediated Membrane Insertion of the BAK Pore Domain Is an Essential Requirement for Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Kathrin; Harper, Nicholas; Schwabe, John; Cohen, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary BAK activation represents a key step during apoptosis, but how it converts into a mitochondria-permeabilizing pore remains unclear. By further delineating the structural rearrangements involved, we reveal that BAK activation progresses through a series of independent steps: BH3-domain exposure, N-terminal change, oligomerization, and membrane insertion. Employing a “BCL-XL-addiction” model, we show that neutralization of BCL-XL by the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 resulted in death only when cells were reconstituted with BCL-XL:BAK, but not BCL-2/ BCL-XL:BIM complexes. Although this resembles the indirect model, release of BAK from BCL-XL did not result in spontaneous adoption of the pore conformation. Commitment to apoptosis required association of the direct activator BIM with oligomeric BAK promoting its conversion to a membrane-inserted pore. The sequential nature of this cascade provides multiple opportunities for other BCL-2 proteins to interfere with or promote BAK activation and unites aspects of the indirect and direct activation models. PMID:24120870

  3. Assembly of the Bak apoptotic pore: a critical role for the Bak protein α6 helix in the multimerization of homodimers during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Stephen; Hockings, Colin; Anwari, Khatira; Kratina, Tobias; Fennell, Stephanie; Lazarou, Michael; Ryan, Michael T; Kluck, Ruth M; Dewson, Grant

    2013-09-01

    Bak and Bax are the essential effectors of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Following an apoptotic stimulus, both undergo significant changes in conformation that facilitates their self-association to form pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane. However, the molecular structures of Bak and Bax oligomeric pores remain elusive. To characterize how Bak forms pores during apoptosis, we investigated its oligomerization under native conditions using blue native PAGE. We report that, in a healthy cell, inactive Bak is either monomeric or in a large complex involving VDAC2. Following an apoptotic stimulus, activated Bak forms BH3:groove homodimers that represent the basic stable oligomeric unit. These dimers multimerize to higher-order oligomers via a labile interface independent of both the BH3 domain and groove. Linkage of the α6:α6 interface is sufficient to stabilize higher-order Bak oligomers on native PAGE, suggesting an important role in the Bak oligomeric pore. Mutagenesis of the α6 helix disrupted apoptotic function because a chimera of Bak with the α6 derived from Bcl-2 could be activated by truncated Bid (tBid) and could form BH3:groove homodimers but could not form high molecular weight oligomers or mediate cell death. An α6 peptide could block Bak function but did so upstream of dimerization, potentially implicating α6 as a site for activation by BH3-only proteins. Our examination of native Bak oligomers indicates that the Bak apoptotic pore forms by the multimerization of BH3:groove homodimers and reveals that Bak α6 is not only important for Bak oligomerization and function but may also be involved in how Bak is activated by BH3-only proteins. PMID:23893415

  4. Apoptosis initiated when BH3 ligands engage multiple Bcl-2 homologs, not Bax or Bak.

    PubMed

    Willis, Simon N; Fletcher, Jamie I; Kaufmann, Thomas; van Delft, Mark F; Chen, Lin; Czabotar, Peter E; Ierino, Helen; Lee, Erinna F; Fairlie, W Douglas; Bouillet, Philippe; Strasser, Andreas; Kluck, Ruth M; Adams, Jerry M; Huang, David C S

    2007-02-01

    A central issue in the regulation of apoptosis by the Bcl-2 family is whether its BH3-only members initiate apoptosis by directly binding to the essential cell-death mediators Bax and Bak, or whether they can act indirectly, by engaging their pro-survival Bcl-2-like relatives. Contrary to the direct-activation model, we show that Bax and Bak can mediate apoptosis without discernable association with the putative BH3-only activators (Bim, Bid, and Puma), even in cells with no Bim or Bid and reduced Puma. Our results indicate that BH3-only proteins induce apoptosis at least primarily by engaging the multiple pro-survival relatives guarding Bax and Bak. PMID:17289999

  5. Artemisinin induces caspase-8/9-mediated and Bax/Bak-independent apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng-Lian; Gao, Wei-Jie; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin (ARTE), an antimalarial phytochemical component from the sweet wormwood plant, has been shown a potential anticancer activity by inducing cell apoptosis. The aim of this report is to explore the mechanism of ARTE-induced human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cell apoptosis. Cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay showed that ARTE induced cytotoxcity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Confocal microscopy fluorescence imaging of cells stained with Hoechst 33258 and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis of cells stained with Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) showed that ARTE induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis. Confocal fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging of single living cells expressing SCAT3, SCAT9 or CFP-Bid-YFP and fluorometic substrate assay showed that ARTE induced the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. Moreover, inhibition of caspase-8 or -9 completely blocked ARTE-induced apoptosis which was only partially attenuated by caspase-3 inhibitor. Interestingly, silencing Bax and Bak by RNA interference (RNAi) did not attenuate ARTE-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ARTE induces caspase-dependent but Bax/Bak-independent apoptosis in ASTC-a-1 cells. PMID:25214386

  6. Simultaneous deletion of Bax and Bak is required to prevent apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hee-Seong; Padanilam, Babu J

    2015-09-15

    Proximal tubular injury and apoptosis are key mediators of the development of kidney fibrosis, a hallmark of chronic kidney disease. However, the molecular mechanism by which tubular apoptotic cell death leads to kidney fibrosis is poorly understood. In the present study, we tested the roles of Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) and Bcl-2 antagonist/killer (Bak), two crucial proteins involved in intrinsic apoptotic cell death, in the progression of kidney fibrosis. Mice with proximal tubule-specific Bax deletion, systemic deletion of Bak, and dual deletion of Bax and Bak were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Dual deficiency of Bax and Bak inhibited tubular apoptosis and atrophy. Consistent with decreased tubular injury, dual ablation of Bax and Bak suppressed UUO-induced inflammation and kidney fibrosis with decreased tubular cell cycle arrest, expression of fibrogenic and inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress in the kidney. Bax or Bak deficiency was insufficient to prevent apoptosis and all other aforementioned malevolent effects, suggesting compensatory mediation by each other in the respective signaling pathways. These data suggest that dual ablation of Bax and Bak in the kidney is required to prevent UUO-induced tubular apoptosis and the consequent kidney inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:26180237

  7. Hepatic IGFBP1 is a prosurvival factor that binds to BAK, protects the liver from apoptosis, and antagonizes the proapoptotic actions of p53 at mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Leu, J. I-Ju; George, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    Liver is generally refractory to apoptosis induced by the p53 tumor suppressor protein, but the molecular basis remains poorly understood. Here we show that p53 transcriptional activation leads to enhanced expression of hepatic IGFBP1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1). Exhibiting a previously unanticipated role, a portion of intracellular IGFBP1 protein localizes to mitochondria where it binds to the proapoptotic protein BAK and hinders BAK activation and apoptosis induction. Interestingly, in many cells and tissues p53 also has a direct apoptotic function at mitochondria that includes BAK binding and activation. When IGFBP1 is in a complex with BAK, formation of a proapoptotic p53/BAK complex and apoptosis induction are impaired, both in cultured cells and in liver. In contrast, livers of IGFBP1-deficient mice exhibit spontaneous apoptosis that is accompanied by p53 mitochondrial accumulation and evidence of BAK oligomerization. These data support the importance of BAK as a mediator of p53’s mitochondrial function. The results also identify IGFBP1 as a negative regulator of the BAK-dependent pathway of apoptosis, whose expression integrates the transcriptional and mitochondrial functions of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. PMID:18056423

  8. To trigger apoptosis, Bak exposes its BH3 domain and homodimerizes via BH3:groove interactions.

    PubMed

    Dewson, Grant; Kratina, Tobias; Sim, Huiyan W; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Adams, Jerry M; Colman, Peter M; Kluck, Ruth M

    2008-05-01

    The Bcl-2 relative Bak is thought to drive apoptosis by forming homo-oligomers that permeabilize mitochondria, but how it is activated and oligomerizes is unclear. To clarify these pivotal steps toward apoptosis, we have characterized multiple random loss-of-function Bak mutants and explored the mechanism of Bak conformation change during apoptosis. Single missense mutations located to the alpha helix 2-5 region of Bak, with most altering the BH3 domain or hydrophobic groove (BH1 domain). Loss of function invariably corresponded to impaired ability to oligomerize. An essential early step in Bak activation was shown to be exposure of the BH3 domain, which became reburied in dimers. We demonstrate that oligomerization involves insertion of the BH3 domain of one Bak molecule into the groove of another and may produce symmetric Bak dimers. We conclude that this BH3:groove interaction is essential to nucleate Bak oligomerization, which in turn is required for its proapoptotic function. PMID:18471982

  9. Resistance to UV-induced apoptosis by β-HPV5 E6 involves targeting of activated BAK for proteolysis by recruitment of the HERC1 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Amy; Simmonds, Mark; Azad, Abul; Fox, Joanna L; Storey, Alan

    2015-06-15

    UV exposure is the main etiological agent in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), but mounting evidence suggests a co-factorial role for β-genus HPV types early in tumor initiation or progression. UV damage initiates an apoptotic response, driven at the mitochondrial level by BCL-2 family proteins, that eliminates damaged cells that may accumulate deleterious mutations and acquire tumorigenic properties. BAK is a pro-apoptotic BCL-2 protein that functions ultimately to form pores that permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane, thereby committing a cell to death, a process involving changes in BAK phosphorylation and conformation. The E6 protein of β-type HPV5 signals BAK for proteasomal degradation, a function that confers protection from UV-induced apoptosis. We find that HPV5 E6 does not constitutively target BAK for proteolysis, but targets the latter stages of BAK activation, following changes in phosphorylation and conformation. A mutational analysis identified the lysine residue on BAK required for proteolysis, and a functional siRNA screen identified the HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase HERC1 as being required for E6-mediated BAK degradation. We show that HERC1 interacts with BAK in E6-expressing cells that have been damaged by UV, and provide evidence that the interaction of HERC1 with BAK requires access to a hydrophobic surface on BAK that binds BH3 domains of BCL-2 proteins. We also show that HERC1 contains a putative BH3 domain that can bind to BAK. These findings reveal a specific and unique mechanism used by the HPV5 E6 protein to target BAK. PMID:25408501

  10. Phylogenetically Distant Viruses Use the Same BH3-Only Protein Puma to Trigger Bax/Bak-Dependent Apoptosis of Infected Mouse and Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Papaianni, Emanuela; El Maadidi, Souhayla; Schejtman, Andrea; Neumann, Simon; Maurer, Ulrich; Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Mastino, Antonio; Borner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Viruses can trigger apoptosis of infected host cells if not counteracted by cellular or viral anti-apoptotic proteins. These protective proteins either inhibit the activation of caspases or they act as Bcl-2 homologs to prevent Bax/Bak-mediated outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MOMP). The exact mechanism by which viruses trigger MOMP has however remained enigmatic. Here we use two distinct types of viruses, a double stranded DNA virus, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and a positive sense, single stranded RNA virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV) to show that the BH3-only protein Puma is the major mediator of virus-induced Bax/Bak activation and MOMP induction. Indeed, when Puma was genetically deleted or downregulated by shRNA, mouse embryonic fibroblasts and IL-3-dependent monocytes as well as human colon carcinoma cells were as resistant to virus-induced apoptosis as their Bax/Bak double deficient counterparts (Bax/Bak-/-). Puma protein expression started to augment after 2 h postinfection with both viruses. Puma mRNA levels increased as well, but this occurred after apoptosis initiation (MOMP) because it was blocked in cells lacking Bax/Bak or overexpressing Bcl-xL. Moreover, none of the classical Puma transcription factors such as p53, p73 or p65 NFκB were involved in HSV-1-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that viruses use a Puma protein-dependent mechanism to trigger MOMP and apoptosis in host cells. PMID:26030884

  11. MCMV-mediated Inhibition of the Pro-apoptotic Bak Protein Is Required for Optimal In Vivo Replication

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Peter; Kvansakul, Marc; Voigt, Valentina; Kile, Benjamin T.; Kluck, Ruth M.; Huang, David C. S.; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A.; Andoniou, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    Successful replication and transmission of large DNA viruses such as the cytomegaloviruses (CMV) family of viruses depends on the ability to interfere with multiple aspects of the host immune response. Apoptosis functions as a host innate defence mechanism against viral infection, and the capacity to interfere with this process is essential for the replication of many viruses. The Bcl-2 family of proteins are the principle regulators of apoptosis, with two pro-apoptotic members, Bax and Bak, essential for apoptosis to proceed. The m38.5 protein encoded by murine CMV (MCMV) has been identified as Bax-specific inhibitor of apoptosis. Recently, m41.1, a protein product encoded by the m41 open reading frame (ORF) of MCMV, has been shown to inhibit Bak activity in vitro. Here we show that m41.1 is critical for optimal MCMV replication in vivo. Growth of a m41.1 mutant was attenuated in multiple organs, a defect that was not apparent in Bak−/− mice. Thus, m41.1 promotes MCMV replication by inhibiting Bak-dependent apoptosis during in vivo infection. The results show that Bax and Bak mediate non-redundant functions during MCMV infection and that the virus produces distinct inhibitors for each protein to counter the activity of these proteins. PMID:23468630

  12. Bak activation for apoptosis involves oligomerization of dimers via their alpha6 helices.

    PubMed

    Dewson, Grant; Kratina, Tobias; Czabotar, Peter; Day, Catherine L; Adams, Jerry M; Kluck, Ruth M

    2009-11-25

    A pivotal step toward apoptosis is oligomerization of the Bcl-2 relative Bak. We recently reported that its oligomerization initiates by insertion of an exposed BH3 domain into the groove of another Bak monomer. We now report that the resulting BH3:groove dimers can be converted to the larger oligomers that permeabilize mitochondria by an interface between alpha6 helices. Cysteine residues placed in alpha6 could be crosslinked only after apoptotic signaling. Cysteines placed at both interfaces established that the BH3:groove dimer is symmetric and that the alpha6:alpha6 interface can link these dimers into homo-oligomers containing at least 18 Bak molecules. A putative zinc-binding site in alpha6 was not required to form the alpha6:alpha6 interface, and its mutation in full-length Bak did not affect Bak conformation, oligomerization, or function. We conclude that alpha6:alpha6 interaction occurs during Bak oligomerization and proapoptotic function, but we find no evidence that zinc binding to that interface regulates apoptosis. PMID:19941828

  13. Maitake (D fraction) mushroom extract induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by BAK-1 gene activation.

    PubMed

    Soares, Raquel; Meireles, Manuela; Rocha, Ana; Pirraco, Ana; Obiol, Diego; Alonso, Eliana; Joos, Gisela; Balogh, Gabriela

    2011-06-01

    For many years mushrooms have been used empirically in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. Study of the maitake mushroom, with its immunomodulatory and antitumoral properties, has led to the isolation of several bioactive compounds. One of these, D fraction, is known to reduce tumor cell viability. This study examined the effect of isolated D fraction on viability and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells (MCF7). These cells were treated with maitake (D fraction) extract at 18 μg/mL, 36 μg/mL, 91 μg/mL, 183 μg/mL, or 367 μg/mL or were left untreated (control) for 24 hours. MCF7 incubation with the maitake extract resulted in decreased cell viability [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay] in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis was statistically significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner at every concentration tested (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay). Upon incubation with D fraction, a microarray assay revealed upregulation of BAK-1 and cytochrome c transcripts, 2 proteins directly involved in the apoptotic pathway. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies confirmed these findings; BAK-1 was one of most overexpressed gene, as observed by microarray assay. These findings confirm the apoptotic effect of maitake D fraction in breast cancer cells and further highlight the involvement of cytochrome c release to the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic release of cytochrome c, another player in the apoptotic pathway, was also increased after incubation with D fraction in a dose-dependent manner. This finding indicates that the effect of this compound involves mitochondrial dysfunction. The identification of the molecular mechanisms by which D fraction exerts its effects is crucial for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies for cancer. PMID:21480800

  14. Expression levels of the BAK1 and BCL2 genes highlight the role of apoptosis in age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Falah, Masoumeh; Najafi, Mohammad; Houshmand, Massoud; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. PMID:27555755

  15. Expression levels of the BAK1 and BCL2 genes highlight the role of apoptosis in age-related hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Falah, Masoumeh; Najafi, Mohammad; Houshmand, Massoud; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. PMID:27555755

  16. Novel dimerization mode of the human Bcl-2 family protein Bak, a mitochondrial apoptosis regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongfei; Takemoto, Chie; Akasaka, Ryogo; Uchikubo-Kamo, Tomomi; Kishishita, Seiichiro; Murayama, Kazutaka; Terada, Takaho; Chen, Lirong; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Sugano, Sumio; Tanaka, Akiko; Inoue, Makoto; Kigawa, Takanori; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2009-05-29

    Interactions of Bcl-2 family proteins play a regulatory role in mitochondrial apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic protein Bak resides in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and the formation of Bak homo- or heterodimers is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. The previously reported structure of the human Bak protein (residues Glu16-Gly186) revealed that a zinc ion was coordinated with two pairs of Asp160 and His164 residues from the symmetry-related molecules. This zinc-dependent homodimer was regarded as an anti-apoptotic dimer. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the human Bak residues Ser23-Asn185 at 2.5 {angstrom}, and found a distinct type of homodimerization through Cys166 disulfide bridging between the symmetry-related molecules. In the two modes of homodimerization, the molecular interfaces are completely different. In the membrane-targeted model of the S-S bridged dimer, the BH3 motifs are too close to the membrane to interact directly with the anti-apoptotic relatives, such as Bcl-x{sub L}. Therefore, the Bak dimer structure reported here may represent a pro-apoptotic mode under oxidized conditions.

  17. Motifs of VDAC2 required for mitochondrial Bak import and tBid-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Naghdi, Shamim; Várnai, Péter; Hajnóczky, György

    2015-10-13

    Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) proteins are major components of the outer mitochondrial membrane. VDAC has three isoforms with >70% sequence similarity and redundant roles in metabolite and ion transport. However, only Vdac2(-/-) (V2(-/-)) mice are embryonic lethal, indicating a unique and fundamental function of VDAC2 (V2). Recently, a specific V2 requirement was demonstrated for mitochondrial Bak import and truncated Bid (tBid)-induced apoptosis. To determine the relevant domain(s) of V2 involved, VDAC1 (V1) and V2 chimeric constructs were created and used to rescue V2(-/-) fibroblasts. Surprisingly, the commonly cited V2-specific N-terminal extension and cysteines were found to be dispensable for Bak import and high tBid sensitivity. In gain-of-function studies, V2 (123-179) was the minimal sequence sufficient to render V1 competent to support Bak insertion. Furthermore, in loss-of-function experiments, T168 and D170 were identified as critical residues. These motifs are conserved in zebrafish V2 (zfV2) that also rescued V2-deficient fibroblasts. Because high-resolution structures of zfV2 and mammalian V1 have become available, we could superimpose these structures and recognized that the critical V2-specific residues help to create a distinctive open "pocket" on the cytoplasmic surface that could facilitate Bak recruitment. PMID:26417093

  18. Motifs of VDAC2 required for mitochondrial Bak import and tBid-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Naghdi, Shamim; Várnai, Péter; Hajnóczky, György

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) proteins are major components of the outer mitochondrial membrane. VDAC has three isoforms with >70% sequence similarity and redundant roles in metabolite and ion transport. However, only Vdac2−/− (V2−/−) mice are embryonic lethal, indicating a unique and fundamental function of VDAC2 (V2). Recently, a specific V2 requirement was demonstrated for mitochondrial Bak import and truncated Bid (tBid)-induced apoptosis. To determine the relevant domain(s) of V2 involved, VDAC1 (V1) and V2 chimeric constructs were created and used to rescue V2−/− fibroblasts. Surprisingly, the commonly cited V2-specific N-terminal extension and cysteines were found to be dispensable for Bak import and high tBid sensitivity. In gain-of-function studies, V2 (123–179) was the minimal sequence sufficient to render V1 competent to support Bak insertion. Furthermore, in loss-of-function experiments, T168 and D170 were identified as critical residues. These motifs are conserved in zebrafish V2 (zfV2) that also rescued V2-deficient fibroblasts. Because high-resolution structures of zfV2 and mammalian V1 have become available, we could superimpose these structures and recognized that the critical V2-specific residues help to create a distinctive open “pocket” on the cytoplasmic surface that could facilitate Bak recruitment. PMID:26417093

  19. The additional loss of Bak and not the lack of the protein tyrosine kinase p56/Lck in one JCaM1.6 subclone caused pronounced apoptosis resistance in response to stimuli of the intrinsic pathway.

    PubMed

    Rudner, J; Mueller, A-C; Matzner, N; Huber, S M; Handrick, R; Belka, C; Jendrossek, V

    2009-05-01

    Ionising radiation, hypoxia, and the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor Celecoxib are known agonists of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway that involves mitochondrial damage upstream of caspase activation. Mitochondrial integrity is regulated by the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein family members Bak and Bax. Upstream of the mitochondria, many kinases and phosphatases control the apoptotic response. However, the role of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p56/Lck during apoptosis is controversial. The present investigation demonstrate the existence of two JCaM1.6 subclones, one expressing and one deficient for Bak. The lack of p56/Lck expression in JCaM1.6 cells per se did hardly affect apoptosis induced by ionising radiation, hypoxia, or Celecoxib. Only the additional loss of Bak expression, as observed in one JCaM1.6 subclone, rendered the cells resistant. siRNA-mediated downregulation of Bak and p56/Lck mimicked the observed effects in the subclones. Earlier experiments performed with the Bak-negative clone might have lead to the wrong assumption that lack of p56/Lck alone, and not the additonal loss of Bak, was responsible for reduced sensitivity towards stimuli of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. PMID:19343496

  20. Dissociation of Bak α1 helix from the core and latch domains is required for apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Amber E; Fennell, Stephanie C; Bartolo, Ray C; Tan, Iris K L; Dewson, Grant; Kluck, Ruth M

    2015-01-01

    During apoptosis, Bak permeabilizes mitochondria after undergoing major conformational changes, including poorly defined N-terminal changes. Here, we characterize those changes using 11 antibodies that were epitope mapped using peptide arrays and mutagenesis. After Bak activation by Bid, epitopes throughout the α1 helix are exposed indicating complete dissociation of α1 from α2 in the core and from α6-α8 in the latch. Moreover, disulfide tethering of α1 to α2 or α6 blocks cytochrome c release, suggesting that α1 dissociation is required for further conformational changes during apoptosis. Assaying epitope exposure when α1 is tethered shows that Bid triggers α2 movement, followed by α1 dissociation. However, α2 reaches its final position only after α1 dissociates from the latch. Thus, α1 dissociation is a key step in unfolding Bak into three major components, the N terminus, the core (α2-α5) and the latch (α6-α8). PMID:25880232

  1. Assembly of the Bak Apoptotic Pore

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Stephen; Hockings, Colin; Anwari, Khatira; Kratina, Tobias; Fennell, Stephanie; Lazarou, Michael; Ryan, Michael T.; Kluck, Ruth M.; Dewson, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Bak and Bax are the essential effectors of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Following an apoptotic stimulus, both undergo significant changes in conformation that facilitates their self-association to form pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane. However, the molecular structures of Bak and Bax oligomeric pores remain elusive. To characterize how Bak forms pores during apoptosis, we investigated its oligomerization under native conditions using blue native PAGE. We report that, in a healthy cell, inactive Bak is either monomeric or in a large complex involving VDAC2. Following an apoptotic stimulus, activated Bak forms BH3:groove homodimers that represent the basic stable oligomeric unit. These dimers multimerize to higher-order oligomers via a labile interface independent of both the BH3 domain and groove. Linkage of the α6:α6 interface is sufficient to stabilize higher-order Bak oligomers on native PAGE, suggesting an important role in the Bak oligomeric pore. Mutagenesis of the α6 helix disrupted apoptotic function because a chimera of Bak with the α6 derived from Bcl-2 could be activated by truncated Bid (tBid) and could form BH3:groove homodimers but could not form high molecular weight oligomers or mediate cell death. An α6 peptide could block Bak function but did so upstream of dimerization, potentially implicating α6 as a site for activation by BH3-only proteins. Our examination of native Bak oligomers indicates that the Bak apoptotic pore forms by the multimerization of BH3:groove homodimers and reveals that Bak α6 is not only important for Bak oligomerization and function but may also be involved in how Bak is activated by BH3-only proteins. PMID:23893415

  2. Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is essential for BAK1- and BKK1-mediated cell-death control.

    PubMed

    Du, Junbo; Gao, Yang; Zhan, Yanyan; Zhang, Shasha; Wu, Yujun; Xiao, Yao; Zou, Bo; He, Kai; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Guojing; Lin, Honghui; Li, Jia

    2016-02-01

    BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1) was initially identified as a co-receptor of the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRI1. Genetic analyses also revealed that BAK1 and its closest homolog BAK1-LIKE 1 (BKK1) regulate a BR-independent cell-death control pathway. The double null mutant bak1 bkk1 displays a salicylic acid- and light-dependent cell-death phenotype even without pathogen invasion. Molecular mechanisms of the spontaneous cell death mediated by BAK1 and BKK1 remain unknown. Here we report our identification of a suppressor of bak1 bkk1 (sbb1-1). Genetic analyses indicated that cell-death symptoms in a weak double mutant, bak1-3 bkk1-1, were completely suppressed by the loss-of-function mutation in SBB1, which encodes a nucleoporin (NUP) 85-like protein. Genetic analyses also demonstrated that individually knocking out three other nucleoporin genes from the SBB1-located sub-complex was also able to rescue the cell-death phenotype of bak1-3 bkk1-1. In addition, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, DRH1, was identified in the same protein complex as SBB1 via a proteomic approach. The drh1 mutation also rescues the cell-death symptoms of bak1-3 bkk1-1. Further analyses indicated that export of poly(A)(+) RNA was greatly blocked in the nup and drh1 mutants, resulting in accumulation of significant levels of mRNAs in the nuclei. Over-expression of a bacterial NahG gene to inactivate salicylic acid also rescues the cell-death phenotype of bak1-3 bkk1-1. Mutants suppressing cell-death symptoms always showed greatly reduced salicylic acid contents. These results suggest that nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, especially of molecules directly or indirectly involved in endogenous salicylic acid accumulation, is critical in BAK1- and BKK1-mediated cell-death control. PMID:26775605

  3. Ethanolic extract of Tulipa edulis Bak induces apoptosis in SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells via the mitochondrial signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIN, RUHUI; LI, ZUANFANG; LIN, JIUMAO; YE, JINXIA; CAI, QIAOYAN; CHEN, LIDIAN; PENG, JUN

    2015-01-01

    Tulipa edulis Bak (TEB) is an active ingredient in various traditional Chinese medicine compounds and is commonly used to treat swelling and redness, remove toxicity and eliminate stagnation, as well as to prevent and treat certain cancer types. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of TEB remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of the ethanolic extract of TEB (EETEB) on SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells. An MTT assay was performed to analyze cell viability. In addition, transmission electron microscopy, an Annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate assay, a JC-1 assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy with DAPI staining were used to determine the rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of the apoptosis gene and protein. EETEB was identified to inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce changes in cell morphology. At the molecular level, EETEB induced SGC-7901 cell DNA fragmentation, loss of plasma membrane and asymmetrical collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, while it increased the expression of pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein and reduced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Thus, the results of the current study revealed that the application of EETEB may inhibit the growth of the SGC-7901 cells due to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. PMID:26622854

  4. TOM-independent complex formation of Bax and Bak in mammalian mitochondria during TNFalpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ross, K; Rudel, T; Kozjak-Pavlovic, V

    2009-05-01

    The Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak are activated in response to many apoptotic stimuli. As a consequence of activation, Bax and Bak oligomerize and permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane to permit the release of apoptosis-inducing factors. It still remains unclear whether these proteins require components of the mitochondrial protein import machinery for their function at the mitochondria. Here, we addressed this question by using inducible RNA interference for the study of protein import in mammalian mitochondria. After induction of apoptosis, we could not detect any impact of the absence of Tom22, Tom70, Tom40, Sam50 or metaxins on the translocation of Bax and formation of Bax and Bak complexes in mitochondria. In in vitro import studies, loss of these import and assembly proteins had no or only slight effect on the formation of complexes by radiolabeled Bax and Bak. We conclude that the import and assembly machineries of mammalian mitochondria have no impact on the translocation and complex assembly of Bax and Bak upon apoptosis induction. PMID:19165229

  5. Sodium orthovanadate inhibits p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Akinori; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Suzuki, Norio; Aoki, Shin; Ito, Azusa; Nanao, Tomohisa; Ohya, Soichiro; Yoshino, Minako; Zhu, Jin; Enomoto, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Funatsu, Osamu; Hosoi, Yoshio; Ikekita, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Sodium orthovanadate (vanadate) inhibits the DNA-binding activity of p53, but its precise effects on p53 function have not been examined. Here, we show that vanadate exerts a potent antiapoptotic activity through both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent mechanisms relative to other p53 inhibitors, including pifithrin (PFT) alpha. We compared the effects of vanadate to PFTalpha and PFTmicro, an inhibitor of transcription-independent apoptosis by p53. Vanadate suppressed p53-associated apoptotic events at the mitochondria, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the conformational change of Bax and Bak, the mitochondrial translocation of p53, and the interaction of p53 with Bcl-2. Similarly, vanadate suppressed the apoptosis-inducing activity of a mitochondrially targeted temperature-sensitive p53 in stable transfectants of SaOS-2 cells. In radioprotection assays, which rely on p53, vanadate completely protected mice from a sublethal dose of 8 Gy and partially from a lethal dose of 12 Gy. Together, our findings indicated that vanadate effectively suppresses p53-mediated apoptosis by both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent pathways, and suggested that both pathways must be inhibited to completely block p53-mediated apoptosis. PMID:20048077

  6. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737 targets selective Bcl-2 proteins and efficiently induces apoptosis via Bak/Bax if Mcl-1 is neutralized.

    PubMed

    van Delft, Mark F; Wei, Andrew H; Mason, Kylie D; Vandenberg, Cassandra J; Chen, Lin; Czabotar, Peter E; Willis, Simon N; Scott, Clare L; Day, Catherine L; Cory, Suzanne; Adams, Jerry M; Roberts, Andrew W; Huang, David C S

    2006-11-01

    Since apoptosis is impaired in malignant cells overexpressing prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins, drugs mimicking their natural antagonists, BH3-only proteins, might overcome chemoresistance. Of seven putative BH3 mimetics tested, only ABT-737 triggered Bax/Bak-mediated apoptosis. Despite its high affinity for Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Bcl-w, many cell types proved refractory to ABT-737. We show that this resistance reflects ABT-737's inability to target another prosurvival relative, Mcl-1. Downregulation of Mcl-1 by several strategies conferred sensitivity to ABT-737. Furthermore, enforced Mcl-1 expression in a mouse lymphoma model conferred resistance. In contrast, cells overexpressing Bcl-2 remained highly sensitive to ABT-737. Hence, ABT-737 should prove efficacious in tumors with low Mcl-1 levels, or when combined with agents that inactivate Mcl-1, even to treat those tumors that overexpress Bcl-2. PMID:17097561

  7. Silibilin-induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by modulating p53, p21, Bak and Bcl-XL pathways.

    PubMed

    Pirouzpanah, Mohammad Bagher; Sabzichi, Mehdi; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Chavoshi, Hadi; Samadi, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays herbal-derived medicines are attracting attention as new sources of drugs with few side effects. Silibinin is a flavonoid compound with chemotheraputic effects on different cancers such as examples in the prostate, lung, colon and breast. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of silibinin on MCF7 breast cancer cells were investigated. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and the impact of silibinin on the expression of pivotal genes including Bak, P53, P21, BRCA1, BCL-X1 and ATM was analyzed. Treatment for 24h had a significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth (p<0.05) with dose- and time- dependent induction of apoptosis (p<0.05). In addition, there were significant increases in BRCA1, ATM, Bak and Bcl-XL gene expression at the mRNA level with different concentrations of silibinin for 24 or 48 h (p<0.05). Taken together, the results suggest that silibinin inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of MCF-7 cells by down-regulating Bak, P53, P21, BRCA1, BCL-Xl and thus may be considered as an effective adjuvant drug to produce a better chemopreventive response for the cancer therapy. PMID:25773855

  8. Knockdown of miR-221 promotes the cisplatin-inducing apoptosis by targeting the BIM-Bax/Bak axis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiqiang; Hao, Rutian; Cai, Yefeng; Wang, Xiaobo; Huang, Guanli

    2016-04-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that microRNAs (miRNAs) have a critical role in the initiation and progression of types of human cancer, including breast cancer. Recent research indicated that miRNAs are also related with the chemotherapy on cancers. In this study, the expression of miR-221 in breast cancer (BC) patients' serum and cancer tissues was found to be significantly up-regulated. The results of in vitro MTT assay indicated that although the anti-miR-221 oligonucleotide alone did not influence the viability of BC cell lines markedly, it significantly promoted the cytotoxicity of cisplatin (DDP) to BC cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the gene of BIM (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death), a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, was up-regulated by the knockdown of miR-221. We found that the synergetic effect of anti-miR-221 on increasing the sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 was BIM dependant. Furthermore, results of immunoprecipitation showed the up-regulated BIM directly combined with the Bax and Bak, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest the anti-miR-221 could promote the cisplatin-inducing apoptosis by targeting the Bim-Bax/Bak axis in breast cancer. PMID:26503209

  9. Bax/Bak-dependent, Drp1-independent Targeting of X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) into Inner Mitochondrial Compartments Counteracts Smac/DIABLO-dependent Effector Caspase Activation.

    PubMed

    Hamacher-Brady, Anne; Brady, Nathan Ryan

    2015-09-01

    Efficient apoptosis requires Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which releases death-promoting proteins cytochrome c and Smac to the cytosol, which activate apoptosis and inhibit X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) suppression of executioner caspases, respectively. We recently identified that in response to Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins and mitochondrial depolarization, XIAP can permeabilize and enter mitochondria. Consequently, XIAP E3 ligase activity recruits endolysosomes into mitochondria, resulting in Smac degradation. Here, we explored mitochondrial XIAP action within the intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that mitochondrial XIAP entry requires Bax or Bak and is antagonized by pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins. Moreover, intramitochondrial Smac degradation by XIAP occurs independently of Drp1-regulated cytochrome c release. Importantly, mitochondrial XIAP actions are activated cell-intrinsically by typical apoptosis inducers TNF and staurosporine, and XIAP overexpression reduces the lag time between the administration of an apoptotic stimuli and the onset of mitochondrial permeabilization. To elucidate the role of mitochondrial XIAP action during apoptosis, we integrated our findings within a mathematical model of intrinsic apoptosis signaling. Simulations suggest that moderate increases of XIAP, combined with mitochondrial XIAP preconditioning, would reduce MOMP signaling. To test this scenario, we pre-activated XIAP at mitochondria via mitochondrial depolarization or by artificially targeting XIAP to the intermembrane space. Both approaches resulted in suppression of TNF-mediated caspase activation. Taken together, we propose that XIAP enters mitochondria through a novel mode of mitochondrial permeabilization and through Smac degradation can compete with canonical MOMP to act as an anti-apoptotic tuning mechanism, reducing the mitochondrial contribution to the

  10. An RLP23-SOBIR1-BAK1 complex mediates NLP-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Albert, Isabell; Böhm, Hannah; Albert, Markus; Feiler, Christina E; Imkampe, Julia; Wallmeroth, Niklas; Brancato, Caterina; Raaymakers, Tom M; Oome, Stan; Zhang, Heqiao; Krol, Elzbieta; Grefen, Christopher; Gust, Andrea A; Chai, Jijie; Hedrich, Rainer; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Plants and animals employ innate immune systems to cope with microbial infection. Pattern-triggered immunity relies on the recognition of microbe-derived patterns by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1-like proteins (NLPs) constitute plant immunogenic patterns that are unique, as these proteins are produced by multiple prokaryotic (bacterial) and eukaryotic (fungal, oomycete) species. Here we show that the leucine-rich repeat receptor protein (LRR-RP) RLP23 binds in vivo to a conserved 20-amino-acid fragment found in most NLPs (nlp20), thereby mediating immune activation in Arabidopsis thaliana. RLP23 forms a constitutive, ligand-independent complex with the LRR receptor kinase (LRR-RK) SOBIR1 (Suppressor of Brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1)-associated kinase (BAK1)-interacting receptor kinase 1), and recruits a second LRR-RK, BAK1, into a tripartite complex upon ligand binding. Stable, ectopic expression of RLP23 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) confers nlp20 pattern recognition and enhanced immunity to destructive oomycete and fungal plant pathogens, such as Phytophthora infestans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. PRRs that recognize widespread microbial patterns might be particularly suited for engineering immunity in crop plants. PMID:27251392

  11. The great migration of Bax and Bak

    PubMed Central

    Edlich, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Bcl-2 proteins Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (Bak) can commit cells to apoptosis. Retrotranslocation of Bax from the mitochondria into the cytosol is essential for cell survival. Recently, we reported that Bak is also present in the cytosol of healthy cells and that Bax and Bak are regulated by the same retrotranslocation process. PMID:27308479

  12. Withaferin A-Induced Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells Is Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Moura, Michelle B.; Kelley, Eric E.; Van Houten, Bennett; Shiva, Sruti; Singh, Shivendra V.

    2011-01-01

    Withaferin A (WA), a promising anticancer constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Withania somnifera, inhibits growth of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture and MDA-MB-231 xenografts in vivo in association with apoptosis induction, but the mechanism of cell death is not fully understood. We now demonstrate, for the first time, that WA-induced apoptosis is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production due to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. WA treatment caused ROS production in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, but not in a normal human mammary epithelial cell line (HMEC). The HMEC was also resistant to WA-induced apoptosis. WA-mediated ROS production as well as apoptotic histone-associated DNA fragment release into the cytosol was significantly attenuated by ectopic expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. ROS production resulting from WA exposure was accompanied by inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of complex III activity. Mitochondrial DNA-deficient Rho-0 variants of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were resistant to WA-induced ROS production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis compared with respective wild-type cells. WA treatment resulted in activation of Bax and Bak in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, and SV40 immortalized embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax and Bak double knockout mouse were significantly more resistant to WA-induced apoptosis compared with fibroblasts derived from wild-type mouse. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the molecular circuitry of WA-induced apoptosis involving ROS production and activation of Bax/Bak. PMID:21853114

  13. Up-Regulation of Mcl-1 and Bak by Coronavirus Infection of Human, Avian and Animal Cells Modulates Apoptosis and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yanxin; Liao, Ying; Fang, Shouguo; Tam, James P.; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Virus-induced apoptosis and viral mechanisms that regulate this cell death program are key issues in understanding virus-host interactions and viral pathogenesis. Like many other human and animal viruses, coronavirus infection of mammalian cells induces apoptosis. In this study, the global gene expression profiles are first determined in IBV-infected Vero cells at 24 hours post-infection by Affymetrix array, using avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) as a model system. It reveals an up-regulation at the transcriptional level of both pro-apoptotic Bak and pro-survival myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). These results were further confirmed both in vivo and in vitro, in IBV-infected embryonated chicken eggs, chicken fibroblast cells and mammalian cells at transcriptional and translational levels, respectively. Interestingly, the onset of apoptosis occurred earlier in IBV-infected mammalian cells silenced with short interfering RNA targeting Mcl-1 (siMcl-1), and was delayed in cells silenced with siBak. IBV progeny production and release were increased in infected Mcl-1 knockdown cells compared to similarly infected control cells, while the contrary was observed in infected Bak knockdown cells. Furthermore, IBV infection-induced up-regulation of GADD153 regulated the expression of Mcl-1. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways by chemical inhibitors and knockdown of GADD153 by siRNA demonstrated the involvement of ER-stress response in regulation of IBV-induced Mcl-1 expression. These results illustrate the sophisticated regulatory strategies evolved by a coronavirus to modulate both virus-induced apoptosis and viral replication during its replication cycle. PMID:22253918

  14. DIEPOXYBUTANE ACTIVATES THE MITOCHONDRIAL APOPTOTIC PATHWAY AND MEDIATES APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN LYMPHOBLASTS THROUGH OXIDATIVE STRESS

    PubMed Central

    Yadavilli, Sridevi; Martinez-Ceballos, Eduardo; Snowden-Aikens, Janana; Hurst, Angela; Joseph, Tranole; Albrecht, Thomas; Muganda, Perpetua M.

    2007-01-01

    Diepoxybutane (DEB) is the most potent metabolite of the environmental chemical 1, 3-butadiene (BD), which is prevalent in petrochemical industrial areas. BD is a known mutagen and human carcinogen, and possesses multi-systems organ toxicity. We recently reported that DEB-induced cell death in TK6 lymphoblasts was due to the occurrence of apoptosis, and not necrosis. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for DEB-induced apoptosis in these cells. Bax and Bak were found to be over-expressed and activated, and the mitochondrial trans-membrane potential was attenuated in cells undergoing DEB-induced apoptosis. Cytochrome c was depleted from the mitochondria of TK6 cells undergoing apoptosis, and was released into the cytosol in Jurkat-T lymphoblasts exposed to the same concentrations of DEB. Executioner caspase 3 was deduced to be activated by initiator caspase 9. DEB induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine effectively blocked DEB-induced apoptosis in TK6 cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is activated to mediate DEB-induced apoptosis in human TK6 lymphoblasts. These results further demonstrate that DEB-induced apoptosis is also mediated by the DEB-induced generation of ROS. This is the first report to examine the mechanism of DEB-induced apoptosis in human lymphoblasts. PMID:17693053

  15. Induction apoptosis of luteolin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells involving mitochondria translocation of Bax/Bak and activation of JNK

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.-J.; Wang, C.-J.; Kuo, H.-C.; Chou, F.-P.; Jean, L.-F.; Tseng, T.-H. . E-mail: tht@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-03-01

    Since hepatocellular carcinoma remains a major challenging clinical problem in many parts of the world including Eastern Asia and Southern Africa, it is imperative to develop more effective chemopreventive and chemotherapy agents. Herein, we present an investigation regarding the anticancer potential of luteolin, a natural flavonoid, and the mechanism of its action in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Using DNA fragmentation assay and nuclear staining assay, it showed that luteolin induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Luteolin induced the cytosolic release of cytochrome c and activated CPP32. We found that Bax and Bak translocated to mitochondria apparently, whereas Fas ligand (FasL) was unchanged after a treatment with luteolin for 3 h. In addition, it showed that c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated after the treatment of luteolin for 3-12 h. Further investigation showed that a specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, reduced the activation of CPP 32, the mitochondrial translocation of Bax, as well as the cytosolic release of cytochrome c that induced by luteolin. Finally, the apoptosis induced by luteolin was suppressed by a pretreatment with SP600125 via evaluating annexin V-FITC binding assay. These data suggest that luteolin induced apoptosis via mechanisms involving mitochondria translocation of Bax/Bak and activation of JNK.

  16. Artesunate induces apoptosis via a ROS-independent and Bax-mediated intrinsic pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guiqi; Wu, Liping; Liu, Hongyu; Pang, Yilin; Zhao, Chubiao; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2015-08-15

    This study aims to explore the detail molecular mechanism by which artesunate (ARS), an artemisinin derivative, induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. ARS induced a loss of mitochondrial transmemberane potential (ΔΨm), phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, as well as activations of Bax/Bak and caspases indicative of apoptosis induction. Silencing Bax but not Bak significantly inhibited ARS-induced apoptosis, demonstrating the key role of the Bax-mediated intrinsic pathway. Although ARS increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), ARS-induced apoptosis was neither prevented by pretreatment with ROS scavengers nor potentiated by pretreatment with l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) that enhanced the ARS-induced intracellular ROS generation, demonstrating that ROS was not involved in ARS-induced apoptosis. In addition, ARS did not induce Bid translocation to mitochondria, and the cytotoxicity of ARS was not prevented by silencing Bim, Puma or Mcl-1, but was significantly enhanced by HA14-1 pretreatment, demonstrating that Bcl-2/-xl instead of Bid and Bim as well as Puma may be the upstream factor to regulate the Bax-mediated intrinsic pathway. Collectively, our data demonstrate that ARS induces ROS-independent apoptosis via the Bax-mediated intrinsic pathway in HepG2 cells. PMID:26163896

  17. Proapoptotic Bak is sequestered by Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, but not Bcl-2, until displaced by BH3-only proteins.

    PubMed

    Willis, Simon N; Chen, Lin; Dewson, Grant; Wei, Andrew; Naik, Edwina; Fletcher, Jamie I; Adams, Jerry M; Huang, David C S

    2005-06-01

    Commitment of cells to apoptosis is governed largely by the interaction between members of the Bcl-2 protein family. Its three subfamilies have distinct roles: The BH3-only proteins trigger apoptosis by binding via their BH3 domain to prosurvival relatives, while the proapoptotic Bax and Bak have an essential downstream role involving permeabilization of organellar membranes and induction of caspase activation. We have investigated the regulation of Bak and find that, in healthy cells, Bak associates with Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) but surprisingly not Bcl-2, Bcl-w, or A1. These interactions require the Bak BH3 domain, which is also necessary for Bak dimerization and killing activity. When cytotoxic signals activate BH3-only proteins that can engage both Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) (such as Noxa plus Bad), Bak is displaced and induces cell death. Accordingly, the BH3-only protein Noxa could bind to Mcl-1, displace Bak, and promote Mcl-1 degradation, but Bak-mediated cell death also required neutralization of Bcl-x(L) by other BH3-only proteins. The results indicate that Bak is held in check solely by Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) and induces apoptosis only if freed from both. The finding that different prosurvival proteins have selective roles has notable implications for the design of anti-cancer drugs that target the Bcl-2 family. PMID:15901672

  18. Mitochondrial oligomers boost glycolysis in cancer stem cells to facilitate blebbishield-mediated transformation after apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jinesh, GG; Molina, JR; Huang, L; Laing, NM; Mills, GB; Bar-Eli, M; Kamat, AM

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis culminates in secondary necrosis due to lack of ATP. Cancer stem cells form spheres after apoptosis by evoking the blebbishield emergency program. Hence, determining how blebbishields avoid secondary necrosis is crucial. Here we demonstrate that N-Myc and VEGFR2 control transformation from blebbishields, during which oligomers of K-Ras, p27, BAD, Bax, and Bak boost glycolysis to avoid secondary necrosis. Non-apoptotic cancer cells also utilize oligomers to boost glycolysis, which differentiates the glycolytic function of oligomers from their apoptotic action. Smac mimetic in combination with TNF-α or TRAIL but not in combination with FasL abrogates transformation from blebbishields by inducing secondary necrosis. Thus blebbishield-mediated transformation is dependent on glycolysis, and Smac mimetics represent potential candidates to abrogate the blebbishield emergency program. PMID:27551498

  19. Mitochondrial oligomers boost glycolysis in cancer stem cells to facilitate blebbishield-mediated transformation after apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jinesh, G G; Molina, J R; Huang, L; Laing, N M; Mills, G B; Bar-Eli, M; Kamat, A M

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis culminates in secondary necrosis due to lack of ATP. Cancer stem cells form spheres after apoptosis by evoking the blebbishield emergency program. Hence, determining how blebbishields avoid secondary necrosis is crucial. Here we demonstrate that N-Myc and VEGFR2 control transformation from blebbishields, during which oligomers of K-Ras, p27, BAD, Bax, and Bak boost glycolysis to avoid secondary necrosis. Non-apoptotic cancer cells also utilize oligomers to boost glycolysis, which differentiates the glycolytic function of oligomers from their apoptotic action. Smac mimetic in combination with TNF-α or TRAIL but not in combination with FasL abrogates transformation from blebbishields by inducing secondary necrosis. Thus blebbishield-mediated transformation is dependent on glycolysis, and Smac mimetics represent potential candidates to abrogate the blebbishield emergency program. PMID:27551498

  20. Bax targets mitochondria by distinct mechanisms before or during apoptotic cell death: a requirement for VDAC2 or Bak for efficient Bax apoptotic function.

    PubMed

    Ma, S B; Nguyen, T N; Tan, I; Ninnis, R; Iyer, S; Stroud, D A; Menard, M; Kluck, R M; Ryan, M T; Dewson, G

    2014-12-01

    In non-apoptotic cells, Bak constitutively resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. In contrast, Bax is in a dynamic equilibrium between the cytosol and mitochondria, and is commonly predominant in the cytosol. In response to an apoptotic stimulus, Bax and Bak change conformation, leading to Bax accumulation at mitochondria and Bak/Bax oligomerization to form a pore in the mitochondrial outer membrane that is responsible for cell death. Using blue native-PAGE to investigate how Bax oligomerizes in the mitochondrial outer membrane, we observed that, like Bak, a proportion of Bax that constitutively resides at mitochondria associates with voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)2 prior to an apoptotic stimulus. During apoptosis, Bax dissociates from VDAC2 and homo-oligomerizes to form high molecular weight oligomers. In cells that lack VDAC2, constitutive mitochondrial localization of Bax and Bak was impaired, suggesting that VDAC2 has a role in Bax and Bak import to, or stability at, the mitochondrial outer membrane. However, following an apoptotic stimulus, Bak and Bax retained the ability to accumulate at VDAC2-deficient mitochondria and to mediate cell death. Silencing of Bak in VDAC2-deficient cells indicated that Bax required either VDAC2 or Bak in order to translocate to and oligomerize at the mitochondrial outer membrane to efficiently mediate apoptosis. In contrast, efficient Bak homo-oligomerization at the mitochondrial outer membrane and its pro-apoptotic function required neither VDAC2 nor Bax. Even a C-terminal mutant of Bax (S184L) that localizes to mitochondria did not constitutively target mitochondria deficient in VDAC2, but was recruited to mitochondria following an apoptotic stimulus dependent on Bak or upon over-expression of Bcl-xL. Together, our data suggest that Bax localizes to the mitochondrial outer membrane via alternate mechanisms, either constitutively via an interaction with VDAC2 or after activation via interaction with Bcl-2 family

  1. Bax targets mitochondria by distinct mechanisms before or during apoptotic cell death: a requirement for VDAC2 or Bak for efficient Bax apoptotic function

    PubMed Central

    Ma, S B; Nguyen, T N; Tan, I; Ninnis, R; Iyer, S; Stroud, D A; Menard, M; Kluck, R M; Ryan, M T; Dewson, G

    2014-01-01

    In non-apoptotic cells, Bak constitutively resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. In contrast, Bax is in a dynamic equilibrium between the cytosol and mitochondria, and is commonly predominant in the cytosol. In response to an apoptotic stimulus, Bax and Bak change conformation, leading to Bax accumulation at mitochondria and Bak/Bax oligomerization to form a pore in the mitochondrial outer membrane that is responsible for cell death. Using blue native-PAGE to investigate how Bax oligomerizes in the mitochondrial outer membrane, we observed that, like Bak, a proportion of Bax that constitutively resides at mitochondria associates with voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)2 prior to an apoptotic stimulus. During apoptosis, Bax dissociates from VDAC2 and homo-oligomerizes to form high molecular weight oligomers. In cells that lack VDAC2, constitutive mitochondrial localization of Bax and Bak was impaired, suggesting that VDAC2 has a role in Bax and Bak import to, or stability at, the mitochondrial outer membrane. However, following an apoptotic stimulus, Bak and Bax retained the ability to accumulate at VDAC2-deficient mitochondria and to mediate cell death. Silencing of Bak in VDAC2-deficient cells indicated that Bax required either VDAC2 or Bak in order to translocate to and oligomerize at the mitochondrial outer membrane to efficiently mediate apoptosis. In contrast, efficient Bak homo-oligomerization at the mitochondrial outer membrane and its pro-apoptotic function required neither VDAC2 nor Bax. Even a C-terminal mutant of Bax (S184L) that localizes to mitochondria did not constitutively target mitochondria deficient in VDAC2, but was recruited to mitochondria following an apoptotic stimulus dependent on Bak or upon over-expression of Bcl-xL. Together, our data suggest that Bax localizes to the mitochondrial outer membrane via alternate mechanisms, either constitutively via an interaction with VDAC2 or after activation via interaction with Bcl-2 family

  2. Functional Consequences for Apoptosis by Transcription Elongation Regulator 1 (TCERG1)-Mediated Bcl-x and Fas/CD95 Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Marta; Coiras, Mayte; Becerra, Soraya; Moreno-Castro, Cristina; Mateos, Elena; Majuelos, Jara; Oliver, F. Javier; Hernández-Munain, Cristina; Alcamí, José; Suñé, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present evidence for a specific role of the splicing-related factor TCERG1 in regulating apoptosis in live cells by modulating the alternative splicing of the apoptotic genes Bcl-x and Fas. We show that TCERG1 modulates Bcl-x alternative splicing during apoptosis and its activity in Bcl-x alternative splicing correlates with the induction of apoptosis, as determined by assessing dead cells, sub-G1-phase cells, annexin-V binding, cell viability, and cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1. Furthermore, the effect of TCERG1 on apoptosis involved changes in mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. We also found that depletion of TCERG1 reduces the expression of the activated form of the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial membrane protein Bak, which remains inactive by heterodimerizing with Bcl-xL, preventing the initial step of cytochrome c release in Bak-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. In addition, we provide evidence that TCERG1 also participates in the death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathway. Interestingly, TCERG1 also modulates Fas/CD95 alternative splicing. We propose that TCERG1 sensitizes a cell to apoptotic agents, thus promoting apoptosis by regulating the alternative splicing of both the Bcl-x and Fas/CD95 genes. Our findings may provide a new link between the control of alternative splicing and the molecular events leading to apoptosis. PMID:26462236

  3. Bak apoptotic function is not directly regulated by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tran, V H; Bartolo, R; Westphal, D; Alsop, A; Dewson, G; Kluck, R M

    2013-01-01

    During apoptosis, Bak and Bax permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane by undergoing major conformational change and oligomerization. This activation process in Bak is reported to require dephosphorylation of tyrosine-108 close to an activation trigger site. To investigate how dephosphorylation of Bak contributes to its activation and conformational change, one-dimensional isoelectric focusing (1D-IEF) and mutagenesis was used to monitor Bak phosphorylation. On 1D-IEF, Bak extracted from a range of cell types migrated as a single band near the predicted isoelectric point of 5.6 both before and after phosphatase treatment, indicating that Bak is not significantly phosphorylated at any residue. In contrast, three engineered 'phosphotagged' Bak variants showed a second band at lower pI, indicating phosphorylation. Apoptosis induced by several stimuli failed to alter Bak pI, indicating little change in phosphorylation status. In addition, alanine substitution of tyrosine-108 and other putative phosphorylation sites failed to enhance Bak activation or pro-apoptotic function. In summary, Bak is not significantly phosphorylated at any residue, and Bak activation during apoptosis does not require dephosphorylation. PMID:23303126

  4. Clitocine potentiates TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells by promoting Mcl-1 degradation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Guo; Ruan, Feng; Zeng, Xue-Li; Xiang, Jun; Li, Xia; Wu, Ping; Fung, Kwok Pui; Liu, Fei-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Among anti-cancer candidate drugs, TRAIL might be the most specific agent against cancer cells due to its low toxicity to normal cells. Unfortunately, cancer cells usually develop drug resistance to TRAIL, which is a major obstacle for its clinical application. One promising strategy is co-administrating with sensitizer to overcome cancer cells resistance to TRAIL. Clitocine, a natural amino nucleoside purified from wild mushroom, is recently demonstrated that can induce apoptosis in multidrug-resistant human cancer cells by targeting Mcl-1. In the present study,we found that pretreatment with clitocine dramatically enhances TRAIL lethality in its resistant human colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. More importantly, combination of clitocine and TRAIL also effectively inhibits xenograft growth and induces tumor cells apoptosis in athymic mice. The disruption of the binding between Mcl-1 and Bak as well as mitochondrial translocation of Bax mediated by clitocine are identified as the key underlying mechanisms, which leading to mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Enforced exogenous Mcl-1 can effectively attenuate clitocine/TRAIL-induced apoptosis by suppressing the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, clitocine regulates Mcl-1 expression at the posttranslational level as no obvious change is observed on mRNA level and proteasome inhibitor MG132 almost blocks the Mcl-1 suppression by clitocine. In fact, more ubiquitinated Mcl-1 was detected under clitocine treatment. Our findings indicate that clitocine is potentially an effective adjuvant agent in TRAIL-based cancer therapy. PMID:27421828

  5. Deterministic Modelling of BAK Activation Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grills, C.; Chacko, A.; Crawford, N.; Johnston, P. G.; Fennell, D. A.; O'Rourke, S. F. C.

    2009-08-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial BAK activation during apoptosis remains highly controversial. Two seemingly conflicting models have been proposed. In the activation model, BAK requires so-called activating BH3 only proteins (aBH3) to initiate its conformation change. In the other, displacement from inhibitory pro-survival BCL-2 proteins (PBPs) and monomerization of BAK by PBP restricted dissociator BH3-only proteins (dBH3) is sufficient. To better understand the kinetic implications of these models and reconcile these conflicting but highly evidence-based models, we have employed dynamical systems analysis to explore the kinetics underlying BAK activation as a non-linear reaction system. Our findings accommodate both pure agonism and dissociation as mutually exclusive mechanisms capable of initiating BAK activation. In addition we find our work supports a modelling based approach for predicting resistance to therapeutically relevant small molecules BH3 mimetics.

  6. In non-transformed cells Bak activates upon loss of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 but in the absence of active BH3-only proteins.

    PubMed

    Senft, D; Weber, A; Saathoff, F; Berking, C; Heppt, M V; Kammerbauer, C; Rothenfusser, S; Kellner, S; Kurgyis, Z; Besch, R; Häcker, G

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial apoptosis is controlled by proteins of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family. Pro-apoptotic members of this family, known as BH3-only proteins, initiate activation of the effectors Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), which is counteracted by anti-apoptotic family members. How the interactions of Bcl-2 proteins regulate cell death is still not entirely clear. Here, we show that in the absence of extrinsic apoptotic stimuli Bak activates without detectable contribution from BH3-only proteins, and cell survival depends on anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 molecules. All anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins were targeted via RNA interference alone or in combinations of two in primary human fibroblasts. Simultaneous targeting of B-cell lymphoma-extra large and myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 led to apoptosis in several cell types. Apoptosis depended on Bak whereas Bax was dispensable. Activator BH3-only proteins were not required for apoptosis induction as apoptosis was unaltered in the absence of all BH3-only proteins known to activate Bax or Bak directly, Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death, BH3-interacting domain death agonist and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis. These findings argue for auto-activation of Bak in the absence of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and provide evidence of profound differences in the activation of Bax and Bak. PMID:26610208

  7. In non-transformed cells Bak activates upon loss of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 but in the absence of active BH3-only proteins

    PubMed Central

    Senft, D; Weber, A; Saathoff, F; Berking, C; Heppt, M V; Kammerbauer, C; Rothenfusser, S; Kellner, S; Kurgyis, Z; Besch, R; Häcker, G

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial apoptosis is controlled by proteins of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family. Pro-apoptotic members of this family, known as BH3-only proteins, initiate activation of the effectors Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), which is counteracted by anti-apoptotic family members. How the interactions of Bcl-2 proteins regulate cell death is still not entirely clear. Here, we show that in the absence of extrinsic apoptotic stimuli Bak activates without detectable contribution from BH3-only proteins, and cell survival depends on anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 molecules. All anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins were targeted via RNA interference alone or in combinations of two in primary human fibroblasts. Simultaneous targeting of B-cell lymphoma-extra large and myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 led to apoptosis in several cell types. Apoptosis depended on Bak whereas Bax was dispensable. Activator BH3-only proteins were not required for apoptosis induction as apoptosis was unaltered in the absence of all BH3-only proteins known to activate Bax or Bak directly, Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death, BH3-interacting domain death agonist and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis. These findings argue for auto-activation of Bak in the absence of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and provide evidence of profound differences in the activation of Bax and Bak. PMID:26610208

  8. Organization of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic BAK Pore

    PubMed Central

    Aluvila, Sreevidya; Mandal, Tirtha; Hustedt, Eric; Fajer, Peter; Choe, Jun Yong; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2014-01-01

    The multidomain pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins BAK and BAX are believed to form large oligomeric pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane during apoptosis. Formation of these pores results in the release of apoptotic factors including cytochrome c from the intermembrane space into the cytoplasm, where they initiate the cascade of events that lead to cell death. Using the site-directed spin labeling method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we have determined the conformational changes that occur in BAK when the protein targets to the membrane and forms pores. The data showed that helices α1 and α6 disengage from the rest of the domain, leaving helices α2-α5 as a folded unit. Helices α2-α5 were shown to form a dimeric structure, which is structurally homologous to the recently reported BAX “BH3-in-groove homodimer.” Furthermore, the EPR data and a chemical cross-linking study demonstrated the existence of a hitherto unknown interface between BAK BH3-in-groove homodimers in the oligomeric BAK. This novel interface involves the C termini of α3 and α5 helices. The results provide further insights into the organization of the BAK oligomeric pores by the BAK homodimers during mitochondrial apoptosis, enabling the proposal of a BAK-induced lipidic pore with the topography of a “worm hole.” PMID:24337568

  9. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer cells is dependent on Bax- and Bak-induction pathway and synergistically activated by BH3-mimetic ABT-263 in p53 wild-type and mutant cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Nakajima, Wataru; Seike, Masahiro; Gemma, Akihiko; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-29

    Cisplatin is a highly effective anticancer drug for treatment of various tumors including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and is especially useful in cases nonresponsive to molecular-targeted drugs. Accumulating evidence has shown that cisplatin activates the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway, but it also induces apoptosis in p53-mutated cancer cells. Here we demonstrated that DNA-damage inducible proapoptotic BH3 (Bcl-2 homology region 3)-only Bcl-2 family members, Noxa, Puma, Bim and Bid, are not involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human NSCLC cell lines. In contrast, the expression of proapoptotic multidomain Bcl-2-family members, Bak and Bax, was induced by cisplatin in p53-dependent and -independent manners, respectively. Moreover, in wild-type p53-expressing cells, cisplatin mainly used the Bak-dependent apoptotic pathway, but this apoptotic pathway shifted to the Bax-dependent pathway by loss-of-function of p53. Furthermore, both Bak- and Bax-induced apoptosis was enhanced by the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, Bcl-XL knockdown, but not by Mcl-1 knockdown. From this result, we tested the effect of ABT-263 (Navitoclax), the specific inhibitor of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, but not Mcl-1, and found that ABT-263 synergistically enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells in the presence or absence of p53. These results indicate a novel regulatory system in cisplatin-induced NSCLC cell apoptosis, and a candidate efficient combination chemotherapy method against lung cancers. PMID:26996126

  10. Nortriptyline induces mitochondria and death receptor-mediated apoptosis in bladder cancer cells and inhibits bladder tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Sheau-Yun; Cheng, Chen-Li; Ho, Hao-Chung; Wang, Shian-Shiang; Chiu, Kun-Yuan; Su, Chung-Kuang; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2015-08-15

    Nortriptyline (NTP), an antidepressant, has antitumor effects on some human cancer cells, but its effect on human bladder cancer cells is not known. In this study, we used a cell viability assay to demonstrate that NTP is cytotoxic to human TCCSUP and mouse MBT-2 bladder cancer cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. We also performed cell cycle analysis, annexin V and mitochondrial membrane potential assays, and Western blot analysis to show that NTP inhibits cell growth in these cells by inducing both mitochondria-mediated and death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Specifically, NTP increases the expression of Fas, FasL, FADD, Bax, Bak, and cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. In addition, NTP decreases the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, BH3 interacting domain death agonist, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and survivin. Furthermore, NTP-induced apoptosis is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which can be reduced by antioxidants, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Finally, we showed that NTP suppresses tumor growth in mice inoculated with MBT-2 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that NTP induces both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis in human and mouse bladder cancer cells and that it may be a clinically useful chemotherapeutic agent for bladder cancer in humans. PMID:26086857

  11. The X-ray Structure of a BAK Homodimer Reveals an Inhibitory Zinc Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Modoveanu,T.; Liu, Q.; Tocilj, A.; Watson, M.; Shore, G.; Gehring, K.

    2006-01-01

    BAK/BAX-mediated mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization (MOMP) drives cell death during development and tissue homeostasis from zebrafish to humans. In most cancers, this pathway is inhibited by BCL-2 family antiapoptotic members, which bind and block the action of proapoptotic BCL proteins. We report the 1.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of calpain-proteolysed BAK, cBAK, to reveal a zinc binding site that regulates its activity via homodimerization. cBAK contains an occluded BH3 peptide binding pocket that binds a BID BH3 peptide only weakly . Nonetheless, cBAK requires activation by truncated BID to induce cytochrome c release in mitochondria isolated from bak/bax double-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The BAK-mediated MOMP is inhibited by low micromolar zinc levels. This inhibition is alleviated by mutation of the zinc-coordination site in BAK. Our results link directly the antiapoptotic effects of zinc to BAK.

  12. Esculetin Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride-Mediated Hepatic Apoptosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Yun-Chen; Liao, Jung-Chun; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Huang, Tai-Hung; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Wen-Te; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2011-01-01

    Esculetin (ESC) is a coumarin that is present in several plants such as Fraxinus rhynchophylla and Artemisia capillaris. Our previous study found that FR ethanol extract (FREtOH) significantly ameliorated rats’ liver function. This study was intended to investigate the protective mechanism of ESC in hepatic apoptosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride. Rat hepatic apoptosis was induced by oral administration of CCl4. All rats were administered orally with CCl4 (20%, 0.5 mL/rat) twice a week for 8 weeks. Rats in the ESC groups were treated daily with ESC, and silymarin group were treated daily with silymarin. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase in the liver were measured. In addition, expression of liver apoptosis proteins and anti-apoptotic proteins were detected. ESC (100, 500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the elevated activities of serum ALT and AST caused by CCl4 and significantly increased the activities of catalase, GPx and SOD. Furthermore, ESC (100, 500 mg/kg) significantly decreased the levels of the proapoptotic proteins (t-Bid, Bak and Bad) and significantly increased the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL). ESC inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. In addition, the levels of activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3 were significantly decreased in rats treated with ESC than those in rats treated with CCl4 alone. ESC significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatic apoptosis in rats. PMID:21747724

  13. PRMT6 mediates CSE induced inflammation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Naixing; Chen, Ping; Chen, Yan; Zeng, Huihui; He, Xue; Zhu, Yingqun

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces apoptosis and inflammation, but the mechanism is unknown. Arginine methyltransferase (PRMT6) catalyzes the asymmetric di-methylation of histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2me2a) to control global level transcription. We hypothesized that PRMT6 mediates CSE induced apoptosis and inflammation through H3R2me2a. The apoptosis after CSE treatment in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was fully measured with real-time reverse transcription PCR, western blotting and Annexin-V staining. Meanwhile, the inflammation in HUVECs after CSE exposure was detected with real-time reverse transcription PCR, western blotting and ELISA. CSE treatment promoted apoptosis and inflammation in HUVECs, coinciding with the decreased protein abundance of PRMT6. Meanwhile, HUVECs transfected with PRMT6 expressing plasmid inhibited the CSE-induced apoptosis and inflammation. Also, the inhibition of PRMT6 promoted the apoptosis and inflammation in HUVECs induced by CSE. Notably, H3R2me2a was associated with the modulation of PRMT6 in CSE induced apoptosis and inflammation in HUVECs. In conclusion, PRMT6 mediates CSE induced apoptosis and inflammation through H3R2me2a in HUVECs. PMID:25481537

  14. Dividing roles of prion protein in staurosporine-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Qin, Kefeng; Wang, Jianwei; Hung, Tao; Zhao, Richard Y

    2006-10-20

    Prion protein (PrPC) is a normal cellular glycoprotein that is expressed in almost all tissues including the central nervous system. Much attention has been focused on this protein because conversion of the normal PrPC to the diseased form (PrPSc) plays an essential role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In spite of the extensive effort, the normal physiological function of PrPC remains elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that PrPC plays a protective role against cellular stresses including apoptosis induced by various pro-apoptotic agents such as Bax and staurosporine (STS), however, other reports showed overexpression of PrPC enhances STS-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we took a different approach by depleting endogenous PrPC using specific interfering RNA technique and compared the depleting and overproducing effects of PrPC on STS-induced apoptosis in neuro-2a (N2a) cells. We demonstrate here that down-regulation of PrPC sensitizes N2a cells to STS-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The enhanced apoptosis induced by STS was shown by increased DNA fragmentation, immunoreactivity of Bax, and caspase-3 cleavage. We also showed that overproduction of PrPC had little or no effect on STS-mediated DNA fragmentation in N2a cells but it augments STS-mediated apoptosis in HEK293 cells, suggesting a cell line-specific effect. In addition, the inhibitory effect of PrPC on STS-mediated cellular stress appears to be modulated in part through induction of cell cycle G2 accumulation. Together, our data suggest that physiological level of endogenous PrPC plays a protective role against STS-mediated cellular stress. Loss of this protection could render cells more prone to cellular insults such as STS. PMID:16950206

  15. Penfluridol suppresses pancreatic tumor growth by autophagy-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Alok; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors exhibit enhanced autophagy as compared to any other cancer, making it resistant to chemotherapy. We evaluated the effect of penfluridol against pancreatic cancer. Penfluridol treatment induced apoptosis and inhibited the growth of Panc-1, BxPC-3 and AsPC-1, pancreatic cancer cells with IC50 ranging between 6–7 μM after 24 h of treatment. Significant autophagy was induced by penfluridol treatment in pancreatic cancer cells. Punctate LC3B and autophagosomes staining confirmed autophagy. Inhibiting autophagy by chloroquine, bafilomycin, 3-methyladenine or LC3BsiRNA, significantly blocked penfluridol-induced apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy lead to apoptosis in our model. Penfluridol treatment suppressed the growth of BxPC-3 tumor xenografts by 48% as compared to 17% when treated in combination with chloroquine. Similarly, penfluridol suppressed the growth of AsPC-1 tumors by 40% versus 16% when given in combination with chloroquine. TUNEL staining and caspase-3 cleavage revealed less apoptosis in the tumors from mice treated with penfluridol and chloroquine as compared to penfluridol alone. Penfluridol treatment also suppressed the growth of orthotopically implanted Panc-1 tumors by 80% by inducing autophagy-mediated apoptosis in the tumors. These studies established that penfluridol inhibits pancreatic tumor growth by autophagy-mediated apoptosis. Since penfluridol is already in clinic, positive findings from our study will accelerate its clinical development. PMID:27189859

  16. Inhibitors of mitochondrial Kv1.3 channels induce Bax/Bak-independent death of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Leanza, Luigi; Henry, Brian; Sassi, Nicola; Zoratti, Mario; Chandy, K George; Gulbins, Erich; Szabò, Ildikò

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming the resistance of tumours to chemotherapy, often due to downregulation of Bax and Bak, represents a significant clinical challenge. It is therefore important to identify novel apoptosis inducers that bypass Bax and Bak. Potassium channels are emerging as oncological targets and a crucial role of mitochondrial Kv1.3 in apoptosis has been demonstrated. Here we report for the first time that Psora-4, PAP-1 and clofazimine, three distinct membrane-permeant inhibitors of Kv1.3, induce death by directly targeting the mitochondrial channel in multiple human and mouse cancer cell lines. Importantly, these drugs activated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway also in the absence of Bax and Bak, a result in agreement with the current mechanistic model for mitochondrial Kv1.3 action. Genetic deficiency or short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated downregulation of Kv1.3 abrogated the effects of the drugs. Intraperitoneal injection of clofazimine reduced tumour size by 90% in an orthotopic melanoma B16F10 mouse model in vivo, while no adverse effects were observed in several healthy tissues. The study indicates that inhibition of mitochondrial Kv1.3 might be a novel therapeutic option for the induction of cancer cell death independent of Bax and Bak. PMID:22496117

  17. Proapoptotic Activities of Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) and PDIA3 Protein, a Role of the Bcl-2 Protein Bak*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoping; Lu, Huayi; Li, Chi

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family proteins are classified as enzymatic chaperones for reconstructing misfolded proteins. Previous studies have shown that several PDI members possess potential proapoptotic functions. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of PDI-mediated apoptosis are not completely known. In this study, we investigated how two members of PDI family, PDI and PDIA3, modulate apoptotic signaling. Inhibiting PDI and PDIA3 activities pharmacologically alleviates apoptosis induced by various apoptotic stimuli. Although a decrease of PDIA3 expression alleviates apoptotic responses, overexpression of PDIA3 exacerbates apoptotic signaling. Importantly, Bak, but not Bax, is essential for PDIA3-induced proapoptotic signaling. Furthermore, both purified PDI and PDIA3 proteins induce Bak-dependent, but not Bax-dependent, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in vitro, probably through triggering Bak oligomerization on mitochondria. Our results suggest that both of PDI and PDIA3 possess Bak-dependent proapoptotic function through inducing mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, which provides a new mechanism linking ER chaperone proteins and apoptotic signaling. PMID:25697356

  18. Regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis by bioactive lipid mediators.

    PubMed

    Clària, Joan

    2006-11-01

    Bioactive lipid mediators are increasingly being recognized as important endogenous regulators of cell activation, signaling, apoptosis and proliferation. Most of these lipid mediators are originated from cleavage of constituents of cellular membranes under the activity of phospholipases and sphingomyelinases. One of the major cascades of bioactive lipid mediator production involves the release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids followed by the formation of eicosanoids (i.e. prostaglandins, leukotrienes and lipoxins). These biologically active metabolites of arachidonic acid are emerging as key regulators of cell proliferation and neo-angiogenesis and agents that specifically target these lipid mediators are being investigated as potential anticancer drugs. On the other hand, the lysophospholipid family, which includes members of the sphingomyelin-ceramide-sphingosine-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid subfamilies, has evolved as an important group of lipid signaling molecules implicated in cellular differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis. This article reviews the most recent patents in this field of research, covering the following strategies based on the modulation of bioactive lipid mediators: (1) prostaglandin H synthase-2 inhibitors, (2) lipoxin analogs and aspirin-triggered lipid mediators, and (3) lysophosphatidic acid and other lysophospholipids. PMID:18221047

  19. Induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells through the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway by ramentaceone from Drosera aliciae.

    PubMed

    Kawiak, Anna; Zawacka-Pankau, Joanna; Wasilewska, Aleksandra; Stasilojc, Grzegorz; Bigda, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2012-01-27

    Ramentaceone (1) is a naphthoquinone constituent of Drosera aliciae that exhibits potent cytotoxic activity against various tumor cell lines. However, its molecular mechanism of cell death induction has still not been determined. The present study demonstrates that 1 induces apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Typical morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis were observed in 1-treated cells. Compound 1 induced a concentration-dependent increase in the sub-G1 fraction of the cell cycle. A decrease in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) was also observed. Furthermore, 1 reduced the ratio of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 to pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak, induced cytochrome c release, and increased the activity of caspase 3. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in 1-treated HL-60 cells, which was attenuated by the pretreatment of cells with a free radical scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). NAC also prevented the increase of the sub-G1 fraction induced by 1. These results indicate that ramentaceone induces cell death through the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. PMID:22250825

  20. Paraptosis triggers mitochondrial pathway-mediated apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    JIA, DONG-PEI; WANG, SONG; ZHANG, BAO-CHAO; FANG, FANG

    2015-01-01

    In previous years, increasing evidence has indicated that paraptosis and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis may be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the association between paraptosis and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and the pathological processes underlying AD, remain elusive. In the present study, the β-amyloid precursor protein gene, and the gene mutations PS1M146L and L286V, were transfected to an SH-SY5Y cell line to establish an AD cell model. Subsequently, an MTT assay was used to examine the cell viability of the AD cell model, while a TUNEL assay was employed to observe the number of positively stained apoptotic cells. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was examined using light microscopy and images were photographed. Furthermore, western blot analysis was utilized to detect the expression of golden biomarkers of the mitochondrial pathway, including Bcl-2 and Bax. The paraptosis inhibitor, cycloheximide, was selected to treat the AD model cells in order to observe the association between paraptosis and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. The results indicated that the decrease in the cell viability of the AD cells was initiated at 24 h, as compared with the normal cells (P<0.05). TUNEL-positive stained cells were observed at 48 h, which was later compared with the cell death initiation. In addition, examination of cytoplasmic vacuolization using microscopy indicated that there were a small number of paraptosis cells present at 24 h. The expression levels of Bcl-2 was significantly decreased, while Bax was significantly increased at 48 h. Furthermore, cycloheximide treatment was demonstrated to significantly increase Bcl-2 expression, while decreasing Bax expression (P>0.05). In conclusion, the occurrence of paraptosis was demonstrated in the early pathological stages of AD, which may subsequently damage the mitochondria and trigger mitochondrial pathway-mediated apoptosis. Thus, paraptosis may trigger programmed cell death directly, or indirectly

  1. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chen-Tzu; Chen, Bing-Chang; Yu, Chung-Chi; Weng, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Shih, Chung-Hung; Lin, Chien-Huang

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we explore the role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Denbinobin-induced cell apoptosis was attenuated by an ASK1 dominant-negative mutant (ASK1DN), two antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH)), a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (SP600125), and an activator protein-1 (AP-1) inhibitor (curcumin). Treatment of A549 cells with denbinobin caused increases in ASK1 activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and these effects were inhibited by NAC and GSH. Stimulation of A549 cells with denbinobin caused JNK activation; this effect was markedly inhibited by NAC, GSH, and ASK1DN. Denbinobin induced c-Jun phosphorylation, the formation of an AP-1-specific DNA-protein complex, and Bim expression. Bim knockdown using a bim short interfering RNA strategy also reduced denbinobin-induced A549 cell apoptosis. The denbinobin-mediated increases in c-Jun phosphorylation and Bim expression were inhibited by NAC, GSH, SP600125, ASK1DN, JNK1DN, and JNK2DN. These results suggest that denbinobin might activate ASK1 through ROS production to cause JNK/AP-1 activation, which in turn induces Bim expression, and ultimately results in A549 cell apoptosis. PMID:19405983

  2. H-Ras regulation of TRAIL death receptor mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Bozza, William P.; Di, Xu; Zhang, Yaqin; Hallett, William; Zhang, Baolin

    2014-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through the death receptors (DRs) 4 and/or 5 expressed on the cell surface. Multiple clinical trials are underway to evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 or DR5. However, their therapeutic potential is limited by the high frequency of cancer resistance. Here we provide evidence demonstrating the role of H-Ras in TRAIL receptor mediated apoptosis. By analyzing the genome wide mRNA expression data of the NCI60 cancer cell lines, we found that H-Ras expression was consistently upregulated in TRAIL-resistant cell lines. By contrast, no correlation was found between TRAIL sensitivity and K-Ras expression levels or their mutational profiles. Notably, H-Ras upregulation associated with a surface deficiency of TRAIL death receptors. Selective inhibition of H-Ras activity in TRAIL-resistant cells restored the surface expression of both DR4 and DR5 without changing their total protein levels. The resulting cells became highly susceptible to both TRAIL and agonistic DR5 antibody, whereas K-Ras inhibition had little or no effect on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, indicating H-Ras plays a distinct role in the regulation of TRAIL death receptors. Further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic potential of H-Ras-specific inhibitors in combination with TRAIL receptor agonists. PMID:25026275

  3. Cystamine induces AIF-mediated apoptosis through glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Yup; Lee, Jin-Haeng; Ju, Mi-kyeong; Jeong, Eui Man; Kim, Hyo-Jun; Lim, Jisun; Lee, Seungun; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Park, Hyun Ho; Choi, Kihang; Jeon, Ju-Hong; Kim, In-Gyu

    2015-03-01

    Cystamine and its reduced form cysteamine showed protective effects in various models of neurodegenerative disease, including Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Other lines of evidence demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of cysteamine on duodenal mucosa leading to ulcer development. However, the mechanism for cystamine cytotoxicity remains poorly understood. Here, we report a new pathway in which cystamine induces apoptosis by targeting apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). By screening of various cell lines, we observed that cystamine and cysteamine induce cell death in a cell type-specific manner. Comparison between cystamine-sensitive and cystamine-resistant cell lines revealed that cystamine cytotoxicity is not associated with unfolded protein response, reactive oxygen species generation and transglutaminase or caspase activity; rather, it is associated with the ability of cystamine to trigger AIF nuclear translocation. In cystamine-sensitive cells, cystamine suppresses the levels of intracellular glutathione by inhibiting γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression that triggers AIF translocation. Conversely, glutathione supplementation completely prevents cystamine-induced AIF translocation and apoptosis. In rats, cysteamine administration induces glutathione depletion and AIF translocation leading to apoptosis of duodenal epithelium. These results indicate that AIF translocation through glutathione depletion is the molecular mechanism of cystamine toxicity, and provide important implications for cystamine in the neurodegenerative disease therapeutics as well as in the regulation of AIF-mediated cell death. PMID:25549939

  4. Ursolic acid mediates photosensitization by initiating mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Exing; Kumar, Neeru; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2013-02-01

    The signaling pathways PI3K/Akt and MAPK play key roles in transcription, translation and carcinogenesis, and may be activated by light exposure. These pathways may be modulated or inhibited by naturally-occurring compounds, such as the triterpenoid, ursolic acid (UA). Previously, the transcription factors p53 and NF-kB, which transactivate mitochondrial apoptosis-related genes, were shown to be differentially modulated by UA. Our current work indicates that UA causes these effects via the mTOR and insulin-mediated pathways. UA-modulated apoptosis, following exposure to UV radiation, is observed to correspond to differential levels of oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and skin melanoma (SM) cells. Flow cytometry analysis, DHE (dihydroethidium) staining and membrane permeability assay showed that UA pretreatment potentiated cell cycle arrest and radiation-induced apoptosis selectively on SM cells while DNA photo-oxidative damage (i.e. strand breakage) was reduced, presumably by some antioxidant activity of UA in RPE cells. The UA-mediated NF-κB activation in SM cells was reduced by rapamycin pretreatment, which indicates that these agents exert inter-antagonistic effects in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In contrast, the antagonistic effect of UA on the PI3K/Akt pathway was reversed by insulin leading to greater NF-κB and p53 activation in RPE cells. MitoTracker, a mitochondrial functional assay, indicated that mitochondria in RPE cells experienced reduced oxidative stress while those in SM cells exhibited increased oxidative stress upon UA pretreatment. When rapamycin administration was followed by UA, mitochondrial oxidative stress was increased in RPE cells but decreased in SM cells. These results indicate that UA modulates p53 and NF-κB, initiating a mitogenic response to radiation that triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  5. µ-Calpain Conversion of Antiapoptotic Bfl-1 (BCL2A1) into a Prodeath Factor Reveals Two Distinct alpha-Helices Inducing Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jugé, Romain; Debaud, Anne-Laure; Giménez, Diana; Gillet, Germain; Bonnefoy-Bérard, Nathalie; Salgado, Jesús; Salles, Gilles; Aouacheria, Abdel; Kucharczak, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Anti-apoptotic Bfl-1 and pro-apoptotic Bax, two members of the Bcl-2 family sharing a similar structural fold, are classically viewed as antagonist regulators of apoptosis. However, both proteins were reported to be death inducers following cleavage by the cysteine protease µ-calpain. Here we demonstrate that calpain-mediated cleavage of full-length Bfl-1 induces the release of C-terminal membrane active α-helices that are responsible for its conversion into a pro-apoptotic factor. A careful comparison of the different membrane-active regions present in the Bfl-1 truncated fragments with homologous domains of Bax show that helix α5, but not α6, of Bfl-1 induces cell death and cytochrome c release from purified mitochondria through a Bax/Bak-dependent mechanism. In contrast, both helices α5 and α6 of Bax permeabilize mitochondria regardless of the presence of Bax or Bak. Moreover, we provide evidence that the α9 helix of Bfl-1 promotes cytochrome c release and apoptosis through a unique membrane-destabilizing action whereas Bax-α9 does not display such activities. Hence, despite a common 3D-structure, C-terminal toxic domains present on Bfl-1 and Bax function in a dissimilar manner to permeabilize mitochondria and induce apoptosis. These findings provide insights for designing therapeutic approaches that could exploit the cleavage of endogenous Bcl-2 family proteins or the use of Bfl-1/Bax-derived peptides to promote tumor cell clearance. PMID:22745672

  6. Apoptosis induced by granzyme B-glycosaminoglycan complexes: implications for granule-mediated apoptosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Galvin, J P; Spaeny-Dekking, L H; Wang, B; Seth, P; Hack, C E; Froelich, C J

    1999-05-01

    Lymphocyte granule-mediated apoptosis occurs by perforin-mediated intracellular delivery of granule-associated serine proteases (granzymes). A granule-associated proteoglycan, namely serglycin, that contains chondroitin 4-sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycans is present in the granules of cytotoxic cells. Serglycin acts as scaffold for packaging the positively charged granzymes and probably chaperones the proteases secreted extracellularly. To learn how the interaction of granzyme B (GrB) with serglycin might influence the apoptotic potential of this proteases, we have evaluated a model system where desalted CS is combined with isolated human granzyme. CS-GrB complexes were very stable, remaining undissociated in salt concentrations upwards to 500 mM (pH 7.4). On the basis of a capture enzyme immunoassay that accurately detects GrB, equivalent amounts of active free and CS-GrB, delivered by perforin or adenovirus, efficiently induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells and produced a similar time-dependent increase in caspase-3-like activity. CS-GrB processed isolated caspases-3 and -7 less efficiently than free granzyme. However, when added to cytosolic extracts, rates of processing were nearly equivalent for the two forms, suggesting cationic GrB may nonspecifically bind cytosolic proteins, leading to reduce proteolytic activity. Finally, GrB was found to be exocytosed from lymphocyte-activated killer cells as a neutral, high macromolecular weight complex, which possessed apoptotic activity. Collectively, the results indicate that neutral, high m.w. GrB has the capacity to induce cell death and will be useful to study the mechanism of cytotoxic cell-mediated apoptosis in vitro. PMID:10228010

  7. Acidosis Promotes Bcl-2 Family-mediated Evasion of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Christopher; McColl, Karen; Zhong, Fei; Distelhorst, Clark W.

    2012-01-01

    Acidosis arises in solid and lymphoid malignancies secondary to altered nutrient supply and utilization. Tumor acidosis correlates with therapeutic resistance, although the mechanism behind this effect is not fully understood. Here we show that incubation of lymphoma cell lines in acidic conditions (pH 6.5) blocks apoptosis induced by multiple cytotoxic metabolic stresses, including deprivation of glucose or glutamine and treatment with dexamethasone. We sought to examine the role of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators in this process. Interestingly, we found that acidic culture causes elevation of both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, while also attenuating glutamine starvation-induced elevation of p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and Bim. We confirmed with knockdown studies that these shifts direct survival decisions during starvation and acidosis. Importantly, the promotion of a high anti- to pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member ratio by acidosis renders cells exquisitely sensitive to the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL antagonist ABT-737, suggesting that acidosis causes Bcl-2 family dependence. This dependence appears to be mediated, in part, by the acid-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, GPR65, via a MEK/ERK pathway. PMID:22685289

  8. An increase of granulosa cell apoptosis mediates aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract-induced oocyte apoptosis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Anima; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) has been extensively used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for female fertility regulation for a long time, but its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Hence, the present study was aimed to determine whether an increase of granulosa cell apoptosis is associated with aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE)-induced oocyte apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Sexually immature female rats of 20 days old were fed NLE (50 mg/day) for 10 days and then subjected to superovulation induction protocol. The morphological changes in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), rate of oocyte apoptosis, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total nitrite, and cytochrome c concentrations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytochrome c, p53, Bcl2 and Bax expressions, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation, and estradiol 17β level in granulosa cells collected from preovulatory COCs were analyzed. Results: Aqueous NLE increased H2O2 concentration and decreased catalase activity, increased iNOS expression and total nitrite concentration, increased p53, Bax, and p53 expressions but decreased Bcl2 expression, increased cytochrome c concentration and induced DNA fragmentation in granulosa cells. An increased granulosa cell apoptosis resulted in reduced estradiol 17β concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that aqueous NLE-induced granulosa cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway, reduced estradiol 17β concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Thus, granulosa cell apoptosis mediates NLE-induced oocyte apoptosis during female fertility regulation in rat. PMID:23776837

  9. Functional divergence of BAK1 genes from Brassica rapa in regulating plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Li, C; Li, Q; Wang, Q N; Huang, S H; Zhang, Y F; Wang, X F

    2015-01-01

    BAK1 is a co-receptor of BRI1 in early signaling pathways mediated by brassinosteroids (BRs) and is thought to play a major role in plant growth and development. As the role of BAK1 has not yet been fully elucidated then further research is required to explore its potential for use in genetic modification to improve crops. In this study, three BAK1 genes from the amphidiploid species Brassica rapa were isolated and their kinase functions were predicted following DNA sequence analysis. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that two genes, BrBAK1-1 and BrBAK1-8, shared a conserved kinase domain and 5 tandem leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) that are characteristic of a BAK1 receptor for BR perception, whereas the third gene, BrBAK1-3, was deficient for a signal peptide, but had 4 leucine zippers and 3 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) in an extracellular domain. All three BrBAK1 kinases localized on the cellular membrane. Ectopic expression of each BrBAK1 gene in BR-insensitive (bri1-5 mutant) Arabidopsis plants indicated that BrBAK1-1 and BrBAK1-8 were functional homologues of AtBAK1 based on the rescue of growth in the bri1-5 mutant. Overexpression of BrBAK1-3 caused a severe dwarf phenotype resembling the phenotype of null BRI1 alleles. The results here suggest there are significant differences among the three BrBAK1 kinases for their effects on plant architecture. This conclusion has important implications for genetic modification of B. rapa. PMID:26600518

  10. BMX Negatively Regulates BAK Function, Thereby Increasing Apoptotic Resistance to Chemotherapeutic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fox, Joanna L; Storey, Alan

    2015-04-01

    The ability of chemotherapeutic agents to induce apoptosis, predominantly via the mitochondrial (intrinsic) apoptotic pathway, is thought to be a major determinant of the sensitivity of a given cancer to treatment. Intrinsic apoptosis, regulated by the BCL2 family, integrates diverse apoptotic signals to determine cell death commitment and then activates the nodal effector protein BAK to initiate the apoptotic cascade. In this study, we identified the tyrosine kinase BMX as a direct negative regulator of BAK function. BMX associates with BAK in viable cells and is the first kinase to phosphorylate the key tyrosine residue needed to maintain BAK in an inactive conformation. Importantly, elevated BMX expression prevents BAK activation in tumor cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents and is associated with increased resistance to apoptosis and decreased patient survival. Accordingly, BMX expression was elevated in prostate, breast, and colon cancers compared with normal tissue, including in aggressive triple-negative breast cancers where BMX overexpression may be a novel biomarker. Furthermore, BMX silencing potentiated BAK activation, rendering tumor cells hypersensitive to otherwise sublethal doses of clinically relevant chemotherapeutic agents. Our finding that BMX directly inhibits a core component of the intrinsic apoptosis machinery opens opportunities to improve the efficacy of existing chemotherapy by potentiating BAK-driven cell death in cancer cells. PMID:25649765

  11. Calcium and ER stress mediate hepatic apoptosis after burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N.; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction after burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis after burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacrificed at various time‐points. Liver was either perfused to isolate primary rat hepatocytes, which were used for in vitro calcium imaging, or liver was harvested and processed for immunohistology, transmission electron microscopy, mitochondrial isolation, mass spectroscopy or Western blotting to determine the hepatic response to burn injury in vivo. We found that thermal injury leads to severely depleted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores and consequent elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Burn‐induced ER calcium depletion caused depressed hepatocyte responsiveness to signalling molecules that regulate hepatic homeostasis, such as vasopressin and the purinergic agonist ATP. In vivo, thermal injury resulted in activation of the ER stress response and major alterations in mitochondrial structure and function – effects which may be mediated by increased calcium release by inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptors. Our results reveal that thermal injury leads to dramatic hepatic disturbances in calcium homeostasis and resultant ER stress leading to mitochondrial abnormalities contributing to hepatic dysfunction and apoptosis after burn injury. PMID:20141609

  12. A Structural Viral Mimic of Prosurvival Bcl-2: A Pivotal Role for Sequestering Proapoptotic Bax and Bak

    SciTech Connect

    Kvansakul,M.; van Delft, M.; Lee, E.; Gulbis, J.; Fairlie, W.; Huang, D.; Colman, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many viruses express antiapoptotic proteins to counter host defense mechanisms that would otherwise trigger the rapid clearance of infected cells. For example, adenoviruses and some {gamma}-herpesviruses express homologs of prosurvival Bcl-2 to subvert the host's apoptotic machinery. Myxoma virus, a double-stranded DNA virus of the pox family, harbors antiapoptotic M11L, its virulence factor. Analysis of its three-dimensional structure reveals that despite lacking any primary sequence similarity to Bcl-2, it adopts a virtually identical protein fold. This allows it to associate with BH3 domains, especially those of Bax and Bak. We found that M11L acts primarily by sequestering Bax and Bak, thereby blocking the killing action of these essential cell-death mediators. These findings expand the family of protein sequences that act like Bcl-2 to block apoptosis and support the conclusion that the prosurvival action of these proteins critically depends on their ability to bind and antagonize Bax and/or Bak.

  13. Nanoparticle-Mediated Mitochondrial Damage Induces Apoptosis in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Abhik; More, Piyush; Syed, Muhammed Muazzam Kamil; Basu, Sudipta

    2016-06-01

    Detouring of conventional DNA damaging anticancer drugs into mitochondria to damage mitochondrial DNA is evolving as a promising strategy in chemotherapy. Inhibiting single target in mitochondria would eventually lead to the emergence of drug resistance. Moreover, targeting mitochondria selectively in cancer cells, keeping them intact in healthy cells, remains a major challenge. Herein, triphenylphosphine (TPP)-coated positively charged 131.6 nm spherical nanoparticles (NPs) comprised of α-tocopheryl succinate (TOS, inhibitor of complex II in electron transport chain) and obatoclax (Obt, inhibitor of Bcl-2) were engineered. The TOS-TPP-Obt-NPs entered into acidic lysosomes via macropinocytosis, followed by lysosomal escape and finally homed into mitochondria over a period of 24 h. Subsequently, these TOS-TPP-Obt-NPs triggered mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) by inhibiting antiapoptotic Bcl-2, leading to Cytochrome C release. These TOS-TPP-Obt-NPs mediated mitochondrial damage induced cellular apoptosis through caspase-9 and caspase-3 cleavage to show improved efficacy in HeLa cells. Moreover, TOS-TPP-Obt-NPs induced MOMP in drug-resistant triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), leading to remarkable efficacy, compared to the combination of free drugs in higher drug concentrations. Results presented here clearly stimulate the usage of multiple drugs to perturb simultaneously diverse targets, selectively in mitochondria, as next-generation cancer therapeutics. PMID:27160664

  14. Dioscin Induces Apoptosis in Human Cervical Carcinoma HeLa and SiHa Cells through ROS-Mediated DNA Damage and the Mitochondrial Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinwei; Tao, Xufeng; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Qi, Yan; Xu, Youwei; Han, Xu; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-01-01

    Dioscin, a natural product, has activity against glioblastoma multiforme, lung cancer and colon cancer. In this study, the effects of dioscin against human cervical carcinoma HeLa and SiHa cells were further confirmed, and the possible mechanism(s) were investigated. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assay and DAPI staining were used to detect the cellular morphology. Flow cytometry was used to assay cell apoptosis, ROS and Ca(2+) levels. Single cell gel electrophoresis and immunofluorescence assays were used to test DNA damage and cytochrome C release. The results showed that dioscin significantly inhibited cell proliferation and caused DNA damage in HeLa and SiHa cells. The mechanistic investigation showed that dioscin caused the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into the cytosol. In addition, dioscin significantly up-regulated the protein levels of Bak, Bax, Bid, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, and down-regulated the protein levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Our work thus demonstrated that dioscin notably induces apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cells through adjusting ROS-mediated DNA damage and the mitochondrial signaling pathway. PMID:27271587

  15. bak deletion stimulates gastric epithelial proliferation and enhances Helicobacter felis-induced gastric atrophy and dysplasia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, C. A.; Abuderman, A. A.; Burkitt, M. D.; Williams, J. M.; O'Reilly, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter infection causes a chronic superficial gastritis that in some cases progresses via atrophic gastritis to adenocarcinoma. Proapoptotic bak has been shown to regulate radiation-induced apoptosis in the stomach and colon and also susceptibility to colorectal carcinogenesis in vivo. Therefore we investigated the gastric mucosal pathology following H. felis infection in bak-null mice at 6 or 48 wk postinfection. Primary gastric gland culture from bak-null mice was also used to assess the effects of bak deletion on IFN-γ-, TNF-α-, or IL-1β-induced apoptosis. bak-null gastric corpus glands were longer, had increased epithelial Ki-67 expression, and contained fewer parietal and enteroendocrine cells compared with the wild type (wt). In wt mice, bak was expressed at the luminal surface of gastric corpus glands, and this increased 2 wk post-H. felis infection. Apoptotic cell numbers were decreased in bak-null corpus 6 and 48 wk following infection and in primary gland cultures following cytokine administration. Increased gastric epithelial Ki-67 labeling index was observed in C57BL/6 mice after H. felis infection, whereas no such increase was detected in bak-null mice. More severe gastric atrophy was observed in bak-null compared with C57BL/6 mice 6 and 48 wk postinfection, and 76% of bak-null compared with 25% of C57BL/6 mice showed evidence of gastric dysplasia following long-term infection. Collectively, bak therefore regulates gastric epithelial cell apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, mucosal thickness, and susceptibility to gastric atrophy and dysplasia following H. felis infection. PMID:26159699

  16. In Situ Characterization of Bak Clusters Responsible for Cell Death Using Single Molecule Localization Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nasu, Yusuke; Benke, Alexander; Arakawa, Satoko; Yoshida, Go J.; Kawamura, Genki; Manley, Suliana; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis plays a pivotal role in development and tissue homeostasis in multicellular organisms. Clustering of Bak proteins on the mitochondrial outer membrane is responsible for the induction of apoptosis by evoking a release of pro-apoptotic proteins from mitochondria into cytosol. However, how the protein cluster permeabilizes the mitochondrial membrane remains unclear because elucidation of the cluster characteristics such as size and protein density has been hampered by the diffraction-limited resolution of light microscopy. Here, we describe an approach to quantitatively characterize Bak clusters in situ based on single molecule localization. We showed that Bak proteins form densely packed clusters at the nanoscale on mitochondria during apoptosis. Quantitative analysis based on the localization of each Bak protein revealed that the density of Bak protein is uniform among clusters although the cluster size is highly heterogeneous. Our approach provides unprecedented information on the size and protein density of Bak clusters possibly critical for the permeabilization and is applicable for the analysis of different cluster formations. PMID:27293178

  17. ROS signaling during granzyme B-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Martinvalet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in cell signaling, aging, and death and play a role in carcinogenesis. However, whether ROS are bystanders or active effectors of apoptosis was unclear until recently. New evidence shows that the killer lymphocyte protease granzyme B activates a conserved biochemical pathway centered on respiratory chain disruption to trigger mitocentric ROS-dependent apoptosis. PMID:27308474

  18. Mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis induced by photofrin-PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunxia; Xing, Da

    2007-05-01

    Apoptosis is an important cellular event that plays a key role in pathogeny and therapy of many diseases. The mechanisms of the initiation and regulation of PDT-induced apoptosis are complex. Some PDT-associated apoptosis pathways involved plasma membrane death receptors, mitochondria, lysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In order to determine the apoptosis pathway induced by Photofrin-PDT, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique and probe SCAT3 to monitor the dynamics of caspase-3 activation after PDT treatment and also measured caspase-8 activity. With laser scanning confocal microscopy, we found that Photofrin were localized primarily in mitochondria, the primary targets of Photofrin-PDT. Formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected within minutes after PDT treatment. This was followed by mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activity, caspase-3 activity and apoptosis. After PDT treatment, caspase-3 was activated rapidly while caspase-8 remained inactivated. Our results indicated that PDT-induced apoptosis was initiated from mitochondria pathway and independent of caspase-8 activation. The activation of caspase-3 by PDT started 20 minutes after treatment and completed in about 15 minutes. PDT-induced apoptosis is directly initiated from mitochondria pathway and not involved in the death receptors-dependent pathway. Our results demonstrated that FRET could be an effective tool to determine PDT-induced apoptosis and other cell death mechanism.

  19. Perfluorooctanesulfonate Mediates Renal Tubular Cell Apoptosis through PPARgamma Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Lo, Hau-Yin; Juan, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environments including stainless pan-coating, raincoat, fire extinguisher, and semiconductor products. The PPAR family has been shown to contribute to the toxic effects of PFCs in thymus, immune and excretory systems. Herein, we demonstrated that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) caused cell apoptosis through increasing ratio of Bcl-xS/xL, cytosolic cytochrome C, and caspase 3 activation in renal tubular cells (RTCs). In addition, PFOS increased transcription of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., TNFα, ICAM1, and MCP1) by NFκB activation. Conversely, PFOS reduced the mRNA levels of antioxidative enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, as a result of reduced PPARγ transactivational activity by using reporter and chromatin immuoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. PFOS reduced the protein interaction between PPARγ and PPARγ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC1α) by PPARγ deacetylation through Sirt1 upregulation, of which the binding of PPARγ and PGC1α to a peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) in the promoter regions of these antioxidative enzymes was alleviated in the ChIP assay. Furthermore, Sirt1 also deacetylated p53 and then increased the binding of p53 to Bax, resulting in increased cytosolic cytochrome C. The effect of PPARγ inactivation by PFOS was validated using the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, whereas the adverse effects of PFOS were prevented by PPARγ overexpression and activators, rosiglitozone and L-carnitine, in RTCs. The in vitro finding of protective effect of L-carnitine was substantiated in vivo using Balb/c mice model subjected to PFOS challenge. Altogether, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for the protective mechanism of L-carnitine in eliminating PFOS-mediated renal injury, at least partially, through PPARγ activation. PMID:27171144

  20. Perfluorooctanesulfonate Mediates Renal Tubular Cell Apoptosis through PPARgamma Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li-Li; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Lo, Hau-Yin; Juan, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environments including stainless pan-coating, raincoat, fire extinguisher, and semiconductor products. The PPAR family has been shown to contribute to the toxic effects of PFCs in thymus, immune and excretory systems. Herein, we demonstrated that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) caused cell apoptosis through increasing ratio of Bcl-xS/xL, cytosolic cytochrome C, and caspase 3 activation in renal tubular cells (RTCs). In addition, PFOS increased transcription of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., TNFα, ICAM1, and MCP1) by NFκB activation. Conversely, PFOS reduced the mRNA levels of antioxidative enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, as a result of reduced PPARγ transactivational activity by using reporter and chromatin immuoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. PFOS reduced the protein interaction between PPARγ and PPARγ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC1α) by PPARγ deacetylation through Sirt1 upregulation, of which the binding of PPARγ and PGC1α to a peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) in the promoter regions of these antioxidative enzymes was alleviated in the ChIP assay. Furthermore, Sirt1 also deacetylated p53 and then increased the binding of p53 to Bax, resulting in increased cytosolic cytochrome C. The effect of PPARγ inactivation by PFOS was validated using the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, whereas the adverse effects of PFOS were prevented by PPARγ overexpression and activators, rosiglitozone and L-carnitine, in RTCs. The in vitro finding of protective effect of L-carnitine was substantiated in vivo using Balb/c mice model subjected to PFOS challenge. Altogether, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for the protective mechanism of L-carnitine in eliminating PFOS-mediated renal injury, at least partially, through PPARγ activation. PMID:27171144

  1. Caspase-2 is an initiator caspase responsible for pore-forming toxin-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Imre, Gergely; Heering, Jan; Takeda, Armelle-Natsuo; Husmann, Matthias; Thiede, Bernd; zu Heringdorf, Dagmar Meyer; Green, Douglas R; van der Goot, F Gisou; Sinha, Bhanu; Dötsch, Volker; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj

    2012-05-30

    Bacterial pathogens modulate host cell apoptosis to establish a successful infection. Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) secreted by pathogenic bacteria are major virulence factors and have been shown to induce various forms of cell death in infected cells. Here we demonstrate that the highly conserved caspase-2 is required for PFT-mediated apoptosis. Despite being the second mammalian caspase to be identified, the role of caspase-2 during apoptosis remains enigmatic. We show that caspase-2 functions as an initiator caspase during Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin- and Aeromonas aerolysin-mediated apoptosis in epithelial cells. Downregulation of caspase-2 leads to a strong inhibition of PFT-mediated apoptosis. Activation of caspase-2 is PIDDosome-independent, and endogenous caspase-2 is recruited to a high-molecular-weight complex in α-toxin-treated cells. Interestingly, prevention of PFT-induced potassium efflux inhibits the formation of caspase-2 complex, leading to its inactivation, thus resisting apoptosis. These results revealed a thus far unknown, obligatory role for caspase-2 as an initiator caspase during PFT-mediated apoptosis. PMID:22531785

  2. A non-apoptotic role for BAX and BAK in eicosanoid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tejia; Walensky, Loren D.; Saghatelian, Alan

    2015-01-01

    BCL-2 proteins are key regulators of programmed cell death. The interplay between pro- and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 members has important roles in many cancers. In addition to their apoptotic function, recent evidence supports key non-apoptotic roles for several BCL-2 proteins. We used an unbiased lipidomics strategy to reveal that the pro-apoptotic proteins BAX, and to a lesser extent BAK, regulate the cellular inflammatory response by mediating COX-2 expression and prostaglandin biosynthesis. COX-2 upregulation in response to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide is blunted in the absence of BAX, and Bax−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts display altered kinetics of NFκB and MAPK signaling following endotoxin treatment. Our approach uncovers a novel, non-apoptotic function for BAX in regulation of the cellular inflammatory response and suggests that inflammation and apoptosis are more tightly connected than previously anticipated. PMID:25815636

  3. TRPV1 receptors mediate particulate matter-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agopyan, N; Head, J; Yu, S; Simon, S A

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a world-wide health problem mainly because it produces adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects that frequently result in morbidity. Despite many years of epidemiological and basic research, the mechanisms underlying PM toxicity remain largely unknown. To understand some of these mechanisms, we measured PM-induced apoptosis and necrosis in normal human airway epithelial cells and sensory neurons from both wild-type mice and mice lacking TRPV1 receptors using Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide labeling, respectively. Exposure of environmental PMs containing residual oil fly ash and ash from Mount St. Helens was found to induce apoptosis, but not necrosis, as a consequence of sustained calcium influx through TRPV1 receptors. Apoptosis was completely prevented by inhibiting TRPV1 receptors with capsazepine or by removing extracellular calcium or in sensory neurons from TRPV1(-/-) mice. Binding of either one of the PMs to the cell membrane induced a capsazepine-sensitive increase in cAMP. PM-induced apoptosis was augmented upon the inhibition of PKA. PKA inhibition on its own also induced apoptosis, thereby suggesting that this pathway may be endogenously protective against apoptosis. In summary, it was found that inhibiting TRPV1 receptors prevents PM-induced apoptosis, thereby providing a potential mechanism to reduce their toxicity. PMID:14633515

  4. Interleukin-5 Priming of Human Eosinophils Alters Siglec-8–Mediated Apoptosis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nutku-Bilir, Esra; Hudson, Sherry A.; Bochner, Bruce S.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we have identified the sequential activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria, and caspase-3, -8, and -9, in Siglec-8–mediated eosinophil apoptosis. Cytokine priming, which normally prolongs eosinophil survival, paradoxically potentiated this proapoptotic effect. The mechanisms of Siglec-8–mediated apoptosis after priming were therefore explored. Using IL-5 as the priming stimulus, the rate of Siglec-8–induced eosinophil apoptosis was found to be enhanced compared with unprimed cells, and mechanisms differed after IL-5 priming in that neither a pan-caspase inhibitor, nor a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, could override apoptosis. IL-5 priming also accelerated Siglec-8–mediated dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Finally, both the mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor rotenone, and the ROS inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium and antimycin, completely inhibited Siglec-8–mediated apoptosis, even after IL-5 priming. These data demonstrate that IL-5 priming enhances Siglec-8–mediated mitochondrial and ROS-dependent eosinophil apoptosis and eliminates caspase dependence. The potential clinical implication of these findings is that cytokine priming, as often occurs in vivo in asthma and other hypereosinophilic disorders, may render eosinophils from such patients especially susceptible to the proapoptotic effects of a Siglec-8–engaging therapeutic agent. PMID:17690326

  5. The Makes Caterpillars Floppy (MCF)-Like Domain of Vibrio vulnificus Induces Mitochondrion-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shivangi; Zhu, Yeuming; Gius, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTXVv) toxin of Vibrio vulnificus plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of this bacterium through delivery of up to five effector domains to the host cells. Previous studies have established that the MARTXVv toxin is linked to V. vulnificus dependent induction of apoptosis, but the region of the large multifunction protein essential for this activity was not previously identified. Recently, we showed that the Makes Caterpillar Floppy-like MARTX effector domain (MCFVv) is an autoproteolytic cysteine protease that induces rounding of various cell types. In this study, we demonstrate that cell rounding induced by MCFVv is coupled to reduced metabolic rate and inhibition of cellular proliferation. Moreover, delivery of MCFVv into host cells either as a fusion to the N-terminal fragment of anthrax toxin lethal factor or when naturally delivered as a V. vulnificus MARTX toxin led to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of Bax and Bak, and processing of caspases and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-γ). These studies specifically link the MCFVv effector domain to induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by V. vulnificus. PMID:26351282

  6. The Makes Caterpillars Floppy (MCF)-Like Domain of Vibrio vulnificus Induces Mitochondrion-Mediated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shivangi; Zhu, Yeuming; Gius, David R; Satchell, Karla J F

    2015-11-01

    The multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTXVv) toxin of Vibrio vulnificus plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of this bacterium through delivery of up to five effector domains to the host cells. Previous studies have established that the MARTXVv toxin is linked to V. vulnificus dependent induction of apoptosis, but the region of the large multifunction protein essential for this activity was not previously identified. Recently, we showed that the Makes Caterpillar Floppy-like MARTX effector domain (MCFVv) is an autoproteolytic cysteine protease that induces rounding of various cell types. In this study, we demonstrate that cell rounding induced by MCFVv is coupled to reduced metabolic rate and inhibition of cellular proliferation. Moreover, delivery of MCFVv into host cells either as a fusion to the N-terminal fragment of anthrax toxin lethal factor or when naturally delivered as a V. vulnificus MARTX toxin led to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of Bax and Bak, and processing of caspases and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-γ). These studies specifically link the MCFVv effector domain to induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by V. vulnificus. PMID:26351282

  7. Oncogene-dependent apoptosis is mediated by caspase-9

    PubMed Central

    Fearnhead, Howard O.; Rodriguez, Joe; Govek, Eve-Ellen; Guo, Wenjun; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Hannon, Greg; Lazebnik, Yuri A.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding how oncogenic transformation sensitizes cells to apoptosis may provide a strategy to kill tumor cells selectively. We previously developed a cell-free system that recapitulates oncogene dependent apoptosis as reflected by activation of caspases, the core of the apoptotic machinery. Here, we show that this activation requires a previously identified apoptosis-promoting complex consisting of caspase-9, APAF-1, and cytochrome c. As predicted by the in vitro system, preventing caspase-9 activation blocked drug-induced apoptosis in cells sensitized by E1A, an adenoviral oncogene. Oncogenes, such as E1A, appear to facilitate caspase-9 activation by several mechanisms, including the control of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. PMID:9811857

  8. Identification of an activation site in Bak and mitochondrial Bax triggered by antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Sweta; Anwari, Khatira; Alsop, Amber E.; Yuen, Wai Shan; Huang, David C. S.; Carroll, John; Smith, Nicholas A.; Smith, Brian J.; Dewson, Grant; Kluck, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    During apoptosis, Bak and Bax are activated by BH3-only proteins binding to the α2–α5 hydrophobic groove; Bax is also activated via a rear pocket. Here we report that antibodies can directly activate Bak and mitochondrial Bax by binding to the α1–α2 loop. A monoclonal antibody (clone 7D10) binds close to α1 in non-activated Bak to induce conformational change, oligomerization, and cytochrome c release. Anti-FLAG antibodies also activate Bak containing a FLAG epitope close to α1. An antibody (clone 3C10) to the Bax α1–α2 loop activates mitochondrial Bax, but blocks translocation of cytosolic Bax. Tethers within Bak show that 7D10 binding directly extricates α1; a structural model of the 7D10 Fab bound to Bak reveals the formation of a cavity under α1. Our identification of the α1–α2 loop as an activation site in Bak paves the way to develop intrabodies or small molecules that directly and selectively regulate these proteins. PMID:27217060

  9. Identification of an activation site in Bak and mitochondrial Bax triggered by antibodies.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Sweta; Anwari, Khatira; Alsop, Amber E; Yuen, Wai Shan; Huang, David C S; Carroll, John; Smith, Nicholas A; Smith, Brian J; Dewson, Grant; Kluck, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    During apoptosis, Bak and Bax are activated by BH3-only proteins binding to the α2-α5 hydrophobic groove; Bax is also activated via a rear pocket. Here we report that antibodies can directly activate Bak and mitochondrial Bax by binding to the α1-α2 loop. A monoclonal antibody (clone 7D10) binds close to α1 in non-activated Bak to induce conformational change, oligomerization, and cytochrome c release. Anti-FLAG antibodies also activate Bak containing a FLAG epitope close to α1. An antibody (clone 3C10) to the Bax α1-α2 loop activates mitochondrial Bax, but blocks translocation of cytosolic Bax. Tethers within Bak show that 7D10 binding directly extricates α1; a structural model of the 7D10 Fab bound to Bak reveals the formation of a cavity under α1. Our identification of the α1-α2 loop as an activation site in Bak paves the way to develop intrabodies or small molecules that directly and selectively regulate these proteins. PMID:27217060

  10. Mitochondrial permeabilization relies on BH3 ligands engaging multiple prosurvival Bcl-2 relatives, not Bak.

    PubMed

    Uren, Rachel T; Dewson, Grant; Chen, Lin; Coyne, Stephanie C; Huang, David C S; Adams, Jerry M; Kluck, Ruth M

    2007-04-23

    The Bcl-2 family regulates apoptosis by controlling mitochondrial integrity. To clarify whether its prosurvival members function by sequestering their Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only ligands or their multidomain relatives Bak and Bax, we analyzed whether four prosurvival proteins differing in their ability to bind specific BH3 peptides or Bak could protect isolated mitochondria. Most BH3 peptides could induce temperature-dependent cytochrome c release, but permeabilization was prevented by Bcl-x(L), Bcl-w, Mcl-1, or BHRF1. However, their protection correlated with the ability to bind Bak rather than the added BH3 peptide and could be overcome only by BH3 peptides that bind directly to the appropriate prosurvival member. Mitochondria protected by both Bcl-x(L)-like and Mcl-1 proteins were disrupted only by BH3 peptides that engage both. BH3-only reagents freed Bak from Bcl-x(L) and Mcl-1 in mitochondrial and cell lysates. The findings support a model for the control of apoptosis in which certain prosurvival proteins sequester Bak/Bax, and BH3-only proteins must neutralize all protective prosurvival proteins to allow Bak/Bax to induce mitochondrial disruption. PMID:17452531

  11. Assembly of Bak homodimers into higher order homooligomers in the mitochondrial apoptotic pore.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Tirtha; Shin, Seungjin; Aluvila, Sreevidya; Chen, Hui-Chen; Grieve, Carter; Choe, Jun-Yong; Cheng, Emily H; Hustedt, Eric J; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondrial apoptosis, Bak is activated by death signals to form pores of unknown structure on the mitochondrial outer membrane via homooligomerization. Cytochrome c and other apoptotic factors are released from the intermembrane space through these pores, initiating downstream apoptosis events. Using chemical crosslinking and double electron electron resonance (DEER)-derived distance measurements between specific structural elements in Bak, here we clarify how the Bak pore is assembled. We propose that previously described BH3-in-groove homodimers (BGH) are juxtaposed via the 'α3/α5' interface, in which the C-termini of helices α3 and α5 are in close proximity between two neighboring Bak homodimers. This interface is observed concomitantly with the well-known 'α6:α6' interface. We also mapped the contacts between Bak homodimers and the lipid bilayer based on EPR spectroscopy topology studies. Our results suggest a model for the lipidic Bak pore, whereby the mitochondrial targeting C-terminal helix does not change topology to accommodate the lining of the pore lumen by BGH. PMID:27488021

  12. Assembly of Bak homodimers into higher order homooligomers in the mitochondrial apoptotic pore

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Tirtha; Shin, Seungjin; Aluvila, Sreevidya; Chen, Hui-Chen; Grieve, Carter; Choe, Jun-Yong; Cheng, Emily H.; Hustedt, Eric J.; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondrial apoptosis, Bak is activated by death signals to form pores of unknown structure on the mitochondrial outer membrane via homooligomerization. Cytochrome c and other apoptotic factors are released from the intermembrane space through these pores, initiating downstream apoptosis events. Using chemical crosslinking and double electron electron resonance (DEER)-derived distance measurements between specific structural elements in Bak, here we clarify how the Bak pore is assembled. We propose that previously described BH3-in-groove homodimers (BGH) are juxtaposed via the ‘α3/α5’ interface, in which the C-termini of helices α3 and α5 are in close proximity between two neighboring Bak homodimers. This interface is observed concomitantly with the well-known ‘α6:α6’ interface. We also mapped the contacts between Bak homodimers and the lipid bilayer based on EPR spectroscopy topology studies. Our results suggest a model for the lipidic Bak pore, whereby the mitochondrial targeting C-terminal helix does not change topology to accommodate the lining of the pore lumen by BGH. PMID:27488021

  13. Host Immune Defense Peptide LL-37 Activates Caspase-Independent Apoptosis and Suppresses Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shun X.; Cheng, Alfred S.L.; To, Ka F.; Tong, Joanna H.M.; Li, May S.; Shen, Jin; Wong, Clover C.M.; Zhang, Lin; Chan, Ruby L.Y.; Wang, Xiao J.; Ng, Simon S.M.; Chiu, Lawrence C.M.; Marquez, Victor E.; Gallo, Richard L.; Chan, Francis K.L.; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Wu, William K.K.; Cho, Chi H.

    2014-01-01

    Cathelicidins are a family of bacteriocidal polypeptides secreted by macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). LL-37, the only human cathelicidin, has been implicated in tumorigenesis, but there has been limited investigation of its expression and function in cancer. Here, we report that LL-37 activates a p53-mediated, caspase-independent apoptotic cascade that contributes to suppression of colon cancer. LL-37 was expressed strongly in normal colon mucosa but downregulated in colon cancer tissues, where in both settings its expression correlated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive apoptotic cells. Exposure of colon cancer cells to LL-37 induced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation in a manner independent of caspase activation. Apoptogenic function was mediated by nuclear translocation of the proapoptotic factors, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (EndoG), through p53-dependent upregulation of Bax and Bak and downregulation of Bcl-2 via a pertussis toxin–sensitive G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway. Correspondingly, colonic mucosa of cathelicidin-deficient mice exhibited reduced expression of p53, Bax, and Bak and increased expression of Bcl-2 together with a lower basal level of apoptosis. Cathelicidin-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility to azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis, establishing pathophysiologic relevance in colon cancer. Collectively, our findings show that LL-37 activates a GPCR-p53-Bax/Bak/Bcl-2 signaling cascade that triggers AIF/EndoG–mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells. PMID:23100468

  14. Beta-Amyloid Oligomers Activate Apoptotic BAK Pore for Cytochrome c Release

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaewook; Yang, Yoosoo; Song, Seung Soo; Na, Jung-Hyun; Oh, Kyoung Joon; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Yu, Yeon Gyu; Shin, Yeon-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease, cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis is a crucial pathway in neuronal cell death. Although beta-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers are known to be the neurotoxins responsible for neuronal cell death, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we report that the oligomeric form of synthetic Aβ of 42 amino acids elicits death of HT-22 cells. But, when expression of a bcl-2 family protein BAK is suppressed by siRNA, Aβ oligomer-induced cell death was reduced. Furthermore, significant reduction of cytochrome c release was observed with mitochondria isolated from BAK siRNA-treated HT-22 cells. Our in vitro experiments demonstrate that Aβ oligomers bind to BAK on the membrane and induce apoptotic BAK pores and cytochrome c release. Thus, the results suggest that Aβ oligomers function as apoptotic ligands and hijack the intrinsic apoptotic pathway to cause unintended neuronal cell death. PMID:25296312

  15. Oxidative Stress Mediates Radiation Lung Injury by Inducing Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yu; Zhang Xiuwu; Rabbani, Zahid N.; Jackson, Isabel L.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Apoptosis in irradiated normal lung tissue has been observed several weeks after radiation. However, the signaling pathway propagating cell death after radiation remains unknown. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 15 Gy to the whole thorax. Pro-apoptotic signaling was evaluated 6 weeks after radiation with or without administration of AEOL10150, a potent catalytic scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Results: Apoptosis was observed primarily in type I and type II pneumocytes and endothelium. Apoptosis correlated with increased PTEN expression, inhibition of downstream PI3K/AKT signaling, and increased p53 and Bax protein levels. Transforming growth factor-{beta}1, Nox4, and oxidative stress were also increased 6 weeks after radiation. Therapeutic administration of AEOL10150 suppressed pro-apoptotic signaling and dramatically reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Conclusion: Increased PTEN signaling after radiation results in apoptosis of lung parenchymal cells. We hypothesize that upregulation of PTEN is influenced by Nox4-derived oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight the role of PTEN in radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity.

  16. Cord Blood Stem Cell-Mediated Induction of Apoptosis in Glioma Downregulates X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP)

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Venkata Ramesh; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Kaur, Kiranpreet; Fassett, Daniel; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey D.; Dinh, Dzung H.; Gujrati, Meena; Rao, Jasti S.

    2010-01-01

    Background XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) is one of the most important members of the apoptosis inhibitor family. XIAP is upregulated in various malignancies, including human glioblastoma. It promotes invasion, metastasis, growth and survival of malignant cells. We hypothesized that downregulation of XIAP by human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCBSC) in glioma cells would cause them to undergo apoptotic death. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed the effect of hUCBSC on two malignant glioma cell lines (SNB19 and U251) and two glioma xenograft cell lines (4910 and 5310). In co-cultures of glioma cells with hUCBSC, proliferation of glioma cells was significantly inhibited. This is associated with increased cytotoxicity of glioma cells, which led to glioma cell death. Stem cells induced apoptosis in glioma cells, which was evaluated by TUNEL assay, FACS analyses and immunoblotting. The induction of apoptosis is associated with inhibition of XIAP in co-cultures of hUCBSC. Similar results were obtained by the treatment of glioma cells with shRNA to downregulate XIAP (siXIAP). Downregulation of XIAP resulted in activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 to trigger apoptosis in glioma cells. Apoptosis is characterized by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and upregulation of mitochondrial apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad. Cell death of glioma cells was marked by downregulation of Akt and phospho-Akt molecules. We observed similar results under in vivo conditions in U251- and 5310-injected nude mice brains, which were treated with hUCBSC. Under in vivo conditions, Smac/DIABLO was found to be colocalized in the nucleus, showing that hUCBSC induced apoptosis is mediated by inhibition of XIAP and activation of Smac/DIABLO. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that downregulation of XIAP by hUCBSC treatment induces apoptosis, which led to the death of the glioma cells and xenograft cells. This study demonstrates the therapeutic

  17. Flotillin-2 Modulates Fas Signaling Mediated Apoptosis after Hyperoxia in Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuquan; Moon, Hyung-Geun; Zheng, Yijie; Liang, Xiaoliang; An, Chang Hyeok; Jin, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Lipid rafts are subdomains of the cell membrane with distinct protein composition and high concentrations of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. Raft proteins are thought to mediate diverse cellular processes including signal transduction. However, its cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Caveolin-1 (cav-1, marker protein of caveolae) has been thought as a switchboard between extracellular matrix (ECM) stimuli and intracellular signals. Flotillin-2/reggie-1(Flot-2) is another ubiquitously expressed raft protein which defines non-caveolar raft microdomains (planar raft). Its cellular function is largely uncharacterized. Our novel studies demonstrated that Flot-2, in conjunction with cav-1, played important functions on controlling cell death via regulating Fas pathways. Using Beas2B epithelial cells, we found that in contrast to cav-1, Flot-2 conferred cytoprotection via preventing Fas mediated death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation, subsequently suppressed caspase-8 mediated extrinsic apoptosis. Moreover, Flot-2 reduced the mitochondria mediated intrinsic apoptosis by regulating the Bcl-2 family and suppressing cytochrome C release from mitochondria to cytosol. Flot-2 further modulated the common apoptosis pathway and inhibited caspase-3 activation via up-regulating the members in the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Last, Flot-2 interacted with cav-1 and limited its expression. Taken together, we found that Flot-2 protected cells from Fas induced apoptosis and counterbalanced the pro-apoptotic effects of cav-1. Thus, Flot-2 played crucial functions in cellular homeostasis and cell survival, suggesting a differential role of individual raft proteins. PMID:24204853

  18. Impact of Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis in U251 Cell Cycle Arrest in G1 Stage and Caspase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background Most mitochondria-mediated apoptosis has some relevance to the cell cycle, but there is still a lack of investigations about U251 cell cycle in human brain glioma cells. In this study, we aimed to clarify the correlation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with the U251 cell cycle and its influence on apoptosis, through observing the impact of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in U251cell specificity cycle arrest and Caspase activation. Material/Methods AnnexinV/PI and API were used to label the brain glioma cells for flow cytometry analysis of U251 cell apoptosis and cell cycle. RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to detect Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 activation. Results Peripheral blood in stationary phase is not sensitive to apoptosis induction, but U251 cells have obvious apoptosis. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis mainly occurs in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 mRNAs and proteins expression increased significantly after the cells were treated by mitochondrial apoptosis-related gene Bax induction. Conclusions Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis is related to the U251 cell cycle with specific G1 stage arrest. Caspase activation occurs in the process of cell apoptosis. PMID:26594875

  19. Cerulenin-mediated apoptosis is involved in adenine metabolic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Sun, Nam-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Hee; Lee, Hyun-Jee; Choi, Shin-Jung; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Song, Ju-Hyun; Jang, Young-Joo; Song, Kyung-Bin; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Simon, Julian . E-mail: jsimon@fhcrc.org; Won, Misun . E-mail: misun@kribb.re.kr

    2006-10-27

    Cerulenin, a fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor, induces apoptosis of variety of tumor cells. To elucidate mode of action by cerulenin, we employed the proteomics approach using Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The differential protein expression profile of S. pombe revealed that cerulenin modulated the expressions of proteins involved in stresses and metabolism, including both ade10 and adk1 proteins. The nutrient supplementation assay demonstrated that cerulenin affected enzymatic steps transferring a phosphoribosyl group. This result suggests that cerulenin accumulates AMP and p-ribosyl-s-amino-imidazole carboxamide (AICAR) and reduces other necessary nucleotides, which induces feedback inhibition of enzymes and the transcriptional regulation of related genes in de novo and salvage adenine metabolic pathway. Furthermore, the deregulation of adenine nucleotide synthesis may interfere ribonucleotide reductase and cause defects in cell cycle progression and chromosome segregation. In conclusion, cerulenin induces apoptosis through deregulation of adenine nucleotide biosynthesis resulting in nuclear division defects in S. pombe.

  20. A Bax-mediated Mechanism for Obatoclax-induced Apoptosis of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smoot, Rory L.; Blechacz, Boris R.A.; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Bronk, Steve F.; Sinicrope, Frank A.; Sirica, Alphonse E.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis induction by BH3 mimetics is a therapeutic strategy for human cancer. These mimetics exert single-agent activity in cells “primed” for cell death. Primed cells are dependent upon antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins for survival, and are characterized by the ability of the BH3-mimetic to induce cytochrome c release from their isolated mitochondria. Our aim was to examine the single-agent activity of obatoclax, a BH3 mimetic in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. In clonogenic assays, inhibition of colony formation was observed by obatoclax treatment. Despite single-agent activity by obatoclax, the mitochondria from these cells did not release cytochrome c following incubation with this BH3 mimetic. However, immunofluorescence and cell fractionation studies identified Bax activation and translocation to mitochondria following treatment with obatoclax. shRNA targeted knockdown of Bax doubled the IC50 for obatoclax, but did not abrogate its cytotoxicity, while knockdown of Bak did not alter the IC50. In a cell free system, obatoclax induced an activating conformational change of Bax which was attenuated by site-directed mutagenesis of a previously identified protein activation site. Finally, the drug also elicited a significant in vivo response in a rodent model of this disease. In conclusion, single agent obatoclax treatment results in Bax activation which contributes, in part, to cell death in cholangiocarcinoma cells. These data indicate that BH3 mimetics may also function as direct activators of Bax and induce cytotoxicity in cells not otherwise primed for cell death. PMID:20160031

  1. Nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis of neutrophils through caspase-8 and caspase-3-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Megha; Nagarkoti, Sheela; Awasthi, Deepika; Singh, Abhishek K; Chandra, Tulika; Kumaravelu, J; Barthwal, Manoj K; Dikshit, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an indispensable role in killing of invading pathogens by enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO generation, and subsequently undergoing apoptosis. Unlike ROS/NOX2, role of NO/NOS still remains undefined in the apoptosis of neutrophils (PMNs) and the present study attempts to decipher the importance of NO/NOS in the neutrophil apoptosis. Prolonged treatment of human PMNs or mice bone marrow derived neutrophils (BMDN) with NO led to enhanced ROS generation, caspase-8/caspase-3 cleavage, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and finally cellular apoptosis. NO-induced ROS generation led to caspase-8 deglutathionylation and activation, which subsequently activated mitochondrial death pathway via BID (Bcl-2 family protein) cleavage. NO-mediated augmentation of caspase-8 and BID cleavage was significantly prevented in BMDN from neutrophil cytosolic factor-1 (NCF-1) knockout (KO) mice, implying the involvement of NOX2 in NO-induced apoptosis of PMNs. Furthermore, ROS, NO generation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were enhanced in a time-dependent manner in human PMNs and mice BMDN undergoing spontaneous apoptosis. Pharmacological and genetic ablation of iNOS in human PMNs and mice BMDN significantly reduced the levels of apoptosis. Impaired apoptosis of BMDN from iNOS KO mice was due to reduced caspase-8 activity which subsequently prevented caspase-3 and -9 activation. Altogether, our results suggest a crucial role of NO/iNOS in neutrophil apoptosis via enhanced ROS generation and caspase-8 mediated activation of mitochondrial death pathway. PMID:27584786

  2. Role of CD137 signaling in dengue virus-mediated apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nagila, Amar; Netsawang, Janjuree; Srisawat, Chatchawan; Noisakran, Sansanee; Morchang, Atthapan; Yasamut, Umpa; Puttikhunt, Chunya; Kasinrerk, Watchara; and others

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} For the first time the role of CD137 in dengue virus (DENV) infection. {yields} Induction of DENV-mediated apoptosis by CD137 signaling. {yields} Sensitization to CD137-mediated apoptosis by dengue virus capsid protein (DENV C). {yields} Nuclear localization of DENV C is required for CD137-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic dysfunction is a well recognized feature of dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, molecular mechanisms of hepatic injury are still poorly understood. A complex interaction between DENV and the host immune response contributes to DENV-mediated tissue injury. DENV capsid protein (DENV C) physically interacts with the human death domain-associated protein Daxx. A double substitution mutation in DENV C (R85A/K86A) abrogates Daxx interaction, nuclear localization and apoptosis. Therefore we compared the expression of cell death genes between HepG2 cells expressing DENV C and DENV C (R85A/K86A) using a real-time PCR array. Expression of CD137, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, increased significantly in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C compared to HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In addition, CD137-mediated apoptotic activity in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C was significantly increased by anti-CD137 antibody compared to that of HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In DENV-infected HepG2 cells, CD137 mRNA and CD137 positive cells significantly increased and CD137-mediated apoptotic activity was increased by anti-CD137 antibody. This work is the first to demonstrate the contribution of CD137 signaling to DENV-mediated apoptosis.

  3. Novel mechanism of apoptosis resistance in cancer mediated by extracellular PAR-4.

    PubMed

    Burikhanov, Ravshan; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Qiu, Shirley; Shukla, Nidhi; Hebbar, Nikhil; Lele, Subodh M; Horbinski, Craig; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2013-01-15

    Tumor suppressor PAR-4 acts in part by modulating sensitivity to apoptosis, but the basis for its activity is not fully understood. In this study, we describe a novel mechanism of antiapoptosis by NF-κB, revealing that it can block PAR-4-mediated apoptosis by downregulating trafficking of the PAR-4 receptor GRP78 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Mechanistic investigations revealed that NF-κB mediated this antiapoptotic mechanism by upregulating expression of UACA, a proinflammatory protein in certain disease settings. In clinical specimens of cancer, a strong correlation existed between NF-κB activity and UACA expression, relative to normal tissues. UACA bound to intracellular PAR-4 in diverse cancer cells, where it prevented translocation of GRP78 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. This pathway of antiapoptosis could be inhibited by suppressing levels of NF-κB or UACA expression, which enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress and restored GRP78 trafficking to the cell surface, thereby sensitizing cancer cells to apoptosis by extracellular PAR-4 or GRP78 agonistic antibody. In summary, our results identify a novel intracellular pathway of apoptosis mediated by NF-κB through UACA elevation, which by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and GRP78 translocation to the cell surface can blunt the sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptosis. PMID:23204231

  4. NFAT2 mediates high glucose-induced glomerular podocyte apoptosis through increased Bax expression

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ruizhao; Zhang, Li; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Xinling; Liu, Shuangxin; Wang, Wenjian

    2013-04-15

    Background: Hyperglycemia promotes podocyte apoptosis and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanisms that mediate hyperglycemia-induced podocyte apoptosis is still far from being fully understood. Recent studies reported that high glucose activate nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in vascular smooth muscle or pancreatic β-cells. Here, we sought to determine if hyperglycemia activates NFAT2 in cultured podocyte and whether this leads to podocyte apoptosis. Meanwhile, we also further explore the mechanisms of NFAT2 activation and NFAT2 mediates high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis. Methods: Immortalized mouse podocytes were cultured in media containing normal glucose (NG), or high glucose (HG) or HG plus cyclosporine A (a pharmacological inhibitor of calcinerin) or 11R-VIVIT (a special inhibitor of NFAT2). The activation of NFAT2 in podocytes was detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. The role of NFAT2 in hyperglycemia-induced podocyte apoptosis was further evaluated by observing the inhibition of NFAT2 activation by 11R-VIVIT using flow cytometer. Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} was monitored in HG-treated podcocytes using Fluo-3/AM. The mRNA and protein expression of apoptosis gene Bax were measured by real time-qPCR and western blotting. Results: HG stimulation activated NFAT2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in cultured podocytes. Pretreatment with cyclosporine A (500 nM) or 11R-VIVIT (100 nM) completely blocked NFAT2 nuclear accumulation. Meanwhile, the apoptosis effects induced by HG were also abrogated by concomitant treatment with 11R-VIVIT in cultured podocytes. We further found that HG also increased [Ca{sup 2+}]i, leading to activation of calcineurin, and subsequent increased nuclear accumulation of NFAT2 and Bax expression in cultured podocytes. Conclusion: Our results identify a new finding that HG-induced podocyte apoptosis is mediated by calcineurin/NFAT2/Bax signaling pathway

  5. Bim mediates mitochondria-regulated particulate matter-induced apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Ghio, A.J.; Chang, W.; Kamdar, O.; Rosen, G.D.; Upadhyay, D.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the role of Bim, a pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member in Airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5 μm)-induced apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). PM induced AEC apoptosis by causing significant reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP-1 activation. PM upregulated pro-apoptotic protein Bim and enhanced translocation of Bim to the mitochondria. ShRNABim blocked PM-induced apoptosis by preventing activation of the mitochondrial death pathway suggesting a role of Bim in the regulation of mitochondrial pathway in AEC. Accordingly, we provide the evidence that Bim mediates PM-induced apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway. PMID:17716672

  6. Ischemic Preconditioning protects hepatocytes from ischemia-reperfusion injury via TGR5-mediated anti-apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Lin; Fan, Ye; Lu, Ling; Ding, Wenbin; Ni, Chuangye; Wang, Xuehao; Zhang, Feng; Rao, Jianhua

    2016-05-13

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been shown to protect hepatic tissue from liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). TGR5, as a new-type bile acid receptor, has been shown protective roles in several liver diseases. However, the relationship between TGR5 and IP is still unknown. This study investigated effects of IP on TGR5 as well as the roles of TGR5 on hepatic tissue lesions and apoptosis in liver IRI. We showed that TGR5 was significantly upregulated in liver tissues after IP. To further analyzed effects of the TGR5 on liver IRI, wild type and TGR5 knockout mice were used to establish the liver IRI model. IP effectively alleviated liver IRI, but TGR5 deficiency significantly neutralized IP-related liver protection, as evidenced by serum alanine aminotransferase levels, histological liver damage, hepatocellular apoptosis and cytokines expressions. In addition, molecules related to apoptosis were detected by Western Blot, which showed that activation of TGR5 by IP increased expression of Bcl-2, and inhibited expressions of IRAK4 and cleaved caspase-3, but TGR5 deficiency abolished IP-induced expressions of anti-apoptosis molecule. In vitro, effects of TGR5 on hepatocytes were further analyzed by TGR5 agonist (INT-777) and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), which displayed that INT-777 markedly attenuated H/R-induced hepatocellular apoptosis. In conclusion, our study indicates that IP alleviates hepatocellular apoptosis, and reduces liver IRI through TGR5-mediated anti-apoptosis functions. PMID:27045083

  7. Methylanthraquinone from Hedyotis diffusa WILLD induces Ca(2+)-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Ming; Liu, Miao; Li, Jianchun

    2010-02-01

    Methylanthraquinone from Hedyotis diffusa WILLD exhibited potent anticancer activity in many kinds of cancer cells. However, the exact mechanism and signaling pathway involved in methylanthraquinone-induced apoptosis have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we explored the mechanisms of methylanthraquinone-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. When MCF-7 cells were co-incubated with methylanthraquinone, the percentage of apoptotic cell and S phase of cell cycle was markedly increased. In addition, a rise in intracellular calcium levels, phosphorylation of JNK and activation of calpain were found in MCF-7 cells after exposure to methylanthraquinone. With the methylanthraquinone-mediated reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol. Moreover, methylanthraquinone strongly induced cleavage of caspase-4, caspase-9 and caspase-7 in MCF-7 cells. These results suggested that methylanthraquinone from Hedyotis diffusa WILLD induced MCF-7 cells apoptosis via Ca(2+)/calpain/caspase-4 pathway. PMID:19686834

  8. Necrosis and apoptosis in Trichinella spiralis-mediated tumour reduction

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Sasa; Ilic, Natasa; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa; Vasilijic, Sasa; Bosic, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It is known that infection with different pathogens, including helminths, can alter the progression of malignant or other diseases. We studied the effect of chronic Trichinella spiralis infection or muscle larvae excretory-secretory (ES L1) antigens on the malignant tumour growth in the mouse melanoma model system in vivo and in vitro. Our results confirmed that chronic infection with T. spiralis possesses the capacity to slow down the progression of tumour growth, resulting in an impressive reduction in tumour size. We found that the phenomenon could, at least partially, be related to a lower level of tumour necrosis compared to necrosis present in control animals with progressive malignancy course. An increased apoptotic potential among the low percentage of cells within the total tumour cell number in vivo was also observed. ES L1 antigen, as a parasitic product that is released during the chronic phase of infection, reduced the survival and slightly, but significantly increased the apoptosis level of melanoma cells in vitro. Our results imply that powerful Trichinella anti-malignance capacity does not rely only on necrosis and apoptosis but other mechanisms through which infection or parasite products manipulate the tumor establishment and expansion should be considered. PMID:26155183

  9. Leishmania donovani Exploits Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1 (MCL-1) Protein to Prevent Mitochondria-dependent Host Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Giri, Jayeeta; Srivastav, Supriya; Basu, Moumita; Palit, Shreyasi; Gupta, Purnima; Ukil, Anindita

    2016-02-12

    Apoptosis is one of the mechanisms used by host cells to remove unwanted intracellular organisms, and often found to be subverted by pathogens through use of host anti-apoptotic proteins. In the present study, with the help of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we documented that the macrophage anti-apoptotic protein myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) is exploited by the intra-macrophage parasite Leishmania donovani to protect their "home" from actinomycin D-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Among all the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members, infection preferentially up-regulated expression of MCL-1 at both the mRNA and protein levels and compared with infected control, MCL-1-silenced infected macrophages documented enhanced caspase activity and increased apoptosis when subjected to actinomycin D treatment. Phosphorylation kinetics and ChIP assay demonstrated that infection-induced MCL-1 expression was regulated by transcription factor CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) and silencing of CREB resulted in reduced expression of MCL-1 and increased apoptosis. During infection, MCL-1 was found to be localized in mitochondria and this was significantly reduced in Tom70-silenced macrophages, suggesting the active role of TOM70 in MCL-1 transport. In the mitochondria, MCL-1 interacts with the major pro-apoptotic protein BAK and prevents BAK-BAK homo-oligomer formation thereby preventing cytochrome c release-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Silencing of MCL-1 in the spleen of infected mice showed decreased parasite burden and increased induction of splenocyte apoptosis. Collectively our results showed that L. donovani exploited the macrophage anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1 to prevent BAK-mediated mitochondria-dependent apoptosis thereby protecting its niche, which is essential for disease progression. PMID:26670606

  10. Mitochondria-involved apoptosis induced by MPPa mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y. Y.; Xu, D. D.; Tian, X.; Cui, F. A.; Yuan, H. Q.; Leung, W. N.

    2008-10-01

    Numerous new photosensitizers are now in various stages of trials demonstrating the broad applicability of Photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, only a handful of photosensitizers have received regulatory approval. Lack of effective photosensitizers has become a major limit for extensive application of PDT. Our previous study showed MPPa to be a good photosensitizer candidature, MPPa-PDT can lead PC-3M cell line to death mainly via apoptotic way both in vitro and in vivo, and part of the mechanism was investigated. Mitochondria may play a key role in the process, in order to further elucidate the mechanism, we investigated the level of ROS, GSH, NO, Ca2+, mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as cytochrome C. All in all, ROS production, depletion of GSH, and the activation of ROS downstream, such as mitochondria depolarization, cytochrome C release, were detected in our study. The results provide a mechanism by which oxidative stress provokes apoptosis of PC-3M cells.

  11. Sorafenib induces apoptosis in HL60 cells by inhibiting Src kinase-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Qu, Bingqian; Wu, Xingxin; Zhu, Xu; Meng, Fanyu; Gu, Yanhong; Shu, Yongqian; Shen, Yan; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively active in approximately 50% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases and mediates multiple cellular processes including cell resistance to apoptosis. Inhibition of constitutively active STAT3 has been shown to induce AML cell apoptosis. Our aim was to ascertain if sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, may also inhibit STAT3 signaling and, therefore, be efficacious for AML. We found that sorafenib inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in human AML cell line (HL60) cells. In addition, sorafenib exposure reduced constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation in HL60 cells and repressed STAT3 DNA-binding activity and Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 expression. Similar results were obtained with the Src kinase inhibitor I, suggesting that sorafenib suppresses STAT3 phosphorylation by inhibiting Src-kinase activity. Furthermore, significant inhibition of Src kinase activity by sorafenib was observed in the kinase assay. In addition, Src could be co-immunoprecipitated with STAT3, and the phosphorylation of STAT3 was significantly inhibited by sorafenib only in cell lines in which phosphorylated Src is highly expressed. Taken together, our study indicates that sorafenib blocks Src kinase-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation and decreases the expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, which are associated with increased apoptosis in HL60 cells. These findings provide a rationale for the treatment of human AML. PMID:20881478

  12. Protein Phosphatase 2A Mediates Oxidative Stress Induced Apoptosis in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chong-xin; Lv, Bo; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases, which is characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and fragility fractures. Age-related oxidative stress is highly associated with impaired osteoblastic dysfunctions and subsequent osteoporosis. In osteoblasts (bone formation cells), reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated and further cause lipid peroxidation, protein damage, and DNA lesions, leading to osteoblastic dysfunctions, dysdifferentiations, and apoptosis. Although much progress has been made, the mechanism responsible for oxidative stress induced cellular alternations and osteoblastic toxicity is still not fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major protein phosphatase in mammalian cells, mediates oxidative stress induced apoptosis in osteoblasts. Our results showed that lipid peroxidation products (4-HNE) may induce dramatic oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, and apoptosis in osteoblasts. These oxidative stress responses may ectopically activate PP2A phosphatase activity, which may be mediated by inactivation of AKT/mTOR pathway. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A activity by okadaic acid might partly prevent osteoblastic apoptosis under oxidative conditions. These findings may reveal a novel mechanism to clarify the role of oxidative stress for osteoblastic apoptosis and provide new possibilities for the treatment of related bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. PMID:26538836

  13. Paclitaxel promotes a caspase 8-mediated apoptosis via death effector domain association with microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Mielgo, Ainhoa; Torres, Vicente A.; Clair, Kiran; Barbero, Simone; Stupack, Dwayne G.

    2009-01-01

    Microtubule-perturbing drugs have become front line chemotherapeutics, inducing cell cycle crisis as a major mechanism of action. However, these agents exhibit pleiotropic effects on cells, and can induce apoptosis via other means. Paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilizing agent, induces a caspase-dependent apoptosis, though the precise mechanism(s) remain unclear. Here, we used genetic approaches to evaluate the role of caspase 8 in paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis. We observed that caspase 8-expressing cells are more sensitive to paclitaxel than caspase 8-deficient cells. Mechanistically, caspase 8 was found associated with microtubules, and this interaction increased following paclitaxel-treatment. The prodomains (DEDs) of caspase 8 were sufficient for interaction with microtubules, but the caspase 8 holoprotein was required for apoptosis. DED-only forms of caspase 8 were found in both primary and tumor cell lines, associating with perinuclear microtubules and the centrosome. Microtubule-association, and paclitaxel-sensitivity, depends upon a critical lysine (K156) within a microtubule-binding motif (KLD) in DED-b of caspase 8. The results reveal an unexpected pathway of apoptosis mediated by caspase 8. PMID:19668227

  14. Naringenin-Mediated ATF3 Expression Contributes to Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hun Min; Park, Gwang Hun; Eo, Hyun Ji; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2016-01-01

    Naringenin (NAR) as one of the flavonoids observed in grapefruit has been reported to exhibit an anti-cancer activity. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is associated with apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. This study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism by which NAR stimulates ATF3 expression and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. NAR reduced the cell viability and induced an apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. ATF3 overexpression increased NAR-mediated cleaved PARP, while ATF3 knockdown attenuated the cleavage of PARP by NAR. NAR increased ATF3 expression in both protein and mRNA level, and increased the luciferase activity of ATF3 promoter in a dose-dependent manner. The responsible region for ATF3 transcriptional activation by NAR is located between −317 and −148 of ATF3 promoter. p38 inhibition blocked NAR-mediated ATF3 expression, its promoter activation and apoptosis. The results suggest that NAR induces apoptosis through p38-dependent ATF3 activation in human colon cancer cells. PMID:26797111

  15. Protein Phosphatase 2A Mediates Oxidative Stress Induced Apoptosis in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chong-xin; Lv, Bo; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases, which is characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and fragility fractures. Age-related oxidative stress is highly associated with impaired osteoblastic dysfunctions and subsequent osteoporosis. In osteoblasts (bone formation cells), reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated and further cause lipid peroxidation, protein damage, and DNA lesions, leading to osteoblastic dysfunctions, dysdifferentiations, and apoptosis. Although much progress has been made, the mechanism responsible for oxidative stress induced cellular alternations and osteoblastic toxicity is still not fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major protein phosphatase in mammalian cells, mediates oxidative stress induced apoptosis in osteoblasts. Our results showed that lipid peroxidation products (4-HNE) may induce dramatic oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, and apoptosis in osteoblasts. These oxidative stress responses may ectopically activate PP2A phosphatase activity, which may be mediated by inactivation of AKT/mTOR pathway. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A activity by okadaic acid might partly prevent osteoblastic apoptosis under oxidative conditions. These findings may reveal a novel mechanism to clarify the role of oxidative stress for osteoblastic apoptosis and provide new possibilities for the treatment of related bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. PMID:26538836

  16. Evasion of TNF-α-mediated apoptosis by hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hangeun; Ray, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) often causes chronic infection in humans, although the mechanisms for viral chronicity are not clearly understood. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-mediated apoptosis is a key element in a host organism's defense inhibiting viral spread and persistence. HCV has evolved mechanisms that antagonize host cell death signals so that virus propagation can continue unabated in infected cells. HCV core protein blocks TNF-α-mediated apoptosis signaling and inhibits caspase-8 activation by sustaining the expression of cellular FADD-like interleukin-1β-converting enzyme (FLICE)-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). HCV core protein also blocks TNF-induced proteolytic cleavage of the death substrate poly (SDP-ribose) polymerase from its native 116-kDa protein to the characteristic 85-kDa polypeptide. A decrease in endogenous c-FLIP by specific small-interfering RNA induces TNF-α-mediated apoptotic cell death and caspase-8 activation. However, HCV core neither affects the association between TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD) nor TRADD-Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) and procaspase-8. Thus, HCV core protein appears to play a role in the inhibition of TNF-α-mediated cell death. This chapter describes methods to identify inhibitory mechanism of HCV for TNF-α-mediated apoptosis. PMID:24788178

  17. Marijuana smoke condensate induces p53-mediated apoptosis in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Ryong; Jung, Mi Hyun; Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Since the largely abused worldwide used of marijuana, there have been many ongoing debates regarding the adverse health effects of marijuana smoking. Marijuana smoking was recently proved to cause pulmonary toxicity by inducing genotoxic effects or generating reactive oxygen species. Because p53, a tumor suppressor gene, has an important pathophysiologic role in the regulation of lung epithelial cell DNA damage responses, we hypothesized that p53 may be involved in the oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by marijuana smoking. First, we confirmed that marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) induces oxidative stress in BEAS-2B cells. We observed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was increased by MSC in the DCFH-DA assay. Also, antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase) activity and their mRNA expressions were up-regulated by MSC. Second, we investigated p53 involvement in the MSC-induced apoptotic pathway in BEAS-2B cells. The results showed that MSC increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation as markers of apoptosis. In addition, the mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53 and Bax) were increased by MSC and phospho-p53, along with the increase of Bax protein expression by MSC. Apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression were partially blocked by an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation (pifithrin-α). The results indicate that p53 plays a role in MSC-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that MSC partially induces p53-mediated apoptosis through ROS generation in human lung epithelial cells and this may have broader implications for our understanding of pulmonary diseases. PMID:23665932

  18. SK053 triggers tumor cells apoptosis by oxidative stress-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Muchowicz, Angelika; Firczuk, Małgorzata; Wachowska, Małgorzata; Kujawa, Marek; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa; Gabrysiak, Magdalena; Pilch, Zofia; Kłossowski, Szymon; Ostaszewski, Ryszard; Golab, Jakub

    2015-02-15

    Thioredoxins (Trx) together with thioredoxin reductases (TrxR) participate in the maintenance of protein thiol homeostasis and play cytoprotective roles in tumor cells. Therefore, thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system is considered to be a promising therapeutic target in cancer treatment. We have previously reported that SK053, a peptidomimetic compound targeting the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system, induces oxidative stress and demonstrates antitumor activity in mice. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of SK053-mediated tumor cell death. Our results indicate that SK053 induces apoptosis of Raji cells accompanied by the activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induction of unfolded protein response. Incubation of tumor cells with SK053 induces increase in BiP, CHOP, and spliced XBP-1 levels, which precede induction of apoptosis. CHOP-deficient (CHOP(-/-)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts are more resistant to SK053-induced apoptosis as compared with normal fibroblasts indicating that the apoptosis of tumor cells depends on the expression of this transcription factor. Additionally, the ER-stress-induced apoptosis, caused by SK053, is strongly related with Trx expression levels. Altogether, our results indicate that SK053 induces ER stress-associated apoptosis and reveal a link between thioredoxin inhibition and induction of UPR in tumor cells. PMID:25573101

  19. Low dose gamma irradiation enhances defined signaling components of intercellular reactive oxygen-mediated apoptosis induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.

    2011-01-01

    Transformed cells are selectively removed by intercellular ROS-mediated induction of apoptosis. Signaling is based on the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite pathway (major pathways) and the nitryl chloride and the metal-catalyzed Haber-Weiss pathway (minor pathways). During tumor progression, resistance against intercellular induction of apoptosis is acquired through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Low dose radiation of nontransformed cells has been shown to enhance intercellular induction of apoptosis. The present study was performed to define the signaling components which are modulated by low dose gamma irradiation. Low dose radiation induced the release of peroxidase from nontransformed, transformed and tumor cells. Extracellular superoxide anion generation was strongly enhanced in the case of transformed cells and tumor cells, but not in nontransformed cells. Enhancement of peroxidase release and superoxide anion generation either increased intercellular induction of apoptosis of transformed cells, or caused a partial protection under specific signaling conditions. In tumor cells, low dose radiation enhanced the production of major signaling components, but this had no effect on apoptosis induction, due to the strong resistance mechanism of tumor cells. Our data specify the nature of low dose radiation-induced effects on specific signaling components of intercellular induction of apoptosis at defined stages of multistep carcinogenesis.

  20. SARM1, Not MyD88, Mediates TLR7/TLR9-Induced Apoptosis in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Piyali; Winkler, Clayton W; Taylor, Katherine G; Woods, Tyson A; Nair, Vinod; Khan, Burhan A; Peterson, Karin E

    2015-11-15

    Neuronal apoptosis is a key aspect of many different neurologic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unresolved. Recent studies have suggested a mechanism of innate immune-induced neuronal apoptosis through the stimulation of endosomal TLRs in neurons. TLRs are stimulated both by pathogen-associated molecular patterns as well as by damage-associated molecular patterns, including microRNAs released by damaged neurons. In the present study, we identified the mechanism responsible for TLR7/TLR9-mediated neuronal apoptosis. TLR-induced apoptosis required endosomal localization of TLRs but was independent of MyD88 signaling. Instead, apoptosis required the TLR adaptor molecule SARM1, which localized to the mitochondria following TLR activation and was associated with mitochondrial accumulation in neurites. Deficiency in SARM1 inhibited both mitochondrial accumulation in neurites and TLR-induced apoptosis. These studies identify a non-MyD88 pathway of TLR7/ TLR9 signaling in neurons and provide a mechanism for how innate immune responses in the CNS directly induce neuronal damage. PMID:26423149

  1. INOSITOL HEXAKISPHOSPHATE MEDIATES APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN BREAST ADENOCARCINOMA MCF-7 CELL LINE VIA INTRINSIC PATHWAY

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Rakhee; Ali, Nawab

    2010-04-12

    Inositol polyphosphates (InsP{sub s}) are naturally occurring compounds ubiquitously present in plants and animals. Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP{sub 6}) is the most abundant among all InsP{sub s} and constitutes the major portion of dietary fiber in most cereals, legumes and nuts. Certain derivatives of InsP{sub s} also regulate cellular signaling mechanisms. InsP{sub s} have also been shown to reduce tumor formation and induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. Therefore, in this study, the effects of InsPs on apoptosis were studied in an attempt to investigate their potential anti-cancer therapeutic application and understand their mechanism of action. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining suggested that InsP{sub 6} dose dependently induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Among InsP{sub s} tested (InsP{sub 3}, InsP{sub 4}, InsP{sub 5}, and InsP{sub 6}), InsP{sub 6} was found to be the most effective in inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, effects of InsP{sub 6} were found most potent inducing apoptosis. Etoposide, the drug known to induce apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro, was used as a positive control. Western blotting experiments using specific antibodies against known apoptotic markers suggested that InsP{sub 6} induced apoptotic changes were mediated via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  2. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Mediates Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cell Line via Intrinsic Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Rakhee; Ali, Nawab

    2010-04-01

    Inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) are naturally occurring compounds ubiquitously present in plants and animals. Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) is the most abundant among all InsPs and constitutes the major portion of dietary fiber in most cereals, legumes and nuts. Certain derivatives of InsPs also regulate cellular signaling mechanisms. InsPs have also been shown to reduce tumor formation and induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. Therefore, in this study, the effects of InsPs on apoptosis were studied in an attempt to investigate their potential anti-cancer therapeutic application and understand their mechanism of action. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining suggested that InsP6 dose dependently induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Among InsPs tested (InsP3, InsP4, InsP5, and InsP6), InsP6 was found to be the most effective in inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, effects of InsP6 were found most potent inducing apoptosis. Etoposide, the drug known to induce apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro, was used as a positive control. Western blotting experiments using specific antibodies against known apoptotic markers suggested that InsP6 induced apoptotic changes were mediated via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  3. Silver Nanoparticles Induce HePG-2 Cells Apoptosis Through ROS-Mediated Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Li, Yinghua; Lin, Zhengfang; Zhao, Mingqi; Xu, Tiantian; Wang, Changbing; Deng, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been shown to provide a novel approach to overcome tumors, especially those of hepatocarcinoma. However, the anticancer mechanism of silver nanoparticles is unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of AgNPs on proliferation and activation of ROS-mediated signaling pathway on human hepatocellular carcinoma HePG-2 cells. A simple chemical method for preparing AgNPs with superior anticancer activity has been showed in this study. AgNPs were detected by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The size distribution and zeta potential of silver nanoparticles were detected by Zetasizer Nano. The average size of AgNPs (2 nm) observably increased the cellular uptake by endocytosis. AgNPs markedly inhibited the proliferation of HePG-2 cells through induction of apoptosis with caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. AgNPs with dose-dependent manner significantly increased the apoptotic cell population (sub-G1). Furthermore, AgNP-induced apoptosis was found dependent on the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affecting of MAPKs and AKT signaling and DNA damage-mediated p53 phosphorylation to advance HePG-2 cells apoptosis. Therefore, our results show that the mechanism of ROS-mediated signaling pathways may provide useful information in AgNP-induced HePG-2 cell apoptosis. PMID:27075340

  4. Freeze-dried grape powder attenuates mitochondria- and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yumin; Khaoustov, Vladimir I; Wang, Hui; Yu, Jing; Tabassam, Fazal; Yoffe, Boris

    2009-10-14

    The beneficial effects of grape consumption have been attributed to the antioxidant activity of its polyphenols. This study was conducted to investigate the cytoprotective effects of a freeze-dried grape powder (FDGP) on liver cells. FDGP treatment of primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cells revealed increased metabolic activity of cells and phosphorylation of Akt and IkappaBalpha, as well as up-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) level. To study the molecular mechanisms of FDGP effects, cells were treated with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL); taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA); thapsigargin (TG), to induce cell apoptosis through death receptor-, mitochondria-, or ER-mediated pathway; and H(2)O(2), to induce oxidative stress, respectively. TDCA-induced activation of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9, and Bax was dramatically decreased with cotreatment of FDGP. Furthermore, FDGP reduced levels of annexin V positive cells by 4-fold. Also, FDGP pretreatment restored cellular glutathione content by 71% in cells treated with H(2)O(2). However, FDGP did not inhibit ER-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, FDGP increased the viability and metabolic activity of liver cells and attenuated oxidative stress- and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These data may contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in protective effects of grape in a variety of liver conditions associated with cellular stress. PMID:19754144

  5. Silver Nanoparticles Induce HePG-2 Cells Apoptosis Through ROS-Mediated Signaling Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bing; Li, Yinghua; Lin, Zhengfang; Zhao, Mingqi; Xu, Tiantian; Wang, Changbing; Deng, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been shown to provide a novel approach to overcome tumors, especially those of hepatocarcinoma. However, the anticancer mechanism of silver nanoparticles is unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of AgNPs on proliferation and activation of ROS-mediated signaling pathway on human hepatocellular carcinoma HePG-2 cells. A simple chemical method for preparing AgNPs with superior anticancer activity has been showed in this study. AgNPs were detected by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The size distribution and zeta potential of silver nanoparticles were detected by Zetasizer Nano. The average size of AgNPs (2 nm) observably increased the cellular uptake by endocytosis. AgNPs markedly inhibited the proliferation of HePG-2 cells through induction of apoptosis with caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. AgNPs with dose-dependent manner significantly increased the apoptotic cell population (sub-G1). Furthermore, AgNP-induced apoptosis was found dependent on the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affecting of MAPKs and AKT signaling and DNA damage-mediated p53 phosphorylation to advance HePG-2 cells apoptosis. Therefore, our results show that the mechanism of ROS-mediated signaling pathways may provide useful information in AgNP-induced HePG-2 cell apoptosis.

  6. Pancreatic β-Cell Death due to Pdx-1 Deficiency Requires Multi-BH Domain Protein Bax but Not Bak*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Juan; Mao, Li-qun; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; Ren, De-cheng

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes develops in Pdx1-haploinsufficient mice due to an increase in β-cell death leading to reduced β-cell mass and decreased insulin secretion. Knockdown of Pdx1 gene expression in mouse MIN6 insulinoma cells induced apoptotic cell death with an increase in Bax activation and knockdown of Bax reduced apoptotic β-cell death. In Pdx1 haploinsufficient mice, Bax ablation in β-cells increased β-cell mass, decreased the number of TUNEL positive cells and improved glucose tolerance after glucose challenge. These changes were not observed with Bak ablation in Pdx1-haploinsufficient mice. These results suggest that Bax mediates β-cell apoptosis in Pdx1-deficient diabetes. PMID:27137932

  7. Pancreatic β-Cell Death due to Pdx-1 Deficiency Requires Multi-BH Domain Protein Bax but Not Bak.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Mao, Li-Qun; Polonsky, Kenneth S; Ren, De-Cheng

    2016-06-24

    Diabetes develops in Pdx1-haploinsufficient mice due to an increase in β-cell death leading to reduced β-cell mass and decreased insulin secretion. Knockdown of Pdx1 gene expression in mouse MIN6 insulinoma cells induced apoptotic cell death with an increase in Bax activation and knockdown of Bax reduced apoptotic β-cell death. In Pdx1 haploinsufficient mice, Bax ablation in β-cells increased β-cell mass, decreased the number of TUNEL positive cells and improved glucose tolerance after glucose challenge. These changes were not observed with Bak ablation in Pdx1-haploinsufficient mice. These results suggest that Bax mediates β-cell apoptosis in Pdx1-deficient diabetes. PMID:27137932

  8. Mechanisms of Cytotoxic Lymphocyte-Mediated Apoptosis and Relationship with the Tumor Suppressor p53.

    PubMed

    Thiery, Jerome; Safta, Thouraya Ben; Ziani, Linda; Chouaib, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells are key effector cells in the immune response against intracellular infection and transformed cells. These killer cells induce multiple programs of cell death to achieve their function of eliminating their targets. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the signaling pathways involved in target cells apoptosis triggered by the cytotoxic effector cells. We also discuss the role of an important player in the field of apoptosis, the well-known p53 tumor suppressor, in the modulation of cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated cell death. PMID:27279042

  9. Cisplatin fails to induce puma mediated apoptosis in mucosal melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Fritsche, Marie Kristin; Metzler, Veronika; Becker, Karen; Plettenberg, Christian; Heiser, Clemens; Hofauer, Benedikt; Knopf, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Mucosal melanomas (MM) are aggressive subtypes of common melanomas. It remains unclear whether limitations in their resectability or their distinctive molecular mechanisms are responsible for the aggressive phenotype. Methods In total, 112 patients with cutaneous melanomas (CM) and 27 patients with MM were included. Clinical parameters were analysed using Chi square, Fisher exact and student's t-test. Survival rates were calculated by Kaplan–Meier. Analysis of p53, p21, Mdm2, Hipk2, Gadd45, Puma, Bax, Casp9 and Cdk1 via quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed. TP53 induction after cisplatin treatment was analysed in 10 cell lines (melanocytes, four MM and five CM) using western blot (WB) and qPCR. Results The overall/recurrence-free survival differed significantly between MM (40 months and 30 months) and CM (90 months and 107 months; p < 0.001). IHC and WB confirmed high p53 expression in all melanomas. Hipk2 and Gadd45 showed significantly higher expressions in CM (p < 0.005; p = 0.004). QPCR and WB of wild-type cell lines demonstrated no differences for p53, p21, Mdm2, Bax and Casp9. WB failed to detect Puma in MM, while Cdk1 regulation occurred exclusively in MM. Conclusions The aggressive phenotype of MM did not appear to be due to differential expressions of p53, p21, Mdm2, Bax or Casp9. A non-functional apoptosis in MM may have further clinical implications. PMID:25831048

  10. Cyclin C mediates stress-induced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Yan, Ruilan; Cooper, Katrina F.; Strich, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo constant fission and fusion cycles. In response to cellular damage, this balance is shifted dramatically toward fission. Cyclin C–Cdk8 kinase regulates transcription of diverse gene sets. Using knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we demonstrate that cyclin C directs the extensive mitochondrial scission induced by the anticancer drug cisplatin or oxidative stress. This activity is independent of transcriptional regulation, as Cdk8 is not required for this activity. Furthermore, adding purified cyclin C to unstressed permeabilized MEF cultures induced complete mitochondrial fragmentation that was dependent on the fission factors Drp1 and Mff. To regulate fission, a portion of cyclin C translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it associates with Drp1 and is required for its enhanced mitochondrial activity in oxidatively stressed cells. In addition, although HeLa cells regulate cyclin C in a manner similar to MEF cells, U2OS osteosarcoma cultures display constitutively cytoplasmic cyclin C and semifragmented mitochondria. Finally, cyclin C, but not Cdk8, is required for loss of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability and apoptosis in cells treated with cisplatin. In conclusion, this study suggests that cyclin C connects stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfission and programmed cell death in mammalian cells. PMID:25609094

  11. Bushen Zhuangjin decoction inhibits TM-induced chondrocyte apoptosis mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    LIN, PINGDONG; WENG, XIAPING; LIU, FAYUAN; MA, YUHUAN; CHEN, HOUHUANG; SHAO, XIANG; ZHENG, WENWEI; LIU, XIANXIANG; YE, HONGZHI; LI, XIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Chondrocyte apoptosis triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Bushen Zhuangjin decoction (BZD) has been widely used in the treatment of OA. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of BZD on chondrocyte apoptosis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BZD on ER stress-induced chondrocyte apoptosis using a chondrocyte in vitro model of OA. Chondrocytes obtained from the articular cartilage of the knee joints of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were detected by immunohistochemical staining for type II collagen. The ER stress-mediated apoptosis of tunicamycin (TM)-stimulated chondrocytes was detected using 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA). We found that 4-PBA inhibited TM-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, which confirmed the successful induction of chondrocyte apoptosis. BZD enhanced the viability of the TM-stimulated chondrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as shown by MTT assay. The apoptotic rate and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of the TM-stimulated chondrocytes treated with BZD was markedly decreased compared with those of chondrocytes not treated with BZD, as shown by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Annexin V-FITC binding assay and JC-1 assay. To further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of BZD on TM-induced chondrocyte apoptosis mediated by ER stress, the mRNA and protein expression levels of binding immunoglobulin protein (Bip), X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1), activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), C/EBP-homologous protein (Chop), caspase-9, caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. In the TM-stimulated chondrocytes treated with BZD, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bip, Atf4, Chop, caspase-9, caspase-3

  12. miR-125b regulates cell progression in chronic myeloid leukemia via targeting BAK1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quan; Wu, Yaohui; Zhang, Yongkang; Sun, Huapeng; Lu, Zhaoli; Du, Ke; Fang, Shanshan; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a type of malignant tumor characterized by the accumulation of a large number of immature white blood cells in the blood and bone marrow. BAK1 was predicted to be the target gene of microRNA-451 (miR-125b). The present study was designed to illustrate the mechanism of miR-125b in regulating CML via targeting BAK1. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-125b increased strongly, whereas the expression of BAK1 decreased significantly in CML patients and CML cell lines compared with healthy controls. Moreover, the luciferase report assay confirmed the interaction between miR-125b and BAK1 mRNA. After transfection of the miR-125b mimic or miR-125b inhibitor into CML cells, we found that the inhibition of miR-125b decreased the proliferation rates and promoted apoptosis with cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in both K562 and NB-4 cells, increased the expression of BAK1 and Caspase-3, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and c-myc; the miR-125b mimic yielded the opposite results. In addition, siBAK1 offset the suppression effect of the miR-125b inhibitor in K562 cells, indicating that miR-125b promotes these cellular processes by inhibiting the expression of BAK1. Further in vivo experiments supported these findings because miR-125b suppression reduced CML growth in mice. Taken together, our study suggests that the down-regulation of miR-125b affects the expression of BAK1, promotes cell apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation, leading to up-regulated expression of pro-apoptosis factors, down–regulated expression of anti-apoptosis factors in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and decreased tumor size and weight of CML in vivo. These results provide a potential therapeutic strategy for CML. PMID:27158338

  13. Nickel nanowires induced and reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Zakir; Kleve, Maurice G

    2011-01-01

    Background The ability to evade apoptosis is one of the key properties of cancer. The apoptogenic effect of nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) on cancer cell lines has never been adequately addressed. Due to the unique physicochemical characteristics of Ni NWs, we envision the development of a novel anticancer therapeutics specifically for pancreatic cancer. Thus, we investigated whether Ni NWs induce ROS-mediated apoptosis in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Panc-1) cells. Methods In this study Ni NWs were fabricated using the electrodeposition method. Synthesized Ni NWs were physically characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy of NanoDrop 2000 (UV-Vis), magnetization study, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Assessment of morphological apoptotic characteristics by phase contrast microscopy (PCM), Ni-NWs-induced apoptosis staining with ethidium bromide (EB) and acridine orange (AO) followed by fluorescence microscopy (FM) was performed. For molecular biological and biochemical characterization, Panc-1 cell culture and cytotoxic effect of Ni NWs were determined by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Quantitative apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry staining with propidium iodide through cell cycle arrest and generation of ROS using 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence intensity. In all experiments, Panc-1 cancer cells without any treatment were used as the negative controls. Results The intracellular uptake of Ni NWs through endocytosis by Panc-1 cells was observed by PCM. EB and AO staining of FM and MTT assay qualitatively and quantitatively confirmed the extent of apoptosis. Flow cytometric cell cycle arrest and ROS generation indicated Ni NWs as inducers of apoptotic cell death. Conclusion We investigated the role of Ni NWs as inducers of ROS-mediated apoptosis in Panc-1 cells. These results suggested that Ni NWs could be an effective

  14. CD4+ lymphocytes control gut epithelial apoptosis and mediate survival in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Stromberg, Paul E.; Woolsey, Cheryl A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Clark, Jessica A.; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; McConnell, Kevin W.; Chang, Katherine C.; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Ayala, Alfred; Buchman, Timothy G.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Lymphocytes help determine whether gut epithelial cells proliferate or differentiate but are not known to affect whether they live or die. Here, we report that lymphocytes play a controlling role in mediating gut epithelial apoptosis in sepsis but not under basal conditions. Gut epithelial apoptosis is similar in unmanipulated Rag-1−/− and wild-type (WT) mice. However, Rag-1−/− animals have a 5-fold augmentation in gut epithelial apoptosis following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) compared to septic WT mice. Reconstitution of lymphocytes in Rag-1−/− mice via adoptive transfer decreases intestinal apoptosis to levels seen in WT animals. Subset analysis indicates that CD4+ but not CD8+, γδ, or B cells are responsible for the antiapoptotic effect of lymphocytes on the gut epithelium. Gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 in transgenic mice decreases mortality following CLP. This survival benefit is lymphocyte dependent since gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 fails to alter survival when the transgene is overexpressed in Rag-1−/− mice. Further, adoptively transferring lymphocytes to Rag-1−/− mice that simultaneously overexpress gut-specific Bcl-2 results in improved mortality following sepsis. Thus, sepsis unmasks CD4+ lymphocyte control of gut apoptosis that is not present under homeostatic conditions, which acts as a key determinant of both cellular survival and host mortality.—Stromberg, P. E., Woolsey, C. A., Clark, A. T., Clark, J. A., Turnbull, I. R., McConnell, K. W., Chang, K. C., Chung, C.-S., Ayala, A., Buchman, T. G., Hotchkiss, R. S., Coopersmith, C. M. CD4+ lymphocytes control gut epithelial apoptosis and mediate survival in sepsis. PMID:19158156

  15. Induction of apoptosis by plumbagin through reactive oxygen species-mediated inhibition of topoisomerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kawiak, Anna; Piosik, Jacek; Stasilojc, Grzegorz; Gwizdek-Wisniewska, Anna; Marczak, Lukasz; Stobiecki, Maciej; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2007-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized as key molecules, which can selectively modify proteins and therefore regulate cellular signalling including apoptosis. Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone exhibiting antitumor activity, is known to generate ROS and has been found to inhibit the activity of topoisomerase II (Topo II) through the stabilization of the Topo II-DNA cleavable complex. The objective of this research was to clarify the role of ROS and Topo II inhibition in the induction of apoptosis mediated by plumbagin. As determined by the comet assay, plumbagin induced DNA cleavage in HL-60 cells, whereas in a cell line with reduced Topo II activity-HL-60/MX2, the level of DNA damage was significantly decreased. The onset of DNA strand break formation in HL-60 cells was delayed in comparison with the generation of intracellular ROS. In HL-60/MX2 cells, ROS were generated at a similar rate, whereas a significant reduction in the level of DNA damage was detected. The pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuated plumbagin-induced DNA damage, pointing out to the involvement of ROS generation in cleavable complex formation. These results suggest that plumbagin-induced ROS does not directly damage DNA but requires the involvement of Topo II. Furthermore, experiments carried out using light spectroscopy indicated no direct interactions between plumbagin and DNA. The induction of apoptosis was significantly delayed in HL-60/MX2 cells indicating the involvement of Topo II inhibition in plumbagin-mediated apoptosis. Thus, these findings strongly suggest ROS-mediated inhibition of Topo II as an important mechanism contributing to the apoptosis-inducing properties of plumbagin.

  16. Induction of apoptosis by plumbagin through reactive oxygen species-mediated inhibition of topoisomerase II.

    PubMed

    Kawiak, Anna; Piosik, Jacek; Stasilojc, Grzegorz; Gwizdek-Wisniewska, Anna; Marczak, Lukasz; Stobiecki, Maciej; Bigda, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2007-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized as key molecules, which can selectively modify proteins and therefore regulate cellular signalling including apoptosis. Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone exhibiting antitumor activity, is known to generate ROS and has been found to inhibit the activity of topoisomerase II (Topo II) through the stabilization of the Topo II-DNA cleavable complex. The objective of this research was to clarify the role of ROS and Topo II inhibition in the induction of apoptosis mediated by plumbagin. As determined by the comet assay, plumbagin induced DNA cleavage in HL-60 cells, whereas in a cell line with reduced Topo II activity-HL-60/MX2, the level of DNA damage was significantly decreased. The onset of DNA strand break formation in HL-60 cells was delayed in comparison with the generation of intracellular ROS. In HL-60/MX2 cells, ROS were generated at a similar rate, whereas a significant reduction in the level of DNA damage was detected. The pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuated plumbagin-induced DNA damage, pointing out to the involvement of ROS generation in cleavable complex formation. These results suggest that plumbagin-induced ROS does not directly damage DNA but requires the involvement of Topo II. Furthermore, experiments carried out using light spectroscopy indicated no direct interactions between plumbagin and DNA. The induction of apoptosis was significantly delayed in HL-60/MX2 cells indicating the involvement of Topo II inhibition in plumbagin-mediated apoptosis. Thus, these findings strongly suggest ROS-mediated inhibition of Topo II as an important mechanism contributing to the apoptosis-inducing properties of plumbagin. PMID:17618663

  17. Zbtb1 Safeguards Genome Integrity and Prevents p53-Mediated Apoptosis in Proliferating Lymphoid Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xin; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Xianyu; Kovalovsky, Damian

    2016-08-15

    Expression of the transcription factor Zbtb1 is required for normal lymphoid development. We report in the present study that Zbtb1 maintains genome integrity in immune progenitors, without which cells undergo increased DNA damage and p53-mediated apoptosis during replication and differentiation. Increased DNA damage in Zbtb1-mutant (ScanT) progenitors was due to increased sensitivity to replication stress, which was a consequence of inefficient activation of the S-phase checkpoint response. Increased p53-mediated apoptosis affected not only lymphoid but also myeloid development in competitive bone marrow chimeras, and prevention of apoptosis by transgenic Bcl2 expression and p53 deficiency rescued lymphoid as well as myeloid development from Zbtb1-mutant progenitors. Interestingly, however, protection from apoptosis rescued only the early stages of T cell development, and thymocytes remained arrested at the double-negative 3 developmental stage, indicating a strict requirement of Zbtb1 at later T cell developmental stages. Collectively, these results indicate that Zbtb1 prevents DNA damage in replicating immune progenitors, allowing the generation of B cells, T cells, and myeloid cells. PMID:27402700

  18. Loss of serum response factor induces microRNA-mediated apoptosis in intestinal smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, C; Lee, M Y; Slivano, O J; Park, P J; Ha, S; Berent, R M; Fuchs, R; Collins, N C; Yu, T J; Syn, H; Park, J K; Horiguchi, K; Miano, J M; Sanders, K M; Ro, S

    2015-01-01

    Serum response factor (SRF) is a transcription factor known to mediate phenotypic plasticity in smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Despite the critical role of this protein in mediating intestinal injury response, little is known about the mechanism through which SRF alters SMC behavior. Here, we provide compelling evidence for the involvement of SRF-dependent microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of SMC apoptosis. We generated SMC-restricted Srf inducible knockout (KO) mice and observed both severe degeneration of SMCs and a significant decrease in the expression of apoptosis-associated miRNAs. The absence of these miRNAs was associated with overexpression of apoptotic proteins, and we observed a high level of SMC death and myopathy in the intestinal muscle layers. These data provide a compelling new model that implicates SMC degeneration via anti-apoptotic miRNA deficiency caused by lack of SRF in gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:26633717

  19. Mammalian Ku86 mediates chromosomal fusions and apoptosis caused by critically short telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Espejel, Silvia; Franco, Sonia; Rodríguez-Perales, Sandra; Bouffler, Simon D.; Cigudosa, Juan C.; Blasco, María A.

    2002-01-01

    Here we analyze the functional interaction between Ku86 and telomerase at the mammalian telomere by studying mice deficient for both proteins. We show that absence of Ku86 prevents the end-to-end chromosomal fusions that result from critical telomere shortening in telomerase-deficient mice. In addition, Ku86 deficiency rescues the male early germ cell apoptosis triggered by short telomeres in these mice. Together, these findings define a role for Ku86 in mediating chromosomal instability and apoptosis triggered by short telomeres. In addition, we show here that Ku86 deficiency results in telomerase-dependent telomere elongation and in the fusion of random pairs of chromosomes in telomerase-proficient cells, suggesting a model in which Ku86 keeps normal-length telomeres less accessible to telomerase- mediated telomere lengthening and to DNA repair activities. PMID:11980718

  20. Glutamate-mediated protection of crayfish glial cells from PDT-induced apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudkovskii, M. V.; Romanenko, N. P.; Berezhnaya, E. V.; Kovaleva, V. D.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic treatment that causes intense oxidative stress and kills cells is currently used in neurooncology. However, along with tumor it damages surrounding healthy neurons and glial cells. In order to study the possible role of glutamate-related signaling pathways in photodynamic injury of neurons and glia, we investigated photodynamic effect of alumophthalocyanine Photosens on isolated crayfish stretch receptor that consists of a single neuron surrounded by glial cells. The laser diode (670 nm, 0.4 W/cm2) was used for dye photoexcitation. Application of glutamate increased photodynamically induced necrosis of neurons and glial cells but significantly decreased glial apoptosis. The natural neuroglial mediator N-acetylaspartylglutamate, which releases glutamate after cleavage in the extracellular space by glutamate carboxypeptidase II, also inhibited photoinduced apoptosis. Inhibition of glutamate carboxypeptidase II, oppositely, enhanced apoptosis of glial cells. These data confirm the anti-apoptotic activity of glutamate. Application of NMDA or inhibition of NMDA receptors by MK801 did not influence photodynamic death of neurons and glial cells that indicated nonparticipation of NMDA receptors in these processes. Inhibition of metabotropic glutamate receptors by AP-3 decreased PDT-induced apoptosis. One can suggest that crayfish neurons naturally secrete NAAG, which being cleaved by GCOP produces glutamate. Glutamate prevents photoinduced apoptosis of glial cells possibly through metabotropic but not ionotropic glutamate receptors.

  1. Glutamate-mediated protection of crayfish glial cells from PDT-induced apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudkovskii, M. V.; Romanenko, N. P.; Berezhnaya, E. V.; Kovaleva, V. D.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2010-10-01

    Photodynamic treatment that causes intense oxidative stress and kills cells is currently used in neurooncology. However, along with tumor it damages surrounding healthy neurons and glial cells. In order to study the possible role of glutamate-related signaling pathways in photodynamic injury of neurons and glia, we investigated photodynamic effect of alumophthalocyanine Photosens on isolated crayfish stretch receptor that consists of a single neuron surrounded by glial cells. The laser diode (670 nm, 0.4 W/cm2) was used for dye photoexcitation. Application of glutamate increased photodynamically induced necrosis of neurons and glial cells but significantly decreased glial apoptosis. The natural neuroglial mediator N-acetylaspartylglutamate, which releases glutamate after cleavage in the extracellular space by glutamate carboxypeptidase II, also inhibited photoinduced apoptosis. Inhibition of glutamate carboxypeptidase II, oppositely, enhanced apoptosis of glial cells. These data confirm the anti-apoptotic activity of glutamate. Application of NMDA or inhibition of NMDA receptors by MK801 did not influence photodynamic death of neurons and glial cells that indicated nonparticipation of NMDA receptors in these processes. Inhibition of metabotropic glutamate receptors by AP-3 decreased PDT-induced apoptosis. One can suggest that crayfish neurons naturally secrete NAAG, which being cleaved by GCOP produces glutamate. Glutamate prevents photoinduced apoptosis of glial cells possibly through metabotropic but not ionotropic glutamate receptors.

  2. CD4+ lymphocytes control gut epithelial apoptosis and mediate survival in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Paul E; Woolsey, Cheryl A; Clark, Andrew T; Clark, Jessica A; Turnbull, Isaiah R; McConnell, Kevin W; Chang, Katherine C; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Ayala, Alfred; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-06-01

    Lymphocytes help determine whether gut epithelial cells proliferate or differentiate but are not known to affect whether they live or die. Here, we report that lymphocytes play a controlling role in mediating gut epithelial apoptosis in sepsis but not under basal conditions. Gut epithelial apoptosis is similar in unmanipulated Rag-1(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. However, Rag-1(-/-) animals have a 5-fold augmentation in gut epithelial apoptosis following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) compared to septic WT mice. Reconstitution of lymphocytes in Rag-1(-/-) mice via adoptive transfer decreases intestinal apoptosis to levels seen in WT animals. Subset analysis indicates that CD4(+) but not CD8(+), gammadelta, or B cells are responsible for the antiapoptotic effect of lymphocytes on the gut epithelium. Gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 in transgenic mice decreases mortality following CLP. This survival benefit is lymphocyte dependent since gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 fails to alter survival when the transgene is overexpressed in Rag-1(-/-) mice. Further, adoptively transferring lymphocytes to Rag-1(-/-) mice that simultaneously overexpress gut-specific Bcl-2 results in improved mortality following sepsis. Thus, sepsis unmasks CD4(+) lymphocyte control of gut apoptosis that is not present under homeostatic conditions, which acts as a key determinant of both cellular survival and host mortality. PMID:19158156

  3. l-Cystathionine Inhibits the Mitochondria-Mediated Macrophage Apoptosis Induced by Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingzhu; Du, Junbao; Chen, Siyao; Liu, Angie Dong; Holmberg, Lukas; Chen, Yonghong; Zhang, Chunyu; Tang, Chaoshu; Jin, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the regulatory role of l-cystathionine in human macrophage apoptosis induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and its possible mechanisms. THP-1 cells were induced with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and differentiated into macrophages. Macrophages were incubated with ox-LDL after pretreatment with l-cystathionine. Superoxide anion, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening were examined. Caspase-9 activities and expression of cleaved caspase-3 were measured. The results showed that compared with control group, ox-LDL treatment significantly promoted superoxide anion generation, release of cytochrome c (cytc) from mitochondrion into cytoplasm, caspase-9 activities, cleavage of caspase-3, and cell apoptosis, in addition to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential as well as increased MPTP opening. However, 0.3 and 1.0 mmol/L l-cystathionine significantly reduced superoxide anion generation, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and markedly decreased MPTP opening in ox-LDL + l-cystathionine macrophages. Moreover, compared to ox-LDL treated-cells, release of cytc from mitochondrion into cytoplasm, caspase-9 activities, cleavage of caspase-3, and apoptosis levels in l-cystathionine pretreated cells were profoundly attenuated. Taken together, our results suggested that l-cystathionine could antagonize mitochondria-mediated human macrophage apoptosis induced by ox-LDL via inhibition of cytc release and caspase activation. PMID:25514411

  4. Chk2 regulates transcription-independent p53-mediated apoptosis in response to DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Chen; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Motoyama, Noboru . E-mail: motoyama@nils.go.jp

    2005-07-29

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a central role in the induction of apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. The protein kinase Chk2 is an important regulator of p53 function in mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Cells derived from Chk2-deficient mice are resistant to the induction of apoptosis by IR, and this resistance has been thought to be a result of the defective transcriptional activation of p53 target genes. It was recently shown, however, that p53 itself and histone H1.2 translocate to mitochondria and thereby induces apoptosis in a transcription-independent manner in response to IR. We have now examined whether Chk2 also regulates the transcription-independent induction of apoptosis by p53 and histone H1.2. The reduced ability of IR to induce p53 stabilization in Chk2-deficient thymocytes was associated with a marked impairment of p53 and histone H1 translocation to mitochondria. These results suggest that Chk2 regulates the transcription-independent mechanism of p53-mediated apoptosis by inducing stabilization of p53 in response to IR.

  5. Identification and characterization of a cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 as a novel mediator of apoptosis signaling by retinoid CD437.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Arun K; Zhang, Liyue; Boyanapalli, Madanamohan; Wali, Anil; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Yu, Yingjie; Fontana, Joseph A; Hatfield, James S; Dawson, Marcia I; Majumdar, Adhip P N; Reichert, Uwe

    2003-08-29

    CD437, a novel retinoid, causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a number of cancer cells including human breast carcinoma (HBC) by utilizing an undefined retinoic acid receptor/retinoid X receptor-independent mechanism. To delineate mediators of CD437 signaling, we utilized a random antisense-dependent functional knockout genetic approach. We identified a cDNA that encodes approximately 130-kDa HBC cell perinuclear protein (termed CARP-1). Treatments with CD437 or chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin, as well as serum deprivation of HBC cells, stimulate CARP-1 expression. Reduced levels of CARP-1 result in inhibition of apoptosis by CD437 or adriamycin, whereas increased expression of CARP-1 causes elevated levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and apoptosis. CARP-1 interacts with 14-3-3 protein as well as causes reduced expression of cell cycle regulatory genes including c-Myc and cyclin B1. Loss of c-Myc sensitizes cells to apoptosis by CARP-1, whereas expression of c-Myc or 14-3-3 inhibits CARP-1-dependent apoptosis. Thus, apoptosis induction by CARP-1 involves sequestration of 14-3-3 and CARP-1-mediated altered expression of multiple cell cycle regulatory genes. Identification of CARP-1 as a key mediator of signaling by CD437 or adriamycin allows for delineation of pathways that, in turn, may prove beneficial for design and targeting of novel antitumor agents. PMID:12816952

  6. Dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of osteocytic and osteoblastic cells is mediated by TAK1 activation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Heyuan; Wang, Tao; Xu, Dongli; Cha, Bingbing; Liu, Jun; Li, Yiming

    2015-05-01

    Increased apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes is the main mechanism of glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteonecrosis. In the current study, we investigated whether dexamethasone (Dex)-induced osteoblastic and osteocytic cell apoptosis is mediated through activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), and whether TAK1 inhibition could promote survival opposing the deleterious effects of Dex. We found that TAK1 was activated by Dex in both osteocytic MLO-Y4 and osteoblastic OB-6 cells, which was prevented by two known anti-oxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ebselen. TAK1 inhibitors, including LYTAK1 and 5Z-7-oxozeaenol (57-OZ), inhibited Dex-induced apoptosis of MLO-Y4 and OB-6 cells. Meanwhile shRNA-mediated knockdown of TAK1 also suppressed Dex-induced damages to MLO-Y4 and OB-6 cells. On the other hand, exogenously over-expressing TAK1 enhanced Dex-induced MLO-Y4 and OB-6 cell apoptosis. At the molecular level, we found that TAK1 mediated Dex-induced pro-apoptotic Pyk2-JNK activation. Inhibition or silencing of TAK1 almost abolished Pyk2-JNK phosphorylations by Dex in MLO-Y4 and OB-6 cells. TAK1 over-expression, on the other hand, increased Dex's activity on Pyk2-JNK phosphorylations in above cells. We conclude that part of the pro-apoptotic actions of Dex on osteoblastic and osteocytic cells are mediated through TAK1 activation, and that inhibition of TAK1 might protect from GC-induced damages to osteoblasts and osteocytes. PMID:25753204

  7. ROS Accumulation by PEITC Selectively Kills Ovarian Cancer Cells via UPR-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yoon-Hee; Uddin, Md. Hafiz; Jo, Untek; Kim, Boyun; Song, Jiyoung; Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hee Seung; Song, Yong Sang

    2015-01-01

    Unfolded protein response (UPR) is crucial for both survival and death of mammalian cells, which is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nutrient depletion. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of ROS-accumulation, induced by β-phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), on UPR-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. We used ovarian cancer cell lines, PA-1 and SKOV-3, with different p53 status (wild- and null-type, respectively). PEITC caused increased ROS-accumulation and inhibited proliferation selectively in ovarian cancer cells, and glutathione (GSH) depletion in SKOV-3. However, PEITC did not cause any effect in normal ovarian epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After 48 h of PEITC treatment (5 μM), apoptotic cell death was shown to increase significantly in the ovarian cancer cells and not in the normal cells. The key regulator of UPR-mediated apoptosis, CHOP/GADD153 and endoplasmic reticulum resident chaperone BiP/GRP78 were parallely up-regulated with activation of two major sensors of the UPR [PERK and ATF-6 in PA-1; PERK, and IRE1α in SKOV-3) in response to ROS accumulation induced by PEITC (5 μM). ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), attenuated the effect of PEITC on UPR signatures (P-PERK, IRE1α, CHOP/GADD153, and BiP/GRP78), suggesting the involvement of ROS in UPR-mediated apoptosis. Altogether, PEITC induces UPR-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via accumulation of ROS in a cancer-specific manner. PMID:26284193

  8. Phosphorylation-Dependent Differential Regulation of Plant Growth, Cell Death, and Innate Immunity by the Regulatory Receptor-Like Kinase BAK1

    PubMed Central

    Schwessinger, Benjamin; Roux, Milena; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Sklenar, Jan; Jones, Alexandra; Zipfel, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    Plants rely heavily on receptor-like kinases (RLKs) for perception and integration of external and internal stimuli. The Arabidopsis regulatory leucine-rich repeat RLK (LRR-RLK) BAK1 is involved in steroid hormone responses, innate immunity, and cell death control. Here, we describe the differential regulation of three different BAK1-dependent signaling pathways by a novel allele of BAK1, bak1-5. Innate immune signaling mediated by the BAK1-dependent RKs FLS2 and EFR is severely compromised in bak1-5 mutant plants. However, bak1-5 mutants are not impaired in BR signaling or cell death control. We also show that, in contrast to the RD kinase BRI1, the non-RD kinases FLS2 and EFR have very low kinase activity, and we show that neither was able to trans-phosphorylate BAK1 in vitro. Furthermore, kinase activity for all partners is completely dispensable for the ligand-induced heteromerization of FLS2 or EFR with BAK1 in planta, revealing another pathway specific mechanistic difference. The specific suppression of FLS2- and EFR-dependent signaling in bak1-5 is not due to a differential interaction of BAK1-5 with the respective ligand-binding RK but requires BAK1-5 kinase activity. Overall our results demonstrate a phosphorylation-dependent differential control of plant growth, innate immunity, and cell death by the regulatory RLK BAK1, which may reveal key differences in the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of ligand-binding RD and non-RD RKs. PMID:21593986

  9. Bax/Bak activation in the absence of Bid, Bim, Puma, and p53.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Huang, K; O'Neill, K L; Pang, X; Luo, X

    2016-01-01

    How BH3-only proteins activate Bax/Bak, the two gateway proteins of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway, remains incompletely understood. Although all pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins are known to bind/neutralize the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, the three most potent ones, Bid (tBid), Bim, and Puma, possess an additional activity of directly activating Bax/Bak in vitro. This latter activity has been proposed to be responsible for triggering Bax/Bak activation following apoptotic stimulation. To test this hypothesis, we generated Bid(-/)(-)Bim(-/)(-)Puma(-/)(-) (TKO), TKO/Bax(-/)(-)/Bak(-/)(-) (PentaKO), and PentaKO/Mcl-1(-/-) (HexaKO) HCT116 cells through gene editing. Surprisingly, although the TKO cells were resistant to several apoptotic stimuli, robust apoptosis was induced upon the simultaneous inactivation of Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, two anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins known to suppress Bax/Bak activation and activity. Importantly, such apoptotic activity was completely abolished in the PentaKO cells. In addition, ABT-737, a BH3 mimetic that inhibits Bcl-xL/Bcl-w/Bcl-2, induced Bax activation in HexaKO cells reconstituted with endogenous level of GFP-Bax. Further, by generating TKO/p53(-/-) (QKO) cells, we demonstrated that p53, a tumor suppressor postulated to directly activate Bax, is not required for Bid/Bim/Puma-independent Bax/Bak activation. Together, these results strongly suggest that the direct activation activities of Bid (tBid), Bim, Puma, and p53 are not essential for activating Bax/Bak once the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are neutralized. PMID:27310874

  10. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor predisposes hepatocytes to Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Mitchell, Kristen A; Huang, Gengming; Elferink, Cornelis J

    2005-03-01

    Liver homeostasis is achieved by the removal of diseased and damaged hepatocytes and their coordinated replacement to maintain a constant liver cell mass. Cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, and toxic drug effects can all trigger apoptosis in the liver as a means of removing the unwanted cells, and the Fas "death receptor" pathway comprises a major physiological mechanism by which this occurs. The susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis is, in part, a function of the hepatocyte's proteome. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor known to influence apoptosis, conceivably by regulating the expression of genes involved in apoptotic signaling. In this article, we present evidence demonstrating that AhR expression and function promote apoptosis in liver cells in response to Fas stimulation. Reintroduction of the AhR into the AhR-negative BP8 hepatoma cells as well as into primary hepatocytes from AhR knockout mice increases the magnitude of cell death in response to Fas ligand. Enhanced apoptosis correlates with increased caspase activity and mitochondrial cytochrome c release but not with the expression of several Bcl-2 family proteins. In vivo studies showed that in contrast to wild-type mice, AhR knockout mice are protected from the lethal effects of the anti-Fas Jo2 antibody. Moreover, down-regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein in vivo by adenovirus-mediated RNA interference to suppress AhR activity provided wild-type mice partial protection from Jo2-induced lethality. PMID:15550680

  11. CHOP Contributes to, But Is Not the Only Mediator of, IAPP Induced β-Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gurlo, T; Rivera, J F; Butler, A E; Cory, M; Hoang, J; Costes, S; Butler, Peter C

    2016-04-01

    The islet in type 2 diabetes is characterized by β-cell loss, increased β-cell apoptosis, and islet amyloid derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). When protein misfolding protective mechanisms are overcome, human IAPP (h-IAPP) forms membrane permeant toxic oligomers that induce β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. In humans with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and mice transgenic for h-IAPP, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been inferred from nuclear translocation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), an established mediator of ER stress. To establish whether h-IAPP toxicity is mediated by ER stress, we evaluated diabetes onset and β-cell mass in h-IAPP transgenic (h-TG) mice with and without deletion of CHOP in comparison with wild-type controls. Diabetes was delayed in h-TG CHOP(-/-) mice, with relatively preserved β-cell mass and decreased β-cell apoptosis. Deletion of CHOP attenuates dysfunction of the autophagy/lysosomal pathway in β-cells of h-TG mice, uncovering a role for CHOP in mediating h-IAPP-induced dysfunction of autophagy. As deletion of CHOP delayed but did not prevent h-IAPP-induced β-cell loss and diabetes, we examined CHOP-independent stress pathways. JNK, a target of the IRE-1pTRAF2 complex, and the Bcl-2 family proapoptotic mediator BIM, a target of ATF4, were comparably activated by h-IAPP expression in the presence and absence of CHOP. Therefore, although these studies affirm that CHOP is a mediator of h-IAPP-induced ER stress, it is not the only one. Therefore, suppression of CHOP alone is unlikely to be a durable therapeutic strategy to protect against h-IAPP toxicity because multiple stress pathways are activated. PMID:26900721

  12. Consequences of the combined loss of BOK and BAK or BOK and BAX

    PubMed Central

    Ke, F; Bouillet, P; Kaufmann, T; Strasser, A; Kerr, J; Voss, A K

    2013-01-01

    The multi-BCL-2 homology domain pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family members BAK and BAX have critical roles in apoptosis. They are essential for mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, leading to the release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome-c, which promote activation of the caspase cascade and cellular demolition. The BOK protein has extensive amino-acid sequence similarity to BAK and BAX and is expressed in diverse cell types, particularly those of the female reproductive tissues. The BOK-deficient mice have no readily discernible abnormalities, and its function therefore remains unresolved. We hypothesized that BOK may exert functions that overlap with those of BAK and/or BAX and examined this by generating Bok−/−Bak−/− and Bok−/−Bax−/− mice. Combined loss of BOK and BAK did not elicit any noticeable defects, although it remains possible that BOK and BAK have critical roles in developmental cell death that overlap with those of BAX. In most tissues examined, loss of BOK did not exacerbate the abnormalities caused by loss of BAX, such as defects in spermatogenesis or the increase in neuronal populations in the brain and retina. Notably, however, old Bok−/−Bax−/− females had abnormally increased numbers of oocytes from different stages of development, indicating that BOK may have a pro-apoptotic function overlapping with that of BAX in age-related follicular atresia. PMID:23744350

  13. Reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells exposed to chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Jae Hyeon; Shin, In Chul; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. -- Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. ► ROS is involved in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos affects cellular antioxidant systems. ► Chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis mediates activation of MAPK.

  14. HAX1 deletion impairs BCR internalization and leads to delayed BCR-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wolkerstorfer, Susanne; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Karina Gratz, Iris; Zoegg, Thomas; Brandstetter, Hans; Achatz-Straussberger, Gertrude

    2016-01-01

    Deletion of HAX1 in mice causes a severe reduction in the numbers of lymphocytes in the bone marrow and in the spleen. Additionally, B220+ B progenitor cells in the bone marrow are reduced, suggesting an important function of HAX1 in B cell development. HAX1 is thought to play a protective role in apoptotic processes; therefore, we investigated the role of HAX1 in bone marrow B progenitor cells and splenic B cells. We did not observe an effect on the survival of Hax1−/− bone marrow cells but detected enhanced survival of splenic Hax1−/− B cells upon in vitro starvation/growth-factor withdrawal. To explain this apparent inconsistency with previous reports of HAX1 function, we also studied the B cell receptor (BCR)-induced apoptosis of IgM-stimulated splenic naïve B cells and found that apoptosis decreased in these cells. We further found impaired internalization of the BCR from Hax1−/− splenic B cells after IgM crosslinking; this impaired internalization may result in decreased BCR signaling and, consequently, decreased BCR-mediated apoptosis. We measured HAX1 binding to the cytoplasmic domains of different Ig subtypes and identified KVKWI(V)F as the putative binding motif for HAX1 within the cytoplasmic domains. Because this motif can be found in almost all Ig subtypes, it is likely that HAX1 plays a general role in BCR-mediated internalization events and BCR-mediated apoptosis. PMID:25864916

  15. WNT5A-NFAT Signaling Mediates Resistance to Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer1 2

    PubMed Central

    Griesmann, Heidi; Ripka, Stefanie; Pralle, Moritz; Ellenrieder, Volker; Baumgart, Sandra; Buchholz, Malte; Pilarsky, Christian; Aust, Daniela; Gress, Thomas M; Michl, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Introduction WNT5A belongs to the Wnt family of secreted signaling molecules. Using transcriptional profiling, we previously identified WNT5A as target of the antiapoptotic transcription factor CUX1 and demonstrated high expression levels in pancreatic cancer. However, the impact of WNT5A on drug resistance and the signaling pathways employed by WNT5A remain to be elucidated. Objectives This project aims to decipher the impact of WNT5A on resistance to apoptosis and the signaling pathways employed by WNT5A in pancreatic cancer. Methods The impact of WNT5A and its downstream effectors on tumor growth and drug resistance was studied in vitro and in xenograft models in vivo. Tissue microarrays of pancreatic cancer specimens were employed for immunohistochemical studies. Results Knockdown of WNT5A results in a significant increase in drug-induced apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of WNT5A or addition of recombinant WNT5A mediates resistance to apoptosis in vitro. In our attempt to identify downstream effectors of WNT5A, we identified the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells c2 (NFATc2) as transcriptional target of WNT5A signaling. NFATc2 confers a strong antiapoptotic phenotype mediating at least in part the effects of WNT5A on drug resistance and tumor cell survival. In vivo, WNT5A expression leads to resistance to gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in a xenograft model, which is paralleled by up-regulation of NFATc2. Both WNT5A and NFATc2 proteins are highly expressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues and their expression levels correlated significantly. Conclusion We identified the WNT5A-NFATc2 axis as important mediator of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer. PMID:23359789

  16. Platelets induce apoptosis via membrane-bound FasL

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Rebecca I.; Reichenbach, Frank; Kraft, Peter; Kumar, Anil; Lescan, Mario; Todt, Franziska; Göbel, Kerstin; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Geisler, Tobias; Bauer, Axel; Olbrich, Marcus; Schaller, Martin; Wesselborg, Sebastian; O’Reilly, Lorraine; Meuth, Sven G.; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Gawaz, Meinrad; Li, Xuri; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Edlich, Frank

    2015-01-01

    After tissue injury, both wound sealing and apoptosis contribute to restoration of tissue integrity and functionality. Although the role of platelets (PLTs) for wound closure and induction of regenerative processes is well established, the knowledge about their contribution to apoptosis is incomplete. Here, we show that PLTs present the death receptor Fas ligand (FasL) on their surface after activation. Activated PLTs as well as the isolated membrane fraction of activated PLTs but not of resting PLTs induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in primary murine neuronal cells, human neuroblastoma cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Membrane protein from PLTs lacking membrane-bound FasL (FasL△m/△m) failed to induce apoptosis. Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis signaling in target cells was not required for PLT-induced cell death, but increased the apoptotic response to PLT-induced Fas signaling. In vivo, PLT depletion significantly reduced apoptosis in a stroke model and an inflammation-independent model of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid-induced retinal apoptosis. Furthermore, experiments using PLT-specific PF4Cre+ FasLfl/fl mice demonstrated a role of PLT-derived FasL for tissue apoptosis. Because apoptosis secondary to injury prevents inflammation, our findings describe a novel mechanism on how PLTs contribute to tissue homeostasis. PMID:26232171

  17. Apoptosis of THP-1 macrophages induced by protoporphyrin IX-mediated sonodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuyuan; Sun, Xin; Cheng, Jiali; Xu, Haobo; Dan, Juhua; Shen, Jing; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Yun; Meng, Lingli; Cao, Wenwu; Tian, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) was developed as a localized ultrasound-activated cytotoxic therapy for cancer. The ability of SDT to destroy target tissues selectively is especially appealing for atherosclerotic plaque, in which selective accumulation of the sonosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), had been demonstrated. Here we investigate the effects of PpIX-mediated SDT on macrophages, which are the main culprit in progression of atherosclerosis. Methods and results Cultured THP-1 derived macrophages were incubated with PpIX. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the intracellular PpIX concentration increased with the concentration of PpIX in the incubation medium. MTT assay demonstrated that SDT with PpIX significantly decreased cell viability, and this effect increased with duration of ultrasound exposure and PpIX concentration. PpIX-mediated SDT induced both apoptosis and necrosis, and the maximum apoptosis to necrosis ratio was obtained after SDT with 20 μg/mL PpIX and five minutes of sonication. Production of intracellular singlet oxygen and secondary disruption of the cytoskeleton were also observed after SDT with PpIX. Conclusion PpIX-mediated SDT had apoptotic effects on THP-1 macrophages via generation of intracellular singlet oxygen and disruption of the cytoskeleton. PpIX-mediated SDT may be a potential treatment to attenuate progression of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:23818780

  18. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 mediated cell apoptosis in colorectal cancer by promoting ceramide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Ren, Jie; Yang, Longhe; Li, Yanting; Fu, Jin; Li, Yuhang; Tian, Yifeng; Qiu, Funan; Liu, Zuguo; Qiu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) has been found to effectively suppress tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in numerous neoplastic lesions. However, mechanism underlying SCD1-mediated anti-tumor effect has maintained unclear. Herein, we reported endo-lipid messenger ceramides played a critical role in tumor fate modulated by SCD1 inhibition. In vitro study in colorectal cancer cells demonstrated inhibition of SCD1 activity promoted apoptosis attributed to mitochondria dysfunctions, upregulation of reaction oxygen species (ROS), alteration of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and translocation of mitochondrial protein cytochrome C. While these effects were mediated by intracellular ceramide signals through induction of ceramide biosynthesis, rather than exclusive SFA accumulation. In vivo study in xenograft colorectal cancer mice showed pharmacologic administration of SCD1 inhibitor A939 significantly delayed tumor growth, which was reversed by L-cycloserine, an inhibitor of ceramide biosynthesis. These results depicted the cross-talk of SCD1-mediated lipid pathway and endo-ceramide biosynthesis pathway, indicating roles of ceramide signals in SCD1-mediated anti-tumor property. PMID:26813308

  19. Fas/Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis in different cell lineages and functional compartments of human lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, Tuomo S; Karttunen, Tuomo J

    2010-02-01

    We have optimized an immunohistochemical double-staining method combining immunohistochemical lymphocyte lineage marker detection and apoptosis detection with terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. The method was used to trace Fas-mediated apoptosis in human reactive lymph nodes according to cell lineage and anatomical location. In addition to Fas, we also studied the expression of Fas ligand (FasL), CD3, CD20, CD19, CD23, and CD68 of apoptotic cells. The presence of simultaneous Fas and FasL positivity indicated involvement of activation-induced death in the induction of paracortical apoptosis. FasL expression in the high endothelial venules might be an inductor of apoptosis of Fas-positive lymphoid cells. In addition to B-lymphocyte apoptosis in the germinal centers, there was often a high apoptosis rate of CD23-expressing follicular dendritic cells. In summary, our double-staining method provides valuable new information about the occurrence and mechanisms of apoptosis of different immune cell types in the lymph node compartments. Among other things, we present support for the importance of Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis in lymph node homeostasis. PMID:19826071

  20. Nitric-oxide-induced necrosis and apoptosis in PC12 cells mediated by mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bal-Price, A; Brown, G C

    2000-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) can trigger either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. We have used PC12 cells to investigate the extent to which NO-induced cell death is mediated by mitochondria. Addition of NO donors, 1 mM S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) or 1 mM diethylenetriamine-NO adduct (NOC-18), to PC12 cells resulted in a steady-state level of 1-3 microM: NO, rapid and almost complete inhibition of cellular respiration (within 1 min), and a rapid decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential within the cells. A 24-h incubation of PC12 cells with NO donors (SNAP or NOC-18) or specific inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration (myxothiazol, rotenone, or azide), in the absence of glucose, caused total ATP depletion and resulted in 80-100% necrosis. The presence of glucose almost completely prevented the decrease in ATP level and the increase in necrosis induced by the NO donors or mitochondrial inhibitors, suggesting that the NO-induced necrosis in the absence of glucose was due to the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and subsequent ATP depletion. However, in the presence of glucose, NO donors and mitochondrial inhibitors induced apoptosis of PC12 cells as determined by nuclear morphology. The presence of apoptotic cells was prevented completely by benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-fluoromethyl ketone (a nonspecific caspase inhibitor), indicating that apoptosis was mediated by caspase activation. Indeed, both NO donors and mitochondrial inhibitors in PC12 cells caused the activation of caspase-3- and caspase-3-processing-like proteases. Caspase-1 activity was not activated. Cyclosporin A (an inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore) decreased the activity of caspase-3- and caspase-3-processing-like proteases after treatment with NO donors, but was not effective in the case of the mitochondrial inhibitors. The activation of caspases was accompanied by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, which was partially prevented by

  1. p53 mediated apoptosis in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by inhibition of FANCD2 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Peng; Sun, Yifu; Zheng, Changjun; Hou, Tingting; Kang, Mingyang; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between osteosarcoma (OS) and Fanconi anemia (FA) related pathways and the molecular mechanisms. Methods: siRNA for Fanconi anemia complementation group D2 (FANCD2) was constructed and transfected into the osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 cells. Expression of TP53INP1, p53, p21, caspase-9, and caspase-3 mRNA in MG-63 cells were examined by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the protein levels were also determined by western blot. Results: After silence of the FANCD2 gene in MG-63 cells, cell proliferation was inhibited, cell cycle was arrested and cell apoptosis was induced. The apoptosis was mediated by the p53 signaling pathway. After FANCD2 expression was inhibited, TP53INP1 gene expression was up-regulated, phosphorylation of p53 was promoted and the p21 protein was activated, leading to cell cycle arrested in G1, finally resulted in caspase-dependent cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Inhibition of FANCD2 gene expression can induce apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells, which indicated that FANCD2 played an important role in the development of osteosarcoma and it might be a potential target for treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:26379910

  2. Ichthyotoxic Cochlodinium polykrikoides Induces Mitochondrial Mediated Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Rat Liver Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Jafar; Motallebi, Abbasali; Aghvami, Marjan; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2013-01-01

    In this research, we investigated the cytotoxic mechanisms of Cochlodinium polykrikoidescell lysate on isolated rat liver hepatocytes.This micro algae is responsible for a severe and widespread harmful algal bloom in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman (2008-2009). Isolated hepatocytes were obtained by collagenase perfusion of Sprague-Dawley rat liver.According to our results, incubation of algal lysate with isolated rat hepatocytescaused hepatocyte membrane lysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, glutathione depletion, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential,ATP depletion and increase in ADP/ATP ratio, cytochrome c release in to the hepatocyte cytosol,activation of caspase-3 (final mediator of apoptosis) and appearance of apoptosis phenotype. On the other hand, pre-treatment of antioxidants (α-tocopherol succinate and BHT), radical scavengers (mannitol and DMSO), mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore sealing agents (cyclosporine A, carnitine and trifluoperazine), NADPH P450 reductase inhibitor (Diphenyliodonium chloride), CYP2E1 inhibitors (Phenylimidazole and 4-Methylpyrazole) and ATP generators (L-glutamine, Fructose and Xylitol)inhibitedcaspase-3 activation and cell death in algal lysate treated hepatocytes.Our data also confirmed that algal lysate activates apoptosis signaling via oxidative stress and mitochondrial pathway. Thus, ROS formation caused by the lysate exposure could directly be involved in mitochondrial MPT pore opening and activation of caspase-3 leading to C.polykrikoides lysateinduced apoptosis on rat hepatocytes. These findings contribute to a better understanding of C.polykrikoides-toxic effects on mammalian liver cells. PMID:24523763

  3. A novel TRIM family member, Trim69, regulates zebrafish development through p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruiqin; Zhao, Qing; Zong, Shudong; Miao, Shiying; Song, Wei; Wang, Linfang

    2016-05-01

    Trim69 contains the hallmark domains of a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, including a Ring-finger domain, B-box domain, and coiled-coil domain. Trim69 is structurally and evolutionarily conserved in zebrafish, mouse, rat, human, and chimpanzee. The role of this protein is unclear, however, so we investigated its function in zebrafish development. Trim69 is extensively expressed in zebrafish adults and developing embryos-particularly in the testis, brain, ovary, and heart-and its expression decreases in a time- and stage-dependent manner. Loss of trim69 in zebrafish induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis-related processes; indeed, the tp53 pathway was up-regulated in response to the knockdown. Expression of human trim69 rescued the apoptotic phenotype, while overexpression of trim69 does not increase cellular apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that trim69 participates in tp53-mediated apoptosis during zebrafish development. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 442-454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27031046

  4. Caspase-2 resides in the mitochondria and mediates apoptosis directly from the mitochondrial compartment

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Cruzan, M; Sharma, R; Tiwari, M; Karbach, S; Holstein, D; Martin, C R; Lechleiter, J D; Herman, B

    2016-01-01

    Caspase-2 plays an important role in apoptosis induced by several stimuli, including oxidative stress. However, the subcellular localization of caspase-2, particularly its presence in the mitochondria, is unclear. It is also not known if cytosolic caspase-2 translocates to the mitochondria to trigger the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis or if caspase-2 is constitutively present in the mitochondria that then selectively mediates this apoptotic effect. Here, we demonstrate the presence of caspase-2 in purified mitochondrial fractions from in vitro-cultured cells and in liver hepatocytes using immunoblots and confocal microscopy. We show that mitochondrial caspase-2 is functionally active by performing fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses using a mitochondrially targeted substrate flanked by donor and acceptor fluorophores. Cell-free apoptotic assays involving recombination of nuclear, cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions from the livers of wild type and Casp2−/− mice clearly point to a direct functional role for mitochondrial caspase-2 in apoptosis. Furthermore, cytochrome c release from Casp2−/− cells is decreased as compared with controls upon treatment with agents inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, we show that Casp2−/− primary skin fibroblasts are protected from oxidants that target the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Taken together, our results demonstrate that caspase-2 exists in the mitochondria and that it is essential for mitochondrial oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. PMID:27019748

  5. Induction of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Banerjee, Ayan; Pathak, Suajta; Sharma, Chandresh; Singh, Neeta

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer in women and has a high mortality rate. Cisplatin, an antitumor agent, is generally used for its treatment. However, the administration of cisplatin is associated with side effects and intrinsic resistance. Morinda citrifolia (Noni), a natural plant product, has been shown to have anti-cancer properties. In this study, we used Noni, cisplatin, and the two in combination to study their cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects in cervical cancer HeLa and SiHa cell lines. We demonstrate here, that Noni/Cisplatin by themselves and their combination were able to induce apoptosis in both these cell lines. Cisplatin showed slightly higher cell killing as compared to Noni and their combination showed additive effects. The observed apoptosis appeared to be mediated particularly through the up-regulation of p53 and pro-apoptotic Bax proteins, as well as down- regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL proteins and survivin. Augmentation in the activity of caspase-9 and -3 was also observed, suggesting the involvement of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis for both Noni and Cisplatin in HeLa and SiHa cell lines. PMID:23534730

  6. Role of Annexin A5 on Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis Induced by Tetramethoxystilbene in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mihye; Park, Nahee; Chun, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that 2,4,3′,5′-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS), a trans-stilbene analogue, induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. However, the detailed mechanisms of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induced by TMS are not fully understood. In the present study, the possible roles of annexin A5 in TMS-mediated apoptosis were investigated in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis and Western blot analysis showed that the expression of annexin A5 was strongly increased in TMS-treated cells. TMS caused a strong translocation of annexin A5 from cytosol into mitochondria. Confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis clearly showed that TMS induced translocation of annexin A5 into mitochondria. TMS increased the expression and oligomerization of voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) 1, which may promote mitochondria-dependent apoptosis through disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. When cells were treated with TMS, the levels of Bax, and Bak as well as annexin A5 were strongly enhanced. Moreover, we found that the cytosolic release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c, or apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in mitochondria was markedly increased. Annexin A5 depletion by siRNA led to decreased proapoptotic factors such as Bax, Bak, and annexin A5. Taken together, our results indicate that annexin A5 may play an important role in TMS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis through the regulation of proapoptotic proteins and VDAC1 expression. PMID:25489419

  7. 4-Hydroxynonenal induces p53-mediated apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abha; Sharma, Rajendra; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Vatsyayan, Rit; Pearce, Virginia; Jeyabal, Prince V.S.; Zimniak, Piotr; Awasthi, Sanjay; Awasthi, Yogesh C.

    2009-01-01

    4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) has been suggested to be involved in stress-induced signaling for apoptosis. In present studies, we have examined the effects of 4-HNE on the intrinsic apoptotic pathway associated with p53 in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE and ARPE-19) cells. Our results show that 4-HNE causes induction, phosphorylation, and nuclear accumulation of p53 which is accompanied with down regulation of MDM2, activation of the pro-apoptotic p53 target genes viz. p21 and Bax, JNK, caspase3, and onset of apoptosis in treated RPE cells. Reduced expression of p53 by an efficient silencing of the p53 gene resulted in a significant resistance of these cells to 4-HNE-induced cell death. The effects of 4-HNE on the expression and functions of p53 are blocked in GSTA4-4 over expressing cells indicating that 4-HNE-induced, p53-mediated signaling for apoptosis is regulated by GSTs. Our results also show that the induction of p53 in tissues of mGsta4 (-/-) mice correlate with elevated levels of 4-HNE due to its impaired metabolism. Together, these studies suggest that 4-HNE is involved in p53-mediated signaling in in vitro cell cultures as well as in vivo that can be regulated by GSTs. PMID:18930016

  8. Hypoxia-mediated autophagic flux inhibits silver nanoparticle-triggered apoptosis in human lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kang, Min-Hee; Han, Jae Woong; Das, Joydeep; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Seo, Han Geuk; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumors are frequently associated with resistance to chemotherapy because the fraction of hypoxic tumor cells is substantial. To understand the underlying mechanism of hypoxia on silver nanoparticle (AgNPs)-induced apoptosis, the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a hallmark of hypoxia, was measured in the presence and absence of AgNPs. The results showed that HIF-1α expression was upregulated after AgNPs treatment under both hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Cell viability assays showed that AgNPs promoted cell death in cancer cells but not in non-cancer cells, as cancer cells are slightly more acidic than normal cells. However, reactive oxygen species generation induced by AgNPs in lung cancer cells caused high susceptibility to oxidative stress, whereas pre-exposure to hypoxia blocked AgNPs-induced oxidative stress. Notably, HIF-1α inhibited AgNPs-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by regulating autophagic flux through the regulation of ATG5, LC3-II, and p62. Further, cell viability after treatment of cancer cells with AgNPs under hypoxic conditions was lower in HIF-1α siRNA-transfected cells than in control siRNA-transfected cells, indicating that HIF-1α knockdown enhances hypoxia induced decrease in cell viability. Our results suggest that hypoxia-mediated autophagy may be a mechanism for the resistance of AgNPs-induced apoptosis and that strategies targeting HIF-1α may be used for cancer therapy. PMID:26867977

  9. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells by V. cholerae hemagglutinin protease.

    PubMed

    Ray, Tanusree; Pal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial toxins have emerged as promising agents in cancer treatment strategy. Hemagglutinin (HAP) protease secreted by Vibrio cholerae induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and regresses tumor growth in mice model. The success of novel cancer therapies depends on their selectivity for cancer cells with limited toxicity for normal tissues. Increased expression of Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1) has been reported in different malignant cells. In this study we report that HAP induced activation and over expression of PAR-1 in breast cancer cells (EAC). Immunoprecipitation studies have shown that HAP specifically binds with PAR-1. HAP mediated activation of PAR-1 caused nuclear translocation of p50-p65 and the phosphorylation of p38 which triggered the activation of NFκB and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These signaling pathways enhanced the cellular ROS level in malignant cells that induced the intrinsic pathway of cell apoptosis. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis by HAP of malignant breast cells without effecting normal healthy cells in the same environment makes it a good therapeutic agent for treatment of cancer. PMID:26897170

  10. p53 causes butein-mediated apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    WOO, SANG-MI; CHOI, YOUN KYNUG; KIM, AH JEONG; CHO, SUNG-GOOK; KO, SEONG-GYU

    2016-01-01

    Progression of chronic myeloid leukemia, marked by the oncogenic Bcr-Abl mutation, is tightly associated with an alteration of the p53 pathway. It is known that butein extracted from various plants represses cancer growth. Although the anticancer effects of butein are widely accepted, the mechanisms by which butein induces apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia cells remains to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that butein-induced apoptosis was mediated by p53. KBM5 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells expressing wild-type p53 were more sensitive to butein compared with p53-null K562 CML cells in terms of apoptotic cell death. In addition, butein arrested KBM5 cells at S-phase and altered the expression levels of certain cyclins and the p53-downstream targets, MDM2 and p21. In addition, while butein reduced the protein expression of MDM2 in the KBM5 and K562 cells, it resulted in proteasome-independent MDM2 degradation in p53-expressing KBM5 cells, however, not in p53-null K562 cells. Therefore, the present study suggested that p53 causes the butein-mediated apoptosis of leukemic cells. PMID:26676515

  11. FLIP switches Fas-mediated glucose signaling in human pancreatic cells from apoptosis to cell replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maedler, Kathrin; Fontana, Adriano; Ris, Frédéric; Sergeev, Pavel; Toso, Christian; Oberholzer, José; Lehmann, Roger; Bachmann, Felix; Tasinato, Andrea; Spinas, Giatgen A.; Halban, Philippe A.; Donath, Marc Y.

    2002-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus results from an inadequate adaptation of the functional pancreatic cell mass in the face of insulin resistance. Changes in the concentration of glucose play an essential role in the regulation of cell turnover. In human islets, elevated glucose concentrations impair cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis via up-regulation of the Fas receptor. Recently, it has been shown that the caspase-8 inhibitor FLIP may divert Fas-mediated death signals into those for cell proliferation in lymphatic cells. We observed expression of FLIP in human pancreatic cells of nondiabetic individuals, which was decreased in tissue sections of type 2 diabetic patients. In vitro exposure of islets from nondiabetic organ donors to high glucose levels decreased FLIP expression and increased the percentage of apoptotic terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells; FLIP was no longer detectable in such TUNEL-positive cells. Up-regulation of FLIP, by incubation with transforming growth factor or by transfection with an expression vector coding for FLIP, protected cells from glucose-induced apoptosis, restored cell proliferation, and improved cell function. The beneficial effects of FLIP overexpression were blocked by an antagonistic anti-Fas antibody, indicating their dependence on Fas receptor activation. The present data provide evidence for expression of FLIP in the human cell and suggest a novel approach to prevent and treat diabetes by switching Fas signaling from apoptosis to proliferation.

  12. GLI3-dependent repression of DR4 mediates hedgehog antagonism of TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kurita, S; Mott, J L; Almada, L L; Bronk, S F; Werneburg, N W; Sun, S-Y; Roberts, L R; Fernandez-Zapico, M E; Gores, G J

    2010-08-26

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through its cognate receptors death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5), preferentially in malignant cells. However, many malignant cells remain resistant to TRAIL cytotoxicity by poorly characterized mechanisms. Here, using cholangiocarcinoma cells, as a model for TRAIL resistance, we identified a role for the oncogenic Hedgehog (Hh)-GLI pathway in the regulation of TRAIL cytotoxicity. Blockade of Hh using pharmacological and genetic tools sensitizes the cells to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Restoration of apoptosis sensitivity coincided with upregulation of DR4 expression, while expression of other death effector proteins remained unaltered. Knockdown of DR4 mimics Hh-mediated resistance to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Hh regulates the expression of DR4 by modulating the activity of its promoter. Luciferase, chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression assays show that the transcription factor GLI3 binds to the DR4 promoter and Hh requires an intact GLI3-repression activity to silence DR4 expression. Finally, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeted knockdown of GLI3, but not GLI1 or GLI2, restores DR4 expression and TRAIL sensitivity, indicating that the Hh effect is exclusively mediated by this transcription factor. In conclusion, these data provide evidence of a regulatory mechanism, which modulates TRAIL signaling in cancer cells and suggest new therapeutic approaches for TRAIL-resistant neoplasms. PMID:20562908

  13. GLI3-dependent repression of DR4 mediates hedgehog antagonism of TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, S; Mott, JL; Almada, LL; Bronk, SF; Werneburg, NW; Sun, S-Y; Roberts, LR; Fernandez-Zapico, ME; Gores, GJ

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through its cognate receptors death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5), preferentially in malignant cells. However, many malignant cells remain resistant to TRAIL cytotoxicity by poorly characterized mechanisms. Here, using cholangiocarcinoma cells, as a model for TRAIL resistance, we identified a role for the oncogenic Hedgehog (Hh)-GLI pathway in the regulation of TRAIL cytotoxicity. Blockade of Hh using pharmacological and genetic tools sensitizes the cells to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Restoration of apoptosis sensitivity coincided with upregulation of DR4 expression, while expression of other death effector proteins remained unaltered. Knockdown of DR4 mimics Hh-mediated resistance to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Hh regulates the expression of DR4 by modulating the activity of its promoter. Luciferase, chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression assays show that the transcription factor GLI3 binds to the DR4 promoter and Hh requires an intact GLI3-repression activity to silence DR4 expression. Finally, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeted knockdown of GLI3, but not GLI1 or GLI2, restores DR4 expression and TRAIL sensitivity, indicating that the Hh effect is exclusively mediated by this transcription factor. In conclusion, these data provide evidence of a regulatory mechanism, which modulates TRAIL signaling in cancer cells and suggest new therapeutic approaches for TRAIL-resistant neoplasms. PMID:20562908

  14. Fas-mediated apoptosis in clinical remissions of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Suvannavejh, Graig C.; Dal Canto, Mauro C.; Matis, Louis A.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2000-01-01

    PLP139-51–induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) displays a relapsing-remitting paralytic course in female SJL mice. We investigated the role of apoptosis/activation-induced cell death (AICD) in the spontaneous recovery from acute disease. Clinical EAE was significantly enhanced in Fas (CD95/APO-1)–deficient SJL lpr/lpr mice, which displayed significantly increased mean peak clinical scores, reduced remission rates, and increased mortality when compared with their SJL +/lpr littermates. PLP139-151–specific proliferative responses were fairly equivalent in the 2 groups, but draining lymph node T cells from SJL lpr/lpr mice produced dramatically increased levels of IFN-γ. Central nervous system (CNS) Fas and FasL mRNA levels in wild-type SJL (H-2s) mice peaked just before spontaneous disease remission and gradually declined as disease remitted. We applied the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay to detect apoptosis in situ in spinal cords of mice at various clinical stages of EAE. Most TUNEL+ cells were found during active periods of inflammation: the acute, peak, and relapse time points. Significantly fewer apoptotic cells were observed at preclinical and remission time points. Collectively, these findings indicate that Fas-mediated apoptosis/AICD plays a major role in the spontaneous remission after the initial acute inflammatory episode and represents an important intrinsic mechanism in regulation of autoimmune responses. PMID:10642601

  15. Mineralocorticoid receptor mediated liposomal delivery system for targeted induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Narayan, Kumar Pranav

    2016-02-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are ubiquitously present in all cell types and are known to mediate distinct physiological functions like regulating Na(+) and K(+) balance and water excretion. MRs are linked to cell proliferation and can be exploited for the targeted control of cell mass in cancer. The present study is aimed towards extending the concept of using MR ligand spironolactone for selective delivery of genes in cancer cells. The lipoplex (SP) has shown MR mediated targeted transfections as indicated by receptor down-regulation studies using MR antagonists and siRNA. SP-targeted delivery of genes resulted in apoptosis in cell-specific manner while free drug was found to be cytotoxic irrespective of the cancerous or non-cancerous nature. In conclusion, this study presents MR as a target for efficiently delivering anticancer genes and thereby treating cancer through MR-mediated pathway. PMID:26620075

  16. Ribavirin and alpha interferon enhance death receptor-mediated apoptosis and caspase activation in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Stephan F; Schuler, Markus; Berg, Christoph P; Lauber, Kirsten; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Schmahl, Friedrich Wilhelm; Wesselborg, Sebastian

    2003-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical effects of alpha interferon (IFN) and ribavirin are not understood. Elimination of infected cells occurs in part by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) expressing CD95 ligand and thereby attacking target cells which are positive for the death receptor CD95. Since many viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis, the opposite, namely, promotion of apoptosis, could be a strategy to strengthen the host antiviral response. In the present study, we have asked whether the antiviral substances IFN and ribavirin could support CD95-mediated apoptosis by interfering with the activation of caspases, a family of proteases known for their essential role in apoptosis. HepG2 cells, stimulated with the agonistic anti-CD95 antibody, served as a minimal model to mimic the CD95 stimulation occurring during a CTL attack of target cells in vivo. Apoptosis was quantitated by flow cytometric detection of hypodiploid nuclei. Caspase activity was measured by cytofluorometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunoblot analysis. IFN and ribavirin sensitized HepG2 cells for CD95-mediated apoptosis. This effect was correlated with an increase in CD95-mediated caspase activation and enhanced cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, the positive effect on CD95-mediated caspase activation by IFN and ribavirin was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for activated caspase-3 and by immunoblot detection of activated caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-8. Our data demonstrate that the antiviral substances IFN and ribavirin are able to sensitize for CD95-mediated apoptosis. IFN and ribavirin also enhance CD95-mediated caspase activation, which might in part be responsible for the apoptosis-promoting effect of these antiviral compounds. PMID:12760867

  17. Probiotic-derived ferrichrome inhibits colon cancer progression via JNK-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Hiroaki; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Sasajima, Junpei; Ikuta, Katsuya; Akutsu, Hiroaki; Tanabe, Hiroki; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that some probiotics inhibit tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the molecules involved have not yet been identified. Here, we show that the culture supernatant of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 has a strong tumour-suppressive effect on colon cancer cells. Using mass spectrometry, we identify ferrichrome as a tumour-suppressive molecule produced by L. casei ATCC334. The tumour-suppressive effect of ferrichrome is greater than that of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and ferrichrome has less of an effect on non-cancerous intestinal cells than either of those agents. A transcriptome analysis reveals that ferrichrome treatment induces apoptosis, which is mediated by the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Western blotting indicates that the induction of apoptosis by ferrichrome is reduced by the inhibition of the JNK signalling pathway. This we demonstrate that probiotic-derived ferrichrome exerts a tumour-suppressive effect via the JNK signalling pathway. PMID:27507542

  18. Probiotic-derived ferrichrome inhibits colon cancer progression via JNK-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Hiroaki; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Sasajima, Junpei; Ikuta, Katsuya; Akutsu, Hiroaki; Tanabe, Hiroki; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that some probiotics inhibit tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the molecules involved have not yet been identified. Here, we show that the culture supernatant of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 has a strong tumour-suppressive effect on colon cancer cells. Using mass spectrometry, we identify ferrichrome as a tumour-suppressive molecule produced by L. casei ATCC334. The tumour-suppressive effect of ferrichrome is greater than that of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and ferrichrome has less of an effect on non-cancerous intestinal cells than either of those agents. A transcriptome analysis reveals that ferrichrome treatment induces apoptosis, which is mediated by the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Western blotting indicates that the induction of apoptosis by ferrichrome is reduced by the inhibition of the JNK signalling pathway. This we demonstrate that probiotic-derived ferrichrome exerts a tumour-suppressive effect via the JNK signalling pathway. PMID:27507542

  19. Calretinin mediates apoptosis in small cell lung cancer cells expressing tetraspanin CD9☆

    PubMed Central

    He, Ping; Kuhara, Hanako; Tachibana, Isao; Jin, Yingji; Takeda, Yoshito; Tetsumoto, Satoshi; Minami, Toshiyuki; Kohmo, Satoshi; Hirata, Haruhiko; Takahashi, Ryo; Inoue, Koji; Nagatomo, Izumi; Kida, Hiroshi; Kijima, Takashi; Naka, Tetsuji; Morii, Eiichi; Kawase, Ichiro; Kumanogoh, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    A majority of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells lack a metastasis suppressor, tetraspanin CD9, and CD9 expression promotes their apoptosis. By a proteomics-based approach, we compared an SCLC cell line with its CD9 transfectant and found that a calcium-binding neuronal protein, calretinin, is upregulated in CD9-positive SCLC cells. Ectopic or anticancer drug-induced CD9 expression upregulated calretinin, whereas CD9 knockdown down-regulated calretinin in SCLC cells. When calretinin was knocked down, CD9-positive SCLC cells revealed increased Akt phosphorylation and decreased apoptosis. These results suggest that CD9 positively regulates the expression of calretinin that mediates proapoptotic effect in SCLC cells. PMID:23772398

  20. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates resistance to apoptosis induced in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bekki, Kanae; Vogel, Helena; Li, Wen; Ito, Tomohiro; Sweeney, Colleen; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Matsumura, Fumio; Vogel, Christoph F A

    2015-05-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well known as a ligand binding transcription factor regulating various biological effects. Previously we have shown that long-term exposure to estrogen in breast cancer cells caused not only down regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) but also overexpression of AhR. The AhR interacts with several cell signaling pathways associated with induction of tyrosine kinases, cytokines and growth factors which may support the survival roles of AhR escaping from apoptosis elicited by a variety of apoptosis inducing agents in breast cancer. In this study, we studied the anti-apoptotic role of AhR in different breast cancer cells when apoptosis was induced by exposure to UV light and chemotherapeutic agents. Activation of AhR by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in AhR overexpressing breast cancer cells effectively suppressed the apoptotic response induced by UV-irradiation, doxorubicin, lapatinib and paclitaxel. The anti-apoptotic response of TCDD was uniformly antagonized by the treatment with 3'methoxy-4'nitroflavone (MNF), a specific antagonist of AhR. TCDD's survival action of apoptosis was accompanied with the induction of well-known inflammatory genes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and NF-κB subunit RelB. Moreover, TCDD increased the activity of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), which metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine (Kyn) and mediates tumor immunity. Kyn also acts as an AhR ligand like TCDD, and kyn induced an anti-apoptotic response in breast cancer cells. Accordingly, our present study suggests that AhR plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer via the suppression of apoptosis, and provides an idea that the use of AhR antagonists with chemotherapeutic agents may effectively synergize the elimination of breast cancer cells. PMID:25987214

  1. Gambogic acid induces apoptosis and sensitizes TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through downregulation of cFLIPL in renal carcinoma Caki cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji Hoon; Kim, Joo-Young; Sung, Eon-Gi; Kim, Eun-Ae; Lee, Tae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA) is a natural compound derived from brownish gamboge resin that shows a range of bioactivity, such as antitumor and antimicrobial properties. Although, GA is already known to induce cell death in a variety of cancer cells, the molecular basis for GA-induced cell death in renal cancer cells is unclear. In this study, a treatment with GA induced cell death in human renal carcinoma Caki cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of Caki cells with GA decreased the levels of antiapoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2 and XIAP in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GA decreased the expression of the cFLIPL protein, which was downregulated at the transcriptional level without any change in the levels of cFLIPs expression. z-VAD (pan-caspase inhibitor) partially blocked GA-mediated cell death. GA-induced apoptotic cell death in Caki cells is mediated partly by the AIF translocation from the mitochondria into the nucleus via a caspase-independent pathway. In contrast, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, had no effect on GA-induced cell death. The restoration of cFLIPL attenuated GA-induced cell death in Caki cells. Furthermore, a sub-toxic dose of GA sensitized TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in Caki cells. Pretreatment with z-VAD completely blocked GA plus TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. On the contrary, pretreatment with NAC partially inhibited GA plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggested that GA induces apoptosis via the downregulation of cFLIPL and sensitized TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in Caki cells. PMID:26648023

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates withaferin A-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Jung; Park, Eun Jung; Min, Kyoung Jin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2011-04-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in cellular stress that initiates a specialized response designated as the unfolded protein response. ER stress has been implicated in a variety of common diseases, such as diabetes, ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Withaferin A, a major chemical constituent of Withania somnifera, has been reported to inhibit tumor cell growth. We show that withaferin A induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in several types of human cancer cells, as measured by FACS analysis and PARP cleavage. Treatment of Caki cells with withaferin A induced a number of signature ER stress markers, including phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF-2 α), ER stress-specific XBP1 splicing, and up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78. In addition, withaferin A caused up-regulation of CAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), suggesting the induction of ER stress. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited withaferin A-mediated ER stress proteins and cell death, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate withaferin A-induced ER stress. Furthermore, CHOP siRNA or inhibition of caspase-4 activity attenuated withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study provides strong evidence supporting an important role of the ER stress response in mediating withaferin A-induced apoptosis. PMID:21266191

  3. Hantavirus-infection Confers Resistance to Cytotoxic Lymphocyte-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shawon; Braun, Monika; Tischler, Nicole D.; Stoltz, Malin; Sundström, Karin B.; Björkström, Niklas K.; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Klingström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome (HCPS; also called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)), both human diseases with high case-fatality rates. Endothelial cells are the main targets for hantaviruses. An intriguing observation in patients with HFRS and HCPS is that on one hand the virus infection leads to strong activation of CD8 T cells and NK cells, on the other hand no obvious destruction of infected endothelial cells is observed. Here, we provide an explanation for this dichotomy by showing that hantavirus-infected endothelial cells are protected from cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated induction of apoptosis. When dissecting potential mechanisms behind this phenomenon, we discovered that the hantavirus nucleocapsid protein inhibits the enzymatic activity of both granzyme B and caspase 3. This provides a tentative explanation for the hantavirus-mediated block of cytotoxic granule-mediated apoptosis-induction, and hence the protection of infected cells from cytotoxic lymphocytes. These findings may explain why infected endothelial cells in hantavirus-infected patients are not destroyed by the strong cytotoxic lymphocyte response. PMID:23555267

  4. Induction of p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis by exportin-1 (XPO1) inhibition in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mariko; Ishizawa, Jo; Ruvolo, Vivian; Dilip, Archana; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; McDonnell, Timothy J; Neelapu, Sattva S; Kwak, Larry W; Shacham, Sharon; Kauffman, Michael; Tabe, Yoko; Yokoo, Masako; Kimura, Shinya; Andreeff, Michael; Kojima, Kensuke

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear transporter exportin-1 (XPO1) is highly expressed in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells, and is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of this disease. XPO1-selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in MCL cells. Given that p53 is a cargo protein of XPO1, we sought to determine the significance of p53 activation through XPO1 inhibition in SINE-induced apoptosis of MCL cells. We investigated the prognostic impact of XPO1 expression in MCL cells using Oncomine analysis. The significance of p53 mutational/functional status on sensitivity to XPO1 inhibition in cell models and primary MCL samples, and the functional role of p53-mediated apoptosis signaling, were also examined. Increased XPO1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in MCL patients. The XPO1 inhibitor KPT-185 induced apoptosis in MCL cells through p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and p53 status was a critical determinant of its apoptosis induction. The KPT-185-induced, p53-mediated apoptosis in the MCL cells occurred in a transcription-dependent manner. Exportin-1 appears to influence patient survival in MCL, and the SINE XPO1 antagonist KPT-185 effectively activates p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis, which would provide a novel strategy for the therapy of MCL. PMID:24766216

  5. Nitric oxide-mediated neuronal apoptosis in rats with recurrent febrile seizures through endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Qin, Jiong; Liu, Xiaoyan; Han, Ying; Yang, Zhixian; Chang, Xingzhi; Ji, Xinna

    2008-10-10

    Nitric oxide (NO), as a neurotransmitter, exerts various physiological and pathological effects on the brain. Excess NO is toxic to neurons and may cause neuronal apoptosis. However, the cascade of NO-mediated apoptosis is not fully understood. We utilized a recurrent febrile seizures (FS) rat model and found that plasma NO was increased, neuronal apoptosis was evident, the expression of glucose-regulated protein78 (GRP78, a well-established marker of ER stress) was elevated, and caspase-12 (an ER stress-specific proapoptosis molecule) was activated in the hippocampus in a time-dependent manner after recurrent FS. Administration of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) enhanced neuronal apoptosis, down-regulated the expression of GRP78, and increased that of caspase-12 in FS+SNP groups compared with FS groups. In contrast, treatment with N(G)-nitrol-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, a competitive NO synthase inhibitor) inhibited neuronal apoptosis, up-regulated the expression of GRP78, and decreased that of caspase-12 in FS+l-NAME groups compared with FS groups. These results suggest that NO mediates neuronal apoptosis caused by recurrent FS, and that the ER stress pathway is involved in NO-mediated neuronal apoptosis. PMID:18675883

  6. p53 Mediates Colistin-Induced Autophagy and Apoptosis in PC-12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Xie, Daoyuan; Chen, Xueping; Hughes, Maria L R; Jiang, Guozheng; Lu, Ziyin; Xia, Chunli; Li, Li; Wang, Jinli; Xu, Wei; Sun, Yuan; Li, Rui; Wang, Rui; Qian, Feng; Li, Jian; Li, Jichang

    2016-09-01

    -induced autophagy and apoptosis are associated with the p53-mediated pathway. PMID:27324771

  7. Caspase-mediated apoptosis in neuronal excitotoxicity triggered by nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Leist, M.; Volbracht, C.; Kühnle, S.; Fava, E.; Ferrando-May, E.; Nicotera, P.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excitotoxicity and excess generation of nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be fundamental mechanisms in many acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Disturbance of Ca2+ homeostasis and protein nitration/nitrosylation are key features in such conditions. Recently, a family of proteases collectively known as caspases has been implicated as common executor of a variety of death signals. In addition, overactivation of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has been observed in neuronal excitotoxicity. We therefore designed this study to investigate whether triggering of caspase activity and/or activation of PARP played a role in cerebellar granule cell (CGC) apoptosis elicited by peroxynitrite (ONOO-) or NO donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CGC from wild-type or PARP -/- mice were exposed to various nitric oxide donors. Caspase activation and its implications for membrane alterations, Ca2+ homeostasis, intracellular proteolysis, chromatin degradation, and cell death were investigated. RESULTS: CGC exposed to NO donors undergo apoptosis, which is mediated by excess synaptic release of excitotoxic mediators. This excitotoxic mechanism differs from direct NO toxicity in some other neuronal populations and does not involve PARP activation. Inhibition of caspases with different peptide substrates prevented cell death and the related features, including intracellular proteolysis, chromatin breakdown, and translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer surface of the cell membrane. Increased Ca2+ influx following N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDA-R) activation was not inhibited by caspase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: In CGC, NO donors elicit apoptosis by a mechanism involving excitotoxic mediators, Ca2+ overload, and subsequent activation of caspases. Images Fig. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:9407551

  8. Regulation of Noxa-mediated apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori–infected gastric epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Suvasmita; Das, Lopamudra; Kokate, Shrikant Babanrao; Pratheek, B. M.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Goswami, Chandan; Chattopadhyay, Ranajoy; Crowe, Sheila Eileen; Bhattacharyya, Asima

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori induces the antiapoptotic protein myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl1) in human gastric epithelial cells (GECs). Apoptosis of oncogenic protein Mcl1-expressing cells is mainly regulated by Noxa-mediated degradation of Mcl1. We wanted to elucidate the status of Noxa in H. pylori–infected GECs. For this, various GECs such as AGS, MKN45, and KATO III were either infected with H. pylori or left uninfected. The effect of infection was examined by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, in vitro binding assay, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Infected GECs, surgical samples collected from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma as well as biopsy samples from patients infected with H. pylori showed significant up-regulation of both Mcl1 and Noxa compared with noninfected samples. Coexistence of Mcl1 and Noxa was indicative of an impaired Mcl-Noxa interaction. We proved that Noxa was phosphorylated at Ser13 residue by JNK in infected GECs, which caused cytoplasmic retention of Noxa. JNK inhibition enhanced Mcl1-Noxa interaction in the mitochondrial fraction of infected cells, whereas overexpression of nonphosphorylatable Noxa resulted in enhanced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in the infected epithelium. Because phosphorylation-dephosphorylation can regulate the apoptotic function of Noxa, this could be a potential target molecule for future treatment approaches for H. pylori–induced gastric cancer.—Rath, S., Das, L., Kokate, S. B., Pratheek, B. M., Chattopadhyay, S., Goswami, C., Chattopadhyay, R., Crowe, S. E., Bhattacharyya, A. Regulation of Noxa-mediated apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori–infected gastric epithelial cells. PMID:25404713

  9. Bax translocation mediated mitochondrial apoptosis and caspase dependent photosensitizing effect of Ficus religiosa on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Haneef, Jazir; Parvathy, Muraleedharan; M, Parvathy; Thankayyan R, Santhosh Kumar; Sithul, Hima; Sreeharshan, Sreeja

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the present work was to investigate the potential effect of acetone extract of Ficus religosa leaf (FAE) in multiple apoptosis signalling in human breast cancer cells. FAE treatment significantly induced dose and time dependent, irreversible inhibition of breast cancer cell growth with moderate toxicity to normal breast epithelial cells. This observation was validated using Sulforhodamine B assay. Cell cycle analysis by Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and induction of sub-G0 peak. FAE induced chromatin condensation and displayed an increase in apoptotic population in Annexin V-FITC/PI (Fluorescein isothiocyanate/Propidium iodide) double staining. FAE stimulated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in multiple breast cancer cell lines when compared to normal diploid cells. To understand the role of Bax in FAE induced apoptosis, we employed a sensitive cell based platform of MCF-7 cells expressing Bax-EGFP. Bax translocation to mitochondria was accompanied by the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and marked elevation in LEHDase activity (Caspase 9). Consistent with this data, FAE induced Caspase activation as evidenced by ratio change in FRET Caspase sensor expressing MCF-7 cell line and cleavage of prominent Caspases and PARP. Interestingly, FAE accelerated cell death in a mitochondrial dependent manner in continuous live cell imaging mode indicating its possible photosensitizing effect. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by FAE played a critical role in mediating apoptotic cell death and photosensitizing activity. FAE induced dose and time dependent inhibition of cancer cell growth which was associated with Bax translocation and mitochondria mediated apoptosis with the activation of Caspase 9 dependent Caspase cascade. FAE also possessed strong photosensitizing effect on cancer cell line that was mediated through rapid mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss and partial Caspase

  10. Bax Translocation Mediated Mitochondrial Apoptosis and Caspase Dependent Photosensitizing Effect of Ficus religiosa on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thankayyan R, Santhosh Kumar; Sithul, Hima; Sreeharshan, Sreeja

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the present work was to investigate the potential effect of acetone extract of Ficus religosa leaf (FAE) in multiple apoptosis signalling in human breast cancer cells. FAE treatment significantly induced dose and time dependent, irreversible inhibition of breast cancer cell growth with moderate toxicity to normal breast epithelial cells. This observation was validated using Sulforhodamine B assay. Cell cycle analysis by Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and induction of sub-G0 peak. FAE induced chromatin condensation and displayed an increase in apoptotic population in Annexin V-FITC/PI (Fluorescein isothiocyanate/Propidium iodide) double staining. FAE stimulated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in multiple breast cancer cell lines when compared to normal diploid cells. To understand the role of Bax in FAE induced apoptosis, we employed a sensitive cell based platform of MCF-7 cells expressing Bax-EGFP. Bax translocation to mitochondria was accompanied by the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and marked elevation in LEHDase activity (Caspase 9). Consistent with this data, FAE induced Caspase activation as evidenced by ratio change in FRET Caspase sensor expressing MCF-7 cell line and cleavage of prominent Caspases and PARP. Interestingly, FAE accelerated cell death in a mitochondrial dependent manner in continuous live cell imaging mode indicating its possible photosensitizing effect. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by FAE played a critical role in mediating apoptotic cell death and photosensitizing activity. FAE induced dose and time dependent inhibition of cancer cell growth which was associated with Bax translocation and mitochondria mediated apoptosis with the activation of Caspase 9 dependent Caspase cascade. FAE also possessed strong photosensitizing effect on cancer cell line that was mediated through rapid mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss and partial Caspase

  11. Structural proteins of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus antagonize p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, P; Konrad, A; Jochmann, R; Lausen, B; Holz, P; Naschberger, E; Neipel, F; Britzen-Laurent, N; Stürzl, M

    2015-01-29

    The tumor suppressor p53 is a central regulatory molecule of apoptosis and is commonly mutated in tumors. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-related malignancies express wild-type p53. Accordingly, KSHV encodes proteins that counteract the cell death-inducing effects of p53. Here, the effects of all KSHV genes on the p53 signaling pathway were systematically analyzed using the reversely transfected cell microarray technology. With this approach we detected eight KSHV-encoded genes with potent p53 inhibiting activity in addition to the previously described inhibitory effects of KSHV genes ORF50, K10 and K10.5. Interestingly, the three most potent newly identified inhibitors were KSHV structural proteins, namely ORF22 (glycoprotein H), ORF25 (major capsid protein) and ORF64 (tegument protein). Validation of these results with a classical transfection approach showed that these proteins inhibited p53 signaling in a dose-dependent manner and that this effect could be reversed by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the respective viral gene. All three genes inhibited p53-mediated apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3 treatment in non-infected and KSHV-infected cells. Addressing putative mechanisms, we could show that these proteins could also inhibit the transactivation of the promoters of apoptotic mediators of p53 such as BAX and PIG3. Altogether, we demonstrate for the first time that structural proteins of KSHV can counteract p53-induced apoptosis. These proteins are expressed in the late lytic phase of the viral life cycle and are incorporated into the KSHV virion. Accordingly, these genes may inhibit cell death in the productive and in the early entrance phase of KSHV infection. PMID:24469037

  12. RNase L Cleavage Products Promote Switch from Autophagy to Apoptosis by Caspase-Mediated Cleavage of Beclin-1

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Mukherjee, Sushovita; Manivannan, Praveen; Malathi, Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis share regulatory molecules enabling crosstalk in pathways that affect cellular homeostasis including response to viral infections and survival of tumor cells. Ribonuclease L (RNase L) is an antiviral endonuclease that is activated in virus-infected cells and cleaves viral and cellular single-stranded RNAs to produce small double-stranded RNAs with roles in amplifying host responses. Activation of RNase L induces autophagy and apoptosis in many cell types. However, the mechanism by which RNase L mediates crosstalk between these two pathways remains unclear. Here we show that small dsRNAs produced by RNase L promote a switch from autophagy to apoptosis by caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin-1, terminating autophagy. The caspase 3-cleaved C-terminal fragment of Beclin-1 enhances apoptosis by translocating to the mitochondria along with proapoptotic protein, Bax, and inducing release of cytochrome C to the cytosol. Cleavage of Beclin-1 determines switch to apoptosis since expression of caspase-resistant Beclin-1 inhibits apoptosis and sustains autophagy. Moreover, inhibiting RNase L-induced autophagy promotes cell death and inhibiting apoptosis prolongs autophagy in a cross-inhibitory mechanism. Our results demonstrate a novel role of RNase L generated small RNAs in cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis that impacts the fate of cells during viral infections and cancer. PMID:26263979

  13. RNase L Cleavage Products Promote Switch from Autophagy to Apoptosis by Caspase-Mediated Cleavage of Beclin-1.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Mukherjee, Sushovita; Manivannan, Praveen; Malathi, Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis share regulatory molecules enabling crosstalk in pathways that affect cellular homeostasis including response to viral infections and survival of tumor cells. Ribonuclease L (RNase L) is an antiviral endonuclease that is activated in virus-infected cells and cleaves viral and cellular single-stranded RNAs to produce small double-stranded RNAs with roles in amplifying host responses. Activation of RNase L induces autophagy and apoptosis in many cell types. However, the mechanism by which RNase L mediates crosstalk between these two pathways remains unclear. Here we show that small dsRNAs produced by RNase L promote a switch from autophagy to apoptosis by caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin-1, terminating autophagy. The caspase 3-cleaved C-terminal fragment of Beclin-1 enhances apoptosis by translocating to the mitochondria along with proapoptotic protein, Bax, and inducing release of cytochrome C to the cytosol. Cleavage of Beclin-1 determines switch to apoptosis since expression of caspase-resistant Beclin-1 inhibits apoptosis and sustains autophagy. Moreover, inhibiting RNase L-induced autophagy promotes cell death and inhibiting apoptosis prolongs autophagy in a cross-inhibitory mechanism. Our results demonstrate a novel role of RNase L generated small RNAs in cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis that impacts the fate of cells during viral infections and cancer. PMID:26263979

  14. Feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein mediates apoptosis in activated PBMC by a mechanism dependent on gp41 function

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Himanshu; Joshi, Anjali; Tompkins, Wayne A. . E-mail: Wayne_Tompkins@ncsu.edu

    2004-12-20

    Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes immunodeficiency in cats, which parallels HIV-1-induced immunodeficiency in humans. It has been established that HIV envelope (Env) glycoprotein mediates T cell loss via a mechanism that requires CXCR4 binding. The Env glycoprotein of FIV, similar to HIV, requires CXCR4 binding for viral entry, as well as inducing membrane fusion leading to syncytia formation. However, the role of FIV Env in T cell loss and the molecular mechanisms governing this process have not been elucidated. We studied the role of Env glycoprotein in FIV-mediated T cell apoptosis in an in vitro model. Our studies demonstrate that membrane-expressed FIV Env induces apoptosis in activated feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by a mechanism that requires CXCR4 binding, as the process was inhibited by CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, studies regarding the role of CD134, the recently identified primary receptor of FIV, suggest that binding to CD134 may not be important for induction of apoptosis in PBMC. However, inhibiting Env-mediated fusion post CXCR4 binding by FIV gp41-specific fusion inhibitor also inhibited apoptosis. Under similar conditions, a fusion-defective gp41 mutant was unable to induce apoptosis in activated PBMC. Our findings are the first report suggesting the potential of FIV Env to mediate apoptosis in bystander cells by a process that is dependent on gp41 function.

  15. Inhibition of Bak Activation by VDAC2 Is Dependent on the Bak Transmembrane Anchor*

    PubMed Central

    Lazarou, Michael; Stojanovski, Diana; Frazier, Ann E.; Kotevski, Aneta; Dewson, Grant; Craigen, William J.; Kluck, Ruth M.; Vaux, David L.; Ryan, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Bax and Bak are pro-apoptotic factors that are required for cell death by the mitochondrial or intrinsic pathway. Bax is found in an inactive state in the cytosol and upon activation is targeted to the mitochondrial outer membrane where it releases cytochrome c and other factors that cause caspase activation. Although Bak functions in the same way as Bax, it is constitutively localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane. In the membrane, Bak activation is inhibited by the voltage-dependent anion channel isoform 2 (VDAC2) by an unknown mechanism. Using blue native gel electrophoresis, we show that in healthy cells endogenous inactive Bak exists in a 400-kDa complex that is dependent on the presence of VDAC2. Activation of Bak is concomitant with its release from the 400-kDa complex and the formation of lower molecular weight species. Furthermore, substitution of the Bak transmembrane anchor with that of the mitochondrial outer membrane tail-anchored protein hFis1 prevents association of Bak with the VDAC2 complex and increases the sensitivity of cells to an apoptotic stimulus. Our results suggest that VDAC2 interacts with the hydrophobic tail of Bak to sequester it in an inactive state in the mitochondrial outer membrane, thereby raising the stimulation threshold necessary for permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane and cell death. PMID:20851889

  16. Inhibition of Bak activation by VDAC2 is dependent on the Bak transmembrane anchor.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Michael; Stojanovski, Diana; Frazier, Ann E; Kotevski, Aneta; Dewson, Grant; Craigen, William J; Kluck, Ruth M; Vaux, David L; Ryan, Michael T

    2010-11-19

    Bax and Bak are pro-apoptotic factors that are required for cell death by the mitochondrial or intrinsic pathway. Bax is found in an inactive state in the cytosol and upon activation is targeted to the mitochondrial outer membrane where it releases cytochrome c and other factors that cause caspase activation. Although Bak functions in the same way as Bax, it is constitutively localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane. In the membrane, Bak activation is inhibited by the voltage-dependent anion channel isoform 2 (VDAC2) by an unknown mechanism. Using blue native gel electrophoresis, we show that in healthy cells endogenous inactive Bak exists in a 400-kDa complex that is dependent on the presence of VDAC2. Activation of Bak is concomitant with its release from the 400-kDa complex and the formation of lower molecular weight species. Furthermore, substitution of the Bak transmembrane anchor with that of the mitochondrial outer membrane tail-anchored protein hFis1 prevents association of Bak with the VDAC2 complex and increases the sensitivity of cells to an apoptotic stimulus. Our results suggest that VDAC2 interacts with the hydrophobic tail of Bak to sequester it in an inactive state in the mitochondrial outer membrane, thereby raising the stimulation threshold necessary for permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane and cell death. PMID:20851889

  17. Hepatoprotective properties of sesamin against CCl4 induced oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in mice via JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie-Qiong; Ding, Jie; Zhang, Li; Liu, Chan-Min

    2014-02-01

    Sesamin (Ses), one of the major lignan derived from sesame seeds, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced injury in liver have not been clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of sesamin on oxidative stress and apoptosis in mice exposed to CCl4. Our data showed that sesamin significantly prevented CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, indicated by both diagnostic indicators of liver damage (serum aminotransferase activities) and histopathological analysis. Moreover, CCl4-induced profound elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress, as evidenced by increasing of lipid peroxidation level and depleting of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in liver, were suppressed by treatment with sesamin. Furthermore, TUNEL assay showed that CCl4-induced apoptosis in mouse liver was significantly inhibited by sesamin. In exploring the underlying mechanisms of sesamin action, we found that activities of caspase-3 were markedly inhibited by the treatment of sesamin in the liver of CCl4 treated mice. Sesamin increased expression levels of phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) in liver, which in turn inactivated pro-apoptotic signaling events restoring the balance between mitochondrial pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and decreasing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in liver of CCl4 treated mice. JNK was also involved in the mitochondrial extrinsic apoptotic pathways of sesamin effects against CCl4 induced liver injury by regulating the expression levels of phosphorylated c-Jun proteins, necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Bak. In conclusion, these results suggested that the inhibition of CCl4-induced apoptosis by sesamin is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the JNK signaling pathway. PMID:24287204

  18. HCV-Mediated Apoptosis of Hepatocytes in Culture and Viral Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Erica; Ulitzky, Laura; Lima, Livia Alves; Cehan, Nicoleta; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Roingeard, Philippe; Taylor, Deborah R.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is associated with progressive liver injury and subsequent development of fibrosis and cirrhosis. The death of hepatocytes results in the release of cytokines that induce inflammatory and fibrotic responses. The mechanism of liver damage is still under investigation but both apoptosis and immune-mediated processes may play roles. By observing the changes in gene expression patterns in HCV-infected cells, both markers and the causes of HCV-associated liver injury may be elucidated. HCV genotype 1b virus from persistently infected VeroE6 cells induced a strong cytopathic effect when used to infect Huh7.5 hepatoma cells. To determine if this cytopathic effect was a result of apoptosis, ultrastructural changes were observed by electron microscopy and markers of programmed cell death were surveyed. Screening of a human PCR array demonstrated a gene expression profile that contained upregulated markers of apoptosis, including tumor necrosis factor, caspases and caspase activators, Fas, Bcl2-interacting killer (BIK) and tumor suppressor protein, p53, as a result of HCV genotype 1b infection. The genes identified in this study should provide new insights into understanding viral pathogenesis in liver cells and may possibly help to identify novel antiviral and antifibrotic targets. PMID:27280444

  19. A mitochondria-dependent pathway mediates the apoptosis of GSE-induced yeast.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sishuo; Xu, Wentao; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yan; Luo, YunBo; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun

    2012-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), which has powerful anti-fungal activity, can induce apoptosis in S. cerevisiae. The yeast cells underwent apoptosis as determined by testing for apoptotic markers of DNA cleavage and typical chromatin condensation by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) and 4,6'-diaminidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and electron microscopy. The changes of ΔΨmt (mitochondrial transmembrane potential) and ROS (reactive oxygen species) indicated that the mitochondria took part in the apoptotic process. Changes in this process detected by metabonomics and proteomics revealed that the yeast cells tenaciously resisted adversity. Proteins related to redox, cellular structure, membrane, energy and DNA repair were significantly increased. In this study, the relative changes in the levels of proteins and metabolites showed the tenacious resistance of yeast cells. However, GSE induced apoptosis in the yeast cells by destruction of the mitochondrial 60 S ribosomal protein, L14-A, and prevented the conversion of pantothenic acid to coenzyme A (CoA). The relationship between the proteins and metabolites was analyzed by orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS). We found that the changes of the metabolites and the protein changes had relevant consistency. PMID:22403727

  20. Curcumin induces apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in HT-29 cells*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-bo; Qi, Li-li; Zheng, Shui-di; Wu, Tian-xing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of curcumin on release of cytochrome c and expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, Bad, Bcl-xL, caspase-3, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), and survivin of HT-29 cells. Methods: HT-29 cells were treated with curcumin (0~80 μmol/L) for 24 h. The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and the apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bad, caspase-3, PARP, and survivin were determined by Western blot analysis and their mRNA expressions by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Curcumin significantly induced the growth inhibition and apoptosis of HT-29 cells. A decrease in expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin was observed after exposure to 10~80 μmol/L curcumin, while the levels of Bax and Bad increased in the curcumin-treated cells. Curcumin also induced the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-3, and the cleavage of PARP in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These data suggest that curcumin induced the HT-29 cell apoptosis possibly via the mitochondria-mediated pathway. PMID:19235267

  1. A Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway Mediates the Apoptosis of GSE-Induced Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Sishuo; Xu, Wentao; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yan; Luo, YunBo; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun

    2012-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), which has powerful anti-fungal activity, can induce apoptosis in S. cerevisiae. The yeast cells underwent apoptosis as determined by testing for apoptotic markers of DNA cleavage and typical chromatin condensation by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase–mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) and 4,6′-diaminidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and electron microscopy. The changes of ΔΨmt (mitochondrial transmembrane potential) and ROS (reactive oxygen species) indicated that the mitochondria took part in the apoptotic process. Changes in this process detected by metabonomics and proteomics revealed that the yeast cells tenaciously resisted adversity. Proteins related to redox, cellular structure, membrane, energy and DNA repair were significantly increased. In this study, the relative changes in the levels of proteins and metabolites showed the tenacious resistance of yeast cells. However, GSE induced apoptosis in the yeast cells by destruction of the mitochondrial 60 S ribosomal protein, L14-A, and prevented the conversion of pantothenic acid to coenzyme A (CoA). The relationship between the proteins and metabolites was analyzed by orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS). We found that the changes of the metabolites and the protein changes had relevant consistency. PMID:22403727

  2. Anacardic acid induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seong, Yeong-Ae; Shin, Pyung-Gyun; Kim, Gun-Do

    2013-03-01

    Anacardic acid (AA) is a constituent of the cashew nut shell and is known as an inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). We investigated the cytotoxicity of AA on cancer cells and more experiments to reveal the cell death mechanism focused on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells for our interest in lung cancer. To examine the molecular mechanism of cell death in AA treated A549 cells, we performed experiments such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), western blot analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), genomic DNA extraction and staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). For the first time we revealed that AA induces caspase-independent apoptosis with no inhibition of cytotoxicity by pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, in A549 cells. Our results showed the possibility of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis through the activation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and an intrinsic pathway executioner such as cytochrome c. This study will be helpful in revealing the cell death mechanisms and in developing potential drugs for lung cancer using AA. PMID:23314312

  3. Downregulation of LRPPRC induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells through the mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junying; Zhang, Fuhua; Hou, Xiaoli; Zhang, Nan

    2014-11-01

    Leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat motif-containing protein (LRPPRC) is a multifunctional protein involved in the mitochondrial gene expression and function, cell cycle progression, and tumorigenesis. However, the functional role of LRPPRC in prostate cancer (PCa) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, two PCa cell lines were examined to determine the effects of LRPPRC on cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis in vitro. Our results showed that the expression levels of LRPPRC were significantly decreased in the two PCa cell lines after transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA)-LRPPRC. Knockdown of LRPPRC by siRNA significantly inhibited the invasion and promoted the apoptosis of PCa cells. In addition, downregulation of LRPPRC expression resulted in the reduced expression of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax, and cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. Taken together, these results show that the downregulation of LRPRPC expression induces apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway in PCa cells. These experimental data seem to suggest that LRPPRC plays a critical role in the development of PCa, and its inhibition could present a potential molecular approach for the treatment of PCa. PMID:25379610

  4. Macrophage Akt1 Kinase-Mediated Mitophagy Modulates Apoptosis Resistance and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Larson-Casey, Jennifer L; Deshane, Jessy S; Ryan, Alan J; Thannickal, Victor J; Carter, A Brent

    2016-03-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disorder with increasing incidence. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages is directly linked to pulmonary fibrosis. Mitophagy, the selective engulfment of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagasomes, is important for cellular homeostasis and can be induced by mitochondrial oxidative stress. Here, we show Akt1 induced macrophage mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitophagy. Mice harboring a conditional deletion of Akt1 in macrophages (Akt1(-/-)Lyz2-cre) and Park2(-/-) mice had impaired mitophagy and reduced active transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Although Akt1 increased TGF-β1 expression, mitophagy inhibition in Akt1-overexpressing macrophages abrogated TGF-β1 expression and fibroblast differentiation. Importantly, conditional Akt1(-/-)Lyz2-cre mice and Park2(-/-) mice had increased macrophage apoptosis and were protected from pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, IPF alveolar macrophages had evidence of increased mitophagy and displayed apoptosis resistance. These observations suggest that Akt1-mediated mitophagy contributes to alveolar macrophage apoptosis resistance and is required for pulmonary fibrosis development. PMID:26921108

  5. Fas-mediated apoptosis of melanoma cells and infiltrating lymphocytes in human malignant melanomas.

    PubMed

    Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Katayama, Ichiro; Koji, Takehiko

    2002-04-01

    In a rodent system, melanoma cells expressing Fas ligand (FasL) could kill Fas-positive lymphocytes, suggesting that FasL expression was an essential factor for melanoma cell survival in vivo. These findings led us to investigate apoptosis, and to histochemically analyze involvement of Fas and FasL in the induction of apoptosis, in human malignant melanoma tissues. The percentages of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive melanoma cells and of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive melanoma cells in melanoma tissues (n = 22) were greater than those in melanocytes in uninvolved skin (n = 6) and nevus cells in nevi tissues (n = 9). The infiltrating lymphocytes around melanomas were also TUNEL positive. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of Fas and FasL in melanoma cells and lymphocytes, whereas no Fas or FasL expression was detected in normal skin melanocytes and nevus cells. There was significant correlation between Fas-positive indices and TUNEL indices in melanoma tissues. Moreover, TUNEL-, Fas-, and FasL-positive indices of melanoma cells from patients with Stage 3 melanomas were significantly lower than those with Stage 2 melanomas. The PCNA index of Stage 1 melanoma was significantly lower than that of the other stages, although the difference of PCNA index was insignificant among Stages 2 to 4. Among Stages 1 to 4, there was no difference in the PCNA, TUNEL-, and Fas-positive indices of lymphocytes, although the FasL-positive index of lymphocytes from Stage 3 melanomas was significantly lower than in that from Stage 2. These data reveal that melanoma cells and infiltrating lymphocytes have the potential to induce their own apoptosis regulated by Fas and FasL in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion and that the decline of Fas-mediated apoptosis of melanoma cells, rather than the apoptosis of infiltrating lymphocytes, may affect the prognosis of melanoma patients, possibly through the

  6. Identification of DELE, a novel DAP3-binding protein which is crucial for death receptor-mediated apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tanenobu; Iwai, Atsushi; Miyazaki, Tadaaki

    2010-10-01

    Death associated protein 3 (DAP3) is known to be a highly conserved protein, and is responsible for regulating apoptosis induced by various stimuli. To understand the molecular mechanism of how DAP3 induces apoptosis, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening, and identified a novel DAP3-binding protein termed death ligand signal enhancer (DELE). In this report, we show that DELE actually binds to DAP3 in mammalian cells. We found that the cells stably expressing DELE are susceptible to apoptosis induction by the stimulation of TNF-α and TRAIL. In addition, knockdown of DELE expression rescued the HeLa cells from apoptosis induction by these stimuli. Moreover, activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 induced by stimulation of TNF-α, anti-Fas or TRAIL was significantly inhibited by the knockdown of DELE expression. These results demonstrated the biological significance of DELE for apoptosis signal mediated by death receptors. PMID:20563667

  7. DNA-PK mediates AKT activation and apoptosis inhibition in clinically acquired platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Stronach, Euan A; Chen, Michelle; Maginn, Elaina N; Agarwal, Roshan; Mills, Gordon B; Wasan, Harpreet; Gabra, Hani

    2011-11-01

    Clinical resistance to chemotherapy is a frequent event in cancer treatment and is closely linked to poor outcome. High-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer is characterized by p53 mutation and high levels of genomic instability. Treatment includes platinum-based chemotherapy and initial response rates are high; however, resistance is frequently acquired, at which point treatment options are largely palliative. Recent data indicate that platinum-resistant clones exist within the sensitive primary tumor at presentation, implying resistant cell selection after treatment with platinum chemotherapy. The AKT pathway is central to cell survival and has been implicated in platinum resistance. Here, we show that platinum exposure induces an AKT-dependent, prosurvival, DNA damage response in clinically platinum-resistant but not platinum-sensitive cells. AKT relocates to the nucleus of resistant cells where it is phosphorylated specifically on S473 by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), and this activation inhibits cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Inhibition of DNA-PK or AKT, but not mTORC2, restores platinum sensitivity in a panel of clinically resistant HGS ovarian cancer cell lines: we also demonstrate these effects in other tumor types. Resensitization is associated with prevention of AKT-mediated BAD phosphorylation. Strikingly, in patient-matched sensitive cells, we do not see enhanced apoptosis on combining cisplatin with AKT or DNA-PK inhibition. Insulin-mediated activation of AKT is unaffected by DNA-PK inhibitor treatment, suggesting that this effect is restricted to DNA damage-mediated activation of AKT and that, clinically, DNA-PK inhibition might prevent platinum-induced AKT activation without interfering with normal glucose homeostasis, an unwanted toxicity of direct AKT inhibitors. PMID:22131882

  8. DNA-PK Mediates AKT Activation and Apoptosis Inhibition in Clinically Acquired Platinum Resistance12

    PubMed Central

    Stronach, Euan A; Chen, Michelle; Maginn, Elaina N; Agarwal, Roshan; Mills, Gordon B; Wasan, Harpreet; Gabra, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Clinical resistance to chemotherapy is a frequent event in cancer treatment and is closely linked to poor outcome. High-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer is characterized by p53 mutation and high levels of genomic instability. Treatment includes platinum-based chemotherapy and initial response rates are high; however, resistance is frequently acquired, at which point treatment options are largely palliative. Recent data indicate that platinum-resistant clones exist within the sensitive primary tumor at presentation, implying resistant cell selection after treatment with platinum chemotherapy. The AKT pathway is central to cell survival and has been implicated in platinum resistance. Here, we show that platinum exposure induces an AKT-dependent, prosurvival, DNA damage response in clinically platinum-resistant but not platinum-sensitive cells. AKT relocates to the nucleus of resistant cells where it is phosphorylated specifically on S473 by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), and this activation inhibits cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Inhibition of DNA-PK or AKT, but not mTORC2, restores platinum sensitivity in a panel of clinically resistant HGS ovarian cancer cell lines: we also demonstrate these effects in other tumor types. Resensitization is associated with prevention of AKT-mediated BAD phosphorylation. Strikingly, in patient-matched sensitive cells, we do not see enhanced apoptosis on combining cisplatin with AKT or DNA-PK inhibition. Insulin-mediated activation of AKT is unaffected by DNA-PK inhibitor treatment, suggesting that this effect is restricted to DNA damage-mediated activation of AKT and that, clinically, DNA-PK inhibition might prevent platinum-induced AKT activation without interfering with normal glucose homeostasis, an unwanted toxicity of direct AKT inhibitors. PMID:22131882

  9. HEPATIC APOPTOSIS POST-BURN IS MEDIATED BY C-JUN N-TERMINAL KINASE-2

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alexandra H.; Brooks, Natasha C.; Hiyama, Yaeko; Qa’aty, Nour; Al-mousawi, Ahmed; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    The trauma of a severe burn injury induces a hypermetabolic response that increases morbidity and mortality. Previously, our group showed that insulin resistance post-burn injury is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Evidence suggests that c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) -2 may be involved in ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here, we hypothesized that JNK2 contributes to the apoptotic response after burn injury downstream of ER stress. To test this, we compared JNK2 knockout mice (−/−) to wildtype mice after inducing a 30% total body surface area thermal injury. Animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 5 days. Inflammatory cytokines in the blood were measured by multiplex analysis. Hepatic ER stress and insulin signaling were assessed by Western Blotting and insulin resistance was measured by a peritoneal glucose tolerance test. Apoptosis in the liver was quantified by TUNEL staining. Liver function was quantified by AST and ALT activity assays. ER stress increased after burn in both JNK2−/− and wildtype mice, indicating that JNK2 activation is downstream of ER stress. Knockout of JNK2 did not affect serum inflammatory cytokines; however, the increase in IL-6 mRNA expression was prevented in the knockouts. Serum insulin did not significantly increase in the JNK2−/− group. On the other hand, insulin signaling (PI3K/Akt pathway) and glucose tolerance tests did not improve in JNK2−/−. As expected, apoptosis in the liver increased after burn injury in wildtype mice but not in JNK2−/−. AST/ALT activity revealed that liver function recovered more quickly in JNK2−/−. This study indicates that JNK2 is a central mediator of hepatic apoptosis after a severe burn. PMID:23324888

  10. RNAi-mediated knockdown of INHBB increases apoptosis and inhibits steroidogenesis in mouse granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    M’BAYE, Mohamed; HUA, Guohua; KHAN, Hamid Ali; YANG, Liguo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibins are members of the TGFβ superfamily and act as suppressors of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from pituitary glands via a negative feedback mechanism to regulate folliculogenesis. In this study, the INHBB gene was knocked down by three RNAi-Ready pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen vector- mediated recombinant plasmids to explore the effects of INHBB silencing on granulosa cell (GC) cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid production in vitro. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, flow cytometry and ELISA were performed to evaluate the role of INHBB in the mouse GC cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid production in vitro. The results showed that the relative mRNA and protein expression of INHBB in mouse GCs can be significantly reduced by RNAi with pshRNA-B1, pshRNA-B2 and pshRNA-B3 plasmids, with pshRNA-B3 having the best knockdown efficiency. Downregulation of the expression of INHBB significantly arrests cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and increases the apoptosis rate in GCs. This was further confirmed by downregulation of the protein expressions of Cyclin D1, Cyclin E and Bcl2, while the protein expression of Bax was upregulated. In addition, specific downregulation of INHBB markedly decreased the concentration of estradiol and progesterone, which was further validated by the decrease in the mRNA levels of CYP19A1and CYP11A1. These findings suggest that inhibin βB is important in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle progression in granulosa cells. Furthermore, the inhibin βB subunit has a role in the regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis. Evidence is accumulating to support the concept that inhibin βB is physiologically essential for early folliculogenesis in the mouse. PMID:26063610

  11. Life in the balance: how BH3-only proteins induce apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Willis, Simon N; Adams, Jerry M

    2005-12-01

    BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 intracellular protein family, which include Bim, Bmf, Bik, Bad, Bid, Puma, Noxa and Hrk, mediate many developmentally programmed and induced cytotoxic signals. They have key roles in development, tissue homeostasis, immunity and tumor suppression, and compounds mimicking them are promising anti-cancer agents. Their activity is normally constrained by transcriptional and/or diverse post-transcriptional controls. When activated, these death ligands engage pro-survival Bcl-2-like proteins via the BH3 domain, inactivating their function. Bim and Puma bind all the pro-survival proteins, whereas others, such as Noxa and Bad, engage distinct subsets and exhibit complementary killing. Hence, multiple pro-survival proteins must be inactivated to unleash Bax and Bak, which drive apoptosis. Whether certain BH3-only proteins also directly activate Bax/Bak remains controversial. PMID:16243507

  12. Differential Expression of Bcl-2 Family Proteins Determines the Sensitivity of Human Follicular Lymphoma Cells to Dexamethasone-mediated and Anti-BCR-mediated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Adem, Jemal; Ropponen, Antti; Eeva, Jonna; Eray, Mine; Nuutinen, Ulla; Pelkonen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Bcl-2 family comprises proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins. The balance between these proteins is critical for the survival of the cells. Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, is the hallmark of follicular lymphoma (FL). High expression of Bcl-2 provides survival advantage and may facilitate chemotherapeutic resistance in FL. In the present study, we examined expression profile of Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bim in human FL cell lines, HF1A3 and HF28. We assessed the correlation between the expression levels of these proteins and cells' sensitivity to dexamethasone (Dex)-mediated and B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis. Here, we show that Dex and anti-BCR-induced synergistic apoptosis which correlated with significant downregulation of Bcl-xL, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and accumulation of nonphosphorylated Bim. However, HF28 cells were less sensitive than HF1A3 cells to Dex-induced and anti-BCR-induced apoptosis due to high Bcl-2 protein level. It is interesting to note that, a Bcl-2-specific inhibitor, ABT-199, sensitized HF28 cells to Dex-induced or anti-BCR-induced apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of Bcl-xL prevented Dex-mediated, anti-BCR-mediated, and ABT-199-mediated apoptosis, indicating that mitochondria were involved. In conclusion, these data show that the expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins may serve to predict tumor response to BH3 mimetics and the sensitivity of FL cells to Dex-induced and anti-BCR-induced apoptosis. Moreover, our results show that BCR-targeted apoptosis might have therapeutic benefit against FL and B-cell lymphomas. PMID:26641257

  13. Bid chimeras indicate that most BH3-only proteins can directly activate Bak and Bax, and show no preference for Bak versus Bax

    PubMed Central

    Hockings, C; Anwari, K; Ninnis, R L; Brouwer, J; O'Hely, M; Evangelista, M; Hinds, M G; Czabotar, P E; Lee, E F; Fairlie, W D; Dewson, G; Kluck, R M

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is initiated by Bcl-2 homology region 3 (BH3)-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family. On upregulation or activation, certain BH3-only proteins can directly bind and activate Bak and Bax to induce conformation change, oligomerization and pore formation in mitochondria. BH3-only proteins, with the exception of Bid, are intrinsically disordered and therefore, functional studies often utilize peptides based on just their BH3 domains. However, these reagents do not possess the hydrophobic membrane targeting domains found on the native BH3-only molecule. To generate each BH3-only protein as a recombinant protein that could efficiently target mitochondria, we developed recombinant Bid chimeras in which the BH3 domain was replaced with that of other BH3-only proteins (Bim, Puma, Noxa, Bad, Bmf, Bik and Hrk). The chimeras were stable following purification, and each immunoprecipitated with full-length Bcl-xL according to the specificity reported for the related BH3 peptide. When tested for activation of Bak and Bax in mitochondrial permeabilization assays, Bid chimeras were ~1000-fold more effective than the related BH3 peptides. BH3 sequences from Bid and Bim were the strongest activators, followed by Puma, Hrk, Bmf and Bik, while Bad and Noxa were not activators. Notably, chimeras and peptides showed no apparent preference for activating Bak or Bax. In addition, within the BH3 domain, the h0 position recently found to be important for Bax activation, was important also for Bak activation. Together, our data with full-length proteins indicate that most BH3-only proteins can directly activate both Bak and Bax. PMID:25906158

  14. Ethanol Mediates Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in SK-N-SH Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Maria; Song, Byoung-Joon; Kwon, Yongil

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mechanisms of cell or organ damage by chronic alcohol consumption are still poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases during ethanol-induced damage to SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. Methods: Cells were treated with ethanol and subsequently analyzed for cell morphology, viability, and DNA fragmentation. Immunoblot analysis was performed to assess various proteins levels associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis after ethanol exposure. Results: Ethanol induced time- and dose-dependent cell death in SK-N-SH cells and increased c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activity in a time- and concentration dependent manner. In contrast, p38 kinase activity increased transiently. After treatment with JNK or p38 kinase inhibitors, ethanol-induced cell death significantly reduced. Ethanol-induced cell death was accompanied by increased cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activity observed at 12 h. In contrast, the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein did not change. Ethanol also increased the phosphorylation of p53 and p53 activation was followed by an increase in the p21 tumor suppressor protein accompanied by a gradual decrease in phospho-Rb protein. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ethanol mediates apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells by stimulating p53-related cell cycle arrest mediated through activation of the JNK-related pathway. PMID:25337571

  15. Plumbagin induces apoptosis in Her2-overexpressing breast cancer cells through the mitochondrial-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Kawiak, Anna; Zawacka-Pankau, Joanna; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2012-04-27

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death-related cancers in women. Approximately 30% of breast cancers overexpress the Her2 oncogene, which is associated with a poor prognosis and increased resistance to chemotherapy. Plumbagin (1), a constituent of species in the plant genera Drosera and Plumbago, displays antineoplastic activity toward various cancers. The present study was aimed at determining the anticancer potential of 1 toward Her2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and defining the mode of cell death induced in these cells. The results showed that 1 exhibited high antiproliferative activity toward the Her2-overexpressing cell lines SKBR3 and BT474. The antiproliferative activity of 1 was associated with apoptosis-mediated cell death, as revealed by caspase activation and an increase in the sub-G1 fraction of the cell cycle. Compound 1 increased the levels of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins and decreased the level of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in SKBR3 and BT474 cells. Thus, these findings indicate that 1 induces apoptosis in Her2-overexpressing breast cancers through the mitochondrial-mediated pathway and suggest its potential for further investigation for the treatment of Her2-overexpressing breast cancer. PMID:22512718

  16. Sildenafil (Viagra) sensitizes prostate cancer cells to doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis through CD95

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anindita; Durrant, David; Mitchell, Clint; Dent, Paul; Batra, Surinder K.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that Sildenafil enhances apoptosis and antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) while attenuating its cardiotoxic effect in prostate cancer. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which sildenafil sensitizes DOX in killing of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, DU145. The death receptor Fas (APO-1 or CD95) induces apoptosis in many carcinoma cells, which is negatively regulated by anti-apoptotic molecules such as FLIP (Fas-associated death domain (FADD) interleukin-1-converting enzyme (FLICE)-like inhibitory protein). Co-treatment of PCa cells with sildenafil and DOX for 48 hours showed reduced expression of both long and short forms of FLIP (FLIP-L and -S) as compared to individual drug treatment. Over-expression of FLIP-s with an adenoviral vector attentuated the enhanced cell-killing effect of DOX and sildenafil. Colony formation assays also confirmed that FLIP-S over-expression inhibited the DOX and sildenafil-induced synergistic killing effect as compared to the cells infected with an empty vector. Moreover, siRNA knock-down of CD95 abolished the effect of sildenafil in enhancing DOX lethality in cells, but had no effect on cell killing after treatment with a single agent. Sildenafil co-treatment with DOX inhibited DOX-induced NF-κB activity by reducing phosphorylation of IκB and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, in addition to down regulation of FAP-1 (Fas associated phosphatase-1, a known inhibitor of CD95-mediated apoptosis) expression. This data provides evidence that the CD95 is a key regulator of sildenafil and DOX mediated enhanced cell death in prostate cancer. PMID:26716643

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction as a mediator of hippocampal apoptosis in a model of hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, J; Lores-Arnaiz, S; Tallis, S; Roselló, D M; Lago, N; Lemberg, A; Boveris, A; Perazzo, J C

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we describe the presence of apoptosis, associated with a mitochondrial dysfunction in the hippocampus of animals in an experimental model defined as minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). This experimental model was studied after 10 days of induced portal vein calibrated stricture, leading to portal hypertension and to a moderate hyperammonemia, without the presence of other evident central nervous system changes. The molecular mechanisms here proposed indicate the presence of apoptotic intrinsic pathways that point to hippocampal mitochondria as an important mediator of apoptosis in this experimental model. In this model of MHE, the presence of DNA fragmentation is documented by 2.3-times increased number of TUNEL-positive cells. These findings together with a higher ratio of the Bcl-2 family members Bax/Bcl-xL in the outer mitochondrial membrane of the MHE animals together with 11% of cytochrome c release indicate the presence of apoptosis in this experimental model. A detailed analysis of the hippocampal mitochondrial physiology was performed after mitochondrial isolation. The determination of the respiratory rate in the presence of malate plus glutamate and ADP showed a 45% decrease in respiratory control in MHE animals as compared with the sham group. A marked decrease of cytochrome oxidase (complex IV of the electron transport chain) was also observed, showing 46% less activity in hippocampal mitochondria from MHE animals. In addition, mitochondria from these animals showed less ability to maintain membrane potential (ΔΨ (m)) which was 13% lower than the sham group. Light scattering experiments showed that mitochondria from MHE animals were more sensitive to swell in the presence of increased calcium concentrations as compared with the sham group. In addition, in vitro studies performed in mitochondria from sham animals showed that mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) could be a mitochondrial mediator of the apoptotic signaling in the

  18. Oncogenic mutations in intestinal adenomas regulate Bim-mediated apoptosis induced by TGF-β

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Zoltán; Band, Arja M.; Kallio, Pauliina; Högström, Jenny; Hyvönen, Ville; Kaijalainen, Seppo; Ritvos, Olli; Haglund, Caj; Kruuna, Olli; Robine, Sylvie; Louvard, Daniel; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Alitalo, Kari

    2014-01-01

    In the majority of microsatellite-stable colorectal cancers (CRCs), an initiating mutation occurs in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or β-catenin gene, activating the β-catenin/TCF pathway. The progression of resulting adenomas is associated with oncogenic activation of KRas and inactivation of the p53 and TGF-β/Smad functions. Most established CRC cell lines contain mutations in the TGF-β/Smad pathway, but little is known about the function of TGF-β in the early phases of intestinal tumorigenesis. We used mouse and human ex vivo 3D intestinal organoid cultures and in vivo mouse models to study the effect of TGF-β on the Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells and their progeny in intestinal adenomas. We found that the TGF-β–induced apoptosis in Apc-mutant organoids, including the Lgr5+ stem cells, was mediated by up-regulation of the BH3-only proapoptotic protein Bcl-2–like protein 11 (Bim). BH3-mimetic compounds recapitulated the effect of Bim not only in the adenomas but also in human CRC organoids that had lost responsiveness to TGF-β–induced apoptosis. However, wild-type intestinal crypts were markedly less sensitive to TGF-β than Apc-mutant adenomas, whereas the KRas oncogene increased resistance to TGF-β via the activation of the Erk1/2 kinase pathway, leading to Bim down-regulation. Our studies identify Bim as a critical mediator of TGF-β–induced apoptosis in intestinal adenomas and show that the common progression mutations modify Bim levels and sensitivity to TGF-β during intestinal adenoma development. PMID:24825889

  19. Hibiscus anthocyanins-rich extract inhibited LDL oxidation and oxLDL-mediated macrophages apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Ching; Huang, Kai-Xun; Huang, An-Chung; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2006-07-01

    The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Anti-oxidative reagents, which can effectively inhibit LDL oxidation, may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis, and slowing down the progression to advance stages. As shown in previous studies Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a natural plant containing a lot of pigments that was found to possess anti-oxidative of activity. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) by measuring their effects on LDL oxidation (in cell-free system) and anti-apoptotic abilities (in RAW264.7 cells). HAs have been tested in vitro examining their relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), Apo B fragmentation, thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS) and radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay. The anti-oxidative activity of HAs was defined by relative electrophoretic mobility of oxLDL (decrease of 50% at 2 mg/ml), fragmentation of Apo B (inhibition of 61% at 1mg/ml), and TBARS assay (IC(50): 0.46 mg/ml) in the Cu(2+)-mediated oxidize LDL. Furthermore, the addition of >0.1 mg/ml of HAs could scavenge over 95% of free DPPH radicals, HAs showed strong potential in inhibiting LDL oxidation induced by copper. In addition, to determine whether oxLDL-induced apoptosis in macrophages is inhibited by HAs, we studied the viability, morphology and caspase-3 expression of RAW 264.7 cells. MTT assay, Leukostate staining analysis and Western blotting reveals that HAs could inhibit oxLDL-induced apoptosis. According to these findings, we suggest that HAs may be used to inhibit LDL oxidation and oxLDL-mediated macrophage apoptosis, serving as a chemopreventive agent. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed. PMID:16473450

  20. Eosinophil resistance to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is mediated by the transcription factor NFIL3.

    PubMed

    Pazdrak, Konrad; Moon, Young; Straub, Christof; Stafford, Susan; Kurosky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The mainstay of asthma therapy, glucocorticoids (GCs) exert their therapeutic effects through the inhibition of inflammatory signaling and induction of eosinophil apoptosis. However, laboratory and clinical observations of GC-resistant asthma suggest that GCs' effects on eosinophil viability may depend on the state of eosinophil activation. In the present study we demonstrate that eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 show impaired pro-apoptotic response to GCs. We sought to determine the contribution of GC-mediated transactivating (TA) and transrepressing (TR) pathways in modulation of activated eosinophils' response to GC by comparing their response to the selective GC receptor (GR) agonist Compound A (CpdA) devoid of TA activity to that upon treatment with Dexamethasone (Dex). IL-5-activated eosinophils showed contrasting responses to CpdA and Dex, as IL-5-treated eosinophils showed no increase in apoptosis compared to cells treated with Dex alone, while CpdA elicited an apoptotic response regardless of IL-5 stimulation. Proteomic analysis revealed that both Nuclear Factor IL-3 (NFIL3) and Map Kinase Phosphatase 1 (MKP1) were inducible by IL-5 and enhanced by Dex; however, CpdA had no effect on NFIL3 and MKP1 expression. We found that inhibiting NFIL3 with specific siRNA or by blocking the IL-5-inducible Pim-1 kinase abrogated the protective effect of IL-5 on Dex-induced apoptosis, indicating crosstalk between IL-5 anti-apoptotic pathways and GR-mediated TA signaling occurring via the NFIL3 molecule. Collectively, these results indicate that (1) GCs' TA pathway may support eosinophil viability in IL-5-stimulated cells through synergistic upregulation of NFIL3; and (2) functional inhibition of IL-5 signaling (anti-Pim1) or the use of selective GR agonists that don't upregulate NFIL3 may be effective strategies for the restoring pro-apoptotic effect of GCs on IL-5-activated eosinophils. PMID:26880402

  1. Tirofiban counteracts endothelial cell apoptosis through the VEGF/VEGFR2/pAkt axis.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Arturo; Romano, Simona; D'Angelillo, Anna; Corcione, Nicola; Messina, Stefano; Avellino, Raffaella; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Paolo; Romano, Maria Fiammetta

    2016-05-01

    Tirofiban is used in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome submitted to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We have, previously, shown that tirofiban stimulates VEGF expression and promotes proliferation of endothelial cells. VEGF is a well known inhibitor of endothelial cell apoptosis. TNF-α is a pro-apoptotic cytokine released in the site of a vascular injury, including balloon angioplasty. We thought to investigate whether tirofiban was able to protect endothelial cells from cell death induced by TNF-α. For this study, we used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Analysis of apoptosis was performed by propidium iodide incorporation, annexin V staining and measure of active caspase 3 levels. Western blot served for a semiquantitative measure of Akt activation, VEGF, and the pro-apoptotic Bim and Bak. Our results show that TNF-α was unable to activate caspase 3 and produce cell death in the presence of tirofiban. Activation of apoptosis was preceded by upregulation of Bim and Bak that resulted decreased after addition of tirofiban. The anti-apoptosis effect of tirofiban was reproduced by VEGF and counteracted by VEGFR2 blockade and the cation chelating agent ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA). The use of p-Akt inhibitor, BEZ235,and Akt knockdown, suggested that pAkt mediated the prosurvival effect of tirofiban. In conclusion, tirofiban protects endothelial cells from apoptosis stimulated by TNF-α, due to its ability to stimulate VEGF production. PMID:26699078

  2. Daxx Upregulation within the Cytoplasm of Reovirus-Infected Cells Is Mediated by Interferon and Contributes to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Kalen R.; Zhuang, Yonghua; Leser, J. Smith; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Reovirus infection is a well-characterized experimental system for the study of viral pathogenesis and antiviral immunity within the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously shown that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the Fas death receptor each play a role in neuronal apoptosis occurring in reovirus-infected brains. Death-associated protein 6 (Daxx) is a cellular protein that mechanistically links Fas signaling to JNK signaling in several models of apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrate that Daxx is upregulated in reovirus-infected brain tissue through a type I interferon-mediated mechanism. Daxx upregulation is limited to brain regions that undergo reovirus-induced apoptosis and occurs in the cytoplasm and nucleus of neurons. Cytoplasmic Daxx is present in Fas-expressing cells during reovirus encephalitis, suggesting a role for Daxx in Fas-mediated apoptosis following reovirus infection. Further, in vitro expression of a dominant negative form of Daxx (DN-Daxx), which binds to Fas but which does not transmit downstream signaling, inhibits apoptosis of reovirus-infected cells. In contrast, in vitro depletion of Daxx results in increased expression of caspase 3 and apoptosis, suggesting that Daxx plays an antiapoptotic role in the nucleus. Overall, these data imply a regulatory role for Daxx in reovirus-induced apoptosis, depending on its location in the nucleus or cytoplasm. PMID:23302889

  3. 2,4-dichlorophenol induces ER stress-mediated apoptosis via eIF2α dephosphorylation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Xiaona; Qi, Yongmei; Huang, Dejun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-02-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) has been widely used to produce herbicides and pharmaceutical intermediates, which exhibits various toxic effects including apoptosis. However, the mechanisms underlying 2,4-DCP-induced apoptosis, especially mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, are still unknown. In the present study, the mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were used as an in vitro model system to figure out whether 2,4-DCP could induce ER stress, and further to elucidate the role of ER stress in 2,4-DCP-induced apoptosis. The results showed that 2,4-DCP dramatically caused the decrease of cell viability, the increase of apoptotic cells, the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the activation of caspase-3, suggesting that 2,4-DCP did induce apoptosis. Meanwhile, 2,4-DCP acted similarly as ER stress agonist tunicamycin (Tu) to activate all three branches (IRE1α, ATF6 and eIF2α) of ER stress. Furthermore, repression of ER stress or inhibition of eIF2α dephosphorylation significantly alleviated 2,4-DCP-induced apoptosis. Taking these results together, the present study firstly showed that 2,4-DCP induced ER stress-mediated apoptosis via eIF2α dephosphorylation in mammalian cells. These findings will provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying apoptosis after chlorophenols exposure. PMID:25160872

  4. Mast cell chymase induces smooth muscle cell apoptosis by disrupting NF-{kappa}B-mediated survival signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Leskinen, Markus J.; Heikkilae, Hanna M.; Speer, Mei Y.; Hakala, Jukka K.; Laine, Mika; Kovanen, Petri T.; Lindstedt, Ken A. . E-mail: ken.lindstedt@wri.fi

    2006-05-01

    Chymase released from activated mast cells induces apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro by degrading the pericellular matrix component fibronectin, so causing disruption of focal adhesion complexes and Akt dephosphorylation, which are necessary for cell adhesion and survival. However, the molecular mechanisms of chymase-mediated apoptosis downstream of Akt have remained elusive. Here, we show by means of RT-PCR, Western blotting, EMSA, immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy, that chymase induces SMC apoptosis by disrupting NF-{kappa}B-mediated survival signaling. Following chymase treatment, the translocation of active NF-{kappa}B/p65 to the nucleus was partly abolished and the amount of nuclear p65 was reduced. Pretreatment of SMCs with chymase also inhibited LPS- and IL-1{beta}-induced nuclear translocation of p65. The chymase-induced degradation of p65 was mediated by active caspases. Loss of NF-{kappa}B-mediated transactivation resulted in downregulation of bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression, leading to mitochondrial swelling and release of cytochrome c. The apoptotic process involved activation of both caspase 9 and caspase 8. The results reveal that, by disrupting the NF-{kappa}B-mediated survival-signaling pathway, activated chymase-secreting mast cells can mediate apoptosis of cultured arterial SMCs. Since activated mast cells colocalize with apoptotic SMCs in vulnerable areas of human atherosclerotic plaques, they may participate in the weakening and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques.

  5. Minimalist Model Systems Reveal Similarities and Differences between Membrane Interaction Modes of MCL1 and BAK*

    PubMed Central

    Landeta, Olatz; Landajuela, Ane; Garcia-Saez, Ana; Basañez, Gorka

    2015-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the BCL2 family are key modulators of apoptosis that establish a complex network of interactions among themselves and with other cellular factors to regulate cell fate. It is well established that mitochondrial membranes are the main locus of action of all BCL2 family proteins, but it is difficult to obtain a precise view of how BCL2 family members operate at the native mitochondrial membrane environment during apoptosis. Here, we used minimalist model systems and multiple fluorescence-based techniques to examine selected membrane activities of MCL1 and BAK under apoptotic-like conditions. We show that three distinct apoptosis-related factors (i.e. the BCL2 homology 3 ligand cBID, the mitochondrion-specific lipid cardiolipin, and membrane geometrical curvature) all promote membrane association of BCL2-like structural folds belonging to both MCL1 and BAK. However, at the same time, the two proteins exhibited distinguishing features in their membrane association modes under apoptotic-like conditions. In addition, scanning fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy and FRET measurements revealed that the BCL2-like structural fold of MCL1, but not that of BAK, forms stable heterodimeric complexes with cBID in a manner adjustable by membrane cardiolipin content and curvature degree. Our results add significantly to a growing body of evidence indicating that the mitochondrial membrane environment plays a complex and active role in the mode of action of BCL2 family proteins. PMID:25987560

  6. JNJ-26481585 primes rhabdomyosarcoma cells for chemotherapeutics by engaging the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Ulrike; Kupka, Johanna; Fulda, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a common soft-tissue sarcoma in childhood with a poor prognosis, highlighting the need for new treatment strategies. Here we identify a synergistic interaction of the second-generation histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) JNJ-26481585 and common chemotherapeutic drugs (i.e. Doxorubicin, Etoposide, Vincristine, Cyclophosphamide and Actinomycin D) to trigger apoptosis in RMS cells. Importantly, JNJ-26481585/Doxorubicin cotreatment also significantly suppresses long-term clonogenic survival of RMS cells and tumor growth in vivo in a preclinical RMS model. Mechanistically, JNJ-26481585/Doxorubicin cotreatment causes upregulation of the BH3-only proteins Bim and Noxa as well as downregulation of the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. These changes in the ratio of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins contribute to JNJ-26481585/Doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis, since knockdown of Bim or Noxa significantly inhibits cell death. Also, JNJ-26481585 and Doxorubicin cooperate to stimulate activation of Bax and Bak, which is required for JNJ-26481585/Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, since silencing of Bax or Bak protects against apoptosis. Consistently, overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly reduces JNJ-26481585/Doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis. JNJ-26481585/Doxorubicin cotreatment leads to caspase activation and caspase-dependent apoptosis, since the broad-range caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) rescues cells from apoptosis. In conclusion, the second-generation HDACI JNJ-26481585 cooperates with chemotherapeutics to engage mitochondrial apoptosis in RMS cells, demonstrating that JNJ-26481585 represents a promising strategy for chemosensitization of RMS. PMID:26473375

  7. JNJ-26481585 primes rhabdomyosarcoma cells for chemotherapeutics by engaging the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Heinicke, Ulrike; Kupka, Johanna; Fulda, Simone

    2015-11-10

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a common soft-tissue sarcoma in childhood with a poor prognosis, highlighting the need for new treatment strategies. Here we identify a synergistic interaction of the second-generation histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) JNJ-26481585 and common chemotherapeutic drugs (i.e. Doxorubicin, Etoposide, Vincristine, Cyclophosphamide and Actinomycin D) to trigger apoptosis in RMS cells. Importantly, JNJ-26481585/Doxorubicin cotreatment also significantly suppresses long-term clonogenic survival of RMS cells and tumor growth in vivo in a preclinical RMS model. Mechanistically, JNJ-26481585/Doxorubicin cotreatment causes upregulation of the BH3-only proteins Bim and Noxa as well as downregulation of the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. These changes in the ratio of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins contribute to JNJ-26481585/Doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis, since knockdown of Bim or Noxa significantly inhibits cell death. Also, JNJ-26481585 and Doxorubicin cooperate to stimulate activation of Bax and Bak, which is required for JNJ-26481585/Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, since silencing of Bax or Bak protects against apoptosis. Consistently, overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly reduces JNJ-26481585/Doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis. JNJ-26481585/Doxorubicin cotreatment leads to caspase activation and caspase-dependent apoptosis, since the broad-range caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) rescues cells from apoptosis. In conclusion, the second-generation HDACI JNJ-26481585 cooperates with chemotherapeutics to engage mitochondrial apoptosis in RMS cells, demonstrating that JNJ-26481585 represents a promising strategy for chemosensitization of RMS. PMID:26473375

  8. MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Teng; Ji, Jiang; Guo, Yong-li

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Curcumin activates MST1 in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. •ROS production is involved in curcumin-induced MST1 activation. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced JNK activation in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced Foxo3a nuclear translocation and Bim expression. -- Abstract: Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells.

  9. The role of NF-κB-1 and NF-κB-2-mediated resistance to apoptosis in lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Bernal-Mizrachi, Leon; Lovly, Christine M.; Ratner, Lee

    2006-01-01

    The NF-κB pathways have been implicated in tumorigenesis in several lymphoid malignancies, including non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphomas. However, the antiapoptotic functions and the mechanism responsible for signaling through each NF-κB pathway remain to be elucidated. In the current study, lymphoma cell lines with constitutively active NF-κB were found to be resistant to inducers of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Resistance to cell death resulted from blocks early and late in the apoptosis cascade. Several NF-κB target genes were overexpressed in these cell lines, including Bcl-xL, Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1β-converting enzyme inhibitor protein, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis, and X inhibitor of apoptosis. Inhibition of the canonical or noncanonical NF-κB pathways with small interfering RNAs or adenovirus expressing a stable form of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis inducers and resulted in lower levels of Bcl-xL or Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1β-converting enzyme inhibitor protein, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis, and X inhibitor of apoptosis. These findings demonstrate an important role of both NF-κB pathways in mediating resistance to apoptosis and distinctive antiapoptotic downstream target gene profiles responsible for this effect. PMID:16751281

  10. BmATG5 and BmATG6 mediate apoptosis following autophagy induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone or starvation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kun; Tian, Ling; Guo, Xinyu; Li, Kang; Li, Jianping; Deng, Xiaojuan; Li, Qingrong; Xia, Qingyou; Zhong, Yangjin; Huang, Zhijun; Liu, Jiping; Li, Sheng; Yang, Wanying; Cao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis, which could be induced by common stimuli, play crucial roles in development and disease. The functional relationship between autophagy and apoptosis is complex, due to the dual effects of autophagy. In the Bombyx Bm-12 cells, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) treatment or starvation-induced cell death, with autophagy preceding apoptosis. In response to 20E or starvation, BmATG8 was rapidly cleaved and conjugated with PE to form BmATG8-PE; subsequently, BmATG5 and BmATG6 were cleaved into BmATG5-tN and BmATG6-C, respectively. Reduction of expression of BmAtg5 or BmAtg6 by RNAi decreased the proportion of cells undergoing both autophagy and apoptosis after 20E treatment or starvation. Overexpression of BmAtg5 or BmAtg6 induced autophagy but not apoptosis in the absence of the stimuli, but promoted both autophagy and apoptosis induced by 20E or starvation. Notably, overexpression of cleavage site-deleted BmAtg5 or BmAtg6 increased autophagy but not apoptosis induced by 20E or starvation, whereas overexpression of BmAtg5-tN and BmAtg6-C was able to directly trigger apoptosis or promote the induced apoptosis. In conclusion, being cleaved into BmATG5-tN and BmATG6-C, BmATG5 and BmATG6 mediate apoptosis following autophagy induced by 20E or starvation in Bombyx Bm-12 cells, reflecting that autophagy precedes apoptosis in the midgut during Bombyx metamorphosis. PMID:26727186

  11. Induction of Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells (T-47D) by Annona reticulata L. Leaves Methanolic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Roham, Pratiksha H; Kharat, Kiran R; Mungde, Priyanka; Jadhav, Mahadev A; Makhija, Surinder J

    2016-01-01

    Annona reticulata Linn. (Common name: Bullock's-heart) (Annonaceae family) is a semi-evergreen and small deciduous tree. The extracts of various parts of Annona reticulata L. have been reported as cytotoxic to many cancer cells. Annona reticulata L. leaves' methanolic extract (ARME) was prepared and used against the breast cancer cells. The breast cancer cells (T-47D) viability and IC50 were evaluated by Vybrant® MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Detection of phosphatidylserine on membranes of apoptotic cells was done by Attune flow cytometer. RNA transcripts were quantified in ARME treated and untreated cells. Finally, the Vybrant® FAM Poly Caspases assay kit was used for analysis of polycaspases activity in T-47D cells. The IC50 (5 ± 0.5 µg/mL) of the ARME was found against breast cancer cells (T-47D). The Paclitaxel was used as a control standard drug for the study. The downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax and Bak, and caspases activation suggested induction of apoptosis in T-47D cells by ARME through mitochondrial pathway. The cell cycle halted at G2/M phase in the ARME treated cells. The ARME was found to be effective against Breast cancer cells (T-47D). PMID:26908199

  12. An Allelic Series of bak1 Mutations Differentially Alter bir1 Cell Death, Immune Response, Growth, and Root Development Phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wierzba, Michael P; Tax, Frans E

    2016-02-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) mediate cell-signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana, including those controlling growth and development, immune response, and cell death. The RLK coreceptor BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE-1 (BAK1) partners with multiple ligand-binding RLKs and contributes to their signaling in diverse pathways. An additional RLK, BAK1-INTERACTING RECEPTOR-1 (BIR1), physically interacts with BAK1, and loss-of-function mutations in BIR1 display constitutive activation of cell death and immune response pathways and dwarfism and a reduction in lateral root number. Here we show that bir1 plants display defects in primary root growth, characterize bir1 lateral root defects, and analyze expression of BIR1 and BAK1 promoters within the root. Using an allelic series of bak1 mutations, we show that loss of BAK1 function in immune response pathways can partially suppress bir1 cell death, immune response, and lateral root phenotypes and that null bak1 alleles enhance bir1 primary root phenotypes. Based on our data, we propose a model in which BIR1 functions to regulate BAK1 participation in multiple pathways. PMID:26680657

  13. Platelet-derived Growth Factor Primes Cancer-associated Fibroblasts for Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Sumera; Mertens, Joachim C.; Bronk, Steven F.; Hirsova, Petra; Dai, Haiming; Roberts, Lewis R.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Desmoplastic malignancies such as cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) are characterized by a dense stroma containing an abundance of myofibroblasts termed cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF). The CAF phenotype represents an “activated state” in which cells are primed for cell death triggered by BH3 mimetics. Accordingly, this primed state may be therapeutically exploited. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this poorly understood apoptotic priming, we examined the role of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in CAF priming for cell death given its prominent role in CAF activation. PDGF isomers PDGF-B and PDGF-D are abundantly expressed in CCA cells derived from human specimens. Either isomer sensitizes myofibroblasts to cell death triggered by BH3 mimetics. Similar apoptotic sensitization was observed with co-culture of myofibroblasts and CCA cells. Profiling of Bcl-2 proteins expressed by PDGF-primed myofibroblasts demonstrated an increase in cellular levels of Puma. PDGF-mediated increases in cellular Puma levels induced proapoptotic changes in Bak, which resulted in its binding to Bcl-2. Short hairpin RNA-mediated down-regulation of Puma conferred resistance to PDGF-mediated apoptotic priming. Conversely, the BH3 mimetic navitoclax disrupted Bcl-2/Bak heterodimers, allowing Bak to execute the cell death program. Treatment with a Bcl-2-specific BH3 mimetic, ABT-199, reduced tumor formation and tumor burden in a murine model of cholangiocarcinoma. Collectively, these findings indicate that apoptotic priming of CAF by PDGF occurs via Puma-mediated Bak activation, which can be converted to active full-blown apoptosis by navitoclax or ABT-199 for therapeutic benefit. PMID:24973208

  14. Apoptosis of U937 Cells Induced by Hematoporphyrin Monomethyl Ether-Mediated Sonodynamic Action

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaomin; Wang, Pan; Wang, Xiaobing; Cao, Bing; Li, Long

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The present study aims to investigate apoptosis of U937 cells induced by hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)-mediated sonodynamic therapy (SDT). Materials HMME concentration was kept constant at 10 μg/mL. Tumor cells suspended in serum-free RPM1640 were exposed to ultrasound at 1.1 MHz for up to 60 seconds with an intensity of 1 W/cm2 in the presence and absence of HMME. The viability of cells was determined by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltertrazolium bromide tetrazolium (MTT) test. Apoptosis was analyzed using a flow cytometer with Annexin V-PE/7-ADD staining as well as fluorescence microscopy with 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The DNA damage of U937 cells, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) were also analyzed by a flow cytometer after exposures. Western blotting and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze the protein and mRNA expression level of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Results Fluorescent imaging revealed that HMME mainly localized in the mitochondria. MTT assay showed 55.6% of cell survival at 4 hours post-SDT. Flow cytometric analysis displayed a significant increase in the early- and late-apoptotic cell populations (35.6%) of U937 cells by HMME-mediated SDT. Compared with the control, ultrasound-alone, and HMME-alone groups, the intracellular ROS and the MMP loss were greatly increased in the combined SDT group. Obvious nuclear condensation was also found with DAPI staining, and the DNA fragment increased to 33.9% at 2 hours post-SDT treatment. Immunofluorescent staining indicated obvious Bax translocation after SDT. Western blot showed visible enhancement of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. In addition, caspase-3 and PARP mRNA expression of U937 cells increased remarkably after SDT treatment. Conclusions The findings demonstrated that HMME-mediated sonodynamic action (HMME-SDT) significantly

  15. Lifeguard Inhibits Fas Ligand-mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum-Calcium Release Mandatory for Apoptosis in Type II Apoptotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Urresti, Jorge; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Coccia, Elena; Arévalo, Juan Carlos; Castellano, José; Fernández-Sanz, Celia; Galenkamp, Koen M O; Planells-Ferrer, Laura; Moubarak, Rana S; Llecha-Cano, Núria; Reix, Stéphanie; García-Dorado, David; Barneda-Zahonero, Bruna; Comella, Joan X

    2016-01-15

    Death receptors are members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily involved in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Lifeguard (LFG) is a death receptor antagonist mainly expressed in the nervous system that specifically blocks Fas ligand (FasL)-induced apoptosis. To investigate its mechanism of action, we studied its subcellular localization and its interaction with members of the Bcl-2 family proteins. We performed an analysis of LFG subcellular localization in murine cortical neurons and found that LFG localizes mainly to the ER and Golgi. We confirmed these results with subcellular fractionation experiments. Moreover, we show by co-immunoprecipitation experiments that LFG interacts with Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, but not with Bax or Bak, and this interaction likely occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. We further investigated the relationship between LFG and Bcl-XL in the inhibition of apoptosis and found that LFG protects only type II apoptotic cells from FasL-induced death in a Bcl-XL dependent manner. The observation that LFG itself is not located in mitochondria raises the question as to whether LFG in the ER participates in FasL-induced death. Indeed, we investigated the degree of calcium mobilization after FasL stimulation and found that LFG inhibits calcium release from the ER, a process that correlates with LFG blockage of cytochrome c release to the cytosol and caspase activation. On the basis of our observations, we propose that there is a required step in the induction of type II apoptotic cell death that involves calcium mobilization from the ER and that this step is modulated by LFG. PMID:26582200

  16. Caspase-3-mediated Cleavage of Cdc6 Induces Nuclear Localization of p49-truncated Cdc6 and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Hyungshin; Jin, Ying Hua; Park, Byoung Duck; Choi, Hye Jin; Lee, Seung Ki

    2003-01-01

    We show that Cdc6, an essential initiation factor for DNA replication, undergoes caspase-3–mediated cleavage in the early stages of apoptosis in HeLa cells and SK-HEP-1 cells induced by etoposide, paclitaxel, ginsenoside Rh2, or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. The cleavage occurs at the SEVD442/G motif and generates an N-terminal truncated Cdc6 fragment (p49-tCdc6) that lacks the carboxy-terminal nuclear export sequence. Cdc6 is known to be phosphorylated by cyclin A-cyclin dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), an event that promotes its exit from the nucleus and probably blocks it from initiating inappropriate DNA replication. In contrast, p49-tCdc6 translocation to the cytoplasm is markedly reduced under the up-regulated conditions of Cdk2 activity, which is possibly due to the loss of nuclear export sequence. Thus, truncation of Cdc6 results in an increased nuclear retention of p49-tCdc6 that could act as a dominant negative inhibitor of DNA replication and its accumulation in the nucleus could promote apoptosis. Supporting this is that the ectopic expression of p49-tCdc6 not only promotes apoptosis of etoposide-induced HeLa cells but also induces apoptosis in untreated cells. Thus, the caspase-mediated cleavage of Cdc6 creates a truncated Cdc6 fragment that is retained in the nucleus and induces apoptosis. PMID:14517333

  17. MiR-34a promotes Fas-mediated cartilage endplate chondrocyte apoptosis by targeting Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huajiang; Wang, Jianxi; Hu, Bo; Wu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yu; Li, Renhu; Yuan, Wen

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis of cartilage endplate (CEP) chondrocytes is associated with the pathogenesis of intervertebral disk degeneration (IDD). Recent studies have shown that miR-34a is crucially involved in chondrocyte apoptosis during osteoarthritic cartilage. Here, we investigated the involvement of miR-34a in CEP chondrocyte apoptosis in IDD. In human degenerated CEP chondrocytes, miRNA (miR)-34a was markedly elevated in association with increased apoptosis. Bioinformatics target prediction identified Bcl-2 as a putative target of miR-34a. Furthermore, miR-34a inhibited Bcl-2 expression by directly targeting their 3'-untranslated regions, and this inhibition was abolished by mutation of the miR-34a binding sites. In vitro, knockdown of miR-34a in human endplate chondrocytes resulted in overexpression of Bcl-2, whereas upregulation of miR-34a led to repression of Bcl-2. Fas-mediated apoptosis was decreased when antagonizing miR-34a with locked nucleotide analog-miR-34a in human endplate chondrocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that upregulated miR-34a potentiates Fas-mediated endplate chondrocyte apoptosis, which is associated with IDD. PMID:25910896

  18. Dentatin from Clausena excavata Induces Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells via Mitochondrial Mediated Signaling.

    PubMed

    Andas, A Reenaa Joys; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Samad, Nozlena Abdul; Anasamy, Theebaa; Arbab, Ismail Adam

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer with high global incidence and mortality rates. Current candidate drugs to treat HCC remain lacking and those in use possess undesirable side effects. In this investigation, the antiproliferative effects of dentatin (DTN), a natural coumarin, were evaluated on HepG2 cells and DTN's probable preliminary molecular mechanisms in apoptosis induction were further investigated. DTN significantly (p<0.05) suppressed proliferation of HepG2 cells with an IC50 value of 12.0 μg/mL, without affecting human normal liver cells, WRL-68 (IC50>50 μg/mL) causing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via apoptosis induction. Caspase colorimetric assays showed markedly increased levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities throughout the treatment period. Western blotting of treated HepG2 cells revealed inhibition of NF-κB that triggers the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway by up-regulating cytoplasmic cytochrome c and Bax, and down-regulating Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. The current findings suggest DTN has the potential to be developed further as an anticancer compound targeting human HCC. PMID:26028091

  19. Carvacrol induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in HL-60 promyelocytic and Jurkat T lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bhakkiyalakshmi, Elango; Suganya, Natarajan; Sireesh, Dornadula; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Saravana Devi, Sivanesan; Rajaguru, Palanisamy; Ramkumar, Kunka Mohanram

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of carvacrol, a phenolic monoterpenoid on the induction of apoptosis in HL-60 (Human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells) and Jurkat (human T lymphocyte cells) cells. Carvacrol showed a potent cytotoxic effect on both cells with dose-dependent increase in the level of free radical formation as measured by an oxidation sensitive fluorescent dye, 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) levels. The reduction in the level of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.05) was observed in carvacrol-treated cells. The major cytotoxic effect appears to be intervened by the induction of apoptotic cell death as assessed by annexin-V labeling assay using flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that Bax expression was increased, whereas Bcl-2 expression was significantly decreased in carvacrol exposed HL-60 cells and Jurkat cells. Further studies revealed that the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential of intact cells was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3. Our results found that the potential mechanism of cellular apoptosis induced by carvacrol is mediated by caspase-3 and is associated with the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of free radicals, and depletion of the intracellular antioxidant pool. PMID:26724845

  20. Synergistic property of cordycepin in cultivated Cordyceps militaris-mediated apoptosis in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shang-Min; Lai, Wan-Jung; Hong, Tzu-Wen; Lai, Jui-Ya; Tsai, Sheng-Hong; Chen, Yen-Hsun; Yu, Sz-Hsien; Kao, Cheng-Hsiang; Chu, Richard; Ding, Shih-Torng; Li, Tsai-Kun; Shen, Tang-Long

    2014-10-15

    Cordyceps militaris is a well-known Chinese traditional medicinal mushroom frequently used for tonics and recently of a potential interest for cancer intervention. Here, we explored the cancer cell killing activity of the hot water extracts of C. militaris cultured mycelia (CM(MY)) and cultivated fruiting bodies (CM(FB)). We found that CM(FB) exhibited a greater cytotoxic effect against various cancer cells over CM(MY). Apoptotic phenotypes including apoptotic body formation, DNA laddering, caspase 3 activation and cleavage of PARP proteins were induced by CM(FB) treatment but only slightly induced by same concentration of CM(MY) treatment in human HL-60 leukemia cells. Cordycepin in CM(FB) (10.47 mg/g) is significantly higher (∼ 15.2 times) than that of CM(MY) (0.69 mg/g). Using isobolographic analysis, the synergy of cytotoxicity was observed across different combined concentrations of CM(MY) and cordycepin. By complementing cordycepin into CM(MY) to the level comparable with CM(FB), we observed that CM(MY) (500 μg/ml) with cordycepin (4.8 μg/ml) induced apoptosis to a level similar to that induced by CM(FB) (500 μg/ml). Together, our results suggest that cordycepin possesses a synergistic cytotoxic effect with Cordyceps militaris-mediated apoptosis in human leukemia cells and therefore explaining a better anti-proliferating activity of CM(FB) over CM(MY). PMID:25442260

  1. Pycnogenol (PYC) induces apoptosis in human fibrosarcoma (HFS) cells under metal-mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeon Sun; Kim, Young Gon

    2011-01-01

    Pycnogenol (PYC), polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, acted as a prooxidant. PYC caused oxidative stress in human fibrosarcoma cells (HFS) when administered following pretreatment with iron chloride. The generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in DNA and resulted in more apoptosis in HFS cells than in the human fibroblastoma (HFB) cells. DNA damage and cellular viability at different PYC concentrations were closely consistent with cell growth, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and assays of two major antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Although the presence of PYC induced total SOD and catalase activities under oxidative stress in dose dependent fashion, more apoptotic cells were induced in HFS cells with increased [8-OHdG] than in HFB cells. The results suggest that PYC selectively induced cell death in HFS cells. This further confirmed that PYC-induced apoptosis is mediated primarily through the activation of caspase-3 apoptotic marker in HFS cells but not in HFB cells. We conclude that PYC would behave as either antioxidant or prooxidant dependant upon the cellular types. PMID:22754951

  2. The transcription factor FBI-1 inhibits SAM68-mediated BCL-X alternative splicing and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bielli, Pamela; Busà, Roberta; Di Stasi, Savino M; Munoz, Manuel J; Botti, Flavia; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Sette, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is tightly coupled to transcription for the majority of human genes. However, how these two processes are linked is not well understood. Here, we unveil a direct role for the transcription factor FBI-1 in the regulation of AS. FBI-1 interacts with the splicing factor SAM68 and reduces its binding to BCL-X mRNA. This, in turn, results in the selection of the proximal 5' splice site in BCL-X exon 2, thereby favoring the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant and counteracting SAM68-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, depletion of FBI-1, or expression of a SAM68 mutant lacking the FBI-1 binding region, restores the ability of SAM68 to induce BCL-XS splicing and apoptosis. FBI-1's role in splicing requires the activity of histone deacetylases, whose pharmacological inhibition recapitulates the effects of FBI-1 knockdown. Our study reveals an unexpected function for FBI-1 in splicing modulation with a direct impact on cell survival. PMID:24514149

  3. The transcription factor FBI-1 inhibits SAM68-mediated BCL-X alternative splicing and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bielli, Pamela; Busà, Roberta; Di Stasi, Savino M; Munoz, Manuel J; Botti, Flavia; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Sette, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is tightly coupled to transcription for the majority of human genes. However, how these two processes are linked is not well understood. Here, we unveil a direct role for the transcription factor FBI-1 in the regulation of AS. FBI-1 interacts with the splicing factor SAM68 and reduces its binding to BCL-X mRNA. This, in turn, results in the selection of the proximal 5′ splice site in BCL-X exon 2, thereby favoring the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant and counteracting SAM68-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, depletion of FBI-1, or expression of a SAM68 mutant lacking the FBI-1 binding region, restores the ability of SAM68 to induce BCL-XS splicing and apoptosis. FBI-1's role in splicing requires the activity of histone deacetylases, whose pharmacological inhibition recapitulates the effects of FBI-1 knockdown. Our study reveals an unexpected function for FBI-1 in splicing modulation with a direct impact on cell survival. PMID:24514149

  4. HIF-1α antagonizes p53-mediated apoptosis by triggering HIPK2 degradation

    PubMed Central

    Nardinocchi, Lavinia; Puca, Rosa; D'Orazi, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Many human diseases are characterized by the development of tissue hypoxia. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcription factor that regulates fundamental cellular processes in response to changes in oxygen concentration, such as angiogenesis, survival, and alterations in metabolism. The levels of HIF-1α subunit are increased in most solid tumors not only by low oxygen but also by growth factors and oncogenes and correlate with patient prognosis and treatment failure. The link between HIF-1α and apoptosis, a major determinant of cancer progression and treatment outcome, is poorly understood. Here we show that HIF-1α protects against drug-induced apoptosis by antagonizing the function of the tumor suppressor p53. HIF-1α upregulation induced proteasomal degradation of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2), the p53 apoptotic activator. Inhibition of HIF-1α by siRNA, HIF-1α-dominant negative or by zinc re-established the HIPK2 levels and the p53-mediated chemosensitivity in tumor cells. Our findings identify a novel circuitry between HIF-1α and p53, and provide a paradigm for HIPK2 dictating cell response to antitumor therapies. PMID:21248371

  5. EF24 induces ROS-mediated apoptosis via targeting thioredoxin reductase 1 in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiqian; Chen, Xi; Ying, Shilong; Feng, Zhiguo; Chen, Tongke; Ye, Qingqing; Wang, Zhe; Qiu, Chenyu; Yang, Shulin; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world, and finding novel agents for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer is of urgent need. Diphenyl difluoroketone (EF24), a molecule having structural similarity to curcumin, exhibits potent anti-tumor activities by arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. Although EF24 demonstrates potent anticancer efficacy in numerous types of human cancer cells, the cellular targets of EF24 have not been fully defined. We report here that EF24 may interact with the thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), an important selenocysteine (Sec)-containing antioxidant enzyme, to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. By inhibiting TrxR1 activity and increasing intracellular ROS levels, EF24 induces a lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress in human gastric cancer cells. Importantly, knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes cells to EF24 treatment. In vivo, EF24 treatment markedly reduces the TrxR1 activity and tumor cell burden, and displays synergistic lethality with 5-FU against gastric cancer cells. Targeting TrxR1 with EF24 thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of EF24, and reveals that TrxR1 is a good target for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:26919110

  6. EF24 induces ROS-mediated apoptosis via targeting thioredoxin reductase 1 in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Peng; Xia, Yiqun; Chen, Weiqian; Chen, Xi; Ying, Shilong; Feng, Zhiguo; Chen, Tongke; Ye, Qingqing; Wang, Zhe; Qiu, Chenyu; Yang, Shulin; Liang, Guang

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world, and finding novel agents for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer is of urgent need. Diphenyl difluoroketone (EF24), a molecule having structural similarity to curcumin, exhibits potent anti-tumor activities by arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. Although EF24 demonstrates potent anticancer effïcacy in numerous types of human cancer cells, the cellular targets of EF24 have not been fully defined. We report here that EF24 may interact with the thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), an important selenocysteine (Sec)-containing antioxidant enzyme, to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. By inhibiting TrxR1 activity and increasing intracellular ROS levels, EF24 induces a lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress in human gastric cancer cells. Importantly, knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes cells to EF24 treatment. In vivo, EF24 treatment markedly reduces the TrxR1 activity and tumor cell burden, and displays synergistic lethality with 5-FU against gastric cancer cells. Targeting TrxR1 with EF24 thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of EF24, and reveals that TrxR1 is a good target for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:26919110

  7. Inflammation-mediated dysfunction and apoptosis in pancreatic islet transplantation: implications for intrahepatic grafts.

    PubMed

    Barshes, Neal R; Wyllie, Samuel; Goss, John A

    2005-05-01

    Recent advances in clinical protocols have improved the outcomes of pancreatic islet transplantation (PIT), yet PIT recipients typically require pancreatic islet grafts derived from multiple donors to achieve insulin independence. This along with experimental models of syngeneic PIT, showing that up to 60% of pancreatic islet tissue undergoes apoptosis within the first several days post-transplantation, strongly suggest the involvement of nonalloantigen-specific, inflammatory events in partial destruction of the graft following PIT. Interleukin-1beta appears to be among the most important inflammatory mediators, causing pancreatic islet dysfunction and apoptosis through the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Kupffer cells secrete many molecules, including cytokines, NO, and free radicals, which are known to be directly toxic to the pancreatic islets, and depletion or inhibition of Kupffer cells improves outcomes following experimental PIT. Immediately after transplantation, the pancreatic islets are perfused only by portal vein blood until the process of angiogenesis restores arterial blood flow some 7-10 days later. This delayed vascularization may have implications for the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules, the effects of free radicals, and the role of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Finally, in the immediate post-transplant period, hepatocytes may contribute to pancreatic islet injury through the production of NO. This paper reviews literature regarding the inflammatory events that follow PIT as well as the pathogenesis of diabetes and the pathophysiology of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and their relation to the survival and function of intrahepatic pancreatic islet grafts. PMID:15728243

  8. Modulation of p53-mediated transcriptional repression and apoptosis by the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, P; Chiou, S K; Rao, L; White, E

    1995-01-01

    BRK cell lines that stably express adenovirus E1A and a murine temperature-sensitive p53 undergo apoptosis when p53 assumes the wild-type conformation. Expression of the E1B 19,000-molecular-weight (19K) protein rescues cells from this p53-mediated apoptosis and diverts cells to a growth-arrested state. As p53 likely functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating transcription, the ability of the E1B 19K protein to regulate p53-mediated transactivation and transcriptional repression was investigated. In promoter-reporter assays the E1B 19K did not block p53-mediated transactivation but did alleviate p53-mediated transcriptional repression. E1B 19K expression permitted efficient transcriptional activation of the p21/WAF-1/cip-1 mRNA by p53, consistent with maintenance of the growth arrest function of p53. The E1B 19K protein is thereby unique among DNA virus-transforming proteins that target p53 for inactivation in that it selectively modulates the transcriptional properties of p53. The E1B 19K protein also rescued cells from apoptosis induced by inhibitors of transcription and protein synthesis. This suggests that cell death may result from the inhibition of expression of survival factors which function to maintain cell viability. p53 may induce apoptosis through generalized transcriptional repression. In turn, the E1B 19K protein may prevent p53-mediated apoptosis by alleviating p53-mediated transcriptional repression. PMID:7823921

  9. Mediation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-dependent cell death by apoptosis-inducing factor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong-Woon; Wang, Hongmin; Poitras, Marc F; Coombs, Carmen; Bowers, William J; Federoff, Howard J; Poirier, Guy G; Dawson, Ted M; Dawson, Valina L

    2002-07-12

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) protects the genome by functioning in the DNA damage surveillance network. PARP-1 is also a mediator of cell death after ischemia-reperfusion injury, glutamate excitotoxicity, and various inflammatory processes. We show that PARP-1 activation is required for translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to the nucleus and that AIF is necessary for PARP-1-dependent cell death. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, H2O2, and N-methyl-d-aspartate induce AIF translocation and cell death, which is prevented by PARP inhibitors or genetic knockout of PARP-1, but is caspase independent. Microinjection of an antibody to AIF protects against PARP-1-dependent cytotoxicity. These data support a model in which PARP-1 activation signals AIF release from mitochondria, resulting in a caspase-independent pathway of programmed cell death. PMID:12114629

  10. EAF2 mediates germinal centre B-cell apoptosis to suppress excessive immune responses and prevent autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingqian; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Fujii, Shin-ichiro; Zhou, Yang; Hong, Rongjian; Suzuki, Akari; Tsubata, Takeshi; Hase, Koji; Wang, Ji-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Regulated apoptosis of germinal centre (GC) B cells is critical for normal humoral immune responses. ELL-associated factor 2 (EAF2) regulates transcription elongation and has been shown to be an androgen-responsive potential tumour suppressor in prostate by inducing apoptosis. Here we show that EAF2 is selectively upregulated in GC B cells among various immune cell types and promotes apoptosis of GC B cells both in vitro and in vivo. EAF2 deficiency results in enlarged GCs and elevated antibody production during a T-dependent immune response. After immunization with type II collagen, mice lacking EAF2 produce high levels of collagen-specific autoantibodies and rapidly develop severe arthritis. Moreover, the mutant mice spontaneously produce anti-dsDNA, rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies as they age. These results demonstrate that EAF2-mediated apoptosis in GC B cells limits excessive humoral immune responses and is important for maintaining self-tolerance. PMID:26935903

  11. Assessing the Diverse Functions of BAK1 and Its Homologs in Arabidopsis, beyond BR Signaling and PTI Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beg Hab; Kim, Sun Young; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2013-01-01

    Plants possess a variety of extracellular leucine-rich repeats receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) to coordinate developmental programs with responses to environmental changes. Out of sixteen families of LRR-RLKs in Arabidopsis, the LRR-RLKII family consists of fourteen individual members, including five Arabidopsis thaliana somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (AtSERKs). BAK1/AtSERK3 was first identified as a dual co-receptor of BRI1 and FLS2, mediating BR signaling and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered immunity (PTI), respectively. Since its identification, many researchers have attempted to elucidate the phosphorylation mechanisms between receptor complexes and identify additional components that interact with receptor complexes to transduce the signaling downstream. Relatively detailed early events in complex formation, phosphorylation sites on the BRI1/BAK1 complex and BAK1-interacting proteins, such as BIK1 and PUB13, have been identified. Small receptor complexes consisting of BAK1 and BIR1 or BAK1 and AtSERK4 regulate cell death during steady state conditions. Moreover, the redundant and distinct functions of AtSERK proteins and other members of the LRR-RLKII family have been revealed. This review focuses on the integration of the information from the most recent studies concerning BAK1 and its homologs. PMID:23269431

  12. Apoptosis and autophagy induced by pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiu; Ou, Yun-Sheng; Tao, Yong; Yin, Hang; Tu, Ping-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester (MPPa) was a second-generation photosensitizer with many potential applications. Here, we explored the impact of MPPa-mediated photodynamic therapy (MPPa-PDT) on the apoptosis and autophagy of human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells as well as the relationships between apoptosis and autophagy of the cells, and investigated the related molecular mechanisms. We found that MPPa-PDT demonstrated the ability to inhibit MG-63 cell viability in an MPPa concentration- and light dose-dependent manner, and to induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Additionally, MPPa-PDT could also induce autophagy of MG-63 cell. Meanwhile, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and the Jnk inhibitor SP600125 were found to inhibit the MPPa-PDT-induced autophagy, and NAC could also inhibit Jnk phosphorylation. Furthermore, pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or chloroquine showed the potential in reducing the apoptosis rate induced by MPPa-PDT in MG-63 cells. Our results indicated that the mitochondrial pathway was involved in MPPa-PDT-induced apoptosis of MG-63 cells. Meanwhile the ROS-Jnk signaling pathway was involved in MPPa-PDT-induced autophagy, which further promoted the apoptosis in MG-63 cells. PMID:27108344

  13. RNA interference-mediated hTERT inhibition enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ru-Gang; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Yang, Liu-Qin; Yang, Shi-Ming; Wang, Rong-Quan; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Peng, Gui-Yong; Fang, Dian-Chun

    2010-04-01

    TRAIL has been reported to induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cell types including hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. However, considerable numbers of HCC cells, especially some highly malignant tumors, show resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms that regulate sensitivity versus resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis remain poorly defined. It has been shown that human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) is overexpressed in human HCCs. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanisms of hTERT RNAi on the TRAIL-induced apoptosis of HCC cells that exhibit resistance to TRAIL. Our results indicate that hTERT RNAi sensitizes TRAIL-resistant HCC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. hTERT RNAi-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is accompanied up-regulation of procaspases-8 and -9, inhibition of telomerase activity and loss of telomere length. Our results suggest that hTERT RNAi overcame the resistance of the HCC cells against TRAIL, at least in part, via the mitochondrial type II apoptosis pathway and telomerase-dependent pathway. PMID:20204286

  14. Quercetin sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through JNK-mediated cFLIP turnover.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Min Joo; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Son, Jaekyoung

    2016-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent that can selectively kill cancer cells. Nonetheless, many cancers are resistant to TRAIL, and the molecular mechanisms of TRAIL resistance in cancer, particularly pancreatic cancer, are still unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that quercetin, a flavonoid, induces apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Although quercetin alone had no significant cytotoxic effect, when combined with TRAIL, it promoted TRAIL-induced apoptosis that required mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. A BH3-only protein BID knockdown dramatically attenuated TRAIL/quercetin-induced apoptosis. The expression levels of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP) decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of quercetin, and overexpression of cFLIP was able to robustly rescue pancreatic cancer cells from TRAIL/quercetin-induced apoptosis. Additionally, quercetin activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in a dose-dependent manner, which in turn induced the proteasomal degradation of cFLIP, and JNK activation also sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus, our results suggest that quercetin induces TRAIL-induced apoptosis via JNK activation-mediated cFLIP turnover. PMID:27477310

  15. Reversal of endogenous dopamine receptor silencing in pituitary cells augments receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Azzawi, Haneen; Yacqub-Usman, Kiren; Richardson, Alan; Hofland, Leo J; Clayton, Richard N; Farrell, William E

    2011-02-01

    Dopamine (DA)-agonist targeting of the DA D(2) receptor (D2R) in prolactinomas is the first-line treatment choice for suppression of prolactin and induction of tumor shrinkage. Resistance to DA agonists seems to be related to receptor number. Using the MMQ and GH3 pituitary cell lines, that either do or do not express D2R, respectively, we explored the epigenetic profile associated with the presence or absence of D2R in these cells lines. These studies led us to explore pharmacological strategies designed to restore receptor expression and thereby potentially augment DA agonist-mediated apoptosis. We show in GH3 cells that the D2R harbors increased CpG island-associated methylation and enrichment for histone H3K27me3. Conversely, MMQ cells and normal pituitaries show enrichment for H3K9Ac and barely detectable H3K27me3. Coculture of GH3 cells with the demethylating agent zebularine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A was responsible for a decrease in CpG island methylation and enrichment for the histone H3K9Ac mark. In addition, challenge of GH3 cells with zebularine alone or coculture with both agents led to expression of endogenous D2R in these cells. Induced expression D2R in GH3 cells was associated with a significant increase in apoptosis indices to challenge with either DA or bromocriptine. Specificity of a receptor-mediated response was established in coincubations with specific D2R antagonist and siRNA approaches in GH3 cell and D2R expressing MMQ cell lines. These studies point to the potential efficacy of combined treatment with epigenetic drugs and DA agonists for the medical management of different pituitary tumor subtypes, resistant to conventional therapies. PMID:21177832

  16. miR-96 regulates FOXO1-mediated cell apoptosis in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Liu, Huihui; Zhang, Hui; Shang, Chao; Song, Yongsheng

    2012-09-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies and a leading cause of genitourinary system cancer mortality worldwide. The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1, a member of the forkhead box O (FOXO) subfamily of transcription factors, is downregulated in a number of cancers, including TCC; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we used microRNA (miRNA) target prediction algorithms to identify a conserved potential miR-96 binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of FOXO1. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and northern blot analysis, we identified that miR-96 was downregulated in TCC tissues compared to normal bladder tissues (NB), suggesting that the loss of FOXO1 expression in TCC may be mediated by miR-96. To confirm this, we transfected pre-miR-96/anti-miR-96 into the T24 TCC cell line and revealed that miR-96 expression was sufficient to significantly reduce FOXO1 expression. Conversely, FOXO1 expression was not completely restored by the inhibition of miR-96 in T24 cells. Moreover, RNA silencing of FOXO1 significantly reduced miR-96 inhibitor-mediated T24 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the miR-96 targeting of FOXO1 is upregulated in TCC; in addition, TCC tumorigenesis may be partly due to the ability of miR-96 to promote FOXO1 repression, thereby bypassing cell apoptosis controls. PMID:23741253

  17. Inhibition of caspase-mediated apoptosis by peroxynitrite in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lau, Anthony; Arundine, Mark; Sun, Hong-Shuo; Jones, Michael; Tymianski, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI), neurons surviving the primary insult may succumb through poorly understood secondary mechanisms. In vitro, cortical neurons exposed to stretch injury exhibited enhanced vulnerability to NMDA, apoptotic-like DNA fragmentation, peroxynitrite (PN) formation, and cytoplasmic cytochrome c accumulation. Surprisingly, caspase-3 activity was undetectable by both immunoblotting and fluorogenic activity assays. Therefore, we hypothesized that PN directly inhibits caspases in these neurons. Consistent with this, stretch injury in cultured neurons elicited tyrosine nitration of procaspase-3, but not caspase-9 or Apaf-1, suggesting a direct interaction of PN with caspase-3. In an ex vivo system, PN inhibited the activity of caspase-3, and this inhibition was reversible with the addition of the sulfhydryl reducing agent dithiothreitol, indicating that PN inhibits caspases by cysteinyl oxidation. Moreover, in cultures, the PN donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) blocked staurosporine-induced caspase-3 activation and its downstream effects including PARP-1 [poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1] cleavage and phosphotidylserine inversion, suggesting that peroxynitrite can inhibit caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. To examine these mechanisms in vivo, rats were exposed to a lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI). FPI caused increased neuronal protein nitration that colocalized with TUNEL staining, indicating that PN was associated with neurodegeneration. Caspase-3 activity was inhibited in brain lysates harvested after FPI and was restored by adding dithiothreitol. Our data show that caspase-mediated apoptosis is inhibited in neurons subjected to stretch in vitro and to TBI in vivo, mostly because of cysteinyl oxidation of caspase-3 by PN. However, this is insufficient to prevent cell death, indicating that the TBI therapy may, at a minimum, require a combination of both anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant strategies. PMID:17093075

  18. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibition sensitizes neuroblastoma cells for vinca alkaloid-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Czaplinski, Sebastian; Hugle, Manuela; Stiehl, Valerie; Fulda, Simone

    2016-01-01

    High polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) expression has been linked to poor outcome in neuroblastoma (NB), indicating that it represents a relevant therapeutic target in this malignancy. Here, we identify a synergistic induction of apoptosis by the PLK1 inhibitor BI 2536 and vinca alkaloids in NB cells. Synergistic drug interaction of BI 2536 together with vincristine (VCR), vinblastine (VBL) or vinorelbine (VNR) is confirmed by calculation of combination index (CI). Also, BI 2536 and VCR act in concert to reduce long-term clonogenic survival. Importantly, BI 2536 significantly enhances the antitumor activity of VCR in an in vivo model of NB. Mechanistically, BI 2536/VCR co-treatment triggers prolonged mitotic arrest, which is necessary for BI 2536/VCR-mediated apoptosis, since pharmacological inhibition of mitotic arrest by the CDK1 inhibitor RO-3306 significantly reduces cell death. Prolonged mitotic arrest leads to phosphorylation-mediated inactivation of BCL-2 and BCL-XL as well as downregulation of MCL-1, since inhibition of mitotic arrest by RO-3306 also prevents phosphorylation of BCL-2 and BCL-XL and MCL-1 downregulation. This inactivation of antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins promotes activation of BAX and BAK, cleavage of caspase-9 and -3 and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Engagement of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is critically required for BI 2536/VCR-induced apoptosis, since ectopic expression of a non-degradable MCL-1 phospho-mutant, BCL-2 overexpression or BAK knockdown significantly reduce BI 2536/VCR-mediated apoptosis. Thus, PLK1 inhibitors may open new perspectives for chemosensitization of NB. PMID:26046302

  19. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibition sensitizes neuroblastoma cells for vinca alkaloid-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Czaplinski, Sebastian; Hugle, Manuela; Stiehl, Valerie; Fulda, Simone

    2016-02-23

    High polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) expression has been linked to poor outcome in neuroblastoma (NB), indicating that it represents a relevant therapeutic target in this malignancy. Here, we identify a synergistic induction of apoptosis by the PLK1 inhibitor BI 2536 and vinca alkaloids in NB cells. Synergistic drug interaction of BI 2536 together with vincristine (VCR), vinblastine (VBL) or vinorelbine (VNR) is confirmed by calculation of combination index (CI). Also, BI 2536 and VCR act in concert to reduce long-term clonogenic survival. Importantly, BI 2536 significantly enhances the antitumor activity of VCR in an in vivo model of NB. Mechanistically, BI 2536/VCR co-treatment triggers prolonged mitotic arrest, which is necessary for BI 2536/VCR-mediated apoptosis, since pharmacological inhibition of mitotic arrest by the CDK1 inhibitor RO-3306 significantly reduces cell death. Prolonged mitotic arrest leads to phosphorylation-mediated inactivation of BCL-2 and BCL-XL as well as downregulation of MCL-1, since inhibition of mitotic arrest by RO-3306 also prevents phosphorylation of BCL-2 and BCL-XL and MCL-1 downregulation. This inactivation of antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins promotes activation of BAX and BAK, cleavage of caspase-9 and -3 and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Engagement of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is critically required for BI 2536/VCR-induced apoptosis, since ectopic expression of a non-degradable MCL-1 phospho-mutant, BCL-2 overexpression or BAK knockdown significantly reduce BI 2536/VCR-mediated apoptosis. Thus, PLK1 inhibitors may open new perspectives for chemosensitization of NB. PMID:26046302

  20. Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes (pRBC) induce endothelial cell apoptosis via a heme-mediated signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingli; Dickinson-Copeland, Carmen; Hassana, Salifu; Stiles, Jonathan K

    2016-01-01

    Heme is cytotoxic to the plasmodium parasite, which converts it to an insoluble crystalline form called hemozoin (malaria pigment) in erythrocytes during replication. The increased serum levels of free heme cause tissue damage, activation of microvascular endothelial and glial cells, focal inflammation, activation of apoptotic pathways, and neuronal tissue damage. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain how these causative factors exacerbate fatal malaria. However, none of them fully explain the detailed mechanisms leading to the high morbidity and mortality associated with malaria. We have previously reported that heme-induced brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBVEC) apoptosis is a major contributor to severe malaria pathogenesis. Here, we hypothesized that heme (at clinically relevant levels) induces inflammation and apoptosis in HBVEC, a process that is mediated by independent proinflammatory and proapoptotic signaling pathways. In this study, we determined the key signaling molecules associated with heme-mediated apoptosis in HBVEC in vitro using RT2 profiler polymerase chain reaction array technology and confirmed results using immunostaining techniques. While several expressed genes in HBVEC were altered upon heme stimulation, we determined that the apoptotic effects of heme were mediated through p73 (tumor protein p73). The results provide an opportunity to target heme-mediated apoptosis therapeutically in malaria-infected individuals. PMID:27042002

  1. Bak and Mcl-1 are essential for Temozolomide induced cell death in human glioma

    PubMed Central

    Gratas, Catherine; Séry, Quentin; Rabé, Marion; Oliver, Lisa; Vallette, François M.

    2014-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the main form of human brain tumours in adults. It has been reported that TMZ induced DNA lesions that subsequently trigger cell death but the actual mechanisms involved in the process are still unclear. We investigated the implication of major proteins of the Bcl-2 family in TMZ-induced cell death in GBM cell lines at concentrations closed to that reached in the brain during the treatments. We did not observe modulation of autophagy at these concentrations but we found an induction of apoptosis. Using RNA interference, we showed that TMZ induced apoptosis is dependent on the pro-apoptotic protein Bak but independent of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Apoptosis was not enhanced by ABT-737, an inhibitor of Bcl-2/Bcl-Xl/Bcl-W but not Mcl-1. The knock-down of Mcl-1 expression increased TMZ induced apoptosis. Our results identify a Mcl-1/Bak axis for TMZ induced apoptosis in GBM and thus unravel a target to overcome therapeutic resistance toward TMZ. PMID:24811082

  2. Oxidative stress-dependent sphingosine kinase-1 inhibition mediates monoamine oxidase A-associated cardiac cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pchejetski, Dimitri; Kunduzova, Oxana; Dayon, Audrey; Calise, Denis; Seguelas, Marie-Hélène; Leducq, Nathalie; Seif, Isabelle; Parini, Angelo; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    The mitochondrial enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO), its isoform MAO-A, plays a major role in reactive oxygen species-dependent cardiomyocyte apoptosis and postischemic cardiac damage. In the current study, we investigated whether sphingolipid metabolism can account for mediating MAO-A- and reactive oxygen species-dependent cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, MAO-A-dependent reactive oxygen species generation led to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, along with sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) inhibition. These phenomena were associated with generation of proapoptotic ceramide and decrease in prosurvival sphingosine 1-phosphate. These events were mimicked by inhibition of SphK1 with either pharmacological inhibitor or small interfering RNA, as well as by extracellular addition of C(2)-ceramide or H(2)O(2). In contrast, enforced expression of SphK1 protected H9c2 cells from serotonin- or H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. Analysis of cardiac tissues from wild-type mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion revealed significant upregulation of ceramide and inhibition of SphK1. It is noteworthy that SphK1 inhibition, ceramide accumulation, and concomitantly infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were significantly decreased in MAO-A-deficient animals. In conclusion, we show for the first time that the upregulation of ceramide/sphingosine 1-phosphate ratio is a critical event in MAO-A-mediated cardiac cell apoptosis. In addition, we provide the first evidence linking generation of reactive oxygen species with SphK1 inhibition. Finally, we propose sphingolipid metabolites as key mediators of postischemic/reperfusion cardiac injury. PMID:17158340

  3. Extra Cellular Matrix Derived Metabolite Regulates Angiogenesis by FasL Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Raj K.; Gunda, Venugopal; Pawar, Smita C.; Sudhakar, Yakkanti Akul

    2013-01-01

    Object Antiangiogenic treatments are beginning to give promising outcomes in many vascular diseases including tumor angiogenesis. In this current study the antiangiogenic and pro-apoptotic actions of α1(IV)NC1 and its N- and C- peptides α1S1(IV)NC1, α1S2(IV)NC1 were investigated in-vitro and in-vivo. Study Method Endothelial cells (ECs) were treated with α1(IV)NC1, α1S1(IV)NC1, α1S2(IV)NC1 and in-vitro proliferation, migration, tube formation and apoptotic assays were executed. FasL, Fas, Caspase-8, -3 and PARP activations were studied using immunoblotting analysis using specific antibodies. Also the in-vivo antiangiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects were tested using α1(IV)NC1 in a mice model. Results Like α1(IV)NC1, its N- and C- terminal α1S2(IV)NC1 and α1S1(IV)NC1 domains posses anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic activity and inhibit ECs migration and tube formation in-vitro. Both α1S1(IV)NC1 and α1S2(IV)NC1 domains promote apoptosis by activating FasL and down stream apoptotic events including activation of caspase-8, -3 and PARP cleavage in a dose dependent manner in-vitro in ECs. Tumors in mice showed apoptotic TUNEL positive microvasculature upon α1(IV)NC1 treatment, indicating inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. Further, the antitumor activity of α1(IV)NC1 was abrogated when caspase-3 inhibitor was used. These results conform additional properties of α1(IV)NC1 as an endogenous angioinhibitor that induces apoptosis in-vitro and in-vivo by activating FasL mediated caspase-3. Significance α1(IV)NC1 and its N- and C- terminal α1S1(IV)NC1 and α1S2(IV)NC1 domains also posses pro-apoptotic and angioinhibitory activity in-vitro and in-vivo. α1(IV)NC1 regulates tumor angiogenesis by activating FasL mediated apoptosis in-vitro and in-vivo. These results demonstrate that α1(IV)NC1 and its peptides inhibit neo-vascular diseases. PMID:24324608

  4. Sunitinib can enhance BCG mediated cytotoxicity to transitional cell carcinoma through apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Ping, Szu-Yuan; Wu, Chia-Lun; Yu, Dah-Shyong

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-refractory generated a high risk to patients with bladder cancer during treatment. Tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) and TKR-mediated signal transduction pathways play an important role in tumor initiation, maintenance, angiogenesis, and vascular proliferation. Theoretically, it is helpful in adjuvant treatment for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Hence, we proposed that sunitinib, a endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor, may have a synergistic effect with BCG in enhancing its cytotoxicity to bladder cancer. The level of VEGF in various TCC cell lines was quantified by real time PCR. High grade TCC-T24 cell line with high level of VEGF expression was selected as representative tumor cells for further study. The single drug and combined inhibitory effects of BCG and sunitinib in T24 cells were determined by MTT method. The drug mediated cell apoptosis in T24 cells was characterized by flow cytometry with PI and annexin V stain. Bcl-2 apoptotic pathway induction by BCG and sunitinib treatment was evaluated by Western blotting method. Inhibitory ability of sunitinib in BCG induced cell migration was verified by cell migration assay. The results shown that expression level of VEGF mRNA in high grade T24 cells was higher than low grade J82, TSGH 8301, and TCC 9202 cell lines. Both BCG and sunitinib treatment presented cytotoxic effect to T24 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Combination of BCG and sunitinib revealed superior cytotoxicity effect than single agent when cells were pretreated with low dosage BCG before sunitinib treatment. By Annexin V analysis it was observed that cell death associated with increased early and late apoptosis process individually. Furthermore, the bcl-2 expression was significant reduced in T24 cells in metachronous BCG and sunitinib combination treatment than single agent. Tumor cell migration activity was also markedly inhibited with BCG and sunitinib combination treatment. In conclusion, these

  5. Naringin prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis and promotes osteoclasts apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fengbo; Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong; Ma, Xinlong; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Yang; Tian, Peng; Li, Yanjun; Han, Zhe

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Naringin possesses many pharmacological activities, promotes the proliferation of osteoblast. • Undecalcified histological obtain dynamic parameters of callus formation and remodeling. • Naringin regulate osteoclast apoptosis by mitochondrial pathway. - Abstract: Naringin, the primary active compound of the traditional Chinese medicine Rhizoma drynariae, possesses many pharmacological activities. The present study is an effort to explore the anti-osteoporosis potential of naringin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, we used ovariectomized rats to clarify the mechanisms by which naringin anti-osteoporosis. In vitro, we used osteoclasts to investigate naringin promotes osteoclasts apoptosis. Naringin was effective at enhancing BMD, trabecular thickness, bone mineralization, and mechanical strength in a dose-dependent manner. The result of RT-PCR analysis revealed that naringin down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of BCL-2 and up-regulated BAX, caspase-3 and cytochrome C. In addition, naringin significantly reduced the bone resorption area in vitro. These findings suggest that naringin promotes the apoptosis of osteoclasts by regulating the activity of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and prevents OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats.

  6. Phosphorylated AKT inhibits the apoptosis induced by DRAM-mediated mitophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma by preventing the translocation of DRAM to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Shi, Y; Guo, X H; Ouyang, Y B; Wang, S S; Liu, D J; Wang, A N; Li, N; Chen, D X

    2014-01-01

    Increasing autophagy is beneficial for curing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) was recently reported to induce apoptosis by mediating autophagy. However, the effects of DRAM-mediated autophagy on apoptosis in HCC cells remain unclear. In this study, normal hepatocytes (7702) and HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B and Huh7) were starved for 48 h. Starvation induced apoptosis and autophagy in all cell lines. We determined that starvation also induced DRAM expression and DRAM-mediated autophagy in both normal hepatocytes and HCC cells. However, DRAM-mediated autophagy was involved in apoptosis in normal hepatocytes but not in HCC cells, suggesting that DRAM-mediated autophagy fails to induce apoptosis in hepatoma in response to starvation. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DRAM translocated to mitochondria and induced mitophagy, which led to apoptosis in 7702 cells. In HCC cells, starvation also activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, which blocks the translocation of DRAM to mitochondria through the binding of p-AKT to DRAM in the cytoplasm. Inactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway rescued DRAM translocation to mitochondria; subsequently, mitochondrial DRAM induced apoptosis in HCC cells by mediating mitophagy. Our findings open new avenues for the investigation of the mechanisms of DRAM-mediated autophagy and suggest that promoting DRAM-mediated autophagy together with PI3K/AKT inhibition might be more effective for autophagy-based therapy in hepatoma. PMID:24556693

  7. B-cell-activating factor inhibits CD20-mediated and B-cell receptor-mediated apoptosis in human B cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yohei; Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Onda, Keiko; Nakajima, Hideki; Sato, Ban; Horiuchi, Yasuomi; Okita, Hajime; Katagiri, Yohko U; Saito, Masahiro; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka

    2008-01-01

    B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) is a survival and maturation factor for B cells belonging to the tumour necrosis factor superfamily. Among three identified functional receptors, the BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) is thought to be responsible for the effect of BAFF on B cells though details of how remain unclear. We determined that a hairy-cell leukaemia line, MLMA, expressed a relatively high level of BAFF-R and was susceptible to apoptosis mediated by either CD20 or B-cell antigen receptor (BCR). Using MLMA cells as an in vitro model of mature B cells, we found that treatment with BAFF could inhibit apoptosis mediated by both CD20 and BCR. We also observed, using immunoblot analysis and microarray analysis, that BAFF treatment induced activation of nuclear factor-κB2 following elevation of the expression level of Bcl-2, which may be involved in the molecular mechanism of BAFF-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. Interestingly, BAFF treatment was also found to induce the expression of a series of genes, such as that for CD40, related to cell survival, suggesting the involvement of a multiple mechanism in the BAFF-mediated anti-apoptotic effect. MLMA cells should provide a model for investigating the molecular basis of the effect of BAFF on B cells in vitro and will help to elucidate how B cells survive in the immune system in which BAFF-mediated signalling is involved. PMID:18540961

  8. Sophoridinol derivative 05D induces tumor cells apoptosis by topoisomerase1-mediated DNA breakage

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wuli; Zhang, Caixia; Bi, Chongwen; Ye, Cheng; Song, Danqing; Liu, Xiujun; Shao, Rongguang

    2016-01-01

    Sophoridine is a quinolizidine natural product of Sophora alopecuroides and has been applied for treatment of malignant trophoblastic tumors. Although characterized by low toxicity, the limited-spectrum antitumor activity hinders its further applications. 05D, a derivative of sophoridine, exhibits a better anticancer activity on diverse cancer cells, including solid tumors, and hematologic malignancy. It could inhibit topoisomerase 1 (top1) activity by stabilizing DNA–top1 complex and induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by promoting DNA single- and double-strand breakage mediated by top1. Also, 05D induced HCT116 cells arrest at G1 phase by inactivating CDK2/CDK4–Rb–E2F and cyclinD1–CDK4–p21 checkpoint signal pathways. 05D suppressed the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) activation and decreased 53BP level, which contributed to DNA damage repair, suggesting that the novel compound 05D might be helpful to improve the antitumor activity of DNA damaging agent by repressing ATM and ATR activation and 53BP level. In addition, the priorities in molecular traits and druggability, such as a simple structure and formulation for oral administration, further prove 05D to be a promising targeting topoisomerase agent. PMID:27274276

  9. Cytotoxicity of some oxysterols on human vascular smooth muscle cells was mediated by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Y; Shirai, K; Ito, Y; Watanabe, J; Urano, Y; Murano, T; Tomioka, H

    1997-01-01

    A decrease in smooth muscle cells is observed in advanced atherosclerotic lesion. To understand this mechanism, we selected oxysterols as candidates for toxic lipid, and examined their cytotoxicity on human cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, together with the manner of cell death. In the presence of 7-ketocholesterol or 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol (50 mumol/L), the percentage of detached cells increased significantly with dose dependency, and an increase in detached cell number and DNA nick detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling study (TUNEL) preceded an increase in lactate dehydrogenase released into the medium. DNA extracted from smooth muscle cells incubated with 7-ketocholesterol or 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol showed a laddering pattern on agarose electrophoresis. In the presence of 7-ketocholesterol or 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol, fragmented DNA quantified by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay was significantly increased. From these results, it is proposed that 7-ketocholesterol and 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol are toxic to smooth muscle cells, and that this cytotoxicity is mediated by apoptosis. PMID:9638517

  10. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates striatal degeneration via the regulation of C1q

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung Joo; Cheon, So Young; Kim, Gyung Whan

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1), an early signaling element in the cell death pathway, has been hypothesized to participate in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. The systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) facilitates the development of selective striatal lesions. However, it remains unclear whether specific neurons are selectively targeted in 3-NP-infused striatal degeneration. Recently, it has been proposed that complement-mediated synapse elimination may be reactivated aberrantly in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesized that ASK1 is involved in striatal astrocyte reactivation; reactive astrocyte secretes molecules detrimental to neuron; and striatal neurons are more susceptible to these factors. Our results indicate that striatal astrocyte is reactivated and ASK1 level increases after 3-NP general and chronic infusion. Reactive striatal astrocyte increases TGF-beta differentially to cortex and striatum. ASK1 may be involved in regulation of astrocyte TGF-beta and it is linked to the C1q level in spatial and temporal, and moreover in the earlier stage of progressing striatal neuronal loss. Conclusively the present study suggests that ASK1 mediates 3-NP toxicity and regulates C1q level through the astrocyte TGF-beta. And also it may suggest that C1q level may be a surrogate of prediction marker representing neurodegenerative disease progress before developing behavioral impairment. PMID:26728245

  11. Preventive effects of imperatorin on perfluorohexanesulfonate-induced neuronal apoptosis via inhibition of intracellular calcium-mediated ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunkyung; Choi, So-Young; Yang, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Early life neuronal exposure to environmental toxicants has been suggested to be an important etiology of neurodegenerative disease development. Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), one of the major perfluoroalkyl compounds, is widely distributed environmental contaminants. We have reported that PFHxS induces neuronal apoptosis via ERK-mediated pathway. Imperatorin is a furanocoumarin found in various edible plants and has a wide range of pharmacological effects including neuroprotection. In this study, the effects of imperatorin on PFHxS-induced neuronal apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms are examined using cerebellar granule cells (CGC). CGC were isolated from seven-day old rats and were grown in culture for seven days. Caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining were used to determine neuronal apoptosis. PFHxS-induced apoptosis of CGC was significantly reduced by imperatorin and PD98059, an ERK pathway inhibitor. PFHxS induced a persistent increase in intracellular calcium, which was significantly blocked by imperatorin, NMDA receptor antagonist, MK801 and the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blockers, diltiazem and nifedipine. The activation of caspase-3 by PFHxS was also inhibited by MK801, diltiazem and nifedipine. PFHxS-increased ERK activation was inhibited by imperatorin, MK801, diltiazem and nifedipine. Taken together, imperatorin protects CGC against PFHxS-induced apoptosis via inhibition of NMDA receptor/intracellular calcium-mediated ERK pathway. PMID:27382356

  12. Anticancer Activity of γ-Bisabolene in Human Neuroblastoma Cells via Induction of p53-Mediated Mitochondrial Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jou, Yu-Jen; Hua, Chun-Hung; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Wang, Ching-Ying; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Huang, Su-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    γ-Bisabolene has demonstrated antiproliferative activities against several human cancer cell lines. This study first discloses the antiproliferative and apoptosis induction activities of γ-bisabolene to human neuroblastoma TE671 cells. A CC50 value of γ-bisabolene was 8.2 μM to TE671 cells. Cell cycle analysis with PI staining showed γ-bisabolene elevating the sub-G1 fractions in a time-dependent manner. In addition, annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed γ-bisabolene significantly triggering early (annexin-V positive/PI negative) and late (annexin-V positive/PI positive) apoptosis in dose-dependent manners. γ-Bisabolene induced caspase 3/8/9 activation, intracellular ROS increase, and mitochondrial membrane potential decrease in apoptosis of human neuro-blastoma cells. Moreover, γ-bisabolene increased p53 phosphorylation and up-regulated p53-mediated apoptotic genes Bim and PUMA, as well as decreased the mRNA and protein levels of CK2α. Notably, the results indicated the involvement of CK2α-p53 pathways in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of human neuroblastoma cells treated with γ-bisabolene. This study elucidated the apoptosis induction pathways of γ-bisabolene-treated neuroblastoma cells, in which could be useful for developing anti-neuroblastoma drugs. PMID:27164076

  13. Preventive effects of imperatorin on perfluorohexanesulfonate-induced neuronal apoptosis via inhibition of intracellular calcium-mediated ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunkyung; Choi, So-Young; Yang, Jae-Ho; Lee, Youn Ju

    2016-07-01

    Early life neuronal exposure to environmental toxicants has been suggested to be an important etiology of neurodegenerative disease development. Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), one of the major perfluoroalkyl compounds, is widely distributed environmental contaminants. We have reported that PFHxS induces neuronal apoptosis via ERK-mediated pathway. Imperatorin is a furanocoumarin found in various edible plants and has a wide range of pharmacological effects including neuroprotection. In this study, the effects of imperatorin on PFHxS-induced neuronal apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms are examined using cerebellar granule cells (CGC). CGC were isolated from seven-day old rats and were grown in culture for seven days. Caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining were used to determine neuronal apoptosis. PFHxS-induced apoptosis of CGC was significantly reduced by imperatorin and PD98059, an ERK pathway inhibitor. PFHxS induced a persistent increase in intracellular calcium, which was significantly blocked by imperatorin, NMDA receptor antagonist, MK801 and the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blockers, diltiazem and nifedipine. The activation of caspase-3 by PFHxS was also inhibited by MK801, diltiazem and nifedipine. PFHxS-increased ERK activation was inhibited by imperatorin, MK801, diltiazem and nifedipine. Taken together, imperatorin protects CGC against PFHxS-induced apoptosis via inhibition of NMDA receptor/intracellular calcium-mediated ERK pathway. PMID:27382356

  14. Protective Role of Morin, a Flavonoid, against High Glucose Induced Oxidative Stress Mediated Apoptosis in Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Radhika; Kakkar, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is an early event of liver damage in diabetes and oxidative stress has been linked to accelerate the apoptosis in hepatocytes. Therefore, the compounds that can scavenge ROS may confer regulatory effects on high-glucose induced apoptosis. In the present study, primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to high concentration (40 mM) of glucose. At this concentration decreased cell viability and enhanced ROS generation was observed. Depleted antioxidant status of hepatocytes under high glucose stress was also observed as evident from transcriptional level and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Further, mitochondrial depolarisation was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial integrity and altered expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Increased translocation of apoptotic proteins like AIF (Apoptosis inducing factor) & Endo-G (endonuclease-G) from its resident place mitochondria to nucleus was also observed. Cyt-c residing in the inter-membrane space of mitochondria also translocated to cytoplasm. These apoptotic proteins initiated caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, increased apoptotic DNA content in glucose treated hepatocytes, suggesting mitochondria mediated apoptotic mode of cell death. Morin, a dietary flavonoid from Psidium guajava was effective in increasing the cell viability and decreasing the ROS level. It maintained mitochondrial integrity, inhibited release of apoptotic proteins from mitochondria, prevented DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and hypodiploid DNA upon exposure to high glucose. This study confirms the capacity of dietary flavonoid Morin in regulating apoptosis induced by high glucose via mitochondrial mediated pathway through intervention of oxidative stress. PMID:22899998

  15. Inhibition of TLR8 mediated signaling promotes BCG induced apoptosis in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Zhan, Lingjun; Qin, Chuan

    2016-04-01

    Apoptosis was considered as one of the important host defense mechanisms against mycobacteria infection. In macrophage, the main target cell of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, apoptosis after infection could help kill the bacillus inside and process the antigens for further presentation and proper immune response. Here, we identified a role of TLR8 during the apoptosis induced by Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) infection in THP-1 cells. Knockdown TLR8 further increased the apoptosis induced by BCG infection, and this enhanced apoptosis was caspase-dependent. During this process, Erk1/2, JNK and NFκB pathways were negatively affected and contributed to the enhanced apoptosis. PMID:26657720

  16. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor zebularine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Yu, Hong-gang; Luo, He-Sheng; Shen, Lei

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zebularine inhibited cell growth of gastric cancer in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zebularine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorigenicity was inhibited by zebularine. -- Abstract: DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine has been reported to potentiate the anti-tumor effect by reactivating the expression of tumor suppressor genes and apoptosis-related genes in various malignant cells. However, the apoptotic signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells induced by zebularine is not well understood. In the study, the effects of zebularine on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by MTT assay, Hoechst assay, Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and TUNEL assay. Zebularine was an effective inhibitor of human gastric cancer cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The effects were dose dependent. A zebularine concentration of 50 {mu}M accounted for the inhibition of cell proliferation of 67% at 48 h. The treatment with zebularine upregulated Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 protein. Caspase-3 was activated, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. Moreover, zebularine injection successfully inhibited the tumor growth via apoptosis induction which was demonstrated by TUNEL assay in xenograft tumor mouse model. These results demonstrated that zebularine induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways, and zebularine might become a therapeutic approach for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  17. Nrdp1-mediated degradation of BRUCE decreases cell viability and induces apoptosis in human 786-O renal cell carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shao-Jun; Lin, Jian-Hai; Yao, Xu-Dong; Peng, Bo; Xu, Yun-Fei; Liu, Min; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1) is involved in a plethora of cellular processes and plays an essential role in the development and progression of human cancers. However, its role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the biological significance of Nrdp1 in RCC. Western blot analyses of tissue samples from 24 patients with primary RCC revealed lower Nrdp1 and higher baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (BRUCE) protein levels in RCC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. In addition, MTT and apoptosis assays demonstrated that Nrdp1 overexpression resulted in decreased cell viability and enhanced apoptosis in RCC 786-O cells; conversely, Nrdp1 knockdown increased 786-O cell viability and inhibited apoptosis. Further analysis showed that BRUCE downregulation partially attenuated the effects of Nrdp1 knockdown on RCC cell viability and apoptosis. Moreover, an inverse association was obtained between BRUCE and Nrdp1 protein levels. These findings suggest that Nrdp1-mediated degradation of BRUCE decreases cell viability and induces apoptosis in RCC cells, highlighting Nrdp1 as a potential target for RCC treatment.

  18. Capsaicin mediates apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma NPC-TW 039 cells through mitochondrial depolarization and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ip, S-W; Lan, S-H; Lu, H-F; Huang, A-C; Yang, J-S; Lin, J-P; Huang, H-Y; Lien, J-C; Ho, C-C; Chiu, C-F; Wood, Wg; Chung, J-G

    2012-06-01

    Capsaicin, a pungent compound found in hot chili peppers, has been reported to have antitumor activities in many human cancer cell lines, but the induction of precise apoptosis signaling pathway in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells is unclear. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human NPC, NPC-TW 039, cells. Effects of capsaicin involved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, caspase-3 activation and mitochondrial depolarization. Capsaicin-induced cytotoxic effects (cell death) through G0/G1 phase arrest and induction of apoptosis of NPC-TW 039 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Capsaicin treatment triggered ER stress by promoting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increasing levels of inositol-requiring 1 enzyme (IRE1), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 153 (GADD153) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Other effects included an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+), loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ(m)), releases of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and activation of caspase-9 and -3. Furthermore, capsaicin induced increases in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and abundance of apoptosis-related protein levels. These results suggest that ER stress- and mitochondria-mediated cell death is involved in capsaicin-induced apoptosis in NPC-TW 039 cells. PMID:21859781

  19. Roles of oxidative damage and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in ethylbenzene-induced hepatotoxic effects in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Yanrang; Yang, Deyi; Zhang, Jingshu; Gu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying hepatoxic effects of ethylbenzene still remain unknown. We investigated the toxic effects of ethylbenzene on liver and explored the mechanism of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as an in vivo model with ethylbenzene inhalation of 0, 433.5 mg/m(3), 4335 mg/m(3) and 6500 mg/m(3) for 13 weeks. Levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were assayed. Meanwhile, the ultrastructure of hepatic tissues was observed and cell apoptosis was detected via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Furthermore, we investigated the expression levels of mRNA and protein of bax, bcl-2, cytochrome c, caspase-9 and caspase-3 in rat liver tissues. Compared with control group, the malondialdehyde levels were significantly elevated while glutathione levels and activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were decreased, respectively. The mitochondria of liver appeared swollen with vacuolar structure and loss of cristae in 6500 mg/m(3) ethylbenzene-treated group, and ethylbenzene induced a significant increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells as compared to the control group. In addition, enhanced mRNA and protein expression levels of all measured genes were observed in ethylbenzene-treated groups except the decreased bcl-2 expression levels. Our results indicated that ethylbenzene may induce oxidative damage and apoptosis in rat liver. Mitochondrial-mediated pathway was involved in the apoptosis process. PMID:25518993

  20. Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through N-acetyl-l-leucine-modified polyethylenimine-mediated p53 gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Liu; Li, Quanshun

    2015-11-01

    Herein, N-acetyl-L-leucine-modified polyethylenimine was successfully constructed through the EDC/NHS-mediated coupling reaction and employed as vectors to accomplish p53 gene delivery using HeLa (p53wt) and PC-3 cells (p53null) as models. Compared with PEI25K, the derivatives exhibited lower cytotoxicity, protein adsorption and hemolytic activity, together with satisfactory pDNA condensation capability and gene transfection efficiency. After p53 transfection, MTT analysis confirmed that the cell proliferation was inhibited. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the derivative-mediated p53 delivery could induce stronger early apoptosis than PEI25K and Lipofectamine(2000). Further, PC-3 cells showed higher sensitivity to the exogenous p53 transfection than HeLa cells. The mechanism for inducing apoptosis was determined to be up-regulation of p53 expression at both mRNA and protein levels using RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. Expression level and activity analysis of caspase-3, -8 and -9, and mitochondrial membrane potential measurement revealed that p53 transfection mediated by these derivatives facilitated early apoptosis of tumor cells via a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. Thus, the derivatives showed potential as biocompatible carriers for realizing effective tumor gene therapy. PMID:26322477

  1. Bim is a crucial regulator of apoptosis induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Aguiló, N; Uranga, S; Marinova, D; Martín, C; Pardo, J

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, induces apoptosis in infected macrophages in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism controlling this process is not known. In order to study the involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in M. tuberculosis-induced apoptosis, we analysed cell death in M. tuberculosis-infected embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from different knockout mice for genes involved in this route. We found that apoptosis induced by M. tuberculosis is abrogated in the absence of Bak and Bax, caspase 9 or the executioner caspases 3 and 7. Notably, we show that MEF deficient in the BH3-only BCL-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) protein were also resistant to this process. The relevance of these results has been confirmed in the mouse macrophage cell line J774, where cell transfection with siRNA targeting Bim impaired apoptosis induced by virulent mycobacteria. Notably, only infection with a virulent strain, but not with attenuated ESX-1-defective strains, such as Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and live-attenuated M. tuberculosis vaccine strain MTBVAC, induced Bim upregulation and apoptosis, probably implicating virulence factor early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein in this process. Our results suggest that Bim upregulation and apoptosis is mediated by the p38MAPK-dependent pathway. Our findings show that Bim is a master regulator of apoptosis induced by M. tuberculosis. PMID:25032866

  2. Autophagic Cell Death and Apoptosis Jointly Mediate Cisatracurium Besylate-Induced Cell Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Haixia; Tian, Weili; Li, Wen; Zhang, Xingli; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Yue; Liu, Xin; Xia, Zhengyuan; Feng, Du; Zhang, Liangqing

    2016-01-01

    Cisatracurium besylate is an ideal non-depolarizing muscle relaxant which is widely used in clinical application. However, some studies have suggested that cisatracurium besylate can affect cell proliferation. Moreover, its specific mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we found that the number of GFP-LC3 (green fluoresent protein-light chain 3) positive autophagosomes and the rate of mitochondria fracture both increased significantly in drug-treated GFP-LC3 and MitoDsRed stable HeLa cells. Moreover, cisatracurium promoted the co-localization of LC3 and mitochondria and induced formation of autolysosomes. Levels of mitochondrial proteins decreased, which were reversed by the lysosome inhibitor Bafinomycin A1. Similar results with evidence of dose-dependent effects were found in both HeLa and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs). Cisatracurium lowered HUVEC viability to 0.16 (OD490) at 100 µM and to 0.05 (OD490) after 48 h in vitro; it increased the cell death rate to 56% at 100 µM and to 60% after 24 h in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (p < 0.01). Cell proliferation decreased significantly by four fold in Atg5 WT (wildtype) MEF (mouse embryonic fibroblast) (p < 0.01) but was unaffected in Atg5 KO (Knockout) MEF, even upon treatment with a high dose of cisatracurium. Cisatracurium induced significant increase in cell death of wild-type MEFs even in the presence of the apoptosis inhibitor zVAD. Thus, we conclude that activation of both the autophagic cell death and cell apoptosis pathways contributes to cisatracurium-mediated cell injury. PMID:27058536

  3. Mitochondrial permeabilization without caspase activation mediates the increase of basal apoptosis in cells lacking Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Julia; González-Reyes, José A; Jódar, Laura; Díaz-Ruiz, Alberto; de Cabo, Rafael; Villalba, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a cap'n'collar/basic leucine zipper (b-ZIP) transcription factor which acts as sensor of oxidative and electrophilic stress. Low levels of Nrf2 predispose cells to chemical carcinogenesis but a dark side of Nrf2 function also exists because its unrestrained activation may allow the survival of potentially dangerous damaged cells. Since Nrf2 inhibition may be of therapeutic interest in cancer, and a decrease of Nrf2 activity may be related with degenerative changes associated with aging, it is important to investigate how the lack of Nrf2 function activates molecular mechanisms mediating cell death. Murine Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs) bearing a Nrf2 deletion (Nrf2KO) displayed diminished cellular growth rate and shortened lifespan compared with wild-type MEFs. Basal rates of DNA fragmentation and histone H2A.X phosphorylation were higher in Nrf2KO MEFs, although steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species were not significantly increased. Enhanced rates of apoptotic DNA fragmentation were confirmed in liver and lung tissues from Nrf2KO mice. Apoptosis in Nrf2KO MEFs was associated with a decrease of Bcl-2 but not Bax levels, and with the release of the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic factors cytochrome c and AIF. Procaspase-9 and Apaf-1 were also increased in Nrf2KO MEFs but caspase-3 was not activated. Inhibition of XIAP increased death in Nrf2KO but not in wild-type MEFs. Mitochondrial ultrastructure was also altered in Nrf2KO MEFs. Our results support that Nrf2 deletion produces mitochondrial dysfunction associated with mitochondrial permeabilization, increasing basal apoptosis through a caspase-independent and AIF-dependent pathway. PMID:27016073

  4. Differential localization of A-Raf regulates MST2-mediated apoptosis during epithelial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rauch, J; Vandamme, D; Mack, B; McCann, B; Volinsky, N; Blanco, A; Gires, O; Kolch, W

    2016-08-01

    A-Raf belongs to the family of oncogenic Raf kinases that are involved in mitogenic signaling by activating the MEK-ERK pathway. Low kinase activity of A-Raf toward MEK suggested that A-Raf might have alternative functions. We recently identified A-Raf as a potent inhibitor of the proapoptotic mammalian sterile 20-like kinase (MST2) tumor suppressor pathway in several cancer entities including head and neck, colon, and breast. Independent of kinase activity, A-Raf binds to MST2 thereby efficiently inhibiting apoptosis. Here, we show that the interaction of A-Raf with the MST2 pathway is regulated by subcellular compartmentalization. Although in proliferating normal cells and tumor cells A-Raf localizes to the mitochondria, differentiated non-carcinogenic cells of head and neck epithelia, which express A-Raf at the plasma membrane. The constitutive or induced re-localization of A-Raf to the plasma membrane compromises its ability to efficiently sequester and inactivate MST2, thus rendering cells susceptible to apoptosis. Physiologically, A-Raf re-localizes to the plasma membrane upon epithelial differentiation in vivo. This re-distribution is regulated by the scaffold protein kinase suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2). Downregulation of KSR2 during mammary epithelial cell differentiation or siRNA-mediated knockdown re-localizes A-Raf to the plasma membrane causing the release of MST2. By using the MCF7 cell differentiation system, we could demonstrate that overexpression of A-Raf in MCF7 cells, which induces differentiation. Our findings offer a new paradigm to understand how differential localization of Raf complexes affects diverse signaling functions in normal cells and carcinomas. PMID:26891695

  5. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-BETA 1 (TGF-β1) INDUCES ANGIOGENESIS THROUGH VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR (VEGF)-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Giovanni; Cook, Brandoch D.; Terushkin, Vitaly; Pintucci, Giuseppe; Mignatti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    VEGF and TGF-β1 induce angiogenesis but have opposing effects on endothelial cells. VEGF protects endothelial cells from apoptosis; TGF-β1 induces apoptosis. We have previously shown that VEGF / VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) signaling mediates TGF-β1 induction of apoptosis. This finding raised an important question: Does this mechanism stimulate or inhibit angiogenesis? Here we report that VEGF-mediated apoptosis is required for TGF-β1 induction of angiogenesis. In vitro the apoptotic effect of TGF-β1 on endothelial cells is rapid and followed by a long period in which the cells are refractory to apoptosis induction by TGF-β1. Inhibition of VEGF / VEGFR2 signaling abrogates formation of cord-like structures by TGF-β1 with an effect comparable to that of z-VAD, an apoptosis inhibitor. Similarly, genetic deficiency of VEGF abolishes TGF-β1 upregulation of endothelial cell differentiation and formation of vascular structures in embryoid bodies. In vivo TGF-β1 induces endothelial cell apoptosis as rapidly as in vitro. Inhibition of VEGF blocks TGF-β1 induction of both apoptosis and angiogenesis, an effect similar to that of z-VAD. Thus, TGF-β1 induction of angiogenesis requires a rapid and transient apoptotic effect mediated by VEGF/VEGFR2. This novel, unexpected role of VEGF and VEGFR2 indicates VEGF-mediated apoptosis as a potential target to control angiogenesis. PMID:19180561

  6. Nicotine exposure induces bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and senescence via ROS mediated autophagy-impairment.

    PubMed

    Bodas, Manish; Van Westphal, Colin; Carpenter-Thompson, Rhett; K Mohanty, Dillip; Vij, Neeraj

    2016-08-01

    Waterpipe smoking and e-cigarette vaping, the non-combustible sources of inhaled nicotine exposure are increasingly becoming popular and marketed as safer alternative to cigarette smoking. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the impact of inhaled nicotine exposure on disease causing COPD-emphysema mechanisms. For in vitro studies, human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2b) were treated with waterpipe smoke extract (WPSE, 5%), nicotine (5mM), and/or cysteamine (250μM, an autophagy inducer and anti-oxidant drug), for 6hrs. We observed significantly (p<0.05) increased ubiquitinated protein-accumulation in the insoluble protein fractions of Beas2b cells treated with WPSE or nicotine that could be rescued by cysteamine treatment, suggesting aggresome-formation and autophagy-impairment. Moreover, our data also demonstrate that both WPSE and nicotine exposure significantly (p<0.05) elevates Ub-LC3β co-localization to aggresome-bodies while inducing Ub-p62 co-expression/accumulation, verifying autophagy-impairment. We also found that WPSE and nicotine exposure impacts Beas2b cell viability by significantly (p<0.05) inducing cellular apoptosis/senescence via ROS-activation, as it could be controlled by cysteamine, which is known to have an anti-oxidant property. For murine studies, C57BL/6 mice were administered with inhaled nicotine (intranasal, 500μg/mouse/day for 5 days), as an experimental model of non-combustible nicotine exposure. The inhaled nicotine exposure mediated oxidative-stress induces autophagy-impairment in the murine lungs as seen by significant (p<0.05, n=4) increase in the expression levels of nitrotyrosine protein-adduct (oxidative-stress marker, soluble-fraction) and Ub/p62/VCP (impaired-autophagy marker, insoluble-fraction). Overall, our data shows that nicotine, a common component of WPS, e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke, induces bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and senescence via ROS mediated autophagy-impairment as a potential

  7. Cellular FLICE-like Inhibitory Protein (c-FLIP) and PS1-associated Protein (PSAP) Mediate Presenilin 1-induced γ-Secretase-dependent and -independent Apoptosis, Respectively.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Linlin; Hu, Chen; Zhang, Fuqiang; Xu, Daniel C; Cui, Mei-Zhen; Xu, Xuemin

    2015-07-24

    Presenilin 1 (PS1) has been implicated in apoptosis; however, its mechanism remains elusive. We report that PS1-induced apoptosis was associated with cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) turnover and that γ-secretase inhibitor blocked c-FLIP turnover and also partially blocked PS1-induced apoptosis. A complete inhibition of PS1-induced apoptosis was achieved by knockdown of PS1-associated protein (PSAP), a mitochondrial proapoptotic protein that forms a complex with Bax upon induction of apoptosis, in the presence of γ-secretase inhibitor. PS1-induced apoptosis was partially inhibited by knockdown of caspase-8, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), or Bid. However, knockdown of Bax or overexpression of Bcl-2 resulted in complete inhibition of PS1-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that PS1 induces apoptosis through two pathways: the γ-secretase-dependent pathway mediated by turnover of c-FLIP and the γ-secretase-independent pathway mediated by PSAP-Bax complex formation. These two pathways converge on Bax to activate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. These findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which PS1 is involved in apoptosis and the mechanism by which PS1 exerts its pathogenic effects. In addition, our results suggest that PS2 induces apoptosis through a pathway that is different from that of PS1. PMID:26025363

  8. Cellular FLICE-like Inhibitory Protein (c-FLIP) and PS1-associated Protein (PSAP) Mediate Presenilin 1-induced γ-Secretase-dependent and -independent Apoptosis, Respectively*

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Linlin; Hu, Chen; Zhang, Fuqiang; Xu, Daniel C.; Cui, Mei-Zhen; Xu, Xuemin

    2015-01-01

    Presenilin 1 (PS1) has been implicated in apoptosis; however, its mechanism remains elusive. We report that PS1-induced apoptosis was associated with cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) turnover and that γ-secretase inhibitor blocked c-FLIP turnover and also partially blocked PS1-induced apoptosis. A complete inhibition of PS1-induced apoptosis was achieved by knockdown of PS1-associated protein (PSAP), a mitochondrial proapoptotic protein that forms a complex with Bax upon induction of apoptosis, in the presence of γ-secretase inhibitor. PS1-induced apoptosis was partially inhibited by knockdown of caspase-8, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), or Bid. However, knockdown of Bax or overexpression of Bcl-2 resulted in complete inhibition of PS1-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that PS1 induces apoptosis through two pathways: the γ-secretase-dependent pathway mediated by turnover of c-FLIP and the γ-secretase-independent pathway mediated by PSAP-Bax complex formation. These two pathways converge on Bax to activate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. These findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which PS1 is involved in apoptosis and the mechanism by which PS1 exerts its pathogenic effects. In addition, our results suggest that PS2 induces apoptosis through a pathway that is different from that of PS1. PMID:26025363

  9. Lactobacillus casei extract induces apoptosis in gastric cancer by inhibiting NF-κB and mTOR-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong Won; Baek, Young-Mi; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Park, Junsoo; Eom, Chi-Yong; Lee, Zee-Won; Choi, Jong-Soon; Jang, Ik-Soon

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacillus casei extract (LBX) has been reported to prevent gastric cancer, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The proliferation and cell death of gastric cancer KATO3 cells were examined after treatment with LBX for various times and at various doses. LBX inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells and induced apoptosis by inactivating NF-κB promoter activity. Apoptosis induced by LBX, however, is not directly associated with the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Immunoblot analysis revealed that LBX decreased the expressions of NF-κB and IκB. The reduced NF-κB levels led to the decreased phosphorylation of mTOR signaling components, such as PI3K, Akt, and (p70)S6 kinase. These results showed for the first time that LBX induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells by inhibiting NF-κB and mTOR-mediated signaling. PMID:22505595

  10. Molecular mechanisms of nutlin-induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Manujendra N; Jiang, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy in which p53 is rarely mutated. Thus, activation of the p53 pathway by a small molecule inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 interaction, nutlin, in MM cells retaining wild type p53 is an attractive therapeutic strategy. Recently we reported that nutlin plus velcade (a proteasome inhibitor) displayed a synergistic response in MM. However, the mechanism of the p53-mediated apoptosis in MM has not been fully understood. Our data show that nutlin-induced apoptosis correlated with reduction in cell viability, upregulation of p53, p21 and MDM2 protein levels with a simultaneous increase in pro-apoptotic targets PUMA, Bax and Bak and downregulation of anti-apoptotic targets Bcl2 and survivin and activation of caspase in MM cells harboring wild type p53. Nutlin-induced apoptosis was inhibited when activation of caspase was blocked by the caspase inhibitor. Nutlin caused mitochondrial translocation of p53 where it binds with Bcl2, leading to cytochrome C release. Moreover, blocking the transcriptional arm of p53 by the p53-specific transcriptional inhibitor, pifithrin-α, not only inhibited nutlin-induced upregulation of p53-transcriptional targets but also augmented apoptosis in MM cells, suggesting an association of transcription-independent pathway of apoptosis. However, inhibitor of mitochondrial translocation of p53, PFT-µ, did not prevent nutlin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the p53 transcription-dependent pathway was also operational in nutlin-induced apoptosis in MM. Our study provides the evidence that nutlin-induced apoptosis in MM cells is mediated by transcription-dependent and -independent pathways and supports further clinical evaluation of nutlin as a novel therapeutic agent in MM. PMID:20595817

  11. Bozepinib, a novel small antitumor agent, induces PKR-mediated apoptosis and synergizes with IFNα triggering apoptosis, autophagy and senescence.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Juan Antonio; Carrasco, Esther; Ramirez, Alberto; Jiménez, Gema; Olmedo, Carmen; Peran, Macarena; Agil, Ahmad; Conejo-García, Ana; Cruz-López, Olga; Campos, Joaquin María; García, María Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Bozepinib [(RS)-2,6-dichloro-9-[1-(p-nitrobenzenesulfonyl)-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1-benzoxazepin-3-yl]-9H-purine] is a potent antitumor compound that is able to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we show that bozepinib also has antitumor activity in colon cancer cells, showing 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values lower than those described for breast cancer cells and suggesting great potential of this synthetic drug in the treatment of cancer. We identified that the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a target of bozepinib, being upregulated and activated by the drug. However, p53 was not affected by bozepinib, and was not necessary for induction of apoptosis in either breast or colon cancer cells. In addition, the efficacy of bozepinib was improved when combined with the interferon-alpha (IFNα) cytokine, which enhanced bozepinib-induced apoptosis with involvement of protein kinase PKR. Moreover, we report here, for the first time, that in combined therapy, IFNα induces a clear process of autophagosome formation, and prior treatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, is able to significantly reduce IFNα/bozepinib-induced cell death. Finally, we observed that a minor population of caspase 3-deficient MCF-7 cells persisted during long-term treatment with lower doses of bozepinib and the bozepinib/IFNα combination. Curiously, this population showed β-galactosidase activity and a percentage of cells arrested in S phase, that was more evident in cells treated with the bozepinib/IFNα combination than in cells treated with bozepinib or IFNα alone. Considering the resistance of some cancer cells to conventional chemotherapy, combinations enhancing the diversity of the cell death outcome might succeed in delivering more effective and less toxic chemotherapy. PMID:24194639

  12. Bozepinib, a novel small antitumor agent, induces PKR-mediated apoptosis and synergizes with IFNα triggering apoptosis, autophagy and senescence

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, Juan Antonio; Carrasco, Esther; Ramirez, Alberto; Jiménez, Gema; Olmedo, Carmen; Peran, Macarena; Agil, Ahmad; Conejo-García, Ana; Cruz-López, Olga; Campos, Joaquin María; García, María Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Bozepinib [(RS)-2,6-dichloro-9-[1-(p-nitrobenzenesulfonyl)-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1-benzoxazepin-3-yl]-9H-purine] is a potent antitumor compound that is able to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we show that bozepinib also has antitumor activity in colon cancer cells, showing 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values lower than those described for breast cancer cells and suggesting great potential of this synthetic drug in the treatment of cancer. We identified that the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a target of bozepinib, being upregulated and activated by the drug. However, p53 was not affected by bozepinib, and was not necessary for induction of apoptosis in either breast or colon cancer cells. In addition, the efficacy of bozepinib was improved when combined with the interferon-alpha (IFNα) cytokine, which enhanced bozepinib-induced apoptosis with involvement of protein kinase PKR. Moreover, we report here, for the first time, that in combined therapy, IFNα induces a clear process of autophagosome formation, and prior treatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, is able to significantly reduce IFNα/bozepinib-induced cell death. Finally, we observed that a minor population of caspase 3-deficient MCF-7 cells persisted during long-term treatment with lower doses of bozepinib and the bozepinib/IFNα combination. Curiously, this population showed β-galactosidase activity and a percentage of cells arrested in S phase, that was more evident in cells treated with the bozepinib/IFNα combination than in cells treated with bozepinib or IFNα alone. Considering the resistance of some cancer cells to conventional chemotherapy, combinations enhancing the diversity of the cell death outcome might succeed in delivering more effective and less toxic chemotherapy. PMID:24194639

  13. Induction of apoptosis by human Nbk/Bik, a BH3-containing protein that interacts with E1B 19K.

    PubMed Central

    Han, J; Sabbatini, P; White, E

    1996-01-01

    The E1B 19-kilodalton protein (19K protein) is a potent apoptosis inhibitor and the adenovirus homolog of Bcl-2 (E. White, Genes Dev. 10:1-15, 1996). To obtain a better understanding of the biochemical mechanism by which the E1B 19K protein regulates apoptosis, proteins that interact with 19K have been identified; one of these is Bax (J. Han, P. Sabbatini, D. Perez, L. Rao, D. Mohda, and E. White, Genes Dev. 10:461-477, 1996), and another is Bak (S. N. Farrow, J. H. M. White, I. Martinou, T. Raven, K.-T. Pun, C. J. Grinham, J.-C. Martinou, and R. Brown, Nature (London) 374:731-733, 1995). Bax and Bak are Bcl-2 family members which contain Bcl-2 homology regions 1, 2, and 3 (BH1, BH2, and BH3), which interact with E1B 19K and Bcl-2 and promote apoptosis. Like Bax and Bak, Nbk was cloned from a yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with E1B 19K. Nbk contained BH3 but not BH1 or BH2. It also interacted with Bcl-2 but not with Bax. Both Bcl-2 and E1B 19K interacted with Nbk in vitro, and this interaction was highly specific. In vivo, the Nbk and E1B 19K proteins may colocalize with cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes. Nbk expression functionally antagonized 19K-mediated inhibition of apoptotic cell death and completely prevented transformation by E1A and E1B 19K. Nbk was sufficient for induction of apoptosis in the presence of mutant p53 and thus low levels of Bax, suggesting that Nbk functions independently of Bax to induce apoptosis. Nbk may therefore represent a novel death regulator which contains only a BH3 that interacts with and antagonizes apoptosis inhibitors such as the E1B 19K protein. PMID:8816500

  14. Menadione induces the formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of GSH-mediated apoptosis and inhibits the FAK-mediated cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Sohn, Dong Suep; Lee, Chung Soo

    2014-09-01

    Menadione induces apoptosis in tumor cells. However, the mechanism of apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells exposed to menadione is not clear. In addition, it is unclear whether menadione-induced apoptosis is mediated by the depletion of glutathione (GSH) contents that is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, the effect of menadione on the invasion and migration of human epithelial ovarian cancer cells has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of menadione exposure on apoptosis, cell adhesion, and cell migration using the human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3. The results suggest that menadione may induce apoptotic cell death in ovarian carcinoma cell lines by activating the mitochondrial pathway and the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways. The apoptotic effect of menadione appears to be mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of GSH. Menadione inhibited fetal-bovine-serum-induced cell adhesion and migration of OVCAR-3 cells, possibly through the suppression the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-dependent activation of cytoskeletal-associated components. Therefore, menadione might be beneficial in the treatment of epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma and combination therapy. PMID:24879465

  15. Balance between short and long isoforms of cFLIP regulates Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ram, Daniel R; Ilyukha, Vladimir; Volkova, Tatyana; Buzdin, Anton; Tai, Albert; Smirnova, Irina; Poltorak, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    cFLIP, an inhibitor of apoptosis, is a crucial regulator of cellular death by apoptosis and necroptosis; its importance in development is exemplified by the embryonic lethality in cFLIP-deficient animals. A homolog of caspase 8 (CASP8), cFLIP exists in two main isoforms: cFLIPL (long) and cFLIPR (short). Although both splice variants regulate death receptor (DR)-induced apoptosis by CASP8, the specific role of each isoform is poorly understood. Here, we report a previously unidentified model of resistance to Fas receptor-mediated liver failure in the wild-derived MSM strain, compared with susceptibility in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Linkage analysis in F2 intercross (B6 x MSM) progeny identified several MSM loci controlling resistance to Fas-mediated death, including the caspase 8- and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (Cflar) locus encoding cFLIP. Furthermore, we identified a 21-bp insertion in the 3' UTR of the fifth exon of Cflar in MSM that influences differential splicing of cFLIP mRNA. Intriguingly, we observed that MSM liver cells predominantly express the FLIPL variant, in contrast to B6 liver cells, which have higher levels of cFLIPR. In keeping with this finding, genome-wide RNA sequencing revealed a relative abundance of FLIPL transcripts in MSM hepatocytes whereas B6 liver cells had significantly more FLIPR mRNA. Importantly, we show that, in the MSM liver, CASP8 is present exclusively as its cleaved p43 product, bound to cFLIPL. Because of partial enzymatic activity of the heterodimer, it might prevent necroptosis. On the other hand, it prevents cleavage of CASP8 to p10/20 necessary for cleavage of caspase 3 and, thus, apoptosis induction. Therefore, MSM hepatocytes are predisposed for protection from DR-mediated cell death. PMID:26798068

  16. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Ngoc, Tam Dan; Son, Young-Ok; Lim, Shin-Saeng; Shi, Xianglin; Kim, Jong-Ghee; Heo, Jung Sun; Choe, Youngji; Jeon, Young-Mi; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2012-03-15

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G{sub 2}/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45α. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-α or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ► The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ► NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ► NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ► JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ► ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53 in mESCs.

  17. Parthenolide induces apoptosis by activating the mitochondrial and death receptor pathways and inhibits FAK-mediated cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sang Won; Park, Eon Sub; Lee, Chung Soo

    2014-01-01

    The natural product parthenolide induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the mechanism of apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells exposed to parthenolide is not clear. In addition, it is unclear whether parthenolide-induced apoptosis is mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of GSH contents, and the effect of parthenolide on the invasion and migration of human epithelial ovarian cancer cells has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of parthenolide exposure on apoptosis, cell adhesion, and migration using the human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3. The results suggest that parthenolide may induce apoptotic cell death in ovarian carcinoma cell lines by activating the mitochondrial pathway and the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways. The apoptotic effect of parthenolide appears to be mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of GSH. Parthenolide inhibited fetal bovine serum-induced cell adhesion and migration of OVCAR-3 cells, possibly through the suppression the focal adhesion kinase-dependent activation of cytoskeletal-associated components. Therefore, parthenolide might be beneficial in the treatment of epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma and combination therapy. PMID:24065392

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptosis Contributing to High Glucose-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Calcification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiang; Guo, Runmin; Liu, Chang; Fu, Duguan; Liu, Fuyuan; Hu, Jiefen; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a common feature in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) in the context of insulin resistance and a relative lack of insulin. Recently, a few studies have indicated that a high concentration of glucose amplifies the osteogenesis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Some previous reports state that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis was activated in and contributed to VC. However, whether or not high glucose could induce ER stress-mediated apoptosis and then involve the pathogenesis of VC remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether high blood glucose-induced VC in diabetes mellitus is caused by the ER response and subsequent apoptosis. We examined the effects of high glucose on the ER stress response of VSMCs. High glucose treatment drastically increased the ER stress response in VSMCs. The high glucose-induced osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with 500 μM of 4-PBA (an ER stress inhibitor) prior to the exposure to high glucose, as evidenced by decreases in the expression of Runx2 and activity of alkaline phosphatase, as well as calcium nodules. These results suggest that high glucose induces the ER stress response and apoptosis, leading to high glucose-elicited VC. PMID:26890314

  19. Nucleolin inhibits Fas ligand binding and suppresses Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo via a surface nucleolin-Fas complex.

    PubMed

    Wise, Jillian F; Berkova, Zuzana; Mathur, Rohit; Zhu, Haifeng; Braun, Frank K; Tao, Rong-Hua; Sabichi, Anita L; Ao, Xue; Maeng, Hoyoung; Samaniego, Felipe

    2013-06-01

    Resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis is associated with poor cancer outcomes and chemoresistance. To elucidate potential mechanisms of defective Fas signaling, we screened primary lymphoma cell extracts for Fas-associated proteins that would have the potential to regulate Fas signaling. An activation-resistant Fas complex selectively included nucleolin. We confirmed the presence of nucleolin-Fas complexes in B-cell lymphoma cells and primary tissues, and the absence of such complexes in B-lymphocytes from healthy donors. RNA-binding domain 4 and the glycine/arginine-rich domain of nucleolin were essential for its association with Fas. Nucleolin colocalized with Fas on the surface of B-cell lymphoma cells. Nucleolin knockdown sensitized BJAB cells to Fas ligand (FasL)-induced and Fas agonistic antibody-induced apoptosis through enhanced binding, suggesting that nucleolin blocks the FasL-Fas interaction. Mice transfected with nucleolin were protected from the lethal effects of agonistic anti-mouse Fas antibody (Jo2) and had lower rates of hepatocyte apoptosis, compared with vector and a non-Fas-binding mutant of nucleolin. Our results show that cell surface nucleolin binds Fas, inhibits ligand binding, and thus prevents induction of Fas-mediated apoptosis in B-cell lymphomas and may serve as a new therapeutic target. PMID:23599269

  20. ATP scavenging by the intracellular pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibits P2X7-mediated host-cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Özlem; Yao, Luyu; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Rose, Timothy M.; Lewis, Emma L.; Duman, Memed; Lamont, Richard J.; Ojcius, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The purinergic receptor P2X7 is involved in cell death, inhibition of intracellular infection and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The role of the P2X7 receptor in bacterial infection has been primarily established in macrophages. Here we show that primary gingival epithelial cells, an important component of the oral innate immune response, also express functional P2X7 and are sensitive to ATP-induced apoptosis. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an intracellular bacterium and successful colonizer of oral tissues, can inhibit gingival epithelial cell apoptosis induced by ATP ligation of P2X7 receptors. A P. gingivalis homologue of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), an ATP-consuming enzyme, is secreted extracellularly and is required for maximal suppression of apoptosis. An ndk-deficient mutant was unable to prevent ATP-induced host-cell death nor plasma membrane permeabilization in the epithelial cells. Treatment with purified recombinant NDK inhibited ATP-mediated host-cell plasma membrane permeabilization in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, NDK promotes survival of host cells by hydrolysing extracellular ATP and preventing apoptosis-mediated through P2X7. PMID:18005240

  1. ER stress regulates myeloid-derived suppressor cell fate through TRAIL-R–mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Condamine, Thomas; Kumar, Vinit; Ramachandran, Indu R.; Youn, Je-In; Celis, Esteban; Finnberg, Niklas; El-Deiry, Wafik S.; Winograd, Rafael; Vonderheide, Robert H.; English, Nickolas R.; Knight, Stella C.; Yagita, Hideo; McCaffrey, Judith C.; Antonia, Scott; Hockstein, Neil; Witt, Robert; Masters, Gregory; Bauer, Thomas; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) dampen the immune response thorough inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation and often are expanded in pathological conditions. Here, we studied the fate of MDSCs in cancer. Unexpectedly, MDSCs had lower viability and a shorter half-life in tumor-bearing mice compared with neutrophils and monocytes. The reduction of MDSC viability was due to increased apoptosis, which was mediated by increased expression of TNF-related apoptosis–induced ligand receptors (TRAIL-Rs) in these cells. Targeting TRAIL-Rs in naive mice did not affect myeloid cell populations, but it dramatically reduced the presence of MDSCs and improved immune responses in tumor-bearing mice. Treatment of myeloid cells with proinflammatory cytokines did not affect TRAIL-R expression; however, induction of ER stress in myeloid cells recapitulated changes in TRAIL-R expression observed in tumor-bearing hosts. The ER stress response was detected in MDSCs isolated from cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice, but not in control neutrophils or monocytes, and blockade of ER stress abrogated tumor-associated changes in TRAIL-Rs. Together, these data indicate that MDSC pathophysiology is linked to ER stress, which shortens the lifespan of these cells in the periphery and promotes expansion in BM. Furthermore, TRAIL-Rs can be considered as potential targets for selectively inhibiting MDSCs. PMID:24789911

  2. Probiotic Conjugated Linoleic Acid Mediated Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells by Downregulation of NFκB.

    PubMed

    Kadirareddy, Rashmi Holur; Vemuri, Sujana Ghanta; Palempalli, Uma Maheswari Devi

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid, a functional lipid, produced from Lactobacillus plantarum (LPCLA), has been demonstrated to possess apoptotic activity. The antiproliferative and apoptotic potential of LPCLA was here evaluated in vitro using the MDAMB231 human breast cancer cell line as a model system. Proliferation of MDA MB231 cells was inhibited with increasing concentrations of LPCLA with altered morphological features like cell detachment, rounding of cells and oligonucleosomal fragmentation of DNA. Flow cytometry confirmed the apoptotic potential of LPCLA by ANNEXIN V/PI double staining. Furthermore, outcome results indicated that the apoptosis was mediated by downregulation of the NF?B pathway which in turn acted through proteasome degradation of I?Bα, inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation, release of cytochromeC from mitochondria and finally overexpression of Bax protein. Thus, conjugated linoleic acid, a natural product derived from probiotics, could therefore be a possible potential chemotherapeutic agent due to its apoptotic activity against estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells. PMID:27509982

  3. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of DLK suppresses its ubiquitination to promote neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Huntwork-Rodriguez, Sarah; Wang, Bei; Watkins, Trent; Ghosh, Arundhati Sengupta; Pozniak, Christine D.; Bustos, Daisy; Newton, Kim; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells that often project axons a considerable distance. To respond to axonal damage, neurons must transmit a retrograde signal to the nucleus to enable a transcriptional stress response. Here we describe a mechanism by which this signal is propagated through injury-induced stabilization of dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK/MAP3K12). After neuronal insult, specific sites throughout the length of DLK underwent phosphorylation by c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), which have been shown to be downstream targets of DLK pathway activity. These phosphorylation events resulted in increased DLK abundance via reduction of DLK ubiquitination, which was mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase PHR1 and the de-ubiquitinating enzyme USP9X. Abundance of DLK in turn controlled the levels of downstream JNK signaling and apoptosis. Through this feedback mechanism, the ubiquitin–proteasome system is able to provide an additional layer of regulation of retrograde stress signaling to generate a global cellular response to localized external insults. PMID:23979718

  4. Suppression of E-cadherin Mediates Gallotannin Induced Apoptosis in Hep G2 Hepatocelluar Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hee Jeong; Kwon, Hee Young; Sohn, Eun Jung; Ko, Hyunsuk; Kim, Bogeun; Jung, Kwon; Lew, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Though gallotannin was known to have anti-oxidant and antitumor activity, the underlying antitumor mechanism of gallotannin still remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, antitumor mechanism of gallotannin was elucidated in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Gallotannin significantly exerted cytotoxicity against Hep G2 and Chang hepatocellular carcinoma cells with the accumulation of the sub-G1 population and increase of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferasedUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells as an apoptotic feature. Also, gallotannin attenuated the expression of pro-caspase9, pro-caspase3, Bcl2 and integrin β1 and cleaved poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) in Hep G2 and Chang cancer cells. Furthermore, gallotannin suppressed cell repair motility by wound healing assay and also inhibited cell adhesion in Hep G2 cells. Of note, gallotannin attenuated the expression of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) to form cell-cell adhesion from the early stage, and also beta-catenin at late phase in Hep G2 cells. Consistently, Immunofluorescence assay showed that E-cadherin or β-catenin expression was suppressed in a time dependent manner by gallotannin. Furthermore, silencing of E-cadherin by siRNA transfection method enhanced PAPR cleavage, caspase 3 activation and sub G1 population and attenuated the cell adhesion induced by gallotannin in Hep G2 cells. Overall, our findings demonstrate that the disruption of cell adhesion junction by suppression of E-cadherin mediates gallotannin enhanced apoptosis in Hep G2 liver cancer cells. PMID:24795530

  5. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway mediates DBP-maf-induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Reddy, C Damodar; Swamy, Narasimha

    2003-09-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage-activating factor (DBP-maf) is derived from serum vitamin D binding protein (DBP) by selective deglycosylation during inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DBP-maf on RAW 264.7 macrophages and the underlying intracellular signal transduction pathways. DBP-maf increased proapoptotic caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. However, DBP, the precursor to DBP-maf did not induce apoptosis in these cells. Cell cycle analysis of DBP-maf-treated RAW 264.7 cells revealed growth arrest with accumulation of cells in sub-G(0)/G(1) phase. We also investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the DBP-maf-induced apoptosis of RAW264.7 cells. DBP-maf increased the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK1/2, while it decreased the ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, attenuated DBP-maf-induced apoptosis. PD98059, a MEK specific inhibitor, did not show a significant inhibition of apoptosis induced by DBP-maf. Taken together, these results suggest that the p38 MAPK pathway plays a crucial role in DBP-maf-mediated apoptosis of macrophages. Our studies indicate that, during inflammation DBP-maf may function positively by causing death of the macrophages when activated macrophages are no longer needed at the site of inflammation. In summary, we report for the first time that DBP-maf induces apoptosis in macrophages via p38 and JNK1/2 pathway. PMID:12938159

  6. E2F1-Mediated Induction of NFYB Attenuates Apoptosis via Joint Regulation of a Pro-Survival Transcriptional Program

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaolei; Nevins, Joseph Roy

    2015-01-01

    The E2F1 transcription factor regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis through the control of a considerable variety of target genes. Previous work has detailed the role of other transcription factors in mediating the specificity of E2F function. Here we identify the NF-YB transcription factor as a novel direct E2F1 target. Genome-wide expression analysis of the effects of NFYB knockdown on E2F1-mediated transcription identified a large group of genes that are co-regulated by E2F1 and NFYB. We also provide evidence that knockdown of NFYB enhances E2F1-induced apoptosis, suggesting a pro-survival function of the NFYB/E2F1 joint transcriptional program. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that deregulation of these NFY-dependent E2F1 target genes might play a role in sarcomagenesis as well as drug resistance. PMID:26039627

  7. Musca domestica larva lectin induces apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells through a Ca(2+)/JNK-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Ling; Xia, Yan; Nie, Jian-Zeng; Zhou, Minghui; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Niu, Li-Li; Hou, Li-Hua; Cao, Xiao-Hong

    2013-06-01

    Although Musca domestica larvae lectin (MLL) is able to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and to induce cancer cell apoptosis, the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for these processes remain elusive. In the current study, the signaling network underlying the MLL-induced apoptosis of human hepatoma BEL-7402 cell was investigated. Our data found out that MLL causes a sustained increase of the intracellular Ca(2+) and this process was prevented by the intracellular calcium chelator, BAPTA-AM, suggesting the involvement of intracellular Ca(2+) in MLL-induced cell apoptosis. MLL also causes the production of reactive oxygen species and elevates the phosphorylation status of JNK, processes associated with the increased cytoplasmic Ca(2+). The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening study showed that MLL treatment of BEL-7402 cells results in the opening of MPTP and a reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In such condition, cytochrome-c was detected to be released from mitochondria to cytoplasm through the MPTP. This eventually activates caspase-3 and thus results in apoptosis of the tested BEL-7402 cells. According to a comprehensive review of all the evidence, it is concluded that MLL induces apoptosis of BEL-7402 cells through a Ca(2+)/JNK-mediated MPTP pathway. PMID:23247835

  8. Crosstalk between endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial pathway mediates cadmium-induced germ cell apoptosis in testes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is associated with male infertility and poor semen quality in humans. Increasing evidence demonstrates that Cd induces testicular germ cell apoptosis in rodent animals. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced testicular germ cell apoptosis remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on Cd-evoked germ cell apoptosis in testes. We show that spliced form of XBP-1, the target of the IRE1 pathway, was significantly increased in testes of mice injected with CdCl(2). GRP78, an ER chaperone, and CHOP, a downstream target of the PERK pathway, were upregulated in testes of Cd-treated mice. In addition, acute Cd exposure significantly caused eIF2α and JNK phosphorylation in testes, indicating that the unfolded protein response pathway in testes was activated by Cd. Interestingly, phenylbutyric acid (PBA), an ER chemical chaperone, attenuated Cd-induced ER stress and protected against germ cell apoptosis in testes. In addition, PBA significantly attenuated Cd-evoked release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm in testes. Taken together, these results suggest that crosstalk between ER stress signaling and mitochondrial pathway mediates Cd-induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. PMID:21908765

  9. Nickel (II)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells through a ROS- and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Fen; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Chang, Yi-Chuang; Tseng, Wei-Chang; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Lin, Kuan-Hua; Chou, Miao-Chen; Liu, Heng-Ling; Chen, Chang-Yu

    2012-03-01

    Nickel compounds are known to be toxic and carcinogenic in kidney and lung. In this present study, we investigated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria in nickel (II) acetate-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the HK-2 human renal cell line. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of nickel (II) involved significant cell death and DNA damage. Nickel (II) increased the generation of ROS and induced a noticeable reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Analysis of the sub-G1 phase showed a significant increase in apoptosis in HK-2 cells after nickel (II) treatment. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) not only inhibited nickel (II)-induced cell death and DNA damage, but also significantly prevented nickel (II)-induced loss of MMP and apoptosis. Cell apoptosis triggered by nickel (II) was characterized by the reduced protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the induced the protein expression of Bad, Bcl-Xs, Bax, cytochrome c and caspases 9, 3 and 6. The regulation of the expression of Bcl-2-family proteins, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases 9, 3 and 6 were inhibited in the presence of NAC. These results suggest that nickel (II) induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells via ROS generation and that the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway may be involved in the positive regulation of nickel (II)-induced renal cytotoxicity.

  10. ROS-mediated lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells by modulation of Bcl-2 and Bax.

    PubMed

    DU, S-C; Ge, Q-M; Lin, N; Dong, Y; Su, Q

    2012-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or exhaustion of antioxidants may cause oxidative stress which is a major factor of defective insulin secretion and increases apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells in diabetes. So there comes a consideration of whether antioxidant strategies can be used to protect deterioration of the β-cells. In this study, we explored the mechanism of oxidative stress mediated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced apoptosis in insulin secreting (INS-1) cells from a rat pancreatic β-cell line. ROS was monitored by using intracellular ROS capture dihydroethidium (DHE) and dihydrorhodamine123 (DHR123). Apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The pro-apoptotic gene Bax and anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 were analysed by Western blot and RT-PCR. The results demonstrate that LPS-stimulated INS-1 cells manifest intensified intracellular fluorescence in both dose- and time- dependent manners. Apoptosis rate of LPS stimulated INS-1 cells is significantly increased by FCM, with a significant increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio revealed by Western blot and RT-PCR. Furthermore, α-lipoic acid (α-LA) inhibits LPS-induced apoptosis, but can not restore the function of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in INS-1 cells. PMID:22455982

  11. Nitric oxide and bcl-2 mediated the apoptosis induced by nickel(II) in human T hybridoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guan Fuqin; Zhang Dongmei; Wang Xinchang; Chen Junhui . E-mail: jhchen@nju.edu.cn

    2007-05-15

    Although effects of nickel(II) on the immune system have long been recognized, little is known about the effects of nickel(II) on the induction of apoptosis and related signaling events in T cells. In the present study, we investigated the roles and signaling pathways of nickel(II) in the induction of apoptosis in a human T cell line jurkat. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of Ni involved significant morphological changes and chromosomal condensation (Hoechst 33258 staining). Analyses of hypodiploid cells and FITC-Annexin V and PI double staining showed significant increase of apoptosis in jurkat cells 6, 12 and 24 h after nickel(II) treatment. Flow cytometry analysis also revealed that the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) occurred concomitantly with the onset of NiCl{sub 2}-induced apoptosis. Induction of apoptotic cell death by nickel was mediated by reduction of bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, nickel stimulated the generation of nitric oxide (NO). These results suggest that nickel(II) chloride induces jurkat cells apoptosis via nitric oxide generation, mitochondrial depolarization and bcl-2 suppression.

  12. Costunolide induces lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells apoptosis through ROS (reactive oxygen species)-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Xin; Gong, Xingguo

    2016-03-01

    Costunolide is an active sesquiterpene lactone derived from many herbal medicines. It has a broad spectrum of bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory and potential anti-tumor effects. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the inhibitory effects of costunolide on A549 cell growth and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry analysis revealed that costunolide induced apoptosis. To study the mechanism, we found that costunolide exposure activated the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways, as shown by the up-regulation of GRP78 and IRE1α and the activation of ASK1 and JNK. Meanwhile, siRNA knockdown of IRE1α significantly attenuated costunolide-induced apoptosis and partly restored the mitochondrial membrane potential. ER stress-activated JNK phosphorylated Bcl-2 at Ser70, which changes the anti-apoptotic function of Bcl-2, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and leading to mitochondrial activation of apoptosis. Furthermore, costunolide induced ROS generation, while the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) effectively blocked ER stress and apoptosis activation, suggesting that ROS acts as an upstream signaling molecule in triggering ER stress and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. Taken together, our research demonstrates that costunolide exhibits its anti-tumor activity though inducing apoptosis, which is mediated by ER stress. We further confirm that Bcl-2 is a key molecule connecting the ER stress and mitochondrial pathways. PMID:26609913

  13. Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1)-targeted TRAIL combines PD-L1-mediated checkpoint inhibition with TRAIL-mediated apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Djoke; He, Yuan; Koopmans, Iris; Wiersma, Valerie R; van Ginkel, Robert J; Samplonius, Douwe F; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2016-08-01

    Antibodies that block PD-L1/PD-1 immune checkpoints restore the activity of functionally-impaired antitumor T cells. These antibodies show unprecedented clinical benefit in various advanced cancers, particularly in melanoma. However, only a subset of cancer patients responds to current PD-L1/PD-1-blocking strategies, highlighting the need for further advancements in PD-L1/PD-1-based immunotherapy. Here, we report on a novel approach designed to combine PD-L1 checkpoint inhibition with the tumor-selective induction of apoptosis by TNF-related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL). In brief, a new bi-functional fusion protein, designated anti-PD-L1:TRAIL, was constructed comprising a PD-L1-blocking antibody fragment genetically fused to the extracellular domain of the pro-apoptotic tumoricidal protein TRAIL. Treatment of PD-L1-expressing cancer cells with anti-PD-L1:TRAIL induced PD-L1-directed TRAIL-mediated cancer cell death. Treatment of T cells with anti-PD-L1:TRAIL augmented T cell activation, as evidenced by increased proliferation, secretion of IFNγ and enhanced killing of cancer cell lines and primary patient-derived cancer cells in mixed T cell/cancer cell culture experiments. Of note, elevated levels of IFNγ further upregulated PD-L1 on cancer cells and simultaneously sensitized cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by anti-PD-L1:TRAIL. Additionally, anti-PD-L1:TRAIL converted immunosuppressive PD-L1-expressing myeloid cells into pro-apoptotic effector cells that triggered TRAIL-mediated cancer cell death. In conclusion, combining PD-L1 checkpoint inhibition with TRAIL-mediated induction of apoptosis using anti-PD-L1:TRAIL yields promising multi-fold and mutually reinforcing anticancer activity that may be exploited to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint inhibition. PMID:27622071

  14. Modulation of apoptosis during HTLV-1-mediated immortalization process in vitro.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Claudia; Balestrieri, Emanuela; Macchi, Beatrice; Mastino, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    Suppression of apoptosis has been proposed as a mechanism involved in the transforming action of human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). However, there is evidence that HTLV-1 and its protein Tax also induce apoptosis. To resolve this apparent paradox, apoptosis was monitored in primary cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from healthy donors, following HTLV-1 infection in vitro. High levels of apoptosis in HTLV-1 infected cultures during the first weeks after infection were detected. Apoptosis was not related to the presence of uninfected cells, as revealed by a fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. Successively, a progressive decrease in apoptosis in infected cultures going towards immortalization, was observed. When IL-2 in the medium was replaced by IL-4, allowing the cells to be efficiently infected by HTLV-1 but not immortalized, apoptosis levels tended to increase, instead of decreasing, with the ongoing time. The caspase cascade was remarkably activated in PBLs recently infected in vitro by HTLV-1, but apoptosis was only partly reduced by caspase inhibitors. Even if spontaneous apoptosis was relatively low in long-term cultures of PBLs immortalized by HTLV-1 in vitro, Fas death-receptor expression and function were well conserved. These observations provide a new rationale for explaining the dual effect of HTLV-1 in controlling apoptosis. PMID:15368513

  15. Vanadate induces apoptosis in epidermal JB6 P+ cells via hydrogen peroxide-mediated reactions.

    PubMed

    Ye, J; Ding, M; Leonard, S S; Robinson, V A; Millecchia, L; Zhang, X; Castranova, V; Vallyathan, V; Shi, X

    1999-12-01

    Apoptosis is a physiological mechanism for the control of DNA integrity in mammalian cells. Vanadium induces both DNA damage and apoptosis. It is suggested that vanadium-induced apoptosis serves to eliminate DNA-damaged cells. This study is designed to clarify a role of reactive oxygen species in the mechanism of apoptosis induced by vanadium. We established apoptosis model with murine epidermal JB6 P+ cells in the response to vanadium stimulation. Apoptosis was detected by a cell death ELISA assay and morphological analysis. The result shows that apoptosis induced by vanadate is dose-dependent, reaching its saturation level at a concentration of 100 microM vanadate. Vanadyl (IV) can also induce apoptosis albeit with lesser potency. A role of reactive oxygen species was analyzed by multiple reagents including specific scavengers of different reactive oxygen species. The result shows that vanadate-induced apoptosis is enhanced by NADPH, superoxide dismutase and sodium formate, but was inhibited by catalase and deferoxamine. Cells exposed to vanadium consume more molecular oxygen and at the same time, produce more H2O2 as measured by the change in fluorescence of scopoletin in the presence of horseradish peroxidase. This change in oxygen consumption and H2O2 production is enhanced by NADPH. Taken together, these results show that vanadate induces apoptosis in epidermal cells and H2O2 induced by vanadate plays a major role in this process. PMID:10705990

  16. The Effect of Growth Hormone Administration on the Regulation of Mitochondrial Apoptosis in-Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Keane, James; Tajouri, Lotti; Gray, Bon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) would show any significant effects on the expression of apoptosis regulating proteins in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Additionally, the potential for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by miRNA was assessed in two cellular compartments, the cytosol and the mitochondria. Ten male subjects were subcutaneously injected with either rhGH (1 mg) or saline (0.9%) for seven consecutive days in a double-blinded fashion. Blood sampling was undertaken prior to treatment administration and over a period of three weeks following treatment cessation. Bcl-2 and Bak gene and protein expression levels were measured in PBMCs, while attention was also directed to the expression of miR-181a and miR-125b, known translational inhibitors of Bcl-2 and Bak respectively. Results showed that rhGH significantly decreased Bak protein concentrations compared to placebo samples for up to 8 days post treatment. While cytosolic miRNA expression was not found to be significantly affected by rhGH, measurement of the expression of miR-125b in mitochondrial fractions showed a significant down-regulation eight days post-rhGH administration. These findings suggest that rhGH induces short-term anti-apoptotic effects which may be partially mediated through a novel pathway that alters the concentration of mitochondrially-associated miRNAs. PMID:26057745

  17. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of ROS-Mediated Oridonin-Induced Oesophageal Cancer KYSE-150 Cell Apoptosis by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Jiang, Jinhuan; Wu, Anguo; Zhu, Haiyan; Liu, Jianxin; Su, Xiaohui; Yang, Peihui; Cai, Jiye

    2015-01-01

    High levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells is recognized as one of the major causes of cancer cell apoptosis and has been developed into a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. However, whether apoptosis associated biophysical properties of cancer cells are related to intracellular ROS functions is still unclear. Here, for the first time, we determined the changes of biophysical properties associated with the ROS-mediated oesophageal cancer KYSE-150 cell apoptosis using high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oridonin was proved to induce ROS-mediated KYSE-150 cell apoptosis in a dose dependent manner, which could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment. Based on AFM imaging, the morphological damage and ultrastructural changes of KYSE-150 cells were found to be closely associated with ROS-mediated oridonin-induced KYSE-150 cell apoptosis. The changes of cell stiffness determined by AFM force measurement also demonstrated ROS-dependent changes in oridonin induced KYSE-150 cell apoptosis. Our findings not only provided new insights into the anticancer effects of oridonin, but also highlighted the use of AFM as a qualitative and quantitative nanotool to detect ROS-mediated cancer cell apoptosis based on cell biophysical properties, providing novel information of the roles of ROS in cancer cell apoptosis at nanoscale. PMID:26496199

  18. Calcium-activated Calpain-2 Is a Mediator of Beta Cell Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Type 2 Diabetes*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chang-jiang; Gurlo, Tatyana; Haataja, Leena; Costes, Safia; Daval, Marie; Ryazantsev, Sergey; Wu, Xiuji; Butler, Alexandra E.; Butler, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The islet in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and the brain in neurodegenerative diseases share progressive cell dysfunction, increased apoptosis, and accumulation of locally expressed amyloidogenic proteins (islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in T2DM). Excessive activation of the Ca2+-sensitive protease calpain-2 has been implicated as a mediator of oligomer-induced cell death and dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. To establish if human IAPP toxicity is mediated by a comparable mechanism, we overexpressed human IAPP in rat insulinoma cells and freshly isolated human islets. Pancreas was also obtained at autopsy from humans with T2DM and nondiabetic controls. We report that overexpression of human IAPP leads to the formation of toxic oligomers and increases beta cell apoptosis mediated by increased cytosolic Ca2+ and hyperactivation of calpain-2. Cleavage of α-spectrin, a marker of calpain hyperactivation, is increased in beta cells in T2DM. We conclude that overactivation of Ca2+-calpain pathways contributes to beta cell dysfunction and apoptosis in T2DM. PMID:19861418

  19. Acteoside-mediates chemoprevention of experimental liver carcinogenesis through STAT-3 regulated oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Peerzada, Kaiser J; Faridi, Aamir H; Sharma, Love; Bhardwaj, Subhash C; Satti, Naresh K; Shashi, Bhushan; Tasduq, Sheikh A

    2016-07-01

    In the absence of an effective therapy against Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), chemoprevention remains an important strategy to circumvent morbidity and mortality. Here, we examined chemopreventive potential of Acteoside (ACT), a plant derived phenylethanoid glycoside against an environmental and dietary carcinogen, diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. ACT treatment (0.1 and 0.3% supplemented with diet) started 2 weeks before DEN challenge and continued for 18 weeks thereafter, showed a remarkable chemopreventive activity. ACT treatment resulted in reduced HCC nodules. Histopathology showed progressive tissue damage, necrosis (5 weeks), hepatocytic injury (10 weeks), anisonucleosis with presence of prominent nucleoli, sinusidal dilations, and lymphomono nuclear inflammation (18 weeks). Biochemical analysis showed hepatocytic injury (raised ALT, p < 0.001), inflammation [IL-6, IFN-γ (p < 0.05), and TNF-α (p < 0.001)], apoptosis [elevated Caspase-3 (p < 0.001)]. ACT at 0.1 and 0.3% ameliorated DEN-induced pre-hepatocarcinogenic manifestations. Mechanistic studies of ACT chemoprevention was elucidated using Hep3B cells with an aim to develop an in vitro DEN-induced toxicity model. Hep3B was found to be a reliable and more sensitive towards DEN toxicity compared to HepG2 and HuH7 cells. ACT prevented DEN-induced cytotoxicity (p < 0.001), DNA damage, and genotoxicity (micronuclei test, DNA ladder test, Hoechst staining, cell cycle analysis). ACT significantly (p < 0.001) scavenged DEN-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss. Immunoblotting showed ACT treatment reversed DEN-induced NF-κB, Bax, Cytochrome C, Bcl-2, and Stat-3 levels. We conclude that chemoprotective effect of ACT is mediated by STAT-3 dependent regulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis and ACT has potential to be developed as a chemopreventive agent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ

  20. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • PPV reduces PK-15 cells viability by inducing apoptosis. • PPV infection induces apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. • PPV infection activates p53 to regulate the mitochondria apoptotic signaling. - Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection.

  1. p53 mediates cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis of pulmonary endothelial cells: inhibitory effects of macrophage migration inhibitor factor.

    PubMed

    Damico, Rachel; Simms, Tiffany; Kim, Bo S; Tekeste, Zenar; Amankwan, Henry; Damarla, Mahendra; Hassoun, Paul M

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is the most common cause of emphysema, a debilitating pulmonary disease histopathologically characterized by the irreversible destruction of lung architecture. Mounting evidence links enhanced endothelial apoptosis causally to the development of emphysema. However, the molecular determinants of human endothelial cell apoptosis and survival in response to CS are not fully defined. Such determinants could represent clinically relevant targets for intervention. We show here that CS extract (CSE) triggers the death of human pulmonary macrovascular endothelial cells (HPAECs) through a caspase 9-dependent apoptotic pathway. Exposure to CSE results in the increased expression of p53 in HPAECs. Using the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α (PFT-α), and RNA interference (RNAi) directed at p53, we demonstrate that p53 function and expression are required for CSE-mediated apoptosis. The expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an antiapoptotic cytokine produced by HPAECs, also increases in response to CSE exposure. The addition of recombinant human MIF prevents cell death from exposure to CSE. Further, the suppression of MIF or its receptor/binding partner, Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (Jab-1), with RNAi enhances the sensitivity of human pulmonary endothelial cells to CSE via a p53-dependent (PFT-α-inhibitable) pathway. Finally, we demonstrate that MIF is a negative regulator of p53 expression in response to CSE, placing MIF upstream of p53 as an antagonist of CSE-induced apoptosis. We conclude that MIF can protect human vascular endothelium from the toxic effects of CSE via the antagonism of p53-mediated apoptosis. PMID:20448056

  2. Clematichinenoside (AR) Attenuates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced H9c2 Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via a Mitochondria-Mediated Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haiyan; Han, Rong; Chen, Xueshan; Fang, Weirong; Liu, Meng; Wang, Xuemei; Wei, Qin; Kodithuwakku, Nandani Darshika; Li, Yunman

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis is involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Clematichinenoside (AR) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the roots of Clematis chinensis with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cardioprotection effects against MI/R injury, yet the anti-apoptotic effect and underlying mechanisms of AR in MI/R injury remain unclear. We hypothesize that AR may improve mitochondrial function to inhibit MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In this study, we replicated an in vitro H9c2 cardiomyocyte MI/R model by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment. The viability of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was determined by MTT assay; apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and TUNEL experiments; mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was analyzed by a calcein-cobalt quenching method; and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was detected by JC-1. Moreover, we used western blots to determine the mitochondrial cytochrome c translocation to cytosolic and the expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax proteins. These results showed that the application of AR decreased the ratio of apoptosis and the extent of mPTP opening, but increased ΔΨm. AR also inhibited H/R-induced release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and decreased the expression of the caspase-3, Bax proteins. Conversely, it remarkably increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein. Taken together, these results revealed that AR protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes against H/R-induced apoptosis through mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway. PMID:27248986

  3. Sam68 modulates apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells via mediating NF-κB activation in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ji; Zhao, Weijuan; Miao, Xianjing; Li, Liren; Zhang, Dongmei

    2016-07-01

    Sam68 (Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 KDa), also known as KHDRBS1 (KH domain containing, RNA binding, signal transduction associated 1), belongs to the prototypic member of the signal transduction activator of RNA (STAR) family of RNA-binding proteins. Sam68 is implicated in various cellular processes including RNA metabolism, apoptosis, signal transduction. Previous researches demonstrated that Sam68 regulated nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) to induce inflammation. However, the expression and biological functions of Sam68 in ulcerative colitis (UC) are not clear. In this study, we reported for the first time that Sam68 was up-regulated in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of patients with UC. In DSS-induced mouse colitis model, we observed the overexpression of Sam68 accompanied with increased levels of IEC apoptotic markers (active caspase-3 and cleaved PARP) and NF-κB activation indicators (p-p65 and p-IκB) in colitis IECs. Co-localization of Sam68 with active caspase-3 (and p-p65) in IECs of the DSS-induced colitis group further indicated the possible involvement of NF-κB-mediated IEC apoptosis. Applying TNF-α-treated HT-29 cells as an in vitro IEC inflammation model, we confirmed the positive correlation amomg Sam68, NF-κB activation and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation assay identified nuclear translocation and physical interaction of Sam68 and NF-κB subunits in TNF-α-treated HT-29 cells. Besides, depletion of Sam68 by RNA interference greatly alleviated NF-κB activation and apoptosis in TNF-α-treated HT-29 cells. Taken together, our results indicated that Sam68 modulates apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells via mediating NF-κB activation in UC. PMID:27235792

  4. Dynamin-related protein 1 mediates mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in chlorpyrifos-treated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Ko, Juyeon; Hwang, Jungwook; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, mediates mitochondria-dependent apoptosis through mitochondrial division. However, little is known about the mechanism by which Drp1 modulates apoptosis in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced toxicity. In this study, we determined that CPF-induced mitochondrial apoptosis is mediated by Drp1 translocation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our results showed that CPF treatment induced intrinsic apoptosis by activating caspase-9, caspase-3, and cytochrome c release in SH-SY5Y cells. Cytosolic Drp1 translocated to the mitochondria in CPF-treated cells and was phosphorylated at Ser616. Treating cells with CPF induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Inhibiting this ROS generation and MAPK activation abolished CPF-induced expression of phospho-Drp1. Furthermore, Drp1 was required for p53 to translocate to the mitochondria under CPF-induced oxidative stress. Treating cells with mitochondrial-division inhibitor-1 (mdivi-1), which blocks Drp1 translocation, increased the viability of CPF-treated cells by abrogating Drp1 translocation and caspase-3 activation. Specifically, pretreating cells with mdivi-1 inhibited Bax translocation to the mitochondria by blocking p53 signaling. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism by which Drp1 activates mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and indicate that inhibiting Dpr1 function can protect against CPF-induced cytotoxicity. We propose that inhibiting Drp1 is a possible therapeutic approach for pesticide-induced toxicity when hyperactivated Drp1 contributes to pathology. PMID:26598294

  5. Ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis and bladder apoptosis involve oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keh-Min; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Long, Cheng-Yu; Lee, Yi-Lun; Wang, Chao-Chuan; Lu, Mei-Chin; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Lu, Jian-He; Jang, Mei-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Ho, Wan-Ting; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2015-08-15

    Ketamine abusers develop severe lower urinary tract symptoms. The major aims of the present study were to elucidate ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis and bladder apoptosis in association with oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into three different groups, which received normal saline or ketamine for a period of 14 or 28 days, respectively. Double-labeled immunofluorescence experiments were performed to investigate tight junction proteins for urothelial barrier functions. A TUNEL assay was performed to evaluate the distribution of apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis was carried out to examine the expressions of urothelial tight junction proteins, ER stress markers, and apoptosis-associated proteins. Antioxidant enzymes, including SOD and catalase, were investigated by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence experiments. Ketamine-treated rats were found to display bladder hyperactivity. This bladder dysfunction was accompanied by disruptions of epithelial cadherin- and tight junction-associated proteins as well as increases in the expressions of apoptosis-associated proteins, which displayed features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals and ER stress markers. Meanwhile, expressions of mitochondria respiratory subunit enzymes were significantly increased in ketamine-treated bladders. Conversely, mRNA expressions of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD (SOD2), Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1), and catalase were decreased after 28 days of ketamine treatment. These results demonstrate that ketamine enhanced the generation of oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria- and ER-dependent pathways and consequently contributed to bladder apoptosis and urothelial lining defects. Such oxidative stress-enhanced bladder cell apoptosis and urothelial barrier defects are potential factors that may play a crucial role in bladder overactivity and ulceration. PMID:26109091

  6. RIPK3-Mediated Necroptosis and Apoptosis Contributes to Renal Tubular Cell Progressive Loss and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongjun; Cui, Hongwang; Xia, Yunfeng; Gan, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is caused by the progressive loss of renal tubular cells and the consequent replacement of the extracellular matrix. The progressive depletion of renal tubular cells results from apoptosis and necroptosis; however, the relative significance of each of these cell death mechanisms at different stages during the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. We sought to explore the mechanisms of renal tubular cell death during the early and intermediate stages of chronic renal damage of subtotal nephrectomied (SNx) rats. The results of tissue histological assays indicated that the numbers of necrotic dying cells and apoptotic cells were significantly higher in kidney tissues derived from a rat model of CKD. In addition, there was a significant increase in necroptosis observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and an increase in the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues from SNx rats compared with control rats, and necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) could inhibit necroptosis and reduce the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells. More importantly, we observed a significant increase in the incidence of necroptosis compared with apoptosis by TEM in vivo and in vitro and a significant increase in the proportion of TUNEL-positive tubular epithelial cells that did not express caspase-3 compared with those expressing cleaved caspase-3 in vitro. Furthermore, treatment with Nec-1 and zVAD strongly reduced necroptosis- and apoptosis-mediated renal tubular cell death and decreased the levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine and tubular damage scores of SNx rats. These results suggest that necroptotic cell death plays a more significant role than apoptosis in mediating the loss of renal tubular cells in SNx rats and that effectively blocking both necroptosis and apoptosis improves renal function and tubular damage at early and intermediate stages of CKD. PMID:27281190

  7. The Mitochondria-Mediate Apoptosis of Lepidopteran Cells Induced by Azadirachtin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jingfei; Lv, Chaojun; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria have been shown to play an important role in apoptosis using mammalian cell lines. However, this seems not to be the case in Drosophila, an insect model organism; thus more in-depth studies of insect cell apoptosis are necessary. In the present study, mitochondrial involvement during azadirachtin- and camptothecin-induced apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells (isolated from Spodoptera frugiperda pupal ovarian tissue) was investigated. The results showed that both azadirachtin and camptothecin could induce apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTPs) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were observed very early during apoptosis and were followed subsequently by the release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondria. Furthermore, the results also revealed that the opening of MPTPs and the loss of MMP induced by azadirachtin could be significantly inhibited by the permeability transition pore (PTP) inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA), which was used to identify the key role of mitochondria in the apoptosis of Sf9 cells. However, in camptothecin-treated Sf9 cells, CsA could not suppress the opening of MPTPs and the loss of MMP when apoptosis was induced. The data from caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity assays and detection of apoptosis by morphological observation and flow cytometry also uncovered the different effect of CsA on the two botanical apoptosis inducers. Although different mechanisms of apoptosis induction exist, our study revealed that mitochondria play a crucial role in insect cell line apoptosis. PMID:23516491

  8. Apoptosis induction by silica nanoparticles mediated through reactive oxygen species in human liver cell line HepG2

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2012-03-01

    Silica nanoparticles are increasingly utilized in various applications including agriculture and medicine. In vivo studies have shown that liver is one of the primary target organ of silica nanoparticles. However, possible mechanisms of hepatotoxicity caused by silica nanoparticles still remain unclear. In this study, we explored the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis induced by well-characterized 14 nm silica nanoparticles in human liver cell line HepG2. Silica nanoparticles (25–200 μg/ml) induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Silica nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner indicated by induction of ROS and lipid peroxidation and depletion of glutathione (GSH). Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting results showed that both the mRNA and protein expressions of cell cycle checkpoint gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax and caspase-3) were up-regulated while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated in silica nanoparticles treated cells. Moreover, co-treatment of ROS scavenger vitamin C significantly attenuated the modulation of apoptotic markers along with the preservation of cell viability caused by silica nanoparticles. Our data demonstrated that silica nanoparticles induced apoptosis in human liver cells, which is ROS mediated and regulated through p53, bax/bcl-2 and caspase pathways. This study suggests that toxicity mechanisms of silica nanoparticles should be further investigated at in vivo level. -- Highlights: ► We explored the mechanisms of toxicity caused by silica NPs in human liver HepG2 cells. ► Silica NPs induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ► Silica NPs induced ROS generation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. ► Silica NPs were also modulated apoptosis markers both at mRNA and protein levels. ► ROS mediated apoptosis induced by silica NPs was preserved by vitamin C.

  9. miR-21-mediated decreased neutrophil apoptosis is a determinant of impaired coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Rebecca; Terry, Russell; Hutcheson, Brenda; Jadhav, Rashmi; Chaplin, Jennifer; Smith, Erika; Barrington, Robert; Proctor, Spencer D; Rocic, Petra

    2015-06-01

    Coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in metabolic syndrome. microRNA-21 (miR-21) is a proproliferative and antiapoptotic miR, which we showed to be elevated in metabolic syndrome. Here we investigate whether impaired CCG in metabolic syndrome involved miR-21-mediated aberrant apoptosis. Normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) and metabolic syndrome [J. C. Russel (JCR)] rats underwent transient, repetitive coronary artery occlusion [repetitive ischemia (RI)]. Antiapoptotic Bcl-2, phospho-Bad, and Bcl-2/Bax dimers were increased on days 6 and 9 RI, and proapoptotic Bax and Bax/Bax dimers and cytochrome-c release concurrently decreased in JCR versus SD rats. Active caspases were decreased in JCR versus SD rats (~50%). Neutrophils increased transiently on day 3 RI in the collateral-dependent zone of SD rats but remained elevated in JCR rats, paralleling miR-21 expression. miR-21 downregulation by anti-miR-21 induced neutrophil apoptosis and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax dimers (~75%) while increasing Bax/Bax dimers, cytochrome-c release, and caspase activation (~70, 400, and 400%). Anti-miR-21 also improved CCG in JCR rats (~60%). Preventing neutrophil infiltration with blocking antibodies resulted in equivalent CCG recovery, confirming a major role for deregulated neutrophil apoptosis in CCG impairment. Neutrophil and miR-21-dependent CCG inhibition was in significant part mediated by increased oxidative stress. We conclude that neutrophil apoptosis is integral to normal CCG and that inappropriate prolonged miR-21-mediated survival of neutrophils plays a major role in impaired CCG, in part via oxidative stress generation. PMID:25840830

  10. Par-4/NF-κB Mediates the Apoptosis of Islet β Cells Induced by Glucolipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    QiNan, Wu; XiaGuang, Gan; XiaoTian, Lei; WuQuan, Deng; Ling, Zhang; Bing, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis of islet β cells is a primary pathogenic feature of type 2 diabetes, and ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in this process. Previous research has shown that prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4)/NF-κB induces cancer cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which Par-4/NF-κB induces islet β cell apoptosis remains unknown. We used a high glucose/palmitate intervention to mimic type 2 diabetes in vitro. We demonstrated that the high glucose/palmitate intervention induced the expression and secretion of Par-4. It also causes increased expression and activation of NF-κB, which induced NIT-1 cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Overexpression of Par-4 potentiates these effects, whereas downregulation of Par-4 attenuates them. Inhibition of NF-κB inhibited the Par-4-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, these effects occurred through the ER stress cell membrane and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Our findings reveal a novel role for Par-4/NF-κB in islet β cell apoptosis and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27340675

  11. Par-4/NF-κB Mediates the Apoptosis of Islet β Cells Induced by Glucolipotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    QiNan, Wu; XiaGuang, Gan; XiaoTian, Lei; WuQuan, Deng; Ling, Zhang; Bing, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis of islet β cells is a primary pathogenic feature of type 2 diabetes, and ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in this process. Previous research has shown that prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4)/NF-κB induces cancer cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which Par-4/NF-κB induces islet β cell apoptosis remains unknown. We used a high glucose/palmitate intervention to mimic type 2 diabetes in vitro. We demonstrated that the high glucose/palmitate intervention induced the expression and secretion of Par-4. It also causes increased expression and activation of NF-κB, which induced NIT-1 cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Overexpression of Par-4 potentiates these effects, whereas downregulation of Par-4 attenuates them. Inhibition of NF-κB inhibited the Par-4-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, these effects occurred through the ER stress cell membrane and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Our findings reveal a novel role for Par-4/NF-κB in islet β cell apoptosis and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27340675

  12. Loss of α(E)-catenin promotes Fas mediated apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinhui; Parrish, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    The aging kidney undergoes structural and functional alterations which make it more susceptible to drug-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Previous studies in our lab have shown that the expression of α(E)-catenin is decreased in aged kidney and loss of α(E)-catenin potentiates AKI-induced apoptosis, but not necrosis, in renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E cells). However, the specific apoptotic pathway underlying the increased AKI-induced cell death is not yet understood. In this study, cells were challenged with nephrotoxicant cisplatin to induce AKI. A ~5.5-fold increase in Fas expression in C2 (stable α(E)-catenin knockdown) relative to NT3 (non-targeted control) cells was seen. Increased caspase-8 and -9 activation was induced by cisplatin in C2 as compared to NT3 cells. In addition, decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased BID cleavage and cytochrome C release were detected in C2 cells after cisplatin challenge. Treating the cells with cisplatin, in combination with a Bcl-2 inhibitor, decreased the viability of NT3 cells to the same level as C2 cells after cisplatin. Furthermore, caspase-3/-7 activation is blocked by Fas, caspase-8, caspase-9 and pan-caspase inhibitors. These inhibitors also completely abolished the difference in viability between NT3 and C2 cells in response to cisplatin. These results demonstrate a Fas-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway that is enhanced by the age-dependent loss of α(E)-catenin in renal tubule epithelial cells. PMID:25894537

  13. NSC-87877 inhibits DUSP26 function in neuroblastoma resulting in p53-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y; Ma, I T; Patel, R H; Shang, X; Chen, Z; Zhao, Y; Cheng, J; Fan, Y; Rojas, Y; Barbieri, E; Chen, Z; Yu, Y; Jin, J; Kim, E S; Shohet, J M; Vasudevan, S A; Yang, J

    2015-01-01

    Dual specificity protein phosphatase 26 (DUSP26) is overexpressed in high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) and contributes to chemoresistance by inhibiting p53 function. In vitro, DUSP26 has also been shown to effectively inhibit p38 MAP kinase. We hypothesize that inhibiting DUSP26 will result in decreased NB cell growth in a p53 and/or p38-mediated manner. NSC-87877 (8-hydroxy-7-[(6-sulfo-2-naphthyl)azo]-5-quinolinesulfonic acid), a novel DUSP26 small molecule inhibitor, shows effective growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in NB cell lines. NB cell lines treated with small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting DUSP26 also exhibit a proliferation defect both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of NB cell lines with NSC-87877 results in increased p53 phosphorylation (Ser37 and Ser46) and activation, increased activation of downstream p38 effector proteins (heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2)) and poly ADP ribose polymerase/caspase-3 cleavage. The cytotoxicity resulting from DUSP26 inhibition is partially reversed by knocking down p53 expression with shRNA and also by inhibiting p38 activity with SB203580 (4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]pyridine). In an intrarenal mouse model of NB, NSC-87877 treatment results in decreased tumor growth and increased p53 and p38 activity. Together, these results suggest that DUSP26 inhibition with NSC-87877 is an effective strategy to induce NB cell cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo through activation of the p53 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) tumor-suppressor pathways. PMID:26247726

  14. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pauklin, Siim . E-mail: spauklin@ut.ee; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-08-26

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, {beta}-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

  15. Variola virus F1L is a Bcl-2-like protein that unlike its vaccinia virus counterpart inhibits apoptosis independent of Bim

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, B; Puthalakath, H; Caria, S; Chugh, S; Doerflinger, M; Colman, P M; Kvansakul, M

    2015-01-01

    Subversion of host cell apoptosis is an important survival strategy for viruses to ensure their own proliferation and survival. Certain viruses express proteins homologous in sequence, structure and function to mammalian pro-survival B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) proteins, which prevent rapid clearance of infected host cells. In vaccinia virus (VV), the virulence factor F1L was shown to be a potent inhibitor of apoptosis that functions primarily be engaging pro-apoptotic Bim. Variola virus (VAR), the causative agent of smallpox, harbors a homolog of F1L of unknown function. We show that VAR F1L is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis, and unlike all other characterized anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members lacks affinity for the Bim Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain. Instead, VAR F1L engages Bid BH3 as well as Bak and Bax BH3 domains. Unlike its VV homolog, variola F1L only protects against Bax-mediated apoptosis in cellular assays. Crystal structures of variola F1L bound to Bid and Bak BH3 domains reveal that variola F1L forms a domain-swapped Bcl-2 fold, which accommodates Bid and Bak BH3 in the canonical Bcl-2-binding groove, in a manner similar to VV F1L. Despite the observed conservation of structure and sequence, variola F1L inhibits apoptosis using a startlingly different mechanism compared with its VV counterpart. Our results suggest that unlike during VV infection, Bim neutralization may not be required during VAR infection. As molecular determinants for the human-specific tropism of VAR remain essentially unknown, identification of a different mechanism of action and utilization of host factors used by a VAR virulence factor compared with its VV homolog suggest that studying VAR directly may be essential to understand its unique tropism. PMID:25766319

  16. JNK signaling pathway is involved in piperlongumine-mediated apoptosis in human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells

    PubMed Central

    LI, WEN; WEN, CHUANGYU; BAI, HAIYAN; WANG, XIAOYAN; ZHANG, XIAOLI; HUANG, LANLAN; YANG, XIANGLING; IWAMOTO, AIKICHI; LIU, HUANLIANG

    2015-01-01

    Piperlongumine (PPLGM), an alkaloid isolated from the long pepper (Piper longum L.), can selectively trigger cancer cell death in colorectal cancer cells. The present study investigated whether the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is involved in PPLGM-induced apoptosis in the human colorectal cancer HCT116 cell line. The results demonstrated that PPLGM reduced the cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, without a significant effect on cell cycle distribution. Meanwhile, treatment with 10 µM PPLGM resulted in JNK activation within 1 h, and a marked and sustained increase in c-Jun phosphorylation in the HCT116 cells. In addition, SP600125, a general inhibitor of JNK, inhibited PPLGM-induced apoptosis in the HCT116 cells by inhibiting PPLGM-induced c-Jun phosphorylation. Altogether, it can be concluded that the JNK signaling pathway, at least in part, is involved in PPLGM-mediated apoptosis in HCT116 cells. PMID:26622558

  17. Stimulation of proximal tubular cell apoptosis by albumin-bound fatty acids mediated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma.

    PubMed

    Arici, Mustafa; Chana, Ravinder; Lewington, Andrew; Brown, Jez; Brunskill, Nigel John

    2003-01-01

    In nephrotic syndrome, large quantities of albumin enter the kidney tubule. This albumin carries with it a heavy load of fatty acids to which the proximal tubule cells are exposed at high concentration. It is postulated that exposure to fatty acids in this way is injurious to proximal tubule cells. This study has examined the ability of fatty acids to interact with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) in primary cultures of human proximal tubule cells. Luciferase reporter assays in transiently transfected human proximal tubule cells were used to show that albumin bound fatty acids and other agonists activate PPARgamma in a dose-dependent manner. One of the consequences of this activation is apoptosis of the cells as determined by changes in cell morphology, evidence of PARP cleavage, and appearance of DNA laddering. Overexpression of PPARgamma in these cells also results in enhanced apoptosis. Both fatty acid-induced PPAR activation and apoptosis in these cells can be blocked by PPAR response element decoy oligonucleotides. Activation of PPARgamma by the specific agonist PGJ(2) is associated with inhibition of cell proliferation, whereas activation by albumin bound fatty acids is accompanied by increased proliferation. However, the net balance of apoptosis/proliferation favors deletion of cells. These results implicate albumin-bound fatty acids as important mediators of tubular injury in nephrosis and provide fresh impetus for pursuit of lipid-lowering strategies in proteinuric renal disease. PMID:12506134

  18. NGFI-B targets mitochondria and induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis in restraint-stressed rats by mediating energy metabolism disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XinXing; Liu, XiaoHua; Kong, RuiRui; Zhan, Rui; Wang, XiaoMing; Leng, Xue; Gong, JingBo; Duan, Meng; Wang, LiQun; Wu, Lei

    2009-01-01

    NGFI-B/Nur77/TR3, originally identified as an immediate-early gene rapidly induced by serum and growth factors, is a member of the steroid hormone nuclear receptor superfamily with no identified endogenous ligand. NGFI-B induces apoptosis in a number of cell lineages exposed to proapoptotic stimuli by directly targeting the mitochondria, inducing cytochrome c release. The present study was designed to determine the role of NGFI-B in cardiomyocytes of restraint-stressed rats. The NGFI-B content was increased in mitochondria and reduced in plasma as apoptosis increased. Analysis showed that NGFI-B induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis in restraint-stressed rats by mediating mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder. Several novel mitochondrial proteins, which correlate with NGFI-B, were reported in cardiomyocyte apoptosis of restraint-stressed rats. Five proteins associated with NGFI-B participate directly in mitochondrial energy metabolism. Studies of mitochondrial respiratory efficiency and ATP synthase activity strongly support the findings. These results provide significant information for comprehensively understanding the cellular mechanism of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19412742

  19. Interleukin-24 mediates apoptosis in human B-cells through early activation of cell cycle arrest followed by late induction of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Hadife, Nader; Nemos, Christophe; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Hamadé, Tala; Perrot, Aurore; Dalloul, Ali

    2013-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-24 has death-promoting effects on various proliferating cells including B-cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and germinal center B-cells, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a B-cell differentiation model and mRNA profiling, we found that recombinant (r)IL-24 stimulated genes of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (Bax, Bid, Casp8, COX6C, COX7B) after 36 h, whereas the transcription of genes involved in DNA replication and metabolism was inhibited within 6 h. Unexpectedly, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), a hormone known to promote cell growth, was stimulated by IL-24. Activated B-cells express receptor for IGF1, to which they become sensitized and undergo apoptosis, a mechanism similar in this respect to IL-24-induced cell death. Furthermore, inhibition of the IGF1 pathway reversed the effects of IL-24. IL-24-mediated apoptosis was also antagonized by pifithrin-alpha, an inhibitor of p53 transactivation. Altogether, these results disclose sequential molecular signals generated by IL-24 in activated B-cells. PMID:22860893

  20. A novel cisplatin mediated apoptosis pathway is associated with acid sphingomyelinase and FAS proapoptotic protein activation in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Maurmann, L; Belkacemi, L; Adams, N R; Majmudar, P M; Moghaddas, S; Bose, R N

    2015-07-01

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs, including cisplatin and carboplatin, have been cornerstones in the treatment of solid tumors. We report here that these DNA-damaging agents, particularly cisplatin, induce apoptosis through plasma membrane disruption, triggering FAS death receptor via mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathways. Our objectives were to: quantify the composition of membrane metabolites; and determine the potential involvement of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) in the FAS-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer after cisplatin treatment. The resulting analysis revealed enhanced apoptosis as measured by: increased phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine; elevated cellular energetics; and phosphocreatine and nucleoside triphosphate concentrations. The plasma membrane alterations were accompanied by increased ASMase activity, leading to the upregulation of FAS, FASL and related pro-apoptotic BAX and PUMA genes. Moreover FAS, FASL, BAX, PUMA, CASPASE-3 and -9 proteins were upregulated. Our findings implicate ASMase activity and the intrinsic pathways in cisplatin-mediated membrane demise, and contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms by which ovarian tumors may become resistant to cisplatin. PMID:25846011

  1. Granzyme B-activated p53 interacts with Bcl-2 to promote cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ben Safta, Thouraya; Ziani, Linda; Favre, Loetitia; Lamendour, Lucille; Gros, Gwendoline; Mami-Chouaib, Fathia; Martinvalet, Denis; Chouaib, Salem; Thiery, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Granzyme B (GzmB) plays a major role in CTLs and NK cell-mediated elimination of virus-infected cells and tumors. Human GzmB preferentially induces target cell apoptosis by cleaving the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bid, which, together with Bax, induces mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. We previously showed that GzmB also induces a rapid accumulation of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 within target cells, which seems to be involved in GzmB-induced apoptosis. In this article, we show that GzmB-activated p53 accumulates on target cell mitochondria and interacts with Bcl-2. This interaction prevents Bcl-2 inhibitory effect on both Bax and GzmB-truncated Bid, and promotes GzmB-induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Consequently, blocking p53-Bcl-2 interaction decreases GzmB-induced Bax activation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and subsequent effector caspases activation leading to a decreased sensitivity of target cells to both GzmB and CTL/NK-mediated cell death. Together, our results define p53 as a new important player in the GzmB apoptotic signaling pathway and in CTL/NK-induced apoptosis. PMID:25404359

  2. Overexpression of human kynurenine-3-monooxygenase protects against 3-hydroxykynurenine-mediated apoptosis through bidirectional nonlinear feedback.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K; Auer, M; Binnie, M; Zheng, X; Pham, N T; Iredale, J P; Webster, S P; Mole, D J

    2016-01-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a critical regulator of inflammation. The preferred KMO substrate, kynurenine, is converted to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK), and this product exhibits cytotoxicity through mechanisms that culminate in apoptosis. Here, we report that overexpression of human KMO with orthotopic localisation to mitochondria creates a metabolic environment during which the cell exhibits increased tolerance for exogenous 3HK-mediated cellular injury. Using the selective KMO inhibitor Ro61-8048, we show that KMO enzyme function is essential for cellular protection. Pan-caspase inhibition with Z-VAD-FMK confirmed apoptosis as the mode of cell death. By defining expression of pathway components upstream and downstream of KMO, we observed alterations in other key kynurenine pathway components, particularly tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase upregulation, through bidirectional nonlinear feedback. KMO overexpression also increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These changes in gene expression are functionally relevant, because siRNA knockdown of the pathway components kynureninase and quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase caused cells to revert to a state of susceptibility to 3HK-mediated apoptosis. In summary, KMO overexpression, and importantly KMO activity, have metabolic repercussions that fundamentally affect resistance to cell stress. PMID:27077813

  3. Photothermolysis mediated by gold nanorods modified with EGFR monoclonal antibody induces Hep-2 cells apoptosis in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiwen; Li, Yunlong; He, Xiaoguang; Dong, Shouan; Huang, Yunchao; Li, Xiaojiang; Li, Yuxiao; Jin, Congguo; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Yuanling

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have been used in plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT), which is thought to be more efficient and selective than conventional photothermal therapy. The efficiency and safety of PPTT can be improved by functionally modifying the gold nanorods with proteins or biomolecules. In this study, AuNRs were modified with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (mAb), and the apoptotic potential of EGFRmAb-AuNR was assessed in Hep-2 cells in vitro and in vivo. The EGFRmAb modification had no obvious influence on the original optical property of the AuNRs, but it significantly increased the entry of AuNRs into Hep-2 cells. EGFRmAb-AuNRs, with appropriate laser irradiation, resulted in higher Hep-2 cells apoptosis than AuNRs did alone, in vitro, and was accompanied by alteration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, Ca2+ release, change in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), cytochrome c (Cyt-c) release, active caspase-3 expression, and level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and B-cell lymphoma 2 protein-associated X protein (Bax). EGFRmAb-AuNR-mediated apoptosis in Hep-2 cells was also observed in vivo and had an inhibitive effect on growth of Hep-2 tumor xenografts. Our data suggest that the EGFRmAb modification improves AuNR-mediated apoptosis and may have the potential to be used clinically. PMID:24790435

  4. Overexpression of human kynurenine-3-monooxygenase protects against 3-hydroxykynurenine-mediated apoptosis through bidirectional nonlinear feedback

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K; Auer, M; Binnie, M; Zheng, X; Pham, N T; Iredale, J P; Webster, S P; Mole, D J

    2016-01-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a critical regulator of inflammation. The preferred KMO substrate, kynurenine, is converted to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK), and this product exhibits cytotoxicity through mechanisms that culminate in apoptosis. Here, we report that overexpression of human KMO with orthotopic localisation to mitochondria creates a metabolic environment during which the cell exhibits increased tolerance for exogenous 3HK-mediated cellular injury. Using the selective KMO inhibitor Ro61-8048, we show that KMO enzyme function is essential for cellular protection. Pan-caspase inhibition with Z-VAD-FMK confirmed apoptosis as the mode of cell death. By defining expression of pathway components upstream and downstream of KMO, we observed alterations in other key kynurenine pathway components, particularly tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase upregulation, through bidirectional nonlinear feedback. KMO overexpression also increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These changes in gene expression are functionally relevant, because siRNA knockdown of the pathway components kynureninase and quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase caused cells to revert to a state of susceptibility to 3HK-mediated apoptosis. In summary, KMO overexpression, and importantly KMO activity, have metabolic repercussions that fundamentally affect resistance to cell stress. PMID:27077813

  5. Loss of p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis promotes genomic instability and premature aging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tongyuan; Liu, Xiangyu; Jiang, Le; Manfredi, James; Zha, Shan; Gu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Although p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis are well accepted as major tumor suppression mechanisms, the loss of these functions does not directly lead to tumorigenesis, suggesting that the precise roles of these canonical activities of p53 need to be redefined. Here, we report that the cells derived from the mutant mice expressing p533KR, an acetylation-defective mutant that fails to induce cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis, exhibit high levels of aneuploidy upon DNA damage. Moreover, the embryonic lethality caused by the deficiency of XRCC4, a key DNA double strand break repair factor, can be fully rescued in the p533KR/3KR background. Notably, despite high levels of genomic instability, p533KR/3KRXRCC4−/− mice, unlike p53−/− XRCC4−/− mice, are not succumbed to pro-B-cell lymphomas. Nevertheless, p533KR/3KR XRCC4−/− mice display aging-like phenotypes including testicular atrophy, kyphosis, and premature death. Further analyses demonstrate that SLC7A11 is downregulated and that p53-mediated ferroptosis is significantly induced in spleens and testis of p533KR/3KRXRCC4−/− mice. These results demonstrate that the direct role of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis is to control genomic stability in vivo. Our study not only validates the importance of ferroptosis in p53-mediated tumor suppression in vivo but also reveals that the combination of genomic instability and activation of ferroptosis may promote aging-associated phenotypes. PMID:26943586

  6. Flavanone glycosides from Bidens gardneri Bak. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Denise Brentan; Okano, Laura Tiemi; Lopes, Norberto P; de Oliveira, Dionéia C R

    2013-12-01

    LC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of the Brazilian medicinal plant Bidens gardneri Bak. (Asteraceae) results in identification of eleven phenolic compounds. HRESIMS, MS/MS and UV data analyses, with phytochemicals isolation guided by MS data, results in flavanones-(-)-4'-methoxy-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8,3'-dihydroxyflavanone; (-)-7-O-(6″-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8,3',4'-trihydroxyflavanone; and (-)-4'-methoxy-7-O-(6″-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8,3'-dihydroxyflavanone being identified-together with four known compounds. The absolute configurations of two of the flavanones were determined as 2S via circular dichroism. PMID:24210092

  7. B cell receptor-mediated apoptosis of human lymphocytes is associated with a new regulatory pathway of Bim isoform expression.

    PubMed

    Mouhamad, Shahul; Besnault, Laurence; Auffredou, Marie Thérèse; Leprince, Corinne; Bourgeade, Marie Françoise; Leca, Gérald; Vazquez, Aimé

    2004-02-15

    Studies in Bim-deficient mice have shown that the proapoptotic molecule Bim plays a key role in the control of B cell homeostasis and activation. However, the role of Bim in human B lymphocyte apoptosis is unknown. We show in this study that, depending on the degree of cross-linking, B cell receptors can mediate both Bim-dependent and apparent Bim-independent apoptotic pathways. Cross-linked anti-mu Ab-mediated activation induces an original pathway governing the expression of the various Bim isoforms. This new pathway involves the following three sequential steps: 1) extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the BimEL isoform, which is produced in large amounts in healthy B cells; 2) proteasome-mediated degradation of phosphorylated BimEL; and 3) increased expression of the shorter apoptotic isoforms BimL and BimS. PMID:14764673

  8. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via CHOP-induced death receptor 5 upregulation in hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Park, Sang Rul; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Gi-Young

    2016-07-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) exhibits various pharmaceutical properties, including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidative activity. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been a promising anti-cancer agent that preferentially induces cancer cell apoptosis with negligible cytotoxicity toward normal cells. Therefore, the present study investigated whether CAPE promotes TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity in hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells. The present study demonstrated that CAPE sensitized TRAIL-mediated cell death in Hep3B carcinoma cells. The percentages of the apoptotic cells and annexin-V(+) cells significantly increased in combined treatment with CAPE and TRAIL (CAPE/TRAIL). Treatment with pancaspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, attenuated CAPE/TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the combined treatment triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis. Additionally, we found that CAPE stimulated the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5) and treatment with DR5/Fc chimera protein significantly blocked CAPE/TRAIL-induced apoptosis, which indicates that CAPE/TRAIL stimulated apoptosis through the binding of TRAIL to DR5. Moreover, expression of transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) markedly increased in response to CAPE and transient knockdown of CHOP abolished CAPE/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that CHOP is a key regulator in CAPE/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, the present study found that CAPE significantly enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in Hep3B carcinoma cells and suggested that CAPE has promising potential in chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinomas. PMID:27260301

  9. Small molecule inhibitor YM155-mediated activation of death receptor 5 is crucial for chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangxuan; Puszyk, William M; Lu, Zaiming; Ostrov, David A; George, Thomas J; Robertson, Keith D; Liu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Despite much effort, pancreatic cancer survival rates are still dismally low. Novel therapeutics may hold the key to improving survival. YM155 is a small molecule inhibitor that has shown antitumor activity in a number of cancers by reducing the expression of survivin. The aim of our study is to understand the mechanisms by which YM155 functions in pancreatic cancer cells. We established the antitumor effect of YM155 with in vitro studies in cultured cells, and in vivo studies using a mouse xenograft model. Our data demonstrated that YM155 reduced the expression of survivin; however, downregulation of survivin itself is insufficient to induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. We showed for the first time that treatment with YM155 increased death receptor 5 (DR5) expression in pancreatic cancer cells. We found that YM155 induced apoptosis by broad-spectrum inhibition of IAP family member proteins (e.g., CIAP1/2 and FLIP) and induced proapoptotic Bak protein upregulation and activation; the antitumor effect of YM155 treatment with either the DR5 agonist lexatumumab or gemcitabine on pancreatic cancer cells was synergistic. Our data also revealed that YM155 inhibits tumor growth in vivo, without apparent toxicity to the noncancerous human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line. Together, these findings suggest that YM155 could be a novel therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer. PMID:25344582

  10. ERECTA and BAK1 Receptor Like Kinases Interact to Regulate Immune Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jordá, Lucía; Sopeña-Torres, Sara; Escudero, Viviana; Nuñez-Corcuera, Beatriz; Delgado-Cerezo, Magdalena; Torii, Keiko U; Molina, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ERECTA (ER) receptor-like kinase (RLK) regulates Arabidopsis thaliana organ growth, and inflorescence and stomatal development by interacting with the ERECTA-family genes (ERf) paralogs, ER-like 1 (ERL1) and ERL2, and the receptor-like protein (RLP) TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). ER also controls immune responses and resistance to pathogens such as the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto) and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina BMM (PcBMM). We found that er null-mutant plants overexpressing an ER dominant-negative version lacking the cytoplasmic kinase domain (ERΔK) showed an enhanced susceptibility to PcBMM, suggesting that ERΔK associates and forms inactive complexes with additional RLKs/RLPs required for PcBMM resistance. Genetic analyses demonstrated that ER acts in a combinatorial specific manner with ERL1, ERL2, and TMM to control PcBMM resistance. Moreover, BAK1 (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated kinase 1) RLK, which together with ERf/TMM regulates stomatal patterning and resistance to Pto, was also found to have an unequal contribution with ER in regulating immune responses and resistance to PcBMM. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana further demonstrated BAK1-ER protein interaction. The secreted epidermal pattern factor peptides (EPF1 and EPF2), which are perceived by ERf members to specify stomatal patterning, do not seem to regulate ER-mediated immunity to PcBMM, since their inducible overexpression in A. thaliana did not impact on PcBMM resistance. Our results indicate that the multiproteic receptorsome formed by ERf, TMM and BAK1 modulates A. thaliana resistance to PcBMM, and suggest that the cues underlying ERf/TMM/BAK1-mediated immune responses are distinct from those regulating stomatal pattering. PMID:27446127

  11. ERECTA and BAK1 Receptor Like Kinases Interact to Regulate Immune Responses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Jordá, Lucía; Sopeña-Torres, Sara; Escudero, Viviana; Nuñez-Corcuera, Beatriz; Delgado-Cerezo, Magdalena; Torii, Keiko U.; Molina, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ERECTA (ER) receptor-like kinase (RLK) regulates Arabidopsis thaliana organ growth, and inflorescence and stomatal development by interacting with the ERECTA-family genes (ERf) paralogs, ER-like 1 (ERL1) and ERL2, and the receptor-like protein (RLP) TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). ER also controls immune responses and resistance to pathogens such as the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto) and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina BMM (PcBMM). We found that er null-mutant plants overexpressing an ER dominant-negative version lacking the cytoplasmic kinase domain (ERΔK) showed an enhanced susceptibility to PcBMM, suggesting that ERΔK associates and forms inactive complexes with additional RLKs/RLPs required for PcBMM resistance. Genetic analyses demonstrated that ER acts in a combinatorial specific manner with ERL1, ERL2, and TMM to control PcBMM resistance. Moreover, BAK1 (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated kinase 1) RLK, which together with ERf/TMM regulates stomatal patterning and resistance to Pto, was also found to have an unequal contribution with ER in regulating immune responses and resistance to PcBMM. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana further demonstrated BAK1-ER protein interaction. The secreted epidermal pattern factor peptides (EPF1 and EPF2), which are perceived by ERf members to specify stomatal patterning, do not seem to regulate ER-mediated immunity to PcBMM, since their inducible overexpression in A. thaliana did not impact on PcBMM resistance. Our results indicate that the multiproteic receptorsome formed by ERf, TMM and BAK1 modulates A. thaliana resistance to PcBMM, and suggest that the cues underlying ERf/TMM/BAK1-mediated immune responses are distinct from those regulating stomatal pattering. PMID:27446127

  12. Inhibition of cardiac oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis by curcumin treatment contributes to protection against acute myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Mito, Sayaka; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Ma, Meilei; Lakshmanan, Arunprasath; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2011-10-01

    Curcumin is used anecdotally as an herb in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine. In the present study, the effects and possible mechanism of curcumin in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) rats were further investigated. They were divided randomly into a treatment and vehicle group, and orally administrated curcumin (50 mg/kg/day) and 1% gum arabic, respectively, for 3 weeks after myosin injection. The results showed that curcumin significantly suppressed the myocardial protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the catalytic subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH) oxidase. In addition, curcumin significantly decreased myocardial endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling proteins and improved cardiac function. Furthermore, curcumin significantly decreased the key regulators or inducers of apoptosis. In summary, our results indicate that curcumin has the potential to protect EAM by modulating cardiac oxidative and ER stress-mediated apoptosis, and provides a novel therapeutic strategy for autoimmune myocarditis. PMID:21781008

  13. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore regulates nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis of neurons induced by target deprivation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lee J; Adams, Neal A; Pan, Yan; Price, Ann; Wong, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Ablation of mouse occipital cortex induces precisely timed and uniform p53-modulated and Bax-dependent apoptosis of thalamocortical projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) by 7 d after lesion. We tested the hypothesis that this neuronal apoptosis is initiated by oxidative stress and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Preapoptotic LGN neurons accumulate mitochondria, Zn(2+) and Ca(2+), and generate higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide, nitric oxide (NO), and peroxynitrite, than LGN neurons with an intact cortical target. Preapoptosis of LGN neurons is associated with increased formation of protein carbonyls, protein nitration, and protein S-nitrosylation. Genetic deletion of nitric oxide synthase 1 (nos1) and inhibition of NOS1 with nitroindazole protected LGN neurons from apoptosis, revealing NO as a mediator. Putative components of the mPTP are expressed in mouse LGN, including the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), and cyclophilin D (CyPD). Nitration of CyPD and ANT in LGN mitochondria occurs by 2 d after cortical injury. Chemical cross-linking showed that LGN neuron preapoptosis is associated with formation of CyPD and VDAC oligomers, consistent with mPTP formation. Mice without CyPD are rescued from neuron apoptosis as are mice treated with the mPTP inhibitors TRO-19622 (cholest-4-en-3-one oxime) and TAT-Bcl-X(L)-BH4. Manipulation of the mPTP markedly attenuated the early preapoptotic production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species in target-deprived neurons. Our results demonstrate in adult mouse brain neurons that the mPTP functions to enhance ROS production and the mPTP and NO trigger apoptosis; thus, the mPTP is a target for neuroprotection in vivo. PMID:21209222

  14. Curcumin induces crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis mediated by calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomal destabilization and mitochondrial events

    PubMed Central

    Moustapha, A; Pérétout, PA; Rainey, NE; Sureau, F; Geze, M; Petit, J-M; Dewailly, E; Slomianny, C; Petit, PX

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa, L.), has anticancer effects. In vitro studies suggest that curcumin inhibits cancer cell growth by activating apoptosis, but the mechanism underlying these effects is still unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms leading to apoptosis in curcumin-treated cells. Curcumin induced endoplasmic reticulum stress causing calcium release, with a destabilization of the mitochondrial compartment resulting in apoptosis. These events were also associated with lysosomal membrane permeabilization and of caspase-8 activation, mediated by cathepsins and calpains, leading to Bid cleavage. Truncated tBid disrupts mitochondrial homeostasis and enhance apoptosis. We followed the induction of autophagy, marked by the formation of autophagosomes, by staining with acridine orange in cells exposed curcumin. At this concentration, only the early events of apoptosis (initial mitochondrial destabilization with any other manifestations) were detectable. Western blotting demonstrated the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II (light chain 3), a marker of active autophagosome formation. We also found that the production of reactive oxygen species and formation of autophagosomes following curcumin treatment was almost completely blocked by N-acetylcystein, the mitochondrial specific antioxidants MitoQ10 and SKQ1, the calcium chelators, EGTA-AM or BAPTA-AM, and the mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor, ruthenium red. Curcumin-induced autophagy failed to rescue all cells and most cells underwent type II cell death following the initial autophagic processes. All together, these data imply a fail-secure mechanism regulated by autophagy in the action of curcumin, suggesting a therapeutic potential for curcumin. Offering a novel and effective strategy for the treatment of malignant cells. PMID:27551451

  15. ROS activates JNK-mediated autophagy to counteract apoptosis in mouse mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guan-yu; Jiang, Xiao-xue; Zhu, Xin; He, Wei-yang; Kuang, You-lin; Ren, Ke; Lin, Yong; Gou, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED) is hampered by apoptosis of the transplanted cells. In diabetic ED, there is increased oxidative stress and decreased NO in the corpora cavernosa, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce apoptosis of the transplanted cells. In this study we examined whether and how autophagy was involved in ROS-induced apoptosis of MSCs. Methods: Mouse C3H10 MSCs were treated with H2O2 to simulate the high oxidative condition in diabetic ED. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins were detected with Western blot assays. Intracellular autophagosome accumulation was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Treatment of MSCs with H2O2 (50–400 μmol/L) inhibited the cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, H2O2 (300 μmol/L) induced apoptosis, as well as activated autophagy in MSCs. Pretreatment with lysosome inhibitor chloroquine (10 μmol/L) or PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine (5 mmol/L) significantly enhanced H2O2-induced cell death. Pretreatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L) abrogated H2O2-induced accumulation of LC3-II, and attenuated H2O2-induced reduction of Bcl-2 levels in MSCs. Conclusion: ROS induce autophagy to counteract apoptosis in MSCs by activation of JNK. Thus, augmentation of autophagy may reduce apoptosis, prolonging MSC survival and improving MSC-based therapeutic efficacy for diabetic ED. PMID:26592514

  16. AMID Mediates Adenosine-Induced Caspase-Independent HuH-7 Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongqin; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsu; Gotoh, Akinobu; Dovat, Sinisa; Song, Chunhua; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: The mechanism underlying extracellular adenosine-induced caspase-independent apoptosis in HuH-7 human hepatoma cells is not fully understood. The present study investigated the role for apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-homologous mitochondrion-associated inducer of death (AMID) in the pathway. Methods: To see the implication of AMID in adenosine-induced HuH-7 cell apoptosis, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescent cytochemistry, time-laps GFP monitoring, cell cycle analysis, flow cytometry, Western blotting, cell viability assay, and TUNEL staining were carried out. Results: Adenosine upregulated AMID expression in HuH-7 cells, and translocated AMID from the cytosol into the nucleus. Adenosine induced HuH-7 cell apoptosis, and the effect was further enhanced by overexpressing AMID. Adenosine-induced HuH-7 cell apoptosis, alternatively, was inhibited by knocking-down AMID. Conclusion: The results of the present study provide evidence for AMID as a critical factor for adenosine-induced caspase-independent HuH-7 cell apoptosis. PMID:21325820

  17. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2012-05-11

    Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC(50)=75 μM). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer. PMID:22546556

  18. Endogenous IGFBP-3 Mediates Intrinsic Apoptosis Through Modulation of Nur77 Phosphorylation and Nuclear Export.

    PubMed

    Agostini-Dreyer, Allyson; Jetzt, Amanda E; Stires, Hillary; Cohick, Wendie S

    2015-11-01

    In nontransformed bovine mammary epithelial cells, the intrinsic apoptosis inducer anisomycin (ANS) induces IGFBP-3 expression and nuclear localization and knockdown of IGFBP-3 attenuates ANS-induced apoptosis. Others have shown in prostate cancer cells that exogenous IGFBP-3 induces apoptosis by facilitating nuclear export of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 and its binding partner, retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα). The goal of the present work was to determine whether endogenous IGFBP-3 plays a role in ANS-induced apoptosis by facilitating nuclear transport of Nur77 and/or RXRα in nontransformed cells. Knockdown of Nur77 with siRNA decreased ANS-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and -7 and their downstream target, PARP, indicating a role for Nur77 in ANS-induced apoptosis. In cells transfected with IGFBP-3, IGFBP-3 associated with RXRα but not Nur77 under basal conditions, however, IGFBP-3 co-precipitated with phosphorylated forms of both proteins in ANS-treated cells. Indirect immunofluorescence and cell fractionation techniques showed that ANS induced phosphorylation and transport of Nur77 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and these effects were attenuated by knockdown of IGFBP-3. These data suggest that endogenous IGFBP-3 plays a role in intrinsic apoptosis by facilitating phosphorylation and nuclear export of Nur77 to the cytoplasm where it exerts its apoptotic effect. Whether this mechanism involves a physical association between endogenous IGFBP-3 and Nur77 or RXRα remains to be determined. PMID:26340041

  19. Dioscin induces cancer cell apoptosis through elevated oxidative stress mediated by downregulation of peroxiredoxins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyu; Cheng, Yue; Wang, Neng; Wang, Dong Mei; Li, Ying Wei; Han, Feng; Shen, Jian Gang; Yang, De Po; Guan, Xin Yuan; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Dioscin has been shown to promote anticancer activity against several forms of cancers. However, its detailed molecular mechanisms have not been clearly clarified.In this study, we demonstrate that dioscin induces apoptosis in cancer cells through the induction of oxidative stress. Treatment with cancer cells in vitro with dioscin resulted in rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the induction of mitochondrial pathway apoptosis in human esophageal cancer cell line Kyse510. Inhibition of oxidative stress by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked the induction of apoptosis by dioscin, indicating that ROS generation is the primary mechanism responsible for the proapoptotic activity of dioscin. Proteomic analysis and protein gel blotting further revealed peroxiredoxins 1 and 6 (PRDX 1 and 6), which are implicated in ROS metabolism and apoptosis, were associated with the anticancer effects of dioscin. Meanwhile, overexpression of PRDX 1 and 6 significantly blocked the elevated ROS and apoptosis induced by dioscin. In conclusion, we suggest that PRDX1 and PRDX6 are key targets in the process of dioscin-induced apoptosis that involves intracellular elevated ROS. PMID:22231406

  20. Cr(VI) induces mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated p53 activation in JB6 Cl41 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Young-Ok; Hitron, J. Andrew; Wang Xin; Chang Qingshan; Pan Jingju; Zhang Zhuo; Liu Jiankang; Wang Shuxia; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi Xianglin

    2010-06-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are known to cause serious toxic and carcinogenic effects. Cr(VI) exposure can lead to a severe damage to the skin, but the mechanisms involved in the Cr(VI)-mediated toxicity in the skin are unclear. The present study examined whether Cr(VI) induces cell death by apoptosis or necrosis using mouse skin epidermal cell line, JB6 Cl41 cells. We also investigated the cellular mechanisms of Cr(VI)-induced cell death. This study showed that Cr(VI) induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by the appearance of cell shrinkage, the migration of cells into the sub-G1 phase, the increase of Annexin V positively stained cells, and the formation of nuclear DNA ladders. Cr(VI) treatment resulted in the increases of mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspases activation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and fluorescence analysis revealed that Cr(VI) increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical in dose-dependent manner. Blockage of p53 by si-RNA transfection suppressed mitochondrial changes of Bcl-2 family composition, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase activation and PARP cleavage, leading to the inhibition of Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis. Further, catalase treatment prevented p53 phosphorylation stimulated by Cr(VI) with the concomitant inhibition of caspase activation. These results suggest that Cr(VI) induced a mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis in skin epidermal cells through activation of p53, which are mainly mediated by reactive oxidants generated by the chemical.

  1. Arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA)-induced Apoptosis is Mediated by J-series Prostaglandins and is Enhanced by Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Kuc, Christian; Jenkins, Audrey; Van Dross, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) is a potent inducer of tumor cell apoptosis however its mechanism of cytotoxicity is unclear. A previous report from our laboratory showed that AEA induced cell death in a COX-2-dependent manner and in this report our data indicate that AEA-induced apoptosis is mediated by COX-2 metabolic products of the J-series. In experiments conducted with JWF2 keratinocytes which overexpress COX-2, AEA caused a concentration-regulated increase in J-series prostaglandin production and apoptosis. Similarly, cell treatment with exogenously added J-series prostaglandins (15-deoxy, Δ12,14 PGJ2 and PGJ2) induced apoptosis. AEA-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine, indicating that reactive oxygen species generation was required for apoptosis. Using antagonists of cannabinoid receptor 1, cannabinoid receptor 2, or TRPV1, it was observed that cannabinoid receptor inhibition did not block AEA-mediated cell death. In contrast, an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) potentiated AEA-induced J-series PG synthesis and apoptosis. These results suggest that the metabolism of AEA to J-series PGs regulates the induction of apoptosis in cells with elevated COX-2 levels. Our data further indicate that the proapoptotic activity of AEA can be enhanced by combining it with an inhibitor of FAAH. As such, AEA may be an effective agent to eliminate tumor cells that overexpress COX-2. PMID:21432910

  2. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ngoc, Tam Dan Nguyen; Son, Young-Ok; Lim, Shin-Saeng; Shi, Xianglin; Kim, Jong-Ghee; Heo, Jung Sun; Choe, Youngji; Jeon, Young-Mi; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2012-01-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45α. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-α or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. PMID:22285274

  3. The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) induces endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to autophagy-mediated apoptosis in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, G S; Bhoopathi, Praveen; Gorantla, Bharathi; Chetty, Chandramu; Gogineni, Venkateswara Rao; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Gondi, Christopher S; Rao, Jasti S

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that overexpression of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) induced autophagy-mediated apoptosis in PNET cells. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and signaling cascades associated with SPARC overexpression in combination with radiation therapy that eventually leads to autophagy-mediated apoptosis in neuroblastoma. SPARC expression in SK-N-AS and NB-1691 cells demonstrated the activation of caspase 3, cleavage of PARP and induction of apoptosis. The experiments to unravel the mechanisms associated with autophagy-apoptosis illustrated that SPARC overexpression triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and thereby unfolded protein response (UPR). This was apparent with the activation of stress receptors, inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE 1α), RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) and BiP. This study further demonstrated the induction of transcription factor CHOP as a result of IRE-JNK activation in response to increased SPARC levels. Inhibition of ER stress and JNK activation led to inhibition of autophagy-mediated apoptosis. Further, the apparent expression of ER stress molecules among the orthotopic tumors treated by SPARC overexpression plasmids substantiated our in vitro observations. Taken together, these results illustrate the critical role of ER stress in regulating autophagy-mediated apoptosis in SPARC-overexpressed neuroblastoma cells and radiation treatment. PMID:23123816

  4. The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) induces endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to autophagy-mediated apoptosis in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    SAILAJA, G.S.; BHOOPATHI, PRAVEEN; GORANTLA, BHARATHI; CHETTY, CHANDRAMU; GOGINENI, VENKATESWARA RAO; VELPULA, KIRAN KUMAR; GONDI, CHRISTOPHER S.; RAO, JASTI S.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that overexpression of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) induced autophagy-mediated apoptosis in PNET cells. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and signaling cascades associated with SPARC overexpression in combination with radiation therapy that eventually leads to autophagy-mediated apoptosis in neuroblastoma. SPARC expression in SK-N-AS and NB-1691 cells demonstrated the activation of caspase 3, cleavage of PARP and induction of apoptosis. The experiments to unravel the mechanisms associated with autophagy-apoptosis illustrated that SPARC overexpression triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and thereby unfolded protein response (UPR). This was apparent with the activation of stress receptors, inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE 1α), RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) and BiP. This study further demonstrated the induction of transcription factor CHOP as a result of IRE-JNK activation in response to increased SPARC levels. Inhibition of ER stress and JNK activation led to inhibition of autophagy-mediated apoptosis. Further, the apparent expression of ER stress molecules among the orthotopic tumors treated by SPARC overexpression plasmids substantiated our in vitro observations. Taken together, these results illustrate the critical role of ER stress in regulating autophagy-mediated apoptosis in SPARC-overexpressed neuroblastoma cells and radiation treatment. PMID:23123816

  5. The novel tryptamine derivative JNJ-26854165 induces wild-type p53- and E2F1-mediated apoptosis in acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kensuke; Burks, Jared K.; Arts, Janine; Andreeff, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Development of small-molecule activators of p53 is currently focused on malignancies containing a wild-type p53 genotype, which is present in most leukemias. JNJ-26854165 is one of such p53-activating agents, but its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the effects of JNJ-26854165 in acute leukemias. JNJ-26854165 treatment induced p53-mediated apoptosis in acute leukemia cells with wild-type p53, in which p53 rapidly drives transcription-independent apoptosis followed by activation of a transcription-dependent pathway. JNJ-26854165 accelerated the proteasome-mediated degradation of p21, and antagonized the transcriptional induction of p21 by p53. Interestingly, JNJ-26854165 induced S-phase delay and upregulated E2F1 expression in p53 mutant cells, resulting in apoptosis preferentially of S-phase cells. E2F1 knockdown blocked apoptosis induced by JNJ-26854165 in p53 mutant cells. Apoptotic activity of JNJ-26854165 against primary acute leukemia cells was maintained in leukemia/stroma cocultures, unlike doxorubicin, which has reduced cytrotoxicity in coculture systems. JNJ-26854165 synergizes with AraC or doxorubicin to induce p53-mediated apoptosis. Our data suggest that JNJ-26854165 may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of acute leukemias. The presence of p53-independent apoptotic activity in addition to p53-mediated apoptosis induction, if operational in vivo, may prevent the selection of p53 mutant subclones during therapy. PMID:20736344

  6. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine inhibited cell viability of colon cancer in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G{sub 2}/M phase arrest and chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorigenicity was inhibited by noscapine. -- Abstract: Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC{sub 50} = 75 {mu}M). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G{sub 2}/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  7. Endothelin-1 Inhibits Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Joel B; Udan, Michael S; Guruli, Georgi; Pflug, Beth R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Endothelin-1 (ET-1), produced by the prostate epithelia, likely plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. ET-1 can bind two receptor subtypes; generally, binding of the endothelin receptor A (ETA) induces a survival pathway, whereas binding of the endothelin receptor B (ETB) mediates clearance of circulating ET-1 as well as promotes apoptosis. In prostate carcinoma, hypermethylation of the ETB promoter results in repression of ETB expression, thereby eliminating the negative growth response that ET-1 binding elicits through this receptor. Therefore, activation of ETA exclusively provides a pathway for survival advantage. Our current studies examine the mechanisms by which activation of the ETA may allow growth/survival. ET-1 treatment of prostate tumor cells significantly decreased paclitaxel-induced apoptosis through activation of the ETA subtype. The anti-apoptotic effects of ET-1 are mediated, at least in part, through the Bcl-2 family. Although no significant changes in Bcl-2 expression occurred with ET-1 treatment, the pro-apoptotic family members Bad, Bax, and Bak all decreased significantly. Further analysis of the survival pathway demonstrated that phosphorylation of Akt occurs with ET-1 treatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner through phosphatidyinositol 3-kinase activation. These data support the combination of ETA antagonists and apoptosis-inducing therapies for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:16026642

  8. PI3K inhibitors prime neuroblastoma cells for chemotherapy by shifting the balance towards pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and enhanced mitochondrial apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bender, A; Opel, D; Naumann, I; Kappler, R; Friedman, L; von Schweinitz, D; Debatin, K-M; Fulda, S

    2011-01-27

    We recently identified activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt as a novel predictor of poor outcome in neuroblastoma. Here, we investigated the effect of small-molecule PI3K inhibitors on chemosensitivity. We provide first evidence that PI3K inhibitors, for example PI103, synergize with various chemotherapeutics (Doxorubicin, Etoposide, Topotecan, Cisplatin, Vincristine and Taxol) to trigger apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells (combination index: high synergy). Mechanistic studies reveal that PI103 cooperates with Doxorubicin to reduce Mcl-1 expression and Bim(EL) phosphorylation and to upregulate Noxa and Bim(EL) levels. This shifted ratio of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins results in increased Bax/Bak conformational change, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, caspase activation and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Although Mcl-1 knockdown enhances Doxorubicin- and PI103-induced apoptosis, silencing of Noxa, Bax/Bak or p53 reduces apoptosis, underscoring the functional relevance of the Doxorubicin- and PI103-mediated modulation of these proteins for chemosensitization. Bcl-2 overexpression inhibits Bax activation, mitochondrial perturbations, cleavage of caspases and Bid, and apoptosis, confirming the central role of the mitochondrial pathway for chemosensitization. Interestingly, the broad-range caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk does not interfere with Bax activation or mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, whereas it blocks caspase activation and apoptosis, thus placing mitochondrial events upstream of caspase activation. Importantly, PI103 and Doxorubicin cooperate to induce apoptosis and to suppress tumor growth in patients' derived primary neuroblastoma cells and in an in vivo neuroblastoma model, underlining the clinical relevance of the results. Thus, targeting PI3K presents a novel and promising strategy to sensitize neuroblastoma cells for chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, which has important implications for the

  9. Bim contributes to phenethyl isothiocyanate-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Singh, Shivendra V

    2012-06-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a highly promising cancer chemopreventive constituent of cruciferous vegetables (e.g., watercress) with in vivo efficacy in experimental rodent cancer models. Research thus far implicates apoptosis induction in cancer chemopreventive response to PEITC, but the mechanism of proapoptotic effect is not fully understood. The present study demonstrates that p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA)-independent apoptosis by PEITC is mediated by B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim). Exposure of a cell line (BRI-JM04) derived from spontaneously developing mammary tumor of a MMTV-neu transgenic mouse to pharmacological concentrations of PEITC resulted in decreased cell viability coupled with apoptosis induction, characterized by release of histone-associated DNA fragments into the cytosol and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase and procaspase-3. The PEITC-induced apoptosis in BRI-JM04 cells was associated with up-regulation of Bak, PUMA, and Bim (long and short forms of Bim), increased S65 phosphorylation of BimEL (extra-long form), and down-regulation of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. On the other hand, a non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) was significantly more resistant to PEITC-induced apoptosis compared with BRI-JM04 despite induction of Bax and PUMA due to concomitant overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1. Wild-type HCT-116 cells and its isogenic PUMA knockout variant exhibited comparable sensitivity to PEITC-induced apoptosis. On the other hand, small interfering RNA knockdown of Bim protein imparted partial but statistically significant protection against PEITC-induced apoptosis in BRI-JM04, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the mechanism of PEITC-induced apoptosis involving Bim. PMID:21739479

  10. Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in Sensory Neurons of Cultured Dorsal Root Ganglia in Adult Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Hamid Reza; Soleimani Mehranjani, Malek; Shariatzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Haddadi, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) undergo apoptosis after peripheral nerve injury. The aim of this study was to investigate sensory neuron death and the mechanism involved in the death of these neurons in cultured DRG. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, L5 DRG from adult mouse were dissected and incubated in culture medium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Freshly dissected and cultured DRG were then fixed and sectioned using a cryostat. Morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis were investigated using fluorescent staining (Propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342) and the terminal Deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method respectively. To study the role of caspases, general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD.fmk, 100 μM) and immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 were used. Results: After 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in culture, sensory neurons not only displayed morphological features of apoptosis but also they appeared TUNEL positive. The application of Z-VAD.fmk inhibited apoptosis in these neurons over the same time period. In addition, intense activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity was found both in the cytoplasm and the nuclei of these neurons after 24 and 48 hours. Conclusion: Results of the present study show caspase-dependent apoptosis in the sensory neurons of cultured DRG from adult mouse. PMID:24027661

  11. Ramalin-Mediated Apoptosis Is Enhanced by Autophagy Inhibition in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Lee, Chung Gi; Yim, Joung-Han; Lee, Hong-Kum; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide, is treated in various ways. Ramalin is a chemical compound derived from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata and is known to exhibit antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. However, its effect on breast cancer cells remains unknown. We examined the ability of ramalin to induce apoptosis and its mechanisms in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Ramalin inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. By upregulating Bax and downregulating Bcl-2, ramalin caused cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor to be released from the mitochondria into the cytosol, thus activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, activated caspase-8 and caspase-9 were detected in both types of cells exposed to ramalin, whereas ramalin activated caspase-3 only in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Ramalin treatment also increased the levels of LC3-II and p62. Moreover, the inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA significantly enhanced ramalin-induced apoptosis, which was accompanied by a decrease in Bcl-2 levels and an increase in Bax levels. Therefore, autophagy appears to be activated as a protective mechanism against apoptosis in cancer cells exposed to ramalin. These findings suggest that ramalin is a potential anticancer agent for the treatment of patients with non-invasive or invasive breast cancer. PMID:26676298

  12. Fas/FasL pathway-mediated alveolar macrophage apoptosis involved in human silicosis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, San-qiao; Rojanasakul, Liying Wang; Chen, Zhi-yuan; Xu, Ying-jun; Bai, Yu-ping; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Xi-ying; Zhang, Chun-min; Yu, Yan-qin; Shen, Fu-hai; Yuan, Ju-xiang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that lung cell apoptosis is associated with lung fibrosis; however the relationship between apoptosis of alveolar macrophages (AMs) and human silicosis has not been addressed. In the present study, AM apoptosis was determined in whole-lung lavage fluid from 48 male silicosis patients, 13 male observers, and 13 male healthy volunteers. The relationships between apoptosis index (AI) and silica exposure history, soluble Fas (sFas)/membrane-bound Fas (mFas), and caspase-3/caspase-8 were analyzed. AI, mFas, and caspase-3 were significantly higher in lung lavage fluids from silicosis patients than those of observers or healthy volunteers, but the level of sFas demonstrated a decreasing trend. AI was related to silica exposure, upregulation of mFas, and activation of caspase-3 and -8, as well as influenced by smoking status after adjusting for confounding factors. These results indicate that AM apoptosis could be used as a potential biomarker for human silicosis, and the Fas/FasL pathway may regulate this process. The present data from human lung lavage samples may help to understand the mechanism of silicosis and in turn lead to strategies for preventing or treating this disease. PMID:21910009

  13. A novel derivative of tetrandrine (H1) induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis and prosurvival autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yidan; Wang, Yu; Liu, Xianfang; Yan, Jiamei; Su, Ling; Liu, Xiangguo

    2016-08-01

    H1, a bromized derivative of tetrandrine, has been reported to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. But, the underlying mechanism of apoptosis triggered by H1 is unclear. In the present study, we found that H1 triggered death receptor 5 (DR5)-dependent apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Further study showed that H1 activated ER stress through enforcing the expression of Bip/GRP78, IRE1α, p-eIF2α, and CHOP. Moreover, abrogating CHOP expression blocked DR5 upregulation and subsequent apoptosis, indicating that CHOP was essential for DR5-dependent apoptosis induced by H1. In addition, H1 greatly downregulated cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), and enhanced expression of c-FLIP protected cancer cells from apoptosis in spite of H1 therapy. Furthermore, we discovered that H1 induced autophagy in human NSCLC cells. Interestingly, the autophagy induced by H1 played a protective function in NSCLC cells and effectively weakened caspase-mediated apoptosis. In summary, these findings suggest that H1 induces DR5-dependent apoptosis in human NSCLC cells via stimulating ER stress signaling pathway, and pharmacologically inhibiting autophagy will be an efficient approach to synergize H1-caused apoptosis in lung cancer cells. PMID:26846103

  14. Induction of Noxa-Mediated Apoptosis by Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Depends on Viral Recognition by Cytosolic Helicases, Leading to IRF-3/IFN-β-Dependent Induction of Pro-Apoptotic Noxa

    PubMed Central

    Eitz Ferrer, Pedro; Potthoff, Stephanie; Kirschnek, Susanne; Gasteiger, Georg; Kastenmüller, Wolfgang; Ludwig, Holger; Paschen, Stefan A.; Villunger, Andreas; Sutter, Gerd; Drexler, Ingo; Häcker, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Viral infection is a stimulus for apoptosis, and in order to sustain viral replication many viruses are known to carry genes encoding apoptosis inhibitors. F1L, encoded by the orthopoxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) has a Bcl-2-like structure. An MVA mutant lacking F1L (MVAΔF1L) induces apoptosis, indicating that MVA infection activates and F1L functions to inhibit the apoptotic pathway. In this study we investigated the events leading to apoptosis upon infection by MVAΔF1L. Apoptosis largely proceeded through the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bak with some contribution from Bax. Of the family of pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins, only the loss of Noxa provided substantial protection, while the loss of Bim had a minor effect. In mice, MVA preferentially infected macrophages and DCs in vivo. In both cell types wt MVA induced apoptosis albeit more weakly than MVAΔF1L. The loss of Noxa had a significant protective effect in macrophages, DC and primary lymphocytes, and the combined loss of Bim and Noxa provided strong protection. Noxa protein was induced during infection, and the induction of Noxa protein and apoptosis induction required transcription factor IRF3 and type I interferon signalling. We further observed that helicases RIG-I and MDA5 and their signalling adapter MAVS contribute to Noxa induction and apoptosis in response to MVA infection. RNA isolated from MVA-infected cells induced Noxa expression and apoptosis when transfected in the absence of viral infection. We thus here describe a pathway leading from the detection of viral RNA during MVA infection by the cytosolic helicase-pathway, to the up-regulation of Noxa and apoptosis via IRF3 and type I IFN signalling. PMID:21698224

  15. BAX-BAK1-independent LC3B lipidation by BH3 mimetics is unrelated to BH3 mimetic activity and has only minimal effects on autophagic flux.

    PubMed

    Reljic, Boris; Conos, Stephanie; Lee, Erinna F; Garnier, Jean-Marc; Dong, Li; Lessene, Guillaume; Fairlie, W Douglas; Vaux, David L; Lindqvist, Lisa M

    2016-07-01

    Inhibition of prosurvival BCL2 family members can induce autophagy, but the mechanism is controversial. We have provided genetic evidence that BCL2 family members block autophagy by inhibiting BAX and BAK1, but others have proposed they instead inhibit BECN1. Here we confirm that small molecule BH3 mimetics can induce BAX- and BAK1-independent MAP1LC3B/LC3B lipidation, but this only occurred at concentrations far greater than required to induce apoptosis and dissociate canonical BH3 domain-containing proteins that bind more tightly than BECN1. Because high concentrations of a less-active enantiomer of ABT-263 also induced BAX- and BAK1-independent LC3B lipidation, induction of this marker of autophagy appears to be an off-target effect. Indeed, robust autophagic flux was not induced by BH3 mimetic compounds in the absence of BAX and BAK1. Therefore at concentrations that are on target and achievable in vivo, BH3 mimetics only induce autophagy in a BAX- and BAK1-dependent manner. PMID:27172402

  16. Targeting GRP75 Improves HSP90 Inhibitor Efficacy by Enhancing p53-Mediated Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling; Liu, Xiaoyu; E, Qiukai; Gao, Peiye; Ye, Xiaofei; Liu, Wen; Zuo, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors are potential drugs for cancer therapy. The inhibition of HSP90 on cancer cell growth largely through degrading client proteins, like Akt and p53, therefore, triggering cancer cell apoptosis. Here, we show that the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG can induce the expression of GRP75, a member of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family, which, in turn, attenuates the anti-growth effect of HSP90 inhibition on cancer cells. Additionally, 17-AAG enhanced binding of GRP75 and p53, resulting in the retention of p53 in the cytoplasm. Blocking GRP75 with its inhibitor MKT-077 potentiated the anti-tumor effects of 17-AAG by disrupting the formation of GRP75-p53 complexes, thereby facilitating translocation of p53 into the nuclei and leading to the induction of apoptosis-related genes. Finally, dual inhibition of HSP90 and GRP75 was found to significantly inhibit tumor growth in a liver cancer xenograft model. In conclusion, the GRP75 inhibitor MKT-077 enhances 17-AAG-induced apoptosis in HCCs and increases p53-mediated inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Dual targeting of GRP75 and HSP90 may be a useful strategy for the treatment of HCCs. PMID:24465691

  17. Regulation of apoptosis by resveratrol through JAK/STAT and mitochondria mediated pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Madan, Esha; Prasad, Sahdeo; Roy, Preeti; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-12-26

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin present mainly in grapes, red wine and berries, is known to possess strong chemopreventive and anticancer properties. Here, we demonstrated the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of resveratrol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Resveratrol has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation of A431 cells, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, as evident by an increase in the fraction of cells in the sub-G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle and Annexin-V binding of externalized phosphatidylserine. Results revealed that inhibition of proliferation is associated with regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, where resveratrol prevents phosphorylation of JAK, thereby inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Consequently, an imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered the caspase cascade and subsequent cleavage of PARP, thereby shifting the balance in favor of apoptosis. These observations indicate that resveratrol treatment inhibits JAK/STAT-mediated gene transcription and induce the mitochondrial cell death pathway.

  18. Berberine Protects Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells against LPS-Induced Apoptosis by Blocking JNK-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Junping; Wang, Lijun; Wang, Linyao; Qian, Senmi; Fang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a critical factor during the initiation of atherosclerosis. Berberine has a beneficial effect on endothelial function; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of berberine on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect. The effects of berberine on LPS-induced cell apoptosis and viability were measured with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine staining, flow cytometry, and Cell Counting Kit-8 assays. The expression and/or activation of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins or signaling pathways, including caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, were determined with western blotting. The malondialdehyde levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and production of proinflammatory cytokines were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The results demonstrated that berberine pretreatment protected HUVECs from LPS-induced apoptosis, attenuated LPS-induced injury, inhibited LPS-induced JNK phosphorylation, increased MCL-1 expression and SOD activity, and decreased proinflammatory cytokine production. The effects of berberine on LPS-treated HUVECs were prevented by SP600125, a JNK-specific inhibitor. Thus, berberine might be a potential candidate in the treatment of endothelial cell injury-related vascular diseases. PMID:27478481

  19. CR-LAAO antileukemic effect against Bcr-Abl(+) cells is mediated by apoptosis and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Burin, Sandra Mara; Ghisla, Sandro; Ouchida, Amanda Tomie; Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Coelho, Maria Gabriela Berzoti; Costa, Tássia Rafaella; Marsola, Ana Paula Zambuzi Cardoso; Pinto-Simões, Belinda; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Curti, Carlos; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; de Castro, Fabíola Attié

    2016-05-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by the presence of the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase protein, which confers resistance to apoptosis in leukemic cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effectively used to treat CML; however, CML patients in the advanced (CML-AP) and chronic (CML-CP) phases of the disease are usually resistant to TKI therapy. Thus, it is necessary to seek for novel agents to treat CML, such as the enzyme l-amino acid oxidase from Calloselasma rhodostoma (CR-LAAO) snake venom. We examined the antitumor effect of CR-LAAO in Bcr-Abl(+) cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy subjects and CML patients. CR-LAAO was more cytotoxic towards Bcr-Abl(+) cell lines than towards healthy subjects' PBMC. The H2O2 produced during the enzymatic action of CR-LAAO mediated its cytotoxic effect. The CR-LAAO induced apoptosis in Bcr-Abl(+) cells, as detected by caspases 3, 8, and 9 activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA damage. CR-LAAO elicited apoptosis in PBMC from CML-CP patients without TKI treatment more strongly than in PBMC from healthy subjects and TKI-treated CML-CP and CML-AP patients. The antitumor effect of CR-LAAO against Bcr-Abl(+) cells makes this toxin a promising candidate to CML therapy. PMID:26812110

  20. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection. PMID:25499817

  1. The dependence receptor UNC5H2/B triggers apoptosis via PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of DAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Guenebeaud, Céline; Goldschneider, David; Castets, Marie; Guix, Catherine; Chazot, Guillaume; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Eisenberg-Lerner, Avital; Shohat, Galit; Zhang, Mingjie; Laudet, Vincent; Kimchi, Adi; Bernet, Agnès; Mehlen, Patrick

    2010-12-22

    The UNC5H dependence receptors promote apoptosis in the absence of their ligand, netrin-1, and this is important for neuronal and vascular development and for limitation of cancer progression. UNC5H2 (also called UNC5B) triggers cell death through the activation of the serine-threonine protein kinase DAPk. While performing a siRNA screen to identify genes implicated in UNC5H-induced apoptosis, we identified the structural subunit PR65β of the holoenzyme protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). We show that UNC5H2/B recruits a protein complex that includes PR65β and DAPk and retains PP2A activity. PP2A activity is required for UNC5H2/B-induced apoptosis, since it activates DAPk by triggering its dephosphorylation. Moreover, netrin-1 binding to UNC5H2/B prevents this effect through interaction of the PP2A inhibitor CIP2A to UNC5H2/B. Thus we show here that, in the absence of netrin-1, recruitment of PP2A to UNC5H2/B allows the activation of DAPk via a PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation and that this mechanism is involved in angiogenesis regulation. PMID:21172653

  2. Cypermethrin Induces Macrophages Death through Cell Cycle Arrest and Oxidative Stress-Mediated JNK/ERK Signaling Regulated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang; Liu, Qiaoyun; Xie, Shujun; Xu, Jian; Huang, Bo; Wu, Yihua; Xia, Dajing

    2016-01-01

    Cypermethrin is one of the most highly effective synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. The toxicity of cypermethrin to the reproductive and nervous systems has been well studied. However, little is known about the toxic effect of cypermethrin on immune cells such as macrophages. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of cypermethrin on macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that cypermethrin reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. Cypermethrin also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cypermethrin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest was associated with an enhanced expression of p21, wild-type p53, and down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK4. In addition, cypermethrin treatment activated MAPK signal pathways by inducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and increased the cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Further, pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively abrogated cypermethrin-induced cell cytotoxicity, G1 cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, PARP activity, and JNK and ERK1/2 activation. The specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) effectively reversed the phosphorylation level of JNK and ERK1/2, and attenuated the apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggested that cypermethrin caused immune cell death via inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis regulated by ROS-mediated JNK/ERK pathway. PMID:27322250

  3. Initiation of Apoptosis by Granzyme B Requires Direct Cleavage of Bid, but Not Direct Granzyme B–Mediated Caspase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Vivien R.; Davis, Joanne E.; Cancilla, Michael; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Ruefli, Astrid A.; Sedelies, Karin; Browne, Kylie A.; Trapani, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The essential upstream steps in granzyme B–mediated apoptosis remain undefined. Herein, we show that granzyme B triggers the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through direct cleavage of Bid; however, cleavage of procaspases was stalled when mitochondrial disruption was blocked by Bcl-2. The sensitivity of granzyme B–resistant Bcl-2–overexpressing FDC-P1 cells was restored by coexpression of wild-type Bid, or Bid with a mutation of its caspase-8 cleavage site, and both types of Bid were cleaved. However, Bid with a mutated granzyme B cleavage site remained intact and did not restore apoptosis. Bid with a mutation preventing its interaction with Bcl-2 was cleaved but also failed to restore apoptosis. Rapid Bid cleavage by granzyme B (<2 min) was not delayed by Bcl-2 overexpression. These results clearly placed Bid cleavage upstream of mitochondrial Bcl-2. In granzyme B–treated Jurkat cells, endogenous Bid cleavage and loss of mitochondrial membrane depolarization occurred despite caspase inactivation with z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone or Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethylketone. Initial partial processing of procaspase-3 and -8 was observed irrespective of Bcl-2 overexpression; however, later processing was completely abolished by Bcl-2. Overall, our results indicate that mitochondrial perturbation by Bid is necessary to achieve a lethal threshold of caspase activity and cell death due to granzyme B. PMID:11085743

  4. L-carvone induces p53, caspase 3 mediated apoptosis and inhibits the migration of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pinaki B; Thakkar, Vasudev R

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural compounds exists that possesses significant cytotoxic as well as chemopreventive activity through induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of L-carvone, an active component of spearmint (Mentha spicata) was studied on breast cancer (MCF 7 and MDA MB 231) and normal (MCF 10A) cell lines, and insight into its mechanism of action was attained. L-carvone inhibited proliferation of MCF 7 (IC50 1.2 mM) and MDA MB 231 cells (IC50 1.0 mM) and inhibited the migration of breast cancer cell lines. L-carvone induced apoptosis as observed by nuclei fragmentation and the presence of apoptotic bodies in DAPI, AnnexinV/propidium iodide, and TUNEL assays. L-carvone exposure arrested MCF 7 cells in S phase of the cell cycle. DNA damage caused by L-carvone was apparent from the increased tail moment in COMET assay, which could be induced by an increase in ROS that was measured using a fluorescence probe. Glutathione levels were also increased. The increased level of p53, Bad, cleaved caspase 3, and cleaved PARP explained p53 and caspase-mediated apoptosis. PMID:24611509

  5. Mainstream cigarette smoke accelerates the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by modulating Kupffer cell-mediated hepatocellular apoptosis in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Surim; Kim, Jong Won; Yun, Hyejin; Choi, Seong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hyub; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-08-10

    Cigarette smoking in adolescents is considered to be a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of mainstream cigarette smoke (MSCS) on the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in adolescents. Three-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed either a methionine and choline-deficient plus high fat (MCDHF) diet for 6 weeks. Each group was exposed to MSCS (300, 600 ug/L) or fresh air for 2h per day during the first 3 weeks of MCDHF diet feeding. MSCS increased MCDHF diet-induced NASH by increasing serum ALT/AST levels, steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, MSCS was associated with the degree of oxidative stress and hepatocellular apoptosis in NASH mice, but not prominent in controls. In vitro, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) activated Kupffer cells (KCs) to release inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, which induced hepatocellular apoptosis. In conclusion, MSCS exposure accelerates the progression and severity of NASH by modulating KC-mediated hepatocellular apoptosis. Our results support the regulation of CS in adolescents with steatohepatitis. PMID:27180087

  6. Integrated high-throughput analysis identifies Sp1 as a crucial determinant of p53-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, H; Zhang, Y; Ströse, A; Tedesco, D; Gurova, K; Selivanova, G

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of p53 tumor suppressor function is a promising therapeutic strategy to combat cancer. However, the biological outcomes of p53 activation, ranging from the promotion of growth arrest to the induction of cell death, are hard to predict, which limits the clinical application of p53-based therapies. In the present study, we performed an integrated analysis of genome-wide short hairpin RNA screen and gene expression data and uncovered a previously unrecognized role of Sp1 as a central modulator of the transcriptional response induced by p53 that leads to robust induction of apoptosis. Sp1 is indispensable for the pro-apoptotic transcriptional repression by p53, but not for the induction of pro-apoptotic genes. Furthermore, the p53-dependent pro-apoptotic transcriptional repression required the co-binding of Sp1 to p53 target genes. Our results also highlight that Sp1 shares with p53 a common regulator, MDM2, which targets Sp1 for proteasomal degradation. This uncovers a new mechanism of the tight control of apoptosis in cells. Our study advances the understanding of the molecular basis of p53-mediated apoptosis and implicates Sp1 as one of its key modulators. We found that small molecules reactivating p53 can differentially modulate Sp1, thus providing insights into how to manipulate p53 response in a controlled way. PMID:24971482

  7. Nonmyofilament-Associated Troponin T3 Nuclear and Nucleolar Localization Sequence and Leucine Zipper Domain Mediate Muscle Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tan; Birbrair, Alexander; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Troponin T (TnT) plays a major role in striated muscle contraction. We recently demonstrated that the fast skeletal muscle TnT3 isoform is localized in the muscle nucleus, and either its full-length or COOH-terminus leads to muscle cell apoptosis. Here, we further explored the mechanism by which it enters the nucleus and promotes cytotoxicity. Amino acid truncation and substitution showed that its COOH-terminus contains a dominant nuclear/nucleolar localization sequence (KLKRQK) and the basic lysine and arginine residues might play an important role in the nuclear retention and nucleolar enrichment of KLKRQK-DsRed fusion proteins. Deleting this domain or substituting lysine and arginine residues (KLAAQK) resulted in a dramatic loss of TnT3 nuclear and nucleolar localization. In contrast, the GATAKGKVGGRWK domain-DsRed construct localized exclusively in the cytoplasm, indicating that a nuclear exporting sequence is possibly localized in this region. Additionally, we identified a classical DNA-binding Leucine Zipper Domain (LZD) which is conserved among TnT isoforms and species. Deletion of LZD or KLKRQK sequence significantly reduced cell apoptosis compared to full-length TnT3. We conclude that TnT3 contains both a nuclear localization signal and a DNA binding domain, which may mediate nuclear/nucleolar signaling and muscle cell apoptosis. PMID:23378072

  8. Cypermethrin Induces Macrophages Death through Cell Cycle Arrest and Oxidative Stress-Mediated JNK/ERK Signaling Regulated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Liu, Qiaoyun; Xie, Shujun; Xu, Jian; Huang, Bo; Wu, Yihua; Xia, Dajing

    2016-01-01

    Cypermethrin is one of the most highly effective synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. The toxicity of cypermethrin to the reproductive and nervous systems has been well studied. However, little is known about the toxic effect of cypermethrin on immune cells such as macrophages. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of cypermethrin on macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that cypermethrin reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. Cypermethrin also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cypermethrin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest was associated with an enhanced expression of p21, wild-type p53, and down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK4. In addition, cypermethrin treatment activated MAPK signal pathways by inducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and increased the cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Further, pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively abrogated cypermethrin-induced cell cytotoxicity, G1 cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, PARP activity, and JNK and ERK1/2 activation. The specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) effectively reversed the phosphorylation level of JNK and ERK1/2, and attenuated the apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggested that cypermethrin caused immune cell death via inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis regulated by ROS-mediated JNK/ERK pathway. PMID:27322250

  9. Developmental Apoptosis Mediates Entry and Positioning of Microglia in the Zebrafish Brain.

    PubMed

    Casano, Alessandra Maria; Albert, Marvin; Peri, Francesca

    2016-07-26

    In the brain, neurons that fail to assemble into functional circuits are eliminated. Their clearance depends on microglia, immune cells that colonize the CNS during embryogenesis. Despite the importance of these cells in development and disease, the mechanisms that target and position microglia within the brain are unclear. Here we show that, in zebrafish, attraction of microglia into the brain exploits differences in developmental neuronal apoptosis and that these provide a mechanism for microglial distribution. Reducing neuronal cell death results in fewer microglia, whereas increased apoptosis enhances brain colonization, resulting in more microglia at later stages. Interestingly, attraction into the brain depends on nucleotide signaling, the same signaling system used to guide microglia toward brain injuries. Finally, this work uncovers a cell-non-autonomous role for developmental apoptosis. Classically considered a wasteful process, programmed cell death is exploited here to configure the immune-neuronal interface of the brain. PMID:27425604

  10. Changes in mitochondrial surface charge mediate recruitment of signaling molecules during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Heit, Bryan; Yeung, Tony; Grinstein, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions with negative lipids contribute to the subcellular localization of polycationic proteins. In situ measurements using cytosolic probes of surface charge indicate that normal mitochondria are not noticeably electronegative. However, during apoptosis mitochondria accrue negative charge and acquire the ability to attract cationic proteins, including K-Ras. The marked increase in the surface charge of mitochondria occurs early in apoptosis, preceding depolarization of their inner membrane, cytochrome c release, and flipping of phosphatidylserine across the plasmalemma. Using novel biosensors, we determined that the increased electronegativity of the mitochondria coincided with and was likely attributable to increased exposure of cardiolipin, which is dianionic. Ectopic (over)expression of cardiolipin-binding proteins precluded the increase in surface charge and inhibited apoptosis, implying that mitochondrial exposure of negatively charged lipids is required for progression of programmed cell death. PMID:20926778

  11. Microcystin-LR induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Li, Jinhui; Huang, Hui; Yang, Mingfeng; Zhuang, Donggang; Cheng, Xuemin; Zhang, Huizhen; Fu, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and to explore the mechanism of MC-LR-induced apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. HBE cells were treated with MC-LR (1, 10, 20, 30 and 40 µg/ml) alone or with MC-LR (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 µg/ml) and Z-VAD-FMK (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 µM), which is a caspase inhibitor, for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was assessed via an MTT assay and the half maximal effective concentration of MC-LR was determined. The optimal concentration of Z-VAD-FMK was established as 50 µm, which was then used in the subsequent experiments. MC-LR significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis of HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner, as detected by an Annexin V/propidium iodide assay. MC-LR induced cell apoptosis, excess reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, upregulated Bax expression and downregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 expression in HBE cells. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that MC-LR increased the activity levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and induced cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, suggesting that MC-LR-induced apoptosis is associated with the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK reduced MC-LR-induced apoptosis by blocking caspase activation in HBE cells. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that MC-LR is capable of significantly inhibiting the viability of HBE cells by inducing apoptosis in a mitochondria-dependent manner. The present study provides a foundation for further understanding the mechanism underlying the toxicity of MC-LR in the respiratory system. PMID:27446254

  12. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in α-TEA Mediated TRAIL/DR5 Death Receptor Dependent Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Park, Sook-Kyung; Sanders, Bob G.; Kline, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Background α-TEA (RRR-α-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid analog), a derivative of RRR-α-tocopherol (vitamin E) exhibits anticancer actions in vitro and in vivo in variety of cancer types. The objective of this study was to obtain additional insights into the mechanisms involved in α-TEA induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Methodology/Principal Findings α-TEA induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as indicated by increased expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) as well as by enhanced expression or activation of specific markers of ER stress such as glucose regulated protein (GRP78), phosphorylated alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (peIF-2α), and spliced XBP-1 mRNA. Knockdown studies using siRNAs to TRAIL, DR5, JNK and CHOP as well as chemical inhibitors of ER stress and caspase-8 showed that: i) α-TEA activation of DR5/caspase-8 induces an ER stress mediated JNK/CHOP/DR5 positive amplification loop; ii) α-TEA downregulation of c-FLIP (L) protein levels is mediated by JNK/CHOP/DR5 loop via a JNK dependent Itch E3 ligase ubiquitination that further serves to enhance the JNK/CHOP/DR5 amplification loop by preventing c-FLIP's inhibition of caspase-8; and (iii) α-TEA downregulation of Bcl-2 is mediated by the ER stress dependent JNK/CHOP/DR5 signaling. Conclusion Taken together, ER stress plays an important role in α-TEA induced apoptosis by enhancing DR5/caspase-8 pro-apoptotic signaling and suppressing anti-apoptotic factors c-FLIP and Bcl-2 via ER stress mediated JNK/CHOP/DR5/caspase-8 signaling. PMID:20686688

  13. BDNF-mediates Down-regulation of MicroRNA-195 Inhibits Ischemic Cardiac Apoptosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Pengzhou; Sun, Chuan; Guo, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Du, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our previous studies suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) axis inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis in myocardial infarction (MI). However, the relationship between BDNF and microRNA (miRNA) in cardiomyocytes are unclear. The present study was performed to investigate the role of miR-195 and the interplay between BDNF and miR-195 in ischemic cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Methods: Male Wistar rats were subjected to coronary artery ligation, and primary neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were treated with hypoxia or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). BDNF level in rat ventricles was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). miR-195 mimic, inhibitor or negative control was transfected into the cardiomyocytes. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected by MTT assay and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. Cardiac function and apoptosis were detected in MI rats intravenously injected with antagomiR-195. Luciferase assay, Western blot and Real-time RT-PCR were employed to clarify the interplay between miR-195 and BDNF. Results: miR-195 level was dynamically regulated in response to MI and significantly increased in ischemic regions 24 h post-MI as well as in hypoxic or H2O2-treated cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, BDNF protein level was rapidly increased in MI rats and H2O2-treated cardiomyocytes. Apoptosis in both hypoxic and H2O2-treated cardiomyocytes were markedly reduced and cell viability was increased by miR-195 inhibitor. Moreover, inhibition of miR-195 significantly improved cardiac function of MI rats. Bcl-2 but not BDNF was validated as the direct target of miR-195. Furthermore, BDNF abolished the pro-apoptotic role of miR-195, which was reversed by its scavenger TrkB-Fc. Conclusion: Up-regulation of miR-195 in ischemic cardiomyocytes promotes ischemic apoptosis by targeting Bcl-2. BDNF mitigated the pro-apoptotic effect of miR-195 in rat cardiomyocytes. These findings may

  14. Cadmium-Induced Apoptosis in Primary Rat Cerebral Cortical Neurons Culture Is Mediated by a Calcium Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Sun, Ya; Hu, Fei-fei; Bian, Jian-chun; Liu, Xue-zhong; Gu, Jian-hong; Liu, Zong-ping

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal, capable of severely damaging several organs, including the brain. Studies have shown that Cd disrupts intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) homeostasis, leading to apoptosis in a variety of cells including primary murine neurons. Calcium is a ubiquitous intracellular ion which acts as a signaling mediator in numerous cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival/death. However, little is known about the role of calcium signaling in Cd-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells. Thus we investigated the role of calcium signaling in Cd-induced apoptosis in primary rat cerebral cortical neurons. Consistent with known toxic properties of Cd, exposure of cerebral cortical neurons to Cd caused morphological changes indicative of apoptosis and cell death. It also induced elevation of [Ca2+]i and inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase activities. This Cd-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i was suppressed by an IP3R inhibitor, 2-APB, suggesting that ER-regulated Ca2+ is involved. In addition, we observed elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, dysfunction of cytochrome oxidase subunits (COX-I/II/III), depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) during Cd exposure. Z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor, partially prevented Cd-induced apoptosis and cell death. Interestingly, apoptosis, cell death and these cellular events induced by Cd were blocked by BAPTA-AM, a specific intracellular Ca2+ chelator. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed an up-regulated expression of Bcl-2 and down-regulated expression of Bax. However, these were not blocked by BAPTA-AM. Thus Cd toxicity is in part due to its disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, by compromising ATPases activities and ER-regulated Ca2+, and this elevation in Ca2+ triggers the activation of the Ca2+-mitochondria apoptotic signaling pathway. This

  15. Bak-Sneppen-type models and rank-driven processes.

    PubMed

    Grinfeld, Michael; Knight, Philip A; Wade, Andrew R

    2011-10-01

    The Bak-Sneppen model is a well-known stochastic model of evolution that exhibits self-organized criticality; only a few analytical results have been established for it so far. We report a surprising connection between Bak-Sneppen-type models and more tractable Markov processes that evolve without any reference to an underlying topology. Specifically, we show that in the case of a large number of species, the long time behavior of the fitness profile in the Bak-Sneppen model can be replicated by a model with a purely rank-based update rule whose asymptotics can be studied rigorously. PMID:22181104

  16. Bak-Sneppen-type models and rank-driven processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinfeld, Michael; Knight, Philip A.; Wade, Andrew R.

    2011-10-01

    The Bak-Sneppen model is a well-known stochastic model of evolution that exhibits self-organized criticality; only a few analytical results have been established for it so far. We report a surprising connection between Bak-Sneppen-type models and more tractable Markov processes that evolve without any reference to an underlying topology. Specifically, we show that in the case of a large number of species, the long time behavior of the fitness profile in the Bak-Sneppen model can be replicated by a model with a purely rank-based update rule whose asymptotics can be studied rigorously.

  17. Artesunate induces ROS- and p38 MAPK-mediated apoptosis and counteracts tumor growth in vivo in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Beccafico, Sara; Morozzi, Giulio; Marchetti, Maria Cristina; Riccardi, Carlo; Sidoni, Angelo; Donato, Rosario; Sorci, Guglielmo

    2015-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma represents about 50% of soft-tissue sarcomas and 10% of malignant solid tumors in childhood. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is the most frequent subtype, suggested to have an origin in muscle precursor cells that fail to exit the cell cycle and terminally differentiate mainly because of overexpression of the transcription factor, PAX7, which sustains proliferation, migration and invasiveness in ERMS cells. Artesunate (ARS) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin (ART), a natural compound well known as an antimalarial drug. However, ART and its derivatives have been found efficacious even as anticancer drugs that induce cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis in several kinds of cancer. Here, we show that ARS dose-dependently induces DNA damage and apoptosis in ERMS cell lines. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38 MAPK have a central role in triggering ARS-mediated apoptosis in ERMS cells; indeed either the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine or the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, protects ERMS cells from ARS-induced apoptosis. Moreover, ARS treatment in ERMS cells ROS-dependently induces the expression of the myo-miRs, miR-133a and miR-206, which are down-regulated in RMS, and reduces PAX7 protein levels. Finally, ARS upregulates the expression of the adhesion molecules, NCAM and integrin β1, and reduces migration and invasiveness of ERMS cells in vitro, and ARS treatment reduces of about 50% the growth of ERMS xenografts in vivo. Our results are the first evidence of efficacy of ART derivatives in restraining ERMS growth in vivo, and suggest ARS as a potential candidate for therapeutic treatment of ERMS. PMID:26153023

  18. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujita, Maristela; Batista, Wagner L.; Ogata, Fernando T.; Monteiro, Hugo P. Arai, Roberto J.

    2008-05-16

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras{sup C118S}) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG.

  19. Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Stem Ethanolic Extract Liberates Reactive Oxygen Species and Induces Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in KB Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Saba; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Dhasmana, Anupam; Safia; Haque, Ejazul; Kamil, Mohammed; Lohani, Mohtashim; Arshad, Mohammad; Mir, Snober Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ) commonly known as Hadjod (Family: Vitaceae) is usually distributed in India and Sri Lanka and contains several bioactive compounds responsible for various metabolic and physiologic effects. Objective: In this study, the biological effects of CQ ethanolic extract were evaluated by in vitro and supported by in silico analysis on KB oral epidermoid cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: Anti-cancer potential of ethanolic extract of CQ stem against KB oral epidermoid cancer cells was evaluated in terms of morphological analysis, nuclei staining, liberation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and p53 and Bcl-2 protein expression which reveal the induction of apoptosis along with supporting in silico analysis. Results: Ethanolic extract of CQ stem contains various bioactive compounds responsible for cancer cell morphological alterations, liberation of ROS, G1 phase cell cycle arrest and decreased MMP along with up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. By employing in silico approach, we have also postulated that the CQ extract active constituents sequester Bcl-2 with higher affinity as compared to p53, which may be the reason for induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in KB cells. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the CQ extract has a remarkable apoptotic effect that suggests that it could be a viable treatment option for specific types of cancers. SUMMARY Cissus quadrangularis stem ethanolic extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phaseIt liberates (ROS) and mitochondria mediated apoptosisIt upregulates p53 and down-regulates Bcl-2 protein expressionIn silico studies indicates that the active constituents of CQ binds Bcl-2 with higher affinity as compared to p53. PMID:26929569

  20. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Maristela; Batista, Wagner L; Ogata, Fernando T; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo P; Arai, Roberto J

    2008-05-16

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras(C118S)) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG. PMID:18325324

  1. Geraniin induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cells MCF-7 via ROS-mediated stimulation of p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jia-Wen; Gao, Chang; Ma, Wei-Dong; Wang, Wei; Yao, Li-Ping; Xia, Xin-Xin; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-06-01

    Geraniin, a typical ellagitannin isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria Linn, has been found to possess a range of bioactive properties. In the present study, we found that Geraniin showed potent anti-proliferative effects on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The IC50 values were 9.94, 17.98 and 42.32 µM after 72-, 48- and 24-h treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, Geraniin could remarkably disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential and arrest S phase cell cycle. Western-blot analysis showed that Geraniin induced phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, Geraniin treatment activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and the effect was blunted in MCF-7 cells with the treatment of a specific p38 inhibitor SB203580. Geraniin could generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), activate p38 MAPK then induce the apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, such phenomena was abrogated by pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine. In general, these results support the conclusion that Geraniin-induced apoptosis is mediated via ROS-mediated stimulation of p38 MAPK signaling. PMID:27097871

  2. Resveratrol triggers ER stress-mediated apoptosis by disrupting N-linked glycosylation of proteins in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gwak, HyeRan; Kim, Soochi; Dhanasekaran, Danny N; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-02-28

    Malignant tumors have a high glucose demand and alter cellular metabolism to survive. Herein, focusing on the utility of glucose metabolism as a therapeutic target, we found that resveratrol induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis by interrupting protein glycosylation in a cancer-specific manner. Our results indicated that resveratrol suppressed the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and interrupted protein glycosylation through GSK3β activation. Application of either biochemical intermediates of the hexosamine pathway or small molecular inhibitors of GSK3β reversed the effects of resveratrol on the disruption of protein glycosylation. Additionally, an ER UDPase, ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 (ENTPD5), modulated protein glycosylation by Akt attenuation in response to resveratrol. By inhibition or overexpression of Akt functions, we confirmed that the glycosylation activities were dependent on ENTPD5 expression and regulated by the action of Akt in ovarian cancer cells. Resveratrol-mediated disruption of protein glycosylation induced cellular apoptosis as indicated by the up-regulation of GADD153, followed by the activation of ER-stress sensors (PERK and ATF6α). Thus, our results provide novel insight into cancer cell metabolism and protein glycosylation as a therapeutic target for cancers. PMID:26704305

  3. Nimbolide inhibits pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis through ROS-mediated apoptosis and inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Subramani, Ramadevi; Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Arumugam, Arunkumar; Nandy, Sushmita; Gonzalez, Viviana; Medel, Joshua; Camacho, Fernando; Ortega, Andrew; Bonkoungou, Sandrine; Narayan, Mahesh; Dwivedi, Alok kumar; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar

    2016-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity rates of pancreatic cancer are high because of its extremely invasive and metastatic nature. Its lack of symptoms, late diagnosis and chemo–resistance and the ineffective treatment modalities warrant the development of new chemo–therapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer. Agents from medicinal plants have demonstrated therapeutic benefits in various human cancers. Nimbolide, an active molecule isolated from Azadirachta indica, has been reported to exhibit several medicinal properties. This study assessed the anticancer properties of nimbolide against pancreatic cancer. Our data reveal that nimbolide induces excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby regulating both apoptosis and autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells. Experiments with the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine diphosphate salt and the apoptosis inhibitor z-VAD-fmk demonstrated that nimbolide-mediated ROS generation inhibited proliferation (through reduced PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK signaling) and metastasis (through decreased EMT, invasion, migration and colony forming abilities) via mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic cell death but not via autophagy. In vivo experiments also demonstrated that nimbolide was effective in inhibiting pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis. Overall, our data suggest that nimbolide can serve as a potential chemo–therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26804739

  4. Nimbolide inhibits pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis through ROS-mediated apoptosis and inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Ramadevi; Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Arumugam, Arunkumar; Nandy, Sushmita; Gonzalez, Viviana; Medel, Joshua; Camacho, Fernando; Ortega, Andrew; Bonkoungou, Sandrine; Narayan, Mahesh; Dwivedi, Alok kumar; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar

    2016-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity rates of pancreatic cancer are high because of its extremely invasive and metastatic nature. Its lack of symptoms, late diagnosis and chemo-resistance and the ineffective treatment modalities warrant the development of new chemo-therapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer. Agents from medicinal plants have demonstrated therapeutic benefits in various human cancers. Nimbolide, an active molecule isolated from Azadirachta indica, has been reported to exhibit several medicinal properties. This study assessed the anticancer properties of nimbolide against pancreatic cancer. Our data reveal that nimbolide induces excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby regulating both apoptosis and autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells. Experiments with the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine diphosphate salt and the apoptosis inhibitor z-VAD-fmk demonstrated that nimbolide-mediated ROS generation inhibited proliferation (through reduced PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK signaling) and metastasis (through decreased EMT, invasion, migration and colony forming abilities) via mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic cell death but not via autophagy. In vivo experiments also demonstrated that nimbolide was effective in inhibiting pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis. Overall, our data suggest that nimbolide can serve as a potential chemo-therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26804739

  5. Cytosolic H2O2 mediates hypertrophy, apoptosis, and decreased SERCA activity in mice with chronic hemodynamic overload.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fuzhong; Siwik, Deborah A; Pimentel, David R; Morgan, Robert J; Biolo, Andreia; Tu, Vivian H; Kang, Y James; Cohen, Richard A; Colucci, Wilson S

    2014-05-15

    Oxidative stress in the myocardium plays an important role in the pathophysiology of hemodynamic overload. The mechanism by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cardiac myocyte mediate myocardial failure in hemodynamic overload is not known. Accordingly, our goals were to test whether myocyte-specific overexpression of peroxisomal catalase (pCAT) that localizes in the sarcoplasm protects mice from hemodynamic overload-induced failure and prevents oxidation and inhibition of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), an important sarcoplasmic protein. Chronic hemodynamic overload was caused by ascending aortic constriction (AAC) for 12 wk in mice with myocyte-specific transgenic expression of pCAT. AAC caused left ventricular hypertrophy and failure associated with a generalized increase in myocardial oxidative stress and specific oxidative modifications of SERCA at cysteine 674 and tyrosine 294/5. pCAT overexpression ameliorated myocardial hypertrophy and apoptosis, decreased pathological remodeling, and prevented the progression to heart failure. Likewise, pCAT prevented oxidative modifications of SERCA and increased SERCA activity without changing SERCA expression. Thus cardiac myocyte-restricted expression of pCAT effectively ameliorated the structural and functional consequences of chronic hemodynamic overload and increased SERCA activity via a post-translational mechanism, most likely by decreasing inhibitory oxidative modifications. In pressure overload-induced heart failure cardiac myocyte cytosolic ROS play a pivotal role in mediating key pathophysiologic events including hypertrophy, apoptosis, and decreased SERCA activity. PMID:24633550

  6. PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy alleviates chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongmei; Deng, Yuanying; Zhang, Jie; Han, Hailong; Zhao, Mingyi; Li, Ying; Zhang, Chen; Tian, Jing; Bing, Guoying; Zhao, Lingling

    2015-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphorous insecticides. There are links between CPF exposure and neurological disorders. Mitochondrial damage has been implicated to play a key role in CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Mitophagy, the selective autophagic elimination of mitochondria, is an important mitochondrial quality control mechanism. However, the role of mitophagy in CPF-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. In this study, CPF-caused mitochondrial damage, role and mechanism of mitophagy on CPF-induced neuroapoptosis were extensively studied by using SH-SY5Y cells. We showed that CPF treatment caused mitochondrial fragmentation, excessive ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization, thus led to cell apoptosis. Moreover, CPF treatment also resulted in increased colocalizaton of mitochondria with LC3, decreased levels of mitochondrial proteins, PINK1 stabilization and mitochondrial accumulation of Parkin. These data suggested that CPF treatment induced PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, knockdown of Parkin dramatically increased CPF-induced neuroapoptosis. On the other hand, overexpression of Parkin markedly alleviated CPF-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. Together, these findings implicate a protective role of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy against neuroapoptosis and that enhancing mitophagy provides a potential therapeutic strategy for CPF-induced neurological disorders. PMID:26070385

  7. Stevioside induced ROS-mediated apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Paul, S; Sengupta, S; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Bhattacharyya, A

    2012-01-01

    Stevioside is a diterpene glycoside found in the leaf of Stevia rebaudiana, a traditional oriental medicinal herb, which has been shown to have various biological and ethno-medicinal activities including antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of stevioside on the cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and the putative pathways of its action in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). For the analysis of apoptotic pathway, measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and assessment of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were achieved. We showed that stevioside was a potent inducer of apoptosis and it conveyed the apoptotic signal via intracellular ROS generation; thereby inducing change in MTP and induction of mitochondrial mediated apoptotic pathway. Taken together, our data indicated that stevioside induces the ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition and results in the increased expression of apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-9. Effect of stevioside on stress-related transcription factors like NF-E2-related factor-2 opens up a new vista for further studies. This is the first report on the mechanism of the antibreast cancer (in vitro) activity of stevioside. PMID:23061910

  8. Iron-Mediated Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization in Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Damage and Apoptosis: Protective Effects of Quercetin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Chen, Man; Xu, Yanyan; Yu, Xiao; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min; Sun, Jian; Liu, Liegang; Tang, Yuhan; Yao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Iron, in its free ferrous states, can catalyze Fenton reaction to produce OH∙, which is recognized as a crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). As a result of continuous decomposition of iron-containing compounds, lysosomes contain a pool of redox-active iron. To investigate the important role of intralysosomal iron in alcoholic liver injury and the potential protection of quercetin, male C57BL/6J mice fed by Lieber De Carli diets containing ethanol (30% of total calories) were cotreated by quercetin or deferoxamine (DFO) for 15 weeks and ethanol-incubated mice primary hepatocytes were pretreated with FeCl3, DFO, and bafilomycin A1 at their optimal concentrations and exposure times. Chronic ethanol consumption caused an evident increase in lysosomal redox-active iron accompanying sustained oxidative damage. Iron-mediated ROS could trigger lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and subsequent mitochondria apoptosis. The hepatotoxicity was attenuated by reducing lysosomal iron while being exacerbated by escalating lysosomal iron. Quercetin substantially alleviated the alcoholic liver oxidative damage and apoptosis by decreasing lysosome iron and ameliorating iron-mediated LMP, which provided a new prospective of the use of quercetin against ALD. PMID:27057276

  9. Role of TLR4-Mediated PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β Signaling Pathway in Apoptosis of Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian; Jiang, Daorong; Jiang, Wei; Zhao, Min; Gan, Jianhe

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of the Toll-like receptor 4- (TLR4-) mediated PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway in rat hepatocytes apoptosis induced by LPS. The cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with LPS alone or first pretreated with TLR4 inhibitor, AKT inhibitor, and GSK-3β inhibitor, respectively, and then stimulated with the same dose of LPS. Cell viability, cell apoptotic rate, and apoptosis morphology were assessed; the level of P-AKTSer473, P-GSK-3βSer9, and active Caspase-3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were evaluated. The results indicated that cell viability decreased, while cell apoptotic rate increased with time after LPS stimulation. The expression of P-AKTSer473 and P-GSK-3βSer9 in the LPS group decreased compared with the control, while the level of active Caspase-3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were significantly increased. These effects were attenuated by pretreatment with CLI-095. In addition, the apoptotic ratio decreased after pretreatment with LiCl but increased following pretreatment with LY294002. The expression of P-AKTSer473 further decreased following pretreatment with LY294002 and the expression of P-GSK-3βSer9 increased following pretreatment with LiCl. Moreover, pretreatment with CLI-095 weakened LPS-induced nuclear translocation of GSK-3β. Our findings suggest that the TLR4-mediated PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway is present in rat hepatocytes and participates in apoptosis of BRL-3A cells. PMID:26770978

  10. RNA interference-mediated silencing of speckle-type POZ protein promotes apoptosis of renal cell cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Guiling; Sun, Xiuju

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing the speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) gene on renal cell cancer (RCC) cells and to explore its possible mechanism. The A498 and ACHN RCC cells were transfected with small interference RNA (siRNA)-SPOP by lipofection methods. The silencing efficiency was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The effects of SPOP silencing on cell apoptosis, cell viability, colony formation ability, cell migration ability, and chemosensitivity to Sorafenib were assessed by flow cytometry, an MTT assay, a colony formation assay, a trans-well migration assay, and a CCK-8 assay, respectively. Its effects on the expression of several cytokines were determined by a protein microarray. Relevant signaling pathways were also analyzed. Compared with the control group, the cell apoptosis rate was significantly higher; the cell viability, the colony formation, and migration ability were significantly decreased in the siRNA-SPOP group. The protein microarray screening showed that the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and stromal cell-derived factor-1 in the siRNA group was significantly decreased and that the expression of granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor and E-cadherin was significantly increased (P<0.05). The relevant signaling pathways were the integrin-mediated cell surface interactions pathway and extracellular matrix organization signal pathway. SPOP gene silencing induced cell apoptosis, decreased cell viability, colony formation, and migration ability, and elevated the drug sensitivity in the RCC cells. A possible mechanism is that silencing SPOP induces the differential expression of E-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, which are related to the integrin-mediated cell surface interactions and extracellular

  11. Nitric Oxide-Induced Apoptosis of Human Dental Pulp Cells Is Mediated by the Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Young; Jeong, Yeon Jin; Kang, Gi Chang; Kim, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Sun Hun; Chung, Hyun-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is recognized as a mediator and regulator of inflammatory responses. NO is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and NOS is abundantly expressed in the human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). NO produced by NOS can be cytotoxic at higher concentrations to HDPCs. However, the mechanism by which this cytotoxic pathway is activated in cells exposed to NO is not known. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the NO-induced cytotoxic mechanism in HDPCs. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, reduced the viability of HDPCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We investigated the in vitro effects of nitric oxide on apoptosis of cultured HDPCs. Cells showed typical apoptotic morphology after exposure to SNP. Besides, the number of Annexin V positive cells was increased among the SNP-treated HDPCs. SNP enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) ameliorated the decrement of cell viability induced by SNP. However, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor (ODQ) did not inhibited the decrement of cell viability induced by SNP. SNP increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression levels. Moreover, SNP-treated HDPCs elevated activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. While pretreatment with inhibitors of caspase (z-VAD-fmk, z-DEVD-fmk) reversed the NO-induced apoptosis of HDPCs. From these results, it can be suggested that NO induces apoptosis of HDPCs through the mitochondria-dependent pathway mediated by ROS and Bcl-2 family, but not by the cyclic GMP pathway. PMID:24634593

  12. Protein kinase RNA- like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling pathway plays a major role in reactive oxygen species (ROS)- mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress- induced apoptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is considered one of the mechanisms contributing to reactive oxygen species (ROS)- mediated cell apoptosis. In diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), cell apoptosis is generally accepted as the etiological factor and closely related to cardiac ROS generation. ER stress is proposed the link between ROS and cell apoptosis; however, the signaling pathways and their roles in participating ER stress- induced apoptosis in DCM are still unclear. Methods In this study, we investigated the signaling transductions in ROS- dependent ER stress- induced cardiomocyte apoptosis in animal model of DCM. Moreover, in order to clarify the roles of IRE1 (inositol - requiring enzyme-1), PERK (protein kinase RNA (PKR)- like ER kinase) and ATF6 (activating transcription factor-6) in conducting apoptotic signal in ROS- dependent ER stress- induced cardiomocyte apoptosis, we further investigated apoptosis in high- glucose incubated cardiomyocytes with IRE1, ATF6 and PERK- knocked down respectively. Results we demonstrated that the ER stress sensors, referred as PERK, IRE1 and ATF6, were activated in ROS- mediated ER stress- induced cell apoptosis in rat model of DCM which was characterized by cardiac pump and electrical dysfunctions. The deletion of PERK in myocytes exhibited stronger protective effect against apoptosis induced by high- glucose incubation than deletion of ATF6 or IRE in the same myocytes. By subcellular fractionation, rather than ATF6 and IRE1, in primary cardiomyocytes, PERK was found a component of MAMs (mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes) which was the functional and physical contact site between ER and mitochondria. Conclusions ROS- stimulated activation of PERK signaling pathway takes the major responsibility rather than IRE1 or ATF6 signaling pathways in ROS- medicated ER stress- induced myocyte apoptosis in DCM. PMID:24180212

  13. Bcl-2-regulated apoptosis: mechanism and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jerry M; Cory, Suzanne

    2007-10-01

    Apoptosis is essential for tissue homeostasis, particularly in the hematopoietic compartment, where its impairment can elicit neoplastic or autoimmune diseases. Whether stressed cells live or die is largely determined by interplay between opposing members of the Bcl-2 protein family. Bcl-2 and its closest homologs promote cell survival, but two other factions promote apoptosis. The BH3-only proteins sense and relay stress signals, but commitment to apoptosis requires Bax or Bak. The BH3-only proteins appear to activate Bax and Bak indirectly, by engaging and neutralizing their pro-survival relatives, which otherwise constrain Bax and Bak from permeabilizing mitochondria. The Bcl-2 family may also regulate autophagy and mitochondrial fission/fusion. Its pro-survival members are attractive therapeutic targets in cancer and perhaps autoimmunity and viral infections. PMID:17629468

  14. The Bcl-2-regulated apoptosis switch: mechanism and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jerry M; Cory, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis is essential for tissue homeostasis, particularly in the hematopoietic compartment, where its impairment can elicit neoplastic or autoimmune diseases. Whether stressed cells live or die is largely determined by interplay between opposing members of the Bcl-2 protein family. Bcl-2 and its closest homologs promote cell survival, but two other factions promote apoptosis. The BH3-only proteins sense and relay stress signals, but commitment to apoptosis requires Bax or Bak. The BH3-only proteins appear to activate Bax and Bak indirectly, by engaging and neutralizing their pro-survival relatives, which otherwise constrain Bax and Bak from permeabilizing mitochondria. The Bcl-2 family may also regulate autophagy and mitochondrial fission/fusion. Its pro-survival members are attractive therapeutic targets in cancer and perhaps autoimmunity and viral infections. PMID:17629468

  15. Sulforaphane protects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in neural crest cells by the induction of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X; Liu, J; Chen, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates a diverse array of antioxidant genes and protects cells from oxidative damage. This study is designed to determine whether D-L-sulforaphane (SFN) can protect neural crest cells (NCCs), an ethanol-sensitive cell population implicated in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, against ethanol-induced apoptosis and whether protective effects of SFN are mediated by the induction of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response. Experimental Approach Control, SFN-treated or Nrf2-siRNA transfected NCCs were exposed to ethanol. Nrf2 activation, the expression and activities of Nrf2 downstream antioxidant proteins, reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis were determined in control and ethanol-exposed NCCs. Key Results Exposure of NCCs to SFN alone significantly increased Nrf2 activation and the expression of Nrf2 downstream antioxidants as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes. Treatment of NCCs with SFN along with ethanol significantly decreased ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. In contrast, knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA significantly increased the sensitivity of NCCs to ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Suppression of Nrf2 signalling in NCCs also significantly diminished SFN-mediated antioxidant response and abolished the protective effects of SFN on ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Conclusions and Implications These results demonstrated that Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response plays an important role in the susceptibility of NCCs to ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis and that the protection of SFN against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in NCCs is mediated by the induction of Nrf2 signalling. PMID:23425096

  16. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Dominik; Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard; Naujokat, Cord

    2010-04-16

    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  17. Vinca alkaloids cause aberrant ROS-mediated JNK activation, Mcl-1 downregulation, DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wei-Hsin; Luo, Sheng-Jei; Chen, Chia-Ling; Cheng, Jai-Hong; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Wang, Chi-Yun; Huang, Wei-Ching; Su, Wu-Chou; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2012-05-01

    Vinca alkaloids are clinically used to inhibit the growth of malignancy by interfering with microtubule polymerization. The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying growth inhibition as well as apoptosis in vinca alkaloid-treated lung adenocarcinoma cells. Consistent with nocodazole, treatment with vinorelbine (VNR) caused mitotic prometaphase arrest in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by cell apoptosis, dependent on both dose and time. VNR sequentially induced mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) loss and caspase-dependent apoptosis following myeloid cell leukemia (Mcl) 1 downregulation. Prolonged activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was required for vinca alkaloid- and nocodazole-induced apoptosis but not cell cycle arrest. Vinca alkaloids and nocodazole caused glutathione/reactive oxygen species (ROS) imbalance, and inhibiting ROS prevented prolonged JNK activation, decreased Mcl-1 levels, MTP loss, and apoptosis. Notably, cell size and granularity were enlarged in stimulated cells; unexpectedly, many ROS-producing mitochondria were accumulated followed by aberrant JNK-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Unlike cisplatin, which causes DNA damage in each phase of the cell cycle, VNR and nocodazole induced aberrant JNK-regulated DNA damage in prometaphase; however, inhibiting ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) did not reverse mitotic arrest or apoptosis. These results demonstrate an essential role of ROS in vinca alkaloid-induced aberrant JNK-mediated Mcl-1 downregulation and DNA damage followed by mitochondrial dysfunction-related apoptosis but not mitotic arrest. PMID:22285910

  18. Src kinase inhibitors induce apoptosis and mediate cell cycle arrest in lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Daniel; Boehrer, Simone; Hochmuth, Simone; Trepohl, Bettina; Hofmann, Wencke; Hoelzer, Dieter; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Mitrou, Paris S; Ruthardt, Martin; Chow, Kai Uwe

    2007-10-01

    Src kinases are involved in multiple cellular contexts such as proliferation, adhesion, tumor invasiveness, angiogenesis, cell cycle control and apoptosis. We here demonstrate that three newly developed dual selective Src/Abl kinase inhibitors (SrcK-I) (AZM559756, AZD0530 and AZD0424) are able to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in BCR-ABL, c-KIT and platelet-derived growth factor-negative lymphoma cell lines. Treatment of DOHH-2, WSU-NHL, Raji, Karpas-299, HUT78 and Jurkat cells with SrcK-I revealed that the tested substances were effective on these parameters in the cell lines DOHH-2 and WSU-NHL, whereas the other tested cell lines remained unaffected. Phosphorylation of Lyn and in particular Lck were affected most heavily by treatment with the SrcK-I. Extrinsic as well as intrinsic apoptosis pathways were activated and elicited unique expressional patterns of apoptosis-relevant proteins such as downregulation of survivin, Bcl-XL and c-FLIP. Protein levels of c-abl were downregulated and Akt phosphorylation was decreased by treatment with SrcK-I. Basal expression levels of c-Myc were notably lower in sensitive cell lines as compared with nonsensitive cell lines, possibly providing an explanation for sensitivity versus resistance against these novel substances. This study provides the first basis for establishing novel SrcK-I as weapons in the arsenal against lymphoma cells. PMID:17704648

  19. Globular adiponectin reduces vascular calcification via inhibition of ER-stress-mediated smooth muscle cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Bian, Yunfei; Wang, Yueru; Bai, Rui; Wang, Jiapu; Xiao, Chuanshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the mechanism of globular adiponectin inhibiting vascular calcification. Methods: We established drug-induced rat vascular calcification model, globular adiponectin was given to observe the effect of globular Adiponectin on the degree of calcification. The markers of vascular calcification and apoptosis were also investigated. Meanwhile, the in vitro effect of globular Adiponectin on vascular calcification was also evaluated using primary cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Results: We found that globular adiponectin could inhibit drug-induced rat vascular calcification significantly in vivo. The apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells was also reduced. The possible mechanism could be the down-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress by globular adiponectin. Experiments in primary cultured vascular smooth muscle cells also confirmed that globular adiponectin could reduce cell apoptosis to suppress vascular calcification via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Conclusions: This study confirmed that globular adiponectin could suppress vascular calcification; one of the mechanisms could be inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress to reduce cell apoptosis. It could provide an effective method in the therapy of vascular calcification-associated diseases. PMID:26045760

  20. The Role of Mitochondrial DNA in Mediating Alveolar Epithelial Cell Apoptosis and Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Cheresh, Paul; Jablonski, Renea P.; Williams, David B.; Kamp, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Convincing evidence has emerged demonstrating that impairment of mitochondrial function is critically important in regulating alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) programmed cell death (apoptosis) that may contribute to aging-related lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and asbestosis (pulmonary fibrosis following asbestos exposure). The mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for 13 proteins, including several essential for oxidative phosphorylation. We review the evidence implicating that oxidative stress-induced mtDNA damage promotes AEC apoptosis and pulmonary fibrosis. We focus on the emerging role for AEC mtDNA damage repair by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO-2) in maintaining mtDNA integrity which is important in preventing AEC apoptosis and asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a murine model. We then review recent studies linking the sirtuin (SIRT) family members, especially SIRT3, to mitochondrial integrity and mtDNA damage repair and aging. We present a conceptual model of how SIRTs modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS)-driven mitochondrial metabolism that may be important for their tumor suppressor function. The emerging insights into the pathobiology underlying AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis is suggesting novel therapeutic targets that may prove useful for the management of age-related diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. PMID:26370974

  1. Carnosol Induces ROS-Mediated Beclin1-Independent Autophagy and Apoptosis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Yusra; Attoub, Samir; Ramadan, Gaber; Arafat, Kholoud; Bajbouj, Khuloud; Karuvantevida, Noushad; AbuQamar, Synan; Eid, Ali; Iratni, Rabah

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effect of carnosol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, in triple negative breast cancer. Results We found that carnosol significantly inhibited the viability and colony growth induced G2 arrest in the triple negative MDA-MB-231. Blockade of the cell cycle was associated with increased p21/WAF1 expression and downregulation of p27. Interestingly, carnosol was found to induce beclin1-independent autophagy and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. The coexistence of both events, autophagy and apoptosis, was confirmed by electron micrography. Induction of autophagy was found to be an early event, detected within 3 h post-treatment, which subsequently led to apoptosis. Carnosol treatment also caused a dose-dependent increase in the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (pERK1/2). Moreover, we show that carnosol induced DNA damage, reduced the mitochondrial potential and triggered the activation of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, we found that carnosol induced a dose-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of ROS by tiron, a ROS scavenger, blocked the induction of autophagy and apoptosis and attenuated DNA damage. To our knowledge, this is the first report to identify the induction of autophagy by carnosol. Conclusion In conclusion our findings provide strong evidence that carnosol may be an alternative therapeutic candidate against the aggressive form of breast cancer and hence deserves more exploration. PMID:25299698

  2. MITOCHONDRIAL OXIDANT PRODUCTION BY POLLUTANT DUST AND NO-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a pollutant dust that stimulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria and apoptosis in alveolar macrophages (AM), but the relationship between these two processes is unclear. In this study, human AM were incubated with RO...

  3. Reduced expression of PNUTS leads to activation of Rb-phosphatase and caspase-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    De Leon, Gabriel; Sherry, Tara C; Krucher, Nancy A

    2008-06-01

    There is abundant evidence that Retinoblastoma (Rb) activity is important in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Reversible phosphorylation of the Rb protein that is carried out by cyclin dependent kinases and Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulates its functions. A PP1 interacting protein, PNUTS (Phosphatase Nuclear Targeting Subunit) is proposed to be a regulator of Rb phosphorylation. In this study, PNUTS knockdown in MCF7, SKA and HCT116 cancer cells causes a reduction in viability due to increased apoptosis. However, normal cells (MCF10A breast and CCD-18Co colon) do not exhibit reduced viability when PNUTS expression is diminished. PNUTS knockdown has no effect in Rb-null Saos-2 cells. However, when Rb is stably expressed in Saos-2 cells, PNUTS knockdown reduces cell number. Knockdown of PNUTS in p53-/- HCT116 cells indicates that p53 is dispensable for the induction of apoptosis. Loss of PNUTS expression results in increased Rb-phosphatase activity and Rb dephosphorylation. E2F1 dissociates from Rb in cells depleted of PNUTS and the resulting apoptosis is dependent on caspase-8. These results indicate that Rb phosphorylation state can be manipulated by targeting Rb phosphatase activity and suggest that PNUTS may be a potential target for therapeutic pro-apoptotic strategies. PMID:18360108

  4. Alteration of Forkhead Box O (Foxo4) Acetylation Mediates Apoptosis of Podocytes in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Peter Y.; Dai, Yan; Liu, Ruijie; He, Helen; Kretzler, Matthias; Jim, Belinda; Cohen, Clemens D.; He, John C.

    2011-01-01

    The number of kidney podocytes is reduced in diabetic nephropathy. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in patients with diabetes and promote the apoptosis of podocyte by activating the forkhead box O4 (Foxo4) transcription factor to increase the expression of a pro-apoptosis gene, Bcl2l11. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we demonstrate that AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) enhances Foxo4 binding to a forkhead binding element in the promoter of Bcl2lll. AGE-BSA also increases the acetylation of Foxo4. Lysine acetylation of Foxo4 is required for Foxo4 binding and transcription of Bcl2l11 in podocytes treated with AGE-BSA. The expression of a protein deacetylase that targets Foxo4 for deacetylation, sirtuin (Sirt1), is down regulated in cultured podocytes by AGE-BSA treatment and in glomeruli of diabetic patients. SIRT1 over expression in cultured murine podocytes prevents AGE-induced apoptosis. Glomeruli isolated from diabetic db/db mice have increased acetylation of Foxo4, suppressed expression of Sirt1, and increased expression of Bcl2l11 compared to non-diabetic littermates. Together, our data provide evidence that alteration of Foxo4 acetylation and down regulation of Sirt1 expression in diabetes promote podocyte apoptosis. Strategies to preserve Sirt1 expression or reduce Foxo4 acetylation could be used to prevent podocyte loss in diabetes. PMID:21858169

  5. Lentivirus-mediated PHLDA2 overexpression inhibits trophoblast proliferation, migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    JIN, FENG; QIAO, CHONG; LUAN, NANNAN; LI, HUI

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate trophoblast invasion and increased trophoblast apoptosis cause serious pregnancy complications. Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 (PHLDA2) has been linked to fetal size at birth and growth restriction in a number of studies. However, the impact of PHLDA2 on trophoblast function had not been studied previously, to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that primary trophoblasts isolated from placental villous tissues were positive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18), vimentin and human placental lactogen (hPL). JEG-3 cells and primary trophoblasts were infected with lentivirus overexpressing PHLDA2. RT-qPCR and western blot analysis detected high levels of PHLDA2. A Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay showed that PHLDA2 overexpression inhibited trophoblast proliferation. In addition, PHLDA2 significantly induced apoptosis, as evidenced by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst staining, along with activation of Bax and caspase-3 and also decreased Bcl-2 expression. Further investigation showed that PHLDA2 effectively induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caused cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. PHLDA2 likely induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Wound healing and Transwell assays indicated that PHLDA2 overexpression efficiently suppressed cell migration and invasion. These data suggest that PHLDA2 plays an important role in the occurrence and development of pregnancy complications by promoting trophoblast apoptosis and suppressing cell invasion. PMID:26935516

  6. Differential modulation of paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis by p21Waf1 and p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Lu, Y; Liu, B; Fang, M; Mendelsohn, J; Fan, Z

    2000-05-11

    The impact of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21Waf1 and p27Kip1 on paclitaxel-mediated cytotoxicity was investigated in RKO human colon adenocarcinoma cells with the ecdysone-inducible expression of p21Waf1 or p27Kip1. Ectopic expression of p27Kip1 arrested cells at G1 phase, whereas p21Waf1 expression arrested cells at G1 and G2. Expression of p21Waf1 after paclitaxel treatment produced much greater resistance to paclitaxel than did expression of p27Kip1. We attributed this difference to the additional block at G2 induced by p21Waf1, which prevented cells from entering M phase and becoming paclitaxel susceptible. Expression of p21Waf1 inhibited p34cdc2 activity and markedly reduced paclitaxel-mediated mitotic arrest, from 87.5 to 23%. In contrast, p27Kip1 expression also inhibited p34cdc2 but reduced mitotic arrest only slightly, from 87. 4 to 74.5%. We concluded that the G2 block produced by p21Waf1, but not by p27Kip1, contributed to their unequal modulation of sensitivity to paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis in RKO cells, and there is no causal relationship between paclitaxel-mediated cytotoxicity and elevation of p34cdc2 activity. PMID:10828884

  7. Avr4 promotes Cf-4 receptor-like protein association with the BAK1/SERK3 receptor-like kinase to initiate receptor endocytosis and plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Postma, Jelle; Liebrand, Thomas W H; Bi, Guozhi; Evrard, Alexandre; Bye, Ruby R; Mbengue, Malick; Kuhn, Hannah; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Robatzek, Silke

    2016-04-01

    The first layer of plant immunity is activated by cell surface receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and proteins (RLPs) that detect infectious pathogens. Constitutive interaction with the SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1 (SOBIR1) RLK contributes to RLP stability and kinase activity. As RLK activation requires transphosphorylation with a second associated RLK, it remains elusive how RLPs initiate downstream signaling. We employed live-cell imaging, gene silencing and coimmunoprecipitation to investigate the requirement of associated kinases for functioning and ligand-induced subcellular trafficking of Cf RLPs that mediate immunity of tomato against Cladosporium fulvum. Our research shows that after elicitation with matching effector ligands Avr4 and Avr9, BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1/SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE 3 (BAK1/SERK3) associates with Cf-4 and Cf-9. BAK1/SERK3 is required for the effector-triggered hypersensitive response and resistance of tomato against C. fulvum. Furthermore, Cf-4 interacts with SOBIR1 at the plasma membrane and is recruited to late endosomes upon Avr4 trigger, also depending on BAK1/SERK3. These observations indicate that RLP-mediated resistance and endocytosis require ligand-induced recruitment of BAK1/SERK3, reminiscent of BAK1/SERK3 interaction and subcellular fate of the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) RLK. This reveals that diverse classes of cell surface immune receptors share common requirements for initiation of resistance and endocytosis. PMID:26765243

  8. PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy play a protective role in manganese induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Mi, Lan; Wang, Ting; Yuan, Lan; Li, Xue-Hui; Dong, Li-Sha; Zhao, Peng; Fu, Juan-Ling; Yao, Bi-Yun; Zhou, Zong-Can

    2016-08-01

    Manganese (Mn) as an environmental risk factor of Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered to cause manganism. Mitophagy is thought to play a key role in elimination the injured mitochondria. The goal of this paper was to explore whether the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is activated and its role in Mn-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Here, we investigated effects of MnCl2 on ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP/ΔΨm) and apoptosis by FACS and examined PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy by western-blotting and the co-localization of mitochondria and acidic lysosomes. Further, we explore the role of mitophagy in Mn-induced apoptosis by inhibition the mitophagy by knockdown Parkin level. Results show that MnCl2 dose-dependently caused ΔΨm decrease, ROS generation and apoptosis of dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, Mn could induce mitophagy and PINK1/Parkin-mediated pathway was activated in SH-SY5Y cells. Transient transfection of Parkin siRNA knockdown the expressing level of parkin inhibited Mn-induced mitophagy and aggravated apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Mn may induce PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, which may exert significant neuro-protective effect against Mn-induced dopaminergic neuronal cells apoptosis. PMID:27091500

  9. Japanese encephalitis virus NS2B-NS3 protease induces caspase 3 activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Shiu, Su-Lian; Chuang, Pei-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Wan, Lei; Lan, Yu-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2009-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes severe neurological diseases with a high fatality rate. Clinical, neurophysiological and radiological features of Japanese encephalitis JE patients showed that JEV infection resulted in widespread involvement of the nervous system, including thalamus, basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and spinal cord. In this study, we characterized the apoptotic effect of JEV infection and its viral proteins on the TE671 human medulloblastoma cells. JEV replicated in TE671 cells, inducing caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in MOI- and time-dependent manners. Of viral proteins, co-expression of JEV NS3 protease with NS2B cofactor significantly induced higher degrees of apoptosis and triggered higher caspase 3 activities than single expression of E, NS1, NS2B or NS3 protease in human medulloblastoma cells. Moreover, JEV NS2B-NS3 protease induced reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of mitochondrial cytochrome C, which were responsible for the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. In addition, the production of reactive oxygen species production and activation of ASK1-p38 MAPK signaling pathway might be associated with JEV NS2B-NS3 protease-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. The results demonstrated that the JEV infection and the co-expression of JEV NS3 protease with NS2B cofactor induced caspase 3 activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cells, being valuable insight for cellular and molecular levels of JEV pathogenesis. PMID:19463724

  10. Bcl2 at the endoplasmic reticulum protects against a Bax/Bak-independent paraptosis-like cell death pathway initiated via p20Bap31.

    PubMed

    Heath-Engel, Hannah M; Wang, Bing; Shore, Gordon C

    2012-02-01

    Bap31 is an integral ER membrane protein which functions as an escort factor in the sorting of newly synthesized membrane proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). During apoptosis signaling, Bap31 is subject to early cleavage by initiator caspase-8. The resulting p20Bap31 (p20) fragment has been shown to initiate proapoptotic ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transmission, and to exert dominant negative (DN) effects on ER protein trafficking. We now report that ectopic expression of p20 in E1A/DNp53-transformed baby mouse kidney epithelial cells initiates a non-apoptotic form of cell death with paraptosis-like morphology. This pathway was characterized by an early rise in ER Ca2+ stores and massive dilation of the ER/nuclear envelope, dependent on intact ER Ca2+ stores. Ablation of the Bax/Bak genes had no effect on these ER/nuclear envelope transformations, and delayed but did not prevent cell death. ER-restricted expression of Bcl2 in the absence of Bax/Bak, however, delayed both ER/nuclear envelope dilation and cell death. This prosurvival role of Bcl2 at the ER thus extended beyond inhibition of Bax/Bak, and correlated with its ability to lower ER Ca2+ stores. Furthermore, these results indicate that ER restricted Bcl2 is capable of antagonizing not only apoptosis, but also a non-apoptotic, Bax/Bak independent, paraptosis-like form of cell death. PMID:22197342

  11. p53-independent early and late apoptosis is mediated by ceramide after exposure of tumor cells to photon or carbon ion irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine whether ceramide is responsible for the induction of p53-independent early or late apoptosis in response to high- and low-Linear-Energy-Transfer (LET) irradiation. Methods Four cell lines displaying different radiosensitivities and p53-protein status were irradiated with photons or 33.4 or 184 keV/μm carbon ions. The kinetics of ceramide production was quantified by fluorescent microscopy or High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatogaphy and the sequence of events leading to apoptosis by flow cytometry. Results Regardless of the p53-status, both low and high-LET irradiation induced an early ceramide production in radiosensitive cells and late in the radioresistant. This production strongly correlated with the level of early apoptosis in radiosensitive cells and delayed apoptosis in the radioresistant ones, regardless of radiation quality, tumor type, radiosensitivity, or p53-status. Inhibition of caspase activity or ceramide production showed that, for both types of radiation, ceramide is essential for the initiation of early apoptosis in radiosensitive cells and late apoptosis following mitotic catastrophe in radioresistant cells. Conclusions Ceramide is a determining factor in the onset of early and late apoptosis after low and high-LET irradiation and is the mediator of the p53-independent-apoptotic pathway. We propose that ceramide is the molecular bridge between mitotic catastrophe and the commitment phase of delayed apoptosis in response to irradiation. PMID:23530619

  12. CYP3A-mediated apoptosis of dauricine in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and in lungs of CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hua; Shen, Shuijie; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang; Zheng, Jiang

    2012-06-15

    Dauricine is the major bioactive component isolated from the root of Menispermum dauricum DC and has shown promising pharmacologic activities with a great potential for clinical use. Recently, we found that intraperitoneal exposure of dauricine produced selective pulmonary injury in mice. A quinone methide metabolite of dauricine was identified and is suggested to be associated with the pulmonary toxicity of dauricine. The present study evaluated the apoptotic effect of dauricine in cultured cells and mice, determined the change in cellular glutathione (GSH) contents after exposure to dauricine, investigated the role of GSH depletion in dauricine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, and examined the role of CYP3A in dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis. Dauricine was found to induce apoptosis in NL-20 cells. Additionally, intraperitoneal administration of dauricine caused GSH depletion and apoptosis in lungs of mice. Treatment with ketoconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A, reversed cellular GSH depletion in lungs of mice given dauricine and showed protective effect on dauricine-induced apoptosis in lungs of mice. This indicates that metabolic activation is involved in dauricine-induced GSH-depletion, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The glutathione depletor L-buthionine sulfoximine showed potentiating effect on cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. We propose that dauricine is metabolized to a quinone methide intermediate which depletes cellular GSH, and the depletion of GSH may trigger and/or intensify the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. -- Highlights: ► Dauricine induced apoptosis in lungs in mice and in cultured human pulmonary cells. ► Dauricine depleted cellular GSH in lungs of mice and in the human pulmonary cells. ► CYP3A subfamily mediated GSH depletion and apoptosis induced by dauricine. ► L-Buthionine sulfoximine potentiated dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis.

  13. Bak-Sneppen Type Models and Coagulation-Fragmentation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinfeld, M.

    2008-09-01

    We suggest a construction that allows us to bring methods of denumerable Markov chain theory and coagulation-fragmentation processes to bear on the question of locating the threshold in Bak-Sneppen type models.

  14. Glycyrrhizin Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Injury via Alleviating Tumor Necrosis Factor α–Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Yagai, Tomoki; Chai, Yingying; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Xie, Cen; Cheng, Xuefang; Zhang, Jun; Che, Yuan; Li, Feiyan; Wu, Yuzheng; Brocker, Chad N.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in Western countries. Glycyrrhizin (GL), a potent hepatoprotective constituent extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine liquorice, has potential clinical use in treating APAP-induced liver failure. The present study determined the hepatoprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of action of GL and its active metabolite glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). Various administration routes and pharmacokinetics–pharmacodynamics analyses were used to differentiate the effects of GL and GA on APAP toxicity in mice. Mice deficient in cytochrome P450 2E1 enzyme (CYP2E1) or receptor interacting protein 3 (RIPK3) and their relative wild-type littermates were subjected to histologic and biochemical analyses to determine the potential mechanisms. Hepatocyte death mediated by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)/caspase was analyzed by use of human liver-derived LO2 cells. The pharmacokinetics–pharmacodynamics analysis using various administration routes revealed that GL but not GA potently attenuated APAP-induced liver injury. The protective effect of GL was found only with intraperitoneal and intravenous administration and not with gastric administration. CYP2E1-mediated metabolic activation and RIPK3-mediated necroptosis were unrelated to GL’s protective effect. However, GL inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis via interference with TNFα-induced apoptotic hepatocyte death. These results demonstrate that GL rapidly attenuates APAP-induced liver injury by directly inhibiting TNFα-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. The protective effect against APAP-induced liver toxicity by GL in mice suggests the therapeutic potential of GL for the treatment of APAP overdose. PMID:26965985

  15. Nobiletin Induces Protective Autophagy Accompanied by ER-Stress Mediated Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SNU-16 Cells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Yong; Cho, Somi Kim

    2016-01-01

    Nobiletin, a major component of citrus fruits, is a polymethoxyflavone derivative that exhibits anticancer activity against several forms of cancer, including SNU-16 human gastric cancer cells. To explore the nobiletin-induced cell death mechanism, we examined the changes in protein expression caused by nobiletin in human gastric cancer SNU-16 cells by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE), followed by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis. Seventeen of 20 selected protein spots were successfully identified, including nine upregulated and eight downregulated proteins. In nobiletin-treated SNU-16 cells the glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) mRNA level was induced most significantly among six proteins related to cell survival and death. Western blot analysis was used to confirm the expression of GRP78 protein. We detected increases in the levels of the ER-stress related proteins inositol requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1-α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), and C/EBP homology protein (CHOP), as well as GRP78, in response to nobiletin in SNU-16 cells. Furthermore, the ER stress-mediated apoptotic protein caspase-4 was proteolytically activated by nobiletin. Pretreatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, strongly augmented apoptosis in SNU-16 cells, as evidenced by decreased cell viability, an increased number of sub-G1 phase cells and increased levels of cleaved PARP. Our results suggest that nobiletin-induced apoptosis in SNU-16 cells is mediated by pathways involving intracellular ER stress-mediated protective autophagy. Thus, the combination of nobiletin and an autophagy inhibitor could be a promising treatment for gastric cancer patients. PMID:27428937

  16. Glycyrrhizin Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Injury via Alleviating Tumor Necrosis Factor α-Mediated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Yagai, Tomoki; Chai, Yingying; Krausz, Kristopher W; Xie, Cen; Cheng, Xuefang; Zhang, Jun; Che, Yuan; Li, Feiyan; Wu, Yuzheng; Brocker, Chad N; Gonzalez, Frank J; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-05-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in Western countries. Glycyrrhizin (GL), a potent hepatoprotective constituent extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine liquorice, has potential clinical use in treating APAP-induced liver failure. The present study determined the hepatoprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of action of GL and its active metabolite glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). Various administration routes and pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analyses were used to differentiate the effects of GL and GA on APAP toxicity in mice. Mice deficient in cytochrome P450 2E1 enzyme (CYP2E1) or receptor interacting protein 3 (RIPK3) and their relative wild-type littermates were subjected to histologic and biochemical analyses to determine the potential mechanisms. Hepatocyte death mediated by tumor necrosis factorα(TNFα)/caspase was analyzed by use of human liver-derived LO2 cells. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis using various administration routes revealed that GL but not GA potently attenuated APAP-induced liver injury. The protective effect of GL was found only with intraperitoneal and intravenous administration and not with gastric administration. CYP2E1-mediated metabolic activation and RIPK3-mediated necroptosis were unrelated to GL's protective effect. However, GL inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis via interference with TNFα-induced apoptotic hepatocyte death. These results demonstrate that GL rapidly attenuates APAP-induced liver injury by directly inhibiting TNFα-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. The protective effect against APAP-induced liver toxicity by GL in mice suggests the therapeutic potential of GL for the treatment of APAP overdose. PMID:26965985

  17. Characterization of p21Ras-mediated apoptosis induced by protein kinase C inhibition and application to human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Liou, James S; Chen, James S; Faller, Douglas V

    2004-02-01

    Suppression of PKC activity can selectively induce apoptosis in cells expressing a constitutively activated p21Ras protein. We demonstrate that continued expression of p21Ras activity is required in PKC-mediated apoptosis because farnesyltransferase inhibitors abrogated the loss of viability in p21Ras-transformed cells occurring following PKC inhibition. Studies utilizing gene transfer or viral vectors demonstrate that transient expression of oncogenic p21Ras activity is sufficient for induction of apoptosis by PKC inhibition, whereas physiologic activation of p21Ras by growth factor is not sufficient to induce apoptosis. Mechanistically, the p21Ras-mediated apoptosis induced by PKC inhibition is dependent upon mitochondrial dysregulation, with a concurrent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (psim). Cyclosporine A, which prevented the loss of psim, also inhibited HMG-induced DNA fragmentation in cells expressing an activated p21Ras. Induction of apoptosis by PKC inhibition in human tumors with oncogenic p21Ras mutations was demonstrated. Inhibition of PKC caused increased apoptosis in MIA-PaCa-2, a human pancreatic tumor line containing a mutated Ki-ras allele, when compared to HS766T, a human pancreatic tumor line with normal Ki-ras alleles. Furthermore, PKC inhibition induced apoptosis in HCT116, a human colorectal tumor line containing an oncogenic Ki-ras allele but not in a subline (Hke3) in which the mutated Ki-ras allele had been disrupted. The PKC inhibitor 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerol (HMG), significantly reduced p21Ras-mediated tumor growth in vivo in a nude mouse MIA-PaCa-2 xenograft model. Collectively these studies suggest the therapeutic feasibility of targeting PKC activity in tumors expressing an activated p21Ras oncoprotein. PMID:14603530

  18. The efficacy and mechanism of apoptosis induction by hypericin-mediated sonodynamic therapy in THP-1 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuesong; Gao, Lei; Zheng, Longbin; Kou, Jiayuan; Zhu, Xing; Jiang, Yueqing; Zhong, Zhaoyu; Dan, Juhua; Xu, Haobo; Yang, Yang; Li, Hong; Shi, Sa; Cao, Wenwu; Zhao, Yajun; Tian, Ye; Yang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the sonoactivity of hypericin (HY), together with its sonodynamic effect on THP-1 macrophages and the underlying mechanism. Materials and methods CCK-8 was used to examine cell viability. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed to assess the localization of HY in cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) after different treatments. Apoptosis was analyzed using Hoechst–propidium iodide and transmission electron microscopy. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) collapse was detected via fluorescence microscopy. Lipoprotein oxidation was determined in malondialdehyde (MDA) assays. Western blotting was conducted to determine the translocation of BAX and cytochrome C and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Results HY was sublocalized among the nuclei and the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and lysosome in the cytosol of THP-1 macrophages. Under low-intensity ultrasound irradiation, HY significantly decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, greater ROS generation, higher MDA levels, and greater ΔΨm loss were observed in the sonodynamic therapy (SDT) group. Both ROS generation and MDA levels were significantly reduced by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the singlet oxygen scavenger sodium azide. Most of the loss of ΔΨm was inhibited by pretreatment with NAC, sodium azide, and the mPTP inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA). mPTP opening was induced upon SDT but was reduced by pretreatment with bongkrekic acid, 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid disodium, CsA, and NAC. Western blot analyses revealed translocation of BAX and cytochrome C, downregulated expression of Bcl-2, and upregulated expression of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in the SDT group, which were reversed by NAC. Conclusion HY mediated SDT-induced apoptosis in THP-1

  19. Local Lyapunov Exponent for the Bak Sneppen Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Chun-Bin; Cai, Xu

    2003-12-01

    The chaotic property of the Bak-Sneppen model is studied from the local Lyapunov exponent in the same way as for dynamical nonlinear systems. Similar behaviour is found for the one- and two-dimensional Bak-Sneppen models. The Lyapunov exponents for the two cases have the same order of magnitude and both decrease at early evolution but show a slow increasing saturation at late evolution.

  20. Epibrassinolide alters PI3K/MAPK signaling axis via activating Foxo3a-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Deniz; Obakan, Pinar; Arisan, Elif Damla; Çoker-Gürkan, Ajda; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2015-10-15

    Epibrassinolide (EBR), a steroid-derived plant growth regulator, has been recently suggested as an apoptotic inducer in different cancer cells. In this experimental study, we investigated the potential apoptotic effect of EBR on stress-related and survival signaling molecules in colon carcinoma cells. EBR decreased cell viability and colony formation in HCT 116 and HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. The inactivation of PI3K/AKT by EBR treatment led to upregulation of Foxo3a, which in turn induced apoptosis in HCT 116 and HT-29 cells. In addition, the upstream non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase Src was found elevated allowing to the upregulation of p38, stress-activated protein kinase/Jun amino-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and their target genes c-jun, c-fos and c-myc in a time-dependent manner in HCT 116 cells within 48h. The alterations in PA metabolism caused intracellular PA pool decrease. The upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bak, Bax, Puma and Bim were accompanied with the decrease in Mcl-1 in HCT 116 and Bcl-xL expression profiles in HT-29 following 48h EBR treatment. We suggest that the upregulation of Bim expression levels might be related with one of the PI3K/AKT target transcription factor Foxo3a, which was dephosphorylated by EBR treatment in HCT 116 and HT-29 cells. PMID:26318418

  1. A New Ibuprofen Derivative Inhibits Platelet Aggregation and ROS Mediated Platelet Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Paul, Manoj; Thushara, Ram M.; Sundaram, Mahalingam S.; Swaroop, Toreshettahally R.; Mohan, Chakrabhavi D.; Basappa; Sadashiva, Marilinganadoddi P.; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S.; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.

    2014-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a serious issue connected with the pathogenesis of several human diseases including chronic inflammation, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and other oxidative stress-associated pathologies. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics and other biological drugs are reported to result in thrombocytopenia, which is often neglected during the treatment regime. In addition, augmented oxidative stress induced by drugs and pathological conditions has also been shown to induce thrombocytopenia, which seems to be the most obvious consequence of elevated rate of platelet apoptosis. Thus, blocking oxidative stress-induced platelet apoptosis would be of prime importance in order to negotiate thrombocytopenia and associated human pathologies. The current study presents the synthesis and platelet protective nature of novel ibuprofen derivatives. The potent anti-oxidant ibuprofen derivative 4f was selected for the study and the platelet protective efficacy and platelet aggregation inhibitory property has been demonstrated. The compound 4f dose dependently mitigates the oxidative stress-induced platelet apoptosis in both platelet rich plasma and washed platelets. The platelet protective nature of compound 4f was determined by assessing various apoptotic markers such as ROS generation, cytosolic Ca2+ levels, PS externalization, cytochrome C translocation, Caspase activation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytotoxicity, LDH leakage and tyrosine phosphorylation of cytosolic proteins. Furthermore, compound 4f dose dependently ameliorated agonist induced platelet aggregation. Therefore, compound 4f can be estimated as a potential candidate in the treatment regime of pathological disorders associated with platelet activation and apoptosis. In addition, compound 4f can be used as an auxiliary therapeutic agent in pathologies associated with thrombocytopenia. PMID:25238069

  2. LincRNA-p21 acts as a mediator of ING1b-induced apoptosis